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Sample records for uterus phasic contractions

  1. Antispasmodic effects of Pycnocycla spinosa seed and aerial part extracts on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of study: Hydroalcoholic extract of Pycnocycla spinosa has a relaxant effect on ileum and inhibits castor oil induced diarrhoea in mice. However, effects of P. spinosa seed extracts on ileum and uterus hasn't been investigated.  The aim of this study was to investigate effect of P. spinosa seed and extracts of the aerial part on rat ileum and uterus smooth muscle contraction. Methods: A 70% ethanol extract of seed and aerial parts of P. spinosa was prepared by a percolation method. Uterine horns or ileum were dissected from non-pregnant female Wistar rats (200-230g and cut into longitudinal strips and mounted for isotonic recording under 1g tension in Tyrode's solution. Effects of the extracts were examined on tonic contractions induced by KCl (80mM on both tissues and on phasic spasm induced by oxytocin (0.002iu/ml on the uterus. Results: The aerial part extract inhibited rat ileum contractions induced by 80mM KCl (IC50=42±3.4mg/ml in a concentration dependent manner and it also inhibited rat uterus contraction induced by 80 mM KCl. However, its inhibitory effects were observed with higher concentration of the extract (IC50=420±90mg/ml and at concentration of 1.28mg/ml of the extract in the bath the response was 19±7%.  The aerial part extract (40-640mg/ml also reduced the evoked phasic response of uterus by oxytocin (IC50=71±17.3mg/ml. The seed extract reduced the uterus response to oxytocin in a concentration-dependent manner, and inhibited tissue response completely at 160mg/ml (IC50=27±4mg/ml.  Major conclusion: From this study it was concluded that the seed extract of P. spinosa have similar inhibitory properties on rat isolated uterus and ileum contractions, while the extract of the aerial part of P. spinosa is more selective inhibitor of ileum contraction, and at higher concentrations it also inhibits uterus spasm.

  2. Relationship between ultrasonically detected phasic antral contractions and antral pressure.

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    Hveem, K; Sun, W M; Hebbard, G; Horowitz, M; Doran, S; Dent, J

    2001-07-01

    The relationships between gastric wall motion and intraluminal pressure are believed to be major determinants of flows within and from the stomach. Gastric antral wall motion and intraluminal pressures were monitored in five healthy subjects by concurrent antropyloroduodenal manometry and transabdominal ultrasound for 60 min after subjects drank 500 ml of clear soup. We found that 99% of antral contractions detected by ultrasound were propagated aborally, and 68% of contractions became lumen occlusive at the site of the ultrasound marker. Of the 203 contractions detected by ultrasound, 53% were associated with pressure events in the manometric reference channel; 86% of contractions had corresponding pressure events detectable somewhere in the antrum. Contractions that occluded the lumen were more likely to be associated with a pressure event in the manometric reference channel (P < 0.01) and to be of greater amplitude (P < 0.01) than non-lumen-occlusive contractions. We conclude that heterogeneous pressure event patterns in the antrum occur despite a stereotyped pattern of contraction propagation seen on ultrasound. Lumen occlusion is more likely to be associated with higher peak antral pressure events.

  3. Opposite effect of ATP on contraction force of tonic and phasic skeletal muscles in frogs.

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    Grishin, S N; Kamaliev, R R; Teplov, A Yu; Ziganshin, A U

    2011-07-01

    Experiments in vitro showed that ATP and adenosine equally suppressed contractions of frog m. sartorius, which belongs to the phasic type muscles. Adenosine receptors antagonist 8-SPT abolished the effect of adenosine, but did not change the effect of ATP. This fact proves the independence of signaling pathways of these purines. ATP produced an opposite effect on the tonic muscle m. cruralis and increased the force of its contraction. Adenosine produced an inhibitory effect on the force of m. cruralis contration. In this case, 8-SPT also eliminated the effect of adenosine, but did not change the effect of ATP. The potentiating effect of ATP was blocked by suramin, a nonselective antagonist of P2 receptors, which attests to their involvement into the effects of this purine. The opposite effects of purinergic regulation reflect fundamental differences in functional organization of phasic and tonic muscular systems. It was hypothesized that the increase in contraction force under the effect of ATP is a mechanism providing maitenance of the contracted state of tonic muscle without appreciable metabolic costs.

  4. Low amplitude rhythmic contraction frequency in human detrusor strips correlates with phasic intravesical pressure waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colhoun, Andrew F; Speich, John E; Cooley, Lauren F; Bell, Eugene D; Barbee, R Wayne; Guruli, Georgi; Ratz, Paul H; Klausner, Adam P

    2017-08-01

    Low amplitude rhythmic contractions (LARC) occur in detrusor smooth muscle and may play a role in storage disorders such as overactive bladder and detrusor overactivity. The purpose of this study was to determine whether LARC frequencies identified in vitro from strips of human urinary bladder tissue correlate with in vivo LARC frequencies, visualized as phasic intravesical pressure (p ves ) waves during urodynamics (UD). After IRB approval, fresh strips of human urinary bladder were obtained from patients. LARC was recorded with tissue strips at low tension (rhythmic frequency similar to the in vitro LARC frequency quantified in human urinary bladder tissue strips. Further refinements of this technique may help identify subsets of individuals with LARC-mediated storage disorders.

  5. Vagally mediated effects of brain stem dopamine on gastric tone and phasic contractions of the rat.

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    Anselmi, L; Toti, L; Bove, C; Travagli, R A

    2017-11-01

    Dopamine (DA)-containing fibers and neurons are embedded within the brain stem dorsal vagal complex (DVC); we have shown previously that DA modulates the membrane properties of neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) via DA1 and DA2 receptors. The vagally dependent modulation of gastric tone and phasic contractions, i.e., motility, by DA, however, has not been characterized. With the use of microinjections of DA in the DVC while recording gastric tone and motility, the aims of the present study were 1 ) assess the gastric effects of brain stem DA application, 2 ) identify the DA receptor subtype, and, 3 ) identify the postganglionic pathway(s) activated. Dopamine microinjection in the DVC decreased gastric tone and motility in both corpus and antrum in 29 of 34 rats, and the effects were abolished by ipsilateral vagotomy and fourth ventricular treatment with the selective DA2 receptor antagonist L741,626 but not by application of the selective DA1 receptor antagonist SCH 23390. Systemic administration of the cholinergic antagonist atropine attenuated the inhibition of corpus and antrum tone in response to DA microinjection in the DVC. Conversely, systemic administration of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor nitro-l-arginine methyl ester did not alter the DA-induced decrease in gastric tone and motility. Our data provide evidence of a dopaminergic modulation of a brain stem vagal neurocircuit that controls gastric tone and motility. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Dopamine administration in the brain stem decreases gastric tone and phasic contractions. The gastric effects of dopamine are mediated via dopamine 2 receptors on neurons of the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus. The inhibitory effects of dopamine are mediated via inhibition of the postganglionic cholinergic pathway. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. NS309 decreases rat detrusor smooth muscle membrane potential and phasic contractions by activating SK3 channels

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    Parajuli, Shankar P; Hristov, Kiril L; Soder, Rupal P; Kellett, Whitney F; Petkov, Georgi V

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Overactive bladder (OAB) is often associated with abnormally increased detrusor smooth muscle (DSM) contractions. We used NS309, a selective and potent opener of the small or intermediate conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (SK or IK, respectively) channels, to evaluate how SK/IK channel activation modulates DSM function. Experimental Approach We employed single-cell RT-PCR, immunocytochemistry, whole cell patch-clamp in freshly isolated rat DSM cells and isometric tension recordings of isolated DSM strips to explore how the pharmacological activation of SK/IK channels with NS309 modulates DSM function. Key Results We detected SK3 but not SK1, SK2 or IK channels expression at both mRNA and protein levels by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry in DSM single cells. NS309 (10 μM) significantly increased the whole cell SK currents and hyperpolarized DSM cell resting membrane potential. The NS309 hyperpolarizing effect was blocked by apamin, a selective SK channel inhibitor. NS309 inhibited the spontaneous phasic contraction amplitude, force, frequency, duration and tone of isolated DSM strips in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect of NS309 on spontaneous phasic contractions was blocked by apamin but not by TRAM-34, indicating no functional role of the IK channels in rat DSM. NS309 also significantly inhibited the pharmacologically and electrical field stimulation-induced DSM contractions. Conclusions and Implications Our data reveal that SK3 channel is the main SK/IK subtype in rat DSM. Pharmacological activation of SK3 channels with NS309 decreases rat DSM cell excitability and contractility, suggesting that SK3 channels might be potential therapeutic targets to control OAB associated with detrusor overactivity. PMID:23145946

  7. Traditional Chinese medicine Guizhi Fuling capsule used for therapy of dysmenorrhea via attenuating uterus contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lan; Liu, Lina; Zong, Shaobo; Wang, Zhengzhong; Zhou, Jun; Xu, Zhiliang; Ding, Gang; Xiao, Wei; Kou, Junping

    2016-09-15

    Guizhi Fuling formula, a well-known Chinese herbal formula recorded in the Eastern Han Dynasty, is composed of Cinnamomum cassia (L.) J.Presl (Cassia bark), Poria cocos (Schw.) Wolf (Poria), Paeonia suffruticosa andrews (Moutan Cortex), Paeonia lactiflora Pall (Herbaceous peony), and Amygdalus persica L.(Persicae Semen). It has clinical efficacy of activating blood circulation to dissipate blood stasis and is commonly used for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea. However, its therapeutic mechanism has not been clearly elucidated. The aim of this study is to reveal molecular mechanisms of action using in vivo and in vitro experimental models. The ICR mouse uterine contraction was induced by oxytocin exposure following estradiol benzoate pretreatment. Mice were given GZFLC (0.54, 1.08g/kg) by gavage. The levels of NO, PGF2α and Ca(2+) in uterine tissue were determined according to instructions. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and oxytocin receptor (OTR) proteins in uterine tissue were assessed by Western Blot. Mouse isolated uterus strips were mounted in tissue organ baths containing Locke's solution. The contractile responses were recorded with Power Lab recording system. The effect of GZFLC on spontaneous uterine contraction, and uterine contraction induced by oxytocin, PGF2α was observed. Myometrial cells were exposed to oxytocin (5U/L) to induce calcium release, and the effect of GZFLC and its components (PL, PGG, CA) on intracellular Ca(2+) was analyzed with fluorometry imaging. In vivo study demonstrated that GZFLC significantly reduced oxytocin-induced writhing responses with a maximal inhibition of 55%. It also decreased the levels of NO, PGF2α and Ca(2+) in oxytocin-induced mice uterine tissue. Moreover, Western blot analysis showed that COX-2 and OTR expressions in uterine tissue of dysmenorrhea mice were significantly reduced. GZFLC inhibited spontaneous uterus contractions in a dose-dependent manner, and the IC50 value was 0.99mg/ml. The IC50 values of

  8. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors.

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    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F; Nüsing, Rolf M; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-06-05

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP(3) prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and that it mediates the pharmacological effects of castor oil. In mice lacking EP(3) receptors, the laxative effect and the uterus contraction induced via ricinoleic acid are absent. Although a conditional deletion of the EP(3) receptor gene in intestinal epithelial cells did not affect castor oil-induced diarrhea, mice lacking EP(3) receptors only in smooth-muscle cells were unresponsive to this drug. Thus, the castor oil metabolite ricinoleic acid activates intestinal and uterine smooth-muscle cells via EP(3) prostanoid receptors. These findings identify the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying the pharmacological effects of castor oil and indicate a role of the EP(3) receptor as a target to induce laxative effects.

  9. The adverse effects of aldrin and dieldrin on both myometrial contractions and the secretory functions of bovine ovaries and uterus in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wrobel, Michał H., E-mail: m.wrobel@pan.olsztyn.pl; Grzeszczyk, Marlena; Mlynarczuk, Jaroslaw; Kotwica, Jan

    2015-05-15

    Aldrin and dieldrin are chloroorganic insecticides which are recognised as endocrine disruptors. The aim of the study was to investigate their effect on the secretory functions of the uterus and ovary and on myometrial contractions. Myometrial strips and uterine and ovarian cells from nonpregnant cows were incubated with the xenobiotics (0.1, 1 or 10 ng/ml) for 24 or 72 h. Next, their effect on viability of myometrial, endometrial, granulosa and luteal cells, myometrial strip contractions, the synthesis and secretion of prostaglandins (PGs: PGF2α and PGE2) from uterine cells, the secretion of oestradiol (E2), testosterone (T) and oxytocin (OT) from granulosa cells and the secretion of progesterone (P4) and OT from luteal cells were determined. Neither of the xenobiotics (10 ng/ml) affected (P > 0.05) the viability of the ovarian and uterine cells, while both (0.1–10 ng/ml) decreased (P < 0.05) the basal and OT-stimulated myometrial contractions. In spite of these effects, neither of the insecticides affected (P > 0.05) the synthesis and the secretion of PGs from the myometrial cells. Although they also did not impair the secretion of the PGs from the endometrial cells, they abolished (P < 0.05) the stimulatory effect of OT (P < 0.05) on the secretion of the PGs and stimulated (P < 0.05) the secretion of OT from the granulosa and luteal cells. Moreover, aldrin and dieldrin stimulated secretion of E2 and T from the granulosa cells, while only dieldrin increased (P < 0.05) the secretion of P4 from luteal cells. The data show that aldrin and dieldrin stimulated the secretory function of the cultured granulosa and luteal cells and inhibited the myometrial contractions of cows in vitro, which may affect on natural parturition. - Highlights: • Aldrin and dieldrin inhibited bovine myometrial contractions. • The studied xenobiotics stimulated steroids and oxytocin secretion from ovaries. • Prostaglandins are not involved in adverse effect of the xenobiotics on

  10. Phasic Triplet Markov Chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Yazid Boudaren, Mohamed; Monfrini, Emmanuel; Pieczynski, Wojciech; Aïssani, Amar

    2014-11-01

    Hidden Markov chains have been shown to be inadequate for data modeling under some complex conditions. In this work, we address the problem of statistical modeling of phenomena involving two heterogeneous system states. Such phenomena may arise in biology or communications, among other fields. Namely, we consider that a sequence of meaningful words is to be searched within a whole observation that also contains arbitrary one-by-one symbols. Moreover, a word may be interrupted at some site to be carried on later. Applying plain hidden Markov chains to such data, while ignoring their specificity, yields unsatisfactory results. The Phasic triplet Markov chain, proposed in this paper, overcomes this difficulty by means of an auxiliary underlying process in accordance with the triplet Markov chains theory. Related Bayesian restoration techniques and parameters estimation procedures according to the new model are then described. Finally, to assess the performance of the proposed model against the conventional hidden Markov chain model, experiments are conducted on synthetic and real data.

  11. Sustained inhibition of rat myometrial gap junctions and contractions by lindane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grindatti Carmen M

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gap junctions increase in size and abundance coincident with parturition, forming an intercellular communication network that permits the uterus to develop the forceful, coordinated contractions necessary for delivery of the fetus. Lindane, a pesticide used in the human and veterinary treatment of scabies and lice as well as in agricultural applications, inhibits uterine contractions in vitro, inhibits myometrial gap junctions, and has been associated with prolonged gestation length in rats. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether brief exposures to lindane would elicit sustained inhibition of rat uterine contractile activity and myometrial gap junction intercellular communication. Methods To examine effects on uterine contraction, longitudinal uterine strips isolated from late gestation (day 20 rats were exposed to lindane in muscle baths and monitored for changes in spontaneous phasic contractions during and after exposure to lindane. Lucifer yellow dye transfer between myometrial cells in culture was used to monitor gap junction intercellular communication. Results During a 1-h exposure, 10 micro M and 100 micro M lindane decreased peak force and frequency of uterine contraction but 1 micro M lindane did not. After removal of the exposure buffer, contraction force remained significantly depressed in uterine strips exposed to 100 micro M lindane, returning to less than 50% basal levels 5 h after cessation of lindane exposure. In cultured myometrial myocytes, significant sustained inhibition of Lucifer yellow dye transfer was observed 24 h after lindane exposures as brief as 10 min and as low as 0.1 micro M lindane. Conclusion Brief in vitro exposures to lindane have long-term effects on myometrial functions that are necessary for parturition, inhibiting spontaneous phasic contractions in late gestation rat uterus and gap junction intercellular communication in myometrial cell cultures.

  12. Fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} nanoparticles decrease relaxing effects of dimethyl sulfoxide on rat uterus spontaneous contraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slavic, Marija, E-mail: marija17@ibiss.bg.ac.rs [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia); Djordjevic, Aleksandar [University of Novi Sad, Department of Chemistry, Biochemistry and the Environment, Faculty of Sciences (Serbia); Radojicic, Ratko [University of Belgrade, Faculty of Biology (Serbia); Milovanovic, Slobodan [University of East Sarajevo, Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine at Foca (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia); Rakocevic, Zlatko [University of Belgrade, Institute for Nuclear Sciences ' Vinca' (Serbia); Spasic, Mihajlo B.; Blagojevic, Dusko [University of Belgrade, Department for Physiology, Institute for Biological Research ' Sinisa Stankovic' (IBISS) (Serbia)

    2013-05-15

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is a widely used solvent and cryoprotectant that can cause impaired blood flow, reduction in intracranial pressure, tissue edema, inflammatory reactions, inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, processes which can lead to atherosclerosis of the coronary, peripheral and cerebral circulation. Although the adverse effects are rare when DMSO is administered in clinically established concentrations, there is no safe antagonist for an overdose. In this work, we treated isolated spontaneous and calcium-induced contractile active rat uteri (Wistar, virgo intacta), with DMSO and fullerenol C{sub 60}(OH){sub 24} nanoparticle (FNP) in DMSO. FNP is a water-soluble derivative of fullerene C{sub 60}. Its size is a 1.1 nm in diameter and is a very promising candidate for a drug carrier in nanomedicine. FNP also displays free radical scavenging activity. DMSO decreased both spontaneous and calcium-induced contractions. In contrast, FNP only decreased spontaneous contraction. FNP decreased copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activity and prevented the DMSO-induced increase in glutathione reductase activity. Atomic force microscopy detected that FNP aggregated with calcium ions. Our results indicate that FNP has properties that make it a good candidate to be a modulator of DMSO activity which could minimize side effects of the latter.

  13. Tri-phasic fever in dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D, Pradeepa H; Rao, Sathish B; B, Ganaraj; Bhat, Gopalakrishna; M, Chakrapani

    2018-04-01

    Dengue fever is an acute febrile illness with a duration of 2-12 days. Our observational study observed the 24-h continuous tympanic temperature pattern of 15 patients with dengue fever and compared this with 26 others with fever due to a non-dengue aetiology. A tri-phasic fever pattern was seen among two-thirds of dengue fever patients, but in only one with an inflammatory disease. One-third of dengue fever patients exhibited a single peak temperature. Continuous temperature monitoring and temperature pattern analysis in clinical settings can aid in the early differentiation of dengue fever from non-dengue aetiology.

  14. in uterus, ovaries and periph

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-10-26

    Oct 26, 2011 ... expression of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) in uterus, ovaries and ... 4Shanghai Zhaoxiang Biotechnology Co., Ltd, Shanghai, 201609, China. Accepted 23 ..... in mice, which could increase the immunity levels in the.

  15. Relationship between tonic and phasic craving for alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily E. Hartwell

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Multiple measures are utilized to assess alcohol craving, often interchangeably. Little is known about the relationship between tonic and phasic craving. This study fills this gap in the literature by examining the association between tonic levels of alcohol craving and phasic craving for alcohol that is provoked by alcohol administration. Methods: Forty-three non-treatment seeking problem drinkers underwent an initial interview and two laboratory testing sessions, where either alcohol or a saline placebo was administered intravenously. Tonic craving was assessed via the Penn Alcohol Craving Scale (PACS and Obsessive Compulsive Drinking Scale (OCDS at the initial interview. Phasic craving was assessed during the laboratory sessions (i.e., alcohol and saline administrations, single blinded at baseline and at 3 subsequent breath alcohol concentrations (0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 g/dl. Results: There was a main effect of PACS in predicting phasic craving across both saline and alcohol administration conditions (p  0.10, predicted phasic craving during alcohol, as compared to saline administration. Conclusion: In sum, tonic craving captured by the OCDS was predictive of phasic craving during alcohol administration whereas the PACS more generally captured the increase in phasic craving. Therefore, these measures of tonic craving may function differently in capturing the experience of phasic craving. Implications for the utilization of the PACS and OCDS as well as assessments of craving in alcoholism research are discussed. Keywords: Alcohol, Craving, Assessment

  16. The effect of phasic auditory alerting on visual perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders; Petersen, Annemarie Hilkjær; Bundesen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    /no-alerting design with a pure accuracy-based single-letter recognition task. Computational modeling based on Bundesen’s Theory of Visual Attention was used to examine the effect of phasic alertness on visual processing speed and threshold of conscious perception. Results show that phasic auditory alertness affects...

  17. Arteriovenous malformations of the uterus.

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    Cura, M; Martinez, N; Cura, A; Dalsaso, T J; Elmerhi, F

    2009-09-01

    Arterial venous malformations (AVM) of the uterus are uncommon entities and should be considered in patients who present with profuse genital bleeding. There are two types of uterine AVM: acquired and congenital. Acquired uterine AVMs are conformed by communications between the uterine arteries and the myometrial veins, and are caused by an iatrogenic event or a pathological condition. Congenital AVMs are the result of abnormal development of primitive vessels that result in connections between pelvic arteries and veins in the uterus without an interconnecting capillary bed. Ultrasonography is a noninvasive diagnostic method able to demonstrate and characterize AVMs of the uterus. AVM in the pelvis may be noted incidentally by computed tomography (CT) of the pelvis, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is frequently used to confirm and further characterize the sonographic findings of uterine AVM. Catheter angiography and embolization are very effective in defining the vascular anatomy and treating uterine vascular abnormalities.

  18. Noise-enhanced coding in phasic neuron spike trains.

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    Ly, Cheng; Doiron, Brent

    2017-01-01

    The stochastic nature of neuronal response has lead to conjectures about the impact of input fluctuations on the neural coding. For the most part, low pass membrane integration and spike threshold dynamics have been the primary features assumed in the transfer from synaptic input to output spiking. Phasic neurons are a common, but understudied, neuron class that are characterized by a subthreshold negative feedback that suppresses spike train responses to low frequency signals. Past work has shown that when a low frequency signal is accompanied by moderate intensity broadband noise, phasic neurons spike trains are well locked to the signal. We extend these results with a simple, reduced model of phasic activity that demonstrates that a non-Markovian spike train structure caused by the negative feedback produces a noise-enhanced coding. Further, this enhancement is sensitive to the timescales, as opposed to the intensity, of a driving signal. Reduced hazard function models show that noise-enhanced phasic codes are both novel and separate from classical stochastic resonance reported in non-phasic neurons. The general features of our theory suggest that noise-enhanced codes in excitable systems with subthreshold negative feedback are a particularly rich framework to study.

  19. Lipoleiomyoma of the uterus: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, IK; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Dong Ho; Lim, Joo Won; Lee, Eil Seong

    1993-01-01

    Lipoleiomyomas of the uterus are extremely rare benign neoplasm that can be difficult to differentiate from benign cystic ovarian teratomas. Only a few pure lipomas of the uterus have been documented. We presented a case of lipoleiomyoma of the uterus, in which sonography and computed tomography were performed, but because of its rarity, and confusion with more common uterine leiomyoma and ovarian dermoid tumor, preoperative diagnosis was not suggested. To our best knowledge, this is the first case of uterine lipoleiomyoma in Korea

  20. Amphetamine Paradoxically Augments Exocytotic Dopamine Release and Phasic Dopamine Signals

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    Daberkow, DP; Brown, HD; Bunner, KD; Kraniotis, SA; Doellman, MA; Ragozzino, ME; Garris, PA; Roitman, MF

    2013-01-01

    Drugs of abuse hijack brain reward circuitry during the addiction process by augmenting action potential-dependent phasic dopamine release events associated with learning and goal-directed behavior. One prominent exception to this notion would appear to be amphetamine (AMPH) and related analogs, which are proposed instead to disrupt normal patterns of dopamine neurotransmission by depleting vesicular stores and promoting non-exocytotic dopamine efflux via reverse transport. This mechanism of AMPH action, though, is inconsistent with its therapeutic effects and addictive properties - which are thought to be reliant on phasic dopamine signaling. Here we used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in freely moving rats to interrogate principal neurochemical responses to AMPH in the striatum and relate these changes to behavior. First, we showed that AMPH dose-dependently enhanced evoked dopamine responses to phasic-like current pulse trains for up to two hours. Modeling the data revealed that AMPH inhibited dopamine uptake but also unexpectedly potentiated vesicular dopamine release. Second, we found that AMPH increased the amplitude, duration and frequency of spontaneous dopamine transients, the naturally occurring, non-electrically evoked, phasic increases in extracellular dopamine. Finally, using an operant sucrose reward paradigm, we showed that low-dose AMPH augmented dopamine transients elicited by sucrose-predictive cues. However, operant behavior failed at high-dose AMPH, which was due to phasic dopamine hyperactivity and the decoupling of dopamine transients from the reward predictive cue. These findings identify up-regulation of exocytotic dopamine release as a key AMPH action in behaving animals and support a unified mechanism of abused drugs to activate phasic dopamine signaling. PMID:23303926

  1. The ethics of uterus transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catsanos, Ruby; Rogers, Wendy; Lotz, Mianna

    2013-02-01

    Human uterus transplantation (UTx) is currently under investigation as a treatment for uterine infertility. Without a uterus transplant, the options available to women with uterine infertility are adoption or surrogacy; only the latter has the potential for a genetically related child. UTx will offer recipients the chance of having their own pregnancy. This procedure occurs at the intersection of two ethically contentious areas: assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and organ transplantation. In relation to organ transplantation, UTx lies with composite tissue transplants such as face and limb grafts, and shares some of the ethical concerns raised by these non-life saving procedures. In relation to ART, UTx represents one more avenue by which a woman may seek to meet her reproductive goals, and as with other ART procedures, raises questions about the limits of reproductive autonomy. This paper explores the ethical issues raised by UTx with a focus on the potential gap between women's desires and aspirations about pregnancy and the likely functional outcomes of successful UTx. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. The effect of four-phasic versus three-phasic contrast media injection protocols on extravasation rate in coronary CT angiography. A randomized controlled trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karady, Julia; Panajotu, Alexisz; Kolossvary, Marton; Szilveszter, Balint; Jermendy, Adam L.; Bartykowszki, Andrea; Karolyi, Mihaly; Celeng, Csilla; Merkely, Bela; Maurovich-Horvat, Pal [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary)

    2017-11-15

    Contrast media (CM) extravasation is a well-known complication of CT angiography (CTA). Our prospective randomized control study aimed to assess whether a four-phasic CM administration protocol reduces the risk of extravasation compared to the routinely used three-phasic protocol in coronary CTA. Patients referred to coronary CTA due to suspected coronary artery disease were included in the study. All patients received 400 mg/ml iomeprol CM injected with dual-syringe automated injector. Patients were randomized into a three-phasic injection-protocol group, with a CM bolus of 85 ml followed by 40 ml of 75%:25% saline/CM mixture and 30 ml saline chaser bolus; and a four-phasic injection-protocol group, with a saline pacer bolus of 10 ml injected at a lower flow rate before the three-phasic protocol. 2,445 consecutive patients were enrolled (mean age 60.6 ± 12.1 years; females 43.6%). Overall rate of extravasation was 0.9% (23/2,445): 1.4% (17/1,229) in the three-phasic group and 0.5% (6/1,216) in the four-phasic group (p = 0.034). Four-phasic CM administration protocol is easy to implement in the clinical routine at no extra cost. The extravasation rate is reduced by 65% with the application of the four-phasic protocol compared to the three-phasic protocol in coronary CTA. (orig.)

  3. Role of SM22 in the differential regulation of phasic vs. tonic smooth muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mehboob

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary proteomics studies between tonic vs. phasic smooth muscles identified three distinct protein spots identified to be those of transgelin (SM22). The latter was found to be distinctly downregulated in the internal anal sphincter (IAS) vs. rectal smooth muscle (RSM) SMC. The major focus of the present studies was to examine the differential molecular control mechanisms by SM22 in the functionality of truly tonic smooth muscle of the IAS vs. the adjoining phasic smooth muscle of the RSM. We monitored SMC lengths before and after incubation with pFLAG-SM22 (for SM22 overexpression), and SM22 small-interfering RNA. pFLAG-SM22 caused concentration-dependent and significantly greater relaxation in the IAS vs. the RSM SMCs. Conversely, temporary silencing of SM22 caused contraction in both types of the SMCs. Further studies revealed a significant reverse relationship between the levels of SM22 phosphorylation and the amount of SM22-actin binding in the IAS and RSM SMC. Data showed higher phospho-SM22 levels and decreased SM22-actin binding in the IAS, and reverse to be the case in the RSM SMCs. Experiments determining the mechanism for SM22 phosphorylation in these smooth muscles revealed that Y-27632 (Rho kinase inhibitor) but not Gö-6850 (protein kinase C inhibitor) caused concentration-dependent decreased phosphorylation of SM22. We speculate that SM22 plays an important role in the regulation of basal tone via Rho kinase-induced phosphorylation of SM22. PMID:25617350

  4. The effect of four-phasic versus three-phasic contrast media injection protocols on extravasation rate in coronary CT angiography: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karády, Júlia; Panajotu, Alexisz; Kolossváry, Márton; Szilveszter, Bálint; Jermendy, Ádám L; Bartykowszki, Andrea; Károlyi, Mihály; Celeng, Csilla; Merkely, Béla; Maurovich-Horvat, Pál

    2017-11-01

    Contrast media (CM) extravasation is a well-known complication of CT angiography (CTA). Our prospective randomized control study aimed to assess whether a four-phasic CM administration protocol reduces the risk of extravasation compared to the routinely used three-phasic protocol in coronary CTA. Patients referred to coronary CTA due to suspected coronary artery disease were included in the study. All patients received 400 mg/ml iomeprol CM injected with dual-syringe automated injector. Patients were randomized into a three-phasic injection-protocol group, with a CM bolus of 85 ml followed by 40 ml of 75%:25% saline/CM mixture and 30 ml saline chaser bolus; and a four-phasic injection-protocol group, with a saline pacer bolus of 10 ml injected at a lower flow rate before the three-phasic protocol. 2,445 consecutive patients were enrolled (mean age 60.6 ± 12.1 years; females 43.6%). Overall rate of extravasation was 0.9% (23/2,445): 1.4% (17/1,229) in the three-phasic group and 0.5% (6/1,216) in the four-phasic group (p = 0.034). Four-phasic CM administration protocol is easy to implement in the clinical routine at no extra cost. The extravasation rate is reduced by 65% with the application of the four-phasic protocol compared to the three-phasic protocol in coronary CTA. • Four-phasic CM injection-protocol reduces extravasation rate by 65% compared to three-phasic. • The saline pacer bolus substantially reduces the risk of CM extravasation. • The implementation of four-phasic injection-protocol is at no cost.

  5. Gemelligraviditet i et horn af bicorn uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maagaard, Mathilde; Langhoff-Roos, Jens

    2009-01-01

    Bicornuate uterus is associated with early foetal loss and extremely preterm delivery. A patient with dichorionic twins in a single horn of a bicornuate uterus was admitted in week 24 + 6 with preterm labour. Long-term treatment with a combination of tocolytics, atosiban and diclofenac inhibited...

  6. The effect of phasic auditory alerting on visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Anders; Petersen, Annemarie Hilkjær; Bundesen, Claus; Vangkilde, Signe; Habekost, Thomas

    2017-08-01

    Phasic alertness refers to a short-lived change in the preparatory state of the cognitive system following an alerting signal. In the present study, we examined the effect of phasic auditory alerting on distinct perceptual processes, unconfounded by motor components. We combined an alerting/no-alerting design with a pure accuracy-based single-letter recognition task. Computational modeling based on Bundesen's Theory of Visual Attention was used to examine the effect of phasic alertness on visual processing speed and threshold of conscious perception. Results show that phasic auditory alertness affects visual perception by increasing the visual processing speed and lowering the threshold of conscious perception (Experiment 1). By manipulating the intensity of the alerting cue, we further observed a positive relationship between alerting intensity and processing speed, which was not seen for the threshold of conscious perception (Experiment 2). This was replicated in a third experiment, in which pupil size was measured as a physiological marker of alertness. Results revealed that the increase in processing speed was accompanied by an increase in pupil size, substantiating the link between alertness and processing speed (Experiment 3). The implications of these results are discussed in relation to a newly developed mathematical model of the relationship between levels of alertness and the speed with which humans process visual information. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of epidermal growth factor, interleukin 1 and nitric oxide on prostaglandin production by guinea-pig uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeble, J E; Poyser, N L

    2002-08-01

    Initial experiments in the present study investigated the effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF), interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) and sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor) on the output of prostaglandins from guinea-pig uterus on day 7 of the oestrous cycle. Superfusion of day 7 guinea-pig uterus in vitro with either EGF or sodium nitroprusside increased the output of PGF(2alpha) and 6-keto-PGF(1alpha), but not of PGE(2). IL-1beta had no effect on the output of these three prostaglandins. EGF still increased the output of PGF(2alpha), but did not increase the output of 6-keto-PGF(1alpha) in a calcium-depleted superfusate. Subsequent experiments investigated the effect of sodium nitroprusside on contractile activity of day 7 guinea-pig uterus. Basal spontaneous activity of both the intact uterus and isolated myometrium superfused in vitro was low. Sodium nitroprusside increased the contractile activity of these tissues two- to fourfold. EGF did not affect the contractile activity of the uterus, indicating that sodium nitroprusside-induced contractions are not due to increased prostaglandin production. Overall, the findings indicate that EGF and nitric oxide may act as mediators in the mechanism by which oestradiol acting on a progesterone-primed uterus stimulates the increase in PGF(2alpha) production by the guinea-pig uterus necessary for luteolysis. Nitric oxide may increase the spontaneous activity of the uterus when this activity is low.

  8. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Wei Chu

    2006-12-01

    Conclusion: The behavior of solitary fibrous tumors arising from the uterus is difficult to evaluate; therefore, complete surgical excision featuring clear margins and comprehensive follow-up is recommended.

  9. Uterine Cancer: Cancer of the Uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe To receive Publications email updates Submit Uterine cancer Cancer of the uterus (uterine cancer) is cancer ... Institute . Expand all | Collapse all What is uterine cancer? Cancer is a disease in which certain body ...

  10. Uterus transplantation: current progress and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannesson L

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Liza Johannesson, Stina Järvholm Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden Abstract: Even if reproductive medicine has been remarkably successful during the past few decades, with the introduction of in vitro fertilization in the late 1970s and intracytoplasmic sperm injection in the early 1990s, it has been repeatedly mocked by infertility due to an absolute uterine factor. No treatment has been available for the women suffering from an absent or dysfunctional uterus, in terms of carrying a pregnancy. Approximately one in 500 women suffer from absolute uterine infertility, and the option so far to become a mother has been to either adopt or utilize gestational surrogacy. As of today, a total of eleven cases of human uterus transplantations have been reported worldwide, conducted in three different countries. The results of these initial experimental cases far exceed what might be expected of a novel surgical method. Many more uterus transplantations are to be expected in the near future, as other research teams’ preparations are being ready to be put into clinical practice. In this review, we summarize the current worldwide experience of uterus transplantation as a treatment of absolute uterine factor infertility and the future prospects of human uterus transplantation. Keywords: uterus, transplantation, infertility

  11. Inversion of the uterus following abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A S; Datta, N; Ghosh, D

    1982-10-16

    A case of inversion of the uterus following abortion is reported. The 35-year old patient, admitted October 10, 1978 to the Medical College and Hospitals in Calcutta, India was referred by a private practitioner with a history of amenorrhea for 16 weeks, bleeding for 3 days, expulsion of the fetus 3 days earlier, and something coming down per vaginum for 2 days. The patient was para 4+0 (all full term normal deliveries) and home delivery for the last child 1 1/2 years earlier. She had a history of regular menstrual periods. Her general condition was poor. The examination revealed a gangrenous mass coming out of the vulva with a very offensive smell. There was a raw surface on which placenta like tissue was attached. No active bleeding was seen. Fundus and cervix of the uterus could not be felt. On rectal examination the uterus could not be felt, a cup-like depression was felt at the site of the uterus. The provision diagnosis was inversion of uterus following abortion. Treatment was started with sedatives and antibiotics, and arrangements were made for a blood transfusion. The vaginal mass was covered with glycerine and acriflavine gauze, and a hysterectomy was decided upon after improvement of her general condition and control of the infection. On October 14th, the patient was placed in knee chest position and posterior vaginal wall was retracted with Sims' speculum when the inverted lump was spontaneously reduced within the vagina. The inverted uterus was felt in the region of the vaginal vault. Glycerine acriflavine pack was given which was taken out and repack was given daily until the operation. The hysterectomy was performed on October 23rd. The abdomen was opened up by a transverse incision and the pelvis was explored. In the region of the uterus a cup-shaped depression was noted. Tubes and ovaries of both sides were seen hanging laterally from the cupped area. The left tube was found congested and thickened. Reduction of uterus was done by making a vertical

  12. Influence of phasic and tonic dopamine release on receptor activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Jakob Kristoffer Kisbye; Herrik, Kjartan F; Berg, Rune W

    2010-01-01

    Tonic and phasic dopamine release is implicated in learning, motivation, and motor functions. However, the relationship between spike patterns in dopaminergic neurons, the extracellular concentration of dopamine, and activation of dopamine receptors remains unresolved. In the present study, we...... develop a computational model of dopamine signaling that give insight into the relationship between the dynamics of release and occupancy of D(1) and D(2) receptors. The model is derived from first principles using experimental data. It has no free parameters and offers unbiased estimation...

  13. Uterus MRI. Normal and pathological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moulin, G.; Bartoli, J.M.; Gaubert, J.Y.; Bayle, O.; Distefano-Louineau, D.; Kasbarian, M.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), a non invasive procedure, is taking a place of growing importance as a means of radiological exploration. Its use in uterine pathologies has shown considerable developments. This requires an excellent knowledge of the normal and pathological aspects of the uterus. In fact it exists a zonal anatomy of the uterus which varies according to hormonal impregnation and this is very well seen by MRI. MRI gives excellent results in the diagnosis and study of different uterine pathologies. The radiological appearance of leiomyomas differs depending on the presence or not of degenerative changes within them. Uterine adenomyosis is also well studied by MRI. Lastly different studies in the literature have shown MRI to be a reliable method of exploration with a high degree of fiability, specificity and sensibility to study the local spread of malignant uterine diseases. The authors report their experience and also that present in the literature concerning the study of the uterus by MRI [fr

  14. Phasic firing in vasopressin cells: understanding its functional significance through computational models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J MacGregor

    Full Text Available Vasopressin neurons, responding to input generated by osmotic pressure, use an intrinsic mechanism to shift from slow irregular firing to a distinct phasic pattern, consisting of long bursts and silences lasting tens of seconds. With increased input, bursts lengthen, eventually shifting to continuous firing. The phasic activity remains asynchronous across the cells and is not reflected in the population output signal. Here we have used a computational vasopressin neuron model to investigate the functional significance of the phasic firing pattern. We generated a concise model of the synaptic input driven spike firing mechanism that gives a close quantitative match to vasopressin neuron spike activity recorded in vivo, tested against endogenous activity and experimental interventions. The integrate-and-fire based model provides a simple physiological explanation of the phasic firing mechanism involving an activity-dependent slow depolarising afterpotential (DAP generated by a calcium-inactivated potassium leak current. This is modulated by the slower, opposing, action of activity-dependent dendritic dynorphin release, which inactivates the DAP, the opposing effects generating successive periods of bursting and silence. Model cells are not spontaneously active, but fire when perturbed by random perturbations mimicking synaptic input. We constructed one population of such phasic neurons, and another population of similar cells but which lacked the ability to fire phasically. We then studied how these two populations differed in the way that they encoded changes in afferent inputs. By comparison with the non-phasic population, the phasic population responds linearly to increases in tonic synaptic input. Non-phasic cells respond to transient elevations in synaptic input in a way that strongly depends on background activity levels, phasic cells in a way that is independent of background levels, and show a similar strong linearization of the response

  15. Perivaskulær epiteloidcelletumor i uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen Knudsen, Kirsten Quyen; Winter, Pia Engell; Lykkebo, Annemette Wildfang

    2013-01-01

    Perivascular epithelioid cell tumours (PEComas) are rare tumours with unknown malignant potential. We report a case of a 48-year-old woman, who had had many tumours, initially diagnosed as leiomyomas, removed from her uterus and vagina over 16 years. A recurrent tumour and revision of prior...

  16. Uterus bicornis unicollis; Occurrence of consecutive viable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-07-08

    Jul 8, 2006 ... INTRODUCTION. Congenital anomaly of the uterus result from varying degrees of failure of fusion of Mullerian ducts but may occasionally arise from true duplication of the ducts[1]. This variability makes their diagnosis very tasking even when radiological investigations such as ultrasonography ...

  17. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca, L.K. de; Matsumoto, M.H.

    1989-01-01

    One case of rhabdomyosarcoma of the uterus (type III) is reported. The patient was a seven-year-old with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound has been shown to be valuable in the diagnosis, for defining the initial extend of disease and follow-up after chemotherapy which is important with the advent of more conservative forms of therapy for rhabdomyosarcoma. (author) [pt

  18. Uterus transplantation: ethical and regulatory challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Kavita Shah; Blake, Valarie

    2014-06-01

    Moving forward rapidly in the clinical research phase, uterus transplantation may be a future treatment option for women with uterine factor infertility, which accounts for three per cent of all infertility in women. This new method of treatment would allow women, who currently rely on gestational surrogacy or adoption, to gestate and birth their own genetic offspring. Since uterus transplantation carries significant risk when compared with surrogacy and adoption as well as when compared with other organ transplants, it requires greater justification because its goals are quality of life, not life-saving, in their scope. It is important to address questions regarding the physical, psychosocial and ethical risks and benefits of uterus transplantation for all three parties involved--the patient, the donor and the potential child--as well as discuss the regulatory implications as research on uterus transplantations moves forward. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Impact of septate uterus on obstetric outcome: case report | Ondieki ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Septate uterus is mostly seen in women with infertility and recurrent pregnancy wastage. Reproductive outcome in women with septate uterus includes increased incidence of spontaneous abortion, premature birth, and abnormal foetal presentations. (1, 2) A case of septate uterus is presented and literature reviewed.

  20. An aberrant uterus: Case report | Ondieki | East African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of an aberrant uterus is presented and literature reviewed. The patient presented with abnormal uterine bleeding, left iliac fossa pain and was managed by excising the aberrant uterus. This case was an enigma as it didn't present in the classical way one with anomalies of the uterus would present. Despite ...

  1. Ruptured uterus in Kano, Nigeria - study of risk factors | Omole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a comparative prospective study of the risk factors for ruptured uterus in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, between 1st January 2000 and 31st December 2005. Forty six women with ruptured uterus (cases) were compared with two hundred and thirty women who delivered without ruptured uterus ...

  2. Delivery of placenta before baby in ruptured uterus | Ameh | Annals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An unusual case of ruptured uterus characterized by spontaneous delivery of the placenta while the foetus is retained in the abdomen is presented. The management and prevention of ruptured uterus in Sub- Saharan Africa is discussed. Key Words: Delivery of placenta, ruptured uterus. Annals of African Medicine Vol.3(3) ...

  3. Bicornuate-Septate Uterus: A New Congenital Uterine Anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Dabir-Ashrafi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Bicornuate uterus is class IV and septate uterus is class Vin uterine anomaly classification.Bicornuate uterus is almost always treated by laparotomy and metroplasty. But the treatment of choice for septate uterus is hysteroscopic metroplasty. Bicornuate- septate uterus which is described in this paper is a new class of uterine anomaly(between class IV & V. The advantages of hysteroscopic metroplasty to laparotomy and metroplasty have been proven previously.It is important to know if the uterine anomaly is pure bicornuate or bicornuate-septate. In the latter case, we suggest the first line of operation should be hysteroscopic metroplasty.

  4. Fibro-osteochondroma of the uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan W. H. Bates

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a uterine fibro-osteochondroma in a 61-year-old woman with postmenopausal bleeding was presented. Ultrasound revealed a calcified lesion in the posterior wall of the uterus and a hysterectomy was performed. Histopathologic examination showed a well-circumscribed triphasic tumor composed of peripheral lobules of mature hyaline cartilage and foci of trabecular bone with a core of loosely arranged fibroblast-like, spindle cells. This is the second reported case of fibro-osteochondroma, which has been described only in the uterus. Diagnosis requires thorough histopathologic examination to exclude metaplasia within a leiomyoma or uterine sarcoma. It is histologically benign and complete excision should be curative.

  5. Uterus didelphys associated with unilateral imperforate vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilliland, B; Dyck, F

    1976-07-01

    Two cases of uterus didelphys associated with unilateral imperforate vagina are reported with a review of the literature. In all cases investigated, ipsilateral renal agenesis was found on the affected side. A summary of the embryologic development of the female reproductive tract is included, as well as a possible explanation for this rare anomaly. The authors describe their proposed method of management to achieve freedom from symptoms and maintenance of a relatively intact reproductive tract.

  6. Phasic or terminal detrusor overactivity in women: age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise A. Valentini

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To search for relationships between phasic (P and terminal (T DO with age, urodynamic findings and sphincter behavior during involuntary detrusor contraction in woman. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Urodynamic studies (triple lumen catheter 7F, seated position of 164 successive women referred for LUTS with diagnosis of DO were reviewed. Patients were stratified in 4 sub-groups: pre- (18-44y, peri- (45-54 y, post-menopause (55-74 y and oldest old (≥ 75 y. The urethral sensor was positioned at the level of the maximum urethral closure pressure for sphincter behavior analysis. A variation of at least 5 cmH2O in pressure (detrusor or urethra was chosen to assert DO or sphincter response. Sphincter response was classified as relaxation (re before or during DO, or steady (st. RESULTS: Occurrence of P and TDO was similar: 77 P and 87 T. The PDO group was significantly younger (p = 0.0003. TDO was more frequent in patients with a history of neurological disease. The percentage of PDO remained almost constant in age groups, while that of TDO increased with age from 6.7% to 23.2% (p = 0.0013. Uninhibited contraction occurred at a smaller bladder volume in the P group: 149 ± 95 vs. 221 ± 113 mL (p < 0.0001. Steady sphincter predominated in the TDO subgroup: 45.9% vs. 32.1% and increased significantly in each DO sub-group of ³ 75y. CONCLUSION: Steady sphincter during both P and TDO, and occurrence of TDO appear as specific of aging. The last result could be related to structural changes in the detrusor muscle with aging.

  7. Uterus transplantation: Experimental animal models and recent experience in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadık Şahin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Uterus transplantation has been considered as an alternative management modality in the last few years for adoption or gestational surrogacy for women with absence of uterus due to congenital or acquired reasons. Surrogacy is legal in only a few countries because of ethical, social and legal issues. Up to date, a total of 11 uterus transplantation cases have been reported in which uteri were harvested from ten live donors and one donor with brain death. After unsuccessful attempt of first uterus transplantation, many studies have been conducted in animals and these experimental models enabled our knowledge to increase on this topic. First experimental studies were performed in rodents; later uterus transplantation was accomplished in sheep, pigs and rabbits. Recently, researches in non-human primates have led the experience regarding transplantation technique and success to improve. In this review, we reviewed the experimental animal researches in the area of uterus transplantation and recent experience in humans.

  8. The impact of luminance on tonic and phasic pupillary responses to sustained cognitive load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peysakhovich, Vsevolod; Vachon, François; Dehais, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Pupillary reactions independent of light conditions have been linked to cognition for a long time. However, the light conditions can impact the cognitive pupillary reaction. Previous studies underlined the impact of luminance on pupillary reaction, but it is still unclear how luminance modulates the sustained and transient components of pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response. In the present study, we investigated the impact of the luminance on these two components under sustained cognitive load. Fourteen participants performed a novel working memory task combining mathematical computations with a classic n-back task. We studied both tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response under low (1-back) and high (2-back) working memory load and two luminance levels (gray and white). We found that the impact of working memory load on the tonic pupil diameter was modulated by the level of luminance, the increase in tonic pupil diameter with the load being larger under lower luminance. In contrast, the smaller phasic pupil response found under high load remained unaffected by luminance. These results showed that luminance impacts the cognitive pupillary reaction - tonic pupil diameter (phasic pupil response) being modulated under sustained (respectively, transient) cognitive load. These findings also support the relationship between the locus-coeruleus system, presumably functioning in two firing modes - tonic and phasic - and the pupil diameter. We suggest that the tonic pupil diameter tracks the tonic activity of the locus-coeruleus while phasic pupil response reflects its phasic activity. Besides, the designed novel cognitive paradigm allows the simultaneous manipulation of sustained and transient components of the cognitive load and is useful for dissociating the effects on the tonic pupil diameter and phasic pupil response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Vaginal hysterectomy in patients with uterus prolapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, Miguel Emilio; Romero Sanchez, Ramon Ezequiel.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. In the medical literature is quoted the nulliparity, the existence of previous operations and the uterus size as exclusion factors to choice the hysterectomy technique. The aim of present research was to determine the effectiveness and feasibility of vaginal hysterectomy by Heaney's technique, carried out in patients without uterus prolapse even in presence of the above mentioned factors. METHODS. A multivariate, descriptive and observational study was conducted in a sample including 1 000 patients operated on in the General Surgery service of the 'Martin Chang Puga' University Hospital in Nuevitas municipality (Camaguey province, between May, 1994 and December, 2006. A database was designed in Excel transferred to SPSS professional statistical package to carry out univaried, bivaried and multivariate analyses, which finally were represented in frequency and percentages tables. A significance of p= 0.05 was used. RESULTS. The 6 % of patients were nulliparous and the 23,5 % had previous surgeries of pelvis. A 82,6 % of patients had uteri with no more than an approximate value of 12 weeks of pregnancy and the uterine fibroma was the leading cause (88,5 %) of intervention. Only a 4,1 % of patients need blood transfusion. The perioperative and postoperative complications accounted for the 1,7 % and the 19,3 %, respectively. The 97,2 % of patients stayed less than 48 hours in the hospital and the 99,4 % go back to normal life. CONCLUSIONS. The nulliparity, the uterus size and the previous operations were not considered like isolated and excluding factors for the vaginal route. However, the type of hysterectomy will depends of the decision of the attending physician and the patient, according the costs and benefits involved in each case. (author)

  10. Uterus effusion after irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Shaokang; Gao Juzhen; Wu Lingying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the clinical characteristics of patients with uterus effusion after irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix. Methods: 151 patients with uterus effusion after irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix were retrospectively analyzed. Results: All these 151 patients who had been treated by radiotherapy had FIGO stage IIB or IIIB lesions including 32 adenocarcinomas. The most common symptom was irregular vaginal discharge or drainage (65 patients), followed by irregular vaginal bleeding (32 patients), and abdominal or pelvic mass (27 patients). Twenty-seven patients were entirely asymptomatic. The positive rate of uterus effusion found by B-ultrasound scan was 100%. When uterus effusion was found, 87 patients (57.6%) had malignant tumor, including 62 with residual or recurrent cervical carcinoma and 25 with secondary primary malignant uterus tumor. Sixty-four patients had uterus effusion alone including 8 with pyometra. Of these 64 patients, 17 underwent abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSOH), the others were treated with drainage till the fluid disappeared. Of the 62 patients with residual or recurrent cervical carcinoma, 19 underwent BSOH and 43 were treated by palliative irradiation or chemotherapy. Twenty-five patients who had secondary primary malignant uterus tumor were treated by BSOH. The 5-year survival rate of patients with uterus effusion alone, with residual tumor (with recurrent tumor), or with secondary primary malignancy were 54.8%, 0%, 28.7% and 47.5%, respectively. The prognosis of the patients with uterus effusion alone was better than those with secondary primary malignant uterus tumor. Patients with residual or recurrent cervical cancer had the worst prognosis. Conclusions: Patients with uterus effusion after irradiation for carcinoma of the cervix often have tumor including secondary primary, malignant uterus tumor. The prognosis is different, which depends on if the patient has tumor or not. (authors)

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of unicornuate uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedele, L.; Dorta, M.; Brioschi, D.; Giudici, M.N.; Villa, L. (1st Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Univ. of Milan (Italy))

    1990-01-01

    Five patient with a hysterosalpingographic diagnosis of unicornuate uterus underwent resonance imaging (MRI) and subsequently laparoscopy/laparotomy to evaluate the ability of MRI to identify the various subclasses of this malformation. The method was demonstrated to be valid, since in all 5 cases (one subclass A1b, two subclass B) were correctly diagnosed. Compared with laparoscopy, MRI is less expensive, less invasive, and can be performed in women in whom laparoscopic examination is risky. However, unlike laparoscopy, MRI can not detect the presence of minimal and mild endometriosis and does not allow assessment of the tubal conditions. (au).

  12. Brainstem circuitry regulating phasic activation of trigeminal motoneurons during REM sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christelle Anaclet

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS is characterized by activation of the cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG and atonia of non-respiratory muscles with superimposed phasic activity or twitching, particularly of cranial muscles such as those of the eye, tongue, face and jaw. While phasic activity is a characteristic feature of REMS, the neural substrates driving this activity remain unresolved. Here we investigated the neural circuits underlying masseter (jaw phasic activity during REMS. The trigeminal motor nucleus (Mo5, which controls masseter motor function, receives glutamatergic inputs mainly from the parvocellular reticular formation (PCRt, but also from the adjacent paramedian reticular area (PMnR. On the other hand, the Mo5 and PCRt do not receive direct input from the sublaterodorsal (SLD nucleus, a brainstem region critical for REMS atonia of postural muscles. We hypothesized that the PCRt-PMnR, but not the SLD, regulates masseter phasic activity during REMS.To test our hypothesis, we measured masseter electromyogram (EMG, neck muscle EMG, electrooculogram (EOG and EEG in rats with cell-body specific lesions of the SLD, PMnR, and PCRt. Bilateral lesions of the PMnR and rostral PCRt (rPCRt, but not the caudal PCRt or SLD, reduced and eliminated REMS phasic activity of the masseter, respectively. Lesions of the PMnR and rPCRt did not, however, alter the neck EMG or EOG. To determine if rPCRt neurons use glutamate to control masseter phasic movements, we selectively blocked glutamate release by rPCRt neurons using a Cre-lox mouse system. Genetic disruption of glutamate neurotransmission by rPCRt neurons blocked masseter phasic activity during REMS.These results indicate that (1 premotor glutamatergic neurons in the medullary rPCRt and PMnR are involved in generating phasic activity in the masseter muscles, but not phasic eye movements, during REMS; and (2 separate brainstem neural circuits control postural and cranial muscle

  13. CHARACTERIZATION OF MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS IN GUINEA-PIG UTERUS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DOODS, HN; WILLIM, KD; BODDEKE, HWGM; ENTZEROTH, M

    1993-01-01

    To characterize the muscarinic receptor present in guinea-pig uterus smooth muscle the affinities of a series of 27 muscarinic receptor antagonists for M1 (rat cortex), M2 (rat heart), M3 (rat submandibular gland), m4 (transfected in CHO cells) and muscarinic binding sites in guinea-pig uterus

  14. Traumatic Fundal Rupture of unscarred Uterus in a Primigravida ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Uterine rupture is an infrequent but life threatening obstetric emergency. Rupture of previously scarred uterus is often encountered especially in multiparous women, but the traumatic rupture of an unscarred primigravid uterus as presented here is a relatively rare event. We report a case of rupture of an ...

  15. Persistent Breech Presentation in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Case Report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report a case of persistent breech presentation in a primigravida with bicornuate uterus that was initially diagnosed by early ultrasound scan. Persistent breech presentation later in the pregnancy necessitated an elective caesarean section at term. The diagnosis was confirmed intraoperatively by exteriorizing the uterus.

