WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban quality improvements

  1. Compost improves urban soil and water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Construction in urban zones compacts the soil, which hinders root growth and infiltration and may increase erosion, which may degrade water quality. The purpose of our study was to determine the whether planting prairie grasses and adding compost to urban soils can mitigate these concerns. We simula...

  2. Can terraced pond wetland systems improve urban watershed water quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.; Ho, M.; Flanagan, N. E.; Richardson, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Properly built constructed wetlands are a more economic and efficient way of wastewater treatment compared with traditional methods, although their mechanisms are far from completely understood. As part of the Stream and Wetland Assessment Management Park (SWAMP), which is aimed to improve the water quality of downstream and thereby enhance watershed ecosystem services, a terraced three-pond wetland system was created near Duke University in 2014. This project is expected to promote the retention and settling of pollutants and sediment before runoffs enter downstream flow. The goal of this study is to examine: (1) whether a terraced pond wetland system improves water quality, during both baseline (low flow) and storm events (high flow), which increases pollutant inputs; and (2) how this system functions to remove pollutants, namely what components of this system (plant, soil or water) increase or decrease the level of pollutants. By analyzing a dataset consisting of more than four-year monthly samplings from Pond 1 (first pond in the system) and Pond 3 (last pond in the system), we found that the pond system has reduced total suspended solids (TSS) but only when elevated inputs occur. Dissolved oxygen (DO) is closely related to temperature and macrophytes growth; whereas acidity (pH), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) did not show retention in the early stages of the system development. This system reaches its optimum for reducing TSS at the second pond, but the third pond has important effects on DO, pH, TN and TP. A monitoring in 2017 shows this pond system significantly reduces TSS while increasing dissolved oxygen and neutralizing pH after a storm event; although greater variations incurred within the system as time progresses after storm, overall retention function remained valid. Retention of the pollutants is primarily accomplished by the settling process, which occurs in stilled waterbody of the ponds and by the filtration of macrophytes. We

  3. Urban air quality improvement by using a CNG lean burn engine for city buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merétei, T.; Ling, J.A.N. van; Havenith, C.

    1998-01-01

    The use of compressed natural gas (CNG)-fuelled lean-burn city bus engines has a significant potential for air quality improvement in urban areas. Particularly important is the reduction of NO, as well as particulate and non regulated HC-emissions. For this reason, a CNG-fuelled, lean-burn,

  4. RAINWATER MANAGEMENT AIMING TO IMPROVE THE QUALITY OF URBAN SURFACE RUNOFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. HAIDU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Rainwater Management Aiming to Improve the Quality of Urban Surface Runoff. Currently many urban areas experience the quality degradation of rooftop runoff and accumulated rainwater. The present study aims to estimate the volume of water draining from rooftops within an area of 0.68 km² in the municipality of Cluj-Napoca. The volume of water flowing from rooftops presents a beneficial alternative not only for collecting rainwater for later use, but also for reducing the volume of water and for improving surface runoff quality in urban areas. The procedure was based on the Michel Simplified SCS-CN model, a derived variant of the most popular hydrological model, the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN. The results of the applied method reveal that the highest rooftop runoff water values correspond to the summer months, these being based on daily rainfall data. Estimating the volume of water draining from rooftops for future harvesting is an important step in the sustainable management of rainwater in urban areas and in improving water quality.

  5. Estimation of the Impact of Traveler Information Apps on Urban Air Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenke Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of vehicle population and vehicle miles traveled, automobile emission has become a severe issue in the metropolitan cities of China. There are policies that concentrate on the management of emission sources. However, improving the operation of the transportation system through apps on mobile devices, especially navigation apps, may have a unique role in promoting urban air quality. Real-time traveler information can not only help travelers avoid traffic congestion, but also advise them to adjust their departure time, mode, or route, or even to cancel trips. Will such changes in personal travel patterns have a significant impact in decreasing emissions? If so, to what extent will they impact urban air quality? The aim of this study is to determine how urban traffic emission is affected by the use of navigation apps. With this work, we attempt to answer the question of whether the real-time traffic information provided by navigation apps can help to improve urban air quality. Some of these findings may provide references for the formulation of urban traffic and environmental policies. Keywords: Real-time traffic information, Mobile devices, Environmental benefits, Agent-based model

  6. Influence of cetane improvers on the air quality in an urban street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Akutsu, Y.; Arai, M.; Tamura, M.

    2000-01-01

    The concentration distributions of NO x , PM, HC and CO in an urban street canyon have been estimated using a two-dimensional air quality numerical model based on the k-e turbulent model and the atmospheric convection diffusion equation when various cetane improvers were used in diesel fuels. A wind vortex can be found within the street canyon, and the pollutants emitted from the bottom of the street canyon tend to follow the course of the wind field, moving circularly. The addition of cetane improvers can improve the air quality in a street canyon, all of the pollutants were found to decrease with increasing cetane number. (Author)

  7. Remote Sensing Characterization of the Urban Landscape for Improvement of Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Khan, Maudood

    2005-01-01

    The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models, particularly the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model that is used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, primarily for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of the CMAQ model to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well the model predicts ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban growth projections as improved inputs to the meteorology component of the CMAQ model focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. These growth projections include "business as usual" and "smart growth" scenarios out to 2030. The growth projections illustrate the effects of employing urban heat island mitigation strategies, such as increasing tree canopy and albedo across the Atlanta metro area, in moderating ground-level ozone and air temperature, compared to "business as usual" simulations in which heat island mitigation strategies are not applied. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data has been found to better characterize low densityhburban development as compared with USGS 1 km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for fiture scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission, the regional planning agency for the area. This allows the state Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these

  8. Use of an electronic medical record improves the quality of urban pediatric primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William G; Mann, Adriana M; Bauchner, Howard

    2003-03-01

    To evaluate the quality of pediatric primary care, including preventive services, before and after the introduction of an electronic medical record (EMR) developed for use in an urban pediatric primary care center. A pre-postintervention analysis was used in the study. The intervention was a pediatric EMR. Routine health care maintenance visits for children eye-to-eye contact with patients was reduced, and 4 of 7 reported that use of the system increased the duration of visits (mean: 9.3 minutes longer). All users recommended continued use of the system. Use of the EMR in this study was associated with improved quality of care. This experience suggests that EMRs can be successfully used in busy urban pediatric primary care centers and, as recommended by the Institute of Medicine, must play a central role in the redesign of the US health care system.

  9. Effectiveness of green infrastructure for improvement of air quality in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Thomas A M; Mackenzie, A Robert; Whyatt, J Duncan; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2012-07-17

    Street-level concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and particulate matter (PM) exceed public health standards in many cities, causing increased mortality and morbidity. Concentrations can be reduced by controlling emissions, increasing dispersion, or increasing deposition rates, but little attention has been paid to the latter as a pollution control method. Both NO(2) and PM are deposited onto surfaces at rates that vary according to the nature of the surface; deposition rates to vegetation are much higher than those to hard, built surfaces. Previously, city-scale studies have suggested that deposition to vegetation can make a very modest improvement (street canyons. This study shows that increasing deposition by the planting of vegetation in street canyons can reduce street-level concentrations in those canyons by as much as 40% for NO(2) and 60% for PM. Substantial street-level air quality improvements can be gained through action at the scale of a single street canyon or across city-sized areas of canyons. Moreover, vegetation will continue to offer benefits in the reduction of pollution even if the traffic source is removed from city centers. Thus, judicious use of vegetation can create an efficient urban pollutant filter, yielding rapid and sustained improvements in street-level air quality in dense urban areas.