  16. Ruptured uterus in Azare, north eastern Nigeria | Dattijo | Jos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background:-Ruptured uterus is an obstetric emergency and results in significant maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in Nigeria. The objective of the review is to determine the incidence, predisposing factors, maternal and foetal outcome in cases of ruptured uterus. Methods:- A 4-year retrospective review of ...

  17. Ruptured Uterus At Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. | Eze | Ebonyi Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Ruptured uterus is an obstetric catastrophe associated with high maternal and perinatal mortality. Objectives: To determine the incidence, causes, management and fetomaternal outcomes of ruptured uterus in Afikpo, Southeast Nigeria. Methods: Delivery records, theatre registers and case notes of all ruptured ...

  18. Herniated Gravid Uterus: Clinical Course and Result of Treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herniated gravid uterus in an incisional hernia of the anterior abdominal wall is relatively rare. A 30-year-old house wife presented with a six month gravid uterus that had herniated through an incisional hernia of the anterior abdominal wall. She had non-operative management till term, when she then had elective lower ...

  19. Colonization of the bovine uterus by Candida kefyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen Karstrup, Cecilia; Aalbæk, Bent; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background. While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported, but li...

  20. Other women's wombs: uterus transplants and gestational surrogacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    The birth of a child after uterus transplant from a living donor in Sweden in October, 2013 has spurred reproductive and transplant physicians in Europe and North America to investigate whether uterus transplants, from living or cadaveric donors, will be a safe and effective therapy for women with uterine insufficiency. While progress with uterus transplant depends on medical factors, there are also important ethical and legal concerns. Uterus transplant is essential for women without access to surrogacy. It may also be sought by infertile women who dislike surrogacy. This article examines medical, ethical, legal, and policy issues that arise with womb transplant, including the role of surrogacy policies that make them necessary. The conclusion is that there is a clear ethical path for either surrogacy or uterus transplant to be used by women with uterine insufficiency. PMID:27774233

  1. Other women's wombs: uterus transplants and gestational surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, John A

    2016-04-01

    The birth of a child after uterus transplant from a living donor in Sweden in October, 2013 has spurred reproductive and transplant physicians in Europe and North America to investigate whether uterus transplants, from living or cadaveric donors, will be a safe and effective therapy for women with uterine insufficiency. While progress with uterus transplant depends on medical factors, there are also important ethical and legal concerns. Uterus transplant is essential for women without access to surrogacy. It may also be sought by infertile women who dislike surrogacy. This article examines medical, ethical, legal, and policy issues that arise with womb transplant, including the role of surrogacy policies that make them necessary. The conclusion is that there is a clear ethical path for either surrogacy or uterus transplant to be used by women with uterine insufficiency.

  2. Ultrasonography and radiography of the canine postpartum uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pharr, J.W.; Post, K.

    1992-01-01

    A vulvovaginal discharge following parturition in a bitch is often a cause of concern to owners and clinicians, especially if whelping was complicated in any way. Ultrasonography could potentially distinguish between normal and abnormal postpartum uterine states because the uterine wall and luminal contents can be imaged in detail. Five normal bitches were examined to determine the normal ultrasonographic appearance of the postpartum uterus and the sensitivity of ultrasonography in detecting the involuting uterus, comparing this sensitivity with that of radiography. Ultrasonography was done at 1, 4, 8, 12, 18 and 24 days postpartum, radiography at 1, 4, 8, 12 and 18 days postpartum. By 12 days postpartum, the uterus could not be seen on radiographs, while at 24 days postpartum the uterus was still sonographically identifiable. The ultrasonographic characteristics of the involuting uterus are described

  3. Imaging of uterus and ovaries in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The clinical symptoms of pathologies of the uterus and ovaries are relatively unspecific. Their presentation includes absence of symptoms, abdominal pain and acute abdomen - but also developmental alterations during puberty and problems with menstruation and conception. Ultrasound can reliably diagnose most of these diseases. MRI is being a second line of diagnostics especially in cases of malformation and possible tumors. It is decisive for a valid interpretation of results to be aware of age-dependent normal findings and to have a working knowledge of embryologic processes, especially to understand how deformities take shape. This article is presenting normal findings and many pathologies of the female inner genital in childhood and puberty. By using exemplary images we will cover their differential diagnoses, pitfalls and typical presentations.

  4. Rupture of primigravid uterus and recurrent rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahreen Akhtar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Uterine rupture is a deadly obstetrical emergency endangering the life of both mother and fetus. In Bangladesh, majority of deliveries arc attended by unskilled traditional birth attendant and maternal mortality is still quite high. It is rare Ln developed country but unfortunately it is common in a developing country like Bangladesh. We report a case history of a patient age 32yrs from Daudkandi, Comilla admitted with H/0 previous two rupture uterus and repair with no living issue. We did caesarean section at her 31+ weeks of pregnancy when she developed Jabour pain. A baby of 1.4 kg was delivered. During cesarean section, focal rupture was noted in previous scar of rupture. Unfortunately the baby expired in neonatal ICU after 36 hours.

  5. Influence of hormone substitution therapy on postmenopausal uterus; Einfluss einer Hormonsubstitution auf den postmenopausalen Uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otte, A.; Ruedisueli, A.; Goetze, M.; Leibundgut, U.; Mueller-Brand, J. [Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Kantonsspital, Universitaetskliniken, Basel (Switzerland); Nitzsche, E.U. [Abt. Nuklearmedizin, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    In a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman blood flow and blood pool images of bone scintigraphy showed a focus of increased activity in the right pelvic region. Computed tomography and ultrasound exhibited no abnormalities in the abdomen; especially the uterus and ovaries were normal. Careful anamnestic evaluation revealed that the patient received a long-term peroral estrogen/gestagen replacement therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis, but did not have menstruation-like bleedings for the last twelve months of therapy. At time of admission, the patient was on day 25 of hormone replacement therapy, and the uterus wash, therefore, in a premenstrual stage. Hence, despite cessation of bleedings in postmenopausal women, one should think of hormone replacement therapy as an explanation for vascular pelvic tumors seen by the first two phases of bone scintigraphy, before further diagnostic steps are undertaken. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Skelettszintigraphie einer 58jaehrigen postmenopausalen Frau erkannte man in der Perfusions- und Blood-pool-Phase einen unklaren Fokus erhoehter Aktivitaet im rechten Becken. Computertomographie und Sonographie des Abdomens, insbesondere des Uterus und der Ovarien, waren unauffaellig. Nach eingehender anamnestischer Befragung stellte sich heraus, dass die Patientin unter einer mehrjaehrigen peroralen Oestrogen-/Gestagen-Hormonsubstitutionstherapie zur Osteoporose-Prophylaxe stand, jedoch seit den letzten zwoelf Monaten der Therapie ueber keine menstruationsaehnlichen Abbruchblutungen mehr berichten konnte. Bei ihrer Zuweisung befand sich die Patientin am 25. Tag der Hormonsubstitutionstherapie und ihr Uterus somit in einem praemenstruellen Stadium. Trotz Ausbleibens der Blutung bei postmenopausalen Frauen sollte somit an die Moeglichkeit der Hormonsubstitution gedacht und danach gefragt werden, wenn in den ersten beiden Phasen der Skelettszintigraphie eine unklare, gut vaskularisierte Struktur im kleinen Becken gefunden wird, bevor weitere

  6. Enhanced phasic GABA inhibition during the repair phase of stroke: a novel therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiu, Takeshi; Farzampour, Zoya; Paz, Jeanne T; Wang, Eric Hou Jen; Badgely, Corrine; Olson, Andrew; Micheva, Kristina D; Wang, Gordon; Lemmens, Robin; Tran, Kevin V; Nishiyama, Yasuhiro; Liang, Xibin; Hamilton, Scott A; O'Rourke, Nancy; Smith, Stephen J; Huguenard, John R; Bliss, Tonya M; Steinberg, Gary K

    2016-02-01

    Ischaemic stroke is the leading cause of severe long-term disability yet lacks drug therapies that promote the repair phase of recovery. This repair phase of stroke occurs days to months after stroke onset and involves brain remapping and plasticity within the peri-infarct zone. Elucidating mechanisms that promote this plasticity is critical for the development of new therapeutics with a broad treatment window. Inhibiting tonic (extrasynaptic) GABA signalling during the repair phase was reported to enhance functional recovery in mice suggesting that GABA plays an important function in modulating brain repair. While tonic GABA appears to suppress brain repair after stroke, less is known about the role of phasic (synaptic) GABA during the repair phase. We observed an increase in postsynaptic phasic GABA signalling in mice within the peri-infarct cortex specific to layer 5; we found increased numbers of α1 receptor subunit-containing GABAergic synapses detected using array tomography, and an associated increased efficacy of spontaneous and miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, we demonstrate that enhancing phasic GABA signalling using zolpidem, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved GABA-positive allosteric modulator, during the repair phase improved behavioural recovery. These data identify potentiation of phasic GABA signalling as a novel therapeutic strategy, indicate zolpidem's potential to improve recovery, and underscore the necessity to distinguish the role of tonic and phasic GABA signalling in stroke recovery. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  7. The Roles of Phasic and Tonic Dopamine in Tic Learning and Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Tiago V; Conceição, Vasco A

    2017-09-15

    Tourette syndrome (TS) prominently involves dopaminergic disturbances, but the precise nature of those disturbances has remained elusive. A substantial body of empirical work and recent computational models have characterized the specific roles of phasic and tonic dopamine (DA) in action learning and selection, respectively. Using insights from this work and models, we suggest that TS involves increases in both phasic and tonic DA, which produce increased propensities for tic learning and expression, respectively. We review the evidence from reinforcement-learning and habit-learning studies in TS, which supports the idea that TS involves increased phasic DA responses; we also review the evidence that tics engage the habit-learning circuitry. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that tics are exaggerated, maladaptive, and persistent motor habits reinforced by aberrant, increased phasic DA responses. Increased tonic DA amplifies the tendency to execute learned tics and also provides a fertile ground of motor hyperactivity for tic learning. We review evidence suggesting that antipsychotics may counter both the increased propensity for tic expression, by increasing excitability in the indirect pathway, and the increased propensity for tic learning, by shifting plasticity in the indirect pathway toward long-term potentiation (and possibly also through more complex mechanisms). Finally, we review evidence suggesting that low doses of DA agonists that effectively treat TS decrease both phasic and tonic DA, thereby also reducing the propensity for both tic learning and tic expression, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Attenuated Tonic and Enhanced Phasic Release of Dopamine in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra D Badgaiyan

    Full Text Available It is unclear whether attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD is a hypodopaminergic or hyperdopaminergic condition. Different sets of data suggest either hyperactive or hypoactive dopamine system. Since indirect methods used in earlier studies have arrived at contradictory conclusions, we directly measured the tonic and phasic release of dopamine in ADHD volunteers. The tonic release in ADHD and healthy control volunteers was measured and compared using dynamic molecular imaging technique. The phasic release during performance of Eriksen's flanker task was measured in the two groups using single scan dynamic molecular imaging technique. In these experiments volunteers were positioned in a positron emission tomography (PET camera and administered a dopamine receptor ligand (11C-raclopride intravenously. After the injection PET data were acquired dynamically while volunteers either stayed still (tonic release experiments or performed the flanker task (phasic release experiments. PET data were analyzed to measure dynamic changes in ligand binding potential (BP and other receptor kinetic parameters. The analysis revealed that at rest the ligand BP was significantly higher in the right caudate of ADHD volunteers suggesting reduced tonic release. During task performance significantly lower ligand BP was observed in the same area, indicating increased phasic release. In ADHD tonic release of dopamine is attenuated and the phasic release is enhanced in the right caudate. By characterizing the nature of dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission in ADHD, the results explain earlier findings of reduced or increased dopaminergic activity.

  9. Behavioral and Brain Measures of Phasic Alerting Effects on Visual Attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Petersen, Anders; Finke, Kathrin

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated effects of phasic alerting on visual attention in a partial report task, in which half of the displays were preceded by an auditory warning cue. Based on the computational Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we estimated parameters of spatial and non......-spatial aspects of visual attention and measured event-related lateralizations (ERLs) over visual processing areas. We found that the TVA parameter sensory effectiveness a, which is thought to reflect visual processing capacity, significantly increased with phasic alerting. By contrast, the distribution of visual....... These results suggest that phasic alerting facilitates visual processing in a general, unselective manner and that this effect originates in early stages of visual information processing....

  10. Melatonin protects uterus and oviduct exposed to nicotine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Saadat Seyedeh Nazanin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Smoking is associated with higher infertility risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate protective effects of melatonin on the uterus and oviduct in mice exposed to nicotine. Adult female mice (n=32 were divided into four groups. Group A: control animals received normal saline, Group B: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg, Group C: injected with melatonin 10 μg, Group D: injected with nicotine 40 μg/kg and melatonin 10 μg. All animals were treated over 15 days intraperitoneally. On the 16th day, animals in the estrus phase were dissected and their uterus and oviducts were removed. Immunohistochemistry was recruited for studying apoptosis and for detection of estrogen receptor (ER alpha in luminal epithelium of the uterus and oviduct. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for serum estradiol level determination. Nicotine in group B decreased estradiol level and ERalpha numbers both in the uterus and oviduct (p<0.05. Co-administration of melatonin-nicotine in Group D ameliorated the histology of the uterus and oviduct, increased ERalpha numbers and reduced apoptosis in the uterus and oviduct compared with the nicotine Group B (p<0.05. This study indicates that nicotine impairs the histology of the uterus and oviduct and co-administration of melatonin-nicotine ameliorates these findings, partly through alteration in ERalpha numbers and reduction of apoptosis

  11. Locus coeruleus phasic discharge is essential for stimulus-induced gamma oscillations in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Ricardo M; van Keulen, Silvia; Yang, Mingyu; Logothetis, Nikos K; Eschenko, Oxana

    2018-03-01

    The locus coeruleus (LC) noradrenergic (NE) neuromodulatory system is critically involved in regulation of neural excitability via its diffuse ascending projections. Tonic NE release in the forebrain is essential for maintenance of vigilant states and increases the signal-to-noise ratio of cortical sensory responses. The impact of phasic NE release on cortical activity and sensory processing is less explored. We previously reported that LC microstimulation caused a transient desynchronization of population activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), similar to noxious somatosensory stimuli. The LC receives nociceptive information from the medulla and therefore may mediate sensory signaling to its forebrain targets. Here we performed extracellular recordings in LC and mPFC while presenting noxious stimuli in urethane-anesthetized rats. A brief train of foot shocks produced a robust phasic response in the LC and a transient change in the mPFC power spectrum, with the strongest modulation in the gamma (30-90 Hz) range. The LC phasic response preceded prefrontal gamma power increase, and cortical modulation was proportional to the LC excitation. We also quantitatively characterized distinct cortical states and showed that sensory responses in both LC and mPFC depend on the ongoing cortical state. Finally, cessation of the LC firing by bilateral local iontophoretic injection of clonidine, an α 2 -adrenoreceptor agonist, completely eliminated sensory responses in the mPFC without shifting cortex to a less excitable state. Together, our results suggest that the LC phasic response induces gamma power increase in the PFC and is essential for mediating sensory information along an ascending noxious pathway. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study shows linear relationships between locus coeruleus phasic excitation and the amplitude of gamma oscillations in the prefrontal cortex. Results suggest that the locus coeruleus phasic response is essential for mediating sensory information

  12. Phasic alerting increases visual attention capacity in younger but not in older individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiegand, Iris Michaela; Petersen, Anders; Bundesen, Claus

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated effects of phasic alerting on visual attention in younger and older adults. We modelled parameters of visual attention based on the computational Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and measured event-related lateralizations (ERLs) in a partial report task, in w...... and attention, which governs the responsiveness to external cues and is critical for general cognitive functioning in aging.......In the present study, we investigated effects of phasic alerting on visual attention in younger and older adults. We modelled parameters of visual attention based on the computational Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) and measured event-related lateralizations (ERLs) in a partial report task...

  13. Case Report on Septate Uterus: An Incidental Finding in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Case Report on Septate Uterus: An Incidental Finding in a Multiparous Woman who Had an Emergency Cesarean Section. ... Journal of Basic and Clinical Reproductive Sciences. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search ...

  14. Ultrasonography of the uterus after normal vaginal delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Bdour, Abdel-Nabi A.; Akasheh, Hakam F.; Al-Husban, Naser A.

    2004-01-01

    To define the appearence of the uterus and the uterine cavity, as revealed by the ultrasound in normal women following a vaginal delivery. This prospective, longitudinal study took place at the Prince Hashem and the Prince Ali Military Hospitals, Amman Jordan from December 2002 to March 2003. Fifty four women were scanned on postpartum days 1, 7, 14, 28 and 56. Ultrasound operation was performed transabdominally for all women. The involution process of the uterus was assessed by measuring the anteroposterior diameter and uterine cavity. The appearence of the uterine cavity content was documented. Factors related to the involution process: parity, breast-feeding, smoking and infant's birth weight were also evaluated. The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the uterus diminished substantially and progressively from 93mm on day one postpartum to 38.5 mm on day 56. The maximum anteroposterior diameter of the uterine cavity diminished from15.2 mm on day one to 4.0 mm on day 56. The position of the uterus, its shape and the appearence of its cavity during the normal puerperium was observed. The uterus was most often retroverted and empty in the early puerperium. Fluid and debris in the whole cavity were seen in mid puerperium, the cavity was empty and appeared as a thin white line. No correlation was found between the involution of the uterus and parity, breast-feeding and infant's birth weight. Transabdominal sonography is suitable for examination of the uterus during the early puerperium period. The uterine body and position, as well as the cavity, are easy to examine by ultrasound. Accumulation of fluid and debris in the uterine cavity is a common and insignificant finding of the invluting uterus. (author)

  15. Behavioral and Brain Measures of Phasic Alerting Effects on Visual Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, Iris; Petersen, Anders; Finke, Kathrin; Bundesen, Claus; Lansner, Jon; Habekost, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated effects of phasic alerting on visual attention in a partial report task, in which half of the displays were preceded by an auditory warning cue. Based on the computational Theory of Visual Attention (TVA), we estimated parameters of spatial and non-spatial aspects of visual attention and measured event-related lateralizations (ERLs) over visual processing areas. We found that the TVA parameter sensory effectiveness a , which is thought to reflect visual processing capacity, significantly increased with phasic alerting. By contrast, the distribution of visual processing resources according to task relevance and spatial position, as quantified in parameters top-down control α and spatial bias w index , was not modulated by phasic alerting. On the electrophysiological level, the latencies of ERLs in response to the task displays were reduced following the warning cue. These results suggest that phasic alerting facilitates visual processing in a general, unselective manner and that this effect originates in early stages of visual information processing.

  16. Phasic spike patterning in rat supraoptic neurones in vivo and in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatier, Nancy; Brown, Colin H; Ludwig, Mike; Leng, Gareth

    2004-01-01

    In vivo, most vasopressin cells of the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus fire action potentials in a ‘phasic’ pattern when the systemic osmotic pressure is elevated, while most oxytocin cells fire continuously. The phasic firing pattern is believed to arise as a consequence of intrinsic activity-dependent changes in membrane potential, and these have been extensively studied in vitro. Here we analysed the discharge patterning of supraoptic nucleus neurones in vivo, to infer the characteristics of the post-spike sequence of hyperpolarization and depolarization from the observed spike patterning. We then compared patterning in phasic cells in vivo and in vitro, and we found systematic differences in the interspike interval distributions, and in other statistical parameters that characterized activity patterns within bursts. Analysis of hazard functions (probability of spike initiation as a function of time since the preceding spike) revealed that phasic firing in vitro appears consistent with a regenerative process arising from a relatively slow, late depolarizing afterpotential that approaches or exceeds spike threshold. By contrast, in vivo activity appears to be dominated by stochastic rather than deterministic mechanisms, and appears consistent with a relatively early and fast depolarizing afterpotential that modulates the probability that random synaptic input exceeds spike threshold. Despite superficial similarities in the phasic firing patterns observed in vivo and in vitro, there are thus fundamental differences in the underlying mechanisms. PMID:15146047

  17. The Aversive Agent Lithium Chloride Suppresses Phasic Dopamine Release Through Central GLP-1 Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Chartoff, Elena H; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2016-02-01

    Unconditioned rewarding stimuli evoke phasic increases in dopamine concentration in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) while discrete aversive stimuli elicit pauses in dopamine neuron firing and reductions in NAc dopamine concentration. The unconditioned effects of more prolonged aversive states on dopamine release dynamics are not well understood and are investigated here using the malaise-inducing agent lithium chloride (LiCl). We used fast-scan cyclic voltammetry to measure phasic increases in NAc dopamine resulting from electrical stimulation of dopamine cell bodies in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Systemic LiCl injection reduced electrically evoked dopamine release in the NAc of both anesthetized and awake rats. As some behavioral effects of LiCl appear to be mediated through glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation, we hypothesized that the suppression of phasic dopamine by LiCl is GLP-1R dependent. Indeed, peripheral pretreatment with the GLP-1R antagonist exendin-9 (Ex-9) potently attenuated the LiCl-induced suppression of dopamine. Pretreatment with Ex-9 did not, however, affect the suppression of phasic dopamine release by the kappa-opioid receptor agonist, salvinorin A, supporting a selective effect of GLP-1R stimulation in LiCl-induced dopamine suppression. By delivering Ex-9 to either the lateral or fourth ventricle, we highlight a population of central GLP-1 receptors rostral to the hindbrain that are involved in the LiCl-mediated suppression of NAc dopamine release.

  18. Alpha alumina synthesis by laser treatment of bi-phasic nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aktas, Cenk, E-mail: cenk.aktas@inm-gmbh.de [Leibniz Institute for New Materials, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Lee, Juseok; Míro, Marina Martinez [Leibniz Institute for New Materials, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Barnoush, Afrooz [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Saarland University, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany); Veith, Michael [Leibniz Institute for New Materials, D2 2 Campus, 66123 Saarbrücken (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-phasic nanowires (Al-core/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shell) are prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using single source precursor (SSP) approach. Such bi-phasic nanostructures were heat-treated using an argon laser operating at visible wavelengths. Al core seems to act as an active binder, which might decrease the inhomogeneous heating and thermal gradients. Nanoindentation method is used to estimate the hardness of the laser treated surfaces. Hardness values and pop-in behaviour in loading-curve indicate a formation of α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} with very low defect density. It is believed that Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-phasic layers exhibit a dynamic change by transforming into alumina after the laser irradiation and this leads to alteration of the optical absorption especially in the visible wavelength region. Following the full transformation to alumina, the surface reflects back the laser light which hinders inhomogeneous and excessive heating. In this context, laser treatment of Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} bi-phasic nanowires provides a controlled sintering process which can open up various applications in different fields.

  19. An integrative theory of the phasic and tonic modes of dopamine modulation in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, Jean-Claude; Burnod, Yves

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a model of both tonic and phasic dopamine (DA) effects on maintenance of working memory representations in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The central hypothesis is that DA modulates the efficacy of inputs to prefrontal pyramidal neurons to prevent interferences for active maintenance. Phasic DA release, due to DA neurons discharges, acts at a short time-scale (a few seconds), while the tonic mode of DA release, independent of DA neurons firing, acts at a long time-scale (a few minutes). The overall effect of DA modulation is modeled as a threshold restricting incoming inputs arriving on PFC neurons. Phasic DA release temporary increases this threshold while tonic DA release progressively increases the basal level of this threshold. Thus, unlike the previous gating theory of phasic DA release, proposing that it facilitates incoming inputs at the time of their arrival, the effect of phasic DA release is supposed to restrict incoming inputs during a period of time after DA neuron discharges. The model links the cellular and behavioral levels during performance of a working memory task. It allows us to understand why a critical range of DA D1 receptors stimulation is required for optimal working memory performance and how D1 receptor agonists (respectively antagonists) increase perseverations (respectively distractability). Finally, the model leads to several testable predictions, including that the PFC regulates DA neurons firing rate to adapt to the delay of the task and that increase in tonic DA release may either improve or decrease performance, depending on the level of DA receptors stimulation at the beginning of the task.

  20. Uterus unicornis and pregnancy in two feline littermates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson C Brookshire

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Case series summary A queen, tom and four 1-year-old female offspring presented for routine neuter. Two of the littermates (cats 1 and 2 were diagnosed with a uterine abnormality during surgery. The left uterine horn of both cats appeared as a thin, solid, cord-like structure, whereas the right uterine horn of both cats appeared to have intermittent bulges consistent with pregnancy. The two other littermates, queen and tom were reproductively normal. The uteruses of the affected cats were nearly identical with a gross and histopathologic diagnosis of uterus unicornis with concurrent pregnancy. Ovaries were present, bilaterally. An oviduct was present only on the single normally developed and pregnant uterine horn in both cats. At a postoperative follow-up evaluation, abdominal ultrasound was performed on the two cats with uterine abnormalities. Cat 1 was ultrasonographically within normal limits. Cat 2 was diagnosed with ipsilateral renal agenesis on the same side as the absent uterine horn. Relevance and novel information The complexity of uterus unicornis and renal aplasia is demonstrated by this unique presentation of five related cats for ovariohysterectomy. This report raises questions regarding the genetic, environmental, hormonal or other underlying causes of this anatomic abnormality in cats that may spur additional research. This is the first publication describing uterus unicornis in gravid feline littermates, with one of the cats having ipsilateral renal agenesis. This is also the first publication to describe oviduct agenesis on the affected uterine horn in feline uterus unicornis.

  1. Uterine Tissue Engineering and the Future of Uterus Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, Mats; Bandstein, Sara; Brännström, Mats

    2017-07-01

    The recent successful births following live donor uterus transplantation are proof-of-concept that absolute uterine factor infertility is a treatable condition which affects several hundred thousand infertile women world-wide due to a dysfunctional uterus. This strategy also provides an alternative to gestational surrogate motherhood which is not practiced in most countries due to ethical, religious or legal reasons. The live donor surgery involved in uterus transplantation takes more than 10 h and is then followed by years of immunosuppressive medication to prevent uterine rejection. Immunosuppression is associated with significant adverse side effects, including nephrotoxicity, increased risk of serious infections, and diabetes. Thus, the development of alternative approaches to treat absolute uterine factor infertility would be desirable. This review discusses tissue engineering principles in general, but also details strategies on how to create a bioengineered uterus that could be used for transplantation, without risky donor surgery and any need for immunosuppression. We discuss scaffolds derived from decellularized organs/tissues which may be recellularized using various types of autologous somatic/stem cells, in particular for uterine tissue engineering. It further highlights the hurdles that lay ahead in developing an alternative to an allogeneic source for uterus transplantation.

  2. Didelphys Uterus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadi Rezai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mullerian duct anomalies (MDAs are congenital defects of the female genital system that arise from abnormal embryological development of the Mullerian ducts. A didelphys uterus, also known as a “double uterus,” is one of the least common amongst MDAs. This report discusses a case of didelphys uterus that successfully conceived, carried her pregnancy to term, and delivered vaginally without any significant complications. Case. Patient is a 29-year-old G2P0010 from Bangladesh, initially came a year prior in her first pregnancy, with spontaneous abortion (SAB. Pelvic Sonogram at that time showed a diagnosis of bicornuate versus didelphys uterus. There were no renal anomalies on subsequent abdominal CT scan. Patient presented with the second pregnancy and had uncomplicated prenatal care and did not have signs of preterm labor; fetus showed appropriate growth and the pregnancy was carried in the left uterus. Patient presented at 38 4/7 wks with Premature Rupture of Membrane and underwent induction of labor with Cytotec. Antibiotics were started for chorioamnionitis. Patient had a vaginal delivery with left mediolateral episiotomy and complete tear of vaginal septum. Third stage of labor was complicated with retained placenta, which was removed manually in the operating room with total EBL of 600 cc.

  3. Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rollason Terence P

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma of the uterus is a recently described rare variant of benign uterine leiomyoma. We report a case of cotyledonoid dissecting leiomyoma in a 52 year old woman who presented with menorrhagia and abdominal pain. An ultrasound scan showed a bulky uterus and a cystic heterogenous mass near the left ovary. At hysterectomy, the left broad ligament mass was removed. This was continuous with an ill-defined nodular area in the myometrial fundus. Microscopy revealed a benign smooth muscle proliferation in the myometrium that extended beyond the uterus and into the broad ligament. The lesion appeared to be dissecting the myometrial fibres and showed areas of oedema, hyalinisation and perinodular hydropic change. Cellular atypia, mitoses and coagulative necrosis were absent. The patient is alive and well 18 months after surgery. It is important to recognize this benign and unusual appearing variant of leiomyoma in order to prevent inappropriate treatment.

  4. Colonization of the bovine uterus by Candida kefyr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen Karstrup, Cecilia; Aalbæk, Bent; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    2017-01-01

    Background. While fungal infections of the bovine uterus are well-known diseases in pregnant cattle, very limited knowledge exists on the presence and significance of fungi in the uterus of non-pregnant cows. Presence of fungi in the uterine lumen of postpartum (pp) cows has been reported......, but little attention has been paid to this as most studies of the bovine pp uterus have focused on bacteria. Case presentation. Microscopy of uterine lavage cytology slides of three cows from one herd revealed the presence of numerous yeast-like organisms, which were located either free in the fluid...... pregnant and delivered a normal calf at term, while the two others were not bred. Conclusions. Candida kefyr is commonly isolated from milk of cows with mastitis, but has not been reported in association with other diseases of cattle. The infection was present as a monoculture in all three cows...

  5. Banking contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Durčáková, Klára

    2010-01-01

    Resumé - Bank Contracts Bank Contracts are an integral part of our everyday lives. Citizen and bussines entities used bank contracts very often. Despite this fact we can't find legal definition in the Czech law. Banking contracts understand contracts that are signed by banks in their business activities and obligations under these contracts arise. While the banking contracts have been widely used, in Czech law there is not too much literature and judgements abou this issue. Lack of legislatio...

  6. Phasic valence and arousal do not influence post-conflict adjustments in the Simon task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dignath, David; Janczyk, Markus; Eder, Andreas B

    2017-03-01

    According to theoretical accounts of cognitive control, conflict between competing responses is monitored and triggers post conflict behavioural adjustments. Some models proposed that conflict is detected as an affective signal. While the conflict monitoring theory assumed that conflict is registered as a negative valence signal, the adaptation by binding model hypothesized that conflict provides a high arousal signal. The present research induced phasic affect in a Simon task with presentations of pleasant and unpleasant pictures that were high or low in arousal. If conflict is registered as an affective signal, the presentation of a corresponding affective signal should potentiate post conflict adjustments. Results did not support the hypothesis, and Bayesian analyses corroborated the conclusion that phasic affects do not influence post conflict behavioural adjustments in the Simon task. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Phasic and tonic neuron ensemble codes for stimulus-environment conjunctions in the lateral entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkiw, Maryna; Insel, Nathan; Cui, Younghua; Finney, Caitlin; Morrissey, Mark D; Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2017-07-06

    The lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) is thought to bind sensory events with the environment where they took place. To compare the relative influence of transient events and temporally stable environmental stimuli on the firing of LEC cells, we recorded neuron spiking patterns in the region during blocks of a trace eyeblink conditioning paradigm performed in two environments and with different conditioning stimuli. Firing rates of some neurons were phasically selective for conditioned stimuli in a way that depended on which room the rat was in; nearly all neurons were tonically selective for environments in a way that depended on which stimuli had been presented in those environments. As rats moved from one environment to another, tonic neuron ensemble activity exhibited prospective information about the conditioned stimulus associated with the environment. Thus, the LEC formed phasic and tonic codes for event-environment associations, thereby accurately differentiating multiple experiences with overlapping features.

  8. Reduction of uterus dose in clinical thoracic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danova, D.; Keil, B.; Kaestner, B.; Klose, K.J.; Heverhagen, J.T.; Wulff, J.; Fiebich, M.; Zink, K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential dose reduction in the uterus as a result of lead apron protection during thoracic CT scans. Moreover, the distribution of the radiation dose in the uterus was determined in order to obtain information about the ratio of internally and externally scattered radiation. Materials and Methods: The uterus doses during thoracic CT were determined by measuring organ doses using an Alderson-RANDO registered -Phantom and thermoluminescent dosimeters. A 0.25 mm lead equivalent protective apron was used to shield the abdominal area. Three measurement conditions were evaluated: without lead apron, covered with lead apron and wrapped with lead apron. The uterus dose with and without shielding describes the mean value and standard deviation of all examinations and all measurement points in the organ. Results: The uterus dose by thoracic CT was measured to be approximately 66.5 ± 3.1 μGy. If the abdomen is covered with a 0.25 mm Pb equivalent lead apron in the front area and on both sides, the uterus dose is reduced to 49.4 ± 2.8 μGy (26 % reduction, p < 0.001). If a lead apron is wrapped around the abdomen, providing 0.50 mm Pb shielding in the anterior section due to overlap, and 0.25 mm Pb in the posterior section and on both sides, the uterus dose is reduced even more to 43.8 ± 2.5 μGy (34 % reduction, p < 0.001). The dose distribution when the lead apron covers the abdomen shows that the shielding is effective for the scatter radiation that comes from the anterior part. Moreover, the wrapped apron protects the uterus from all directions and is even more effective for dose reduction than the covering apron. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that protective aprons are an effective dose reduction technique without additional costs and little effect on patient examination time. (orig.)

  9. Twin Pregnancy in a Woman with Uterus Didelphys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohini Bhattacharya,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterus didelphys is one of the congenital uterine anomalies due to defective medial fusion of mullerian ducts. This anomaly is known to have poor reproductive outcome and women with this condition often have to be treated for infertility. Multiple gestation is rare with this condition. An 18 years old primigravida presenting with threatened abortion at eight weeks, was found to have uterus didelphys. She was managed conservatively, aborted one of the fetuses at 16weeks of gestation, and went till term to deliver a healthy baby by cesarean section.

  10. Automaticity of phasic alertness: Evidence for a three-component model of visual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhicheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2016-10-01

    The automaticity of phasic alertness is investigated using the attention network test. Results show that the cueing effect from the alerting cue-double cue-is strongly enhanced by the task relevance of visual cues, as determined by the informativeness of the orienting cue-single cue-that is being mixed (80 % vs. 50 % valid in predicting where the target will appear). Counterintuitively, the cueing effect from the alerting cue can be negatively affected by its visibility, such that masking the cue from awareness can reveal a cueing effect that is otherwise absent when the cue is visible. Evidently, then, top-down influences-in the form of contextual relevance and cue awareness-can have opposite influences on the cueing effect from the alerting cue. These findings lead us to the view that a visual cue can engage three components of attention-orienting, alerting, and inhibition-to determine the behavioral cueing effect. We propose that phasic alertness, particularly in the form of specific response readiness, is regulated by both internal, top-down expectation and external, bottom-up stimulus properties. In contrast to some existing views, we advance the perspective that phasic alertness is strongly tied to temporal orienting, attentional capture, and spatial orienting. Finally, we discuss how translating attention research to clinical applications would benefit from an improved ability to measure attention. To this end, controlling the degree of intraindividual variability in the attentional components and improving the precision of the measurement tools may prove vital.

  11. Impairment of GABA transporter GAT-1 terminates cortical recurrent network activity via enhanced phasic inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Simon Razik

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the central nervous system, GABA transporters (GATs very efficiently clear synaptically released GABA from the extracellular space, and thus exert a tight control on GABAergic inhibition. In neocortex, GABAergic inhibition is heavily recruited during recurrent phases of spontaneous action potential activity which alternate with neuronally quiet periods. Therefore, such activity should be quite sensitive to minute alterations of GAT function. Here, we explored the effects of a gradual impairment of GAT-1 and GAT-2/3 on spontaneous recurrent network activity – termed network bursts and silent periods – in organotypic slice cultures of rat neocortex. The GAT-1 specific antagonist NO-711 depressed activity already at nanomolar concentrations (IC50 for depression of spontaneous multiunit firing rate of 42 nM, reaching a level of 80% at 500-1000 nM. By contrast, the GAT-2/3 preferring antagonist SNAP-5114 had weaker and less consistent effects. Several lines of evidence pointed towards an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition as the dominant activity-depressing mechanism: network bursts were drastically shortened, phasic GABAergic currents decayed slower, and neuronal excitability during ongoing activity was diminished. In silent periods, NO-711 had little effect on neuronal excitability or membrane resistance, quite in contrast to the effects of muscimol, a GABA mimetic which activates GABAA receptors tonically. Our results suggest that an enhancement of phasic GABAergic inhibition efficiently curtails cortical recurrent activity and may mediate antiepileptic effects of therapeutically relevant concentrations of GAT-1 antagonists.

  12. Basal activity of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels controls the IP3-mediated contraction by α(1)-adrenoceptor stimulation of mouse aorta segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leloup, Arthur J; Van Hove, Cor E; De Meyer, Guido R Y; Schrijvers, Dorien M; Fransen, Paul

    2015-08-05

    α1-Adrenoceptor stimulation of mouse aorta causes intracellular Ca(2+) release from sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) stores via stimulation of inositoltriphosphate (IP3) receptors. It is hypothesized that this Ca(2+) release from the contractile and IP3-sensitive Ca(2+) store is under the continuous dynamic control of time-independent basal Ca(2+) influx via L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (LCC) residing in their window voltage range. Mouse aortic segments were α1-adrenoceptor stimulated with phenylephrine in the absence of external Ca(2+) (0Ca) to measure phasic isometric contractions. They gradually decreased with time in 0Ca, were inhibited with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, and declined with previous membrane potential hyperpolarization (levcromakalim) or with previous inhibition of LCC (diltiazem). Former basal stimulation of LCC with depolarization (15 mM K(+)) or with BAY K8644 increased the subsequent phasic contractions by phenylephrine in 0Ca. Although exogenous NO (diethylamine NONOate) reduced the phasic contractions by phenylephrine, stimulation of endothelial cells with acetylcholine in 0Ca failed to attenuate these phasic contractions. Finally, inhibition of the basal release of NO with N(Ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester also attenuated the phasic contractions by phenylephrine. Results indicated that α1-adrenoceptor stimulation with phenylephrine causes phasic contractions, which are controlled by basal LCC and endothelial NO synthase activity. Endothelial NO release by acetylcholine was absent in 0Ca. Given the growing interest in the active regulation of arterial compliance, the dependence of contractile SR Ca(2+) store-refilling in basal conditions on the activity of LCC and basal eNOS may contribute to a more thorough understanding of physiological mechanisms leading to arterial stiffness. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Case Report: Ruptured Uterus in a Primigravida | Ibekwe | Tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of ruptured uterus in a 30 year-old primigravida is presented. ... and reported to a local maternity where it was discovered that the fetus had a breech presentation. The attending midwife decided to attempt an external cephalic version.

  14. Bicornuate Uterus-A Case Report And Literature Review | Shugaba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An interesting case of Bicornuate Uterus which was found at Surgery for twisted ovarian cyst in a 28 year old para 3+0 woman. This anatomical delight is presented because of the dilemma it gives the obstertrician and gynaecologist in the management of infertility. This particular case had caeserian section for her second ...

  15. Small bowel obstruction following perforation of the uterus at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Unsafe abortion is an important contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To present a case of small bowel obstruction following perforation of the uterus at induced abortion. METHODS: A 36-year-old woman, presented at a private hospital, with abdominal pain and weight loss. She had ...

  16. Bicornuate unicollis uterus with left renal agenesis | Adeyinka ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of a 30 year old lady with 8 years history of 2 Infertility. Radiological findings by Hystero-salpingography (HSG) revealed a Bicornuate Unicolis uterus. This was further confirmed by Ultrasound, which also demonstrated a Left Renal agenesis inclusive. Radiological features, clinical presentation and ...

  17. Bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina | Okeke | Annals of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To the best of our knowledge, only few cases of bicervical normal uterus with normal vagina exist in the literature; one of the cases had an anterior‑posterior disposition. This form of uterine abnormality is not explicable by the existing classical theory of mullerian anomalies and suggests that a complex interplay of events ...

  18. Case Report on Septate Uterus: An Incidental Finding in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Septate uterus is caused by incomplete resorption of the Mullerian duct during embryogenesis which may alter the reproductive outcome of the patients. It is the commonest form of structural uterine anomaly and has the highest reproductive failure rate. Case Report: A 21-year-old booked G4P2. +1 woman with ...

  19. Term pregnancy in breech presentation in a unicornuate uterus: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a case report of an eighteen-year-old woman who presented at 38 weeks gestation in labour with the fetus in breech presentation. A caesarean section was performed, intraoperatively she was found to have a unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn. Term pregnancies are possible in patients with mullerian ...

  20. Onderzoekingen over de involutie van de puerperale uterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmersma, Ebbel Hendrik

    1936-01-01

    In dit proefschrift zijn nagegaan de microscopische veranderingen van de baarmoederspier na de geboorte van het kind. Uit de literatuur blijkt, dat hieromtrent twee meeningen heerschen. 1. De cellen in een involveerende uterus krijgen uitsluitend door een atrophie hun normale grootte terug, waarbij

  1. Neurotensin enhances estradiol induced DNA synthesis in immature rat uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistry, A.; Vijayan, E.

    1985-05-27

    Systemic administration of Neurotensin, a tridecapeptide, in immature rats treated with estradiol benzoate significantly enhances uterine DNA synthesis as reflected by the incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine. The peptide may have a direct action on the uterus. Substance P, a related peptide, had no effect on uterine DNA synthesis. 18 references, 4 tables.

  2. Lipoleiomyoma of Uterus in a Post‑menopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoleiomyomas are uncommon benign neoplasms of uterus and are considered to be a variant of uterine myomas. Their reported ... increased frequency of per vaginal bleeding since. 6 months and ... examination revealed no specific abnormalities, findings ... Aizenstein R, Wilbur AC, Aizenstein S. CT and MRI of uterine.

  3. Pregnancy related biometric changes in the ovaries and uterus of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP USER

    Pregnancy related biometric changes in the ovaries and uterus of the sahelian goat. AZJaji1* ... (Butterfly Brand) were used to measure length and widths of uteri and ovaries. .... Sahelian goat, being grazed in harsh climate. The uterine horn of ...

  4. Spontaneous Rupture of the Bicornuate Uterus During 12th Week of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayfun Özçakır

    2011-12-01

    uterus bicornis was diagnosed. The fetus and placenta were found in the abdominal cavity. Spontaneous rupture of the pregnant uterus generally occurs in congenitally malformed uteri like unicornuate or bicornuate uterus with or without rudimentary communicating-noncommunicating horn. It can be life threatening and should be diagnosed and treated immediately.

  5. Diagnostic thresholds for quantitative REM sleep phasic burst duration, phasic and tonic muscle activity, and REM atonia index in REM sleep behavior disorder with and without comorbid obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Duwell, Ethan J; Timm, Paul C; Sandness, David J; Boeve, Bradley F; Silber, Michael H

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, "any," and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. N/A. Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. N/A. All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  6. Contact heat-evoked temporal summation: tonic versus repetitive-phasic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granot, Michal; Granovsky, Yelena; Sprecher, Elliot; Nir, Rony-Reuven; Yarnitsky, David

    2006-06-01

    Temporal summation (TS) is usually evoked by repetitive mechanical or electrical stimuli, and less commonly by tonic heat pain. The present study aimed to examine the TS induction by repetitive-phasic versus tonic heat pain stimuli. Using 27 normal volunteers, we compared the extent of summation by three calculation methods: start-to-end pain rating difference, percent change, and double-logarithmic regression of successive ratings along the stimulation. Subjects were tested twice, and the reliability of each of the paradigms was obtained. In addition, personality factors related to pain catastrophizing and anxiety level were also correlated with the psychophysical results. Both paradigms induced significant TS, with similar increases for the repetitive-phasic and the tonic paradigms, as measured on 0-100 numerical pain scale (from 52.9+/-11.7 to 80.2+/-15.5, p<0.001; and from 38.5+/-13.3 to 75.8+/-18.3, p<0.001, respectively). The extent of summation was significantly correlated between the two paradigms, when calculated by absolute change (r=0.543, p=0.004) and by regression (r=0.438, p=0.025). Session-to-session variability was similar for both paradigms, relatively large, yet not biased. As with other psychophysical parameters, this poses some limitations on TS assessment in individual patients over time. The extent of TS induced by both paradigms was found to be associated with anxiety level and pain catastrophizing. Despite some dissimilarity between the repetitive-phasic and the tonic paradigms, the many similarities suggest that the two represent a similar physiological process, even if not precisely the same. Future clinical applications of these tests will determine the clinical relevance of the TS paradigms presented in this study.

  7. Acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion of phasic dopamine in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shnitko, Tatiana A; Taylor, Sarah C; Stringfield, Sierra J; Zandy, Shannon L; Cofresí, Roberto U; Doherty, James M; Lynch, William B; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Gonzales, Rueben A; Robinson, Donita L

    2016-06-01

    Dopamine plays a critical role in striatal and cortical function, and depletion of the dopamine precursors phenylalanine and tyrosine is used in humans to temporarily reduce dopamine and probe the role of dopamine in behavior. This method has been shown to alter addiction-related behaviors and cognitive functioning presumably by reducing dopamine transmission, but it is unclear what specific aspects of dopamine transmission are altered. We performed this study to confirm that administration of an amino acid mixture omitting phenylalanine and tyrosine (Phe/Tyr[-]) reduces tyrosine tissue content in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to test the hypothesis that Phe/Tyr[-] administration reduces phasic dopamine release in the NAc. Rats were injected with a Phe/Tyr[-] amino acid mixture, a control amino acid mixture, or saline. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to determine the concentration of tyrosine, dopamine, or norepinephrine in tissue punches from the PFC and ventral striatum. In a separate group of rats, phasic dopamine release was measured with fast-scan cyclic voltammetry in the NAc core after injection with either the Phe/Tyr[-] mixture or the control amino acid solution. Phe/Tyr[-] reduced tyrosine content in the PFC and NAc, but dopamine and norepinephrine tissue content were not reduced. Moreover, Phe/Tyr[-] decreased the frequency of dopamine transients, but not their amplitude, in freely moving rats. These results indicate that depletion of tyrosine via Phe/Tyr[-] decreases phasic dopamine transmission, providing insight into the mechanism by which this method modifies dopamine-dependent behaviors in human imaging studies.

  8. Round Ligament of Uterus Leiomyoma: An Unusual Cause of Dyspareunia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozer Birge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Round ligament of uterus leiomyoma is a rare, benign tumor of the vulva. Its incidence is not known exactly, and the mean age ranges from 13 to 70. Although clinical properties of benign and malignant diseases in the vulvar area are frequently similar, early diagnosis and treatment are essential. Local excision is recommended as definitive therapy. We present an 28-year-old female without any birth with a mass in anterior vaginal wall diagnosed as vulvar leiomyoma. In conclusion, a brief review of relevant literature emphasizes that leiomyomas are quite rare outside of the uterus but they might occur in any tissue or organ containing smooth muscle, spontaneously or parasitically after the spreading effect of an accident or surgical trauma. Clinicians should be alert especially for the diagnosis in a tissue with smooth muscle content.

  9. A Case of Torsion of Gravid Uterus Caused by Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gururaj Deshpande

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine torsion during pregnancy is only sporadically reported in the literature. Here we present a case of leiomyoma causing uterine torsion in pregnancy and review the literature on etiology, diagnosis, and management. A 25-years-old primigravida with leiomyoma complicating pregnancy was admitted in our hospital with abdominal pain and uterine tenderness. She underwent emergency LSCS (lower segment cesarean section for fetal bradycardia. Intraoperatively, the uterus was rotated 180 degrees left to right. Inadvertent incision on the posterior wall was avoided by proper delineation of anatomy. Torsion was corrected by exteriorization of leiomyoma and uterus, and lower segment cesarean was carried out safely. Prompt recognition and management of this condition is necessary for better maternal and fetal outcome.

  10. Uterus Dysplasia Associated with Cervico-Vaginal Agenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mahdavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Müllerian ducts can form upper parts of normal female reproductive system and any failure in ductal fusion may result in to müllerian duct anomalies (MDA. We present a case of MDA and a uterus dysplasia with no evidence of cervical or upper vaginal tissue. This case showes the role of magnetic resonace imaging (MRI on MDA diagnosis and urges the need for a unified reliable and practical classification more compatible with clinical practice.

  11. Uterus models for use in virtual reality hysteroscopy simulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niederer, Peter; Weiss, Stephan; Caduff, Rosmarie; Bajka, Michael; Szekély, Gabor; Harders, Matthias

    2009-05-01

    Virtual reality models of human organs are needed in surgery simulators which are developed for educational and training purposes. A simulation can only be useful, however, if the mechanical performance of the system in terms of force-feedback for the user as well as the visual representation is realistic. We therefore aim at developing a mechanical computer model of the organ in question which yields realistic force-deformation behavior under virtual instrument-tissue interactions and which, in particular, runs in real time. The modeling of the human uterus is described as it is to be implemented in a simulator for minimally invasive gynecological procedures. To this end, anatomical information which was obtained from specially designed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging procedures as well as constitutive tissue properties recorded from mechanical testing were used. In order to achieve real-time performance, the combination of mechanically realistic numerical uterus models of various levels of complexity with a statistical deformation approach is suggested. In view of mechanical accuracy of such models, anatomical characteristics including the fiber architecture along with the mechanical deformation properties are outlined. In addition, an approach to make this numerical representation potentially usable in an interactive simulation is discussed. The numerical simulation of hydrometra is shown in this communication. The results were validated experimentally. In order to meet the real-time requirements and to accommodate the large biological variability associated with the uterus, a statistical modeling approach is demonstrated to be useful.

  12. Uterus transplantation: An update and the Middle East perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randa Akouri

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Uterus transplantation (UTx is the only available treatment for absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI, which is caused by either absence (congenital or after hysterectomy or presence of a non-functioning uterus. Uterus transplantation became a clinical reality after more than 10 years of structured animal-based research. Aside from gestational surrogacy, this procedure is the only alternative for women with AUFI to attain genetic motherhood. In the Middle East, North Africa and Turkey (MENAT region, out of a population of around 470 million, more than 100,000 women of fertile age are estimated to suffer from AUFI. Introduction of UTx as an infertility treatment in this region will certainly differ in specific countries from ethical, religious and legal standpoints depending on culture and religion. The MENAT region is the cradle of three religions and the geographic area encompasses a variety of cultures and religions with different views on assisted reproduction. In light of these issues, the aim of this article is to give an overview of the research-based development of UTx and its clinical results up until today as well as to explore how UTx would fit into current infertility treatments in the MENAT region, with its existing multifaceted religious perspectives.

  13. MDCT urography: experience with a bi-phasic excretory phase examination protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meindl, Thomas; Coppenrath, Eva; Degenhart, Christoph; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Mueller-Lisse, Ullrich G.; Mueller-Lisse, Ulrike L.

    2007-01-01

    The benefit of multidetector computed tomographic urography (MDCTU) for visualising early and late excretory phase (EP) upper urinary tract (UUT) opacification has been studied. UUT opacification was retrospectively evaluated in 45 bi-phasic four-row MDCTU examinations. The UUT was divided into intrarenal collecting system (IRCS), proximal, middle and distal ureter. Two independent readers rated opacification: 1, none; 2, partial; 3, complete. Numbers of segments and percentages of UUTs at each score were calculated for each EP and two EPs combined. Results of a single EP and of combined EPs were compared by Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks. IRCS and proximal ureter were at least partially opacified in each EP in >95%. The middle ureter was at least partially opacified in the early and late EP in 85% and 93%, respectively. The distal ureter was opacified in 65% (49/75) in the early EP and in 78% (59/75) in the late EP. Combining two EPs, non-opacified distal segments decreased to 9% (7/75). Significant improvement between a single EP and combining two EPs were found for the middle and distal ureter (P < 0.03). Bi-phasic MDCTU substantially improved opacification of the middle and distal ureter. IRCS and proximal ureter are reliably opacified with one EP. (orig.)

  14. Design, Simulation and Experimental Evaluation of Tri-Phasic Piezoelectric Composite Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamez, Juan Pedro

    Piezoelectric ceramics exhibit excellent piezoelectric and dielectric properties that is the basis of practically all transducers and piezoelectric devices, but their inherent properties, such as brittleness, non-ductility and poor shapeability may limit their applications in areas such as vibration sensing, impact detection, structural health monitoring and other reinforced structures and energy harvesting. To compensate for such limitations, the 1-3 piezoelectric composites transducers have become the material of choice for many high performance ultrasound transducers since it was invented in the late 1970's [ref. Newnham/Cross]. Extensive studies on 1-3 composites have been performed since then to improve the performance of a transducer by modifying their electromechanical coupling, bandwidth, quality factor, and flexibility and by reducing or eliminating the cross talk, i.e., induced noise between the active piezoelectric elements, especially in high power and low frequency applications. These fundamental issues, their possible solutions and their wide impact underline the motivation of the current work in this dissertation report. The motivation for this dissertation was to study and provide a foundation to designing multiphasic piezoelectric transducers that could be useful for multitude of applications. The goal was to improve the 1-3 diphasic composite transducer by eliminating the cross talk between the active piezoelectric elements while maintaining and improving the figures of merit of the design. To achieve the ultimate goal, the steps outlined below were followed: i. Understanding the theoretical and mathematical modeling for tri-phasic piezoelectric composite. ii. Implement Finite Element Analysis (FEA) and simulations of tri-phasic piezoelectric composites where the different active piezoelectric material PZT-5H and PMN-30%PT is surrounded by a vacuum phase that is enclosed by a hexagonal polymer walls. iii. Propose a redesign of the tri-phasic

  15. Double uterus with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: pelvic anatomic variants in 87 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, L; Motta, F; Frontino, G; Restelli, E; Bianchi, S

    2013-06-01

    What are the anatomic variants (and their frequencies) of double uterus, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis? Most cases examined (72.4%) were of the classic anatomic variant of the Herlyn-Werner-Wunderlich syndrome (with didelphys uterus, obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis) but the 27.6% of cases are of a rare variant of the syndrome (with uterus septum or cervical agenesis), showing relevant clinical and surgical implications. The extreme variability of anatomic structures involved in this syndrome (both uterus, cervico-vaginal and renal anomalies) is well known, even if a complete and uniform analysis of all its heterogeneous presentations in a large series is lacking. This is a retrospective study with 87 patients referred to our third level referral center between 1981 and 2011. We analyzed the laparoscopic and chart records of 87 women, who referred to our institute with double uterus, unilateral cervico-vaginal obstruction and ipsilateral renal anomalies. Sixty-three of 87 patients had the more classic variant of didelphys uterus with obstructed hemivagina; 10/87 patients had septate bicollis uterus with obstructed hemivagina; 9/87 patients had bicornuate bicollis uterus with obstructed hemivagina; 4/87 patients had didelphys uterus with unilateral cervical atresia; 1/87 patients had bicornuate uterus with one septate cervix and unilateral obstructed hemivagina. This is a retrospective study with a long enrolling period (30 years). New insights in the anatomic variants of this rare syndrome with their relevant surgical implications.

  16. Electrohysterographic evaluation of preterm contractions in a patient with a unicornuate uterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van 't Hooft, Janneke; Rabotti, Chiara; Oei, S. Guid

    2013-01-01

    Women with Müllerian anomalies are at increased risk of preterm labor. The analysis of parameters derived by the electrohysterogram such as its conduction velocity are promising for preterm delivery prediction. However, an electrohysterogram has never been measured in Müllerian anomalies. A

  17. Castor oil induces laxation and uterus contraction via ricinoleic acid activating prostaglandin EP3 receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Tunaru, Sorin; Althoff, Till F.; Nüsing, Rolf M.; Diener, Martin; Offermanns, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Castor oil is one of the oldest drugs. When given orally, it has a laxative effect and induces labor in pregnant females. The effects of castor oil are mediated by ricinoleic acid, a hydroxylated fatty acid released from castor oil by intestinal lipases. Despite the wide-spread use of castor oil in conventional and folk medicine, the molecular mechanism by which ricinoleic acid acts remains unknown. Here we show that the EP3 prostanoid receptor is specifically activated by ricinoleic acid and...