  10. Sustainable urban environmental quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tošković Dobrivoje

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available MEANING as the essential element of urban quality. The role of the three main factors for the urban quality achievement: PLANNING, DEVELOPMENT and PEOPLE. Next to that, it is important to assume the identity of the local CONTEXT as the essential base for designing and shaping of form development. The problems of the quality achievements in the situation of the permanent changes. In such an environment - the RENEWAL of the towns become the basic strategic orientation requiring - evaluation of the development policy instruments. On the road of changes there are PROBLEMS of a strategic nature which should be, firstly, defined and, then, solved before entering in the process of structuring and arrangement. One of these problems is NEW versus OLD. Transition to a new policy of urbanism relying, first of all, on the private investors and international funds of the local authorities - call for a NEW STRATEGY in urbanism, in the context of the sustainability of environment. The sustainability of quality and the categories of the influencing factors. The sustainability of quality as a twofold process of urban design. The quality of environment as an aesthetic phenomenon. The urban situation and environmental quality: feasibility of changes and effects; the environmental capacity as an indicator and quality determinant. The urban quality and international experience. The evaluation of our urban situation. INSTEAD OF CONCLUSION: A general review on the visions and urban quality policy and planning. Toward an evaluation of urban environmental quality: negative and positive indicators; sustainable communities environmental ruling and urban quality planning.

  11. Nonstructural urban stormwater quality measures: building a knowledge base to improve their use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, André C; Fletcher, Tim D

    2007-05-01

    This article summarizes a research project that investigated the use, performance, cost, and evaluation of nonstructural measures to improve urban stormwater quality. A survey of urban stormwater managers from Australia, New Zealand, and the United States revealed a widespread trend of increasing use of nonstructural measures among leading stormwater management agencies, with at least 76% of 41 types of nonstructural measures being found to be increasing in use. Data gathered from the survey, an international literature review, and a multicriteria analysis highlighted four nonstructural measures of greatest potential value: mandatory town planning controls that promote the adoption of low-impact development principles and techniques; development of strategic urban stormwater management plans for a city, shire, or catchment; stormwater management measures and programs for construction/building sites; and stormwater management activities related to municipal maintenance operations such as maintenance of the stormwater drainage network and manual litter collections. Knowledge gained on the use and performance of nonstructural measures from the survey, literature review, and three trial evaluation projects was used to develop tailored monitoring and evaluation guidelines for these types of measure. These guidelines incorporate a new evaluation framework based on seven alternative styles of evaluation that range from simply monitoring whether a nonstructural measure has been fully implemented to monitoring its impact on waterway health. This research helps to build the stormwater management industry's knowledge base concerning nonstructural measures and provides a practical tool to address common impediments associated with monitoring and evaluating the performance and cost of these measures.

  12. Can TiO2-based photocatalytic textiles be used to improve the urban air quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ródenas, Mila; Fages, Eduardo; Fatarella, Enrico; Herrero, David; Castagnoli, Lidia; Borràs, Esther; Vera, Teresa; Gómez, Tatiana; Catota, Marlon; Carreño, Javier; Hernández, Daniel; Gimeno, Cristina; López, Ramón; Muñoz, Amalia

    2017-04-01

    Despite current legislation and efforts made to improve urban air quality, significant negative effects still persist. That is the case of traffic, which impact on air pollution is a growing problem. For this reason, depollution measures are necessary to reach safer air quality levels. Recently, the use of titanium dioxide (TiO2) based photocatalytic self-cleaning and de-polluting materials has been considered to remove air pollutants, especially NOx. TiO2 can be found in the market under different formats for environmental purposes, and its effectiveness depends not only on the support (concrete, paints, etc) but also on the impregnation method (layer, embedded, etc). By combining laboratory and field campaigns, the LIFE PHOTOCITYTEX project was conceived to demonstrate the effectiveness of using TiO2-based photocatalytic nanomaterials in textiles as a way of alleviating the air pollution in urban areas. Within the project, which is already within its last year, two one-year extensive passive dosimetric campaigns have already been completed to assess their impact on the selected urban sites, measuring before and after the installation of the photocatalytic textile prototypes, respectively. Also, intensive active measurement campaigns (using active dosimetry, monitors and instrumentation for physical parameters) have been conducted to account for winter and summer conditions. Besides, lab-tests have been concluded to determine optimal photocatalytic formulations on textiles, and these have been tested at the EUPHORE simulation chambers under typical environmental conditions of various European cities. Besides the effect on NOx, which has been the main focus of the study, VOCs formation and abatement has been assessed, yielding in a better overall understanding of the whole process and its implications. Very promising results on the deep reduction of NOx have been observed at EUPHORE. From the calculation of the uptake coefficient, a mathematical model tool foresees

  13. Improved or Unimproved Urban Areas Effect on Soil and Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally D. Logsdon

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Construction in urban areas usually results in compacted soil, which restricts plant growth and infiltration. Nutrients may be lost in storm runoff water and sediment. The purpose of this study was to determine if existing lawns benefit from aeration and surface compost additions without the negative impact of nutrient loss in runoff. Four sets of lawns were compared, with or without compost plus aeration, as a paired comparison. Surface bulk density was significantly reduced in the treated lawns (1.32 versus 1.42 Mg·m−3. Visual evaluation of soil structure showed improvement in the treated lawns. Of fifteen measurement dates over four years, four dates showed significantly higher surface soil water contents in the treated lawns compared with the untreated lawns. When compared over time, three of the four treated lawns had significantly higher soil water content than the untreated lawns. Nutrient concentrations in rainfall simulator runoff were not significantly different between treated and control lawns, which showed that compost did not negatively impact water quality. Compost and aeration helped restore soil quality for urban soils of recent construction.

  14. The role of a peri-urban forest on air quality improvement in the Mexico City megalopolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgardner, Darrel; Varela, Sebastian; Escobedo, Francisco J.; Chacalo, Alicia; Ochoa, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Air quality improvement by a forested, peri-urban national park was quantified by combining the Urban Forest Effects (UFORE) and the Weather Research and Forecasting coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) models. We estimated the ecosystem-level annual pollution removal function of the park’s trees, shrub and grasses using pollution concentration data for carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O 3 ), and particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter (PM 10 ), modeled meteorological and pollution variables, and measured forest structure data. Ecosystem-level O 3 and CO removal and formation were also analyzed for a representative month. Total annual air quality improvement of the park’s vegetation was approximately 0.02% for CO, 1% for O 3, and 2% for PM 10 , of the annual concentrations for these three pollutants. Results can be used to understand the air quality regulation ecosystem services of peri-urban forests and regional dynamics of air pollution emissions from major urban areas. - Highlights: ► Air quality regulation functions and ecosystem structure of a peri-urban forest in Mexico were quantified. ► Air pollution removal-formation dynamics were estimated using the UFORE and WRF-Chem models. ► Peri-urban forests positively contributed to air qualtiy improvement in Mexico City. ► Results can be used to quantify the ecosystem services of peri-urban forests. - Coupled models estimated air quality improvement and pollution removal-formation by peri-urban forest ecosystems in the Mexico City airshed.

  15. Designing urban spaces and buildings to improve sustainability and quality of life in a warmer world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Claire; Levermore, Geoff

    2008-01-01

    It is in cities that the negative impacts of a warming climate will be felt most strongly. The summer time comfort and well-being of the urban population will become increasingly compromised under future scenarios for climate change and urbanisation. In contrast to rural areas, where night-time relief from high daytime temperatures occurs as heat is lost to the sky, the city environment stores and traps heat and offers little respite from high temperatures. This urban heat island effect is responsible for temperature differences of up to 7 deg. C between cities and the country in the UK. We already have experience of the potential hazards of these higher temperatures. The majority of heat-related fatalities during the summer of 2003 were in urban areas. This means that the cooling of the urban environment is a high priority for urban planners and designers. Proven ways of doing this include altering the urban microclimate by modifying its heat absorption and emission, for example through urban greening, the use of high-reflectivity materials, and by increasing openness to allow cooling winds. Buildings themselves can also deliver improved comfort and higher levels of sustainability by taking advantage of exemplary facade, glazing and ventilation designs. In addition, changed behaviour by building occupants can help keep urban areas cool. The technology to reduce the future vulnerability of city dwellers to thermal discomfort is already largely in existence. But there is a need for complementary policy and planning commitments to manage its implementation, especially in existing buildings and urban areas

  16. Master in Urban Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    Development and content of an international Master in Urban Quality development and management. The work has been done in a cooperation between Berlage institut, Holland; Chulalongkorn University, Thailand; Mahidol University, Thailand; University Kebangsaan Malaysia, Malaysia; og Aalborg...

  17. Urbanism & urban qualities New data and methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The interest in urban spaces and their qualities has become stronger in recent years. A substantial volume of projects aims to create attractive urban spaces reasons of Sustainability, Quality of Life and urban vitality. But who actually uses the urban spaces, which urban spaces are used? How do...... they use them? What characterizes the good urban space? And how and by who is it evaluated? How is a better co-operation between urban space researchers, decision makers and users established? Is it the right urban spaces which receive investments? How can research optimize the basis for decisions......?   Proceedings from the conference "Urbanism & urban qualities - new data & methodologies" held 24th of June 2009 at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen....

  18. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M. [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  19. Air quality and urban management in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberti, M [Stanford Univ. (United States). Center for Conservation Biology; Joffre, S [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Important changes in the quality of urban air have occurred in Europe during the last 20 years. Urban air quality trends are clearly correlated to changes in production and consumption processes which have occurred in European cities during the last decades. However, the way these trends are linked with the changes in the urban structure is not yet fully appreciated. A set of indicators is proposed to examine the relationships between air quality, energy consumption and transportation trends. On this basis is argued that the current decentralization of the urban structure and specialization of land use are major driving forces in current urban air pollution. The range of actions and tools to improve urban air quality should include: (1) land use planning, (2) efficient urban management, and (3) measures directed to protecting the quality of the urban environment. (author)

  20. Pollution from urban development and setback outfalls as a catchment management measure for river water quality improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Deonie; Haynes, Heather; Arthur, Scott

    2016-04-01

    provide a short, vegetated, overland flow path linking the piped stormwater outflow to the receiving waterway. With the potential to function in a similar manner to swales or filter strips, field investigation has been undertaken to assess the water quality improvement provided by setback outfalls. Assessment of 13 established setback outfalls illustrates that there is a decrease in deposited Ni, Ca, Mg, Na, Zn, Cu, K and P pollutant concentration as a direct result of this overland flow path implementation. Thus, setback outfalls function to provide passive water quality treatment and can be considered a sustainable urban drainage measure. At a reach scale, the implementation of setback outfalls may reduce the in-stream sediment adsorbed pollutant concentrations. Analysis of the field results suggests setback outfalls can function to beneficially alter the pollutant rate of change, acting to help 'clean' a river reach.

  1. Microbiological Evaluation of Water Quality from Urban Watersheds for Domestic Water Supply Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandria K. Graves

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural and urban runoffs may be major sources of pollution of water bodies and major sources of bacteria affecting the quality of drinking water. Of the different pathways by which bacterial pathogens can enter drinking water, this one has received little attention to date; that is, because soils are often considered to be near perfect filters for the transport of bacterial pathogens through the subsoil to groundwater. The goals of this study were to determine the distribution, diversity, and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from low flowing river water and sediment with inputs from different sources before water is discharged into ground water and to compare microbial contamination in water and sediment at different sampling sites. Water and sediment samples were collected from 19 locations throughout the watershed for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Heterotrophic plate counts and E. coli were also determined after running tertiary treated water through two tanks containing aquifer sand material. Presumptive pathogenic E. coli isolates were obtained and characterized for virulent factors and antimicrobial resistance. None of the isolates was confirmed as Shiga toxin E. coli (STEC, but as others, such as enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC. Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE was used to show the diversity E. coli populations from different sources throughout the watershed. Seventy six percent of the isolates from urban sources exhibited resistance to more than one antimicrobial agent. A subsequent filtration experiment after water has gone through filtration tanks containing aquifer sand material showed that there was a 1 to 2 log reduction in E. coli in aquifer sand tank. Our data showed multiple strains of E. coli without virulence attributes, but with high distribution of resistant phenotypes. Therefore, the occurrence of E. coli with multiple resistances in the environment is a matter of great concern

  2. Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration, a Technology for Improving Water Quality in Urban Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, D.; Garcia, T.; Abad, J. D.; Bombardelli, F. A.; Waratuke, A.; Garcia, M. H.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved Oxygen (DO) levels are frequently depleted in rivers located in urban areas, as in the case of the Matanza-Riachuelo River in Buenos Aires, Argentina. This stream receives both domestic and industrial loads which have received minor or no treatment before being discharged into the water body. Major sources of pollution include, but are not limited, to leather and meat packing industries. Additionally, deep slow moving water in the river is associated with limited reaeration and facilitates deposition of organic-rich sediment, therefore exacerbating the DO consumption through sediment oxygen demand. In this study we assessed the efficiency of Sidestream Elevated Pool Aeration (SEPA) stations as a technology for alleviating conditions characterized by severely low DO levels. A SEPA station takes water from the stream at low DO concentrations, through a screw pump; then, water is transported to an elevated pool from where it flows over a series of weirs for water reaeration; finally, the aerated water is discharged back into the river sufficiently downstream from the intake point. This system mimics a phenomenon that occurs in mountain streams, where water is purified by bubbling over rocks. The impact of the use of SEPA stations on the DO concentrations in the Matanza-Riachuelo River was evaluated at both local and reach scales: this was done by deploying and monitoring an in situ pilot SEPA station, and by performing numerical modeling for the evaluation of the hydrodynamics in the SEPA station and the water quality in the reach where SEPA stations are planned to be implemented. An efficiency of aeration of 99% was estimated from DO measurements in the pilot SEPA, showing the potential of this technology for DO recovery in urban streams. Three-dimensional hydrodynamic modeling, besides assisting in the design of the pilot SEPA, has allowed for designing a prototype SEPA to be built soon. Finally, one-dimensional water quality modeling has provided the

  3. Urban Quality Development & Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Martin; Fryd, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe and discuss the development and the structure of a new international master on the subject of Urban Quality Development & Management, and explore the potential of the process and the outcome in serving as models adoptable by faculty at other......: Urban quality development and management is dependent on human resource development, institutionalised networks and confident exchange of knowledge, and must identify and incorporate multiple environmental, social, economic and cultural aspects. The authors find that at the core of innovative societies......, an interlinkage exists between practice (business, civil society, governance) and theory (research, education). The case illustrates how a new curriculum takes time to develop and implement and how it relies on confidence and trust between partners, in this case cities and universities, before being able to plant...