  18. Treatment of surgical wounds on the uterus after laparoscopic myomectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlar Srđan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The advantages of laparoscopic removal of a myoma over classical surgical technique are shorter hospital stay, rapid recovery and less pain after surgery, as well as a lower frequency of ileus and thromboembolic complications. The surgical technique of laparoscopic removal of myoma involves four basic stages: incision on the wall of the uterus, separation of the myoma from the healthy uterine tissue, to stop bleeding and removal of the myoma from the abdomen. Apart from these four basic stages, it is also necessary to establish a new integrity of the uterine wall, especially in women planning pregnancy. Objective. The aim of the paper is to present the procedures used in the treatment of uterine wall defect during the laparoscopic removal of the myoma. Methods. We analyzed 96 patients who were indicated for laparoscopic myomectomy. All patients were divided into four groups according to the type of the technique of haemostasis and treatment of the defect on the uterine wall: electrocoagulation, electrocoagulation with application of argon plasma, a single suture and extended suture. Results. In order to stop bleeding, we most often used electrocoagulation by monopolar electricity, i.e. in 39.6% of the patients. To stop bleeding and treat the defect of the uterine wall, we used a single suture in 21.9% and in 11.4% patients we used the extended suture. The manner of uterine wall treatment did not have a statistically significant influence on the results of haematological parameters (p>0.05, consumption of carbon dioxide (p>0.05 and the duration of surgical procedure (p>0.05. The increased use of antibiotics (p<0.05 in the group of patients in whom we treated the defect by sutures on the uterus, the length of postsurgical hospitalization and absence from work (p<0.01 was statistically significant. Conclusion. To achieve a better reconstruction of the uterus, it is recommended to use sutures with laparoscopic removal of myoma.

  19. The GABAA Antagonist DPP-4-PIOL Selectively Antagonises Tonic over Phasic GABAergic Currents in Dentate Gyrus Granule Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boddum, Kim; Frølund, Bente; Kristiansen, Uffe

    2014-01-01

    that phasic and tonic GABAA receptor currents can be selectively inhibited by the antagonists SR 95531 and the 4-PIOL derivative, 4-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)-5-(4-piperidyl)-3-isoxazolol hydrobromide (DPP-4-PIOL), respectively. In dentate gyrus granule cells, SR 95531 was found approximately 4 times as potent...

  20. Development of Tropical Lowland Peat Forest Phasic Community Zonations in the Kota Samarahan-Asajaya area, West Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Tarmizi Mohamad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Logging observations of auger profiles (Tarmizi, 2014 indicate a vertical, downwards, general decrease of peat humification levels with depth in a tropical lowland peat forest in the Kota Samarahan-Asajaya area in the region of West Sarawak (Malaysia. Based on pollen analyses and field observations, the studied peat profiles can be interpreted as part of a progradation deltaic succession. Continued regression of sea levels, gave rise to the development of peat in a transitional mangrove to floodplain/floodbasin environment, followed by a shallow, topogenic peat depositional environment with riparian influence at approximately 2420 ± 30 years B.P. (until present time. The inferred peat vegetational succession reached Phasic Community I at approximately 2380 ± 30 years B.P. and followed by Phasic Community II at approximately 1780 ± 30 years B.P., towards the upper part of the present, ombrogenic, peat profile. Observations of the presence of large, hollow, Shorea type trees, supports that successive vegetational zonation of the tropical lowland peat dome may have reached Phasic Community II. Some pollen types were found that are also known to occur in the inferred vegetational zonation of Phasic Community III and IV or higher. Pollen analyses indicate that estuarine and deltaic, brackish to saline water influence may have gradually ceased at approximately 0.5 m below the lithological boundary between peat and underlying soil (floodplain deposit in the tropical lowland peat basin.

  1. The hysterographic (empty bladder) view of the uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, R.; Gombergh, R.

    1986-01-01

    Technical improvements in transducer design permit a direct coronal view of the uterus (''hysterographic view'') to be obtained with the bladder empty as a valuable complement to the usual US study of the pelvis with the bladder distended. Good visualization of the uterine cavity and wall is possible in 95% of cases. More than 50 cases of endometrial and myometrial pathology (polyps, cancers, submucous fibroids) with abnormalities inapparent on standard US scans have hysterographic and/or pathologic proof confirming the empty-bladder US-based diagnosis. If tubal visualization is not necessary, empty-bladder US may often avoid hysterography. It is also the best way to demonstrate IUD position

  2. Tamping Ramping: Algorithmic, Implementational, and Computational Explanations of Phasic Dopamine Signals in the Accumbens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Lloyd

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence suggests that the phasic activity of dopamine neurons represents reinforcement learning's temporal difference prediction error. However, recent reports of ramp-like increases in dopamine concentration in the striatum when animals are about to act, or are about to reach rewards, appear to pose a challenge to established thinking. This is because the implied activity is persistently predictable by preceding stimuli, and so cannot arise as this sort of prediction error. Here, we explore three possible accounts of such ramping signals: (a the resolution of uncertainty about the timing of action; (b the direct influence of dopamine over mechanisms associated with making choices; and (c a new model of discounted vigour. Collectively, these suggest that dopamine ramps may be explained, with only minor disturbance, by standard theoretical ideas, though urgent questions remain regarding their proximal cause. We suggest experimental approaches to disentangling which of the proposed mechanisms are responsible for dopamine ramps.

  3. Effects of dietary tryptophan and phenylalanine–tyrosine depletion on phasic alertness in healthy adults – A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hildebrand

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The synthesis of the neurotransmitters serotonin (5-HT and dopamine (DA in the brain can be directly altered by dietary manipulation of their relevant precursor amino acids (AA. There is evidence that altered serotonergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission are both associated with impaired attentional control. Specifically, phasic alertness is one specific aspect of attention that has been linked to changes in 5-HT and DA availability in different neurocircuitries related to attentional processes. The present study investigated the impact of short-term reductions in central nervous system 5-HT and DA synthesis, which was achieved by dietary depletion of the relevant precursor AA, on phasic alertness in healthy adult volunteers; body weight–adapted dietary tryptophan and phenylalanine–tyrosine depletion (PTD techniques were used. Methods: The study employed a double-blind between-subject design. Fifty healthy male and female subjects were allocated to three groups in a randomized and counterbalanced manner and received three different dietary challenge conditions: acute tryptophan depletion (ATD, for the depletion of 5-HT; N=16, PTD (for the depletion of DA; N=17, and a balanced AA load (BAL; N=17, which served as a control condition. Three hours after challenge intake (ATD/PTD/BAL, phasic alertness was assessed using a standardized test battery for attentional performance (TAP. Blood samples for AA level analyses were obtained at baseline and 360 min after the challenge intake. Results: Overall, there were no significant differences in phasic alertness for the different challenge conditions. Regarding PTD administration, a positive correlation between the reaction times and the DA-related depletion magnitude was detected via the lower plasma tyrosine levels and the slow reaction times of the first run of the task. In contrast, higher tryptophan concentrations were associated with slower reaction times in the fourth run of the

  4. Echocardiographic and hemodynamic determinants of right coronary artery flow reserve and phasic flow pattern in advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mady Charles

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In patients with advanced non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NIC, right-sided cardiac disturbances has prognostic implications. Right coronary artery (RCA flow pattern and flow reserve (CFR are not well known in this setting. The purpose of this study was to assess, in human advanced NIC, the RCA phasic flow pattern and CFR, also under right-sided cardiac disturbances, and compare with left coronary circulation. As well as to investigate any correlation between the cardiac structural, mechanical and hemodynamic parameters with RCA phasic flow pattern or CFR. Methods Twenty four patients with dilated severe NIC were evaluated non-invasively, even by echocardiography, and also by cardiac catheterization, inclusive with Swan-Ganz catheter. Intracoronary Doppler (Flowire data was obtained in RCA and left anterior descendent coronary artery (LAD before and after adenosine. Resting RCA phasic pattern (diastolic/systolic was compared between subgroups with and without pulmonary hypertension, and with and without right ventricular (RV dysfunction; and also with LAD. RCA-CFR was compared with LAD, as well as in those subgroups. Pearson's correlation analysis was accomplished among echocardiographic (including LV fractional shortening, mass index, end systolic wall stress more hemodynamic parameters with RCA phasic flow pattern or RCA-CFR. Results LV fractional shortening and end diastolic diameter were 15.3 ± 3.5 % and 69.4 ± 12.2 mm. Resting RCA phasic pattern had no difference comparing subgroups with vs. without pulmonary hypertension (1.45 vs. 1.29, p = NS either with vs. without RV dysfunction (1.47 vs. 1.23, p = NS; RCA vs. LAD was 1.35 vs. 2.85 (p Conclusion In patients with chronic advanced NIC, RCA phasic flow pattern has a mild diastolic predominance, less marked than in LAD, with no effects from pulmonary artery hypertension or RV dysfunction. There is no significant correlation between any cardiac mechanical-structural or

  5. Living Donor Uterus Transplant and Surrogacy: Ethical Analysis According to the Principle of Equipoise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, G; Koon, E C; Johannesson, L

    2017-04-01

    The uterus is the most recent addition to the list of organs that can be successfully transplanted in humans. This article analyzes living donor uterus transplantation according to the ethical principle of equipoise. A comparison is made between living donor uterus transplantation and gestational surrogate motherhood. Both are solutions to absolute uterine infertility that allow the transfer of genetic material from intended parents to a child. The analysis concludes that living donor uterus transplantation does not violate the ethical principle of equipoise and should be considered an ethically acceptable solution to absolute uterine infertility. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Polymorphic Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, João Filipe; Greenberg, Michael; Igarashi, Atsushi; Pierce, Benjamin C.

    Manifest contracts track precise properties by refining types with predicates - e.g., {x : Int |x > 0 } denotes the positive integers. Contracts and polymorphism make a natural combination: programmers can give strong contracts to abstract types, precisely stating pre- and post-conditions while hiding implementation details - for example, an abstract type of stacks might specify that the pop operation has input type {x :α Stack |not ( empty x )} . We formalize this combination by defining FH, a polymorphic calculus with manifest contracts, and establishing fundamental properties including type soundness and relational parametricity. Our development relies on a significant technical improvement over earlier presentations of contracts: instead of introducing a denotational model to break a problematic circularity between typing, subtyping, and evaluation, we develop the metatheory of contracts in a completely syntactic fashion, omitting subtyping from the core system and recovering it post facto as a derived property.

  7. Administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete understanding of the importance and essence of this institution as well as the need for its complete legal regulation.

  8. Electrical contracting

    CERN Document Server

    Neidle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Electrical Contracting, Second Edition is a nine-chapter text guide for the greater efficiency in planning and completing installations for the design, installation and control of electrical contracts. This book starts with a general overview of the efficient cabling and techniques that must be employed for safe wiring design, as well as the cost estimation of the complete electrical contract. The subsequent chapters are devoted to other electrical contracting requirements, including electronic motor control, lighting, and electricity tariffs. A chapter focuses on the IEE Wiring Regulations an

  9. Administrative contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Vukićević-Petković Milica

    2015-01-01

    Administrative contracts are a special type of contract where usually one of the contracting parties is a public law body and which is concluded for the performance of public service and the realization of a public interest. They go a long way since its inception to its eventual final acceptance of all the legal systems. One of the enduring characteristics of this type of contract is their disquised or unnoticed existence. This is why only monitoring their development may lead to a complete u...

  10. Pertumbuhan dan Perkembangan Uterus dan Plasenta Babi dengan Superovulasi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REVOLSON ALEXIUS MEGE

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty eight gilts with average body weight of 107.83 ± 5.08 kg were used in experiments to study the use of pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (PMSG and human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG as superovulation agent in gilts to increase piglet production. Four groups of twelve gilts were injected with PMSG dan hCG dose levels of 0, 600, 1200, and 1800 IU/gilt. Injections were conducted three days before estrus. During gestation, gilts were placed in colony pigpens. On days 15, 35, and 70 of gestation, gilts were slaughtered in order to measure the number of corpus luteum, growth and development of the uterus and placenta. Blood samples were collected to determine progesterone and estradiol concentrations. The resuts showed that superovulation dose levels of 600 to 1200 IU/gilt increased progesterone and estradiol secretions, growth and development of the uterus and placenta in gestation ages of 15, 35, and 70 days. It is concluded that superovulation with dose of 600 to 1200 IU can improve the gilts reproduction.

  11. Formulation of a poly herbal gel for uterus flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rezghi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Over the centuries, herbal drugs have been used as major sources of medicine for the prevention and treatment of diseases. In recent years, there has been an exponential growth in the field of herbal medicines and these drugs are gaining popularity both in developing and developed countries because of their natural origin and less side effects. The present research has been undertaken to formulate and evaluate an herbal gel for uterus flux based on Iranian traditional medicine references. Methods: An aqueous extracts of fruit peels of Punica granatum and leaves of Myrtus communis, ethanol extract of oleo gum resins of Boswellia carterii and hydro-alcoholic extract of Carum carvi fruits were obtained. The gel was prepared by using the plants extract, carbopol 940, propylene glycol, tri-ethanolamine and distilled water. Further, the prepared gel was evaluated for physicochemical and microbial characteristics. Moreover, accelerated laboratory stability tests were performed. Results: The results showed good appearance and homogeneity of the gel. It was yellow-brown in color with acceptable physicochemical characteristics. Besides, the gel was stable towards physical changes and successfully passed microbiological tests. Conclusion: The prepared gel contained tannins which are astringent agents; therefore, this product could be an appropriate candidate for disorders like uterus flux with respect to its traditional use.

  12. Potassium-induced contraction in the lamb proximal urethra: Involvement of norepinephrine and different calcium entry pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Pascual, A.; Costa, G.; Isla, M.; Jimenez, E.; Garcia-Sacristan, A.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the peculiar biphasic response of the lamb urethral smooth muscle to high K+ solutions. The relative amplitude of the phasic and tonic components of the contraction and its reproducibility were dependent on the concentration of K+ used. Only concentrations higher than 80 mM (i.e., 120 mM) showed a tonic component greater in amplitude than the phasic one and manifested a tachyphylactic effect. Phentolamine (10(-6) M), prazosin (10(-6) M) and chemical denervation with 6-hydroxydopamine significantly inhibited the tonic component of the K+ (120 mM)-induced contraction, modifying its morphology. Reproducible contractions to K+ (120 mM) could be obtained in the presence of prazosin (10(-6) M) or cocaine (10(-6) M). The preparations were also shown to accumulate [3H]noradrenaline and release it upon depolarization with K+ (60 and 120 mM). Calcium removal inhibited the K+ (120 mM)-induced contraction. After addition of calcium (0.5-5 mM) the contractile activity was restored. Nifedipine (10(-6) M) and verapamil (10(-6) M) but not sodium nitroprusside (10(-6) M) significantly blocked the contractile response for calcium as well as the phasic component of the K+ contraction in calcium-containing medium. In preparations treated with prazosin (10(-6) M) the tonic component of the K+ (120 mM) contraction was more sensitive to nifedipine and removal of extracellular calcium than the phasic one

  13. Septum resection for women of reproductive age with a septate uterus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikken, Judith Fw; Kowalik, Claudia R.; Emanuel, Mark H.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van der Veen, Fulco; van Wely, Madelon; Goddijn, Mariette

    2017-01-01

    Women with a septate uterus are at increased risk for subfertility, recurrent miscarriage, and preterm birth. Restoration of the anatomy of the uterus by hysteroscopic septum resection is an established intervention. This treatment has been assessed mainly in retrospective cohort studies, which

  14. Rupture of the gravid uterus in a referral hospital in Niger Republic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Rupture of the gravid uterus is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Methods: A review of the clinical records of all cases of ruptured uterus managed at the Center Hospitalier Regional, Dosso, Niger Republic, between January 2000 and December 2001 were ...

  15. Bioengineering the Uterus: An Overview of Recent Advances and Future Perspectives in Reproductive Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo, Hannes; Cervelló, Irene; Simón, Carlos

    2017-07-01

    Since the initial in vitro attempts to more complex models, research on uterine regeneration is moving towards the creation of a functional bioengineered uterus with possible clinical applications. We describe here the most relevant advances in bioengineering of the uterus published in the last decades considering the use of stem cells and biomaterials as well as future developing techniques in Regenerative Medicine.

  16. Mitotically Active Leiomyoma of the Uterus in a Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patient Receiving Tamoxifen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Feng Liu

    2006-06-01

    Conclusion: Endometrial cancer is rarely noted in breast cancer patients taking tamoxifen. Further, none have reported mitotically active leiomyoma of the uterus. From this case, endometrial proliferation and mitotically active leiomyoma of the uterus may be related to tamoxifen therapy, and should not be neglected in breast cancer patients.

  17. Diagnosis of uterus endometriosis in women of reproductive age using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertsalova, O.V.

    1997-01-01

    The results of complex clinical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of 103 women of reproductive age with uterus endometriosis are discussed. Uterus endometriosis and myoma can have similar clinical picture, which makes their differential diagnosis difficult. MRI is the method allowing to reveal significant difference between the diseases

  18. Torsion, infarction, and rupture of a nongravid uterus: a complication of a large ovarian cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Felix Y; Radin, Randall; Tchelepi, Hisham

    2016-12-01

    Torsion of a nongravid uterus is rare, as most cases of uterine torsion occur during pregnancy. We report a case of a large ovarian cyst causing uterine torsion, infarction, and rupture. A 57-year-old woman presented with acute-onset abdominal pain and increasing abdominal girth over the past year. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) demonstrated axial rotation and swirling of the uterus and the mesenteric fat, leading to a preoperative diagnosis of uterine torsion. Laparotomy confirmed that the uterine corpus had undergone a 180-degree axial rotation, and further revealed uterine wall infarction and rupture into the endometrium as well as partial decapitation of the uterus from the cervix. The swirled appearance of the uterus, radiologically similar to the "whirlpool sign" seen in bowel volvulus, is an important CT finding to recognize, especially in view of the risk of irreversible ischemic complications this uncommon entity may inflict on the uterus.

  19. Bacterial invasion of the uterus and oviducts in bovine pyometra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstrup, C. C.; Pedersen, H. G.; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2017-01-01

    of bacterial pathogenicity and development of lesions, have not been investigated. Bacterial invasion of the uterus and oviducts was studied in 21 cows diagnosed with pyometra at the time of slaughter by applying fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes targeting 16S ribosomal RNA of Fusobacterium...... necrophorum, Porphyromonas levii, Trueperella pyogenes and the overall bacterial domain Bacteria. Fusobacterium necrophorum and P. levii were found to invade the endometrium, especially if the endometrium was ulcerated, and penetrated deep into the lamina propria. These species co-localized within the tissue...... thus indicating a synergism. Trueperella pyogenes did not invade the uterine tissue. In addition to endometrial lesions, most cows with pyometra also had salpingitis but without significant bacterial invasion of the oviductal wall....

  20. Cystic uterus masculinus in the dog: six case history reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atilola, M.A.O.; Pennock, P.W.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic, historical, clinical signs, and surgical and histopathologic findings of six dogs with diagnosed cystic uterus masculinus are given. The condition was seen in aged dogs between 4 and 15 years (mean of 8.8 years). There was no breed predisposition, although the larger breeds were involved in this study. The predominant clinical signs were constipation, dysuria and anuria. Lateral survey recumbent abdominal radiographs coupled with negative-or positive-contrast cystography were useful in delineating the bladder and the urethra, thus revealing the smooth-contoured, asymmetrical fluid-filled viscus in the caudal abdomen. The bi-horned cysts were connected to the dorsal urethra through a short blind-ending pedicle. The nonseptic, aspermic, cystic fluid averaged 146.7 ml (range of 100–200 ml). The predominant epithelial lining cells seen were simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar

  1. Basic studies on the human uterus by magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuzawa, Michio

    1990-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze characteristic features of the human uterus by using a 0.5 Tesla super-conducting magnet. Relative square ratios of the endometrium and the junctional zone to the uterine body were measured during menstrual cycle with a computed image analyser. Nine healthy volunteers aged 21 to 30 years underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the proliferative, secretory, and menstrual phases. Relaxation times of the endometrium, junctional zone, and myometrium were determined. The relative ratio of the endometrium to the uterine body was 13.8% in the proliferative phase, 17.9% in the secretory phase, and 8.0% in the menstrual phase. The ratio of the junctional zone decreased from 26.6% in the proliferative phase to 23.4% in the secretory phase, and increased to 35.0% in the menstrual phase. Relaxation times of the endometrium and junctional zone were the shortest in the menstrual phase. For the myometrium, T 1 values showed the same tendency. T 2 values were the shortest in the proliferative phase. MRI was also performed in 39 patients with hydatidiform (one), myoma uteri (11), adenomyosis uteri (one), carcinoma of the uterine body (3), and carcinoma of the uterine cervix (23). Myoma nodule without degeneration appeared at low intensity, and had the shortest T 1 and T 2 values. Myoma uteri with degeneration had an increased intensity and larger T 1 and T 2 values. Adenomyosis uteri showed a diffuse low intensity with high intensity spots. Malignant lesions of both the uterine body and cervix showed a high intensity on T 2 -weighted image and similar T 1 and T 2 values. These T 1 and T 2 values were, however, shorter than tissue of unmarried normal women. MRI was considered useful for the observation of menstrual cyclic and quantitative change in the human physiologic uterus, as well as for the differentiation of malignant from benign uterine diseases. (N.K.)

  2. Uterine-embryonic interaction in pit : activin, follistatin, and activin receptor II in uterus and embryo during early gestation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavert, van de S.A.; Boerjan, M.L.; Stroband, H.W.J.; Taverne, M.A.M.; Hurk, van der R.

    2001-01-01

    The mRNA expression patterns of activin A and follistatin in the uterus and embryo, the mRNA expression of the activin receptor II in the embryo, and the localization in the uterus of the immunoreactive activin A and the receptor II proteins in the uterus were examined at gestation days 7-12 after

  3. Tonic and phasic changes in anteromedial globus pallidus activity in Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelashvili, Michal; Smeets, Anouk Y J M; Bronfeld, Maya; Zeef, Dagmar H; Leentjens, Albert F G; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, Vivianne; Janssen, Marcus L F; Temel, Yasin; Ackermans, Linda; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2017-07-01

    Tourette syndrome is a hyperkinetic neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by tics. Assess the neuronal changes in the associative/limbic GP associated with Tourette syndrome. Neurophysiological recordings were performed from the anterior (associative/limbic) GPe and GPi of 8 awake patients during DBS electrode implantation surgeries. The baseline firing rate of the neurons was low in a state-dependent manner in both segments of the GP. Tic-dependent transient rate changes were found in the activity of individual neurons of both segments around the time of the tic. Neither oscillatory activity of individual neurons nor correlations in their interactions were observed. The results demonstrate the involvement of the associative/limbic pathway in the underlying pathophysiology of Tourette syndrome and point to tonic and phasic modulations of basal ganglia output as a key mechanisms underlying the abnormal state of the disorder and the expression of individual tics, respectively. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Phasic dopamine release drives rapid activation of striatal D2-receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcott, Pamela F; Mamaligas, Aphroditi A; Ford, Christopher P

    2014-01-01

    Summary Striatal dopamine transmission underlies numerous goal-directed behaviors. Medium spiny neurons (MSNs) are a major target of dopamine in the striatum. However, as dopamine does not directly evoke a synaptic event in MSNs, the time course of dopamine signaling in these cells remains unclear. To examine how dopamine release activates D2-receptors on MSNs, G-protein activated inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK2; Kir 3.2) channels were virally overexpressed in the striatum and the resulting outward currents were used as a sensor of D2-receptor activation. Electrical and optogenetic stimulation of dopamine terminals evoked robust D2-receptor inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in GIRK2-expressing MSNs that occurred in under a second. Evoked D2-IPSCs could be driven by repetitive stimulation and were not occluded by background dopamine tone. Together, the results indicate that D2-receptors on MSNs exhibit functional low affinity and suggest that striatal D2-receptors can encode both tonic and phasic dopamine signals. PMID:25242218

  5. Transient inhibition and long-term facilitation of locomotion by phasic optogenetic activation of serotonin neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, Patrícia A; Lottem, Eran; Banerjee, Dhruba; Machado, Ana S; Carey, Megan R; Mainen, Zachary F

    2017-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) is associated with mood and motivation but the function of endogenous 5-HT remains controversial. Here, we studied the impact of phasic optogenetic activation of 5-HT neurons in mice over time scales from seconds to weeks. We found that activating dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT neurons induced a strong suppression of spontaneous locomotor behavior in the open field with rapid kinetics (onset ≤1 s). Inhibition of locomotion was independent of measures of anxiety or motor impairment and could be overcome by strong motivational drive. Repetitive place-contingent pairing of activation caused neither place preference nor aversion. However, repeated 15 min daily stimulation caused a persistent increase in spontaneous locomotion to emerge over three weeks. These results show that 5-HT transients have strong and opposing short and long-term effects on motor behavior that appear to arise from effects on the underlying factors that motivate actions. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20975.001 PMID:28193320

  6. First calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Leigh R.; Zalupski, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the work performed to meet FCR and D level 2 milestone M21SW050201, 'Complete the first calorimetric determination of heat of extraction of 248Cm in a bi-phasic system'. This work was carried out under the auspices of the Thermodynamics and Kinetics FCR and D work package. To complement previous work undertaken under this work package we have extended out heat of extraction studies by di-2-ethyl-hexyl-phosphoric acid to curium. This report also details the heat of extraction of samarium in the same system. This work was performed to not only test the methodology but also to check for consistency with the heats of extraction obtained with those in the prior literature. The heat of extraction for samarium that was obtained in this study was -9.6 kJ mol-1, which is in reasonable agreement with the previously obtained value of -10.9 kJ mol-1. The curium heat of extraction was performed under two sets of conditions and the obtained heats of extraction were in reasonable agreement with each other at -16.0 ± 1.1 and -16.8 ± 1.5 kJ mol-1.

  7. The inhibitory effect of tiamulin on high K(+)-induced contraction in guinea pig intestinal smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajyo, S; Fukui, T; Hara, Y; Shimizu, K; Urakawa, N

    1991-12-01

    Tiamulin with an IC50 of 1.7 x 10(-6) M inhibited both the rapid and sustained contractions induced by hyperosmotically added 60 mM K+ (Hyper 60 K+) without changing the membrane potential in the intestinal muscle. Tiamulin inhibition (2 x 10(-6)-2 x 10(-5) M) of the Ca(2+)-induced contraction in depolarized muscle was competitively antagonized by raising external Ca2+. Tiamulin (2 x 10(-5) M) slightly affected the Hyper 60 K(+)-induced phasic contraction under hypoxia and the carbachol-induced phasic contraction. Moreover, tiamulin (2 x 10(-5) M) inhibited the Hyper 60 K(+)-induced contraction with decreasing [Ca2+]cyt level. Although the inhibitory effect of 10(-7)-10(-5) M monesin, an inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration, on the Hyper 60 K(+)-induced contraction was reduced under hypoxia, the effect of tiamulin (2 x 10(-7)-2 x 10(-4) M) was not modified. Tiamulin changed neither the intracellular Na+ and K+ content of the depolarized muscle nor the Ca(2+)-induced contraction in the chemically skinned preparations. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of tiamulin on the Hyper 60 K(+)-induced tonic contraction is possibly due to the competitive inhibition of Ca2+ entry through the voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel of the intestinal smooth muscle cell.

  8. Contract Renewal Information - all Contracts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Portfolio datasets (section 8 contracts) - The information has been compiled from multiple data sources within FHA or its contractors. HUD oversees more...

  9. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    OpenAIRE

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories are largely irreconcilable with the contract law of the EU. The paper further addresses the main implications of this mismatch, both for contract theory and for EU contract law. It suggests that in...

  10. Distinct phasic and sustained brain responses and connectivity of amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis during threat anticipation in panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkmann, L; Buff, C; Feldker, K; Tupak, S V; Becker, M P I; Herrmann, M J; Straube, T

    2017-11-01

    Panic disorder (PD) patients are constantly concerned about future panic attacks and exhibit general hypersensitivity to unpredictable threat. We aimed to reveal phasic and sustained brain responses and functional connectivity of the amygdala and the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) during threat anticipation in PD. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we investigated 17 PD patients and 19 healthy controls (HC) during anticipation of temporally unpredictable aversive and neutral sounds. We used a phasic and sustained analysis model to disentangle temporally dissociable brain activations. PD patients compared with HC showed phasic amygdala and sustained BNST responses during anticipation of aversive v. neutral stimuli. Furthermore, increased phasic activation was observed in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Insula and PFC also showed sustained activation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed partly distinct phasic and sustained networks. We demonstrate a role for the BNST during unpredictable threat anticipation in PD and provide first evidence for dissociation between phasic amygdala and sustained BNST activation and their functional connectivity. In line with a hypersensitivity to uncertainty in PD, our results suggest time-dependent involvement of brain regions related to fear and anxiety.

  11. Agile Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene

    2014-01-01

    with “endless” re-negotiation of the requirements; you need a more flexible way to develop IS. A new way of coping with many changes is to use an agile development approach and a fixed budget and resources contract. This paper presents an example case. We analyse the case and design a guideline for how......When you have stable and non-ambiguous requirements then a classic contract for IS between a supplier and a public sector institution based on a requirements specification may be well suited. However, if you have to accept many changes or have ambiguous requirements then you may end up...... to implement a fixed budget and resources contract in the public sector. The guideline includes elements to cope with challenges in a tender process such as transparency, criteria for supplier selection, and live assessment of resource skills and capabilities, as well as achieving the flexibility for change...

  12. Turnkey contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langetepe, G.

    1977-01-01

    To make energy available economically and in sufficient quantity is a main point for the future of an industrial and more for a developing country. The investment costs and the availability of a power plant and in particular for a nuclear power plant are the most significant factors in the economic operation of the plant. In the phase before signing the contract the essential decisions are made with high influence in the economic operation and the availability of the plant. A turn-key contract offers good possibilities to minimize the risks referring a) the plant quality and functionality, b) the plant investment cost, c) the plant completion date, d) the handling of the licensing procedures, e) the availability of the operation. The lecture mentions the points which are of high influence for a successful erection and operation period and which must be clarified before signing the contract between the buyer and supplier of the plant. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Disease progression and phasic changes in gene expression in a mouse model of osteoarthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard F Loeser

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most common form of arthritis and has multiple risk factors including joint injury. The purpose of this study was to characterize the histologic development of OA in a mouse model where OA is induced by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM model and to identify genes regulated during different stages of the disease, using RNA isolated from the joint "organ" and analyzed using microarrays. Histologic changes seen in OA, including articular cartilage lesions and osteophytes, were present in the medial tibial plateaus of the DMM knees beginning at the earliest (2 week time point and became progressively more severe by 16 weeks. 427 probe sets (371 genes from the microarrays passed consistency and significance filters. There was an initial up-regulation at 2 and 4 weeks of genes involved in morphogenesis, differentiation, and development, including growth factor and matrix genes, as well as transcription factors including Atf2, Creb3l1, and Erg. Most genes were off or down-regulated at 8 weeks with the most highly down-regulated genes involved in cell division and the cytoskeleton. Gene expression increased at 16 weeks, in particular extracellular matrix genes including Prelp, Col3a1 and fibromodulin. Immunostaining revealed the presence of these three proteins in cartilage and soft tissues including ligaments as well as in the fibrocartilage covering osteophytes. The results support a phasic development of OA with early matrix remodeling and transcriptional activity followed by a more quiescent period that is not maintained. This implies that the response to an OA intervention will depend on the timing of the intervention. The quiescent period at 8 weeks may be due to the maturation of the osteophytes which are thought to temporarily stabilize the joint.

  14. Characteristic phasic evolution of convulsive seizure in PCDH19-related epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Hiroko; Imai, Katsumi; Ikeda, Hitoshi; Shigematsu, Hideo; Takahashi, Yukitoshi; Inoue, Yushi; Higurashi, Norimichi; Hirose, Shinichi

    2016-03-01

    PCDH19-related epilepsy is a genetic disorder that was first described in 1971, then referred to as "epilepsy and mental retardation limited to females". PCDH19 has recently been identified as the responsible gene, but a detailed characterization of the seizure manifestation based on video-EEG recording is still limited. The purpose of this study was to elucidate features of the seizure semiology in children with PCDH19-related epilepsy. To do this, ictal video-EEG recordings of 26 convulsive seizures in three girls with PCDH19-related epilepsy were analysed. All seizures occurred in clusters, mainly during sleep accompanied by fever. The motor manifestations consisted of six sequential phases: "jerk", "reactive", "mild tonic", "fluttering", "mild clonic", and "postictal". Some phases were brief or lacking in some seizures, whereas others were long or pronounced. In the reactive phase, the patients looked fearful or startled with sudden jerks and turned over reactively. The tonic and clonic components were less intense compared with those of typical tonic-clonic seizures in other types of epilepsy. The fluttering phase was characterised initially by asymmetric, less rhythmic, and less synchronous tremulous movement and was then followed by the subtle clonic phase. Subtle oral automatism was observed in the postictal phase. The reactive, mild tonic, fluttering and mild clonic phases were most characteristic of seizures of PCDH19-related epilepsy. Ictal EEG started bilaterally and was symmetric in some patients but asymmetric in others. It showed asymmetric rhythmic discharges in some seizures at later phases. The electroclinical pattern of the phasic evolution of convulsive seizure suggests a focal onset seizure with secondary generalisation. Based on our findings, we propose that the six unique sequential phases in convulsive seizures suggest the diagnosis of PCDH19-related epilepsy when occurring in clusters with or without high fever in girls. [Published with

  15. Congenital absence of the vagina with a functioning uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Yasuo; Naito, Mariko; Noda, Yoichi; Ozasa, Hiroshi; Mori, Takahide

    1986-01-01

    A functioning uterus may be present in 5 to 10 % of the patients with congenital absence of the vagina. The proper treatment for these patients depends on accurate pre-operative diagnosis on whether or not a cervix is present, because the mode of operation should be selected according to the type of abnormality. Ultrasonography or X-ray CT scan will not always be useful to answer this question. We encountered a 15-year-old female with cyclic lower abdominal pain and the failure of onset of menstruation. The external genitalia were normal except for the absence of the vaginal opening. Ultrasonography and X-ray CT scan revealed the presence of both uterine corpus and hematocolpos, but no definite findings were obtained on the integrity of the cervix. By using NMR-CT scan, we found a hematocolpos, properly developed uterine cervix and corpus above it. We treated the patient by preserving the uterine function and the potential for pregnancy in the future. NMR-CT scan seems more useful in some cases for diagnosis of pelvic mass than ultrasonography and X-ray CT scan. (author)

  16. Intrapartal resection of the bicornuete uterus for placenta membranacea percreta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sparić Radmila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Placenta membranacea is a rare anomaly characterized by failure of villous atrophy during early gestation, and 30% of cases involve some form of placental adherence. Placenta percreta is infrequent, but life-threatening condition. Antenatal diagnosis of these placental anomalies is very difficult, but essential for reduction of the number and extent of possible complications. A 19-year-old primigravida was referred to us with 31- week pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia. Upon admission, ultrasound scan revealed eutrophic fetus in breech presentation, without any signs of retroplacental clot. At laparotomy, hemoperitoneum without any trophoblastic tissue emerging to the peritoneal cavity was found and placental abruption with uteroplacental apoplexy was suspected. In addition, unicervical symmetric bicornuate uterus with pregnancy in the left uterine horn was found. The lower segment uterine section was performed and 1800 grams live baby was delivered. Delivery of the placenta was unusually difficult. It was very large and densely adherent to the posterior uterine wall, which appeared to be composed of serosa in that area only. After removal of placenta, the hemorrhage could not be controlled, and resection of the left uterine horn was performed. Placenta accreta, increta and percreta ought to be considered in all cases of uterine anomalies in pregnancy and in cases of prenatal diagnosis of placenta membranacea.

  17. Osteonecrosis due to radiation given for uterus cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morimoto, Kazuo; Ugai, Kazuhiro; Hasegawa, Kazuo; Hirota, Saeko [Hyogo Medical Center for Adults, Akashi (Japan)

    1992-04-01

    During a period 1984-1991, 18 patients were diagnosed as developing osteonecrosis after radiation therapy for uterine cervical cancer. The patients had Stage I-III. Acute pain occurred in the lumbar spine, pelvis, and/or limbs. There was no correlation between osteonecrosis and either clinical staging or the associated surgery. The most common site of osteonecrosis was lumbar spine (n=13), followed by sacroiliacal joint and head and neck of femur (5 each) and pubic bone (3). The duration from radiation therapy to occurrence of osteonecrosis varied from one to 8 years: the latency period tended to be longer for younger patients. There was correlation between radiation doses and site of osteonecrosis: 60 Gy caused more extensive osteonecrosis, involving the pelvis and head of femur, although 40 Gy confined it to the lumbo-sacral region. Osteonecrosis was sometimes difficult to diagnose: needle biopsy, in addition to imaging modalities, was necessary in 4 patients. It is recommended that patients with uterus cervical cancer treated with radiation be followed up carefully. (N.K.).

  18. Uterine conserving surgery in a case of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vineet Mishra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of cervicovaginal agenesis with unicornuate uterus is a very rare mullerian anomaly. Its true incidence is still unknown. The presence of functioning unicornuate uterus poses a great challenge for a gynecologist because a successful repair could restore normal menses and may preserve a patient′s fertility. Hence, we report a case of 16-year-old unmarried female who presented with chief complaints of primary amenorrhea with cyclical lower abdominal pain. On clinical and radiological evaluation, she was diagnosed with complete cervicovaginal agenesis with right unicornuate uterus (hematometra and hematosalpinx. She underwent vaginoplasty (McIndoes method along with uterovaginal anastomosis by neocervix formation, in order to preserve her uterus. On follow-up, her vagina was completely healed, and she was menstruating normally.

  19. Histological assessment of ovaries and uterus of rats subjected to nandrolone decanoate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerez, Juliana Rubira; Frei, Fernando; Camargo, Isabel Cristina Cherici

    2005-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of nandrolone decanoate on the ovaries and uterus of adult females rats. This drug was administered intraperitoneally, at one, two and three doses of 3 mg nandrolone decanoate/kg of body weight, respectively, in the first, second and third week of treatment. The females of the control group received a physiological solution. The rats treated with nandrolone decanoate showed estral acyclicity and there was destruction of follicular units and an absence of corpus luteum in the ovaries. In the uterus, the drug promoted morphological alterations, characterized by vacuolated epithelium and endometrial stroma fibrosis. Ovary, uterus and pituitary weights were not affected by the steroid treatment. Nandrolone decanoate affects the sexual cycle and promotes histological alterations in the ovaries and uterus of adult female rats.

  20. Effects of the pregnant uterus on the abdominal aorta and its branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohlson, L [Karolinska Sjukhuset, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1978-01-01

    The pregnant uterus was found to exert pressure upon the lumbar region with a maximum over the midline of the lordosis and diminishing laterally. Those parts of the arterial system formed by the aorta and its dorsal branches and displaceable at autopsy, were accordingly dislodged by the uterus, whereas the fixed parts were compressed. The pressure effects extended cranially during pregnancy. Symptoms of compression can be relieved by avoiding supine and prone positions.

  1. Effects of the pregnant uterus on the abdominal aorta and its branches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohlson, L.

    1978-01-01

    The pregnant uterus was found to exert pressure upon the lumbar region with a maximum over the midline of the lordosis and diminishing laterally. Those parts of the arterial system formed by the aorta and its dorsal branches and displaceable at autopsy, were accordingly dislodged by the uterus, whereas the fixed parts were compressed. The pressure effects extended cranially during pregnancy. Symptoms of compression can be relieved by avoiding supine and prone positions. (Auth.)

  2. MRI findings of cavernous hemangioma of the uterus: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ji Hwa; Kim, Ok Hwa; Park, Young Mi; Jeng, Hae Woong; Lee, Sun Joo; Eun, Choong Gi; Choi, Su Im; Kim, Gi Tae [College of Medicine, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    Hemangioma is the most common soft tissue tumor in the body. Though it may occur anywhere in the body, hemangioma of the uterus is a very rare tumor. Hemangioma is almost asymptomatic, but it is sometimes clinically important because it can cause massive hemorrhage and this is a life-threatening condition. We report here on the magnetic resonance imaging and pathologic findings of cavernous hemangioma of the uterus in a 32-year-woman with menorrhagia.

  3. MR imaging of the uterus and cervix in healthy women: Determination of normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauth, Elke A.M.; Libera, Hanna; Lange, Silke; Forsting, Michael; Jaeger, Horst J.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish normal values for the volume of the uterus and cervix in MRI based on age and the menstrual cycle phase. We performed MRI of the pelvis in 100 healthy women. For the uterus, they were further divided into two groups: one with myomas and/or adenomyosis and one without either. The volume of the uterus and cervix and thickness of the uterine wall layers were analysed by age and the menstrual cycle phase. The mean volume of the uterus in both groups and the cervix significantly increased with age to reach its peak at 41-50 years, and then dropped. Likewise, the thickness of the endometrium and the junctional zone, but not the myometrium, significantly increased until 41-50 years, and then decreased. When we compared the volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the uterine wall layers between the two phases of the menstrual cycle, we found no significant differences. The volume of the uterus and cervix and the thickness of the endometrium and junctional zone differ significantly with age, but not between the two phases of the menstrual cycle. Knowledge of MRI-related normal values can be expected to aid the early identification of uterine pathologies. (orig.)

  4. Contract theory and EU Contract Law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Twigg-Flesner, C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between contract theory and European contract law. In particular, it confronts the leading contract law theories with the main characteristics of EU contract law. The conclusion is that the two do not match well. In particular, monist normative contract theories

  5. Muscle Contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, H Lee; Hammers, David W

    2018-02-01

    SUMMARYMuscle cells are designed to generate force and movement. There are three types of mammalian muscles-skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and move them relative to each other. Cardiac muscle comprises the heart, which pumps blood through the vasculature. Skeletal and cardiac muscles are known as striated muscles, because the filaments of actin and myosin that power their contraction are organized into repeating arrays, called sarcomeres, that have a striated microscopic appearance. Smooth muscle does not contain sarcomeres but uses the contraction of filaments of actin and myosin to constrict blood vessels and move the contents of hollow organs in the body. Here, we review the principal molecular organization of the three types of muscle and their contractile regulation through signaling mechanisms and discuss their major structural and functional similarities that hint at the possible evolutionary relationships between the cell types. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, P.

    2006-01-01

    The current state of the electric power industry in Ontario was discussed with particular reference to the procurement of contracts and why the Ontario Power Authority (OPA) must be contracting to resolve many of Ontario's electricity issues. As Ontario increasingly relies on imports and natural gas-fired generation, the price of electricity continues to rise given that supply is at a low level. In addition to the generation gap, there are also several transmission constrained areas in Ontario, particularly in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The OPA announced 2 projects totalling 1900 MW to relieve congestion. According to the Independent Electricity System Operator (IESO), the total potential opportunity for new generation by 2015 is about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts. OPA is expected to launch procurement processes for up to 1000 MW of cogeneration, 250 MW of province-wide conservation initiatives, 1900 MW of generation in the western part of the GTA, and 600 MW of generation in downtown Toronto. New nuclear capacity is also anticipated in addition to renewables and conservation/demand management (CDM) initiatives. The OPA's competitive procurement processes will include requests for expressions of interest, requests for qualifications and requests for proposals. The challenge of balancing the technical complexities and realities of procuring generation assets with the need for a fair procurement process was discussed. Contracts will be designed to react to market signals and will include 3 styles: tariff style, tolling style and standard offer contract. OPA will make every effort to balance generator and ratepayer interests. 6 figs

  7. Central GLP-1 receptor activation modulates cocaine-evoked phasic dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens core.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Samantha M; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2017-07-01

    Drugs of abuse increase the frequency and magnitude of brief (1-3s), high concentration (phasic) dopamine release events in terminal regions. These are thought to be a critical part of drug reinforcement and ultimately the development of addiction. Recently, metabolic regulatory peptides, including the satiety signal glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), have been shown to modulate cocaine reward-driven behavior and sustained dopamine levels after cocaine administration. Here, we use fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) to explore GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) modulation of dynamic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) during cocaine administration. We analyzed dopamine release events in both the NAc shell and core, as these two subregions are differentially affected by cocaine and uniquely contribute to motivated behavior. We found that central delivery of the GLP-1R agonist Exendin-4 suppressed the induction of phasic dopamine release events by intravenous cocaine. This effect was selective for dopamine signaling in the NAc core. Suppression of phasic signaling in the core by Exendin-4 could not be attributed to interference with cocaine binding to one of its major substrates, the dopamine transporter, as cocaine-induced increases in reuptake were unaffected. The results suggest that GLP-1R activation, instead, exerts its suppressive effects by altering dopamine release - possibly by suppressing the excitability of dopamine neurons. Given the role of NAc core dopamine in the generation of conditioned responses based on associative learning, suppression of cocaine-induced dopamine signaling in this subregion by GLP-1R agonism may decrease the reinforcing properties of cocaine. Thus, GLP-1Rs remain viable targets for the treatment and prevention of cocaine seeking, taking and relapse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical audit of foetomaternal outcome in pregnancies with fibroid uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, I.; Habib, S.; Bibi, A.; Malik, N.; Parveen, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Leiomyoma, myoma, leiomyoma or fibroids are synonymous terms. They may be present in as many as 1 in 5 women over age 35 years. If pregnancy is associated with fibroids, it leads to multiple complications. Objectives of this study were to evaluate the maternal and foetal outcome in women having pregnancy with fibroids in uterus and the complications associated with fibroids during the pregnancy. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from March 2009 to March 2010. Data were collected on proforma regarding demographic variables, obstetrical history, mode of delivery, maternal outcome, maternal complications, and foetal outcome. Mean and standard deviation was calculated for age, period of gestation, and obstetrical history. Frequency and percentages was calculated for booking status, maternal outcome, maternal complications and foetal outcome. Results: Thirty patients were included in this study who had pregnancy with fibroid. Normal delivery was achieved in 14 (46.66%) patients. Eight (26.67%) patients had caesarean section and eight (26.67%) had miscarriages. Seven (23.33%) patients had no complications while 8 (26.67%) had miscarriages, 8 (26.67%) had postpartum haemorrhage, 10 (33.33%) had preterm delivery, and 3 patients had ante-partum haemorrhage. Two (10%) patients had premature rupture off membranes and 1 patient (3.33%) had pain abdomen and technical difficulty during caesarean section. There were 12 (40%) healthy babies. Five (16.67%) babies delivered with morbidity but recovered. There were 4 (13.33%) intrauterine deaths and one early neonatal death. Conclusion: Fibroid in pregnancy, especially multiple intramural fibroids and fibroids larger than 10 Cm, cause miscarriage and preterm labour. (author)

  9. Angioleiomyoma of uterus masquerading as malignant ovarian tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine angioleiomyoma is rare. A 40-year-old nulliparous woman presented with heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB for the past 2 years and mass per abdomen with severe dysmenorrhea for three cycles. She had received 8 units of packed cell transfusion outside. Clinical examination revealed a huge 32-week-sized abdominopelvic mass with irregular margins. Ultrasonography (USG of the abdomen and pelvis showed a large solid cystic mass on the right side of the abdomen with a well-defined hypoechoeic rounded lesion of size 5.7 cm × 5.0 cm, in the right lobe of the liver, with ovaries not being imaged separately. On color Doppler USG, there was moderate vascularity throughout. A provisional diagnosis of malignant ovarian tumor with hepatic metastasis was made. Her hemoglobin was 5.7 g/dl, and she had repeated episodes of HMB upon admission. She was transfused with 5 units of packed cells. Computed tomography (CT showed a large fundal subserosal uterine fibroid on the right side, with a solid ovarian tumor measuring 5.0 cm × 4.5 cm on the left side, with ascitis, right-sided hydronephrosis, and a well-defined hypoechoeic lesion in the right lobe of the liver, suggestive of hepatic hemangioma. Tumor markers were within normal limits. In view of discrepancy in clinical findings, ultrasound, and CT report, CT-guided biopsy of the huge mass was done which revealed leiomyoma, with no evidence of mitosis, pleomorphism, or malignancy. Laparotomy with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was done. Histopathology revealed an angioleiomyoma uterus. At 1-year follow-up, she was asymptomatic, and the liver mass was stable.

  10. Effects of a phasic oral contraceptive containing desogestrel on facial seborrhea and acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prilepskaya, V N; Serov, V N; Zharov, E V; Golousenko, I J; Mejevitinova, E A; Gogaeva, E V; Yaglov, V V; Golubeva, O N

    2003-10-01

    The combined oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol and the selective progestogen, desogestrel, in a phasic regimen (DSG-OC, Tri-merci) has been shown to reduce facial oiliness. This study was designed to evaluate further the effects of this OC on the skin of women with facial seborrhea and mild or moderate acne. This was an open, noncomparative, bicenter study in 60 healthy Russian women, aged 18-30 years, with facial seborrhea and mild or moderate facial acne, who wished to use oral contraception. All women received the OC containing desogestrel (50/100/150 microg) and ethinylestradiol (35/30/30 microg) for three phases of 7 days followed by a 7-day pill-free interval, for six cycles. Seborrhea was assessed using the Sebutape technique, in which strips of adhesive microporous polymeric film pressed onto facial sites are used to assess sebaceous activity. Acne was assessed by counting facial lesions. Subjective evaluations of skin and hair condition, patients' feelings to them and satisfaction with the OC were made using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Assessments were made at baseline, and after one, three and six treatment cycles. Sebutape assessments of seborrhea were significantly improved, on the right and left cheeks, after one treatment cycle, and on the forehead after three treatment cycles. These improvements increased steadily and were much larger at the end of Cycle 6. Acne grades were significantly improved after three and six treatment cycles. VAS scores in response to questions dealing with self-esteem and self-confidence were significantly improved after three cycles and in some cases after just one cycle. The women's views of their skin and hair (greasiness) were correspondingly significantly improved. Subjective assessments indicated that after one, three and six cycles, 69%, 93% and 98%, respectively, of women were satisfied or very satisfied with the DSG-OC. In women with facial seborrhea and mild or moderate acne, the use of DSG

  11. Detection of phasic dopamine by D1 and D2 striatal medium spiny neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yapo, Cedric; Nair, Anu G; Clement, Lorna; Castro, Liliana R; Hellgren Kotaleski, Jeanette; Vincent, Pierre

    2017-12-15

    Brief dopamine events are critical actors of reward-mediated learning in the striatum; the intracellular cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) response of striatal medium spiny neurons to such events was studied dynamically using a combination of biosensor imaging in mouse brain slices and in silico simulations. Both D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons can sense brief dopamine transients in the sub-micromolar range. While dopamine transients profoundly change cAMP levels in both types of medium spiny neurons, the PKA-dependent phosphorylation level remains unaffected in D2 neurons. At the level of PKA-dependent phosphorylation, D2 unresponsiveness depends on protein phosphatase-1 (PP1) inhibition by DARPP-32. Simulations suggest that D2 medium spiny neurons could detect transient dips in dopamine level. The phasic release of dopamine in the striatum determines various aspects of reward and action selection, but the dynamics of the dopamine effect on intracellular signalling remains poorly understood. We used genetically encoded FRET biosensors in striatal brain slices to quantify the effect of transient dopamine on cAMP or PKA-dependent phosphorylation levels, and computational modelling to further explore the dynamics of this signalling pathway. Medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs), which express either D 1 or D 2 dopamine receptors, responded to dopamine by an increase or a decrease in cAMP, respectively. Transient dopamine showed similar sub-micromolar efficacies on cAMP in both D1 and D2 MSNs, thus challenging the commonly accepted notion that dopamine efficacy is much higher on D 2 than on D 1 receptors. However, in D2 MSNs, the large decrease in cAMP level triggered by transient dopamine did not translate to a decrease in PKA-dependent phosphorylation level, owing to the efficient inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 by DARPP-32. Simulations further suggested that D2 MSNs can also operate in a 'tone-sensing' mode, allowing them to detect transient dips in basal dopamine

  12. Effect of Saraca asoca (Asoka) on estradiol-induced keratinizing metaplasia in rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Adangam Purath; Salini, Sasidharan; Sasidharan, Nanu; Padikkala, Jose; Raghavamenon, Achuthan Chathrattil; Babu, Thekkekara Devassy

    2015-09-01

    Estrogen-mediated uterus endometrium instability is considered as one of the etiological factors in dysfunctional uterine bleeding (DUB) and uterine cancer. Saraca asoca (Family: Fabaceae) and its fermented preparation, Asokarishta, are extensively used as uterine tonic to treat gynecological disorders in Ayurveda. The present study evaluated the effect of S. asoca (Asoka) on estrogen-induced endometrial thickening of rat uterus. Endometrial thickening was induced by intraperitoneal injection of estradiol (20 μg/kg b.wt) to 8-day-old immature rats for alternate 5 days. Methanolic extract (200 mg/kg b. wt) from S. asoca bark was given orally along with estradiol. Uterus endometrial thickening was analyzed histopathologically and serum estrogen level by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Cyclooxygenase (COX-2) expression in rat uterus was also estimated by Western blot. Anti-inflammatory activity of the extract was analyzed by formalin- and carrageenan-elicited paw edema models in mouse. Uterus endometrium proliferation and keratinized metaplasia with seven to eight stratified epithelial layers on day 16 was observed in rats administered with estradiol. Treatment with S. asoca reduced the thickening to two to four layers and the serum estrogen level diminished significantly to 82.9±12.87 pg/mL compared to rats administered with estrogen alone (111.2±10.68 pg/mL). A reduction of formalin- and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mouse by S. asoca extract was observed. Lower level of lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced COX-2 enzyme in rat uterus by the extract further confirms its anti-inflammatory activity. Present study reveals the antiproliferative and antikeratinizing effects of S. asoca in uterus endometrium possibly through its anti-estrogenic and anti-inflammatory properties.

  13. Retractable Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Barbanera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In calculi for modelling communication protocols, internal and external choices play dual roles. Two external choices can be viewed naturally as dual too, as they represent an agreement between the communicating parties. If the interaction fails, the past agreements are good candidates as points where to roll back, in order to take a different agreement. We propose a variant of contracts with synchronous rollbacks to agreement points in case of deadlock. The new calculus is equipped with a compliance relation which is shown to be decidable.

  14. A decentralized control scheme for an effective coordination of phasic and tonic control in a snake-like robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Takahide; Kano, Takeshi; Ishiguro, Akio

    2012-01-01

    Autonomous decentralized control has attracted considerable attention because it enables us to understand the adaptive and versatile locomotion of animals and facilitates the construction of truly intelligent artificial agents. Thus far, we have developed a snake-like robot (HAUBOT I) that is driven by a decentralized control scheme based on a discrepancy function, which incorporates phasic control. In this paper, we investigate a decentralized control scheme in which phasic and tonic control are well coordinated, as an extension of our previous study. To verify the validity of the proposed control scheme, we apply it to a snake-like robot (HAUBOT II) that can adjust both the phase relationship between its body segments and the stiffness at each joint. The results indicate that the proposed control scheme enables the robot to exhibit remarkable real-time adaptability over various frictional and inclined terrains. These findings can potentially enable us to gain a deeper insight into the autonomous decentralized control mechanism underlying the adaptive and resilient locomotion of animals.

  15. Trophic Ecology of Benthic Marine Invertebrates with Bi-Phasic Life Cycles: What Are We Still Missing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calado, Ricardo; Leal, Miguel Costa

    2015-01-01

    The study of trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles is critical to understand the mechanisms shaping population dynamics. Moreover, global climate change is impacting the marine environment at an unprecedented level, which promotes trophic mismatches that affect the phenology of these species and, ultimately, act as drivers of ecological and evolutionary change. Assessing the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates is critical to understanding maternal investment, larval survival to metamorphosis, post-metamorphic performance, resource partitioning and trophic cascades. Tools already available to assess the trophic ecology of marine invertebrates, including visual observation, gut content analysis, food concentration, trophic markers, stable isotopes and molecular genetics, are reviewed and their main advantages and disadvantages for qualitative and quantitative approaches are discussed. The challenges to perform the partitioning of ingestion, digestion and assimilation are discussed together with different approaches to address each of these processes for short- and long-term fingerprinting. Future directions for research on the trophic ecology of benthic marine invertebrates with bi-phasic life cycles are discussed with emphasis on five guidelines that will allow for systematic study and comparative meta-analysis to address important unresolved questions. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Context-dependent modulation of alphabetagamma and alphabetadelta GABA A receptors by penicillin: implications for phasic and tonic inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J; Macdonald, Robert L

    2009-01-01

    Penicillin, an open-channel blocker of GABA(A) receptors, was recently reported to inhibit phasic, but not tonic, currents in hippocampal neurons. To distinguish between isoform-specific and context-dependent modulation as possible explanations for this selectivity, the effects of penicillin were evaluated on recombinant GABA(A) receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. When co-applied with saturating GABA, penicillin decreased peak amplitude, induced rebound, and prolonged deactivation of currents evoked from both synaptic and extrasynaptic receptor isoforms. However, penicillin had isoform-specific effects on the extent of desensitization, reflecting its ability to differentially modulate peak (non-equilibrium) and residual (near-equilibrium) currents. This suggested that the context of activation could determine the apparent sensitivity of a given receptor isoform to penicillin. To test this hypothesis, we explored the ability of penicillin to modulate synaptic and extrasynaptic isoform currents that were activated under more physiologically relevant conditions. Interestingly, while currents evoked from synaptic isoforms under phasic conditions (transient activation by a saturating concentration of GABA) were substantially inhibited by penicillin, currents evoked from extrasynaptic isoforms under tonic conditions (prolonged application by a sub-saturating concentration of GABA) were minimally affected. We therefore concluded that the reported inability of penicillin to modulate tonic currents could not simply be attributed to insensitivity of extrasynaptic receptors, but rather, reflected an inability to modulate these receptors in their native context of activation.

  17. Types of contracts and contracting procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijl, N.A. van

    1977-01-01

    Contracting for a nuclear power plant can be carried out in many different ways, from a bilateral agreement between two countries to an international open bidding competition. Also the kind of contracts (turnkey, split-package or multi-contract type) are discussed with their pros and cons as well as the contracting procedures which can be followed to come to the conclusion of a contract. (orig.) [de

  18. Viable Intrauterine Pregnancy and Coexisting Molar Pregnancy in a Bicornuate Uterus: A Rare Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Krishnamoorthy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete hydatidiform mole with a viable coexisting fetus (CMCF is a rare occurrence. Similarly, Mullerian anomalies such as a bicornuate uterus are uncommon variants of normal anatomy. We report a case of a 40-year-old female with a known bicornuate uterus presenting at 13 weeks gestation with vaginal bleeding. Ultrasound findings showed a healthy viable pregnancy in the right horn with complete molar pregnancy in the left horn. After extensive counseling, the patient desired conservative management, however, was unable to continue due to profuse vaginal bleeding. The patient underwent suction dilation and curettage under general anesthesia and evacuation of the uterine horns. Postoperatively, the patient was followed until serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG level dropped to <5 mU. This is the first case of a CMCF reported in a bicornuate uterus, diagnosed with the use of ultrasound imaging.

  19. Immunodetection of Thyroid Hormone Receptor (Alpha1/Alpha2) in the Rat Uterus and Oviduct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Öner, Jale; Öner, Hakan

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immunolocalization and the existence of thyroid hormone receptors (THR) (alpha1/alpha2) in rat uterus and oviduct. For this purpose 6 female Wistar albino rats found in estrous period were used. Tissue samples fixed in 10% neutral formalin were examined immunohistochemically. Sections were incubated with primary mouse-monoclonal THR (alpha1/alpha2) antibody. In uterus, THR (alpha1/alpha2) immunoreacted strongly with uterine luminal epithelium, endometrial gland epithelium and endometrial stromal cells and, moderately with myometrial smooth muscle. In oviduct, they were observed moderately in the epithelium of the tube and the smooth muscle cells of the muscular layer. In conclusion, the presence of THR in uterus and oviduct suggests that these organs are an active site of thyroid hormones

  20. Complete imperforate tranverse vaginal septum with septate uterus: A rare anomaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The isolated, complete, transverse vaginal septum is one of the most infrequent anomalies of the female genital tract, and when it coexists with a septate uterus, it is even rarer. This report describes a case of transverse vaginal septum with septate uterus. A 12-year-old girl sought medical assessment because of severe cyclic lower abdominal cramping and pelvic pain. Local examination revealed a blind vaginal pouch of 2 cm and on rectal examination a tender pelvic mass was noted. Radiological examination showed transverse vaginal septum in the lower vagina with bicornuate uterus. Surgical resection of the vaginal septum was done under laparoscopic guidance. Hysteroscopy revealed presence of uterine septum which was resected by a resectoscope. Post-operative dilatation of vagina was done to prevent restenosis. Laparoscopic guided abdominoperineal approach is better in such a case as multiple mullerian anomalies may coexist with each other.

  1. A Rare Case of Second Trimester Uterine Rupture in Unscarred Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Kashyap

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Second trimester uterine rupture is rare and presents with life threatening emergency. Few cases have been reported in literature. Most of the cases which have been reported are with the use of labor-induction agents in late termination of pregnancy. Others are involving any surgical procedures in placenta percreta or scarred uterus. The main contributory factors were scarred uterus and abnormal placentation. In this study, uterine rupture had occurred in unscarred uterus in non-laboring women in second trimester without any intervention which is very rare to found. The lack of index of high suspicion diverts attention to search for other non-gynecological causes. Our aim is to create awareness through this case study to avoid delay in diagnosis and timely management of such cases.

  2. Torsion of a nongravid uterus with a large ovarian cyst: usefulness of contrast MR image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hiroki; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Nakahara, Kenji; Kojimahara, Takanobu; Kurachi, Hirohisa

    2007-01-01

    Torsion of a nongravid uterus is extremely rare. Most cases of uterine torsion occur during pregnancy. Here we report a case of nongravid uterus torsion with a large adnexal mass. A 73-year-old woman presented at the emergency room with acute abdominal pain. A preoperative diagnosis of torsion of an ovarian cyst was made and laparotomy was performed. The left ovary was twisted 360 degrees in a clockwise rotation, and the uterine corpus had also undergone a 360 degrees rotation. Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were carried out. Although a preoperative diagnosis of uterine torsion was not possible, it is noteworthy that in the contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance images the uterine cervix was intensely enhanced, while the uterine corpus was not. This is the first report to show the magnetic resonance imaging findings of a twisted uterus. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Evidence for P(2)-purinoceptors contribution in H(2)O(2)-induced contraction of rat aorta in the absence of endothelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, J Z; Zheng, X F; Kwan, C Y

    2000-08-18

    H(2)O(2) can contract many arteries, however the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. This study aims to test whether H(2)O(2)-induced vasoconstriction could be functionally attributed to the activation of P(2)-purinoceptors in rat aorta and to explore its possible signaling mechanisms. Isometric tension recording of H(2)O(2) and ATP-induced contractions of rat aortic rings were compared in the absence or presence of various pharmacological tools to identify their possible common signaling pathways. Both H(2)O(2) and ATP induced transient phasic contractions in a concentration-dependent manner (1-1000 microM). Removal of endothelium potentiated the contractile responses to H(2)O(2) and to ATP. H(2)O(2) (30 microM)-induced phasic contraction could be abolished by catalase (800 U/ml), but not affected by SOD (150 U/ml), DMSO (5 mM) and apyrase (5 U/ml), suggesting no involvement of O(2)(-), hydroxyl free radicals and ATP release. Also, several receptor antagonists including phentolamine, atropine, methysergide and chlorpheniramine (each 3 microM) were without effect on H(2)O(2) (30 microM)-induced phasic contraction, suggesting no involvement of typical neurotransmitter release. However, both H(2)O(2) (30 microM) and ATP (1 mM)-induced phasic contractions not only presented homologous desensitization, but also showed heterogeneous desensitization. Furthermore, the phasic contractions in response to H(2)O(2) (30 microM) or ATP (100 microM) could be inhibited or abolished in a concentration dependent manner by RB-2 and suramin (10-100 microM), two widely used P(2)-purinoceptor antagonists, with only partial inhibition by Evans blue (300 microM), a moderately selective P(2x) receptor blocker, or by alpha-beta-methylene-ATP (100 microM), a selective P(2x) receptor desensitizer. On the other hand, both H(2)O(2) (30 microM) and ATP (100 microM)-induced phasic contractions were also attenuated, to different degree, by inhibitors of several enzymes including PLC

  4. Chronic stress effects and their reversibility on the Fallopian tubes and uterus in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divyashree, S; Yajurvedi, H N

    2018-01-01

    The durational effects of chronic stress on the Fallopian tubes and uterus were studied by exposing rats to stressors in the form of restraint (1h) and forced swimming (15min) daily for 4, 8 or 12 weeks. One group of stressed rats from each time period was then maintained without exposure to stressors for a further 4 weeks to assess their ability to recover from stress. All time periods of stress exposure resulted in decreased weight of the body and Fallopian tubes; however, the relative weight of the uterus and serum concentrations of oestradiol and insulin increased significantly. The antioxidant potential was decreased with increased malondialdehyde concentrations in the Fallopian tubes following all durations of exposure and after 4 and 8 weeks of stress exposure in the uterus. Interestingly, rats stressed for 12 weeks showed an increase in serum testosterone concentration and antioxidant enzyme activities with a decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in the uterus. The antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde concentration in the Fallopian tubes of all recovery group rats were similar to stressed rats. However, in the uterus these parameters were similar to controls in recovery group rats after 4 weeks or 8 weeks of exposure, but after 12 weeks of stress exposure these parameters did not return to control levels following the recovery period. These results reveal, for the first time, that chronic stress elicits an irreversible decrease in antioxidant defence in the Fallopian tubes irrespective of exposure duration, whereas the uterus develops reversible oxidative stress under short-term exposure but increased antioxidant potential with endometrial proliferation following long-term exposure.

  5. Nontraditional facilities in the rehabilitation of women at incorrect positions of uterus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Маркова В.С.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article attention is accented on prevalence of disease and his negative influence on a reproductive health and maintenance of gene pool of nation. A concept is given about factors which influence on position of uterus in small to the pelvis. The results of own researches of women are expounded at this pathology. The mechanisms of the influence of certain means of physical rehabilitation on pathogenesis of incorrect positions of uterus. The examples of exercise-east dance elements, which in our opinion, are most effective in diseases of the female genital organs. Also a brief description of the segmental massage.

  6. Congenital pouch colon in a girl associated with bilateral atresia of cervix uteri and uterus didelphys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Rajiv; Puri, Manju; Saxena, Rahul; Agarwala, Surendrakumar; Puri, Archana; Choudhury, Subhasis Roy

    2013-04-01

    This report describes a girl with congenital pouch colon (CPC), uterus didelphys with septate vagina, and a cloacal anomaly. The girl underwent cloacal reconstruction at the age of 15 months. Subsequently, at puberty, the child had primary amenorrhea with severe cyclic abdominal pain due to endometriosis of both the uteruses and adnexal cysts with hematometra and hematosalpinx. Laparotomy with removal of both uteri and the left fallopian tube was performed. Both uteri had atresia of the cervix uteri. This report emphasizes the need for comprehensive evaluation and a long-term management strategy for associated gynecologic anomalies in girls with CPC, especially with regard to patency of the outflow tract.

  7. Phasic dopamine as a prediction error of intrinsic and extrinsic reinforcements driving both action acquisition and reward maximization: a simulated robotic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirolli, Marco; Santucci, Vieri G; Baldassarre, Gianluca

    2013-03-01

    An important issue of recent neuroscientific research is to understand the functional role of the phasic release of dopamine in the striatum, and in particular its relation to reinforcement learning. The literature is split between two alternative hypotheses: one considers phasic dopamine as a reward prediction error similar to the computational TD-error, whose function is to guide an animal to maximize future rewards; the other holds that phasic dopamine is a sensory prediction error signal that lets the animal discover and acquire novel actions. In this paper we propose an original hypothesis that integrates these two contrasting positions: according to our view phasic dopamine represents a TD-like reinforcement prediction error learning signal determined by both unexpected changes in the environment (temporary, intrinsic reinforcements) and biological rewards (permanent, extrinsic reinforcements). Accordingly, dopamine plays the functional role of driving both the discovery and acquisition of novel actions and the maximization of future rewards. To validate our hypothesis we perform a series of experiments with a simulated robotic system that has to learn different skills in order to get rewards. We compare different versions of the system in which we vary the composition of the learning signal. The results show that only the system reinforced by both extrinsic and intrinsic reinforcements is able to reach high performance in sufficiently complex conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An open-source LabVIEW application toolkit for phasic heart rate analysis in psychophysiological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duley, Aaron R; Janelle, Christopher M; Coombes, Stephen A

    2004-11-01

    The cardiovascular system has been extensively measured in a variety of research and clinical domains. Despite technological and methodological advances in cardiovascular science, the analysis and evaluation of phasic changes in heart rate persists as a way to assess numerous psychological concomitants. Some researchers, however, have pointed to constraints on data analysis when evaluating cardiac activity indexed by heart rate or heart period. Thus, an off-line application toolkit for heart rate analysis is presented. The program, written with National Instruments' LabVIEW, incorporates a variety of tools for off-line extraction and analysis of heart rate data. Current methods and issues concerning heart rate analysis are highlighted, and how the toolkit provides a flexible environment to ameliorate common problems that typically lead to trial rejection is discussed. Source code for this program may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.

  9.  Uterus Didelphys with Obstructed Right Hemivagina, Ipsilateral Renal Agenesis and Right Pyocolpos: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa Dhar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available  Uterus didelphys with obstructed hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis (OHVIRA Syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly of the female genital tract. Uterus didelphys occurs when the midline fusion of the mullerian ducts is arrested, either completely or incompletely. Women with didelphic uterus may be asymptomatic and unaware of having a double uterus. They may present with complaints of dysmenorrhoea and dyspareunia. A 25 year old woman attending the infertility clinic at Nizwa regional referral hospital presented with history of dysmenorrhoea and foul vaginal discharge with right cystic pelvic mass. She was diagnosed as a case of double uterus with obstructed right hemivagina and right pyocolpos with ipsilateral renal agenesis after routine ultrasonography in the clinic followed by MRI. Excision of the right vaginal septum with drainage of 200 ml of purulent discharge was performed. She was relieved of her symptoms and conceived promptly after the surgical excision of the partial vaginal septum.

  10. Uterus Didelphys: Report of a Puerperal Torsion and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio M. A. Cipullo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 29-year-old Para 2 was admitted to the emergency department with increasing lower abdominal pain. The patient had undergone an uncomplicated elective repeat caesarean section 7 days before being admitted to the emergency department. An emergency laparotomy revealed a uterus didelphys with a torsion of one of the uteri.

  11. Failed induction in a rudimentary horn of uterus with sacculation: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pregnancy in a non-communicating horn of the uterus, though rare should always be suspected in cases of failed ripening/induction of labour. This case revealed the significant morbidity that such patients may go through in vain attempts to deliver them vaginally. Despite the repeat Ultrasound scan and Doppler ...

  12. Incarceration of the retroverted gravid uterus: a report of four cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smalbraak, I.; Bleker, O. P.; Schutte, M. F.; Treffers, P. E.

    1991-01-01

    Four cases of incarceration of the retroverted gravid uterus are described. Typical observations were: a rather low fundal height at vaginal examination, no detectable uterine cervix, and the fetal presenting part deeply impacted in the pelvic cavity. One spontaneous correction in the third

  13. A ruptured uterus in a pregnant woman not in labor | Punguyire ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This rare case of survival after the rupture of an unscarred uterus in a grand multiparous woman from a remote village in Ghana illustrates how systemic transportation issues and limited access to advanced medical care put women with obstetric complications at risk. The usual clinical presentation of ruptured uteri and ...

  14. Spatiotemporal expression of endogenous opioid processing enzymes in mouse uterus at peri-implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Weiwei; Kong, Shuangbo; Wang, Bingyan; Chen, Yongjie; Wang, Haibin

    2016-02-01

    Successful implantation requires intimate interactions between a competent blastocyst and a receptive uterus. We recently demonstrated that the aberrant activation of opioid signaling by exogenous ligands adversely affects preimplantation embryonic development and subsequent implantation in mice. However, the underlying machinery governing the dynamic homeostasis of the endogenous opioid system in the uterus during early pregnancy remains elusive. We now show that all three major endogenous opioid precursors are spatiotemporally expressed in the uterus during early pregnancy. Moreover, we observe the well-coordinated expression of the synthetic enzyme prohormone convertases 1/3 (PC1/3) at lower levels and of its inhibitor proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 inhibitor (Pcsk1n) and the degrading enzyme membrane metallo-endopeptidase (MME) at higher levels in the receptive uterus. Both estrogen and progestin tend to reduce the uterine levels of opioid ligand precursors in the ovariectomized mouse model. This tight regulation of the endogenous opioid system by PC1/3, Pcsk1n and MME has been further confirmed in physiologically related pseudopregnancy and delayed implantation mouse models. The coordinated regulation of opioid precursor biosynthesis and metabolism helps to create appropriate opioid signaling ensuring uterine receptivity for implantation. Thus, endogenous uterine opioid levels are primarily determined by the coordinated expressions of PC1/3, Pcsk1n and MME under the influence of ovarian progestin and estrogen. Our findings raise an additional cautionary note regarding the effects of opioid abuse on early pregnancy events.

  15. Didelphic uterus with imperforate unilateral vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: Magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, R.M.; Saez, F.; Astigarraga, E.; Rodriguez, O.

    1993-01-01

    We present two cases of didelphic uterus with the clinical appearance of a pelvic mass produced by the hematometra-hematocolpos retained by an imperforate unilateral hemivagina. In both cases, this anomaly was accompanied by ipsilateral renal agenesis. We basically review the diagnosis of this disorder, focusing on magnetic resonance as the technique of choice. (Author) 10 refs

  16. Angiogenesis of the uterus and chorioallantois in the eastern water skink Eulamprus quoyii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Bridget F; Parker, Scott L; Murphy, Christopher R; Thompson, Michael B

    2010-10-01

    We have discovered a modification of the uterus that appears to facilitate maternal-fetal communication during pregnancy in the scincid lizard Eulamprus quoyii. A vessel-dense elliptical area (VDE) on the mesometrial side of the uterus expands as the embryo grows, providing a large vascular area for physiological exchange between mother and embryo. The VDE is already developed in females with newly ovulated eggs, and is situated directly adjacent to the chorioallantois of the embryo when it develops. It is likely that signals from the early developing embryo determine the position of the VDE, as the VDE is off-centre in cases where the embryo sits obliquely in the uterus. The VDE is not a modification of the uterus over the entire chorioallantoic placenta, as the VDE is smaller than the chorioallantois after embryonic stage 33, but expansion of the VDE and growth of the chorioallantois during pregnancy are strongly correlated. The expansion of the VDE is also strongly correlated with embryonic growth and increasing embryonic oxygen demand (Vo2). We propose that angiogenic stimuli are exchanged between the VDE and the chorioallantois in E. quoyii, allowing the simultaneous growth of both tissues.

  17. Case Report: Lipoleiomyoma of Uterus in a Post‑menopausal Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipoleiomyomas are uncommon benign neoplasms of uterus and are considered to be a variant of uterine myomas. Their reported incidence varies from 0.03% to 0.2%. Lipoleiomyoma consists of variable proportion of mature lipocytes and smooth muscle cells. These tumors generally occur in asymptomatic obese ...

  18. Reflections on the No-Uterus Rule: Pregnancy, Academia, and Feminist Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, Janet Hinson

    2005-01-01

    This essay relays the author's own pregnancy story to illustrate how academia traditionally reinforces the mind/body dualism by adhering to the no-uterus rule: a gender blind, antibody approach that treats persons as if they do not occupy a body in time and space. Her experience reveals the problems disembodied approaches to knowledge pose for…

  19. Treatment of the uterus cervix cancer with the JINR phasotron proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astrakhan, B.V.; Kiseleva, V.N.; Pojdenko, V.K.; Klochkov, I.I.; Molokanov, A.G.; Mitsin, G.V.; Savchenko, O.V.; Zorin, V.P.

    1995-01-01

    The methods of the uterus cervix cancer proton-and-gamma treatment for the first time were elaborated in the CRC RAMS and ITEP in Moscow and then developed for the JINR proton beam in Dubna. The results of the clinical probation of the methods for the uterus cervix cancer treatment have confirmed the advantage of the proton irradiation. The most important advantage of the proton beam treatment is absence of postradiation reactions and complications in the critical organs (bladder and rectum). Up to now 31 patients with the uterus cervix cancer have been treated at the JINR phasotron. 6 of them had proton-and-gamma treatment combined with surgical operation and 22 patients received a radical proton-and-gamma treatment (without surgery). The clinical results are in good agreement with the preceding results of the ITEP group. After receiving proton-and-gamma radiotherapy of the uterus cervix, 83% of the patients are alive without recurrences, metastases and complications. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te Liu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP, an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1 higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH level in the hypothalamus; (2 higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3 higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats.

  1. Effects of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate on the Hypothalamus–Uterus in Pubertal Female Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Te; Jia, Yiyang; Zhou, Liting; Wang, Qi; Sun, Di; Xu, Jin; Wu, Juan; Chen, Huaiji; Xu, Feng; Ye, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The pollution of endocrine disruptors and its impact on human reproductive system have attracted much attention. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), an environmental endocrine disruptor, is widely used in food packages, containers, medical supplies and children’s toys. It can cause diseases such as infertility, sexual precocity and uterine bleeding and thus arouse concerns from the society and scholars. The effect of DEHP on pubertal female reproductive system is still not well-studied. This study was to investigate the effects of DEHP on the hypothalamus–uterus in pubertal female rats, reveal the reproductive toxicity of DEHP on pubertal female rats and its mechanism, and provide scientific evidence for the evaluation of toxicity and toxic mechanism of DEHP on reproductive system. Forty-eight pubertal female rats were randomly divided into four groups and respectively administered via oral gavage 0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/d DEHP in 0.1 mL corn oil/20 g body weight for up to four weeks. Compared with control rats, the DEHP-treated rats showed: (1) higher gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) level in the hypothalamus; (2) higher protein levels of GnRH in the hypothalamus; and (3) higher mRNA and protein levels of GnRH receptor (GnRHR) in the uterus. Our data reveal that DEHP exposure may lead to a disruption in pubertal female rats and an imbalance of hypothalamus–uterus. Meanwhile, DEHP may, through the GnRH in the hypothalamus and its receptor on the uterus, lead to diseases of the uterus. DEHP may impose a negative influence on the development and functioning of the reproductive system in pubertal female rats. PMID:27845755

  2. Proteomic analysis of pregnancy-related proteins from pig uterus endometrium during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Sunghyun

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many important molecular events associated with implantation and development occur within the female reproductive tract, especially within the uterus endometrium, during pregnancy periods. The endometrium includes the mucosal lining of the uterus, which provides a suitable site for implantation and development of a fertilized egg and fetus. To date, the molecular cascades in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy periods in pigs have not been elucidated fully. In this study, we compared the functional regulated proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy periods with those in non-pregnant conditions and investigated changes in expression patterns during pregnancy (days 40, 70, and 93 using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE and western blotting. The functional regulated proteins were identified and discovered from differentially expressed proteins in the uterus endometrium during pregnancy. We discovered 820 protein spots in a proteomic analysis of uterus endometrium tissues with 2-DE gels. We identified 63 of the 98 proteins regulated differentially among non-pregnant and pregnant tissues (matched and unmatched spots. Interestingly, 10 of these 63 proteins are development-, cytoskeleton- and chaperon-related proteins such as transferrin, protein DJ-1, transgelin, galectin-1, septin 2, stathmin 1, cofilin 1, fascin 1, heat shock protein (HSP 90β and HSP 27. The specific expression patterns of these proteins in the endometrium during pregnancy were confirmed by western blotting. Our results suggest that the expressions of these genes involved in endometrium function and endometrium development from early to late gestation are associated with the regulation of endometrium development for maintaining pregnancy.

  3. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A.; Carelli, Regina M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence

  4. Cocaine Self-Administration Experience Induces Pathological Phasic Accumbens Dopamine Signals and Abnormal Incentive Behaviors in Drug-Abstinent Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddoris, Michael P; Wang, Xuefei; Sugam, Jonathan A; Carelli, Regina M

    2016-01-06

    Chronic exposure to drugs of abuse is linked to long-lasting alterations in the function of limbic system structures, including the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Although cocaine acts via dopaminergic mechanisms within the NAc, less is known about whether phasic dopamine (DA) signaling in the NAc is altered in animals with cocaine self-administration experience or if these animals learn and interact normally with stimuli in their environment. Here, separate groups of rats self-administered either intravenous cocaine or water to a receptacle (controls), followed by 30 d of enforced abstinence. Next, all rats learned an appetitive Pavlovian discrimination and voltammetric recordings of real-time DA release were taken in either the NAc core or shell of cocaine and control subjects. Cocaine experience differentially impaired DA signaling in the core and shell relative to controls. Although phasic DA signals in the shell were essentially abolished for all stimuli, in the core, DA did not distinguish between cues and was abnormally biased toward reward delivery. Further, cocaine rats were unable to learn higher-order associations and even altered simple conditioned approach behaviors, displaying enhanced preoccupation with cue-associated stimuli (sign-tracking; ST) but diminished time at the food cup awaiting reward delivery (goal-tracking). Critically, whereas control DA signaling correlated with ST behaviors, cocaine experience abolished this relationship. These findings show that cocaine has persistent, differential, and pathological effects on both DA signaling and DA-dependent behaviors and suggest that psychostimulant experience may remodel the very circuits that bias organisms toward repeated relapse. Relapsing to drug abuse despite periods of abstinence and sincere attempts to quit is one of the most pernicious facets of addiction. Unfortunately, little is known about how the dopamine (DA) system functions after periods of drug abstinence, particularly its role in

  5. The role of the placenta in the initiation of spiral artery remodelling in an early pregnant chimpanzee uterus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercruysse, L; Carter, A. M.; Pijnenborg, R

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In this study we evaluated the full extent of placental bed changes (centre to periphery) in a pregnant chimpanzee uterus, kept at the Museum for Central Africa in Tervuren, Belgium. According to placental size the specimen was equivalent to an 8 weeks pregnant human uterus. Methods...... to be a feature of the placental bed as a whole, being significantly less prominent in the adjacent non-placental bed part of the uterus, indicating an effect of the presence of the placenta. The different time-course of early spiral artery remodelling in the chimpanzee as compared to the human may have had...

  6. Bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content in astrocytes via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Qiufang; Song, Dan; Gu, Li; Verkhratsky, Alexei; Peng, Liang

    2017-04-01

    Here, we present the data indicating that chronic treatment with fluoxetine regulates Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β signalling pathway and glycogen content in primary cultures of astrocytes with bi-phasic concentration dependence. At lower concentrations, fluoxetine downregulates gene expression of Cav-1, decreases membrane content of PTEN, increases activity of PI3K/AKT, and elevates GSK-3β phosphorylation thus suppressing its activity. At higher concentrations, fluoxetine acts in an inverse fashion. As expected, fluoxetine at lower concentrations increased while at higher concentrations decreased glycogen content in astrocytes. Our findings indicate that bi-phasic regulation of glycogen content via Cav-1/PTEN/PI3K/AKT/GSK-3β pathway by fluoxetine may be responsible for both therapeutic and side effects of the drug.

  7. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    ObjectivesInconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.MethodsWe investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized a...

  8. Context-Dependent Modulation of αβγ and αβγ GABAA Receptors by Penicillin: Implications for Phasic and Tonic Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J.; Macdonald, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Penicillin, an open-channel blocker of GABAA receptors, was recently reported to inhibit phasic, but not tonic, currents in hippocampal neurons. To distinguish between isoform-specific and context-dependent modulation as possible explanations for this selectivity, the effects of penicillin were evaluated on recombinant GABAA receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. When co-applied with saturating GABA, penicillin decreased peak amplitude, induced rebound, and prolonged deactivation of currents e...

  9. Clinical evaluation of high-intensity focused ultrasound in treating uterus myomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Jingjing; Tan Yan; Wei Dong; Li Yan; Zhao Zhengguo; Gao hui; Zhang Tao

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the safety and efficacy of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) for the treatment of uterus myomas. Methods: HIFU was performed in 47 patients with symptomatic hysteromyoma, who had a childbearing history and were 26-59 years old. Postoperative follow-up was carried out. Clinical symptoms and the tumor's size were observed before and after the HIFU treatment. The results were compared with each other. Results: After HIFU treatment, the symptoms such as dysmenorrhea and hypermenorrhea were markedly improved. Some patients developed hematuria or lower limb pain, which was relieved after symptomatic management. The average volume of myoma before the treatment was (47.6 ± 24.1) cm 3 and it was reduced to (17.7 ± 13.1) cm 3 at 6 months after the treatment, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: HIFU is a safe and effective treatment for uterus myomas. (authors)

  10. Elastin distribution in the normal uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei-Qiang; Ma, Rong; Zheng, Jian-Ming; Gong, Zhi-Jing

    2006-04-01

    To describe the histologic distribution of elastin in the nonpregnant human uterus, uterine leiomyomas, adenomyosis and adenomyomas. Uteri were obtained from women undergoing hysterectomy for benign conditions, including 26 cases of uterine leiomyomas, 24 cases of adenomyosis, 18 adenomyomas and 6 cases of autopsy specimens. Specific histochemical staining techniques were employed in order to demonstrate the distribution of elastin. The distribution of elastin components in the uterus was markedly uneven and showed a decreasing gradient from outer to inner myometrium. No elastin was present within leiomyomas, adenomyomas or adenomyosis. The distribution of elastin may help explain the normal function of the myometrium in labor. It implies that the uneven distribution of elastin components and absence of elastin within leiomyomas, adenomyomas and adenomyosis could be of some clinical significance. The altered elastin distribution in disease states may help explain such symptoms as dysmenorrhea in uterine endometriosis.

  11. Levonorgestrel Intrauterine Device Placement in a Premenopausal Breast Cancer Patient with a Bicornuate Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskew, Ashley M; Crane, Erin K

    2016-01-01

    Young women with breast cancer face contraceptive challenges. Data are limited and conflicting on the use of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) in this patient population. A 32-year-old nulligravid woman with a history of breast cancer on tamoxifen presented with new-onset vaginal bleeding. Further workup revealed a previously undiagnosed bicornuate uterus. She underwent hysteroscopy, dilation and curettage, and LNG-IUD placement in each uterine horn. Postoperative follow-up confirmed retention and proper placement of both IUDs. Pathology from the dilation and curettage was benign, and the abnormal uterine bleeding abated. LNG-IUD placement in a young patient with a personal history of breast cancer on tamoxifen and a bicornuate uterus is a safe and feasible alternative for contraception. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pictorial essay of ultrasound-reconstructed coronal plane images of the uterus in different uterine pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigore, Mihaela; Grigore, Anamaria; Gafitanu, Dumitru; Furnica, Cristina

    2018-04-01

    Imaging in the major planes (horizontal, coronal, and sagittal) of the uterus is important for determining anatomy and allowing the findings to be standardized, and for evaluating and diagnosing different pathological conditions in clinical practice. Examination of the coronal plane is an important step in identifying uterine pathologies and their relationships to the endometrial canal. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound reveals the normal anatomy better and improves the depiction of abnormal anatomy, as the coronal plane of the uterus can easily be obtained using 3D reconstruction techniques. Our pictorial essay demonstrates that adding 3D ultrasound to a routine gynecological workup can be beneficial for clinicians, enabling a precise diagnosis to be made. In addition, the volumes obtained and stored by 3D ultrasound can allow students or residents to become more familiar with normal and abnormal pelvic structures. Clin. Anat. 31:373-379, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Uterus bicornis bicollis, imperforate hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DaCosta, V; Christie, L; Wynter, S; Harriott, J; Frederick, J

    2009-09-01

    We present a case of a patient with Uterus bicornis bicollis, imperforate hemivagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. This group of congenital malformations is often asymptomatic until puberty, when it presents as cyclic dysmenorrhoea, leucorrhoea or a pelvic mass. Magnetic resonance imaging is becoming the preferred modality for delineation of uterine malformations. When congenital abnormalities of the reproductive tract are encountered, a search should also be made for renal anomalies. Patients with Uterus bicornis bicollis and unilateral imperforate vagina are often seen with pain severe enough to mimic an acute abdomen. It is important to keep this unusual congenital malformation in mind in the differential diagnosis of vaginal discharge, pelvic mass and/or abdominopelvic pain in young women so as to avoid inappropriate surgical procedures.

  14. Primary Malignant Lymphoma of the Uterus: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margriet Samama

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant lymphomas in the female genital tract are rare. Most cases are non-Hodgkin lymphomas of which diffuse large B-cell lymphomas are most commonly seen. Symptoms are associated with other, more common diseases; therefore, a doctors’ delay can be expected. In this case a woman presented with complaints of urinary obstruction due to a large tumour in the pelvic area. A laparotomy was performed. A very large tumour of the uterus was found with adherence to the pelvic wall and urinary bladder. Diagnostic histological examination showed a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Treatment with R-CHOP chemotherapy was started shortly after the operation. The treatment of patients with a primary malignant lymphoma of the uterus should be individualized with the following options: surgery, radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy.

  15. Homologous Type of Malignant Mixed Mullerian Tumor of the Uterus Presenting as a Cervical Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umur Kuyumcuoğlu

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Malignant mixed Mullerian tumors are composed of a mixture of sarcoma and carcinoma. The carcinomatous element is usually glandular, whereas the sarcomatous element may resemble normal endometrial stroma (homologous or so-called carcinosarcoma. Here, we present a homologous type of malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the uterus that presented as a cervical mass. We describe a 55-year-old patient who had a cervical mass arising from the uterus. We performed total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and surgical staging (including (peritoneal washings, suspicious areas or peritoneal surfaces sampled, infracolic omental sampling, pelvic and paraaortic lymph node sampling, and appendectomy. Carcinosarcomas of the uterine cervix are extremely rare, and when a post-menopausal woman with a cervical mass is admitted to the gynecology clinic, the physician should keep in mind that the mass might be a carcinosarcoma. [J Chin Med Assoc 2009;72(10:533–535

  16. Isobolographic analysis of the opioid-opioid interactions in a tonic and a phasic mouse model of induced nociceptive pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Hugo F; Noriega, Viviana; Zanetta, Pilar; Prieto, Juan Carlos; Prieto-Rayo, Juan Carlos; Aranda, Nicolás; Sierralta, Fernando

    2014-07-15

    Opioids have been used for the management of pain and coadministration of two opioids may induce synergism. In a model of tonic pain, the acetic acid writhing test and in a phasic model, the hot plate, the antinociceptive interaction between fentanyl, methadone, morphine, and tramadol was evaluated. The potency of opioids in the writhing test compared to the hot plate assay was from 2.5 (fentanyl) to 15.5 (morphine) times, respectively. The ED50 was used in a fixed ratio for each of the six pairs of opioid combinations, which, resulted in a synergistic antinociception except for methadone/tramadol and fentanyl/tramadol which were additive, in the hot plate. The opioid antagonists naltrexone, naltrindole and nor-binaltorphimine, suggests that the synergism of morphine combinations are due to the activation of MOR subtypes with partially contribution of DOR and KOR, however fentanyl and methadone combinations are partially due to the activation of MOR and DOR subtypes and KOR lack of participation. The antinociceptive effects of tramadol combinations, are partially due to the activation of MOR, DOR and KOR opioid subtypes. These results suggets that effectiveness and magnitude of the interactions between opioids are dependent on pain stimulus intensity.

  17. Muscarinic Long-Term Enhancement of Tonic and Phasic GABAA Inhibition in Rat CA1 Pyramidal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Soledad; Fernández de Sevilla, David; Buño, Washington

    2016-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh) regulates network operation in the hippocampus by controlling excitation and inhibition in rat CA1 pyramidal neurons (PCs), the latter through gamma-aminobutyric acid type-A receptors (GABAARs). Although, the enhancing effects of ACh on GABAARs have been reported (Dominguez et al., 2014, 2015), its role in regulating tonic GABAA inhibition has not been explored in depth. Therefore, we aimed at determining the effects of the activation of ACh receptors on responses mediated by synaptic and extrasynaptic GABAARs. Here, we show that under blockade of ionotropic glutamate receptors ACh, acting through muscarinic type 1 receptors, paired with post-synaptic depolarization induced a long-term enhancement of tonic GABAA currents (tGABAA) and puff-evoked GABAA currents (pGABAA). ACh combined with depolarization also potentiated IPSCs (i.e., phasic inhibition) in the same PCs, without signs of interactions of synaptic responses with pGABAA and tGABAA, suggesting the contribution of two different GABAA receptor pools. The long-term enhancement of GABAA currents and IPSCs reduced the excitability of PCs, possibly regulating plasticity and learning in behaving animals. PMID:27833531

  18. Reduction of the pace polarization artefact for capture detection applications by a tri-phasic stimulation pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, R; Fröhlig, G; de Voogt, W G; Goethals, M; Hintringer, F; Kennergren, C; Scanu, P; Guilleman, D; Treese, N; Hartung, W M; Stammwitz, E; Muetstege, A

    2004-11-01

    This study investigated the ability to minimize pace polarization artefacts (PPA) by adjusting the post-stimulus pulse duration of a tri-phasic stimulation pulse. Adjustment of the stimulation pulse was enabled by downloading special study software into an already implanted pacemaker. Tests were performed in a total of 296 atrial leads and 311 ventricular leads. Both chronic and acute leads were included in the study. Statistically significant differences were found in the initial PPA (without any adjustment of the stimulus pulse) between atrial and ventricular leads. In addition, significant differences were observed among various lead models with respect to changes over time in the initial ventricular PPA. Successful PPA reduction was defined as a reduction of the PPA below 0.5 mV for atrial leads and below 1 mV for ventricular leads. Results show a success rate for ventricular and atrial PPA reduction of 97.8% and 98.7%, respectively. Threshold tests showed that after reduction of the PPA loss of ventricular capture can be reliably detected. However, atrial threshold tests showed many false positive evoked response detections. In addition, unexpectedly high evoked response amplitudes were observed in the atrium after reduction of the PPA. Results from additional measurements suggest that these high atrial evoked response amplitudes come from the influence of the input filter of the pacemaker.

  19. Protecting Against Child-Killing Demons: Uterus Amulets in the Late Antique and Byzantine Magical World

    OpenAIRE

    Björklund, Heta

    2017-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation examines medicinal-magical amulets pertaining to the uterus and the protection of women and children, the accompanying tradition of magical texts, and the mythology and folktales of demons believed to kill children and parturient women. The amulets and the folktales of the demons they were believed to protect against are intertwined. The amulets cannot be studied merely as archaeological or art historical objects, but must be taken together with folktales and narrat...

  20. Bakri balloon as a uterus preserving treatment of uncontrollable haemorrhage one month post-partum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnici, Mia; Markauskas, Algirdas; Munk, Torben

    2014-01-01

    In this case Bakri balloon was used to stop haemorrhage one month post-partum. The case introduces the use of this device outside usual indications. A 27-year-old woman was admitted several times with vaginal bleeding after caesarean section. She was treated pharmacologically and with curettage. ....... One month post-partum hysteroscopic removal of placental tissue was done. During this uncontrollable haemorrhage occurred and hysterectomy was considered. An attempt to save the uterus with Bakri balloon was made succesfully....

  1. Progesterone metabolism by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marrone, B.L.; Karavolas, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    Metabolites of [ 3 H]progesterone were quantitated from incubations of hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of rats during different stages of pregnancy. The hypothalamus, anterior pituitary, and a section of uterus from five rats on Days 1, 8, 15, and 21 of pregnancy were incubated individually with [3H]progesterone and analyzed for metabolite formation by reverse isotopic dilution analysis. The radioactive metabolites present were 5 alpha-pregnane-3,20-dione (5 alpha-DHP), 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one, and 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 20 alpha-diol. The major metabolite formed by the hypothalamus and pituitary was 5 alpha-DHP. In the pituitary samples, formation of 5 alpha-DHP was decreased on Days 15 and 21 of pregnancy compared to Day 1, and formation of 20 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-3-one was decreased on Day 21 compared to Day 1. In the uterine samples, 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one was the major metabolite formed at all stages of pregnancy. The formation of all metabolic products of progesterone by the uterus was increased on Day 21 compared to Days 1, 8, and 15 of pregnancy. No changes in the formation of progesterone metabolites were observed in the hypothalamic samples during pregnancy. It is concluded that there are different profiles in the in vitro metabolism of [3H]progesterone by the hypothalamus, pituitary, and uterus of the rat during the course of pregnancy

  2. CT and MR Imaging Findings of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Involving the Uterus and Pelvic Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, You Sung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Jong Sup

    2011-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare idiopathic disease and this is characterized by a proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs and in the lymphatic system of the thorax and retroperitoneum. The female genital tract is rarely affected by LAM. We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings of extensive LAM involving the uterus and pelvic cavity, and this was seen as multiple cystic uterine and parauterine masses with internal hemorrhage in a young female with tuberous sclerosis complex

  3. CT and MR Imaging Findings of Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Involving the Uterus and Pelvic Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, You Sung; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Lee, Ah Won; Park, Jong Sup [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare idiopathic disease and this is characterized by a proliferation of abnormal smooth muscle cells in the lungs and in the lymphatic system of the thorax and retroperitoneum. The female genital tract is rarely affected by LAM. We report here on the CT and MR imaging findings of extensive LAM involving the uterus and pelvic cavity, and this was seen as multiple cystic uterine and parauterine masses with internal hemorrhage in a young female with tuberous sclerosis complex

  4. Treatment of cancer of the uterus in developing countries: Proposals for a programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.B.G.

    1981-11-01

    Cancer of the uterus is one of the most common forms of cancer in developing countries. It may be successfully treated or favourably influenced by intracavitary treatment. For this therapy there are commercially available systems. Three levels of complexity (according to the equipment of the hospital) are recommended for the application of this procedure in the developing countries and the procedure for its introduction is suggested

  5. EFEKTIVITAS MASSAGE LUMBAL DAN BREAST MASSAGE TERHADAP KONTRAKSI UTERUS PADA IBU BERSALIN KALA I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ipang Suparti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Penyulit dalam persalinan antara lain adanya kelainan presentasi dan posisi, distosia karena kelainan alat kandungan, distosia karena kelainan janin, dan distosia karena kelainan his (Manuaba, 2010. Distosia karena kelainan his dapat terjadi karena sifat his yang berubah-ubah, tidak adanya koordinasi dan sinkronisasi kontraksi dan bagian–bagiannya sehingga kontraksi tidak efisien dalam mengadakan pembukaan. Kelainan his juga dapat terjadi karena his yang tidak adekuat untuk melakukan pembukaan serviks atau mendorong anak keluar. His yang tidak adekuat ini disebut dengan inersia uteri (Leveno K, 2010 dalam Atun Raudotul dkk. Upaya non farmakologis merupakan suatu upaya untuk membantu timbulnya kontraksi tanpa bantuan obat atau bahan sintetik lainnya. Dimana upaya tersebut dengan melakukan pijatan pada bagian tubuh agar merangsang pengeluaran oksitosin secara lebih alami dan aktif sehingga diharapkan tidak menimbulkan efek yang berbahaya bagi ibu maupun janin. Sampel pada penelitian ini yaitu ibu bersalin kala I di BPM Siti Sugiharti pada periode Maret-April 2016. Teknik pengambilan sampel pada penelitian ini menggunakan purposive sampling. Jenis penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kuantitatif dengan desain penelitian quasi experimental yaitu desain yang mempunyai kelompok kontrol, tetapi tidak dapat berfungsi sepenuhnya untuk mengontrol variabel-variabel luar yang mempengaruhi pelaksanaan eksperimen (Sugiyono, 2013. tindakan massage lumbal yang dilakukan pada ibu bersalin kala I terjadi peningkatan kontraksi uterus sebanyak 20 (95,24% responden. Sedangkan pada tindakan breast massage terjadi peningkatan kontraksi uterus sebanyak 19 (90,48% responden. Penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa tindakan massage lumbal yang dilakukan pada ibu bersalin kala I lebih berhasil dibandingkan dengan breast massage. Terdapat perbedaan kontraksi uterus sebelum dan setelah dilakukan Breast Massage terhadap peningkatan kontraksi uterus pada ibu bersalin

  6. Development of Transvaginal Uterus Amputation Device for Laparoscopic Hysterectomies in Gynecologic Surgeries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan DİKİCİ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hysterectomy, that is removal of uterus, is one of the most common major operations in gynecologic surgeries. Laparoscopy technique is preferred in hysterectomy because of its advantages such as lower intra-operative blood loss, decreased surrounding tissue/organ damage, less operating time, lower postoperative infection and frequency of fever, shorter duration of hospitalization and post-operative returning time to normal activity. During total laparoscopic hysterectomy, first uterine vessels and ligaments are cauterized respectively, and then cervicovaginal connections are cauterized and coagulated to remove uterus completely. Uterine manipulators are used during laparoscopy to maximize the endoscopic vision of surgeons by moving related organs. However, conventional uterine manipulators have important drawbacks particularly to move uterus in three dimensions and to show cervicovaginal landmark during laparoscopic circular cauterization and amputation of the uterine cervix. A new transvaginal uterine manipulator may overcome these two important drawbacks of these currently available devices. For this reason, a3D scanned technique was used to get uterus sizes and computer aided design software is used in designing of the new manipulator and then 3D printer was used in prototyping. Special light emitting diodes (LEDs were mounted on the cervical cap of the manipulator to guide light beams from inside of cervicovaginal tissue to abdominal cavity to facilitate the visualization of tissue landmarks. Moreover, performances of different caps and LED systems will be evaluated. Furthermore, after integration of self-cutting and self-suturing mechanisms into our system, final prototype will be produced by using titanium which is biologically and mechanically appropriate. Therefore, aim of this study was to design and produce a new uterine manipulator with three dimensional movements, LED illumination, self-cutting and self-suturing systems to facilitate

  7. The estimated volume of the fibroid uterus: a comparison of ultrasound and bimanual examination versus volume at MRI or hysterectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoelinga, Barbara; Huirne, Judith; Heymans, Martijn W.; Reekers, Jim A.; Ankum, Willem M.; Hehenkamp, Wouter J. K.

    2015-01-01

    The volume of a fibroid uterus before performing hysterectomy is typically estimated through bimanual examination and confirmed by ultrasonography. This study compares estimated volumes by bimanual examination and ultrasound examination with MRI and actual volumes obtained from histopathology, as

  8. Intravaginal Administration of Sildenafil Citrate Increases Blood Flow in the Bovine Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzięcioł Michał

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of sildenafil citrate administrated intravaginaly on the blood flow in the bovine uterus during dioestrus. Uterine blood flow was examined in six healthy adult cows. Sildenafil was administrated intravaginaly to each co w between the 6th and 8th d of the ovarian cycle, in the form of vaginal suppositories containing 100 mg of active substance at a dose of 100, 200, or 300 mg per animal. Uterine perfusion was estimated by the colour Doppler examination, and obtained results were analysed with the Pixel Flux Software (Chameleon, Germany. Moreover, cardiovascular parameters were also evaluated. Animals were examined before and five times after drug application (two times at 15 min intervals, and three times at 2 h intervals. A placebo suppository was also given to the cows. The analysis of the intensity and velocity of blood flow in the uterus proved that sildenafil administrated intravaginaly significantly increased blood flow in the uterus and the effect of increased perfusion was observed for 4 h and 30 min after administration. The effect of increased uterine perfusion was observed after low as well as high doses of sildenafil. Significant changes in the cardio-vascular parameters were not detected. There were no changes in the uterine perfusion as well as in cardiovascular parameters after placebo administration.

  9. Autoradiographic determination of catechol estrogen binding sites in brain, pituitary and uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parvizi, N.; Sar, M.; Duncan, G.E.; Stumpf, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    The anatomical pattern of nuclear binding of 2-OH[6,9- 3 H]estradiol ([ 3 H]2-OHE 2 ) in brain, pituitary and uterus have been studied autoradiographically. Autoradiograms of forebrain, pituitary and uterus show nuclear concentrations of radioactivity in certain cells. This nuclear concentration is abolished when unlabelled 2-OHE 2 or E 2 was injected prior to the injection of [ 3 H]2-OHE 2 . In the brain nuclear labelling is observed in the septal-preoptic region, in the anterior hypothalamic area, and in the central hypothalamic area. Some estrogen-sensitive nuclear groups, such as lateral septum and hippocampus, do not show accumulation of radioactivity. In the uterus, luminal and glandular epithelium, stromal cell and muscle cells are labelled. A comparison of the quantitative nuclear uptake of radioactivity and of the different time intervals after the injection of different doses shows similar uptake of nuclear radioactivity. This is comparable to data obtained after [6,7- 3 H]estradiol ([ 3 H]E 2 ) injection. The results provide clear evidence for nuclear binding of catechol estrogens of the same magnitude as [ 3 H]E 2 after in vivo treatment. (Auth.).0

  10. Does melatonin influence the apoptosis in rat uterus of animals exposed to continuous light?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Cecília S; Carvalho, Kátia C; Maganhin, Carla C; Paiotti, Ana P R; Oshima, Celina T F; Simões, Manuel J; Baracat, Edmund C; Soares, José M

    2016-02-01

    Melatonin has been described as a protective agent against cell death and oxidative stress in different tissues, including in the reproductive system. However, the information on the action of this hormone in rat uterine apoptosis is low. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of melatonin on mechanisms of cell death in uterus of rats exposed to continuous light stress. Twenty adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: GContr (vehicle control) and GExp which were treated with melatonin (0.4 mg/mL), both were exposed to continuous light for 90 days. The uterus was removed and processed for quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), using PCR-array plates of the apoptosis pathway; for immunohistochemistry and TUNEL. The results of qRT-PCR of GEXP group showed up-regulation of 13 and 7, pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively, compared to GContr group. No difference in pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax, Fas and Faslg) expression was observed by immunohistochemistry, although the number of TUNEL-positive cells was lower in the group treated with melatonin compared to the group not treated with this hormone. Our data suggest that melatonin influences the mechanism and decreases the apoptosis in uterus of rats exposed to continuous light.

  11. Apparent diffusion coefficient in cervical cancer of the uterus: comparison with the normal uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naganawa, Shinji; Sato, Chiho; Ishigaki, Takeo; Kumada, Hisashi; Miura, Shunichi; Takizawa, Osamu

    2005-01-01

    A relation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and tumor cellular density has been reported. The purpose of this study was to measure the ADC values of cervical cancers in the uterus and compare them with those of normal cervical tissues, and to test whether ADC could differentiate between normal and malignant cervical tissues in the uterus. Twelve consecutive female patients with cervical cancer of the uterus and ten female patients with other pelvic abnormalities were included in this study. ADC was measured at 1.5 T with b-factors of 0, 300 and 600 s/mm 2 using single-shot echo-planar diffusion-weighted imaging and a parallel imaging technique. The mean ADC value of cervical cancer lesions was 1.09±0.20 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s, and that of normal cervix tissue was 1.79±0.24 x 10 -3 mm 2 /s (P<0.0001). In nine patients treated by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, the mean ADC value of the cervical cancer lesion increased significantly after therapy (P<0.001). The present study showed, with a small number of patients, that ADC measurement has a potential ability to differentiate between normal and cancerous tissue in the uterine cervix. Further study is necessary to determine the accuracy of ADC measurement in monitoring the treatment response. (orig.)

  12. Real-time ultrasonic imaging of the ovary and uterus of the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, G C; Allen, W E

    1989-01-01

    The reproductive tracts of 50 bitches were ultrasonically imaged to evaluate the appearance of the uterus and ovaries at different stages of the oestrous cycle. Ovarian follicular growth was observed throughout the oestrous period. Follicles increased in size slowly until 7 days after the onset of pro-oestrus. Thereafter there was a rapid increase in diameter, indicating impending ovulation. The maximum recorded follicular diameter was 13 mm. It was not possible to observe ovulation since in the bitch follicles do not collapse as rapidly as in other species. During the post-ovulatory period there was a gradual loss of follicle shape and an increase in wall thickness. It was not possible to image the uterus of prepubertal bitches or young nulliparous bitches in anoestrus. During pro-oestrus and oestrus the uterus became increasingly hypoechoic with central regions of hyperechogenicity, which may represent uterine oedema. Uterine involution was observed in 5 bitches, and a rapid change in uterine diameter occurred over the first 3 days post partum. The ultrasonographic appearance was characteristic at this time.

  13. Reviving Ulysses contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellecy, Ryan

    2003-12-01

    Ulysses contracts have faced paternalism objections since they first were proposed. Since the contracts are designed to override a present request from a legally competent patient in favor of a past request made by that patient, enforcement of these contracts was argued to be unjustifiable strong paternalism. Recent legal developments and new theories of practical reasoning suggest that the discussion of Ulysses contracts should be revived. This paper argues that with a proper understanding of the future-directed planning embodied in Ulysses contracts, the charge of strong paternalism can be answered, and the enforcement of some Ulysses contracts may be justified under the rubric of weak paternalism.

  14. ADMINISTRATIVE CONTRACTS. DELIMITATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Teodora PASCARIU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Article examines whether all contracts of public persons are administrative contracts; in other words, if the administration may conclude contracts that, according to their legal nature, are not administrative. If we start from the definition of administrative contracts as it appears in Law no. 554/2004, these include contracts by public authorities which concern the enhancement of public property execution of works of public interest, public services, public procurement and other administrative contracts provided by special laws and subject to the jurisdiction of the administrative courts.

  15. Determining inter-fractional motion of the uterus using 3D ultrasound imaging during radiotherapy for cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Mariwan; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Behrens, Claus F.

    2014-01-01

    Uterine positional changes can reduce the accuracy of radiotherapy for cervical cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to; 1) Quantify the inter-fractional uterine displacement using a novel 3D ultrasound (US) imaging system, and 2) Compare the result with the bone match shift determined ...... uterus. Uterine shifts based on US imaging contains relative uterus-bone displacement, which is not taken into consideration using CBCT bone match....

  16. Investigation of the Relationship of Some Antihypertensive Drugs with Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters and DNA Damage on Rat Uterus Tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Talip Sener; Hamit Hakan Alp; Beyzagul Polat; Bunyamin Borekci; Yakup Kumtepe; Nesrin Gursan; Serkan Kumbasar; Suleyman Salman; Halis Suleyman

    2011-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with chronic antihypertensive drugs (clonidine, methyldopa, amlodipine, ramipril and rilmenidine) on oxidant-antioxidant parameters and toxic effects on DNA in rat uterus tissue. In addition, uterus tissues were examined histopathologically. Materials and Methods A total of 36 albino Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups: 0.075 mg/kg clonidine group; 100 mg/kg methyldopa group; 2 mg/kg amlodipine group; 2.5 mg...

  17. Undernutrition and laterality of the corpus luteum affects gene expression in oviduct and uterus of pregnant ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. de Brun

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of undernutrition on gene expression of progesterone and oestrogen receptors (PGR and ESR1, and insulin-like growth factors 1 and 2 (IGF1 and IGF2 in the uterus and oviducts of ewes on day 5 after oestrus was investigated. The effect of the side of the uterus/oviduct regarding the ovary bearing a corpus luteum (CL (ipsi vs. contralateral was also analyzed. Fourteen oestrous synchronized ewes were fed either 1.5 (C, n=7 or 0.5 (L, n=7 times their maintenance requirements from the onset of the hormonal treatment (day -14, till slaughter on day 5 post-oestrus. Oviducts and samples of uterus were collected and their gene expression studied by real time RT-PCR. Undernourished ewes had greater PGR expression in the oviduct than control ewes, but lower expression of IGF1 in uterus and of IGF2 in oviducts. The ipsilateral oviduct presented lower expression of PGR, ESR1 and IGF2 mRNA than the contralateral one, but this did not occur in the uterus. In conclusion, there is an effect of undernutrition on gene expression that is transcript and organ dependent (uterus/oviduct. This work reports for the first time that growth factors and sex steroid receptor expression on day 5 after oestrus vary depending on the side of the CL-bearing ovary and the region of the reproductive tract.