  4. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  5. Analyzing the cost effectiveness of Santiago, Chile's policy of using urban forests to improve air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco J. Escobedo; John E. Wagner; David J. Nowak; Carmen Luz De la Maza; Manuel Rodriguez; Daniel E. Crane

    2008-01-01

    Santiago, Chile has the distinction of having among the worst urban air pollution problems in Latin America. As part of an atmospheric pollution reduction plan, the Santiago Regional Metropolitan government defined an environmental policy goal of using urban forests to remove particulate matter less than 10 µm (PM10) in the Gran...

  6. Effects on Public Health of Heat Waves to Improve the Urban Quality of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Telesca

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Life satisfaction has been widely used in recent studies to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on individuals’ well-being. In the last few years, many studies have shown that the potential impact of climate change on cities depends on a variety of social, economic, and environmental determinants. In particular, extreme events, such as flood and heat waves, may cause more severe impacts and induce a relatively higher level of vulnerability in populations that live in urban areas. Therefore, the impact of climate change and related extreme events certainly influences the economy and quality of life in affected cities. Heat wave frequency, intensity, and duration are increasing in global and local climate change scenarios. The association between high temperatures and morbidity is well-documented, but few studies have examined the role of meteo-climatic variables on hospital admissions. This study investigates the effects of temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure on health by linking daily access to a Matera (Italy hospital with meteorological conditions in summer 2012. Extreme heat wave episodes that affected most of the city from 1 June to 31 August 2012 (among the selected years 2003, 2012, and 2017 were analyzed. Results were compared with heat waves from other years included in the base period (1971–2000 and the number of emergency hospital admissions on each day was considered. The meteorological data used in this study were collected from two weather stations in Matera. In order to detect correlations between the daily emergency admissions and the extreme health events, a combined methodology based on a heat wave identification technique, multivariate analysis (PCA, and regression analysis was applied. The results highlight that the role of relative humidity decreases as the severity level of heat waves increases. Moreover, the combination of temperatures and daily barometric pressure range (DPR has been

  7. Improving the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotibi, A

    1992-11-01

    An effective environmental sanitation program should encompass key features considered necessary for a primary health care (PHC) program such as availability, accessibility, affordability, acceptability, and practicability. Poor housing conditions give rise to stress, delinquency, and crime, as well as to helminthic and other parasitic infestations. In Africa, urbanization has accelerated since the 1950s because of rural-urban migration. In Nigeria new housing construction has been poor, with inadequate provision of physical facilities and community services in residential areas. Overcrowding is rampant, with occupancy rates of 2-3 persons per room recorded for many cities including Owerri, Abba, Warri and Ontisha. In a survey of rooming-house facilities in Lagos, the average was 5-7 persons per room. 47% of households were living in just one rooms in Sokoto and 80% in the Lagos metropolitan area. An urban household survey by the Federal Office of Statistics found that 45% of households were without electricity. Similarly, 46% of households were found to be without running water, 29% obtained their water from wells, and 14% from streams. The inadequate provision of toilets poses major health risks. Many Nigerian cities lack efficient waste disposal systems: in Ibadan mounds of uncollected rubbish obstruct the roads. According to a Statistics Office survey 48% of refuse is estimated to be dumped illegally, while 23% is simply heaped in family compounds. A recently launched campaign on environmental sanitation is the start of improving the health of urban dwellers which could cut expenditure on curative health measures.

  8. Increasing Pap smear rates at an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service through translational research and continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorrington, Melanie S; Herceg, Ana; Douglas, Kirsty; Tongs, Julie; Bookallil, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    This article describes translational research (TR) and continuous quality improvement (CQI) processes used to identify and address barriers and facilitators to Pap smear screening within an urban Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS). Rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles were conducted, informed by client surveys, a data collection tool, focus groups and internal research. There was a statistically significant increase in Pap smear numbers during PDSA cycles, continuing at 10 months follow up. The use of TR with CQI appears to be an effective and acceptable way to affect Pap smear screening. Community and service collaboration should be at the core of research in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health settings. This model is transferrable to other settings and other health issues.

  9. The digital divide at an urban community health center: implications for quality improvement and health care access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizard-Thompson, Nancy M; Feiereisel, Kirsten B; Stevens, Sheila F; Miller, David P; Wofford, James L

    2011-06-01

    Health care policy encourages better electronic connectivity between patient and the office practice. However, whether patients are able to partner with the practice in using communication technologies is not known. We sought to determine (1) the proportion of clinic patients who use internet and cell phone text messaging technologies, (2) the level of patient interest in using these technologies for the purpose of managing clinical appointments and patient education. Consecutive adult patients, clinicians and staff at an urban community health center were surveyed during a one-week period in order to estimate the frequency of technology use by patients. A total of 308 survey cards were collected during the designated week (response rate of 85% (308/362). One-third (34.0%, 105) of surveyed patients used the internet and text messaging daily or weekly, while nearly two-thirds (59.7%, 182) never used these technologies. There were no racial or gender differences in the proportion of patients who used the internet daily or weekly. In contrast, African-Americans used text messaging more often than whites (28.2 vs. 21.4%, P 50) used the internet and text messaging more often than older patients (50.6 vs. 16.6%, 44.3 vs. 7.3%, respectively). Despite the low use of both technologies, patient's interest in managing clinic appointments was high (40.3% for the Internet and 56.8% for text messaging). Clinicians and staff estimated patient's daily/weekly use of internet and cellphone messaging at 40.3% (± 22.0), and 56.8% (± 25.7), respectively. Most patients at this urban community health center reported never using the internet or cell phone text messaging. Clinicians overestimated technology use by patients. Planning for clinic infrastructure, quality improvement, and patient education should include assessment of technology use patterns by patients.

  10. Opportunities for Saving Energy and Improving Air Quality in Urban Heat Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbari, Hashem

    2007-07-01

    World energy use is the main contributor to atmospheric CO2. In 2002, about 7.0 giga metric tons of carbon (GtC) were emitted internationally by combustion of gas, liquid, and solid fuels (CDIAC, 2006), 2 to 5 times the amount contributed by deforestation (Brown et al., 1988). The share of atmospheric carbon emissions for the United States from fossil fuel combustion was 1.6 GtC. Increasing use of fossil fuel and deforestation together have raised atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration some 25% over the last 150 years. According to global climate models and preliminary measurements, these changes in the composition of the atmosphere have already begun raising the Earth's average temperature. If current energy trends continue, these changes could drastically alter the Earth's temperature, with unknown but potentially catastrophic physical and political consequences. During the last three decades, increased energy awareness has led to conservation efforts and leveling of energy consumption in the industrialized countries. An important byproduct of this reduced energy use is the lowering of CO{sub 2} emissions. Of all electricity generated in the United States, about one-sixth is used to air-condition buildings. The air-conditioning use is about 400 tera-watt-hours (TWh), equivalent to about 80 million metric tons of carbon (MtC) emissions, and translating to about $40 billion (B) per year. Of this $40 B/year, about half is used in cities that have pronounced 'heat islands'. The contribution of the urban heat island to the air-conditioning demand has increased over the last 40 years and it is currently at about 10%. Metropolitan areas in the United States (e.g., Los Angeles, Phoenix, Houston, Atlanta, and New York City) have typically pronounced heat islands that warrant special attention by anyone concerned with broad-scale energy efficiency (HIG, 2006). The ambient air is primarily heated through three processes: direct absorption of solar radiation

  11. Improving biogas quality and methane yield via co-digestion of agricultural and urban biomass wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Adelard, Laetitia

    2016-08-01

    Impact of co-digestion versus mono-digestion on biogas and CH4 yield for a set of five biomass materials (vegetable food waste, cow dung, pig manure, grass clippings, and chicken manure) was investigated considering 95 different biomass mixes of the five materials under thermophilic conditions in bench-scale batch experiments over a period of 65days. Average biogas and CH4 yields were significantly higher during co-digestion than during mono-digestion of the same materials. This improvement was most significant for co-digestion experiments involving three biomass types, although it was independent of the specific biomasses being co-digested. Improvement in CH4 production was further more prominent early in the digestion process during co-digestion compared to mono-digestion. Co-digestion also appeared to increase the ultimate CH4/CO2 ratio of the gas produced compared to mono-digestion although this tendency was relatively weak and not statistically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated Urban Water Quality Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rauch, W.; Harremoës, Poul

    1995-01-01

    The basic features of integrated urban water quality management by means of deterministic modeling are outlined. Procedures for the assessment of the detrimental effects in the recipient are presented as well as the basic concepts of an integrated model. The analysis of a synthetic urban drainage...... system provides useful information for water quality management. It is possible to identify the system parameters that contain engineering significance. Continuous simulation of the system performance indicates that the combined nitrogen loading is dominated by the wastewater treatment plant during dry...

  13. Adaptive measurements of urban runoff quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Brandon P.; Kerkez, Branko

    2016-11-01

    An approach to adaptively measure runoff water quality dynamics is introduced, focusing specifically on characterizing the timing and magnitude of urban pollutographs. Rather than relying on a static schedule or flow-weighted sampling, which can miss important water quality dynamics if parameterized inadequately, novel Internet-enabled sensor nodes are used to autonomously adapt their measurement frequency to real-time weather forecasts and hydrologic conditions. This dynamic approach has the potential to significantly improve the use of constrained experimental resources, such as automated grab samplers, which continue to provide a strong alternative to sampling water quality dynamics when in situ sensors are not available. Compared to conventional flow-weighted or time-weighted sampling schemes, which rely on preset thresholds, a major benefit of the approach is the ability to dynamically adapt to features of an underlying hydrologic signal. A 28 km2 urban watershed was studied to characterize concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus. Water quality samples were autonomously triggered in response to features in the underlying hydrograph and real-time weather forecasts. The study watershed did not exhibit a strong first flush and intraevent concentration variability was driven by flow acceleration, wherein the largest loadings of TSS and total phosphorus corresponded with the steepest rising limbs of the storm hydrograph. The scalability of the proposed method is discussed in the context of larger sensor network deployments, as well the potential to improving control of urban water quality.

  14. Improving the environment in urban areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamkus, V.V.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses the need for improvements to the environment in urban areas, and efforts being made under the direction of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to address these problems. The impact the new Clean Air Act can have on emissions from gasoline powered autos, diesel burning trucks, fixed emission sources ranging from utilities to chemical plants, and consumer products like hair sprays and charcoal starters, will all work together to improve air quality in urban areas. The author also discusses Brownfields Economic Redevelopment Plan efforts being supported by the EPA in a coordinated plan to get municipalities involved in cleaning up areas with pollution, to remove the blight on the urban areas, provide new land for development, and promote additional jobs.

  15. Causality Between Urban Concentration and Environmental Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Pujiati

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Population is concentrated in urban areas can cause the external diseconomies on environment if it exceeds the carrying capacity of the space and the urban economy. Otherwise the quality of the environment is getting better, led to the concentration of population in urban areas are increasingly high. This study aims to analyze the relationship of causality between the urban concentration and environmental quality in urban agglomeration areas. The data used in the study of secondary data obtained from the Central Bureau of statistics and the City Government from 2000 to 2013. The analytical method used is the Granger causality and descriptive. Granger causality study results showed no pattern of reciprocal causality, between urban concentration and the quality of the environment, but there unidirectional relationship between the urban concentration and environmental quality. This means that increasing urban concentration led to decreased environmental quality.

  16. Effects of urbanization on water quality variables along urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study focuses on water quality of permanent and temporary water bodies along the urban and suburban gradients of Chennai City, South India. Water samples were analyzed for their major elements and nutrients. The results indicated that the response of water quality variables was different when compared to urban ...

  17. Long-term assessment at field scale of Floating Treatment Wetlands for improvement of water quality and provision of ecosystem services in a eutrophic urban pond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J; Sánchez-Galván, Gloria; Melo, Francisco J; Hernández, Víctor J; González-Portela, Ricardo E

    2017-04-15

    Pollution of urban water bodies requires stringent control measures and the development of low-cost and highly efficient alternative technologies. In contrast to Constructed Wetlands, Floating Treatment Wetlands (FTWs) have the advantage of not requiring large surface of land since they operate in situ. However, there is limited information about their long-term evaluation while operating at field scale. The aim of this work was to assess the performance of FTWs using a combination of Pontederia sagittata and Cyperus papyrus for the improvement of the water quality and provision of ecosystem services of a eutrophic urban pond. The FTWs were built with low-cost material easy to acquire and to ensemble. Two FTWs (17.5m 2 and 33m 2 ) located in Pond 1 within a complex of 4 urban artificial ponds were evaluated for two years. They promoted an increase in the dissolved oxygen (D.O.) within a range of 15 to 67%, a removal of fecal coliforms in the range of 9 to 86% and a nitrate removal in the range of 9 to 76%. The plant productivity reached a maximum of 363g dm m -2 d -1 in the FTW1 and 536g dm m -2 d -1 in the FTW2 during the period March-June 2016. The TKN and the TP content in the plant were in the range of 18.3 to 28.1 and of 0.05 to 0.196gkg -1 dry matter, respectively. In conclusion, the tested FTWs have proved to be a very beneficial low-cost technology for the improvement of water quality and provision of ecosystem services. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Accelerate Water Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is committed to accelerating water quality improvement and minimizing negative impacts to aquatic life from contaminants and other stressors in the Bay Delta Estuary by working with California Water Boards to strengthen water quality improvement plans.

  19. Urban air quality in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Mar (ed.) [Spanish Research Council - CSIC, Barcelona (Spain). Inst. for Environmental Assessment and Water Research

    2013-07-01

    This book provides an overview of air quality in urban environments in Europe, focusing on air pollutant emission sources and formation mechanisms, measurement and modeling strategies, and future perspectives. The emission sources described are biomass burning, vehicular traffic, industry and agriculture, but also African dust and long-range transport of pollutants across the European regions. The impact of these emission sources and processes on atmospheric particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen oxides and volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds is discussed and critical areas for particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide in Europe are identified. Finally, this volume presents future perspectives, mainly regarding upcoming air quality monitoring strategies, metrics of interest, such as submicron and nanoparticles, and indoor and outdoor exposure scenarios.