  18. Contractibility of curves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Charatonik

    1991-11-01

    Full Text Available Results concerning contractibility of curves (equivalently: of dendroids are collected and discussed in the paper. Interrelations tetween various conditions which are either sufficient or necessary for a curve to be contractible are studied.

  19. Multiscale forward electromagnetic model of uterine contractions during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Rosa, Patricio S; Eswaran, Hari; Preissl, Hubert; Nehorai, Arye

    2012-01-01

    Analyzing and monitoring uterine contractions during pregnancy is relevant to the field of reproductive health assessment. Its clinical importance is grounded in the need to reliably predict the onset of labor at term and pre-term. Preterm births can cause health problems or even be fatal for the fetus. Currently, there are no objective methods for consistently predicting the onset of labor based on sensing of the mechanical or electrophysiological aspects of uterine contractions. Therefore, modeling uterine contractions could help to better interpret such measurements and to develop more accurate methods for predicting labor. In this work, we develop a multiscale forward electromagnetic model of myometrial contractions during pregnancy. In particular, we introduce a model of myometrial current source densities and compute its magnetic field and action potential at the abdominal surface, using Maxwell’s equations and a four-compartment volume conductor geometry. To model the current source density at the myometrium we use a bidomain approach. We consider a modified version of the Fitzhugh-Nagumo (FHN) equation for modeling ionic currents in each myocyte, assuming a plateau-type transmembrane potential, and we incorporate the anisotropic nature of the uterus by designing conductivity-tensor fields. We illustrate our modeling approach considering a spherical uterus and one pacemaker located in the fundus. We obtained a travelling transmembrane potential depolarizing from −56 mV to −16 mV and an average potential in the plateau area of −25 mV with a duration, before hyperpolarization, of 35 s, which is a good approximation with respect to the average recorded transmembrane potentials at term reported in the technical literature. Similarly, the percentage of myometrial cells contracting as a function of time had the same symmetric properties and duration as the intrauterine pressure waveforms of a pregnant human myometrium at term. We introduced a multiscale

  20. Concept of contracting authority

    OpenAIRE

    Kasiliauskaitė, Vitalija

    2016-01-01

    Concept of Contracting Authority Law on Public Procurement the procurement concept implies the conclusion that public procurement be declared only such purchases are carried out by the contracting authority. The contracting authorities can be a subject of state and municipal management institutes, whose assignment authority is determined by a functional approach. Also, contracting authorities may be public and legal entities, but that the public interest and operates non-commercial activities...

  1. Inflation Forecast Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Gersbach, Hans; Hahn, Volker

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new type of incentive contract for central bankers: inflation forecast contracts, which make central bankers’ remunerations contingent on the precision of their inflation forecasts. We show that such contracts enable central bankers to influence inflation expectations more effectively, thus facilitating more successful stabilization of current inflation. Inflation forecast contracts improve the accuracy of inflation forecasts, but have adverse consequences for output. On balanc...

  2. Teaching about Contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froman, Michael; Kosnoff, Kathy

    1978-01-01

    Presents teaching strategies for introducing high school students to contract law. Offers as a case study a contract agreement between pro football players and team owners. Stresses basic elements of contracts (offer, acceptance, consideration, and understanding the bargaining process). Journal available from the American Bar Association, 1155…

  3. Contract law as fairness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijnsma, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the implications for contract law of Rawls' theory of justice as fairness. It argues that contract law as an institution is part of the basic structure of society and as such subject to the principles of justice. Discussing the basic structure in relation to contract law is

  4. 3 CFR - Government Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... contract oversight could reduce such sums significantly. Government outsourcing for services also raises... a risk that taxpayer funds will be spent on contracts that are wasteful, inefficient, subject to... mission. In such cases, the agency must ensure that the risks associated with noncompetitive contracts are...

  5. Contracting for nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuessler, C.M.

    1981-10-01

    This paper deals with uranium sales contracts, i.e. with contractual arrangements in the first steps of the fuel cycle, which cover uranium production and conversion. The various types of contract are described and, where appropriate, their underlying business philosophy and their main terms and conditions. Finally, the specific common features of such contracts are reviewed. (NEA) [fr

  6. Other enrichment related contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to long-term enrichment contracts, DOE has other types of contracts: (1) short-term, fixed-commitment enrichment contract; (2) emergency sales agreement for enriched uranium; (3) feed material lease agreement; (4) enriched uranium storage agreement; and (5) feed material usage agreement

  7. Glycine and GABAA receptors mediate tonic and phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to prepulse inhibition in the goldfish startle network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C.P. Curtin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Prepulse inhibition (PPI is understood as an inhibitory process that attenuates sensory flow during early stages (20-1000ms of information processing. Here, we applied in vivo electrophysiology and pharmacology to determine if prepulse inhibition (PPI is mediated by glycine receptors (GlyRs and/or GABAA receptors (GABAARs in the goldfish auditory startle circuit. Specifically, we used selective antagonists to dissect the contributions of target receptors on sound-evoked postsynaptic potentials (PSPs recorded in the neurons that initiate startle, the Mauthner-cells (M-cell. We found that strychnine, a GlyR antagonist, disrupted a fast-activated (5 ms and rapidly (< 50ms decaying (feed-forward inhibitory process that disrupts PPI at 20 ms prepulse/pulse inter-stimulus intervals (ISI. Additionally we observed increases of the evoked postsynaptic potential (PSP peak amplitude (+87.43 ± 21.53%; N=9 and duration (+204 ± 48.91%, N=9. In contrast, treatment with bicuculline, a GABAAR antagonist, caused a general reduction in PPI across all tested ISIs (20-500 ms, essentially eliminating PPI at ISIs from 20-100 ms. Bicuculline also increased PSP peak amplitude (+133.8 ± 10.3%, N=5 and PSP duration (+284.95 ± 65.64%, N=5. Treatment with either antagonist also tonically increased post-synaptic excitability in the M-cells, reflected by an increase in the magnitude of antidromically-evoked action potentials (APs by 15.07 ± 3.21%, N=7 and 16.23 ± 7.08%, N=5 for strychnine and bicuculline, respectively. These results suggest that GABAARs and GlyRs are functionally segregated to short- and longer-lasting sound-evoked (phasic inhibitory processes that contribute to PPI, with the mediation of tonic inhibition by both receptor systems being critical for gain control within the M-cell startle circuit.

  8. Duration in Production Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    MacDonald, James M.; Korb, Penelope J.

    2006-01-01

    We use 2003 and 2004 ARMS data to analyze variations in contract duration among growers of broilers who hold production contracts. Most contracts cover just a single flock, but many extend for 1-2 years, and a significant minority of broiler contracts specify lengths of 5, 10, and even 15 years. We find that grower debt and production volume are inversely related to the choice of a short term (a year or less) contract, while lengthy prior experience with the contractor promotes short term con...

  9. Negotiating Efficient PPP Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvarnø, Christina D.

    . An opportunity the member states should consider using when procuring a PPP. This paper looks at the negotiation and contracting of a PPP in an economic theoretical and EU public procurement perspective and discusses how to establish an efficient PPP contract under a strong public law doctrine. Governments......This paper concerns Public Private Partnership (PPP) contracts in concern to the coming new 2014/24IEU public procurement directive. The new EU public procurement directive gives the public authority the opportunity to negotiate PPPs much more when they are implemented in national law...... procurement law. Furthermore, the paper seeks to establish a connection between public law, private law and the efficient PPP contract by drawing upon economic theory and empirical contract data from UK, US and Danish partnering contracts from the construction industry and the aim of contracting joint utility...

  10. Ovarian steroids regulate tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression in the mouse uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patak Eva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the mouse uterus, pregnancy is accompanied by changes in tachykinin and tachykinin receptor gene expression and in the uterotonic effects of endogenous tachykinins. In this study we have investigated whether changes in tachykinin expression and responses are a result of changes in ovarian steroid levels. Methods We quantified the mRNAs of tachykinins and tachykinin receptors in uteri from ovariectomized mice and studied their regulation in response to estrogen and progesterone using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Early (3 h and late (24 h responses to estrogen were evaluated and the participation of the estrogen receptors (ER, ERalpha and ERbeta, was analyzed by treating mice with propylpyrazole triol, a selective ERalpha agonist, or diarylpropionitrile, a selective agonist of ERbeta. Results All genes encoding tachykinins (Tac1, Tac2 and Tac4 and tachykinin receptors (Tacr1, Tacr2 and Tacr3 were expressed in uteri from ovariectomized mice. Estrogen increased Tac1 and Tacr1 mRNA after 3 h and decreased Tac1 and Tac4 expression after 24 h. Tac2 and Tacr3 mRNA levels were decreased by estrogen at both 3 and 24 h. Most effects of estrogen were also observed in animals treated with propylpyrazole triol. Progesterone treatment increased the levels of Tac2. Conclusion These results show that the expression of tachykinins and their receptors in the mouse uterus is tightly and differentially regulated by ovarian steroids. Estrogen effects are mainly mediated by ERalpha supporting an essential role for this estrogen receptor in the regulation of the tachykinergic system in the mouse uterus.

  11. Physiological 18F-FDG uptake in the ovaries and uterus of healthy female volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Inubushi, Masayuki; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Good knowledge of physiological 18 F-fluorodeoxglucose ( 18 F-FDG) uptake in the healthy population is of great importance for the correct interpretation of 18 F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) images of pathological processes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological 18 F-FDG uptake in the ovaries and uterus of healthy female volunteers. One hundred and 33 healthy females, 78 of whom were premenopausal (age 37.2±6.9 years) and 55 postmenopausal (age 55.0±2.7 years), were examined using whole-body 18 F-FDG PET and pelvic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Focal 18 F-FDG uptake in the ovaries and uterus was evaluated visually and using standardised uptake value (SUVs). Anatomical and morphological information was obtained from MR images. Distinct ovarian 18 F-FDG uptake with an SUV of 3.9±0.7 was observed in 26 premenopausal women out of 32 examined during the late follicular to early luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Eighteen of the 32 women also showed focal 18 F-FDG uptake in the endometrium, with an SUV of 3.3±0.3. On the other hand, all nine women in the first 3 days of the menstrual cycle demonstrated intense 18 F-FDG uptake in the endometrium, with an SUV of 4.6±1.0. No physiological 18 F-FDG uptake was observed in the ovaries or uterus of any postmenopausal women. In women of reproductive age, 18 F-FDG imaging should preferably be done within a week before or a few days after the menstrual flow phase to avoid any misinterpretation of pelvic 18 F-FDG PET images. (orig.)

  12. Microstructural changes of cows’ uterus in an infection caused by Haemophilus somnus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danka Šťastná

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive form of Haemophilic infection caused by a microorganism Histophilus somni (Haemophilus somnus is in our conditions practically unknown and undiscovered disease of cow reproductive organs. The aim of this work was based on experimental work to provide a comprehensive view on the patho-histological and submicroscopic changes in the uterus of 60 cows, serological positive, crossbreeds Slovenske strakate x Holstein, aged 3.5 . 4.5 years, serological positive, which were up to 90 days after the parturition sterile. After the hormonal control of the oestrus cycle (PGF2ƒż-Oestrophan SPOFA the cows were inseminated and the non-gravid cows later killed. The reproductive organs of killed animals were pathologically . anatomically dissected with following histological and sub-microscopic study of uterus and cervix tissue. At the beginning of the experiment no clinical changes of the reproductive organs of group 1 animals with the titer of antibodies 1:25-100 were diagnosed and in group 3 with the titer 1:25. At an examination before killing were examined endometritis (EM of grade II. and vaginitis with vestibulitis in these groups. At the rest of animals appeared in every level of the titer of antibodies of EM II. and EM III. EM I. were not clinically diagnosed. Dissecting examination determined EM catarrhalis and cervicis catarrhalis in all groups. The histological examination pointed to EM catarrhalis chronica, EM interstitialis chronica, EM fibrousis and cervicis catarrhalis chronica. The leucocytes gained from a uterus lavage were in a comparison with stroma leucocytes mostly polynuclear (neutrophils and in smaller amount small forms of lymfocytes. At long-term sterility of cows, because of possible H. somnus infection, we regard as priority the serodiagnostics at which is taken into consideration any level of the titer of antibodies.

  13. Loss of Cdh1 and Pten Accelerates Cellular Invasiveness and Angiogenesis in the Mouse Uterus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mallory E.; Stodden, Genna R.; King, Mandy L.; MacLean, James A.; Mann, Jordan L.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lydon, John P.; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT E-cadherin (CDH1) is a cell adhesion molecule that coordinates key morphogenetic processes regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Loss of CDH1 is a trademark of the cellular event epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which increases the metastatic potential of malignant cells. PTEN is a tumor-suppressor gene commonly mutated in many human cancers, including endometrial cancer. In the mouse uterus, ablation of Pten induces epithelial hyperplasia, leading to endometrial carcinomas. However, loss of Pten alone does not affect longevity until around 5 mo. Similarly, conditional ablation of Cdh1 alone does not predispose mice to cancer. In this study, we characterized the impact of dual Cdh1 and Pten ablation (Cdh1d/d Ptend/d) in the mouse uterus. We observed that Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice died at Postnatal Days 15–19 with massive blood loss. Their uteri were abnormally structured with curly horns, disorganized epithelial structure, and increased cell proliferation. Co-immunostaining of KRT8 and ACTA2 showed invasion of epithelial cells into the myometrium. Further, the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice had prevalent vascularization in both the endometrium and myometrium. We also observed reduced expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, loss of cell adherens, and tight junction molecules (CTNNB1 and claudin), as well as activation of AKT in the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice. However, complex hyperplasia was not found in the uteri of Cdh1d/d Ptend/d mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ablation of Pten with Cdh1 in the uterus accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis and causes early death. PMID:23740945

  14. Loss of CDH1 and Pten accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis in the mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Mallory E; Stodden, Genna R; King, Mandy L; MacLean, James A; Mann, Jordan L; DeMayo, Francesco J; Lydon, John P; Hayashi, Kanako

    2013-07-01

    E-cadherin (CDH1) is a cell adhesion molecule that coordinates key morphogenetic processes regulating cell growth, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Loss of CDH1 is a trademark of the cellular event epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which increases the metastatic potential of malignant cells. PTEN is a tumor-suppressor gene commonly mutated in many human cancers, including endometrial cancer. In the mouse uterus, ablation of Pten induces epithelial hyperplasia, leading to endometrial carcinomas. However, loss of Pten alone does not affect longevity until around 5 mo. Similarly, conditional ablation of Cdh1 alone does not predispose mice to cancer. In this study, we characterized the impact of dual Cdh1 and Pten ablation (Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d)) in the mouse uterus. We observed that Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice died at Postnatal Days 15-19 with massive blood loss. Their uteri were abnormally structured with curly horns, disorganized epithelial structure, and increased cell proliferation. Co-immunostaining of KRT8 and ACTA2 showed invasion of epithelial cells into the myometrium. Further, the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice had prevalent vascularization in both the endometrium and myometrium. We also observed reduced expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors, loss of cell adherens, and tight junction molecules (CTNNB1 and claudin), as well as activation of AKT in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice. However, complex hyperplasia was not found in the uteri of Cdh1(d/d) Pten(d/d) mice. Collectively, these findings suggest that ablation of Pten with Cdh1 in the uterus accelerates cellular invasiveness and angiogenesis and causes early death.

  15. Subclinical Pregnancy Toxemia-Induced Gene Expression Changes in Ovine Placenta and Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimanickam, Ramanathan K

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to elucidate gene expression differences in uterus, caruncle, and cotyledon of ewes with subclinical pregnancy toxemia (SCPT) and healthy ewes, and to identify associated biological functions and pathways involved in pregnancy toxemia. On Day 136 (±1 day) post-breeding, ewes (n = 18) had body condition score (BCS; 1-5; 1, emaciated; 5, obese) assessed, and blood samples were collected for plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) analyses. The ewes were euthanized, and tissue samples were collected from the gravid uterus and placentomes. Based on BCS (2.0 ± 0.02), glucose (2.4 ± 0.33), and BHBA (0.97 ± 0.06) concentrations, ewes (n = 10) were grouped as healthy (n = 5) and subclinical SCPT (n = 5) ewes. The mRNA expressions were determined by quantitative PCR method, and prediction of miRNA partners and target genes for the predicted miRNA were identified using miRDB (http://mirdb.org/miRDB/). Top ranked target genes were used to identify associated biological functions and pathways in response to SPCT using PANTHER. The angiogenesis genes VEGF and PlGF, and AdipoQ, AdipoR2, PPARG, LEP, IGF1, IGF2, IL1b, and TNFα mRNA expressions were lower in abundances, whereas hypoxia genes eNOS, HIF1a, and HIF 2a, and sFlt1 and KDR mRNA expressions were greater in abundances in uterus and placenta of SCPT ewes compared to healthy ewes (P influence placental vascular development and angiogenesis as noted in this study set the course for hemodynamic changes and hence have a major impact on the rate of transplacental nutrient exchange, fetal growth, and health of the dam.

  16. Uterus necrosis after radiochemotherapy in two patients with advanced cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marnitz, S.; Hinkelbein, W.; Koehler, C.; Schneider, A.; Fueller, J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Simultaneous platinum-based radiochemotherapy is the standard of care for patients with advanced or node-positive cancer of the uterine cervix. A large body of literature concerning therapy-related acute and late morbidity is available. Chemoradiation-associated necrosis of the uterus has not been described so far. Case Report: Two patients are reported who were treated by combine chemoradiation between 2004 and 2005 for histologically confirmed cervical cancer following laparoscopic staging. Both patients were diagnosed with squamous cell cancer of the cervix FIGO stage IIB (T2b pN1 pM1 LYM G2) and FIGO IIIA (T3a pN1 MO G2), respectively. External-beam radiotherapy was applied in a 3-D-planned four-field technique, covering pelvic lymph nodes and primary tumor. Simultaneously, cisplatin was given to both patients. Following chemoradiation, both patientsdeveloped pelvic pain and an elevation of C-reactive protein (CRP) in the presence of a normal leukocyte count. Both patients underwent relaparoscopy, and necrosis of the uterus combined with partial necrosis of the bladder was diagnosed in patient 1. Patient 1 underwent total supralevatoric exenteration and patient 2 laparoscopically assisted hysterectomy withbilateral salpingo-oophorectomy. Conclusion: In patients with persisting or incident pelvic pain, questionable findings in imaging techniques and/or elevated inflammation parameters following completion of chemoradiation for cervical cancer, differential diagnosis should include radiogenic necrosis of the uterus and other pelvic organs. Laparoscopy is an ideal technique to exclude or confirm this diagnosis. (orig.)

  17. Psychological and mobile evaluation of intra-uterus children exposed to the radiation with cesium-137

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Celia Marly

    1995-01-01

    The presented work had as objective the accomplishment of a comparative study of cesium-137 radioactive element effects in the psychological and motor development of children which were going submitted the intra-uterus irradiation during the chronological age of three years. The comparison of the results of study is done through a group-control composed for five children without any involvement with the cesium-137 accident - occurred in 1987 in Goiania, Brazil - of same social, economic and cultural level and with the same age of the reached

  18. Estrogen action in the mouse uterus: differential nuclear localization of estradiol in uterine cell types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korach, K.S.; Lamb, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Autoradiographic studies of labeled steroid uptake in mouse uterine tissue indicated that labeled estradiol was predominantly sequestered in the nuclei of stromal and glandular epithelial cells at 1 h. Luminal epithelial cells did not show appreciable nuclear accumulation of labeled estradiol until 7-8 h after hormone injection. Studies using non-target tissues and unlabeled steroids indicated that the nuclear uptake events were tissue and estrogen steroid specific. The temporal pattern of steroid hormone uptake in the uterus would suggest that an initial interaction in stromal and glandular epithelial cells may be required prior to nuclear stimulation in the luminal epithelial target cell

  19. Histopathological Observations on the Uterus and Ovary of a Cat with Pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-yang Dong, Chun-yang Jiang and Cun-zhong Qian*

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An 8-year-old, crossbred domestic queen, weighing 2.9 kg, was examined because of obvious clinical signs, including anorexia, lethargy and vomiting, with small quantities of yellow vaginal mucopurulent discharge. Palpation revealed the presence of an abdominal mass. A diagnosis of pyometra was made by radiology. After undergoing ovario-hysterectomy, the queen made a full recovery. Histopathological examination of the uterus and ovary was made. A sterilization case was included for microscopic comparison. Results showed that endometrium of the cat with pyometra presented atrophy and shedding of superficial epithelium, and there were apparent cystic follicles in ovary.

  20. Absorbed dose to ovaries or uterus during a 131I-therapeutic of cancer or hyperthyroidism: comparison between in vivo measurements by TLD and calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briere, J.; Philippon, B.

    1979-01-01

    An LiF dosimeter placed inside the uterus will only give an approximate value of the dose delivered to gonads during therapy by iodine-131. But it was easily demonstrated that the dose measured by LTD dosimeter does not significantly differ for uterus and for ovaries, because of the similar position of the source organs. Consequently a LiF dosimeter was placed in volunteer patients inside the uterus. Experimental results were compared to the dose calculated by Robertson and Gorman (J. Nucl. Med. 17, 826, (1976)) method for ovaries and for uterus. (author)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging of morphological and functional changes of the uterus induced by sacral surface electrical stimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Takahide; Murakami, Takashi; Ozawa, Yuka; Seki, Kazunori; Handa, Yasunobu

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the morphological and kinematical changes of the uterus induced by electrical stimulation applied to the skin just above the second and fourth posterior sacral foramens (sacral surface electrical stimulation [ssES]) in 26 healthy subjects. Out of them, eight subjects who had severe pain subjectively during every menstruation received ssES just in menstruation. Morphological and functional changes of the uterus were examined by using T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and T1-weighted MR cinematography, respectively. Cyclic electrical stimulation for 15 min with 5 sec ON and 5 sec OFF was applied just before MR scanning. A decrease in thickness of the muscular layer of the uterus was observed in every subject after ssES for 15 min and was significant as compared with the thickness before ssES. Periodic uterine movement during menstruation was observed in the subjects with severe menstrual pain in MR cine and the power spectrum analysis of the movement showed a marked decrease in peak power and frequency after ssES treatment. We conclude that ssES causes a reduction of static muscle tension of the uterus in all menstrual cycle periods and suppression of uterine peristalsis during menstruation in the subjects with severe menstrual pain. Possible neural mechanisms for these static and dynamic effects of ssES on the uterus at spinal level are discussed. (author)

  2. Estrogen-dependent expression of sine oculis homeobox 1 in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sijeong [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hwang [Fertility Center of CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13496 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hyemin [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Miseon [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, Seoul 06135 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye-Ryun; Song, Haengseok [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kwonho, E-mail: kwonho.hong@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 31116 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngsok, E-mail: youngsokchoi@cha.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, Seoul 06135 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-08

    The sine oculis homeobox 1 (SIX1) is a member of the Six gene family. SIX1 is involved in tissue development by regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. However, function of SIX1 in the uterus remains unknown. Here, we found that Six1 expression is regulated along the estrous cycle in mouse uterus. Six1 expression was significantly increased at estrus stage and decreased at the rest of stages. SIX1 is detected in the luminal and glandular epithelium of uterine endometrium at the estrus stage. Estrogen injection increased Six1 expression in the ovariectomized mouse uterus, whereas progesterone had no effect on its expression. Estrogen receptor antagonist inhibited estrogen-induced Six1 expression. Our findings imply that SIX1 may play a role as an important regulator to orchestrate the dynamic of uterine endometrium in response to estrogen level during the estrous cycle. These results will give us a better understanding of uterine biology. - Highlights: • Six1 expression is regulated during the estrous cycle in mouse uterus. • Six1 is highly expressed at the estrus stage of estrous cycle. • SIX1 is detected in luminal/glandular epithelium of the uterus at the estrus stage. • Estrogen stimulates Six1 expression in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner.

  3. Characteristics Studies of 125I- and total PSA antibody's Binding with prostate specific antigen (PSA) in Human Uterus Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mudaffar, S.; Al-Salihi, J.

    2005-01-01

    Two groups of uterus tumors (benign and malignant) postmenopausal patients were used to investigate the presence of prostate specific antigen (PSA). Preliminary experiments were performed to follow the binding of '1 25 I-anti total PSA antibody with PSA in uterus tissues homogenates of the two groups with their corresponding antigen and found to be (8.8,7.1%) for benign and malignant tumors, respectively. An Immuno Radio Metric Assay (IRMA) procedure was developed for measuring PSA in benign and malignant uterus tumors homogenates. The optimum conditions of the binding of 125 I-anti total PSA antibody with PSA were as follows: PSA concentration (150,200 μg protein),tracer antibody concentration (125,250 μg protein), p H (7.6,7.2), temp (15,25?C) and time (1.5 hrs) for postmenopausal benign and malignant uterus tumors tissue homogenates, respectively. The use of different concentrations of Na + and Mg 2+ ions were shown to cause an increase in the binding at concentration of (125,75 mΜ) of Na 1+ ions (75,225 mΜ) of Mg 2+ ions for benign and malignant uterus tumors homogenates, respectively, while the use of different concentrations of urea and polyethylene glycol (PEG) Caused a decrease in the binding with the increase in the concentration of each of urea and PEG in the both cases

  4. Increased expression of heat shock protein 105 in rat uterus of early pregnancy and its significance in embryo implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zhao-Yuan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of highly conserved proteins, Hsp105, has been suggested to play a role in reproduction. Methods Spatio-temporal expression of Hsp105 in rat uterus during peri-implantation period was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, pseudopregnant uterus was used as control. Injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into pregnant rat uteri was carried out to look at effect of Hsp105 on embryo implantation. Results Expression of Hsp105 was mainly in the luminal epithelium on day 1 of pregnancy, and reached a peak level on day 5, whereas in stroma cells, adjacent to the implanting embryo, the strongest expression of Hsp105 was observed on day 6. The immunostaining profile in the uterus was consistent with that obtained by Western blot in the early pregnancy. In contrast, no obvious peak level of Hsp105 was observed in the uterus of pseudopregnant rat on day 5 or day 6. Furthermore, injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into the rat uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy obviously suppressed the protein expression as expected and reduced number of the implanted embryos as compared with the control. Conclusion Temporal and spatial changes in Hsp105 expression in pregnant rat uterus may play a physiological role in regulating embryo implantation.

  5. New staff contract policy

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2006-01-01

    Following discussion at TREF and on the recommendation of the Finance Committee, Council approved a new staff contract policy, which became effective on 1 January 2006. Its application is covered by a new Administrative Circular No. 2 (Rev. 3) 'Recruitment, appointment and possible developments regarding the contractual position of staff members'. The revised circular replaces the previous Circulars No. 9 (Rev. 3) 'Staff contracts' and No. 2 (Rev. 2) 'Guidelines and procedures concerning recruitment and probation period for staff members'. The main features of the new contract policy are as follows: The new policy provides chances for long-term employment for all staff recruits staying for four years without distinguishing between those assigned to long-term or short-term activities when joining CERN. In addition, it presents a number of simplifications for the award of ICs. There are henceforth only 2 types of contract: Limited Duration (LD) contracts for all recruitment and Indefinite Contracts (IC) for...

  6. Copyright Preemption of Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bohannan, Christina

    2008-01-01

    This Article argues that both courts and scholars are wrong in their categorical approaches to preemption of contracts under the Copyright Act, and proposes an intermediate approach that recognizes the importance of both contract rights and federal policy in preemption analysis. First, it argues that both courts and scholars have misapplied preemption law to breach of contract claims. Although the two sides tend to favor opposite results, they take equally categorical approaches. Categori...

  7. Contracting for Public Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Carsten

    strategic purchasing understanding markets communicating the contracting decision designing and drafting the contract the role of the consumer the regulation of service provision Illustrated throughout with practitioner case-studies from a range of OECD countries, this book presents an important new......Insightful and comprehensive and covering new subjects like globalization and IT, this text, international in its approach, provides a thorough introduction to the key phases of the contracting process and the skills required by managers in its implementation. These include: policy for contracting...

  8. Smart contracts sobre Bitcoin

    OpenAIRE

    Andreu Alemany, Josep Miquel

    2016-01-01

    El present treball final de màster realitza una introducció als smart contracts. El treball introdueix el concepte de contracte intel·ligent, els seus usos i alguns exemples existents. Seguidament proporciona les nocions necessàries de les transaccions del protocol Bitcoin per poder implementar un contracte intel·ligent, usant la blockchain que ofereix el protocol. Per últim, s'explica la implementació d'un contracte intel·ligent usant bitcoin: un canal de micropagaments. El presente traba...

  9. Molecular characterization of insulin resistance and glycolytic metabolism in the rat uterus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuehui; Sun, Xue; Sun, Xiaoyan; Meng, Fanci; Hu, Min; Li, Xin; Li, Wei; Wu, Xiao-Ke; Brännström, Mats; Shao, Ruijin; Billig, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism are the primary features of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, how insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism affect uterine function and contribute to the pathogenesis of PCOS are open questions. We treated rats with insulin alone or in combination with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and showed that peripheral insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism alter uterine morphology, cell phenotype, and cell function, especially in glandular epithelial cells. These defects are associated with an aberration in the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway that is used as an indicator for the onset of insulin resistance in classical metabolic tissues. Concomitantly, increased GSK3β (Ser-9) phosphorylation and decreased ERK1/2 phosphorylation in rats treated with insulin and hCG were also observed. We also profiled the expression of glucose transporter (Glut) isoform genes in the uterus under conditions of insulin resistance and/or hyperandrogenism. Finally, we determined the expression pattern of glycolytic enzymes and intermediates during insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in the uterus. These findings suggest that the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/ERK signaling pathways play a role in the onset of uterine insulin resistance, and they also suggest that changes in specific Glut isoform expression and alterations to glycolytic metabolism contribute to the endometrial dysfunction observed in PCOS patients. PMID:27461373

  10. Muscle Segment Homeobox Genes Direct Embryonic Diapause by Limiting Inflammation in the Uterus*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin S.; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil G.; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. This phenomenon is defined by a temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within a quiescent uterus without implantation until the environmental and maternal milieu become favorable for pregnancy to progress. We found that uterine Msx expression persists during diapause across species; their inactivation in the mouse uterus results in termination of diapause with the development of implantation-like responses (“pseudoimplantation”) that ultimately succumbed to resorption. To understand the cause of this failure, we compared proteome profiles between floxed and Msx-deleted uteri. In deleted uteri, several functional networks, including transcription/translation, ubiquitin-proteasome, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were dysregulated. Computational modeling predicted intersection of these pathways on an enhanced inflammatory signature. Further studies showed that this signature was reflected in increased phosphorylated IκB levels and nuclear NFκB in deleted uteri. This was associated with enhanced proteasome activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) reduced the inflammatory signature with improvement of the diapause phenotype. These findings highlight an unexpected role of uterine Msx in limiting aberrant inflammatory responses to maintain embryonic diapause. PMID:25931120

  11. Muscle Segment Homeobox Genes Direct Embryonic Diapause by Limiting Inflammation in the Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin S; Tilton, Susan C; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M; Piehowski, Paul D; Monroe, Matthew E; Jegga, Anil G; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2015-06-12

    Embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. This phenomenon is defined by a temporary arrest in blastocyst growth and metabolic activity within a quiescent uterus without implantation until the environmental and maternal milieu become favorable for pregnancy to progress. We found that uterine Msx expression persists during diapause across species; their inactivation in the mouse uterus results in termination of diapause with the development of implantation-like responses ("pseudoimplantation") that ultimately succumbed to resorption. To understand the cause of this failure, we compared proteome profiles between floxed and Msx-deleted uteri. In deleted uteri, several functional networks, including transcription/translation, ubiquitin-proteasome, inflammation, and endoplasmic reticulum stress, were dysregulated. Computational modeling predicted intersection of these pathways on an enhanced inflammatory signature. Further studies showed that this signature was reflected in increased phosphorylated IκB levels and nuclear NFκB in deleted uteri. This was associated with enhanced proteasome activity and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Interestingly, treatment with anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid (dexamethasone) reduced the inflammatory signature with improvement of the diapause phenotype. These findings highlight an unexpected role of uterine Msx in limiting aberrant inflammatory responses to maintain embryonic diapause. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Steroidal regulation of Ihh and Gli1 expression in the rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Kaiyu; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Yamagami, Kazuki; Nishimura, Sho; Gobaru, Takafumi; Yamanaka, Ken-ichi; Wood, Chris; Soh, Tomoki; Takahashi, Masashi; Hattori, Masa-aki

    2010-05-01

    Ovarian steroid hormones, progesterone (P4), and estradiol (E2) strictly regulate the endometrial tissue remodeling required for successful embryo implantation. Indian hedgehog (Ihh) is up-regulated by P4 and critically mediates uterine receptivity in the mouse. However, the regulation of Ihh expression during the implantation period still remains unclear. The present study was conducted to elucidate the mechanism of the steroidal regulation in the expression of Ihh and Gli1, the mediator of the Ihh pathway. Ihh mRNA was expressed in the rat uterus on 3.5-5.5 days post-coitus (dpc), while Gli1 expression transiently increased at 3.5 dpc but decreased significantly on 5.5 dpc (P Ihh was induced by the implantation-induced E2 treatment in the primed rat uterus. In contrast, expression of Gli1 was significantly decreased by E2 treatment (P = 0.016). In the case of ICI182.780 (ICI) treatment, Ihh expression was eliminated by ICI, whilst Gli1 expression increased. These results suggest that Ihh expression is maintained at a high level until the initiation of implantation, while the expression of Gli1 is decreased just prior to the initiation of implantation depending on the E2 action. This observation aids in the understanding of the Ihh signaling pathway mediating uterine remodeling for implantation.

  13. F4/80+ Macrophages Contribute to Clearance of Senescent Cells in the Mouse Postpartum Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egashira, Mahiro; Hirota, Yasushi; Shimizu-Hirota, Ryoko; Saito-Fujita, Tomoko; Haraguchi, Hirofumi; Matsumoto, Leona; Matsuo, Mitsunori; Hiraoka, Takehiro; Tanaka, Tomoki; Akaeda, Shun; Takehisa, Chiaki; Saito-Kanatani, Mayuko; Maeda, Kei-Ichiro; Fujii, Tomoyuki; Osuga, Yutaka

    2017-07-01

    Cellular senescence, defined as an irreversible cell cycle arrest, exacerbates the tissue microenvironment. Our previous study demonstrated that mouse uterine senescent cells were physiologically increased according to gestational days and that their abnormal accumulation was linked to the onset of preterm delivery. We hypothesized that there is a mechanism for removal of senescent cells after parturition to maintain uterine function. In the current study, we noted abundant uterine senescent cells and their gradual disappearance in wild-type postpartum mice. F4/80+ macrophages were present specifically around the area rich in senescent cells. Depletion of macrophages in the postpartum mice using anti-F4/80 antibody enlarged the area of senescent cells in the uterus. We also found excessive uterine senescent cells and decreased second pregnancy success rate in a preterm birth model using uterine p53-deleted mice. Furthermore, a decrease in F4/80+ cells and an increase in CD11b+ cells with a senescence-associated inflammatory microenvironment were observed in the p53-deleted uterus, suggesting that uterine p53 deficiency affects distribution of the macrophage subpopulation, interferes with senescence clearance, and promotes senescence-induced inflammation. These findings indicate that the macrophage is a key player in the clearance of uterine senescent cells to maintain postpartum uterine function. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  14. Search for the lowest irradiation dose from literatures on radiation-induced cancer in uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Yasuo; Kusama, Tomoko

    1975-01-01

    A survey of past case reports on radiation-induced cancer of the uterus was carried out with the main object of finding the lowest irradiation dose. Search of literature published since 1912 revealed 548 cases of radiation-induced cancer of the uterus. All of these cases of radiation-induced cancer had received radiation for the treatment of non-malignant disease. The primary gynecological conditions which were the object of radiation therapy were functional bleeding, endometrial hyperplasia, myoma, endometritis, and polyps. The lowest irradiation dose was estimated at 1000-1450 rad in the case of external X-ray irradiation, and 100 mg.hr for intrauterine radium therapy, which corresponds to 100-1000 rad. It was noted that were more cases of corpus cancer than cervical cancer. Histopathological findings of radiation-induced uterine cancer were carcinoma, sarcoma, and mixed mesodermal tumors. The latent period was distributed in the range of 1 to 40 years, with the average of 10.1 years. (auth.)

  15. Placenta Accreta at 15 Weeks of Gestational Age and Uterus Preservation with Hysterectomy Abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahnaz Farzaneh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Placenta accrete refers to an abnormality of placental implantation in which the anchoring placental villi attached to myometrium rather than decidua resulting in a morbidity adherent placenta. Placenta increta (chorionic villi penetrate into the myometrium and placenta percreta (chorionic villi penetrate through the myometrium to the uterine serosa or adjacent organs are related, but more severe, abnormalities of placental implantation. The pathogenesis is primarily attributed to defective decasualization of the implantation site. Placenta accreta has been recognized mostly in the third trimester however may also present in second trimester. It has very heavy, life-threatening hemorrhage to both the mother and fetus. The authors’ report a patient with two previous cesarean deliveries, who had been referred for pregnancy termination from Iranian legal medicine organization with 15 weeks of gestational age and placenta acctera. In this patient, uterus preservation and hysterectomy abortion was performed. The case totally lost 1500 cc blood and she was discharged from hospital two days later, with feeling of well- being. We have examined this patient after 1.5 months, she wasn’t vaginal bleeding and the uterus was in the pelvic and serum BHCG (with titer was negative.

  16. PENGARUH INFUS BUAH Foeniculum vulgare Mill PADA SIKLUS ESTRUS DAN BOBOT UTERUS TIKUS PUTIH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sa'roni Sa'roni

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill (adas secara tradisional untuk obat dan campuran jamu pengatur haid. Diduga buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill mempunyai pengaruh pada sistem reproduksi. Oleh karena itu, kami melakukan penelitian pengaruh infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill pada siklus estrus dan bobot uterus tikus putih.Infus diberikan secara oral sekali sehari selama 12 hari dengan dosis setara dengan 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan. Selama pemberian bahan, siklus estrus diperiksa setiap hari dan pada hari ke-13 diotopsi dan ditimbang bobot uterusnya.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 7,3 mg, 73 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menghambat fase estrus (masa subur. Infus setara dengan serbuk 7 mg dan 219 mg/100 g bobot badan kelihatan dapat menghambat fase estrus yang sangat nyata dibandingkan dengan akuades. Infus buah Foeniculum vulgare Mill setara dengan serbuk 219 mg/100 g bobot badan dapat menurunkan bobot uterus, tetapi secara statistik tidak berbeda nyata dengan akuades. Kata kunci: Obat tradisional; Foeniculum vulgare Mill; Sistem Reproduksi

  17. Hormonal fluctuations during the estrous cycle modulate Heme Oxygenase-1 expression in the uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Laura Zenclussen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Deletion of the Heme Oxygenase-1 (Hmox1 locus in mice results in intrauterine lethality. The expression of the heme catabolyzing enzyme encoded by this gene, namely HO 1, is required to successfully support reproductive events. We have previously observed that HO-1 acts at several key events in reproduction ensuring pregnancy. HO-1 defines ovulation, positively influences implantation and placentation and ensures fetal growth and survival. Here, we embarked on a study aimed to determine whether hormonal changes during the estrous cycle in the mouse define HO-1 expression, thus influencing receptivity. We analyzed the serum levels of progesterone and estrogen by ELISA and HO-1 mRNA expression in uterus by real time RT-PCR at the metestrus, proestrus, estrus and diestrus phases of the estrous cycle. Further, we studied the HO-1 protein expression by Western Blot upon hormone addition to cultured uterine AN3 cells. We observed that HO-1 variations in uterine tissue correlated to changes in hormonal levels at different phases of the estrus cycle. In vitro, HO-1 protein levels in AN3 cells augmented after the addition of physiological concentrations of progesterone and estradiol, which confirmed our in vivo observations. Our data suggest an important role for hormones in HO-1 regulation in uterus that has a significant impact in receptivity and later on blastocyst implantation.

  18. Distinct functions and regulation of epithelial progesterone receptor in the mouse cervix, vagina, and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Fabiola F; Son, Jieun; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Jang, Eunjung; Lydon, John P; Korach, Kenneth S; Chung, Sang-Hyuk

    2016-04-05

    While the function of progesterone receptor (PR) has been studied in the mouse vagina and uterus, its regulation and function in the cervix has not been described. We selectively deleted epithelial PR in the female reproductive tracts using the Cre/LoxP recombination system. We found that epithelial PR was required for induction of apoptosis and suppression of cell proliferation by progesterone (P4) in the cervical and vaginal epithelium. We also found that epithelial PR was dispensable for P4 to suppress apoptosis and proliferation in the uterine epithelium. PR is encoded by the Pgr gene, which is regulated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in the female reproductive tracts. Using knock-in mouse models expressing ERα mutants, we determined that the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and AF2 domain of ERα were required for upregulation of Pgr in the cervix and vagina as well as the uterine stroma. The ERα AF1 domain was required for upregulation of Pgr in the vaginal stroma and epithelium and cervical epithelium, but not in the uterine and cervical stroma. ERα DBD, AF1, and AF2 were required for suppression of Pgr in the uterine epithelium, which was mediated by stromal ERα. Epithelial ERα was responsible for upregulation of epithelial Pgr in the cervix and vagina. Our results indicate that regulation and functions of epithelial PR are different in the cervix, vagina, and uterus.

  19. Angiotensin peptides in the non-gravid uterus: Paracrine actions beyond circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalechi, Maíra; Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Lima, Luiza C; Maciel, Luciana P; Pereira, Virgínia M; Reis, Fernando M

    2018-03-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) involves a complex network of precursors, peptides, enzymes and receptors comprising a systemic (endocrine) and a local (paracrine/autocrine) system. The local RAS plays important roles in tissue modulation and may operate independently of or in close interaction with the circulatory RAS, acting in a complementary fashion. Angiotensin (Ang) II, its receptor AT 1 and Ang-(1-7) expression in the endometrium vary with menstrual cycle, and stromal cell decidualization in vitro is accompanied by local synthesis of angiotensinogen and prorenin. Mas receptor is unlikely to undergo marked changes accompanying the cyclic ovarian steroid hormone fluctuations. Studies investigating the functional relevance of the RAS in the non-gravid uterus show a number of paracrine effects beyond circulation and suggest that RAS peptides may be involved in the pathophysiology of proliferative and fibrotic diseases. Endometrial cancer is associated with increased expression of Ang II, Ang-converting enzyme 1 and AT 1 in the tumoral tissue compared to neighboring non-neoplastic endometrium, and also with a gene polymorphism that enhances AT 1 signal. Ang II induces human endometrial cells to transdifferentiate into cells with myofibroblast phenotype and to synthetize extracellular matrix components that might contribute to endometrial fibrosis. Altogether, these findings point to a fully operating RAS within the uterus, but since many concepts rely on preliminary evidence further studies are needed to clarify the role of the local RAS in uterine physiology and pathophysiology. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Investigating the microbiome of the bovine uterus in relation to endometritis, a costly disease for dairy farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rødtness Vesterby Knudsen, Lif; Rasmussen, Eva Láadal; Schou, Kirstine Klitgaard

    Endometritis is inflammation of the inner lining of the uterus, affecting up to 20% of the dairy cows after calving in Denmark. The disease causes reduced pregnancy rates, which often leads to culling of the cows and is costly for the farmer. Until now, investigations of which pathogens may cause....... Not being limited to bacteria that are suited to growth under laboratory conditions, this study promises a more comprehensive insight into the microbiome of the dairy cow uterus than has previously been offered. Cows (n=40) on a Danish dairy herd were randomly selected on the basis of a uterine score...... indicating that the cows had uterine pathology. Uterine fluid was aspirated and if necessary the uterus was flushed with 30 ml sterile saline solution in order to retrieve uterine material. The fluid was placed in RNAlater. An endometrial biopsy was retrieved and the tissue placed in RNAlater. The cows were...

  1. Laparoscopic hemi-hysterectomy in treatment of a didelphic uterus with a hypoplastic cervix and obstructed hemi-vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudhraa, K; Barbarino, A; Gara, Mohamed Faouzi

    2008-11-01

    Maldevelopment of the Müllerian duct system may result in various urogenital anomalies including didelphic uterus with a hypoplastic cervix and obstructed hemi-vagina. We report a patient with this anomaly who was treated by laparoscopic hemi-hysterectomy and hysteroscopic resection of hemi-vagina. A 16-year-old patient who had complained of vaginal pus-like discharge on and off for 1 year was diagnosed by MRI to have a double uterus with obstructed right hemi-vagina and ipsilateral renal agenesis. After hysteroscopic identification of hypoplasia of the right uterine cervix, laparoscopic resection of the right uterus and right fallopian tube and hysteroscopic assisted resection of the vaginal septa were performed successfully. We think that combined laparoscopy and hysteroscopy may be an effective alternative in the management and diagnosis of Mullerian anomalies.

  2. Risk of ano-rectal cancer following irradiation for cancer of the uterus. Epidemiological risk or radiation induced cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domergue, J.; Dubois, J.B.; Joyeux, H.; Pujol, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper is the report of 9 cases of anal and low rectal cancer following pelvic irradiation for cancer of uterus or cervix. This second cancer appears between the 10th and 20th year after radiotherapy, with a mean of 18,2 years. Its treatment can still be conservative for anal cancer but for low rectal tumor, abdominal resection is necessary. A statistical study has concluded that there is an excess risk for this group of patients, only for patients treated by radiotherapy for uterus cervix cancer. Those patients justify, endoscopic follow-up, especially after the 10th year with anterior rectal wall biopsies. With this attitude, these late complications should not offset the benefit of pelvic irradiation in the treatment of cancer of the uterus [fr

  3. Torsion of the uterus with myomas in a postmenopausal woman – case study and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrosława Sikora-Szczęśniak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Torsion of the uterus is defined as a rotation of more than 45° around the long axis of the uterus; 2/3 of cases are dextrorotations. The extent of rotation usually ranges from 45° to 180°. Objective: The purpose of the article was to present a case study of a postmenopausal woman with uterine torsion and myomas and to review the articles discussing the problem of rotated non-pregnant uterus. Material and methods : The article analyses the course of an extremely uncommon pathology, i.e. uterine torsion in a 67-year-old patient. Laparotomy exposed the uterus with myomas and numerous hemorrhages, rotated by 180° to the right side, size of 350 × 300 × 200 mm and bilateral necrosis of the ovaries. Moreover, we present a review of articles discussing surgical management in case of rotated non-pregnant uterus. Results and discussion: The patient was operated on by a team of gynecologists and surgeons. The uterus was derotated and total hysterectomy with salpingoophorectomy was performed. A fragment of the hepatic oval ligament was excised and periumbilical hernioplasty was performed. The patient was released home on the 10th day following the operation. Conclusions : If women complain of pain located within the small pelvis and abdominal cavity it is necessary to remember that it might result from the torsion of reproductive organs which is an uncommon condition but poses a health or life threat to patients. Surgical treatment of uterine torsion is successful if promptly implemented; in certain cases it is even possible to spare the patient’s fertility.

  4. 16 alpha-[77Br]bromoestradiol-17 beta: a high specific-activity, gamma-emitting tracer with uptake in rat uterus and uterus and induced mammary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; Senderoff, S.G.; McElvany, K.D.; O'Brien, H.A. Jr.; Welch, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    16 alpha-[77Br]bromoestradiol-17 beta (Compound 1) has been synthesized by radiobromination of estrone enoldiacetate. Tissue uptake studies performed 1 h after administration of Compound 1 to immature or mature female rats showed uterus-to-blood ratios of 13, with nontarget issue-to-blood ratios ranging from 0.6 to 2. Co-administration of unlabelled estradiol caused a selective depression in the uterine uptake with no effect on nontarget tissue uptake. In adult animals bearing adenocarcinomas induced by DMBA (7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene), tumor-to-blood ratios of 6.3 were obtained, this uptake also being depressed in animals treated with unlabeled estradiol. The studies demonstrate that Compound 1 has suitable binding properties and sufficiently high specific activity so that its uptake in estrogen target tissues in vivo is mediated primarily by the estrogen receptor. Furthermore, they suggest that this compound may be suitable for imaging human breast tumors that contain estrogen receptors

  5. Democratic contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the normative relationship between contract law and democracy. In particular, it argues that in order to be legitimate contract law needs to have a democratic basis. Private law is not different in this respect from public law. Thus, the first claim made in this article will

  6. Contract Teachers in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Sangeeta; Pandey, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we use non-experimental data from government schools in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, two of the largest Indian states, to present average school outcomes by contract status of teachers. We find that contract teachers are associated with higher effort than civil service teachers with permanent tenures, before as well as after…

  7. Whither Performance Contracting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Norman S.

    This report describes briefly performance contracts; discusses their shortcomings, pitfalls, and advantages; and gives some insight into the future development of this new concept. Two shortcomings of performance contracting include (1) teaching to the test and (2) board abdication of its responsibility for making final decisions about educational…

  8. Comparing contracting performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    . Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  9. BOT Outsourcing Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørberg Jensen, Peter D.; Petersen, Bent

    2012-01-01

    Build-operate-transfer (BOT) contracting has been widely usen in the engineering and construction industry, but has only recently been introduced in services industry domains. Notably, service provider firms from emerging markets have recently started offering BOT outsourcing contracts. In this p...

  10. Electrophysiological evidence of increased glycine receptor-mediated phasic and tonic inhibition by blockade of glycine transporters in spinal superficial dorsal horn neurons of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misa Oyama

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To understand the synaptic and/or extrasynaptic mechanisms underlying pain relief by blockade of glycine transporter subtypes GlyT1 and GlyT2, whole-cell recordings were made from dorsal horn neurons in spinal slices from adult mice, and the effects of NFPS and ALX-1393, selective GlyT1 and GlyT2 inhibitors, respectively, on phasic evoked or miniature glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (eIPSCs or mIPSCs were examined. NFPS and ALX-1393 prolonged the decay phase of eIPSCs without affecting their amplitude. In the presence of tetrodotoxin to record mIPSCs, NFPS and ALX-1393 induced a tonic inward current that was reversed by strychnine. Although NFPS had no statistically significant influences on mIPSCs, ALX-1393 significantly increased their frequency. We then further explored the role of GlyTs in the maintenance of glycinergic IPSCs. To facilitate vesicular release of glycine, repetitive high-frequency stimulation (HFS was applied at 10 Hz for 3 min during continuous recordings of eIPSCs at 0.1 Hz. Prominent suppression of eIPSCs was evident after HFS in the presence of ALX-1393, but not NFPS. Thus, it appears that phasic and tonic inhibition may contribute to the analgesic effects of GlyT inhibitors. However, reduced glycinergic inhibition due to impaired vesicular refilling could hamper the analgesic efficacy of GlyT2 inhibitors.

  11. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  12. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  13. Context-Dependent Modulation of αβγ and αβγ GABAA Receptors by Penicillin: Implications for Phasic and Tonic Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hua-Jun; Botzolakis, Emmanuel J.; Macdonald, Robert L.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Penicillin, an open-channel blocker of GABAA receptors, was recently reported to inhibit phasic, but not tonic, currents in hippocampal neurons. To distinguish between isoform-specific and context-dependent modulation as possible explanations for this selectivity, the effects of penicillin were evaluated on recombinant GABAA receptors expressed in HEK293T cells. When co-applied with saturating GABA, penicillin decreased peak amplitude, induced rebound, and prolonged deactivation of currents evoked from both synaptic and extrasynaptic receptor isoforms. However, penicillin had isoform-specific effects on the extent of desensitization, reflecting its ability to differentially modulate peak (non-equilibrium) and residual (near-equilibrium) currents. This suggested that the context of activation could determine the apparent sensitivity of a given receptor isoform to penicillin. To test this hypothesis, we explored the ability of penicillin to modulate synaptic and extrasynaptic isoforms that were activated under more physiologically relevant conditions. Interestingly, while currents evoked from synaptic isoforms under phasic conditions (transient activation by a saturating concentration of GABA) were substantially inhibited by penicillin, currents evoked from extrasynaptic isoforms under tonic conditions (prolonged application by a sub-saturating concentration of GABA) were minimally affected. We therefore concluded that the reported inability of penicillin to modulate tonic currents could not simply be attributed to insensitivity of extrasynaptic receptors, but rather, reflected an inability to modulate these receptors in their native context of activation. PMID:18775733

  14. Drilling contracts and incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmundsen, Petter; Sorenes, Terje; Toft, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Shortages of rigs and personnel have encouraged discussion of designing incentive contracts in the drilling sector. However, for the drilling contracts, there are not a large variety of contract types in use. This article describes and analyses incentives for drilling contractors. These are directly represented by the compensation formats utilised in the present and in the consecutive drilling contracts. Indirectly, incentives are also provided by the evaluation criteria that oil companies use for awarding drilling assignments. Changes in contract format pose a number of relevant questions relating to resource management, and the article takes an in-depth look at some of these. Do evaluation criteria for awarding drilling assignments encourage the development of new technology and solutions? How will a stronger focus on drilling efficiency influence reservoir utilisation?

  15. Drilling contract issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davison, G.B.; Worden, D.R.; Borbridge, G.K.D.

    1997-01-01

    Some selected issues which are facing both operators and contractors in drilling for oil and gas, such as the allocation of risk by contract and by statute and the implementation of new technologies, were discussed. There are three varieties of written drilling contracts used in Canada: (1) day work and meterage contracts, (2) master drilling agreements, and (3) contracts that are used in construction projects that do not specifically relate to drilling. Issues relevant to the contractual allocation of risk, to implementing new drilling technologies, to reconciling contract and statute liability, and the formation of strategic alliances for mutual benefit, and the factors contributing to the success of such alliances were explored. 12 refs

  16. THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Giorgiana GRAMA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The psychological contract became known as a research paradigm within corporate research, providing a broad framework which explains the employee-company relations. Despite all this, there are still many debates on the concept and a series of criticism were expressed that led to the necessity of some more rigorous theoretical and empirical analysis. The psychological contract refers to the unwritten, implicit expectations that employees have from the company and vice versa; it is that which defines the things the employee expects from the employer. Consequently, each of the parties involved in the contract may have different perceptions on these commitments and obligations. Thus the psychological contract may be regarded as an exchange relation between the employer and the employee. Breaking the psychological contract affects the performance, the morale, and the motivation of the staff in a negative manner. The information presented in this paper is intended to contribute to the theoretical and methodological development of the concept.

  17. Factors influencing women's preferences for subsequent management in the event of incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for miscarriage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hentzen, Judith E. K. R.; Verschoor, Marianne A.; Lemmers, Marike; Ankum, Willem M.; Mol, Ben Willem J.; van Wely, Madelon

    2017-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: What affects women's treatment preferences in the management of an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after misoprostol treatment for a first-trimester miscarriage? SUMMARY ANSWER: Women's treatment preferences in the management of an incomplete evacuation of the uterus after

  18. Comparison of estrogenic responses in bone and uterus depending on the parity status in Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiler, Annekathrin Martina; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Scharnweber, Dieter; Jarry, Hubertus; Vollmer, Günter; Zierau, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The reproductive transition of women through peri- to postmenopause is characterized by changes in steroid hormone levels due to the cessation of the ovarian function. Beside several complaints associated with these hormonal changes, the deterioration of the trabecular bone micro-architecture and the loss of skeletal mass can cause osteoporosis. At this life stage, women often have a reproductive history of one to several pregnancies. The ovariectomized skeletally mature rat (>10 months old) is one of the most commonly used animal models for postmenopausal osteoporosis research. Despite the fact that mammals can undergo up to several reproductive cycles (primi-/pluriparous), nulliparous animals are often used and the question whether changes in the hormonal milieu subsequently affect the skeleton and influence the outcome of intervention studies is often neglected in study designs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare the estrogen responsiveness of nulliparous and pluriparous rats. For this purpose, one year old virgin or retired breeder Lewis rats were either sham operated or ovariectomized, whereas half of the ovariectomized animals received subcutaneous 17β-estradiol pellets eight weeks after surgery. After another four weeks, the effects on the uterus were determined by expression analysis of estrogen-dependently regulated steroid receptor genes and well-established marker genes. Moreover, trabecular bone parameters in the tibia were analyzed by micro-computed tomography (μCT). Parity-dependency in estrogen responsiveness was observed with respect to the achieved serum E2 levels in response to similar E2 treatment. This led to differences both on the uterus wet weight and on the expression level of uterine target genes. In addition, a reversal of the ovariectomy-induced changes of the bone architecture after 17β-estradiol substitution was only observed among the nulliparous. In conclusion, the observations of this study support parity

  19. Subclinical pregnancy toxemia induced gene expression changes in ovine placenta and uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramanathan K Kasimanickam

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to elucidate gene expression differences in uterus, caruncle and cotyledon of ewes with subclinical pregnancy toxemia (SCPT and healthy ewes, and to identify associated biological functions and pathways involved in pregnancy toxemia. On Day 136 (±1 day post breeding ewes (n=18 had body condition score (BCS; 1 to 5; 1, emaciated; 5, obese assessed and blood samples were collected for plasma glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA analyses. The ewes were euthanized and tissue samples were collected from the gravid uterus and placentomes. Based on BCS (2.0 ± 0.02, glucose (2.4 ± 0.33 and BHBA (0.97 ± 0.06 concentrations, ewes (n=10 were grouped as healthy (n=5 and subclinical SCPT (n=5 ewes. The mRNA expressions were determined by quantitative PCR method and prediction of miRNA partners and target genes for the predicted miRNA were identified using miRDB (http://mirdb.org/miRDB/. Top ranked target genes were used to identify associated biological functions and pathways in response to subclinical pregnancy toxemia using PANTHER. The angiogenesis genes VEGF and PlGF, and AdipoQ, AdipoR2, PPARG, LEP, IGF1, IGF2, IL1b and TNFα mRNA expressions were lower in abundances; whereas hypoxia genes eNOS, HIF1a, and HIF 2a, and sFlt1 and KDR mRNA expressions were greater in abundances in uterus and placenta of SCPT ewes compared to healthy ewes (P<0.05. The predicted miRNA and associated target genes contributed to several biological processes, including apoptosis, biological adhesion, biological regulation, cellular component biogenesis, cellular process, developmental process, immune system process, localization, metabolic process, multicellular organismal process, reproduction, and response to stimulus. The target genes were involved in several pathways including angiogenesis, cytoskeletal regulation, hypoxia response via HIF activation, interleukin signaling, ubiquitin proteasome and VEGF signaling pathway. In conclusion, genes

  20. Contract Award Decisions Resulting in Contract Termination for Default

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... Specifically, the audit focused on contracts terminated either for default or convenience and determined whether the contract terminations could have been averted based on information available before contract award...

  1. ENFORCEMENT OF MORTGAGE CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa A. BELU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A chattel mortgage contract is the expression of a real guarantee that gives the creditor precedence over other creditors, in addition to the general pledge upon the belongings of the debtor. It refers to the sale of mortgaged movable assets, exclusively or prioritized in favor of the mortgaging creditor, in case the debtor does not comply with his / her commitments, under the signed mortgage contract. Beginning from this purpose, shared by both sides (as the chattel mortgage contract is synallagmatic, in case the debtor is unable to fulfill his / her commitments, the sides reach a situation of enforcement of the signed chattel mortgage contract. Given the legal status of the chattel mortgage contract [Art. 2387-2477 Noul Cod Civil , Universul Juridic, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-673-792-0], the principle of binding force of the contract and the principle according to which signed legal conventions will entail legal effects, the Romanian law maker developed the proper legal framework for the enforcement of the chattel mortgage contract. [art. 622 si urm. Noul Cod de Procedură Civilă, ed. Hamangiu, Bucureşti, 2016, ISBN 978-606-27-0459-9].

  2. JURIDICAL WILL IN CONTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian CIONGARU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the business law, almost all judicial relationships of private law are obligational juridical relationships which are made up of legal acts and facts. The most important legal act is the contract since it is the basis of the social life in any community meaning that it represents the most important economic and juridical instrument for the participants to a contract. The persons are free and equal in society and, consequently, no power is valid and fundamental unless it relies on their consent, namely on a contract. So, the existence of a civil contract relies on the principles of consensualism, a perception based on moral rules to observe one’s promises, to have good faith and to observe the interests of your fellow creature. The exterior manifestation, the expression or declaration of the juridical will constitutes the consent of such person in making the structure of contract. The declared will must correspond to the person’s real will and the adoption and declaration of the juridical will must take place consciously. Any contract that does not derive from juridical will is null and the civilizing character is inexistent. The principles giving sense to consensualism is the one of agreement between parties so as to produce legal effects by itself and it is enough for the conclusion of a contract, regardless of the form in which it is exteriorized, a principle expressed by the Latin adagio pacta sunt servanda.

  3. Intrauterine Linear Echogenicities in the Gravid Uterus: What Radiologists Should Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kyle K; Oh, Karen Y; Kennedy, Anne M; Sohaey, Roya

    2018-01-01

    Intrauterine linear echogenicity (ILE) is a common ultrasonographic finding in the gravid uterus and has variable causes and variable maternal and fetal outcomes. Correctly categorizing ILE during pregnancy is crucial for guiding surveillance and advanced imaging strategies. Common causes of ILE include membranes in multiple gestations, uterine synechiae with amniotic sheets, and uterine duplication anomalies. Less common causes include circumvallate placenta, chorioamniotic separation, and hemorrhage between membranes. Amniotic band syndrome is a rare but important diagnosis to consider, as it causes severe fetal defects. Imaging findings enable body stalk anomaly, a lethal defect, to be distinguished from amniotic bands, which although destructive are not necessarily lethal. This review describes the key imaging findings used to differentiate the various types of ILE in pregnancy, thus enabling accurate diagnosis and appropriate patient counseling. Online supplemental material is available for this article. © RSNA, 2018.

  4. Imaging of uterus and ovaries in children; Bildgebende Diagnostik des inneren weiblichen Genitales bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorge, Ina; Hirsch, Franz Wolfgang [Universitaetsklinikum Leipzig (Germany). Abt. fuer Paediatrische Radiologie

    2015-06-15

    The clinical symptoms of pathologies of the uterus and ovaries are relatively unspecific. Their presentation includes absence of symptoms, abdominal pain and acute abdomen - but also developmental alterations during puberty and problems with menstruation and conception. Ultrasound can reliably diagnose most of these diseases. MRI is being a second line of diagnostics especially in cases of malformation and possible tumors. It is decisive for a valid interpretation of results to be aware of age-dependent normal findings and to have a working knowledge of embryologic processes, especially to understand how deformities take shape. This article is presenting normal findings and many pathologies of the female inner genital in childhood and puberty. By using exemplary images we will cover their differential diagnoses, pitfalls and typical presentations.

  5. Transcriptomic changes in the pre-implantation uterus highlight histotrophic nutrition of the developing marsupial embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Camilla M; O'Meally, Denis; Laird, Melanie K; Belov, Katherine; Thompson, Michael B; McAllan, Bronwyn M

    2018-02-05

    Early pregnancy is a critical time for successful reproduction; up to half of human pregnancies fail before the development of the definitive chorioallantoic placenta. Unlike the situation in eutherian mammals, marsupial pregnancy is characterised by a long pre-implantation period prior to the development of the short-lived placenta, making them ideal models for study of the uterine environment promoting embryonic survival pre-implantation. Here we present a transcriptomic study of pre-implantation marsupial pregnancy, and identify differentially expressed genes in the Sminthopsis crassicaudata uterus involved in metabolism and biosynthesis, transport, immunity, tissue remodelling, and uterine receptivity. Interestingly, almost one quarter of the top 50 genes that are differentially upregulated in early pregnancy are putatively involved in histotrophy, highlighting the importance of nutrient transport to the conceptus prior to the development of the placenta. This work furthers our understanding of the mechanisms underlying survival of pre-implantation embryos in the earliest live bearing ancestors of mammals.

  6. Unilateral occlusion of duplicated uterus with ipsilateral renal anomaly in young girls: a study with MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y.W.; Shieh, C.P.; Chen, W.J.

    1995-01-01

    Twenty-four young girls (mean age 13.0 years) with unilateral occlusion of a duplicated uterus and ipsilateral renal agenesis, dysplasia or hypoplasia were studied with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) following ultrasound examination. Hydrocolpos (n=4), hydrometrocolpos (n=2), hematocolpos (n=11), hematometrocolpos (n=5), hematocolpometra, hematosalpinx (n=3) and hematometra, hematosalpinx (n=1) were noted (two of these patients had presented with hydrocolpos and hematocolpos before and after the menarche). Twenty-two of these girls presented with ipsilateral renal agenesis (right 11, left 11) with ectopic ureters to Gartner's dust cysts (GDC) in two, in one renal hypoplasia and in one renal dysplasia with ectopic ureters to GDC. MRI offered specific images of the genital tract, showing the exact type of muellerian duct anomaly and providing high diagnostic accuracy. Such preoperative identification of a uterine anomaly, complemented with appropriate surgical intervention, can assist young girls in achieving normal fertility in the future. (orig.)

  7. Symptomatic endometriosis of rectus abdominis muscle in a patient with uterus didelphys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yavuz Emre Şükür

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Endometriosis of the rectus abdominis muscle is a very rare event and it should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of women with abdominal wall mass. Case: 42 year-old G2 P2 patient with uterus didelphis was referred with a painful abdominal wall mass of approximately 4x5 cm size. The mass that has contrast matter enhancement on CT was excised with median laparotomy below the umbilicus. The mass which was thought as endometriosis was excised without remaining any pieces to prevent recurrence and primarily repaired. Discussion: Along with the increasing incidence due to increased cessarean rates the endometrial wall endometriosis is an important diagnosis that should not be omitted. The treatment is surgical resection and to we should take care not to leave any pieces to prevent recurrence especially when it is located atypically.

  8. Absorbed Dose in the Uterus of a Three Months Pregnant Woman Due to 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega-Carrillo, Hector Rene; Manzanares-Acuna, Eduardo; Hernandez-Davila, Victor Martin; Arcos-Pichardo, Areli; Barquero, Raquel; Iniguez, M. Pilar

    2006-01-01

    The use of 131I is widely used in diagnostic and treatment of patients. If the patient is pregnant the 131I presence in the thyroid it becomes a source of constant exposition to other organs and the fetus. In this study the absorbed dose in the uterus of a 3 months pregnant woman with 131I in her thyroid gland has been calculated. The dose was determined using Monte Carlo methods in which a detailed model of the woman has been developed. The dose was also calculated using a simple procedure that was refined including the photons' attenuation in the woman organs and body. To verify these results an experiment was carried out using a neck phantom with 131I. Comparing the results it was found that the simple calculation tend to overestimate the absorbed dose, by doing the corrections due to body and organs photon attenuation the dose is 0.14 times the Monte Carlo estimation

  9. Bottlenecks and contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The report surveys the central points in the literature about contracts on geographical price differences and transmission rights in the power market. It is commonly believed that such contracts may reduce market power and contribute to better network investments. The theoretical debate is in part unfinished and largely based on very stylised assumptions. There is some indication that such contracts may not be very useful in practice. But they may be useful in some cases, perhaps in particular when power is transported outside limited surplus areas and for certain investment decisions where there is no systems operator with a natural responsibility

  10. Contract management survey 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-10-01

    Spending on clinical contracts continues to outpace spending on business services, but may be leveling off. The 12th annual Contract Management Survey shows that the performance of clinical vendors is now comparable to business service vendors in meeting savings targets. Both business and clinical vendors are receiving higher marks from hospital leaders, but execs quickly respond to low marks by bringing the service back in-house of changing vendors. This report examines trends in outsourcing, satisfaction levels, the decision-making process, contract features and performance, and spending.

  11. 2001 contract management survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-10-01

    For the second year running, hospitals are spending more on clinical outsourcing than on business services. The Eleventh Annual Contract Services Survey shows that, in clinical areas, executives use outsourcing to acquire specialized expertise with cost savings secondary. Reducing costs and FTEs are the primary reasons for outsourcing business operations. Business service contracts are more likely to meet expectations for cost savings. Overall, satisfaction levels are up, but in some areas there's still a lot of room for improvement. This report examines current trends in outsourcing, strategies for the future, satisfaction levels, the decisionmaking process, contract features, and costs.

  12. The contract - introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    The contract is the last and final step of project planning and the first step of project implementation. The contract has to specify in detail and to the point, as concisely as possible, the complete scope of supplies and work, define all technical particulars and requirements, put forward the conditions of legal, regulatory, administrative and financial procedure, prepare for operating and maintenance instructions to be issued after commissioning. In short, the contract is expected to be a reliable instrument during the manufacturing and construction period as well as a guide-book to assist the owner afterwards in the operation and maintenance of the plant. (orig./FW) [de

  13. Recurrent incarceration of the retroverted gravid uterus at term - two times transvaginal caesarean section : a case report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Tuuk, K.; Krenning, R.A.; Krenning, G.; Monincx, W.M.

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Persistent retroversion of a gravid uterus (incarceration) in the third trimester is an extremely rare diagnosis and is only scarcely been described. Its prevalence may lead to increased foetal mortality and maternal morbidity. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case where a 35-year-old

  14. New bradykinin analogues acetylated on their N-terminus: Effect on rat blood pressure and rat uterus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Labudda-Dawidowska, O.; Sobolewski, D.; Sleszyňska, M.; Derdowska, I.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Wierzba, T.; Prahl, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 12, Supplement (2006), s. 190 ISSN 1075-2617. [European Peptide Symposium /29./. 03.09.2006-08.09.2006, Gdansk] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bradykinin * N-terminus * rat uterus Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  15. Posterior intravaginal slingplasty with preservation of the uterus: a modified surgical technique in a young myelomeningocele patient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verguts, Jasper; Roovers, Jan-Paul; de Ridder, Dirk; Coremans, Georges; Deprest, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of uterine prolapse in a young woman, treated by posterior intravaginal slingplasty with preservation of the uterus as a feasible and safe surgical procedure. Posterior intravaginal slingplasty is commonly used to correct vaginal vault prolapse, but may be a valuable alternative to

  16. Altered expression of miRNAs in the uterus from a letrozole-induced rat PCOS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunjin; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Yun; Chen, Shuxiong; Fu, Lulu; Jiang, Yanwen; Gao, Shan; Liu, Zhuo; Wang, Fengge; Zhu, Xiaoling; Rao, Jiahui; Zhang, Jing; Zhou, Xu

    2017-01-20

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) causes female subfertility with ovarian disorders and may be associated with increased rate of early-pregnancy failure. Rat PCOS models were established using letrozole to understand the uterine pathogenesis of PCOS. The differential expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) was observed in rat uterus with PCOS. After estrous cycles were disrupted, significantly abnormal ovarian morphology and hormone level were observed in rats with PCOS. A total of 148 miRNAs differentially expressed were identified in the uterus from the letrozole-induced rat model compared with the control. These miRNAs included 111 upregulated miRNAs and 37 downregulated miRNAs. The differential expression of miR-484, miR-375-3p, miR-324-5p, and miR-223-3p was further confirmed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Bioinformatic analysis showed that these four miRNAs were predicted to regulate a large number of genes with different functions. Pathway analysis supported that target genes of miRNAs were involved in insulin secretion and signaling pathways, such as wnt, AMPK, PI3K-Akt, and Ras. These data indicated that miRNAs differentially expressed in rat uterus with PCOS may be associated with PCOS pathogenesis in the uterus. Our findings can help clarify the mechanism of uterine defects in PCOS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Selection of internal control genes for real-time quantitative PCR in ovary and uterus of sows across pregnancy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Martínez-Giner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reproductive traits play a key role in pig production in order to reduce costs and increase economic returns. Among others, gene expression analyses represent a useful approach to study genetic mechanisms underlying reproductive traits in pigs. The application of reverse-transcription quantitative PCR requires the selection of appropriate reference genes, whose expression levels should not be affected by the experimental conditions, especially when comparing gene expression across different physiological stages. RESULTS: The gene expression stability of ten potential reference genes was studied by three different methods (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper in ovary and uterus collected at five different physiological time points (heat, and 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of pregnancy. Although final ranking differed, the three algorithms gave very similar results. Thus, the most stable genes across time were TBP and UBC in uterus and TBP and HPRT1 in ovary, while HMBS and ACTB showed the less stable expression in uterus and ovary, respectively. When studied as a systematic effect, the reproductive stage did not significantly affect the expression of the candidate reference genes except at 30d and 60d of pregnancy, when a general drop in expression was observed in ovary. CONCLUSIONS: Based in our results, we propose the use of TBP, UBC and SDHA in uterus and TBP, GNB2L1 and HPRT1 in ovary for normalization of longitudinal expression studies using quantitative PCR in sows.

  18. Delivery of double singleton pregnancies in a woman with a double uterus, double cervix, and complete septate vagina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jie Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uterine anomalies involving a double uterus, double cervix, also known as didelphys uterus, and complete septate vagina are rarely seen and have an associated fertility problem. However, artificial reproductive technology with embryo transfers can help solve this fertility challenge. Conception in the uterus in just one side is commonly seen for embryos, which are always transferred through the usually used (dilated vagina. We here present a patient with the above uterine anomaly who conceived with the aid of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer to both uterine cavities under general anesthesia, which resulted in successful double singleton pregnancies with one fetus in each uterus. With intensive prenatal care, the pregnancy course for each fetus was rather uneventful. Although both fetuses were in cephalic presentation, cesarean section was performed at the 39th week of gestation with good outcomes in order to preclude anticipated difficulties if the baby had been delivered through the rarely dilated vagina. However, order of birth between the two fetuses was a crucial decision during the operation.

  19. [Rupture during pregnancy of the rudimentary horn of a pseudo-unicorn uterus. Apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubard, Y; Moinet, A; Eyraud, J P; Amat, P; Renaudie, J; Baudet, J H

    1986-09-20

    The rupture of the rudimentary horn of a pseudo-unicorn uterus is a rare accident. The case reported here is very similar to most of those published. It is usually during the fifth month of a pregnancy, normal until then, that a state of shock appear suddenly, requiring a surgical procedure and disclosing this exceptional diagnosis.

  20. Spontaneous Rupture of an Unscarred Uterus Caused by Near-Cornual Pregnancy with Placenta Accreta at 4 Months of Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chu Huang

    2005-12-01

    Conclusions: Spontaneous rupture of an unscarred uterus can occur at any stage of pregnancy. The placental implantation near the cornu with accreta may have been the cause of the uterine rupture in this patient. Noting the site of implantation should be an important component during antenatal sonography. Furthermore, uterine rupture should be included in the differential diagnosis of pregnant women with abdominal pain.

  1. Cytological evaluation of inflammation of the uterus and influence of endometritis on selected reproductive parameters in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodzki Piotr

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There were two aims of this study. One was to evaluate the postpartum state of the reproductive system in cows based on ultrasonography, bacterial culture, and cytological examination of the uterus. The other was to determine whether postpartum endometritis affects the subsequent state of the endometrium, and, in consequence, selected reproductive parameters in cows. The study was conducted on 60 cows: the experimental group of 30 cows with endometritis, and 30 cows free of uterine inflammation (control. The percentage of leukocytes in both groups was similar only on day 5 of postpartum. In all subsequent tests (26, 40, 61 d postpartum, the percentage of leukocytes in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.001, both in samples collected with a brush and in lavage samples. Involution of the uterus in the experimental group was also slower (P < 0.001. The analysed reproductive parameters were markedly less favourable in the experimental group than in the control. The study showed that postpartum inflammation of the uterus can persist for a long time in the form of endometritis, causing substantial deterioration of reproductive parameters in cows. The authors suggest that cytological evaluation of the uterus, preferably using a brush, should be performed as soon as possible after parturition, even before day 21, up to which time puerperal metritis may still persist. Evaluation of the inflammatory process based on the number of leukocytes and the quality of endometrial cells is important.

  2. Abscessed Uterine and Extrauterine Adenomyomas with Uterus-Like Features in a 56-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asiye Safak Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Adenomyosis, also known as endometriosis interna, is the presence of endometrial glands and stroma within the myometrium. Its localised form is called adenomyoma and mimics a leiomyoma. Rarely, adenomyomas are located outside the uterus and some of them form uterus-like masses with a thick muscle wall and an endometrium-lined central cavity. They are generally located in the ovary or broad ligament, and, although they are closely related to endometriosis, their pathogenetic mechanisms are different from each other. Müllerian duct fusion defect and subcoelomic mesenchyme transformation theory are two possible pathogenetic mechanisms for this rare entity. Here we report abscessed uterine and extrauterine adenomyomas forming uterus-like masses in the left and right broad ligament and an ectopic adrenal tissue in the left paraovarian region in a 56-year-old woman. Although there is a reported abscessed adenomyosis in the literature, this is the first abscessed extrauterine uterus-like masses with synchronous pelvic pathologies like endometriosis, leiomyomas, adenomyosis, an endometrial polyp, an endocervical polyp, and an ectopic adrenal tissue. This benign lesion gives the impression of leiomyoma, a uterine malformation, or even malignancy preoperatively. Frozen section helps in differential diagnosis.

  3. In vivo xenoestrogenic actions of cadmium and arsenic in anterior pituitary and uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronchetti, Sonia A; Novack, Gisela V; Bianchi, María S; Crocco, Melisa C; Duvilanski, Beatriz H; Cabilla, Jimena P

    2016-07-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (iAs) are toxic metals ubiquitously present in the environment. Both pollutants exert nonmonotonic dose responses, being mostly cytotoxic at high concentrations but mimicking estrogen (E2) effects at low doses. Xenoestrogenic activity of Cd and iAs has been demonstrated in different hormone-dependent tumor cell lines; however, their actions in vivo remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated whether in vivo administration of low doses of Cd and iAs through drinking water would display xenoestrogenic effects in the anterior pituitary gland and uterus of ovariectomized rats. Cd (1ppm) and iAs (0.1ppm) exposure increased the wet weight of anterior pituitary gland and uterus and induced proestrus- and estrus-like vaginal smears. Both metals stimulate cell proliferation of these tissues as they increased the expression of proliferation markers. More importantly, they augmented soluble guanylyl cyclase α1 subunit expression, which has been linked to hormone-dependent tumor progression. Also, Cd and iAs modified protein levels of full-length estrogen receptor α and its truncated variants in an E2-like manner. Anterior pituitary hormone secretion was differentially affected by both metals. Luteinizing hormone synthesis and release were strongly diminished after Cd exposure and only mildly reduced by iAs. Both metals were able to increase prolactin synthesis, although only iAs augmented serum prolactin levels. This study shows for the first time that Cd and iAs exert strong xenoestrogenic effects on anterior pituitary gland at low doses. The differences between Cd and iAs E2-like behavior indicate that other Cd- and iAs-specific mechanisms could be involved. Altogether, these results contribute to the knowledge of reproductive disorders associated with Cd and iAs environmental contamination. © 2016 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Gene expression of estrogen and oxytocin receptors in the uterus of pregnant and parturient bitches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veiga, G.A.L. [Departamento de Reprodução Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Milazzotto, M.P. [Centro de Ciências Naturais e Humanas, Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André, SP (Brazil); Nichi, M.; Lúcio, C.F.; Silva, L.C.G.; Angrimani, D.S.R.; Vannucchi, C.I. [Departamento de Reprodução Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    In the canine species, the precise mechanisms of pregnancy maintenance and the initiation of parturition are not completely understood. The expression of genes encoding the receptors for estrogen (ERα mRNA) and oxytocin (OTR mRNA) was studied in the endometrium and myometrium during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the levels of ERα mRNA and OTR mRNA in the uterus of bitches during early (up to 20 days of gestation), mid (20 to 40 days) and late pregnancy (41 to 60 days), and parturition (first stage of labor). All tissues expressed ERα and OTR mRNA, and are thus possibly able to respond to eventual estrogen and oxytocin hormonal stimuli. No statistically significant differences in the expression of ERα mRNA were verified in the endometrium and myometrium throughout pregnancy and parturition, but expression of OTR mRNA increased at both parturition and late pregnancy. We concluded that the increase of endometrial and myometrial OTR mRNA expression in dogs is not an event dependent on estrogenic stimulation. Moreover, the contractility response of the canine uterus to oxytocin begins during pregnancy and maintains myometrial activity. The expression of OTR mRNA in canine uterine tissues varied over time, which supports an interpretation that the sensitivity and response to hormone therapy varies during the course of pregnancy and labor. Further studies are needed to elucidate the factors underlying the synthesis of uterine oxytocin receptors and the possible role of ERβ rather than ERα in the uterine tissues during pregnancy and parturition in dogs.

  5. Gene expression of estrogen and oxytocin receptors in the uterus of pregnant and parturient bitches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, G.A.L.; Milazzotto, M.P.; Nichi, M.; Lúcio, C.F.; Silva, L.C.G.; Angrimani, D.S.R.; Vannucchi, C.I.

    2015-01-01

    In the canine species, the precise mechanisms of pregnancy maintenance and the initiation of parturition are not completely understood. The expression of genes encoding the receptors for estrogen (ERα mRNA) and oxytocin (OTR mRNA) was studied in the endometrium and myometrium during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the levels of ERα mRNA and OTR mRNA in the uterus of bitches during early (up to 20 days of gestation), mid (20 to 40 days) and late pregnancy (41 to 60 days), and parturition (first stage of labor). All tissues expressed ERα and OTR mRNA, and are thus possibly able to respond to eventual estrogen and oxytocin hormonal stimuli. No statistically significant differences in the expression of ERα mRNA were verified in the endometrium and myometrium throughout pregnancy and parturition, but expression of OTR mRNA increased at both parturition and late pregnancy. We concluded that the increase of endometrial and myometrial OTR mRNA expression in dogs is not an event dependent on estrogenic stimulation. Moreover, the contractility response of the canine uterus to oxytocin begins during pregnancy and maintains myometrial activity. The expression of OTR mRNA in canine uterine tissues varied over time, which supports an interpretation that the sensitivity and response to hormone therapy varies during the course of pregnancy and labor. Further studies are needed to elucidate the factors underlying the synthesis of uterine oxytocin receptors and the possible role of ERβ rather than ERα in the uterine tissues during pregnancy and parturition in dogs

  6. Developmental Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Bisphenol A on the Uterus of Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilbert Schönfelder

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to estrogenic compounds during critical periods of fetal development could result in adverse effects on the development of reproductive organs that are not apparent until later in life. Bisphenol A (BPA, which is employed in the manufacture of a wide range of consumer products, is a prime candidate for endocrine disruption. We examined BPA to address the question of whether in utero exposure affects the uterus of the offspring and studied the expression and distribution of the estrogen receptors alpha (ERβ and beta (ERα, because estrogens influence the development, growth, and function of the uterus through both receptors. Gravid Sprague-Dawley dams were administered by gavage either 0.1 or 50 mg/kg per day BPA or 0.2 mg/kg per day 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2 as reference dose on gestation days 6 through 21. Female offspring were killed in estrus. Uterine morphologic changes as well as ERα and ERβ distribution and expression were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. Striking morphologic changes were observed in the uterine epithelium of postpubertal offspring during estrus of the in utero BPA-treated animals (the thickness of the total epithelium was significantly reduced. ERβ expression was increased in the 50-mg BPA and EE2-treated group. In contrast, we observed significantly decreased ERβ expression in all BPA- and EE2-treated animals when compared with the control. In summary, these results clearly indicate that in utero exposure of rats to BPA promotes uterine disruption in offspring. We hypothesize that the uterine disruption could possibly be provoked by a dysregulation of ERα and ERβ.

  7. The fate of autologous endometrial mesenchymal stromal cells after application in the healthy equine uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rink, Elisabeth; Beyer, Teresa; French, Hilari; Watson, Elaine; Aurich, Christine; Donadeu, Xavier

    2018-05-23

    Because of their distinct differentiation, immunomodulatory and migratory capacities, endometrial mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) may provide an optimum source of therapeutic cells not only in relation to the uterus but also for regeneration of other tissues. This study reports the fate of endometrial MSCs following intrauterine application in mares. Stromal cell fractions were isolated from endometrial biopsies taken from seven reproductively healthy mares, expanded and fluorescence-labeled in culture. MSCs (15 x 106) or PBS were autologously infused into each uterine horn during early diestrus and subsequently tracked by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry of endometrial biopsies and blood samples taken periodically after infusion. The inflammatory response to cell infusion was monitored in endometrial cytology samples. MSCs were detected in endometrial sections at 6, 12 and 24 hours but not later (7 or 14 days) after cell infusion. Cells were in all cases located in the uterine lumen, never within endometrial tissue. No fluorescence signal was detected in blood samples at any time point after infusion. Cytology analyses showed an increase in %PMN between 1 and 3 hours after uterine infusion with either MSCs or PBS, and a further increase by 6 hours only in mares infused with PBS. In summary, endometrial MSCs were detected in the uterine lumen for up to 24 h after infusion but did not migrate into healthy endometrium. Moreover, MSCs effectively attenuated the inflammatory response to uterine infusion. We conclude that endometrial MSCs obtained from routine uterine biopsies could provide a safe and effective cell source for treatment of inflammatory conditions of the uterus and potentially other tissues.

  8. Gene expression of estrogen and oxytocin receptors in the uterus of pregnant and parturient bitches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, G A L; Milazzotto, M P; Nichi, M; Lúcio, C F; Silva, L C G; Angrimani, D S R; Vannucchi, C I

    2015-04-01

    In the canine species, the precise mechanisms of pregnancy maintenance and the initiation of parturition are not completely understood. The expression of genes encoding the receptors for estrogen (ERα mRNA) and oxytocin (OTR mRNA) was studied in the endometrium and myometrium during pregnancy and parturition in dogs. Real-time PCR was performed to quantify the levels of ERα mRNA and OTR mRNA in the uterus of bitches during early (up to 20 days of gestation), mid (20 to 40 days) and late pregnancy (41 to 60 days), and parturition (first stage of labor). All tissues expressed ERα and OTR mRNA, and are thus possibly able to respond to eventual estrogen and oxytocin hormonal stimuli. No statistically significant differences in the expression of ERα mRNA were verified in the endometrium and myometrium throughout pregnancy and parturition, but expression of OTR mRNA increased at both parturition and late pregnancy. We concluded that the increase of endometrial and myometrial OTR mRNA expression in dogs is not an event dependent on estrogenic stimulation. Moreover, the contractility response of the canine uterus to oxytocin begins during pregnancy and maintains myometrial activity. The expression of OTR mRNA in canine uterine tissues varied over time, which supports an interpretation that the sensitivity and response to hormone therapy varies during the course of pregnancy and labor. Further studies are needed to elucidate the factors underlying the synthesis of uterine oxytocin receptors and the possible role of ERβ rather than ERα in the uterine tissues during pregnancy and parturition in dogs.

  9. Hot topic: 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveals the microbiome of the virgin and pregnant bovine uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, S G; Ericsson, A C; Poock, S E; Melendez, P; Lucy, M C

    2017-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the uterus of virgin heifers and pregnant cows possessed a resident microbiome by 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the virgin and pregnant bovine uterus. The endometrium of 10 virgin heifers in estrus and the amniotic fluid, placentome, intercotyledonary placenta, cervical lumen, and external cervix surface (control) of 5 pregnant cows were sampled using aseptic techniques. The DNA was extracted, the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, and amplicons were sequenced using Illumina MiSeq technology (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA). Operational taxonomic units (OTU) were generated from the sequences using Qiime v1.8 software, and taxonomy was assigned using the Greengenes database. The effect of tissue on the microbial composition within the pregnant uterus was tested using univariate (mixed model) and multivariate (permutational multivariate ANOVA) procedures. Amplicons of 16S rRNA gene were generated in all samples, supporting the contention that the uterus of virgin heifers and pregnant cows contained a microbiome. On average, 53, 199, 380, 382, 525, and 13,589 reads annotated as 16, 35, 43, 63, 48, and 176 OTU in the placentome, virgin endometrium, amniotic fluid, cervical lumen, intercotyledonary placenta, and external surface of the cervix, respectively, were generated. The 3 most abundant phyla in the uterus of the virgin heifers and pregnant cows were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria, and they accounted for approximately 40, 35, and 10% of the sequences, respectively. Phyla abundance was similar between the tissues of the pregnant uterus. Principal component analysis, one-way PERMANOVA analysis of the Bray-Curtis similarity index, and mixed model analysis of the Shannon diversity index and Chao1 index demonstrated that the microbiome of the control tissue (external surface of the cervix) was significantly different from that of the amniotic fluid, intercotyledonary placenta, and placentome tissues

  10. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  11. Industrial Services Contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    This document gives an overview of Industrial Services contracts at CERN, including the probable expenditure in 2006 and the estimated expenditure for 2007. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note of the revised amount in 2006 for Industrial Services contracts referred to in this document of 138.02 MCHF at 2006 prices compared to the previously anticipated amount of 122.67 MCHF at 2005 prices; - to take note that the estimated amount in 2007 for the contracts referred to in this document will be 112.54 MCHF at 2006 prices; - for the reasons set out in this document, the Finance Committee is also invited to approve the requests for the contracts presented and highlighted in the Annexes.

  12. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    At its September 2000 meeting, the Finance Committee approved a second one-year extension of the four existing temporary labour contracts (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE) until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the estimated annual expenditure on temporary labour in 2001 will amount to approximately 4 500 000 Swiss francs against the previously estimated 6 000 000 Swiss francs; - to approve the extension of the four existing contracts by six months to 30 June 2002 for an overall amount not exceeding 1 500 000 Swiss francs; - to take note that new contracts for the Swiss part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in December 2001 and that new contracts for the French part of the CERN site will be submitted for adjudication in the course of 2002.

  13. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L021/PE, L022/PE, L023/PE and L024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) will reach the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. Following the satisfactory execution of these contracts during this period, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2000 for the first of the two years foreseen in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited: - to take note that the three-year expenditure for Temporary Labour contracts from 1997 to 1999 will not exceed 19 100 000 Swiss francs, compared to the 18 900 000 Swiss francs estimated at the time of the adjudication in March 1996; - to approve an extension of the present Temporary Labour contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs.

  14. Validation of a closed bi-phasic extraction system and of the pancake probe as instruments to radiopharmaceutical quality control procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, F.L.N.; Okamoto, M.R.Y.; Sapienza, M.T.; Ferraro, G.C.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Quality control of radiopharmaceuticals is not a common practice in Nuclear Medicine Services in Brazil. One frequent limitation is that the well counter, used to radioactivity measurement of chromatographic strips, is not available in most services. On the other hand, it's mandatory that all services have a pancake probe to control contaminations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the quality control (QC) of technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals using a pancake probe, including chromatography of 99m Tc-MDP, 99m Tc-DMSA, 99m Tc-DMSA-V, 99m Tc-Pyp, 99m Tc-ECD, 99m Tc-Dextran, 99m Tc-colloid. Also, we had available a solvent extraction methods using a multi-use closed bi-phasic system to 99m Tc-ECD and 99m Tc-MIBI, to replace the classical single-use open bi-phasic system. Material and Methods: Classical chromatographic well counter reading and solvent extraction radiochemical controls were used as standards. To variant radiation reading method, pancake probe was covered with a lead disk 3 mm thick, with a 40x10 mm slit; the activity on chromatographic strips (80x10 mm) was read over the slit. The multi-use closed bi-phasic system was done closing the extremities of a 5 or 10 mL glass pipette using flame in the point side, and rubber septa in the other side. The pipette was filled with 2.5 or 3 mL, both organic solvent and aqueous NaCl 0.9 %; then two or three drops of the sample were applied and the tube shook during 30 seconds. Two minutes after, the activity was measured over each phase using the pancake detector. The same solvent mixture was used 3 times, with 48 h interval to allow radioactivity decay. Results: Radiochemical purity determined by the classical or the modified procedures showed Pearson's correlation of 0.973 (n=17) to chromatography; 0.993 to ECD (n=14) extraction and 0.919 to MIBI (n=21) extraction. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the pancake can be used as a detection instrument in 99m Tc

  15. Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Uterus: Regional ADC Variation with Oral Contraceptive Usage and Comparison with Cervical Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messiou, Christina; Morgan, Veronica A.; Silva, Sonali S. de; Souza, Nandita M. de (Cancer Research UK Clinical Magnetic Resonance Research Group, Institute of Cancer Research and Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, Surrey (United Kingdom)); Ind, Thomas E. (Dept. of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, St George' s Hospital NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom))

    2009-07-15

    Background: There is growing interest in diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cervical carcinoma but normal uterine appearances and effects of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) have not been described. Purpose: To establish apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for normal regions of uterus, determine the effect of the OCP on these values, and compare them with ADCs from cervical cancer. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven premenopausal women (19 taking the OCP) with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were studied with T2W and diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI). Regions of interest were drawn on ADC maps by visual matching with T2W images on different zones of the uterus and values compared between women not taking and taking the OCp.A further group of 25 women with clinically obvious tumors of the cervix were also studied with T2W and DW-MRI and ADC values of tumor were compared with ADC values of cervical epithelium and stroma. Results: The ADC values of adjacent zones of the uterus and cervix were significantly different from one another (P<0.001). The junctional zone was seen as a band of restricted diffusion between endometrium and outer myometrium. The ADC value of the junctional zone of the uterus was significantly greater (P<0.001) in patients taking the OCP than those patients not taking the OCp.There was no significant affect of the OCP on the ADC values of other uterine zones. Conclusion: The zonal anatomy of the uterus is well demonstrated by DW-MRI with hormonal effects secondary to the OCP affecting junctional zone alone. ADC of cervical tumor is significantly different to cervical epithelium and stroma indicating a role in cervical cancer detection and local staging

  16. Diffusion Weighted Imaging of the Uterus: Regional ADC Variation with Oral Contraceptive Usage and Comparison with Cervical Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messiou, Christina; Morgan, Veronica A.; Silva, Sonali S. de; Souza, Nandita M. de; Ind, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is growing interest in diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cervical carcinoma but normal uterine appearances and effects of the oral contraceptive pill (OCP) have not been described. Purpose: To establish apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for normal regions of uterus, determine the effect of the OCP on these values, and compare them with ADCs from cervical cancer. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven premenopausal women (19 taking the OCP) with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) were studied with T2W and diffusion weighted MRI (DW-MRI). Regions of interest were drawn on ADC maps by visual matching with T2W images on different zones of the uterus and values compared between women not taking and taking the OCp.A further group of 25 women with clinically obvious tumors of the cervix were also studied with T2W and DW-MRI and ADC values of tumor were compared with ADC values of cervical epithelium and stroma. Results: The ADC values of adjacent zones of the uterus and cervix were significantly different from one another (P<0.001). The junctional zone was seen as a band of restricted diffusion between endometrium and outer myometrium. The ADC value of the junctional zone of the uterus was significantly greater (P<0.001) in patients taking the OCP than those patients not taking the OCp.There was no significant affect of the OCP on the ADC values of other uterine zones. Conclusion: The zonal anatomy of the uterus is well demonstrated by DW-MRI with hormonal effects secondary to the OCP affecting junctional zone alone. ADC of cervical tumor is significantly different to cervical epithelium and stroma indicating a role in cervical cancer detection and local staging

  17. Corrupt Relational Contracting

    OpenAIRE

    Johann Graf Lambsdorff; Sitki Utku Teksoz

    2002-01-01

    Because corruption must be hidden from the public and is not enforced by courts it entails transaction costs, which are larger than those from legal exchange. This suggests that corrupt contracts are primarily relational contracts where legal exchange serves as a basis for sealing and enforcing corrupt agreements. Legal exchange not only provides for corrupt opportunities, but for the necessary enforcement mechanisms. Examples of such legal exchange are long-term business exchange, belonging ...

  18. Contracting as a Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    disconfirmation of expectations theory to examine customer satisfaction in the procuring contracting officer (PCO)–program manager (PM) relationship in...marketing terms, finding that disconfirmed expectations lead to consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction. The former approach presents the idea that if an...individual exerts effort, the expectation is that successful performance will occur leading to a desired result. In contracting, the theory might be

  19. Expansionary fiscal contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Ulf Michael; Hutchison, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The Expansionary Fiscal Contraction (EFC) hypothesis predicts that a major fiscal consolidation leads to an economic expansion under certain circumstances. We test this hypothesis, and the implied non-linear responses of the economy to large and small changes in fiscal policy, using data from...... that the exogenous fiscal contraction in Denmark was a credible regime shift and, together with other reforms undertaken at the time, increased both private consumption and aggregate output....

  20. An unsatisfactory contract policy

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2012-01-01

    For the last 15 years contract policy has been one of the top priorities of CERN staff, as expressed in successive surveys initiated by the Staff Association. In one’s professional life, having some forward vision of one’s career prospects is the key to loyalty and motivation. On the contrary, instability about the future is always at the root of anxiety, conflicts, or even health problems. A good employer must therefore balance the needs of the Company and those of its employees. CERN’s current contract policy, as described in the Administrative Circular No 2, states that staff members should first obtain a limited duration (LD) contract of up to five years. Then, if they want to stay in the Organization, staff members must apply, usually once a year, and before the end of their LD contract, for an indefinite contract (IC) post. All candidates for an IC post are considered by the Review Board for the award of indefinite contracts (Review Board) which will choose the most suita...

  1. Optogenetic stimulation of VTA dopamine neurons reveals that tonic but not phasic patterns of dopamine transmission reduce ethanol self-administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline E Bass

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that acute ethanol exposure stimulates ventral tegmental area (VTA dopamine cell activity and that VTA-dependent dopamine release in terminal fields within the nucleus accumbens plays an integral role in the regulation of ethanol drinking behaviors. Unfortunately, due to technical limitations, the specific temporal dynamics linking VTA dopamine cell activation and ethanol self-administration are not known. In fact, establishing a causal link between specific patterns of dopamine transmission and ethanol drinking behaviors has proven elusive. Here, we sought to address these gaps in our knowledge using a newly developed viral-mediated gene delivery strategy to selectively express Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2 on dopamine cells in the VTA of wild-type rats. We then used this approach to precisely control VTA dopamine transmission during voluntary ethanol drinking sessions. The results confirmed that ChR2 was selectively expressed on VTA dopamine cells and delivery of blue light pulses to the VTA induced dopamine release in accumbal terminal fields with very high temporal and spatial precision. Brief high frequency VTA stimulation induced phasic patterns of dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens. Lower frequency stimulation, applied for longer periods mimicked tonic increases in accumbal dopamine. Notably, using this optogenetic approach in rats engaged in an intermittent ethanol drinking procedure, we found that tonic, but not phasic, stimulation of VTA dopamine cells selectively attenuated ethanol drinking behaviors. Collectively, these data demonstrate the effectiveness of a novel viral targeting strategy that can be used to restrict opsin expression to dopamine cells in standard outbred animals and provide the first causal evidence demonstrating that tonic activation of VTA dopamine neurons selectively decreases ethanol self-administration behaviors.

  2. Influence of radon (222Rn) on hypothalamus, hypophysis, ovaries and uterus in Balb C strain mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koziorowski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Curative properties of radon waters have been applied in balneotherapy for a long time. Therapeutic action is connected with radioactive properties of radon and the products of its degradation. All of them are the source of ionizing radiation, the alpha rays in particular. Radon therapy is widely applied to the treatment of many illnesses, especially of the circulatory system, rheumatism, and arthritis, bronchial asthma and many others. Good therapeutic results have also been achieved in gynecology to mention chronic inflammation of female reproductive organs and endocrinological disorders (of the ovary and during the period of sterilization). Positive results of radon therapy can also be associated with the influence of ionizing radiation on the activity of endocrine glands, mainly the axis hypothalamus - hypophysis - adrenal gland - ovary. There has been neither regular investigation into this problem nor into the morphology of the organs mentioned above. The present paper is an attempt to evaluate the influence of radon inhalations on the structure and function of hypothalamus, hypophysis ovary and uterus. This investigation was performed on hypothalamus, hypophysis, ovary and uterus in Balb C virgin mice. The total population of the mice under study was 140; with a control group of 40. The mice inhalated radon for 30 min. a day, starting with a single irradiation up to a 30-fold. I applied traditional histological techniques and immunocytochemical localization of selected hormones (FSH, LH, ADH). I also tried to evaluate the quantitative activity of mentioned glands by means of the computer morphometric and densitometric analyses of the immunocytochemical slides using an image analyzer Vidas 25 manufactured by Kontron. The results underwent statistical analysis. In order to examine the uterus the ultrastructural evaluation of its functioning was made. Moreover, I analyzed the concentration of FSH, LH, estrogens and progesterone in the serum by means of the

  3. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2000

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen:1.\tCandidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2.\tThe criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following:staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract;in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consid...

  4. INDEFINITE CONTRACT REVIEW 2001

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The Director-General has decided to review staff members in professional categories 2 to 5 satisfying the criteria for consideration for the award of an indefinite contract, in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations. Staff members holding a fixed-term contract which it has been decided not to renew will not be considered. The following stages are foreseen: 1. Candidates qualifying for review in accordance with Article R II 1.20 of the Staff Regulations and the Administrative Circular N° 9 will be contacted by Human Resources Division. 2. The criteria as to when staff members qualify for review are described in Administrative Circular N° 9. These include the following: staff members who are in their fourth year of service on a fixed-term contract; in addition, for staff members having three years or more of previous relevant service in the Organization on a contract of limited duration (or term-contract) and upon proposal by the division leader concerned, consideration fo...

  5. Temporary labour contracts

    CERN Document Server

    2000-01-01

    The five contracts for Temporary Labour assignments on the CERN site (L020/PE, L 021/PE, L 022/PE, L 023/PE and L 024/PE) approved by the Finance Committee in March 1996 (CERN/FC/3857) reached the end of their initial three-year contractual period at the end of December 1999. At CERN?s request, in September 1999 the Finance Committee approved an extension of these contracts for the year 2000 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs (CERN/FC/4196). In December 1999, one of the five contractors, FIRCROFT, withdrew from its contract for 2000. Following the satisfactory execution of the four remaining contracts during 2000, CERN requests approval to extend them from January 2001 for the second of the two optional years provided for in the original adjudication. The Finance Committee is invited to approve the extension of the existing contracts until 31 December 2001 for a total amount not exceeding 6 000 000 Swiss francs at 2000 prices.

  6. Networks and informal contract law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Tjin Tai, Eric; Brownsword, Roger; van Gestel, Rob A.J.; Micklitz, Hans-W.

    2017-01-01

    It is often argued that formal contract law cannot treat networks correctly. An analysis of networks in an informal contract law system shows that informal contract law is no panacea. Remaining problems require a different approach to legal regulation and contract practice.

  7. Incidence of Septate Uterus in Reproductive-Aged Women With and Without Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaMonica, Rachel; Pinto, Judith; Luciano, Danielle; Lyapis, Anya; Luciano, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    To compare the incidence of a uterine septum in women with and without endometriosis and if such incidence correlates with the stage of endometriosis Although a correlation between obstructive Mullerian anomalies and endometriosis has been well established, its link with non-obstructive anomalies remains controversial. To elucidate whether there is a correlation between endometriosis and non-obstructive Mullerian anomalies, we conducted this prospective study on all patients admitted to our Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility surgical service from February 1, 2010 through June 30, 2012. All patients underwent both hysteroscopy and laparoscopy. Surgical indications included: infertility, pain, and/or menorrhagia. The presence or absence of endometriosis and uterine anomalies were recorded immediately after each surgery and subsequently analyzed. Endometriosis was staged according to the r-ASRM Classification and treated by resection and ablation of deep and superficial lesions, respectively. Since uterine septum is the most common Mullerian anomaly, we considered only this anomaly to test the hypothesis that uterine septum may be associated with an increased incidence of endometriosis. Prospective Study. Evidence from a well-designed case-control study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2). University-affiliated tertiary care center. Reproductive aged women admitted to our service for treatment of pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and/or infertility. All patients underwent both hysteroscopy and laparoscopy as part of their evaluation and treatment of pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and/or infertility. 343 patients were included in the study. The diagnosis of each patient included infertility - 52, pain - 215, both - 30 and other - 46. The diagnosis of septate uterus was made at hysteroscopy when the endometrial cavity was separated by an avascular septum that obscured visualization of both cornua when the hysteroscope was advanced to the mid

  8. Capitation, contracts, and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIsaac, L.H.

    1987-01-01

    The radiology business manager in today's environment must become proficient in contract evaluations and negotiations. Health care is focusing on preventive medicine. Third-party payers are offering plans and programs to provide ''well-patient'' care. For prepaid (HMO-IPA-PTO) plans to succeed, demands for reduced fees and other entrepreneurial contractual arrangements are developed. This presentation will focus on specific items contained in most contracts. The issues of withhold, billing procedures, prompt-payment rewards, medical liability, capitation determinations, and modified capitation plans will be discussed. It is the intent of this presentation to share with the audience methods of evaluating contracts, the importance of negotiating specific terms, and an approach to determination of capitation amounts

  9. PROCUREMENT AND CONTRACT MANAGEMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Training & Development Group; Linda Orr-Easo; Tel. 72460; Nathalie Dumeaux; Tel. 78144

    2001-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of a new training on: Procurement and Contract Management (This seminar will be run by CERN experts in French or in English) Level 1 The aim is to raise awareness of the key issues involved. Date : 8 June 2001 This level is open to everyone. Participants should register via our Web page as soon as possible. Level 2 To develop the skills needed to effectively manage contracts, from the Technical, Commercial and Legal aspects. Dates : Three days, Autumn 2001 This Level is open to those who are/will be more directly responsible for procurement and contract management. Participants should have followed Level 1. For a description of the seminar, please consult:   Level 1: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm_e.htm Level 2: http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/MANCO/P9798/9-cm2_e.htm

  10. Amending Contracts for Choreographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bocchi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Distributed interactions can be suitably designed in terms of choreographies. Such abstractions can be thought of as global descriptions of the coordination of several distributed parties. Global assertions define contracts for choreographies by annotating multiparty session types with logical formulae to validate the content of the exchanged messages. The introduction of such constraints is a critical design issue as it may be hard to specify contracts that allow each party to be able to progress without violating the contract. In this paper, we propose three methods that automatically correct inconsistent global assertions. The methods are compared by discussing their applicability and the relationships between the amended global assertions and the original (inconsistent ones.

  11. Panel discussion : contract design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vallas, A. [Sempra Energy Trading, Toronto, ON (Canada); Vegh, G. [MacLeod Dixon, Toronto, ON (Canada); McGee, M. [Energy Profiles Ltd., Etobicoke, ON (Canada); Zaremba, T. [Direct Energy Marketing, Calgary, AB (Canada); Seshan, A. [Larson and Toubro Information Technology, Toronto, ON (Canada); Harricks, P. [Gowlings, Toronto, ON (Canada); Bertoldi, L. [Borden Ladner Gervais, Toronto, ON (Canada); Taylor, R. [Hydro One Networks Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2003-05-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs.

  12. Panel discussion : contract design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallas, A.; Vegh, G.; McGee, M.; Zaremba, T.; Seshan, A.; Harricks, P.; Bertoldi, L.; Taylor, R.

    2003-01-01

    This session presented highlights of the comments of 8 panelists who discussed the issue of contract design. The new electricity market in Ontario has introduced the energy trader, who enters into a contract with the consumer, based on the spot price set by the Independent Electricity Market Operator. Every contract has a fixed price payer as well as floating-price payers. If the floating price for a given amount of energy is higher than the fixed price, then the consumer gets the difference. Confusion, however, arises with the purchase of retail physical power in the market, particularly in deciding a fixed rate that the consumer will be paying. Different billing options were also discussed with emphasis on mid to large retail customers that have portfolios in the tens of MW and up to 100 MW or more. figs

  13. Adding Concurrency to Smart Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Dickerson, Thomas; Gazzillo, Paul; Herlihy, Maurice; Koskinen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Modern cryptocurrency systems, such as Ethereum, permit complex financial transactions through scripts called smart contracts. These smart contracts are executed many, many times, always without real concurrency. First, all smart contracts are serially executed by miners before appending them to the blockchain. Later, those contracts are serially re-executed by validators to verify that the smart contracts were executed correctly by miners. Serial execution limits system throughput and fails ...

  14. Is Contract Law Necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    SCHWARTZ, Alan

    2010-01-01

    This lecture was delivered on 17 March 2010. Alan Schwartz, Sterling Professor of Law; Professor of Management, Yale University This Lecture argues that much of the contract law in the cases (the US, the UK and Canada) and in the codes (Europe and Latin America) is unnecessary. To say that a law is unnecessary is to say that it does not perform a useful social function. The argument below thus sets out the functions that contract laws today are thought to serve, and then shows that many of...

  15. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...... Law by way of a code on Contracts. In both these regions however the absence of a code causes problems. In England a prominent writer has found that the major weakness of the judge-made law is its immense diffusion and the consequent difficulty of access to it and the Nordic countries face the same...

  16. Do contracts help?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    Economists perceive moral hazard as an undesirable problem because it undermines efficiency. Carefully designed contracts can mitigate the moral hazard problem, but this assumes that a team is already formed. This paper demonstrates that these contracts are sometimes the reason why teams do...... transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable team structure exists if teams produce public goods or if the quota is two. However, these existence results no longer hold if efforts are verifiable....

  17. Statutes and contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trosborg, Anna

    1995-01-01

    and commissive acts. The findings show that the language of the law characteristically selects patterns of regulative distinct from, for example, the patterns typically selected in everyday conversational English. The characteristics of the language of the law can be interpreted within the adherence to legal......This paper is concerned with the language used in legal speech acts in legislative texts and contracts in the field of English Contract Law. The central objects of study are regulative functions with a particular view to establishing realization patterns of the rhetorical functions of directive...

  18. Consensus, contracts, and committees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, J D

    1991-08-01

    Following a brief account of the puzzle that ethics committees present for the Western Philosophical tradition, I will examine the possibility that social contract theory can contribute to a philosophical account of these committees. Passing through classical as well as contemporary theories, particularly Rawls' recent constructivist approach, I will argue that social contract theory places severe constraints on the authority that may legitimately be granted to ethics committees. This, I conclude, speaks more about the suitability of the theory to this level of analysis than about the ethics committee phenomenon itself.

  19. Sex steroid receptor expression in the oviduct and uterus of sheep with estrus synchronized with progestagen or prostaglandin analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palencia, P; Sánchez, M A; Nieto, A; Vilar, M P; González, M; Veiga-Lopez, A; González-Bulnes, A; Flores, J M

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate differences in the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ERalpha), progesterone receptor (PR) and the proliferative indexes (Ki-67), in the uterus and oviduct of sheep with estrus synchronized either by prostaglandin analogues (Group PA, n=27) or by treatment with progestagens (Group P, n=29) on days 4 and 7 (day 0=estrus), when the embryos were collected. Immunohistochemical methods were used to quantify ERalpha, PR and Ki-67 in six superficial and deep compartments in the uterus and oviduct. The expression of ERalpha was significantly (Pprogesterone treated ewes than in the PA Group in the superficial gland (Psheep with synchronization of estrus with progestagens showed a reduction of ERalpha and PR protein expression in most of oviductal and uterine cells.

  20. The activity of dehydrogenases in the uterus of C57B mice after X-irradiation and serotonin treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazur, L.