  20. Improving the Urban Environment experiences in Peshawar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the experiences of the Pak-German Urban Industrial Environment Protection (UIEP) Program that was implemented in Peshawar, North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan from May 1996 to October 2000. Under the UIEP, which had the goal of improving the environmental situation in NWFP, pilot-projects focusing on air pollution control from vehicular emissions and brick kilns, improvement of solid waste collection and disposal of outdated pesticides were implemented. In addition, a number of studies and surveys focusing on hospital waste management, pressure horns, ambient noise level, fuel and oil adulteration and ambient air quality were undertaken. The paper highlights the strategies used for the implementation of the pilot-projects and presents useful data concerning the urban environment of NWFP. (author)

  1. Teaching quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Marry Ellen; Douglas, Stephen; Girdley, Diana; Jarzemsky, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Practicing nurses are required to engage in quality improvement work as a part of their clinical practice, but few undergraduate nursing education programs offer course work and applied experience in this area. This article presents a description of class content and teaching strategies, assignments, and evaluation strategies designed to achieve the Quality and Safety Education in Nursing competencies related to quality improvement and interdisciplinary teams. Students demonstrate their application of the quality improvement process by designing and implementing a small-scale quality improvement project that they report in storyboard format on a virtual conference Web site.

  2. Continuous quality improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourne, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes the various statistical tools used at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory to achieve continuous quality improvement in the development of Breeder Reactor Technology and in reactor operations. The role of the quality assurance professionals in this process, including quantifiable measurements using actual examples, is provided. The commitment to quality improvement through top management involvement is dramatically illustrated

  3. Spice MyPlate: Nutrition Education Focusing Upon Spices and Herbs Improved Diet Quality and Attitudes Among Urban High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Adamo, Christopher R; McArdle, Patrick F; Balick, Lyssa; Peisach, Erin; Ferguson, Tenaj; Diehl, Alica; Bustad, Kendall; Bowden, Brandin; Pierce, Beverly A; Berman, Brian M

    2016-05-01

    To determine whether an experiential nutrition education intervention focusing on spices and herbs ("Spice MyPlate") is feasible and improves diet quality and healthy eating attitudes among an urban and predominantly African-American sample of adolescents more than standard nutrition education alone. A nonrandomized controlled trial compared standard nutrition education in U.S. Department of Agriculture MyPlate guidelines (control group) with standard nutrition education plus adjuvant Spice MyPlate curriculum (intervention group). Data were collected at baseline and after 3, 6, and 10 weeks. Study setting was two public high schools in Baltimore, Maryland. A total of 110 students in grades 9 to 12 participated. The 6-week school-based intervention conducted during health class focused on cooking using spices and herbs to eat healthier diets according to MyPlate. Dietary intake reported on 3-day food records and healthy eating attitudes questionnaires was analyzed. Differences in diet quality and healthy eating attitudes between study groups were estimated by t-tests, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and covariate-adjusted regression models. Spice MyPlate was feasible and there were modest but significant improvements (p ≤ .05) in the Spice MyPlate group compared with control in whole grains (31.2 g/wk) and protein foods (13.2 ounces per week) intake, and attitudes toward eating vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and low-fat dairy. Although randomized trials are needed, experiential nutrition education focusing on spices and herbs may help urban and predominantly African-American adolescent populations eat healthier diets. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. How Can Urban Policies Improve Air Quality and Help Mitigate Global Climate Change: a Systematic Mapping Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovic, Anne Dorothée; de Oliveira, Maria Aparecida; Biehl, João; Ribeiro, Helena

    2016-02-01

    Tackling climate change at the global level is central to a growing field of scientific research on topics such as environmental health, disease burden, and its resulting economic impacts. At the local level, cities constitute an important hub of atmospheric pollution due to the large amount of pollutants that they emit. As the world population shifts to urban centers, cities will increasingly concentrate more exposed populations. Yet, there is still significant progress to be made in understanding the contribution of urban pollutants other than CO2, such as vehicle emissions, to global climate change. It is therefore particularly important to study how local governments are managing urban air pollution. This paper presents an overview of local air pollution control policies and programs that aim to reduce air pollution levels in megacities. It also presents evidence measuring their efficacy. The paper argues that local air pollution policies are not only beneficial for cities but are also important for mitigating and adapting to global climate change. The results systematize several policy approaches used around the world and suggest the need for more in-depth cross-city studies with the potential to highlight best practices both locally and globally. Finally, it calls for the inclusion of a more human rights-based approach as a mean of guaranteeing of clean air for all and reducing factors that exacerbate climate change.

  5. Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urbanization, housing and environmental quality indicators. ... Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and the Social Sciences ... Urbanization ideally should also imply an enhancement of housing quality and other components of human settlements such as power supply, portable water, good roads, proper refuse and sewage ...

  6. Collaborative quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckenbaugh, Amy N; Miller, David C; Ghani, Khurshid R

    2017-07-01

    Quality improvement collaboratives were developed in many medical and surgical disciplines with the goal of measuring and improving the quality of care provided to patients. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of surgical quality improvement collaboratives, and in particular those aimed at improving urological care. Quality improvement collaboratives collect high-quality data using standardized methodologies, and use the data to provide feedback to physicians and practices, and then implement processes to improve patient outcomes. The largest regional collaborative in urology is the Michigan Urological Surgery Improvement Collaborative (MUSIC). Recent efforts by this group have been focused at understanding variation in care, improving patient selection for treatment, reducing treatment morbidity and measuring and optimizing technical skill. The American Urological Association has also recently launched a national quality registry (AQUA), with an initial focus on prostate cancer care. By understanding factors that result in exemplary performance, quality improvement collaboratives are able to develop best practices around areas of care with high variation that have the potential to improve outcomes and reduce costs. These developments have been made possible by the unique model offered by the collaborative structure with the goal of improving patient care at a population level.

  7. Groundwater management and nuclear applications for the northeast: how they can improve life quality in urban environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes Filho, F. Fernando Lamego

    2007-01-01

    The groundwater has earned more importance in the last decades, due to growing demands, contamination, wasteful use and depletion of superficial sources. In Brazil, one of the regions with more intensive use of groundwater for urban populations supply is the North-eastern Coast. The hydrogeological province of Northeast Coast is formed by three aquifer systems located in sedimentary basins: Potiguar-Recife, Alagoas- Sergipe and Jatoba-Tucano-Reconcavo. Coastal aquifers are usually very sensitive to changes in hydraulic head and fluxes. The over exploitation, above the levels of natural recharge, cause risk of aquifer salinization by marine intrusion. Several wells have showed increasing values of dissolved salts along the last few years, and in some cases they were closed. In that context, some nuclear techniques have been used with great success. Like mentioned above, the use of isotopes (e.g. 2 H, 3 H, 3 He, 18 O, 13 C, 14 C, 15 N, 34 S, 36 Cl, 222 Rn, 234 U) allow to determine recharge and discharge rates, the ionic strength flux and map the salinization path, giving valuable information for water use management. Other contribution from nuclear technology to coastal urban centres is the seawater desalination. The contracted capacity of nuclear desalination plants has increased steadily since 1965 and is now about 32.4 million m3/d worldwide. In Brazil, the nuclear desalination has begun to be evaluated by studies leaded by government companies and agencies. So, these nuclear applications together with a public system for water management can contribute to solve the main problems of the region, i.e. costly water supply, energy lack and environmental degradation. (author)

  8. Urban air quality management. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This is the first in a series of reports commissioned by the International Petroleum Industry Environmental Conservation Association (IPIECA) to represent members' views on the management of urban air quality in the growing cities in developing countries. In this report, a general, science based framework is provided as a basis for understanding the nature of the problem in any specific urban area, the range of solutions that might be available, and the potential impact of each solution and its least cost privatisation. The topics covered are: a process for urban air quality management; setting air quality targets; a structured approach to the assessment of current and future air quality modelling methodologies; identification and collation of air quality model input data; development of socio-economic scenarios -long-term trend forecasting; cost effectiveness studies; the IPIECA approach to urban air quality management - development of partnerships; encouraging commitment to implementation of programme recommendations. (7 figures; 2 tables; 18 references). (UK)