    1978-01-01

    In C57B female mice, irradiated with 500 R and/or treated with serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine), the activity of dehydrogenases in the uterus was studied on the fourth day of pregnancy. The reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride to formazane by the uterine tissue was taken as the measure of such activity. The activity of dehydrogenases in the uterus of irradiated mice was distinctly lower than in non-irradiated controls. This activity was also depressed after serotonin treatment, the level of enzyme activity being dose-dependent. In females injected with serotonin and then irradiated, the activity of dehydrogenases was higher than in those irradiated only. The radioprotective effect was more pronounced in mice injected with serotonin alone on the third day of pregnancy i.e. shortly before irradiation, than in those injected on the second and the third day. (author)

  1. Ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn of unicornuate uterus at 14 weeks of pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Rudimentary horn is one of the rarest congenital uterine anomalies and consists of a relatively normal appearing uterus on one side with a rudimentary horn on the other side. Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of the uterus is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy of which most of the patients present in second trimester in haemorrhagic shock and severe anaemia due to rupture. We report a case of ruptured rudimentary horn at 14 weeks of pregnancy with shock and severe anaemia. A 30 yr old G2P1L1 with last child birth 4 yrs back reported to casualty with acute abdominal pain since 3 hrs, bleeding PV and vomiting since one hr. Ultrasound done showed haemoperitoneum with fetus of 14 weeks. Emergency laparotomy was done with excision of the rudimentary horn was done.

  2. Ruptured non-communicating rudimentary horn of unicornuate uterus at 14 weeks of pregnancy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rudimentary horn is one of the rarest congenital uterine anomalies and consists of a relatively normal appearing uterus on one side with a rudimentary horn on the other side. Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of the uterus is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy of which most of the patients present in second trimester in haemorrhagic shock and severe anaemia due to rupture. We report a case of ruptured rudimentary horn at 14 weeks of pregnancy with shock and severe anaemia. A 30 yr old G2P1L1 with last child birth 4 yrs back reported to casualty with acute abdominal pain since 3 hrs, bleeding PV and vomiting since one hr. Ultrasound done showed haemoperitoneum with fetus of 14 weeks. Emergency laparotomy was done with excision of the rudimentary horn was done.

  3. Conditional deletion of Msx homeobox genes in the uterus inhibits blastocyst implantation by altering uterine receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daikoku, Takiko; Cha, Jeeyeon; Sun, Xiaofei; Tranguch, Susanne; Xie, Huirong; Fujita, Tomoko; Hirota, Yasushi; Lydon, John; DeMayo, Francesco; Maxson, Robert; Dey, Sudhansu K

    2011-12-13

    An effective bidirectional communication between an implantation-competent blastocyst and the receptive uterus is a prerequisite for mammalian reproduction. The blastocyst will implant only when this molecular cross-talk is established. Here we show that the muscle segment homeobox gene (Msh) family members Msx1 and Msx2, which are two highly conserved genes critical for epithelial-mesenchymal interactions during development, also play crucial roles in embryo implantation. Loss of Msx1/Msx2 expression correlates with altered uterine luminal epithelial cell polarity and affects E-cadherin/β-catenin complex formation through the control of Wnt5a expression. Application of Wnt5a in vitro compromised blastocyst invasion and trophoblast outgrowth on cultured uterine epithelial cells. The finding that Msx1/Msx2 genes are critical for conferring uterine receptivity and readiness to implantation could have clinical significance, because compromised uterine receptivity is a major cause of pregnancy failure in IVF programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cadmium mimics the in vivo effects of estrogen in the uterus and mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael D; Kenney, Nicholas; Stoica, Adriana; Hilakivi-Clarke, Leena; Singh, Baljit; Chepko, Gloria; Clarke, Robert; Sholler, Peter F; Lirio, Apolonio A; Foss, Colby; Reiter, Ronald; Trock, Bruce; Paik, Soonmyoung; Martin, Mary Beth

    2003-08-01

    It has been suggested that environmental contaminants that mimic the effects of estrogen contribute to disruption of the reproductive systems of animals in the wild, and to the high incidence of hormone-related cancers and diseases in Western populations. Previous studies have shown that functionally, cadmium acts like steroidal estrogens in breast cancer cells as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor. The results of the present study show that cadmium also has potent estrogen-like activity in vivo. Exposure to cadmium increased uterine wet weight, promoted growth and development of the mammary glands and induced hormone-regulated genes in ovariectomized animals. In the uterus, the increase in wet weight was accompanied by proliferation of the endometrium and induction of progesterone receptor (PgR) and complement component C3. In the mammary gland, cadmium promoted an increase in the formation of side branches and alveolar buds and the induction of casein, whey acidic protein, PgR and C3. In utero exposure to the metal also mimicked the effects of estrogens. Female offspring experienced an earlier onset of puberty and an increase in the epithelial area and the number of terminal end buds in the mammary gland.

  5. Dedifferentiated Leiomyosarcoma of the Uterus with Heterologous Elements: A Potential Diagnostic Pitfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojo R. Rawish

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dedifferentiation is a phenomenon that is well characterized in a variety of tumors and is defined by the occurrence of a high-grade or undifferentiated tumor, typically unrecognizable regarding its line of differentiation, from a low-grade/borderline neoplasm. This phenomenon has previously been described in 2 uterine leiomyosarcomas, but both were devoid of heterologous elements. The authors describe herein a case of a dedifferentiated leiomyosarcoma of the uterus with osteoid heterologous elements, believed to be the first such reported case. The original tumor was a high-grade leiomyosarcoma with large low-grade and leiomyoma-like areas and whose constituent cells displayed intense nuclear immunoreactivity for both estrogen receptor (ER and progesterone receptor (PR in approximately 30% of cells. The tumor recurred six months after its resection as an undifferentiated sarcoma that was negative for smooth muscle markers, but which remained positive for ER and PR. Osteoid production was only identified in the recurrent tumor and was significant in extent therein. This case highlights the immunophenotypic changes that may occur in dedifferentiated leiomyosarcomas, and this possibility should be a consideration when an apparently undifferentiated sarcoma is identified in a patient with a history of uterine leiomyosarcoma. In our case, the expression of ER and PR provided significant supportive evidence of the uterine origin of the recurrent tumor.

  6. Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the uterus: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Yeol; Lee, Sun; Kang, Hyoung Jin; Kim, Hy-Sook; Park, Sang-Yoon

    2007-08-01

    Primary Ewing's sarcoma-primitive neuroectodermal tumor (ES-PNET) of the uterus is an extremely rare malignancy. A 30-year-old Korean woman presented with abnormal uterine bleeding with uterine enlargement. A computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the abdomen and pelvis showed a huge uterine mass measuring 18 x 20 x 21 cm, metastasis to both pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes, and omental infiltration. The pathology report of the uterine mass described a uniformly hypercellular tumor, which was arranged in diffuse solid sheets of uniform, small, rounded, and sometimes spindle-shaped cells, with scanty cytoplasm. Immunohistochemically, the mass tested positive for vimentin, CD99, and chromogranin. The patient received several courses of combination chemotherapy and radiotherapy but died from tumor progression 16 months after the initial diagnosis. This is a rare case of primary uterine ES-PNET in a woman of reproductive age. A review of the literature indicates that primary uterine ES-PNET requires early diagnosis and multimodality treatment including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The behavior of this tumor is potentially aggressive.

  7. Sprouting angiogenesis in human midterm uterus and fallopian tube is guided by endothelial tip cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusu, M C; Motoc, A G M; Pop, F; Folescu, R

    2013-01-01

    Five samples of human midterm fetal uterus and fallopian tube (four donor bodies) were used to assess whether or not processes of angiogenesis are guided by endothelial tip cells (ETCs), and if cytokine-receptors, such as CD117/c-kit and PDGFR-α, are expressed in the microenvironment of the endothelial tubes. CD34 labeled microvessels in the uterine wall (myometrium and endometrium) and in the wall of the uterine (fallopian) tube, and accurately identified ETCs in both organs. We conclude that sprouting angiogenesis in the developing human female tract is guided by ETCs. Moreover, CD117/c-kit antibodies labeled mural networks of pericytes, α-SMA-positive and desmin-negative, related to the endometrial (but not myometrial) microvessels, and similar labeling was identified in the wall of the uterine tube. PDGFR-α positive labeling, stromal and pericytary, was also found. Thus, sprouting angiogenesis in human fetal genital organs appears to be guided by tip cells and is influenced by tyrosine kinase receptor signaling.

  8. EMMPRIN (CD147) Expression in Smooth Muscle Tumors of the Uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefeli, Mehmet; Yildiz, Levent; Gun, Seda; Ozen, Fatma Z; Karagoz, Filiz

    2016-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumors of the uterus are the most common mesenchymal tumors of the gynecologic tract. The vast majority of these are benign leiomyomas that present no diagnostic difficulty. Because some benign smooth muscle tumors may degenerate and uncommon variants exist, the diagnosis can be challenging in some cases. The goal of this research was to investigate EMMPRIN expression in leiomyomas, leiomyoma variants, and leiomyosarcomas (LMS) to determine whether it has a potential role in differential diagnosis. EMMPRIN expression was investigated with immunohistochemistry in 103 uterine smooth muscle tumors, which included 19 usual leiomyomas, 52 leiomyoma variants, and 32 LMS. They were evaluated on the basis of staining extent, intensity, and also their combined score, and the groups were compared. EMMPRIN expression was present in 3 of 19 (15.7%) usual leiomyomas, 23 of 52 (44.3%) leiomyoma variants, and 28 of 32 (87.5%) LMS. There were statistically significant differences in staining extent and intensity, and also for their combined scores, between the LMS and benign groups. Although uterine smooth muscle tumors are usually diagnosed easily with conventional diagnostic criteria, the differentiation of LMS from some variants of leiomyoma can be challenging based soley on morphology. EMMPRIN may be a valuable immunohistochemical marker for differentiating LMS from benign smooth muscle tumors in problematic cases.

  9. Menstrual cyclic changes of human physiological uterus analized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuzawa, Michio

    1989-01-01

    MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is useful facilitation to perform analysis of tissue structures with the gray scale. By use of super-conducting MRI with 0.5T resistive magnet, present study was designed to analyse characteristic features of the human uterus throughout menstrual cycle. Both T 1 and T 2 values of the endometrium, the junctional zone and the myometrium were estimated on total nine volunteers of nomal healthy women aged from 21 to 30 y.o. during menstrual cycle. MRI was taken in the mid ∼ late proliferative, the secretory, and the menstrual stage. Moreover, relative square ratio of the endometrium and the junctional zone to the corpus uteri were measured by computed image analyser (Lusex 500). Following results were obtained. 1) Both T 1 and T 2 values of the endometrium and the junctional zone were lowest in the menstrual phase. In the myometrium, T 1 values were shown as same tendency comparing with the above two layers but T 2 values were lowest in the proliferative phase and the menstrual one. 2) Proportional values of the endometrium to the corpus uteri increased from 13.8% in the proliferative phase to 17.9% in the secretory phase and decreased to 8.0% in the menstrual phase. While that in the junctional zone decreased from 26.6% to 23.4% in secretory phase and increased to 35.0% in the menstrual phase. (author)

  10. Menstrual cyclic changes of human physiological uterus analized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuzawa, Michio

    1989-05-01

    MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) is useful facilitation to perform analysis of tissue structures with the gray scale. By use of super-conducting MRI with 0.5T resistive magnet, present study was designed to analyse characteristic features of the human uterus throughout menstrual cycle. Both T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ values of the endometrium, the junctional zone and the myometrium were estimated on total nine volunteers of nomal healthy women aged from 21 to 30 y.o. during menstrual cycle. MRI was taken in the mid /similar to/ late proliferative, the secretory, and the menstrual stage. Moreover, relative square ratio of the endometrium and the junctional zone to the corpus uteri were measured by computed image analyser (Lusex 500). Following results were obtained. (1) Both T/sub 1/ and T/sub 2/ values of the endometrium and the junctional zone were lowest in the menstrual phase. In the myometrium, T/sub 1/ values were shown as same tendency comparing with the above two layers but T/sub 2/ values were lowest in the proliferative phase and the menstrual one. (2) Proportional values of the endometrium to the corpus uteri increased from 13.8% in the proliferative phase to 17.9% in the secretory phase and decreased to 8.0% in the menstrual phase. While that in the junctional zone decreased from 26.6% to 23.4% in secretory phase and increased to 35.0% in the menstrual phase. (author).

  11. Peptides PHI and VIP: comparison between vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle effect in rabbit uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardrum, B.; Ottesen, B.; Fahrenkrug, J.

    1986-01-01

    The distribution and effects of the two neuropeptides, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and peptide histidine isoleucine amide (PHI), on vascular and nonvascular smooth muscle in the urogenital tract of nonpregnant rabbit female, were investigated. Immunoreactive VIP and PHI were present in all regions except the ovary with the highest concentration in the uterin cervix. By using in vitro tension recordings of myometrial specimens, it was demonstrated that both peptides displayed a dose-dependent inhibition of the mechanical activity. The dose-response curves of VIP and PHI were superimposable with and ID 50 of 3 x 10 -8 mol/l, and their combined effect was additive. In addition, the influence of the two peptides on myometrial blood flow (MBF) was investigated by the xenon-133 washout technique. Both peptides were found to increase MBF with the same potency and efficacy. Their combined effect was additive. In conclusion VIP and PHI are present in the rabbit urogenital tract, and the two peptides are equipotent inhibitors of mechanical nonvascular and vascular smooth muscle activity in the uterus

  12. Binding of radiolabelled luteinizing hormone to intact and ovariectomised rat uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen, S.; Bhattacharya, S.

    1992-01-01

    Binding of ovine LH to uterine tissue preparation from intact and ovariectomised rat clearly indicates that uterus possesses specific binding sites for LH. Binding characteristics of LH to uterine tissue preparation from intact rat showed saturability with high affinity and low capacity. Scatchard plot analysis showed dissociation constant of the specific binding site to be 0.12 x 10 -9 mol/l and the number of binding sites was 2.31±0.05 fmol/mg protein. Ovariectomy did not change the binding affinity but effected a decrease in the number of binding sites (1.7 ± 0.08 f mol/mg protein). LH treatment of ovariectomized (ovx) rat had no effect on binding affinity but significantly increased the number of binding sites (3.23 ± 0.1 f mol/mg protein). Reduction of uterine weight due to ovariectomy and marked increase of ovx rat uterine weight by LH administration indicate a source of estrogen in ovx rat. An in vitro uterine tissue slice (from intact and ovx rat) incubation showed depletion of 17 β-estradiol (E 2 ) content in ovx rat which significantly elevated on LH addition. Data suggest the LH binding to rat uterine tissue has biological relevance. (author). 16 refs., 4 figs. 1 tab

  13. Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterus associated with tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasin Ceylan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mullerian adenosarcoma following tamoxifen therapy is a rare condition. Our aim was to report the youngest patient in the literature with uterine mullerian adenosarcoma who was undergoing tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer. A premenopausal woman aged 38 years who was undergoing tamoxifen therapy for breast cancer, was admitted with symptoms of lower abdominal pain and irregular vaginal bleeding and malodorous vaginal discharge that had continued for at least 6 months. A pelvic examination revealed a large and malodorous polypoid mass protruding through the cervix and an enlarged uterus. A biopsy from the protruding polypoid mass was reported as a large area of necrosis with neoplastic mesenchymal cells. The patient underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy, pelvic-paraaortic lymph node dissection, and omentectomie. The histologic diagnosis was Mullerian adenosarcoma. As a result, she was discharged to the oncology department. The woman is alive and her chemoradiotherapy treatment is ongoing. The role of tamoxifen therapy in the development of endometrial neoplasms remains unclear, but all cases of endometrial thickening and vaginal bleeding must be investigated for Mullerian adenosarcoma in tamoxifen users.

  14. Immuno-histochemical features of the structure of foetuses' uterus from the mothers with pregnancy complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa Kupriianova

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Material of the research includes uterus of foetuses, that were dead on the gestational term between 21 and 41 weeks. According to peculiarities in the pregnancy course this material was divided into groups: foetuses from mothers with physiological pregnancy; foetuses from mothers. whose pregnancy takes its course on the background of the PE with different stages of the severity; and, finally, foetuses from mothers, whose pregnancy was complicated by the chronic infection of lower genital tracts. Research methods: macroscopic, histological, histochemical, immunohistochemical, morphometric, statistical. It was shown an excessive proliferation of the connective tissue in all structural components, in the composition of which prevails an immature collagen of the III type. It was also increased a production of the endothelin-1 by the vascular component of organs. In addition, it was defined an oppression of the functional activity of epithelial component by mucosa, which was expressed like decreasing of the hormonal activity of the the organ and increasing of the manifestation stage of apoptosis changes.

  15. Effects of fetal hypothyroidism on uterine smooth muscle contraction and structure of offspring rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheripuor, Fatemeh; Ghanbari, Mahboubeh; Piryaei, Abbas; Ghasemi, Asghar

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does fetal hypothyroidism in rats alter uterine contractions and structure in the adult offspring? What is the main finding and its importance? Our study indicated that maternal hypothyroidism during pregnancy increased gestational length and decreased litter size. In addition, maternal hypothyroidism caused delayed puberty onset, irregular uterine contractions and histological changes in the uterus in the female offspring. This model might contribute to a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in uterine contractions in fetal hypothyroidism, studies which are not possible in humans, and might help to establish therapeutic methods for these disorders observed in uterine contractions. Thyroid hormones play an essential role in fetal growth. Hypothyroidism impairs reproductive function in both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of fetal hypothyroidism on uterine smooth muscle contraction and structure in the adult offspring. The control group of female Wistar rats consumed tap water, whereas the hypothyroid group received water containing 0.025% of 6-propyl-2-thiouracial throughout gestation from mating until delivery. Isometric contractility and histological changes in uterine tissue were evaluated in the adult female offspring. We tested the effects of carbachol (10 -10 -10 -3  m) and oxytocin (10 -13 -10 -8  m) on uterine smooth muscle contraction in the fetal hypothyroid (FH) and control groups. Compared with control uteri, carbachol induced contractions with lower amplitude in the FH group (area under the curve: 1820.0 ± 250.0 versus 1370.0 ± 125.0 a.u., control versus FH group, respectively, P muscle layer and the cross-sectional area of the uterus were also significantly lower in the FH group. Gestational length was longer and litter size smaller in FH rats compared with control animals; FH offspring also had delayed puberty. In conclusion

  16. Removal of uterine fibroids by mini-laparotomy technique in women who wish to preserve their uterus and fertility

    OpenAIRE

    Ksi??akowska-?akoma, Kinga; ?y?a, Monika; Wilczy?ski, Jacek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The minilaparotomy is considered to be a safe and effective alternative to laparoscopy and abdominal laparotomy in myomectomy cases. Aim To perform a retrospective analysis of pre-surgical assessment, surgical course and post-operational parameters in women wishing to preserve their uterus and fertility who underwent myomectomy by minilaparotomy in the Department of Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology at the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital ? Research Institute in Lodz in the ...

  17. Male Seminal Relaxin Contributes to Induction of the Post-mating Cytokine Response in the Female Mouse Uterus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle J. Glynn

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The hormone relaxin is important in female reproduction for embryo implantation, cardiovascular function, and during labor and lactation. Relaxin is also synthesized in males by organs of the male tract. We hypothesized that relaxin might be one component of seminal plasma responsible for eliciting the female cytokine response induced in the uterus at mating. When recombinant relaxin was injected into the uterus of wild-type (Rln+/+ mice at estrus, it evoked the production of Cxcl1 mRNA and its secreted protein product CXCL1 in four of eight animals. Mating experiments were then conducted using mice with a null mutation in the relaxin gene (Rln−/− mice. qRT-PCR analysis of mRNA expression in wild-type females showed diminished uterine expression of several cytokine and chemokine genes in the absence of male relaxin. Similar differences were also noted comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated to wild-type males. Quantification of uterine luminal fluid cytokine content confirmed that male relaxin provokes the production of CXCL10 and CSF3 in Rln+/+ females. Differences were also seen comparing Rln−/− and Rln+/+ females mated with Rln−/− males for CXCL1, CSF3, and CCL5, implying that endogenous relaxin in females might prime the uterus to respond appropriately to seminal fluid at coitus. Finally, pan-leukocyte CD45 mRNA was increased in wild-type matings compared to other combinations, implying that male and female relaxin may trigger leukocyte expansion in the uterus. We conclude that male and/or female relaxin may be important in activating the uterine cytokine/chemokine network required to initiate maternal immune adaptation to pregnancy.

  18. Role of progesterone and estrogen in the preparation of the uterus and induction of implantation in the mouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet-Hudson, Y.M.

    1989-01-01

    The implantation of the embryo into the uterine wall and subsequent decidualization of the uterine endometrium requires ovarian progesterone and estrogen. Prerequisites for implantation include (1) the preparation of the uterus for embryo implantation and (2) increase stromal capillary permeability at the site of embryo attachment. During the first three days of pregnancy, epithelial cells undergo proliferation, death and differentiation, in response to preovaluatory estrogen. These events occur in stromal cells in response to progesterone on days 4 and 5. The mechanism by which the steroid hormones modulate their functions and how estrogen initiates implantation in a progesterone-primed (P{sub 4}) uterus in not clearly understood. The author shows that 24h of P{sub 4}-priming is adequate for induction of implantation in the mouse. In addition, following this initial exposure of the uterus to P{sub 4} a long lasting effect is induced i.e. 24h of priming is no longer required for the induction of implantation. The uterine cell proliferation and differentiation that occurs in response to steroid hormones could be through their modulation of the expression of proto-oncogenes and growth factors. Results show that the proto-oncogene, c-myc and the growth factor, EGF are expressed in a cell-type specific manner in the uterus and are regulated by P{sub 4} and estrogen in a spatial and temporal manner during early pregnancy. It is apparent that c-myc protein in epithelia is primarily regulated by estrogen, while in the stroma by P{sub 4}. {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation in specific uterine cell-types correlated with expression of the c-myc protein. On the other hand, EGF is always localized to the epithelia and is primarily regulated by estrogen.

  19. Partnering and contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohnstedt, Kristian Ditlev

    2014-01-01

    Purpose - Partnering is often, by economists, and construction managerial literature related to more incomplete contracts. This can be explained by seeing partnering as something that neutralizes opportunism. The aim is to uncover whether partnering neutralizes opportunism when there is an incomp...

  20. Cognition and Incomplete Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Tirole, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Thinking about contingencies, designing covenants, and seeing through their implications is costly. Parties to a contract accordingly use heuristics and leave it incomplete. The paper develops a model of limited cognition and examines its consequences for contractual design. (JEL D23, D82, D86, L22)

  1. Validating Timed Component Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Guilly, Thibaut; Liu, Shaoying; Olsen, Petur

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a technique for testing software components with contracts that specify functional behavior, synchronization, as well as timing behavior. The approach combines elements from unit testing with model-based testing techniques for timed automata. The technique is implemented...... in an online testing tool, and we demonstrate its use on a concrete use case....

  2. Turn key contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feretic, D.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of this summary is to point out some specific areas which have to be covered in a turn-key contract and which are of primarily interest to the buyer of a nuclear plant. It will be assumed that the buyer is utility company in a developing country and a plant supplier a company in an industrial country. (orig./FW) [de

  3. Startpoints via weak contractions

    OpenAIRE

    Agyingi, Collins Amburo; Gaba, Yaé Ulrich

    2018-01-01

    Startpoints (resp. endpoints) can be defined as "oriented fixed points". They arise naturally in the study of fixed for multi-valued maps defined on quasi-metric spaces. In this article, we give a new result in the startpoint theory for quasi-pseudometric spaces. The result we present is obtained via a generalized weakly contractive set-valued map.

  4. Copyright or Contract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerson, Ann

    1997-01-01

    Most authors and publishers of electronic information believe that current copyright law does not address technical capabilities or reader uses and have turned to contracts or licenses to define the rights of owners and users. Discusses copyrights, fair use, and licenses and highlights licensing's unresolved issues: use and users; archiving;…

  5. Fine temporal analysis of DHT transcriptional modulation of the ATM/Gadd45g signaling pathways in the mouse uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanga, Mahinè; Labrie, Yvan; Calvo, Ezequiel; Belleau, Pascal; Martel, Céline; Pelletier, Georges; Morissette, Jean; Labrie, Fernand; Durocher, Francine

    2009-03-01

    In rodents, the uterus of a mature female undergoes changes during the uterine cycle, under the control of steroid hormones. 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is recognized to play an important role in the regulation of androgen action in normal endometrium. Using microarray technology, a screening analysis of genes responding to DHT in the uterus of ovariectomized mice, has allowed us to highlight multiple genes of the ATM/Gadd45g pathway that are modulated following exposure to DHT. Two phases of regulation were identified. In the early phase, the expression of genes involved in the G2/M arrest is rapidly increased, followed by the repression of genes of the G1/S checkpoint, and by the induction of transcriptional regulators. Later, i.e. from 12 to 24 hr, genes involved in G2/M transition, cytoarchitectural and lipid-related genes are stimulated by DHT while immunity-related genes appear to be differentially regulated by the hormone. These results show that a physiological dose of DHT induces the transcription of genes promoting the cell cycle progression in mice. Profile determination of temporal uterine gene expression at the transcriptional level enables us to suggest that the DHT modulation of genes involved in ATM/Gadd45g signaling in an ATM- or p53-independent manner, could play an important role in the cyclical changes of uterine cells in the mouse uterus.

  6. The expression of gonadotropin releasing hormone receptor gene in ovaries and uterus cells of Iraqi and Damascus goat breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa kamil Abdulla

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Iraqi goats have a major economic role in production of meat, milk and leather as well as it considered a financial source for owners as reproduce twice a year, yet the Damascus goats have great importance than Iraqi goats owing to the number of twin births. The gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH and its receptors have great importance in the reproduction and eugenics. To make a comparison between the Iraqi and Damascus goats in terms of this receptor gene expression in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells, the study was performed, in which used the (∆Ct Using a Reference Gene method by quintitive -real time PCR technique. Results were found a significant difference (p<0.05, as the gene expression of (GnRH-R higher in the ovaries and uterus tissue cells in Damascus goats compared with the Iraqi goats. In conclusion; the multiple pregnancies of twins in Damascus goats may be due to an increase gene expression of (GnRH-R in the ovaries and uterus tissue

  7. Cellular organization of pre-mRNA splicing factors in several tissues. Changes in the uterus by hormone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George-Téllez, R; Segura-Valdez, M L; González-Santos, L; Jiménez-García, L F

    2002-05-01

    In the mammalian cell nucleus, splicing factors are distributed in nuclear domains known as speckles or splicing factor compartments (SFCs). In cultured cells, these domains are dynamic and reflect transcriptional and splicing activities. We used immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy to monitor whether splicing factors in differentiated cells display similar features. Speckled patterns are observed in rat hepatocytes, beta-cells, bronchial and intestine epithelia and also in three cell types of the uterus. Moreover, the number, distribution and sizes of the speckles vary among them. In addition, we studied variations in the circular form (shape) of speckles in uterine cells that are transcriptionally modified by a hormone action. During proestrus of the estral cycle, speckles are irregular in shape while in diestrus I they are circular. Experimentally, in castrated rats luminal epithelial cells show a pattern where speckles are dramatically rounded, but they recover their irregular shape rapidly after an injection of estradiol. The same results were observed in muscle and gland epithelial cells of the uterus. We concluded that different speckled patterns are present in various cells types in differentiated tissues and that these patterns change in the uterus depending upon the presence or absence of hormones such as estradiol.

  8. Ultrastructural features of the uterus in the sexually immature ostrich (Struthio camelus during periods of ovarian inactivity and activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M-C. Madekurozwa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of the surface epithelium and tubular glands of the uterus in the immature ostrich is described. In ostriches with inactive ovaries the uterus is lined by a non-ciliated simple columnar epithelium, with basally located heterochromatic nuclei. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that these non-ciliated cells have a dense microvillous cover. A simple columnar to pseudostratified columnar epithelium, comprised of non-ciliated and ciliated cells, lines the uterus in birds with active ovaries. The ciliated cells possess a wide luminal region, which contains a nucleus and various organelles. An accumulation of secretory granules was observed in the apical regions of the non-ciliated cells, as well as in a few ciliated cells. In addition to non-ciliated and ciliated cells, a cell type with rarefied cytoplasm was also identified. These cells appear to correspond to calcium secreting cells identified in other avian species. The results of this study indicate that, although uterine differentiation is present in immature ostriches with active ovaries, the production of secretory product appears to occur mainly in non-ciliated epithelial cells.

  9. The shape of uterine contractions and labor progress in the spontaneous active labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimzadeh Zagami, Samira; Golmakani, Nahid; Saadatjoo, Seyyed Ali-Reza; Ghomian, Nayyereh; Baghbani, Behjat

    2015-03-01

    Dystocia is the most common indication of primary cesarean section. The most common cause of dystocia is uterine dysfunction. In prolonged labor, more attention is usually paid to the fetus and pelvis rather than to the role of uterine contractions in a delivery. Therefore, we decided to determine the relationship between the labor progress and uterine contractions shapes. In this cross-sectional study, 200 primiparous women participated having a single pregnancy and cephalic presentation. Uterus contractions were recorded using electronic fetal monitoring at the beginning of the active phase of labor (dilatation 3-5 cm) for 30 min. Fall to rise (F:R) ratio was calculated by determining the duration of returning from a contraction peak to its baseline (fall) and the duration of the rise time from baseline to peak (rise) in two groups. The data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. In this study, 162 women had a normal delivery and 38 women had a cesarean (CS) delivery due to the lack of labor progress. The average F:R ratio was 1.13±0.193 seconds in the vaginal delivery group and 1.64±0.301 seconds in the CS group. This difference was statistically significant (PR ratio was higher in the group that lacked labor progress. Therefore, contraction shapes can be used to predict the labor progress.

  10. Employee contract issues for dermatologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Christopher E; Indest, George F

    2013-12-01

    Employees and employers routinely face negotiating and preparing physician employment contracts. It is important for both sides to know and understand the basic information on what a comprehensive employment contract for a dermatologist should contain. There are various employment contract provisions from both the employee's perspective and the employer's perspective that must be considered when preparing physician employment contracts. This article provides basic advice and recommendations on requirements that should be included in such contracts. It suggests legal pitfalls that can be avoided through various contract clauses.

  11. Reconciling Contracts and Relational Governance through Strategic Contracting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Bent; Østergaard, Kim

    2018-01-01

    on contract types, such as strategic versus conventional, may reconcile the enduring research controversy between the substitution and complements perspectives. Practical implications: Today, formal contracts with foreign distributors tend to resemble “prenuptial agreements”. The opportunity for relational...

  12. Contracting with the Enemy: The Contracting Officer’s Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    contracting command xv KO contracting officer KTR contractor LSC lead service component MGAA Mesopotamia Group Atlas Apache NAT National Afghanistan...and Contract Authority Understanding the roles of contracting versus command authority and command relationships is a fundamental that must be...Audit 12-7 (2012) described the CENTCOM-JTSCC (C- JTSCC) formation and command relationship : In April 2010, CENTCOM issued a fragmentary order to

  13. Contracting in a Foreign Country

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rodeschin, Darrin

    1997-01-01

    .... This thesis investigates and compares the different contracting structures of the U.S. Army, the UN, and Apple as well as the duties and responsibilities of the contracting individuals within these organizations...

  14. Utility Energy Services Contracts Guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-09-01

    The UESC Guide is a compilation of samples and templates developed as a resource to help contracting officers implement task orders for UESCs under existing U.S. General Services Administration areawide contracts.

  15. Automatic Conflict Detection on Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenech, Stephen; Pace, Gordon J.; Schneider, Gerardo

    Many software applications are based on collaborating, yet competing, agents or virtual organisations exchanging services. Contracts, expressing obligations, permissions and prohibitions of the different actors, can be used to protect the interests of the organisations engaged in such service exchange. However, the potentially dynamic composition of services with different contracts, and the combination of service contracts with local contracts can give rise to unexpected conflicts, exposing the need for automatic techniques for contract analysis. In this paper we look at automatic analysis techniques for contracts written in the contract language mathcal{CL}. We present a trace semantics of mathcal{CL} suitable for conflict analysis, and a decision procedure for detecting conflicts (together with its proof of soundness, completeness and termination). We also discuss its implementation and look into the applications of the contract analysis approach we present. These techniques are applied to a small case study of an airline check-in desk.

  16. Water and Muscle Contraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Grazi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between water and the protein of the contractile machinery as well as the tendency of these proteins to form geometrically ordered structures provide a link between water and muscle contraction. Protein osmotic pressure is strictly related to the chemical potential of the contractile proteins, to the stiffness of muscle structures and to the viscosity of the sliding of the thin over the thick filaments. Muscle power output and the steady rate of contraction are linked by modulating a single parameter, a viscosity coefficient. Muscle operation is characterized by working strokes of much shorter length and much quicker than in the classical model. As a consequence the force delivered and the stiffness attained by attached cross-bridges is much larger than usually believed.

  17. Energy contracting in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muggli, C.

    2000-01-01

    The article discusses the status of energy contracting in Switzerland and compares it with the situation in USA, Germany and France, where it has been standard practice for many years. The fact that this financing and operating instrument is not widely used in Switzerland in spite of its benefits for users and suppliers is discussed, as are the obstacles placed in its way. The results of a study made by the Federal Office of Energy are presented, whereby some 220 existing contracting arrangements with a total investment volume of around CHF 200 million were noted and a further potential of around CHF 1.1 billion estimated. The author notes that in order to utilise this potential, great efforts must be made by all parties involved

  18. 48 CFR 937.7040 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 937.7040... CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Protective Services Contracting 937.7040 Contract clauses. The contracting... services” in all protective services solicitations and contracts involving DOE-owned facilities requiring...

  19. Muscle segment homeobox genes direct embryonic diapause by limiting inflammation in the uterus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-06-11

    Embryonic diapause (delayed implantation) is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. Under this condition, embryos at the blastocyst stage become dormant simultaneously with uterine quiescence until environmental or physiological conditions are favorable for the survival of the mother and newborn. Under favorable conditions, activation of the blastocyst and uterus ensues with implantation and progression of pregnancy. Although endocrine factors are known to participate in this process, the underlying molecular mechanism coordinating this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We recently found that uterine muscle segment homeobox (Msx) transcription factors are critical for the initiation and maintenance of delayed implantation in mice. To better understand why Msx genes are critical for delayed implantation, we compared uterine proteomics profiles between littermate floxed (Msx1/Msx2f/f) mice and mice with uterine deletion of Msx genes (Msx1/Msx2d/d) under delayed conditions. In Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri, pathways including protein translation, ubiquitin-proteasome system, inflammation, chaperone-mediated protein folding, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were enriched, and computational modeling showed intersection of these pathways on inflammatory responses. Indeed, increases in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and inflammation conformed to proteotoxic and ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri under delayed conditions. Interestingly, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor bortezomib further exacerbated ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri with aggravated inflammatory response, deteriorating rate of blastocyst recovery and failure to sustain delayed implantation. This study highlights a previously unrecognized role for Msx in preventing proteotoxic stress and inflammatory responses to coordinate embryo dormancy and uterine quiescence during embryonic diapause.

  20. Bone marrow origin of decidual cell precursors in the pseudopregnant mouse uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kearns, M.; Lala, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    Decidual cells are considered to be the endproduct of a hormonally induced transformation of endometrial stromal cells of the uterus. However, the source of these precursors remains unknown. This study of evaluated the possibility of their bone marrow origin by an examination of the H-2 phenotype of decidual cells in pseudopregnant bone marrow chimeras. These chimeras were produced by repopulating lethally irradiated CBA/J female (H-2k) mice with bone marrow from (CBA/J x C57BL/6J) F1 female (H-2kb) mice. Pseudopregnancy was produced with a hormonal regimen followed by an oil-induced decidual stimulus. Chimerism was evaluated radioautographically by an identification of the donor-specific Kb phenotype on cells with an immunolabeling technique with monospecific anti-H-2 serum followed by radioiodinated protein A. The extent of chimerism as indicated by the degree of Kb labeling on decidual cells as well as macrophages contained within the decidual nodules was quantitatively compared with that seen on splenic lymphocytes. Fair to good chimerism, as reflected by labeling for the donor-specific marker (Kb), was seen on splenic lymphocytes and macrophages within the decidual nodules in 6 out of 11 animals. A similar level of chimerism was detected on decidual cells in all but one of these six, in which case this was low. One animal showed low chimerism in the spleen but good chimerism on the decidual cells. The remaining four mice were nonchimeric for all three cell types. These results indicate that decidual cells and macrophages appearing within the decidual nodules of pseudopregnant mice are ultimate descendants of bone marrow cells

  1. Follow-up of victim exposed in uterus 16 years after Xinzhou radiation accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Li; Zhang Shulan; Jia Tingzhen; Liu Qingjie; Ma Liwen; Su Xu; Zhang Zhaohui; Qin Bin; Chen Sen; Wang Wenxue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To observe and study the late effects of intrauterine exposure to irradiation. Methods: A 16-year-old girl, borne by a woman exposed to 60 Co irradiation during the Xinzhou radiation accident 16 years ago underwent inquiry, general medical examination. Conventional chromosome aberration analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) were used to examine non-stability and stability shromosome aberrations, and China revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C W ISC) was used to detect IQ level. Results: Inquiry revealed no history of carcinoma and no family history of hereditary diseases. The girl often caught cold when she was a child, but she hadn't any other diseases. Menarche occurred when she was 12 years old, and she had not suffered from dysmenorrhea. Her development of body frame constitution was normal. She could not carry out addition and subtraction, but she could make simple verbal communication, writing and even reciting text. The results of the routine lab examination were within the normal range. Unstable chromosome aberrations were not shown, and the chromosome translocation rate was 2.3%. The dose that induced the chromosome injury was deduced as 0.81 Gy. The biological dose of the radiation that she was exposed to was inferred to be 1.85 Gy when she was in her mother's uterus. Ultrasonic sound showed nodular goiter and no malignant change. China's revised Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (C W ISC) test results showed that speech, operation and full-scale IQ was 51, 50, and 46 respectively. The total intelligence was better than 0.01%, and worse than 99.90% of the population. Conclusions: Exposure in utero does not affect the body frame constitution development after birth of the fetus, but mental retardation is clear. No evidence of any tumor can be found for the children exposed to radiation before their birth. (authors)

  2. Protease and protease inhibitory activity in pregnant and postpartum involuting uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milwidsky, A.; Beller, U.; Palti, Z.; Mayer, M.

    1982-01-01

    The presence of two distinct proteolytic activities in the rat uterus was confirmed with 14 C-labeled globin used as a sensitive protein substrate and following release of label into the trichloroacetic acid-soluble supernatant fraction. Protease I is a cytoplasmic acid protease while protease II is associated with the pellet fraction, can be extracted by 0.6 M sodium chloride, and is active at pH 7.0. Protease I activity is low during pregnancy and markedly increases at term achieving maximal activity at day 3 post partum with a subsequent decline to preterm activity values. Lactation did not affect the uterine protease I activity. Protease II activity is not significantly different during pregnancy, at term, and post partum. The presence of an inhibitor of protease I was suggested by a decrease in enzyme activity with an increased cytosolic protein concentration. The inhibitor also lessened bovine trypsin activity but had no effect on protease II. Although its inhibitory potency on trypsin fluctuated during the various uterine physiologic stages, these changes appeared to be statistically insignificant. Human uterine samples were also found to contain the two protease activities with similar changes in protease I post partum. It is suggested that, both in the rat and in man, uterine involution post partum is associated with a marked increase in activity of acid cytosolic protease, while a particulate neutral protease and a soluble inhibitor of trypsin, which are also present in uterine cells, do not appear to play a significant role in the dissolution of uterine tissues after parturition

  3. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) for diffuse leiomyomatosis of the uterus: Clinical and imaging results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Jieun [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Man Deuk, E-mail: mdkim@yuhs.ac [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Dae Chul; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Kwang Hun [Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Shinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the management of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis with mid-term follow-up. Materials and methods: All patients who underwent UAE between 2008 and 2010 for symptomatic fibroids were analyzed. Among 360 cases, a total of 7 patients with diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis diagnosed based on MRI were included in this retrospective study. Patient ages ranged from 29 to 38 (mean 32.7) years. The median follow-up period was 16 (range; 6–31) months. The embolic agent was non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol particles. All patients underwent follow-up MRI at 3 months after UAE. Uterine volumes were calculated using MRI. Menorrhagia symptom changes were assessed at mid-term follow-up. Results: There were no technical failures to catheterize the uterine artery and no adverse events requiring therapy after UAE. Contrast-enhanced MRI showed complete necrosis of the leiomyomatous nodules in 5 patients (71%) 3 months after embolization. Two patients (28%) showed mostly leiomyomatous nodules that were necrotized, some of which were still viable. All 7 patients with menorrhagia had improvement of symptoms at the mid-term follow-up. The initial mean uterine volume was 601.30 ± 533.92 cm{sup 3} and was decreased to a mean of 278.81 ± 202.70 cm{sup 3} at 3 months follow-up, for a mean uterus volume reduction rate of 50.1% (p < 0.05). One patient became pregnant 5 months after UAE treatment. Conclusion: UAE was a highly effective treatment for diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis with mid-term durability and may be a valuable alternative to hysterectomy.

  4. Frequent β-catenin gene mutations in atypical polypoid adenomyoma of the uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Tsutomu; Matsumoto, Toshihide; Kameda, Yoichi; Takano, Yasuo; Tazo, Yuki; Inoue, Hisako; Saegusa, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Atypical polypoid adenomyoma (APA) is an uncommon polypoid lesion of the uterus. To clarify the mechanism of its histogenesis, we examined the functional role of β-catenin, with reference to expression of p21(waf1), cyclin D1, cyclin E, CD10, and α-smooth muscle actin (SMA), as well as cell proliferation, in 7 lesions. In the epithelial components, expression of nuclear β-catenin, p21(waf1), and cyclin D1 was increased in a stepwise fashion from normal tissue through complex atypical hyperplasia and adenomyoma to APA lesions, particularly in squamous morular areas, whereas cell proliferation, as well as cyclin E expression, was significantly decreased in the latter. Similar findings were evident in the stromal lesions, with the exception of a case of nuclear β-catenin. In addition, coexpression of CD10 and α-SMA markers was observed in the stromal components in 3 APA cases, in line with the results of normal secretory endometrial and adenomyoma samples, suggesting that cells progress to myofibromatous cells in response to differentiation-promoting events. Finally, β-catenin gene (CTNNB1) mutations were detected in all APA cases, the single nucleotide substitutions being in the epithelial but not the stromal components. These findings suggest that activation of β-catenin signaling, probably secondary to the gene abnormalities, plays an important role in the formation of the complex epithelial architecture in APAs, leading to inhibition of cell proliferation through overexpression of p21(waf1). In contrast, changes in the stromal cell phenotype may occur through a shift from CD10 to α-SMA immunopositivity, independent of CTNNB1 status. © 2013.

  5. Quantitative characterization of prostaglandins in the uterus of early pregnant cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbrich, S E; Schulke, K; Groebner, A E; Reichenbach, H D; Angioni, C; Geisslinger, G; Meyer, H H D

    2009-08-01

    Prostaglandins (PGs) are important regulators of reproductive processes including early embryonic development. We analyzed the most relevant PG in bovine uteri at different preimplantation pregnancy stages when compared with non-pregnant controls. Additionally, endometrium and trophoblast tissues were examined regarding specific enzymes and receptors involved in PG generation and function. Simmental heifers were artificially inseminated or received seminal plasma only. At days 12, 15, or 18, post-estrus uteri were flushed for PG determination by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Endometrium and trophoblast tissues were sampled for RNA extraction and quantitative real-time PCR analysis. At all days and points of time examined, the concentration of 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (stable metabolite of PGI(2)) was predominant followed by PGF(2alpha)>PGE(2)>PGD(2) approximately TXB(2) (stable metabolite of TXA(2)). At days 15 and 18, PG increased from overall low levels at day 12, with a much more pronounced increase during pregnancy. The PGF(2alpha)/PGE(2) ratio was not influenced by status. The highest PG concentration was measured at day 15 with 6-keto PGF(1alpha) (6.4 ng/ml) followed by PGF(2alpha) (1.1 ng/ml) and PGE(2) (0.3 ng/ml). Minor changes in endometrial PG biosynthesis enzymes occurred due to pregnancy. Trophoblasts revealed high transcript abundance of general and specific PG synthases contributing to uterine PG. As PGI(2) and PGF(2alpha) receptors were abundantly expressed by the trophoblast, abundant amounts of PGI(2) and PGF(2alpha) in the uterine lumen point towards an essential role of PG for the developing embryo. High amounts of PG other than PGE(2) in the preimplantation uterus may be essential rather than detrimental for successful reproduction.

  6. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) for diffuse leiomyomatosis of the uterus: Clinical and imaging results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Jieun; Kim, Man Deuk; Jung, Dae Chul; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Lee, Do Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Kwang Hun

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of uterine artery embolization (UAE) in the management of diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis with mid-term follow-up. Materials and methods: All patients who underwent UAE between 2008 and 2010 for symptomatic fibroids were analyzed. Among 360 cases, a total of 7 patients with diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis diagnosed based on MRI were included in this retrospective study. Patient ages ranged from 29 to 38 (mean 32.7) years. The median follow-up period was 16 (range; 6–31) months. The embolic agent was non-spherical polyvinyl alcohol particles. All patients underwent follow-up MRI at 3 months after UAE. Uterine volumes were calculated using MRI. Menorrhagia symptom changes were assessed at mid-term follow-up. Results: There were no technical failures to catheterize the uterine artery and no adverse events requiring therapy after UAE. Contrast-enhanced MRI showed complete necrosis of the leiomyomatous nodules in 5 patients (71%) 3 months after embolization. Two patients (28%) showed mostly leiomyomatous nodules that were necrotized, some of which were still viable. All 7 patients with menorrhagia had improvement of symptoms at the mid-term follow-up. The initial mean uterine volume was 601.30 ± 533.92 cm 3 and was decreased to a mean of 278.81 ± 202.70 cm 3 at 3 months follow-up, for a mean uterus volume reduction rate of 50.1% (p < 0.05). One patient became pregnant 5 months after UAE treatment. Conclusion: UAE was a highly effective treatment for diffuse uterine leiomyomatosis with mid-term durability and may be a valuable alternative to hysterectomy

  7. Cesarean Delivery Changes the Natural Position of the Uterus on Transvaginal Ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaelin Agten, Andrea; Honart, Anne; Monteagudo, Ana; McClelland, Spencer; Basher, Basmy; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E

    2018-05-01

    To assess whether cesarean delivery changes the natural position of the uterus. In this retrospective Institutional Review Board-approved cohort study, we conducted a search of our university gynecologic ultrasonography (US) database. Patients with transvaginal US images before and after either vaginal or cesarean delivery between 2012 and 2015 were included. Women with prior cesarean delivery were excluded. Two readers independently measured antepartum and postpartum flexion angles between the longitudinal axis of the uterine body and the cervix. We calculated intraclass correlation coefficients to measure inter-reader agreement. Antepartum and postpartum uterine flexion angles were compared between patients with vaginal and cesarean delivery. We included 173 patients (107 vaginal and 66 cesarean delivery). The mean interval between scans ± SD was 18 ± 10 months. Inter-reader agreement for flexion angles was almost perfect (intraclass correlation coefficients: antepartum, 0.939; postpartum, 0.969; both P cesarean delivery (154.8° ± 45.7°) versus vaginal delivery (145.8° ± 43.7°; P = .216). Mean postpartum flexion angles were higher after cesarean delivery (180.4° ± 51.2°) versus vaginal delivery (152.8° ± 47.7°; P = .001. Differences in antepartum and postpartum flexion angles between cesarean and vaginal delivery were statistically significant (25.6° versus 7.0°; P = .027). Cesarean delivery can change the uterine flexion angle to a more retroflexed position. Therefore, all women with a history of cesarean delivery should undergo a transvaginal US examination before any gynecologic surgery or intrauterine device placement to reduce the possibility of surgical complications. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  8. Contracting for Complex Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    asymmetries, and barriers to market entry and exit (e.g., Mankiw , et al., 2002). Goods may be non-rivalrous or non-excludable so that transferable property...investments. Expenditures are asset specific to the extent they have no economic value outside the product being produced (Williamson, 2005). For...example, some research in the US space program produced economic value outside the contract (e.g., Tang), while other research produced little value

  9. Contract types - turnkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeffler, G.

    1975-01-01

    Turnkey or the turnkey type of contract refers to a system of management according to which one organization accepts total responsibility for completing all parts and all phases of a project. In the case of a power project the turnkey contractor undertakes to design the plant, supply or procure and erect the equipment, build the station and put it into operation. (orig./FW) [de

  10. Between Status and Contract?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Keiser

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This contribution deals with unfree labour in Germany from the early modern age until the beginning of the 20th century. It presents the main conclusions of a book published in 2013 on this subject in German. Unfree labour is not identified in the first place with slavery or any other labour relationship based on status. Instead, this study aims at an analysis of freedom and coercion in contractual labour relationships. It will be argued that in Germany contractual labour relationships before 1800 were embedded in a legal system that strongly restricted contractual autonomy and aimed at the suppression of free labour markets. The scope of this legislation was to guarantee efficient labour performance, which was not only perceived as being in the personal interest of an employer, but as a fundamental element of the common good. After 1800 the system changed to more incentive-based legislation that established freedom of contract for labour relations. Nevertheless, coercion in order to perform the contractual duties of a work contract remained important for many groups of workers, especially farmhands and industrial workers. The last criminal sanctions for breaches of labour contracts were only abolished in the revolution of 1919. This development shows the difficulties German law had in extending the principles of private law to workers. When a system of free labour was fully established, the issue of unemployment and economic problems, especially in the Weimar Republic, required a new system of protective rules. The history of free market based labour contracts in Germany was therefore very short, with state intervention shi ing from control and coercion to social assistance.

  11. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  12. Exit from contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oren Bar-Gill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective to study the procedure of exiting the contract its costs and benefits. Methods statistical method comparative analysis. Results free exit from contract is one of the most powerful tools for the consumer rights protection. The procedure frees consumers from bad deals and keeps businesses honest. Yet consumers often choose transactions with lockin provisions trading off exit rights for other perks. This article examines the costs and benefits of free exit as compared to the lockin alternative. According to the authors the present regulation of exit penalties in the USA is poorly tailored to address concerns about lockin particularly in light of increasingly ubiquitous marketbased solutions. The article also calls regulatory attention to loyalty rewards which are shown to be as powerful as exit penalties and equally detrimental. Scientific novelty the article reveals a paradoxical state of the law exit regulations in the USA are used most where they are needed least. Termination penalties present an obvishyous target for regulatory intervention while loyalty programs seem benign not warranting any regulatory attention. Practical significance the article is of interest for the Russian juridical science and lawmaking authorities as in Russia the issue of exiting the contract is as topical as in the USA and requires solution which would impair neither the rights of consumers nor the rights of the sellers ofnbspproducts and services. nbsp

  13. CONTRACT FOLLOW UP TRAINING

    CERN Multimedia

    Technical Training; Tel. 74460

    2001-01-01

    SPL is organizing Training Sessions on the Contract Follow Up application. CFU is a Web based tool, developped and supported by the Administrative Information Services. It allows the creation of Divisional Requests and the follow up of their processing, from the Market Survey to the Invitation to Tender or Price Enquiry, approval by the Finance Committee, up to the actual signature of a Contract, acccording to the CERN Purchasing procedures. It includes a document management component. It also provides link with other AIS applications such as BHT and EDH. The course is primarily intended for DPOs, Contract Technical responsibles in the division and their assistants, but is beneficial to anybody involved in the follow up of such Purchasing Procedures. This course is free of charge, but application is necessary. The details of the course may be found at http://training.web.cern.ch/Training/ENSTEC/P2001/Bureautique/cfu4_f.htm General information of CFU may be found at http://ais.cern.ch/apps/cfu/ The dates of t...

  14. Non-turnkey contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoyama, Shunji

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face with troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf. (orig./FW) [de

  15. Non-turnkey contract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoyama, S

    1975-01-01

    A turnkey contract is recommended to such a country which is in the initial stage of nuclear power development with respect to a few plants being constructed earlier. The prime contractor may not necessarily be a reactor supplier. In some cases an architect engineering company may be a contractor. If this arrangement is not possible and the contract had to be a non-turnkey type, there might be some advantage to such a developing country capable of undertaking some major portions of the project works. Even if she might face troubles and difficulties during construction of the first nuclear power station, she might have a chance of aquiring technical kowledge and experience which would later enable her to make the plant of her own manufacture. In such a case it is advisable to limit the number of main contracts as small as possible and to utilize an organization to assist the owner in project management or to assume this function in his behalf.

  16. Practical guide on contract of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chiho

    1991-12-01

    This book gives descriptions of practical guide on contract of technology, which deals with basic of contract like meaning, function term, singing and sealing, contract and stamp tax, common things on contract of research like keeping secret and prevention and treat of dispute, compensation for damages, notice, expiration date of contract and measurement at end of contract, contract of joint research such as meaning and necessity, note at contract, check list at contract, and return of the research product.

  17. Why radiologists lose their hospital contracts: is your contract secure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroff, Lawrence R

    2010-03-01

    Previously, a hospital contract meant tenure for the incumbent group of radiologists; however, those days are long gone. Exclusive contracts have morphed into exclusive contracts with carve-outs. Turf erosion has become a fact of life for radiology practices. Now radiologists are losing their hospital contracts in record numbers. Group size, though helpful for a variety of reasons, does not ensure that a practice will be secure in its hospital setting. The reasons that groups lose their hospital contracts are varied, and in this paper, the author discusses the most common ones. Suggestions to help practices avoid this unfortunate fate are presented.

  18. Contracting between firms: empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iyer, R.; Sautner, Z.

    2014-01-01

    We analyse 185 contracts signed between a buyer and 89 suppliers to test how moral-hazard and hold-up problems affect contract design. Our data allow us to study both static and dynamic effects. If a supplier’s products are more critical to the buyer, contracts contain more clauses that address

  19. Static Verification for Code Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fähndrich, Manuel

    The Code Contracts project [3] at Microsoft Research enables programmers on the .NET platform to author specifications in existing languages such as C# and VisualBasic. To take advantage of these specifications, we provide tools for documentation generation, runtime contract checking, and static contract verification.

  20. Transnational Law of Public Contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Audit, M.; Schill, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Public contracts were traditionally conceived as instruments of domestic public law and used within markets confined to the territory of the state party to the contract. Globalization, however, subjects public contracting to an increasing number of processes that take place at a transnational level

  1. Service quality in contracted facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbani, Fauziah; Pradhan, Nousheen Akber; Zaidi, Shehla; Azam, Syed Iqbal; Yousuf, Farheen

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore the readiness of contracted and non-contracted first-level healthcare facilities in Pakistan to deliver quality maternal and neonatal health (MNH) care. A balanced scorecard (BSC) was used as the assessment framework. Using a cross-sectional study design, two rural health centers (RHCs) contracted out to Aga Khan Health Service, Pakistan were compared with four government managed RHCs. A BSC was designed to assess RHC readiness to deliver good quality MNH care. In total 20 indicators were developed, representing five BSC domains: health facility functionality, service provision, staff capacity, staff and patient satisfaction. Validated data collection tools were used to collect information. Pearson χ2, Fisher's Exact and the Mann-Whitney tests were applied as appropriate to detect significant service quality differences among the two facilities. Contracted facilities were generally found to be better than non-contracted facilities in all five BSC domains. Patients' inclination for facility-based delivery at contracted facilities was, however, significantly higher than non-contracted facilities (80 percent contracted vs 43 percent non-contracted, p=0.006). The study shows that contracting out initiatives have the potential to improve MNH care. This is the first study to compare MNH service delivery quality across contracted and non-contracted facilities using BSC as the assessment framework.