  9. Improving the quality of urban public space through the identification of space utilization index at Imam Bonjol Park, Padang city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriawan, Tomi; Setiawati, Lestari

    2017-06-01

    Padang City as a big city with a population approaching one million people has to address the issue of increased activities of the population and increased need for land and space for those activities. One of the effects of population growth and the development of activities in Padang is the decreasing number of open spaces for the outdoor public activities, both the natural and artificial public. However, Padang City has several open spaces that are built and managed by the government including 40 units of open spaces in the form of plansum parks, playgrounds, and sports parks, with a total area of 10.88 hectares. Despite their status as public open spaces, not all of them can be used and enjoyed by the public since most of them are passive parks, in which they are made only as a garden without any indulgences. This study was performed to assess the quality of public spaces in the central business of Padang City, namely Imam Bonjol Park (Taman Imam Bonjol). The methods of this study were done through several stages, which were to identify the typology of function space based on [1] Carmona (2008) and to assess the space utilization index based on the approach of Public Space Index according to Mehta [2] (2007). The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of space which is a public space in Padang City. The space quality was measured based on the variables in Good Public Space Index, the intensity of use, the intensity of social activity, the duration of activity, the variations in usage, and the diversity of use. The rate of the index of public space quality at Taman Imam Bonjol was determined by assessing 5 (five) variables of space quality. Based on the results of the analysis, public space utilization index was equal to 0.696. This result could be used to determine the quality of public space, in this case was Imam Bonjol Park was in Medium category. The parameters indicated several results including the lack of diversity in users' activity time, less

  10. Diabetes Health Information Technology Innovation to Improve Quality of Life for Health Plan Members in Urban Safety Net

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanawongsa, Neda; Handley, Margaret A.; Sarkar, Urmimala; Quan, Judy; Pfeifer, Kelly; Soria, Catalina; Schillinger, Dean

    2014-01-01

    Safety net systems need innovative diabetes self-management programs for linguistically diverse patients. A low-income government-sponsored managed care plan implemented a 27-week automated telephone self-management support (ATSM) / health coaching intervention for English, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking members from four publicly-funded clinics in a practice-based research network. Compared to waitlist, immediate intervention participants had greater 6-month improvements in overall diabetes self-care behaviors (standardized effect size [ES] 0.29, pimproving patient-reported self-management and may also improve some outcomes. PMID:24594561

  11. How can water quality be improved when the urban waste water directive has been fulfilled? A case study of the Lot river (France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, Josette; Ramarson, Antsiva; Thieu, Vincent; Némery, Julien; Théry, Sylvain; Billen, Gilles; Coynel, Alexandra

    2018-02-15

    The Lot river, a major tributary of the downstream Garonne river, the largest river on the Northern side of the Pyrenees Mountains, was intensively studied in the 1970s. A pioneering program called "Lot Rivière Claire" provided a diagnosis of water quality at the scale of the whole watershed and proposed an ambitious program to manage nutrient pollution and eutrophication largely caused by urban wastewater releases. Later on, the implementation of European directives from 1991 to 2000 resulted in the nearly complete treatment of point sources of pollution in spite of a doubling of the basin's population. At the outlet of the Lot river, ammonium and phosphate contamination which respectively peaked to 1 mg N-NH 4 L -1 and 0.3 mg P-PO 4 L -1 in the 1980s returned to much lower levels in recent years (0.06 mg N-NH 4 L -1 and 0.02 mg P-PO 4 L -1 ), a reduction by a factor 15. However, during this time, nitrate contamination has regularly increased since the 1980s, from 0.5 to 1.2 mg N-NO 3 L -1 in average, owing to the intensification of agriculture and livestock farming. Application of the Riverstrahler model allowed us to simulate the water quality of the Lot drainage network for the 2002-2014 period. We showed that, with respect to algal requirements, phosphorus and silica are well balanced, but nitrogen remains largely in excess over phosphorus and silica. This imbalance can be problematic for the ecological status of the water bodies. Using the model, for simulating various scenarios of watershed management, we showed that improvement of urban wastewater treatment would not result in any significant change in the river's water quality. Even though arable land occupies a rather limited fraction of the watershed area, only the adoption of better farming practices or more radical changes in the agro-food system could reverse the trend of increasing nitrate contamination.

  12. Quality of urban forest carbon credits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelam C. Poudyala; Jacek P. Siry; J.M. Bowker

    2011-01-01

    While the urban forest is considered an eligible source of carbon offset credits, little is known about its market potential and the quality aspects of the credits. As credit suppliers increase in number and credit buyers become more interested in purchasing carbon credits, it is unclear whether and how urban forest carbon credits can perform relative to the other...

  13. Frequency analysis of urban runoff quality in an urbanizing catchment of Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Huapeng; Tan, Xiaolong; Fu, Guangtao; Zhang, Yingying; Huang, Yuefei

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the frequency distribution of urban runoff quality indicators using a long-term continuous simulation approach and evaluates the impacts of proposed runoff control schemes on runoff quality in an urbanizing catchment in Shenzhen, China. Four different indicators are considered to provide a comprehensive assessment of the potential impacts: total runoff depth, event pollutant load, Event Mean Concentration, and peak concentration during a rainfall event. The results obtained indicate that urban runoff quantity and quality in the catchment have significant variations in rainfall events and a very high rate of non-compliance with surface water quality regulations. Three runoff control schemes with the capacity to intercept an initial runoff depth of 5 mm, 10 mm, and 15 mm are evaluated, respectively, and diminishing marginal benefits are found with increasing interception levels in terms of water quality improvement. The effects of seasonal variation in rainfall events are investigated to provide a better understanding of the performance of the runoff control schemes. The pre-flood season has higher risk of poor water quality than other seasons after runoff control. This study demonstrates that frequency analysis of urban runoff quantity and quality provides a probabilistic evaluation of pollution control measures, and thus helps frame a risk-based decision making for urban runoff quality management in an urbanizing catchment.

  14. Improving Indoor Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usually the most effective way to improve indoor air quality is to eliminate individual sources of pollution or to reduce their emissions. Some sources, like those that contain asbestos, can be sealed or enclosed.

  15. Quality improvement - the future begins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boissy, G.J.

    1987-01-01

    The comprehensive quality improvement program of the Florida Power and Light Co. is described: management commitment, quality improvement process, quality improvement teams, policy development, and quality in daily work are discussed

  16. On improving Urban Environment Representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier ePueyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Computer Graphics has evolved into a mature and powerful field that offers many opportunities to enhance different disciplines, adapting to the specific needs of each. One of these important fields is the design and analysis of Urban Environments. In this article we try to offer a perspective of one of the sectors identified in Urban Environment studies: Urbanization. More precisely we focus on geometric and appearance modeling, rendering and simulation tools to help stakeholders in key decision stages of the process.