  2. The area postrema (AP) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN) are important sites for salmon calcitonin (sCT) to decrease evoked phasic dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiting, Lynda; McCutcheon, James E; Boyle, Christina N; Roitman, Mitchell F; Lutz, Thomas A

    2017-07-01

    The pancreatic hormone amylin and its agonist salmon calcitonin (sCT) act via the area postrema (AP) and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (PBN) to reduce food intake. Investigations of amylin and sCT signaling in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) suggest that the eating inhibitory effect of amylin is, in part, mediated through the mesolimbic 'reward' pathway. Indeed, administration of the sCT directly to the VTA decreased phasic dopamine release (DA) in the NAc. However, it is not known if peripheral amylin modulates the mesolimbic system directly or whether this occurs via the AP and PBN. To determine whether and how peripheral amylin or sCT affect mesolimbic reward circuitry we utilized fast scan cyclic voltammetry under anesthesia to measure phasic DA release in the NAc evoked by electrical stimulation of the VTA in intact, AP lesioned and bilaterally PBN lesioned rats. Amylin (50μg/kg i.p.) did not change phasic DA responses compared to saline control rats. However, sCT (50μg/kg i.p.) decreased evoked DA release to VTA-stimulation over 1h compared to saline treated control rats. Further investigations determined that AP and bilateral PBN lesions abolished the ability of sCT to suppress evoked phasic DA responses to VTA-stimulation. These findings implicate the AP and the PBN as important sites for peripheral sCT to decrease evoked DA release in the NAc and suggest that these nuclei may influence hedonic and motivational processes to modulate food intake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrocatalytic Production of C3-C4 Compounds by Conversion of CO2 on a Chloride-Induced Bi-Phasic Cu2O-Cu Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghwa; Kim, Dahee; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2015-12-01

    Electrocatalytic conversion of carbon dioxide (CO2) has recently received considerable attention as one of the most feasible CO2 utilization techniques. In particular, copper and copper-derived catalysts have exhibited the ability to produce a number of organic molecules from CO2. Herein, we report a chloride (Cl)-induced bi-phasic cuprous oxide (Cu2O) and metallic copper (Cu) electrode (Cu2OCl) as an efficient catalyst for the formation of high-carbon organic molecules by CO2 conversion, and identify the origin of electroselectivity toward the formation of high-carbon organic compounds. The Cu2OCl electrocatalyst results in the preferential formation of multi-carbon fuels, including n-propanol and n-butane C3-C4 compounds. We propose that the remarkable electrocatalytic conversion behavior is due to the favorable affinity between the reaction intermediates and the catalytic surface. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) establishing the indication for, planning, and following up uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic leiomyomas of the uterus; Stellenwert der Magnetresonanztomographie fuer Indikationsstellung, Interventionsplanung und Nachsorge bei transarterieller Embolisationsbehandlung des Uterus myomatosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroencke, T.J. [Institut fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany); Institut fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Schumannstrasse 20/21, 10117, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, B. [Institut fuer Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Charite, Campus Mitte, Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin (Germany)

    2003-08-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in establishing the indication for, planning, and following up uterine artery embolization (UAE) for treating symptomatic leiomyomas of the uterus on the basis of the current literature and our results. Retrospective analysis of the MRI findings obtained in 130 patients before and after UAE. Presentation of characteristic MRI features and their relevance in establishing the indication for, performing, and following up of UAE. Discussion of the results in conjunction with published data. The intermediate results of UAE reported in the literature show a successful improvement of leiomyoma-related symptoms in 82-94% of cases and an average reduction of leiomyoma size by 36-64%. The typical MRI appearance of degenerating leiomyomas is presented together with that of relevant differential diagnoses. MRI findings allow for establishing the indication for UAE by providing reliable information on the location, size, and number of uterine leiomyomas. Analysis of 60 patients of our study population showed solitary leiomyoma in 16% of cases, 2-10 leiomyomas in 47%, and over 10 in 37%. Subserosal, pedunculated leiomyomas cannot be treated by UAE; these were present in 5% of the patients. MR angiography is useful in assessing pelvic vascular anatomy before the intervention and identifies collateral vascular supply to the uterus. Contrast-enhanced imaging is suitable for monitoring successful devascularization following embolization and evaluating complications. (orig.) [German] Darstellung des Stellenwerts der Magnetresonanztomographie fuer die Indikationsstellung, Interventionsplanung und Nachsorge bei der transarteriellen Embolisationsbehandlung des symptomatischen Uterus myomatosus unter Beruecksichtigung der aktuellen Literatur sowie eigener Ergebnisse. Retrospektive Auswertung der MRT-Untersuchungen vor und nach Myomembolisation eines Kollektivs von 130 Patientinnen. Darlegung charakteristischer

  5. Analysis of foreign petroleum contracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, S.S.

    1991-01-01

    Most foreign exploration and production contracts are of two basic types: Production-Sharing contracts in which a portion of oil revenues, 'cost oil,' is available to the contractor for recoupment of exploration and production costs with the remainder, 'profit oil,' being shared according to an agreed-upon formula, and the familiar Tax-Royalty contract in which a share of petroleum revenues goes to the host country 'off the top' as royalties, and operating profits are taxed at the going rate. Bottom line splits of profits between host governments and contractors, which are approximately 50-50 in the United States, are typically in the 60-40 to 85-15 range elsewhere, with lower profit shares being offset by the higher volume potential and lower costs that may be associated with less mature exploration areas. Foreign contract qualities can be grossly compared by walking typical field models through the contracts to arrive at the bottom line profit splits. Variations within the contract forms include government participation, sliding scale contract elements, special taxes related to rates of return, etc. Often, contract terms are subject to negotiation and the tradeoffs between contract elements must be understood. Contract life, amortization schedules, fund repatriation, currency exchange rates, and the interaction of foreign and United States tax regimens are among the other factors that must be considered. Final decisions on foreign ventures must combine consideration of contracts, economic projections, hydrocarbon volumes, exploration cost estimates, and the estimated probability of success into an overall project assessment

  6. The Lanthanide Contraction Revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, Michael; Oliver, Allen G.; Raymond, Kenneth N.

    2007-04-19

    A complete, isostructural series of lanthanide complexes (except Pm) with the ligand TREN-1,2-HOIQO has been synthesized and structurally characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray analysis. All complexes are 1D-polymeric species in the solid state, with the lanthanide being in an eight-coordinate, distorted trigonal-dodecahedral environment with a donor set of eight unique oxygen atoms. This series constitutes the first complete set of isostructural lanthanide complexes with a ligand of denticity greater than two. The geometric arrangement of the chelating moieties slightly deviates across the lanthanide series, as analyzed by a shape parameter metric based on the comparison of the dihedral angles along all edges of the coordination polyhedron. The apparent lanthanide contraction in the individual Ln-O bond lengths deviates considerably from the expected quadratic decrease that was found previously in a number of complexes with ligands of low denticity. The sum of all bond lengths around the trivalent metal cation, however, is more regular, showing an almost ideal quadratic behavior across the entire series. The quadratic nature of the lanthanide contraction is derived theoretically from Slater's model for the calculation of ionic radii. In addition, the sum of all distances along the edges of the coordination polyhedron show exactly the same quadratic dependency as the Ln-X bond lengths. The universal validity of this coordination sphere contraction, concomitant with the quadratic decrease in Ln-X bond lengths, was confirmed by reexamination of four other, previously published, almost complete series of lanthanide complexes. Due to the importance of multidentate ligands for the chelation of rare-earth metals, this result provides a significant advance for the prediction and rationalization of the geometric features of the corresponding lanthanide complexes, with great potential impact for all aspects of lanthanide coordination.

  7. Visualization of synchronization of the uterine contraction signals: running cross-correlation and wavelet running cross-correlation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczeretko, Edward; Swiatecka, Jolanta; Kitlas, Agnieszka; Laudanski, Tadeusz; Pierzynski, Piotr

    2006-01-01

    In physiological research, we often study multivariate data sets, containing two or more simultaneously recorded time series. The aim of this paper is to present the cross-correlation and the wavelet cross-correlation methods to assess synchronization between contractions in different topographic regions of the uterus. From a medical point of view, it is important to identify time delays between contractions, which may be of potential diagnostic significance in various pathologies. The cross-correlation was computed in a moving window with a width corresponding to approximately two or three contractions. As a result, the running cross-correlation function was obtained. The propagation% parameter assessed from this function allows quantitative description of synchronization in bivariate time series. In general, the uterine contraction signals are very complicated. Wavelet transforms provide insight into the structure of the time series at various frequencies (scales). To show the changes of the propagation% parameter along scales, a wavelet running cross-correlation was used. At first, the continuous wavelet transforms as the uterine contraction signals were received and afterwards, a running cross-correlation analysis was conducted for each pair of transformed time series. The findings show that running functions are very useful in the analysis of uterine contractions.

  8. Muscle contraction and force

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline; Risbo, Jens; Pierzynowski, Stefan G.

    2008-01-01

    Muscle contraction studies often focus solely on myofibres and the proteins known to be involved in the processes of sarcomere shortening and cross-bridge cycling, but skeletal muscle also comprises a very elaborate ancillary network of capillaries, which not only play a vital role in terms...... of nutrient delivery and waste product removal, but are also tethered to surrounding fibres by collagen "wires". This paper therefore addresses aspects of the ancillary network of skeletal muscle at both a microscopic and functional level in order to better understand its role holistically as a considerable...

  9. Bunker purchasing with contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plum, Christian Edinger Munk; Neergaard Jensen, Peter; Pisinger, David

    2014-01-01

    The cost for bunker fuel represents a major part of the daily running costs of liner shipping vessels. The vessels, sailing on a fixed roundtrip of ports, can lift bunker at these ports, having differing and fluctuating prices. The stock of bunker on a vessel is subject to a number of operational...... optimally to reduce overall costs. The Bunker Purchasing with Contracts Problem has been formulated as a mixed integer programme, which has been Dantzig-Wolfe decomposed. To solve it, a novel column generation algorithm has been developed. The algorithm has been run on a series of real-world instances...

  10. Contractions from grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Chethan; Raju, Avinash

    2018-04-01

    We note that large classes of contractions of algebras that arise in physics can be understood purely algebraically via identifying appropriate Zm-gradings (and their generalizations) on the parent algebra. This includes various types of flat space/Carroll limits of finite and infinite dimensional (A)dS algebras, as well as Galilean and Galilean conformal algebras. Our observations can be regarded as providing a natural context for the Grassmann approach of Krishnan et al. [J. High Energy Phys. 2014(3), 36]. We also introduce a related notion, which we call partial grading, that arises naturally in this context.

  11. Tendering specification and contracting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, E. von

    1975-01-01

    The lecture tendering, specification and contracting is prepared in two parts: This first part deals with technical aspects while part two features the commercial and legal situation in the partnership of two: the supplier of the fuel bundles and the utility. In this lecture a look is given on the way how a supplier can offer its fuel and some certain points are mentioned which are important to compare the bid of one competitor to the other. The major points are summarized which are or at least should be in an offer so as to find out which offer is the best. (orig./FW) [de

  12. The Danish Contracting System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Sten; Levring, Peter

    The paper is mainly concerned with the institutional framework of the Danish construction industry, describing structures, rules and actors' roles within a perspective of nationally defined procedural guidelines on construction projects. These aspects are treated under the concept of a "contracting...... system". After a short introduction to the structure and activities of the industry the post-war development is reviewed, in particular emphasising the importance of the early industrialisation process which in an international perspective represents quite unique features. Furthermore the most recent...

  13. Estimating Co-Contraction Activation of Trunk Muscles Using a Novel Musculoskeletal Model for Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Morino

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Weight gain and stretched abdominal muscles from an enlarged gravid uterus are remarkable features during pregnancy. These changes elicit postural instability and place strain on body segments, contributing to lower back pain. In general, the agonist and antagonist muscles act simultaneously to increase joint stabilization; however, this can cause additional muscle stress during movement. Furthermore, this activation can be observed in pregnant women because of their unstable body joints. Hence, physical modalities based on assessments of muscle activation are useful for managing low back pain during pregnancy. Musculoskeletal models are common when investigating muscle load. However, it is difficult to apply such models to pregnant women and estimate the co-contraction of muscles using musculoskeletal models. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to construct a musculoskeletal model for pregnant women that estimates the co-contraction of trunk muscles. First, motion analysis was conducted on a pregnant woman and the muscle activations of the rectus abdominis and erector spinae were measured. Then, the musculoskeletal model was specifically modified for pregnant women. Finally, the co-contraction was estimated from the results of the musculoskeletal model and electromyography data using a genetic algorithm. With the proposed methods, weakened abdominal muscle torque and the co-contraction activation of trunk muscles were estimated successfully.

  14. Removal of uterine fibroids by mini-laparotomy technique in women who wish to preserve their uterus and fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Księżakowska-Łakoma, Kinga; Żyła, Monika; Wilczyński, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    The minilaparotomy is considered to be a safe and effective alternative to laparoscopy and abdominal laparotomy in myomectomy cases. To perform a retrospective analysis of pre-surgical assessment, surgical course and post-operational parameters in women wishing to preserve their uterus and fertility who underwent myomectomy by minilaparotomy in the Department of Gynecology and Gynecological Oncology at the Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital - Research Institute in Lodz in the years 2008-2014. A total of 76 patients were qualified for minilaparotomy due to a benign gynecological pathology. Only 21 patients with uterine fibroids who wanted to preserve their uterus and fertility were appropriate for this study. Patients' records were analyzed in terms of: epidemiological history, surgical course, postoperative stay and pathological data. All studied patients were asked in 2014 about conception and pregnancy after minilaparotomy. The median age was 35.7 years. The median patient body mass index (BMI) was 24 kg/m(2). The average decrease of hemoglobin was 1.5 g/dl. The size of the myoma was between 1.5 and 15 cm. There were no serious post-surgical complications. The size of the myoma did not correlate significantly with operation time, BMI or blood loss. There was no statistically significant dependence between operation time and average hematocrit and hemoglobin decrease. In our group 7 patients who had undergone myomectomy tried to achieve conception. Four of them succeeded in pregnancy and gave birth to healthy infants. Myomectomy performed via minilaparotomy is a safe procedure for patients willing to preserve their uterus and fertility, and it combines some advantages of both laparotomy and laparoscopy.

  15. Neonatal exposure to a glyphosate based herbicide alters the development of the rat uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero Schimpf, Marlise; Milesi, María M.; Ingaramo, Paola I.; Luque, Enrique H.; Varayoud, Jorgelina

    2017-01-01

    differentiation. PR and Hoxa10 were deregulated both immediately and two weeks after the exposure. ERα was induced in the stromal compartment on PND8, and was downregulated in the luminal epithelial cells of gyphosate-exposed animals on PND21. GBH treatment also increased the expression of Wnt7a in the stromal and glandular epithelial cells on PND21. Neonatal exposure to GBH disrupts the postnatal uterine development at the neonatal and prepubertal period. All these changes may alter the functional differentiation of the uterus, affecting the female fertility and/or promoting the development of neoplasias.

  16. IPP fuel contracts - creating certain contracts for uncertain times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coddington, I. [Coddington International Pty. Ltd., Milsons Point, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    Coal contracts for the new Asian Independent Power Producers (IPPs) are examined. Since most IPPs will be selling to state electricity utilities, often in competition with power plant using other fuels, coal based IPPs must negotiate advantageous coal supply contracts several years before the commissioning of a plant, and must ensure security of supply for at least the life of the construction loan. A more recent trend in the developed world is the Merchant IPP, where there is no guaranteed electricity sale. Lenders are wary of IPPs relying an imported coal, and insist on binding fuel contracts, while coal companies are wary of the quantity of information demanded by these lenders. A full understanding of the risks involved is needed; and a method of price indexation for the contracts. Contracts must also specify security of supply, coal quality, freight contracts and other details. 2 figs.

  17. Characteristics of nuclear contracts. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, R.

    1976-01-01

    While the object of nuclear contracts is specific, these contracts are concluded according to proven techniques based on general regulations on contracts. Following a review of contract classification, they are differentiated according to the nature of the co-contracting parties, the purpose of the contract itself, the procedure for drawing up the contracts, and payment. The operations prior to the contract vary in that they may include a call for tenders, an option for delays or a letter of intent. (NEA) [fr

  18. 48 CFR 315.371 - Contract preparation and award.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES CONTRACTING BY NEGOTIATION Source Selection 315.371 Contract... the contract until the finance office certifies that the funds are available for obligation. ...

  19. TraceContract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavelund, Klaus; Barringer, Howard

    2012-01-01

    TraceContract is an API (Application Programming Interface) for trace analysis. A trace is a sequence of events, and can, for example, be generated by a running program, instrumented appropriately to generate events. An event can be any data object. An example of a trace is a log file containing events that a programmer has found important to record during a program execution. Trace - Contract takes as input such a trace together with a specification formulated using the API and reports on any violations of the specification, potentially calling code (reactions) to be executed when violations are detected. The software is developed as an internal DSL (Domain Specific Language) in the Scala programming language. Scala is a relatively new programming language that is specifically convenient for defining such internal DSLs due to a number of language characteristics. This includes Scala s elegant combination of object-oriented and functional programming, a succinct notation, and an advanced type system. The DSL offers a combination of data-parameterized state machines and temporal logic, which is novel. As an extension of Scala, it is a very expressive and convenient log file analysis framework.

  20. Contracts in Public Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka GRZESIOK-HOROSZ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present makes a contribution to the discussion on contracts in administration under Polish law. It concentrates on theoretical issues, but ones of considerable practical significance. Prior Work though relatively poorly explored, field. This paper is a result of academic considerations on the classical institution of civil law, namely a bilateral juridical act significance of this area may be demonstrated by the fact that one scientific conference and a collection of papers have been devoted to contracts in administration. as research method, the analysis of jurisprudence and doctrinal writings referring to law currently in force. The paper discusses as well the draft of the administrative law, and includes comparative remarks. put forward certain comments pertainin legislation. The authors formulate as well outline theses interesting but complicated matters. As a voice in the doctrinal dispute it can als useful for law students. Value composition. Starting from gener the binding law and proposed amendments. The functioning in foreign countries and proposals of regulatory solutions.

  1. UKAEA'S evolving contract philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicol, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has gone through fundamental change over the last ten years. At the heart of this change has been UKAEA's relationship with the contracting and supply market. This paper describes the way in which UKAEA actively developed the market to support the decommissioning programme, and how the approach to contracting has evolved as external pressures and demands have changed. UKAEA's pro-active approach to industry has greatly assisted the development of a healthy, competitive market for services supporting decommissioning in the UK. There have been difficult changes and many challenges along the way, and some retrenchment was necessary to meet regulatory requirements. Nevertheless, UKAEA has sustained a high level of competition - now measured in terms of competed spend as a proportion of competable spend - with annual out-turns consistently over 80%. The prime responsibility for market development will pass to the new Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in 2005, as the owner, on behalf of the Government, of the UK's civil nuclear liabilities. The preparatory work for the NDA indicates that the principles established by UKAEA will be carried forward. (author)

  2. Toward an individualized target motion management for IMRT of cervical cancer based on model-predicted cervix-uterus shape and position

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondar, Luiza; Hoogeman, Mischa; Mens, Jan Willem; Dhawtal, Glenn; Pree, Ilse de; Ahmad, Rozilawati; Quint, Sandra; Heijmen, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose: To design and evaluate a 3D patient-specific model to predict the cervix-uterus shape and position. Methods and Materials: For 13 patients lying in prone position, 10 variable bladder filling CT-scans were acquired, 5 at planning and 5 after 40 Gy. The delineated cervix-uterus volumes in 2-5 pre-treatment CT-scans were used to generate patient-specific models that predict the cervix-uterus geometry by bladder volume. Model predictions were compared to delineations, excluding those used for model construction. The prediction error was quantified by the margin required around the predicted volumes to accommodate 95% of the delineated volume and by the predicted-to-delineated surface distance. Results: The prediction margin was significantly smaller (average 50%) than the margin encompassing the cervix-uterus motion. The prediction margin could be decreased (from 7 to 5 mm at planning and from 10 to 8 mm after 40 Gy) by increasing (from 2 to 5) the number of CT-scans used for the model construction. Conclusion: For most patients, even with a model based on only two CT-scans, the prediction error was well below the margin encompassing the cervix-uterus motion. The described approach could be used to create prior to treatment, an individualized treatment strategy.

  3. Study on the relationship between serum E2, FSH, LH levels and morphologic changes of uterus and ovary in girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jingsong; Du Xueliang; Fu Hongliang; Wu Zhen; Gu Rong; Feng Guoqiang; Wu Jingchuan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To explore the characteristics of the girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty (ICPP) through study on the relationship between serum E 2 , FSH, LH levels and morphologic changes of uterus and ovary. Methods: Serum E 2 , FSH and LH levels were measured with ECLIA and morphologic changes of uterus and ovary were studied with B-US in 67 girls with idiopathic central precocious puberty. Results: 1) Among the three types of ovaries (type 1, homogeneous type; type 2, small follicular type; type 3, large follicular type), differences of the serum LH and E 2 values were significant (p 2 levels (p 2 levels were correlated to the maximal follicular diameter but not to the total volume of ovary. It proved that there was close relationship between LH levels and follicular development. It also proved that serum E 2 levels was mainly decided by the development status of the follicles irrespective the total ovary volume. 2) Volume of uterus was correlated to both LH and E 2 levels. Development of uterus was significantly estrogen-dependent. 3) Judgement based upon observations on measurement of serum E 2 , LH, FSH levels and morphologic changes of uterus and ovary would be crucial for establishing the diagnosis of idiopathic central precocious puberty

  4. In vivo measurement by thermoluminescence of the gamma ray radiation dose to the uterus delivered during 131I therapy of Basedow's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippon, B.; Briere, J.

    1977-01-01

    131 I is often the therapy of choice for BASEDOW's disease. The determination of radiation dose to the gonads from a therapeutic dose of 131 I is therefore of importance and the accuracy of radiation dose calculation is uncertain because of the numerous biological variables involved. The dose to the uterus was directly measured in 20 volonteers with Basedow's disease using a thermoluminescent dosimeter of lithium fluoride and calcium dysprosium sulfate, attached to a copper intrauterine contraceptive device. The dosimeters were inserted at the time of administration of 131 I and were retreived one month later. By this method, the dose to the uterus from gamma rays only was measured and a gamma ray dose equal to the dose to the uterus, was assumed to the ovaries. In vivo experimental results were compared with the values calculated using the specific absorbed fractions (PHI (r 2 - r 1 ) determined by SNYDER. In the calculations, the morphology of the patient, in particular the distance from thyroid to uterus was taken into account. The in vivo measurements have also been compared with direct in vivo measurements using phantoms. In vivo measurements indicate that the average dose to the uterus and ovaries is of the order of 1 rad per 10 mCi concentrated in the thyroid gland. These figures are below the generally accepted maximum admissible dose to the gonads of 10 rems [fr

  5. 48 CFR 1316.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 1316.406 Section 1316.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 1316.406 Contract clauses. Insert a clause...

  6. 48 CFR 716.406 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 716.406 Section 716.406 Federal Acquisition Regulations System AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost Reimbursement Contracts 716.406 Contract clauses. The...

  7. 48 CFR 916.307 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 916.307 Section 916.307 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 916.307 Contract clauses. (g) Insert the...

  8. 48 CFR 732.111 - Contract clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clauses. 732.111... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING General 732.111 Contract clauses. (a) [Reserved] (b) USAID may... Agency-specific indefinite quantity contracts that are a combination of contract types. Rather than using...

  9. 48 CFR 935.071 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 935.071... CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 935.071 Contract clause. The contracting officer must insert the clause at 952.235-71, Research Misconduct, in contracts, including management and operating...

  10. Compositional specification of commercial contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jesper; Elsborg, Ebbe; Henglein, Fritz

    2006-01-01

    -definable analysis of their state before, during and after execution. We provide several realistic examples of commercial contracts and their analyses. A variety of (real) contracts can be expressed in such a fashion as to support their integration, management and analysis in an operational environment......We present a declarative language for compositional specification of contracts governing the exchange of resources. It extends Eber and Peyton Jones’s declarative language for specifying financial contracts (Jones et al. in The Fun of Programming. 2003) to the exchange of money, goods and services...... amongst multiple parties and complements McCarthy’s Resources, Events and Agents (REA) accounting model (McCarthy in Account Rev. LVII(3), 554–578, 1982) with a view- independent formal contract model that supports definition of user-defined contracts, automatic monitoring under execution and user...

  11. Chronic levothyroxine and acute T3 treatments enhance the amplitude and time course of uterine contractions in human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corriveau, Stéphanie; Pasquier, Jean-Charles; Blouin, Simon; Bellabarba, Diego; Rousseau, Éric

    2013-03-01

    This study compares the functional consequences of levothyroxine (T4) treatment during pregnancy as well as the acute affects of triiodothyronine (T3) on spontaneous uterine contractile activities observed in vitro. Uterine biopsies were obtained from consenting women undergoing elective caesarean at term (n = 28). Spontaneous contractile activities from T4-treated pregnant women (n = 8) were compared with control patients (n = 20) by isometric tension measurements. Effects of acute T3 and T4 on control tissues were also monitored. Area under the curve, amplitude, time to peak, duration, and frequency were quantified. In uterine strips from women treated for hypothyroidism, phasic uterine contractions of larger amplitude (+77%) were observed, with a prolonged duration at 90% relaxation (+138%) and reduced frequency (-55%) compared with values of the control group. The addition of exogenous T3 in vitro on control strips induced a significant increase in the duration of the contractions and a significant decrease in frequency (P women. Significant modifications of contractile properties were observed in strips from pregnant women treated with levothyroxine, consistent with those observed with the addition of exogenous T3. Clinical practices of modern obstetrics should take into account the effect of thyroid hormones on uterine contractions' time course to ensure a tighter followup at the end of pregnancy to achieve safer delivery.

  12. Corrective justice and contract law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Hevia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  13. Incentive contracts and time use

    OpenAIRE

    Tor Viking Eriksson; Jaime Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Empirical studies on incentive contracts have primarily been concerned with the effects on employees’ productivity and earnings. The productivity increases associated with such contracts may, however, come at the expense of quality of life at or outside work. In this paper we study the effect on the employees’ non-work activities, testing whether incentive contracts lead to a change in the allocation of time across work and non-work activities. In doing so, we distinguish between two effects,...

  14. Methodological remarks on contraction theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouffroy, Jerome; Slotine, Jean-Jacques E.

    Because contraction analysis stems from a differential and incremental framework, the nature and methodology of contraction-based proofs are significantly different from those of their Lyapunov-based counterparts. This paper specifically studies this issue, and illustrates it by revisiting some c...... classical examples traditionally addressed using Lyapunov theory. Even in these cases, contraction tools can often yield significantly simplified analysis. The examples include adaptive control, robotics, and a proof of convergence of the deterministic Extended Kalman Filter....

  15. Judges, commerce and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Gava, John

    2010-01-01

    John Gava, Reader at Adelaide Law School, considers the question how should judges decide commercial cases, in particular, contract cases? He looks at the circumstances and impact of the use of contract law, with attention on common law contract and market needs. Published in Amicus Curiae – Journal of the Society for Advanced Legal Studies at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by SALS at the IALS (Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, School of Advanced Study, Un...

  16. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  17. Corrective justice and contract law

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Hevia

    2010-01-01

    This article suggests that the central aspects of contract law in various jurisdictions can be explained within the idea of corrective justice. The article is divided into three parts. The first part distinguishes between corrective justice and distributive justice. The second part describes contract law. The third part focuses on actions for breach of contract and within that context reflects upon the idea of corrective justice.

  18. Hypointensity on postcontrast MR imaging from compression of the sacral promontory in enlarged uterus with huge leiomyoma and adenomyosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uotani, Kensuke; Monzawa, Shuichi; Adachi, Shuji; Takemori, Masayuki; Kaji, Yasushi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2007-01-01

    In patients with huge leiomyoma and with adenomyosis of the uterus, a peculiar area of hypointensity was occasionally observed on postcontrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the dorsal portion of the enlarged uterus near the sacral promontory. We describe the imaging characteristics of these MR findings and correlate them with histopathological findings to examine whether the areas represent specific pathological changes. Ten patients with huge leiomyomas and two with huge adenomyotic lesions whose imaging revealed the hypointensity were enrolled. All had enlarged uteri that extended beyond the sacral promontory. MR findings of the hypointense areas were evaluated and correlated with histopathological findings in 5 patients with leiomyoma and two with adenomyosis who had hysterectomy. The ten patients with leiomyoma showed flare-shaped hypointensity arising from the dorsal surface of the uterine body that extended deep into the tumor. The base of the hypointense areas was narrow in 5 patients with intramural leiomyoma and broad in five with subserosal leiomyoma. Two patients with adenomyosis showed nodular-shaped areas of hypointensity in front of the sacral promontory. Precontrast T 1 - and T 2 -weighted MR images showed no signal abnormalities in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in any of the 12 patients. Pathological examinations showed no specific findings in the portions corresponding to the hypointensity in the 7 patients who had hysterectomy. The areas of hypointensity may represent functional changes, such as decreased localized blood flow caused by compression of the sacral promontory. (author)

  19. TeBG- and CBG-bound steroid hormones in rabbits are available for influx into uterus in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhuri, G.; Steingold, K.A.; Pardridge, W.M.; Judd, H.L.

    1988-01-01

    The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) of gonadal or adrenal steroid hormones in rabbits often does not bear the expected inverse relationship with hormone binding to testosterone-binding globulin (TeBG) or corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). This suggests TeBG or CBG may not impede steroid hormone delivery to tissues. The effects of rabbit plasma proteins on the influxes of 3 H-labeled steroids from the circulation into the rabbit uterus were measured in vivo using a tissue sampling single-injection technique. In the absence of plasma proteins, estradiol (E 2 ) and testosterone (T) were freely diffusible through the uterine microvasculature (i.e., extraction >80%). The extractions of dihydrostestosterone (DHT) and corticosterone (B) ranged from 60 to 72%, while that of cortisol (F) was reduced at 40%. Rabbit serum exerted no inhibition of the influxes of the steroids tested. The influxes of T and B greatly exceeded the rates that would be expected if only the free and albumin-bound fractions estimated in vitro were diffusible in vivo. However, the extraction of [ 3 H]corticosteroid-binding globulin or bovine [ 3 H]albumin were low, consistent with little, if any, extravascular uptake of the plasma proteins. The results indicate both albumin-bound and globulin-bound steroid hormone are available for transport into the uterus in the rabbit in vivo without significant exodus of the plasma protein, per se

  20. Investigation of the Relationship of Some Antihypertensive Drugs with Oxidant/Antioxidant Parameters and DNA Damage on Rat Uterus Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Talip Sener

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, we investigated the effects of treatment with chronic antihypertensivedrugs (clonidine, methyldopa, amlodipine, ramipril and rilmenidine on oxidant-antioxidantparameters and toxic effects on DNA in rat uterus tissue. In addition, uterus tissues were examinedhistopathologically.Materials and Methods: A total of 36 albino Wistar rats were divided into the following six groups:0.075 mg/kg clonidine group; 100 mg/kg methyldopa group; 2 mg/kg amlodipine group; 2.5 mg/kgramipril group; 0.5 mg/kg rilmenidine group; and the healthy group. Rats underwent chronic drugadministration for 30 days and at the end, biochemical and histopathological examinations wereperformed. All data were subjected to one-way ANOVA test.Results: We divided these drugs into the following three groups according to their effects on ratuteri: (I mild negative effects (clonidine, (II moderate negative effects (rilmenidine, methyldopaand (III drugs which had severe negative effects (amlodipine, ramipril.Conclusion: These data may help with selection of antihypertensive drugs, in order to determinewhich drugs have the lowest toxicity in pregnant and non-pregnant (pre-pregnancy women.

  1. Pulse of inflammatory proteins in the pregnant uterus of European polecats (Mustela putorius) leading to the time of implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeberg, Heli; Burchmore, Richard J S; Kennedy, Malcolm W

    2017-03-01

    Uterine secretory proteins protect the uterus and conceptuses against infection, facilitate implantation, control cellular damage resulting from implantation, and supply pre-implantation embryos with nutrients. Unlike in humans, the early conceptus of the European polecat ( Mustela putorius ; ferret) grows and develops free in the uterus until implanting at about 12 days after mating. We found that the proteins appearing in polecat uteri changed dramatically with time leading to implantation. Several of these proteins have also been found in pregnant uteri of other eutherian mammals. However, we found a combination of two increasingly abundant proteins that have not been recorded before in pre-placentation uteri. First, the broad-spectrum proteinase inhibitor α 2 -macroglobulin rose to dominate the protein profile by the time of implantation. Its functions may be to limit damage caused by the release of proteinases during implantation or infection, and to control other processes around sites of implantation. Second, lipocalin-1 (also known as tear lipocalin) also increased substantially in concentration. This protein has not previously been recorded as a uterine secretion in pregnancy in any species. If polecat lipocalin-1 has similar biological properties to that of humans, then it may have a combined function in antimicrobial protection and transporting or scavenging lipids. The changes in the uterine secretory protein repertoire of European polecats is therefore unusual, and may be representative of pre-placentation supportive uterine secretions in mustelids (otters, weasels, badgers, mink, wolverines) in general.

  2. Forthcoming indefinite contract review procedure

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2011-01-01

    The vacancy notices for posts opened with a view to the award of an indefinite contract will be published in early April 2011. In the meantime, the list of posts to be opened this spring is available at the following address: Indefinite contract posts - spring 2011 A second exercise will take place in autumn 2011 and, as of 2012, the indefinite contract award procedure will only be held once a year, in autumn. For more information please consult: https://hr-recruit.web.cern.ch/hr-recruit/staff/IndefiniteContracts.asp  

  3. Work and minor work contracts

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    The Work and Minor Work contracts are all of the result-oriented type. The work is specified by CERN and the contractor is given full responsibility for its performance. The contracts are thus very similar to supply contracts. The re-tendering of the existing contracts is almost complete, except for some building maintenance contracts. A new cycle of re-tendering for some activities will be launched in the next twelve months. The total estimated expenditure in the year 2000 for the contracts referred to in this document is 27 750 000 Swiss francs at 1999 prices. The Finance Committee is invited: - to approve the proposed expenditure for the extension of contracts for which the estimated amount for the year 2000 exceeds 750 000 Swiss francs, namely those under references 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 and 23, highlighted in Table I; - to take note that all Work and Minor Work contracts have been tendered since 1 January 1994, except the small contracts shown under references 12 and 16 in Table I; - to take note that the ...

  4. URGENSI STUDI TENTANG PROCUREMENT CONTRACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohanes Sogar Simamora

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contractualization is kind of goverment activity in acquiring goods, services and infrastructure as well. Procurement contract has several important function especially in enhancing economic development in a state. In Indonesia, this kind of contract also has function in empowering micro economic scale. Since the aim of procurement study is to provide equal protection between public fund interest in one hand and privat sector in the other hand, general principle of contract law must be taken into consideration together with transparency as the most important principle in government contract.

  5. Unfair contract terms in B2C contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hesselink, M.W.; Loos, M.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Because of its textual similarity to the Unfair Terms Directive 1993, Chapter 8 of the proposed CESL, on ‘Unfair contract terms’, can benefit from two decades of interpretative experience which is likely to provide a comparably high degree of instant legal certainty to contracting parties.

  6. The Relationship between the Employment Contract and other Civil Contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Răzvan Radu Popescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The employment relationship is a contractual one and as such must have all the basic elements of an enforceable contract to make it legally binding. In strict contractual terms, the offer is made by the employer and formally accepted by the employee. Once the acceptance has taken place, there is a legally binding agreement and an action will lie against the party who breaches that agreement, even though it may only just have come into existence. An employment contract, however, is unlike most other contracts. Although the parties will have negotiated the main terms, we shall see that a large number of terms will be implied into the agreement from all sorts of different sources and will not have been individually negotiated by the parties at all. This is what makes an employment contract so different from other contracts. We think this article is an important step in the disclosure of the problem eraised by these two concepts.

  7. Pressure drop in contraction flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    This note is a supplement to Dynamic of Polymeric Liquids (DPL) page 178. DPL gives an equation for the pressure drop in a tapered (and circular) contraction, valid only at low angles. Here the general definition of contraction flow (the Bagley correction) and a more general method to find...

  8. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses while using specialists for ... 2 Definition of Contract and Owner. Mining ... equipment maintenance, scheduling and budgeting ..... No. Region. Amount Spent on. Contract Mining. ($ billion). Percent of. Total. 1 ... cost and productivity data based on a large range.

  9. Army Contract Writing System (ACWS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) Defense Acquisition Management Information Retrieval...Information 4 Responsible Office 4 References 4 Program Description 5 Business Case 5 Program Status 6 Schedule 7 Performance...Program Information Program Name Army Contract Writing System (ACWS) DoD Component Army Responsible Office Program Manager References MAIS

  10. CONTRACT ADMINISTRATIVE TRACKING SYSTEM (CATS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Contract Administrative Tracking System (CATS) was developed in response to an ORD NHEERL, Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED)-recognized need for an automated tracking and retrieval system for Cost Reimbursable Level of Effort (CR/LOE) Contracts. CATS is an Oracle-based app...

  11. On CNC Commuting Contractive Tuples

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The characteristic function has been an important tool for studying completely non-unitary contractions on Hilbert spaces. In this note, we consider completely non-coisometric contractive tuples of commuting operators on a Hilbert space H . We show that the characteristic function, which is now an operator-valued analytic ...

  12. Alternative staffing services. Contract transcription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, C

    1992-03-01

    Contract medical transcription services can be of great assistance in meeting the demands for transcription, without jeopardizing patient, physician, or institutional confidentiality. You simply must require the contract service to provide at least the same degree of protection and preservation of confidentiality that you should require inhouse. To achieve this you must make these requirements explicit, comprehensive, comprehensible, believable, and enforceable. Discuss the requirements with prospective contractors. Review them at least annually with existing contractors and when contracts are due for renewal. Be sure to specify the consequence of breaching confidentiality, and if there are breaches, enforce the terms of the contract. Consult your institution's legal counsel both in developing the contract and in enforcing its provisions. Take into consideration your department's and institution's policies, AHIMA's statement on confidentiality, as well as local, state, and federal laws. Above all, never lose sight of the patient. Ultimately, it is not patient information that you are obligated to protect. It is the patient.

  13. Choreography Synthesis as Contract Agreement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Lange

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We propose a formal model for distributed systems, where each participant advertises its requirements and obligations as behavioural contracts, and where multiparty sessions are started when a set of contracts allows to synthesise a choreography. Our framework is based on the CO2 calculus for contract-oriented computing, and borrows concepts and results from the session type literature. It supports sessions where the number of participants is not determined beforehand, and keeps CO2's ability to rule out participants that are culpable if contracts are not fulfilled at runtime. We show that we have progress and session fidelity in CO2, as a result of the honesty of participants — i.e., their ability to always adhere to their contracts.

  14. Standard form contracts and a smart contract future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin B. Cornelius

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With a budding market of widespread smart contract implementation on the horizon, there is much conversation about how to regulate this new technology. Discourse on standard form contracts (SFCs and how they have been adopted in a digital environment is useful toward predicting how smart contracts might be interpreted. This essay provides a critical review of the discourse surrounding digitised SFCs and applies it to issues in smart contract regulation. An exploration of the literature surrounding specific instances SFCs finds that it lacks a close examination of the textual and documentary aspects of SFCs, which are particularly important in a digital environment as a shift in medium prompts a different procedural process. Instead, common perspectives are either based on outdated notions of paper versions of these contracts or on ideologies of industry and business that do not sufficiently address the needs of consumers/users in the digital age. Most importantly, noting the failure of contract law to address the inequities of SFCs in this environment can help prevent them from being codified further with smart contracts.

  15. [Ulysses contract in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daverio, Andrea; Piazzi, Gioia; Saya, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Over the last twenty years we have witnessed a growing focus on the rights of the ill people. The debate on informed consent and a new redefinition of the therapeutic relationship is constantly evolving. With this article, we propose a critical literature review of the so-called "Ulysses contract" or "psychiatric advance directives". It refers to the will that a subject expresses in writing, or orally, about the treatments he or she wishes or does not wish to be subject to if the time comes when it may be impossible to express his/her consent. This can especially occur in those with psychiatric disorders with serious clinical involvement and remitting-relapse (typically bipolar disorder, but also chronic delusional disorders and schizophrenia). In this context, the question is whether during intercritical periods the patient may or may not leave instructions to their care-givers. This aspect opens up to a series of interdisciplinary problems. In this article, we want to show the complexity of this debate from a clinical, ethical, legal and psychodynamic point of view, emphasizing the strengths and the major criticisms of the psychiatric advance directives for each area.

  16. Landsat 6 contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggs, William Ward

    A new agreement provides $220 million for development and construction of the Landsat 6 remote sensing satellite and its ground systems. The contract, signed on March 31, 1988, by the Department of Commerce (DOC) and the Earth Observation Satellite (EOSAT) Company of Lanham, Md., came just days after approval of DOC's Landsat commercialization plan by subcommittees of the House and Senate appropriations committees.The Landsat 6 spacecraft is due to be launched into orbit on a Titan II rocket in June 1991 from Vandenburg Air Force Base, Calif. The satellite will carry an Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM) sensor, an instrument sensitive to electromagnetic radiation in seven ranges or bands of wavelengths. The satellite's payload will also include the Sea Wide Field Sensor (Sea-WiFS), designed to provide information on sea surface temperature and ocean color. The sensor is being developed in a cooperative effort by EOSAT and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A less certain passenger is a proposed 5-m resolution, three-band sensor sensitive to visible light. EOSAT is trying to find both private financing for the device and potential buyers of the high-resolution imagery that it could produce. The company has been actively courting U.S. television networks, which have in the past used imagery from the European Système Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellite for news coverage.

  17. INFINITY construction contract signed

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Key state and community leaders celebrated April 6 with the signing of a construction contract for the state-of-the-art INFINITY Science Center planned near John C. Stennis Space Center in south Mississippi. Gulfport Mayor George Schloegel (l to r), chair of non-profit INFINITY Science Center Inc., was joined for the signing ceremony at the Hancock Bank in Gulfport by Virginia Wagner, sister of late Hancock Bank President Leo Seal Jr.; and Roy Anderson III, president and CEO of Roy Anderson Corp. Seal was the first chair of INFINITY Science Center Inc., which has led in development of the project. Roy Anderson Corp. plans to begin construction on the 72,000-square-foot, $28 million science and education center in May. The Mississippi Department of Transportation (MDOT) also is set to begin construction of a $2 million access road to the new center. The April 6 ceremony was attended by numerous officials, including former Stennis Space Center Directors Jerry Hlass and Roy Estess; Mississippi Senate President Pro Tempore Billy Hewes, R-Gulfport; Mississippi Rep. Diane Peranich, D-Pass Christian; and MDOT Southern District Commissioner Wayne Brown.

  18. Morphological and morphometric evaluation of prepubertal gilt ovaries, uterine tubes and uterus at different oestrus cycle stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Oberlender

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies are performed in developing techniques/procedures that provide greater reproductive performance in farm animals, including pigs. In this sense, the study of gilts reproductive organs at different oestrus cycle stages for assessing the presence of abnormalities and/or other parameters that may affect the future animal fertility is important. In order to evaluate the morphological, morphometric and histomorphometric features of ovaries, uterus and uterine tubes (UTs characteristics of prepubertal gilts at different oestrus cycle stages, reproductive tracts from 48 animals immediately after slaughter were obtained. After, the structures were dissected and removed, and the ovaries were used for classification of oestrus cycle stage of each gilt in follicular phase (FP and luteal phase (FL. Then, morphometric evaluations of ovaries, UTs, uterine horns and uterine body were performed. Besides that, medial segments of UTs and uterus were fixed in Bouin solution, processed and included in paraffin, when histological sections of 5.0 micrometers (µm were obtained and stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin. Histomorphometric analyzes using image capture system and specific software were performed. Afterwards, data were submitted to Student's t test for assessment the statistical differences (P0.05 between morphometric parameters of ovaries, UTs and uterus of gilts in FP and LP. Likewise, in respect to the placement of reproductive structures, both in the oestrus cycle stages, as in the general average, there was no difference (P>0.05. Regarding the histomorphometric variables, gilts classified in FP presented a higher (P<0.05 height of glandular and UT epithelium compared to animals in LP. On the other hand, the diameter of endometrial glands was higher (P<0.05 in gilts at LP compared to FP. Furthermore, gilts in LP presented a higher (P<0.05 proportion of endometrium occupied by glands, whereas animals in FP had a higher (P<0.05 proportion of

  19. 7 CFR 631.14 - Contract violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE LONG TERM CONTRACTING GREAT PLAINS CONSERVATION PROGRAM Contracts § 631.14 Contract violations. Contract violations, determinations and appeals will be handled in accordance with the terms of the... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Contract violations. 631.14 Section 631.14 Agriculture...

  20. 48 CFR 46.314 - Transportation contracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation contracts... MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Contract Clauses 46.314 Transportation contracts. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 52.246-14, Inspection of Transportation, in solicitations and contracts for freight...

  1. 24 CFR 891.560 - HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAP contract. 891.560 Section 891... Assistance § 891.560 HAP contract. (a) HAP contract. The housing assistance payments contract sets forth.... (b) HAP contract execution. (1) Upon satisfactory completion of the project, the Borrower and HUD...

  2. 77 FR 3288 - International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-23

    ... as the baseline contract for future functional equivalence analyses of the GREP Contracts 1 product... Classification Schedule language for GREP Contracts 1. The Postal Service identifies general contract terms that... methodology, the relevant characteristics of this GREP contract are similar, if not the same, as the relevant...

  3. 77 FR 71458 - New International Mail Contract

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Contract AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a... Contracts 1. This document invites public comments on the request and addresses several related procedural... Reseller Expedited Package (GREP) contract (Contracts 1).\\1\\ It seeks to have the instant Contract included...

  4. 48 CFR 926.7104 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 926.7104... 1993. 926.7104 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 48 CFR (DEAR) 952.226-74, Displaced Employee Hiring Preference, in contracts (except for contracts for commercial items...

  5. 48 CFR 837.403 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 837.403... OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Nonpersonal Health Care Services 837.403 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.237-7, Indemnification and medical liability insurance, in...

  6. 48 CFR 822.305 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 822.305... PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Contract Work Hours and Safety Standards Act 822.305 Contract clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.222-70, Contract Work...

  7. 48 CFR 811.503 - Contract clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract clause. 811.503... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS Liquidated Damages 811.503 Contract clause. When the contracting... contracting officer must include the clause in 852.211-74, Liquidated damages, in the contract. ...

  8. Ontologies for commitment-based smart contracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kruijff, Joost; Weigand, Hans; Panetto, H; Debruyne, C.; Gaaloul, W.; Papazoglou, M.; Paschke, A.; Ardagna, C.A.; Meersman, R.

    2017-01-01

    Smart contracts gain rapid exposure since the inception of blockchain technology. Yet there is no unified ontology for smart contracts. Being categorized as coded contracts or substitutes of conventional legal contracts, there is a need to reduce the conceptual ambiguity of smart contracts. We

  9. Analysis of the 314th Contracting Squadrons Contract Management Capability Using the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, Jr, Carl J

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of this research project is to analyze the 314th Contracting Squadron contracting processes and requirement target areas for improvement efforts by the application of the Contract Management Maturity Model (CMMM...

  10. Food and drink serving contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselinović Janko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and drink catering service is almost as old as the civilization itself. Even though this vocation is a part of the catering activity, Serbian law does not foresee this contract section as personalized. Key legal sources for this kind of contract are business customs. Food and drink serving contract is a mixed-type contract and its legal nature is very interesting due to its complexity. Specific for this contract is the fact that it is not an ordinary service, but also an activity which requires a degree of culinary skills, knowledge of customs of other nations, as well as other skills. The very category of a good professional in business economy / hospitality industry is very dynamic, as it needs to be evaluated according to all given circumstances, which may be rather unpredictable. By considering the legal nature, but also the rights and obligations of the contracting parties, we tried to point to the questions that require a special attention. Legal sources that indirectly refer to food and drink serving contracts were taken into account. Apart from the Law on Obligatory Relations, we also considered here the Law on Tourism also pointing to the comparative law and jurisprudence.

  11. nth roots of normal contractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggal, B.P.

    1992-07-01

    Given a complex separable Hilbert space H and a contraction A on H such that A n , n≥2 some integer, is normal it is shown that if the defect operator D A = (1 - A * A) 1/2 is of the Hilbert-Schmidt class, then A is similar to a normal contraction, either A or A 2 is normal, and if A 2 is normal (but A is not) then there is a normal contraction N and a positive definite contraction P of trace class such that parallel to A - N parallel to 1 = 1/2 parallel to P + P parallel to 1 (where parallel to · parallel to 1 denotes the trace norm). If T is a compact contraction such that its characteristics function admits a scalar factor, if T = A n for some integer n≥2 and contraction A with simple eigen-values, and if both T and A satisfy a ''reductive property'', then A is a compact normal contraction. (author). 16 refs

  12. Physics of muscle contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M.; Truskinovsky, L.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called ‘descending limb’ of the isometric tetanus.

  13. Physics of muscle contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruel, M; Truskinovsky, L

    2018-03-01

    In this paper we report, clarify and broaden various recent efforts to complement the chemistry-centered models of force generation in (skeletal) muscles by mechanics-centered models. The physical mechanisms of interest can be grouped into two classes: passive and active. The main passive effect is the fast force recovery which does not require the detachment of myosin cross-bridges from actin filaments and can operate without a specialized supply of metabolic fuel (ATP). In mechanical terms, it can be viewed as a collective folding-unfolding phenomenon in the system of interacting bi-stable units and modeled by near equilibrium Langevin dynamics. The active force generation mechanism operates at slow time scales, requires detachment and is crucially dependent on ATP hydrolysis. The underlying mechanical processes take place far from equilibrium and are represented by stochastic models with broken time reversal symmetry implying non-potentiality, correlated noise or multiple reservoirs. The modeling approaches reviewed in this paper deal with both active and passive processes and support from the mechanical perspective the biological point of view that phenomena involved in slow (active) and fast (passive) force generation are tightly intertwined. They reveal, however, that biochemical studies in solution, macroscopic physiological measurements and structural analysis do not provide by themselves all the necessary insights into the functioning of the organized contractile system. In particular, the reviewed body of work emphasizes the important role of long-range interactions and criticality in securing the targeted mechanical response in the physiological regime of isometric contractions. The importance of the purely mechanical micro-scale modeling is accentuated at the end of the paper where we address the puzzling issue of the stability of muscle response on the so called 'descending limb' of the isometric tetanus.

  14. Adenosarcoma of the uterine body initially presenting as an interstitial small tumor of the uterus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, H; Tsuji, N; Jimi, T; Butsuhara, Y; Terakawa, K; Nagano, T

    2014-01-01

    Adenosarcoma of the uterine body is a rare mixed tumor in which a benign epithelial component is mixed with a malignant stromal element. It has been considered that this tumor originates from the endometrium and its most common finding of imaging is a polypoid tumor occupying the uterine cavity. The authors herein present a case of 37-year-old female with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. At the first visit, transvaginal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a round mass with a diameter of one cm in the uterine wall. No malignant pathological finding was detected. The patient visited the authors again one year later, because of continuous bleeding. At that time, they found a polypoid tumor in the uterine cavity, which turned out to be adenosarcoma with sarcomatous overgrowth. The round mass in the uterus detected at first time seems to have been incipience of adenosarcoma. Prodromal sign of adenosarcoma has not been reported previously.

  15. An Unreported Uterine Rupture in an Unscarred Uterus After Induced Labor With 25 μg Misoprostol Vaginally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Rydahl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Uterine rupture without a former history of cesarean delivery or uterine scarring is an exceedingly rare complication in pregnancy and labor. Misoprostol is widely used to induce labor but there is a lack of knowledge about serious adverse effects. It is especially challenging to collect reports on side effects because misoprostol is not a registered drug. We report a case of a woman induced by one dose 25 μg misoprostol vaginally. Her pregnancy was uncomplicated and she had an unscarred uterus. Her labor progressed rapidly and she experienced hyperstimulation, meconium stained amniotic fluid, uterine rupture, and excessive blood loss of approximately 14 l. The child survived but is diagnosed with cerebral palsy. The case was never reported as an adverse event. This case questions the safety of misoprostol even in low dosage. It also underlines the need to report side effects to national reporting systems.

  16. Contraction ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskij, Yu.B.; Kulikov, V.V.; Nekutchaev, V.O.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of ionization waves in the argon contracted discharge and a definition of their arising propagation mechanism accounting for the specificity of elementary pocesses characteristic of argon are presented. (author)

  17. Defense Threat Reduction Agency > Contracts > Contract Award Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integration Command Senior Enlisted Leader Media News News Archive Strategic Plan Videos Mission Research Support Center Contact Us FAQ Sheet Links Success Stories Contracts Business Opportunities Current Justifications & Approvals Careers Who We Are Our Values Strategic Recruiting Programs Professional

  18. Expression of the Small Conductance Ca(2+)-Activated Potassium Channel Subtype 3 (SK3) in Rat Uterus after Stimulation with 17β-Estradiol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahbek, Mette; Nazemi, Sasan; Odum, Lars

    2014-01-01

    the expression of SK3 in the uterus of rats stimulated with 17β-estradiol and progesterone in order to get an in depth understanding of the rat uterine SK3. Using immunohistochemistry SK3 was localized to the glandular and luminal endometrial lamina epitheliali. Furthermore, a weak signal was observed...... in the myometrium. Using Western blot the protein level of SK3 was found to increase in uteri from animals treated with 17β-estradiol, an effect that was not reflected at the mRNA level. The levels of mRNA for SK3 were significantly lower in the uterus of 17β-estradiol-treated animals than in the uterus...... of ovariectomized animals. We conclude that the SK channels are present in the endometrial epithelium, and possibly also in the myometrium of the rat uterus. Furthermore, the hormonal effect on SK3 caused by 17β-estradiol includes divergent regulation at mRNA and protein levels....

  19. Reproducibility of the interpretation of coronal 3D ultrasound view of the uterus to evaluate the position of Essure® 3 months after hysteroscopic procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capmas, P; Letendre, I; Levaillant, J-M; Fuchs, F; Panel, P; Chambon, G; Villefranque, V; Levy-Zauberman, Y; Fernandez, H

    2017-09-01

    Three-dimensional sonography is a good alternative method to assess the position of microinserts. Adequate position after three months allows for the interruption of other contraception. Objective is to evaluate inter-observer reproducibility of the interpretation of coronal transvaginal 3D ultrasound view of the uterus to evaluate the position of Essure ® . Inter-observer reproducibility study. Fifty women underwent successful bilateral placement of microinserts (Essure ® ) by hysteroscopy in the Department of Gynaecology of a teaching hospital and were included in the study. At three month, 3D ultrasound coronal views of the fifty uterus (accounting for one hundred microinserts) were assessed by five different observers and microinsert position was classified according to the classification described by Legendre et al. Inter-observer reproducibility in reading the 3D coronal view of the uterus was evaluated. The k-value was disparate, from 0.26 to 0.82. Inter-observer reproducibility then ranged from fair to almost perfect, depending on a prior knowledge of the position classification. Transvaginal 3D coronal view of the uterus is sufficient to assess the positioning of the microinserts when the practionner or the surgeon is familiar with the classification method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Carcinoma of the cervical stump: comparison of radiation therapy factors, survival and patterns of failure with carcinoma of the intact uterus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igboeli, P.; Kapp, D.S.; Lawrence, R.; Schwartz, P.E.

    1983-01-01

    Eighty-nine patients with previously untreated invasive carcinoma of the cervical stump were seen at Yale-New Haven Hospital from 1953 through 1977. This represented 9.4% of the carcinomas of the cervix seen during this time period. Eighty-five of the 89 patients (95.5%) had ''true'' cancers of the cervical stump diagnosed 2 years or more after subtotal hysterectomy, while 4 of the 89 patients (4.5%) had ''coincident'' cancers diagnosed within 2 years of the subtotal hysterectomy. All cervical cancers were staged by the F.I.G.O. classification. Patient characteristics, methods of management, failure sites and survival of patients with carcinoma of the cervical stump were compared to those patients with carcinoma in the intact uterus. Patients with cervical stump cancers were treated in a similar manner to those with carcinomas of the intact uterus, using a combination of external beam irradiation and intracavitary radium. The stump cancer patients had a similar stage distribution to the patients with cancers of the intact uterus but, on the average, they were older and received less irradiation. The patterns of failure were similar on a stage for stage basis, but the survival and disease-free survival for stump cancer patients were superior to those of the patients with carcinoma of the intact uterus