  17. Continuous quality improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohlin, Madeleine; Schaub, Rob M.H.; Holbrook, Peter; Leibur, Edvitar; Lévy, Gérard; Roubalikova, Lenka; Nilner, Maria; Roger-Leroi, Valerie; Danner, Gunter; Iseri, Haluk; Feldman, Cecile

    2002-01-01

    Versch. in: Eur J Dent Educ; 6 (Suppl. 3): 67–77 Continuous quality improvement (CQI) can be envisaged as a circular process of goal-setting, followed by external and internal evaluations resulting in improvements that can serve as goals for a next cycle. The need for CQI is apparent, because of

  18. IMPROVING CONCEPTUAL DESIGN QUALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bush, Stuart; Robotham, Antony John

    1999-01-01

    designer to identify clear targets for design improvement and to measure the effectiveness of any new solution, whilst attention to QFD ensures customer requirements are still being satisfied.Often, SME's are not aware of many of the best design practices and so are not able to meet the demand......This paper will consider how Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and Design for Manufacture and Assembly (DFMA) processes can be used to improve the design quality of products at the concept stage. We appreciate that both QFD and DFMA are techniques that have been used for some time by mature product...... quality is maintained in design project work. The projects described have been carried out with products manufactured by small to medium sized enterprises (SME's), where we have found significant opportunities for product improvement. The quantitative nature of DFMA analysis results allows the novice...

  19. Improving Urban Freight Governance and Stakeholder Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Britta; Bech Godskesen Andersen, Christina; Figueroa, Maria J.

    2017-01-01

    Urban freight transport is a complex field characterised by many actors and stakeholders and thus many rationalities are at stake. This paper contributes to literature on urban freight governance by approaching the field with social system theory combined with the concepts of relationship platforms...... and value co-creation. This approach facilitates an improved process to foster implementation of innovative urban freight solutions that is illustrated by means of an analysis of the Copenhagen Citylogistik-kbh demonstration project. The results of this analysis indicate that attaining a shared sense...... of value creation among stakeholders through this process is key to implementation of new urban freight solutions....

  20. Planning urban settlements for quality of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boje Groth, N.; Hansen, K.E.; Björnberg, U.

    Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes livskvalitetsana......Notatet er et indlæg på den Europæiske Økonomiske Kommissions (ECE) konference om by- og regionforskning, tema II: "Research on the Quality of Life in Urban Settlements, Warszawa, maj 1976. I notatet opstilles en begrebsramme for livskvalitetsbegrebet, og man diskuterer hvorledes...

  1. An Assessment of the Relationship between Urban Air Quality and Environmental Urban Factors in Urban Regeneration Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakup Egercioglu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution has been increasing due to ever increasing population, rapid urbanization, industrialization, energy usage, traffic density. The purpose of the study is to examine the relation between urban air quality and urban environmental factors in urban regeneration areas. Two common air polluters (SO2 and PM10 are considered in the study. The data are collected for Cigli district, including the level of air pollutants, the local natural gas service lines and planning decisions for the years between 2007 and 2011. According to the examinations, urban environmental factors and planning decisions affect the urban air quality in urban regeneration areas.

  2. Air pollution and urban air quality management in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosa, Sri J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta (Indonesia); Okuda, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Shigeru [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, Yokohama (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    The trade-led industry and economic development after the Asian financial crisis a decade ago has been accelerated in Indonesia to improve the quality of life of its population. This rapid development of Indonesia was in fact heavily fueled by fossil fuels, especially oil, followed by natural gas and coal. The exploitation of fossil fuel in fueling the development resulted in significant environmental quality degradation. Air pollution is perhaps Indonesia's most severe environmental problem. Industry and transportation were the typical main sources of urban air pollutants. Moreover, Indonesia also failed to reach its original 2005 target for a complete phase-out of leaded gasoline. As a result, the level of Pb together with other pollutants such as CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and total suspended particulates has exceeded or at least approached the designated ambient air quality standards. The urban air pollution will not be lesser in extent, but surely will be more severe in the future. Unfortunately, the capability of the Indonesian authorities to manage the urban air quality is still very limited and the portion of the budget allocated to the improvement of urban air quality is still remarkably low, typically 1% of total. This is why the efforts to enhance the capability to manage the urban air quality could not be handled by the environmental authorities in Indonesia's cities themselves, but outside stimulation in the form of man power, consultant and equipment assistance along with financial support has been very important. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  3. MDSplus quality improvement project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredian, Thomas W., E-mail: twf@psfc.mit.edu [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Stillerman, Joshua [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 175 Albany Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Manduchi, Gabriele; Rigoni, Andrea [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, Padova 35127 (Italy); Erickson, Keith [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Project to improve the quality of the MDSplus software package. • Use of modern software technology, compiler options, automake. • Refactoring of older code. • Use of testing tools. - Abstract: MDSplus is a data acquisition and analysis system used worldwide predominantly in the fusion research community. Development began 29 years ago on the OpenVMS operating system. Since that time there have been many new features added and the code has been ported to many different operating systems. There have been contributions to the MDSplus development from the fusion community in the way of feature suggestions, feature implementations, documentation and porting to different operating systems. The bulk of the development and support of MDSplus, however, has been provided by a relatively small core developer group of three or four members. Given the size of the development team and the large number of users much more effort was focused on providing new features for the community than on keeping the underlying code and documentation up to date with the evolving software development standards. To ensure that MDSplus will continue to provide the needs of the community in the future, the MDSplus development team along with other members of the MDSplus user community has commenced on a major quality improvement project. The planned improvements include changes to software build scripts to better use GNU Autoconf and Automake tools, refactoring many of the source code modules using new language features available in modern compilers, using GNU MinGW-w64 to create MS Windows distributions, migrating to a more modern source code management system, improvement of source documentation as well as improvements to the (www.mdsplus.org) web site documentation and layout, and the addition of more comprehensive test suites to apply to MDSplus code builds prior to releasing installation kits to the community. This work should lead to a much more robust product and

  4. MDSplus quality improvement project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredian, Thomas W.; Stillerman, Joshua; Manduchi, Gabriele; Rigoni, Andrea; Erickson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Project to improve the quality of the MDSplus software package. • Use of modern software technology, compiler options, automake. • Refactoring of older code. • Use of testing tools. - Abstract: MDSplus is a data acquisition and analysis system used worldwide predominantly in the fusion research community. Development began 29 years ago on the OpenVMS operating system. Since that time there have been many new features added and the code has been ported to many different operating systems. There have been contributions to the MDSplus development from the fusion community in the way of feature suggestions, feature implementations, documentation and porting to different operating systems. The bulk of the development and support of MDSplus, however, has been provided by a relatively small core developer group of three or four members. Given the size of the development team and the large number of users much more effort was focused on providing new features for the community than on keeping the underlying code and documentation up to date with the evolving software development standards. To ensure that MDSplus will continue to provide the needs of the community in the future, the MDSplus development team along with other members of the MDSplus user community has commenced on a major quality improvement project. The planned improvements include changes to software build scripts to better use GNU Autoconf and Automake tools, refactoring many of the source code modules using new language features available in modern compilers, using GNU MinGW-w64 to create MS Windows distributions, migrating to a more modern source code management system, improvement of source documentation as well as improvements to the (www.mdsplus.org) web site documentation and layout, and the addition of more comprehensive test suites to apply to MDSplus code builds prior to releasing installation kits to the community. This work should lead to a much more robust product and

  5. Improving urban ecosystems resilience at a city level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Ferrreira, Carla S. S.; Malta, Miguel; Soares, Daniel D. J.; Pardal, João; Vilhena, José

    2013-04-01

    The sustainability of urban communities is at risk in a global change context, where environmental problems and the constraints posed by a limited access to key raw materials, energy and sanitation will cause profound changes on the way we interact with the natural environment. Major changes are expected on processes magnitude and connectivity at various scales, with profound impacts on the environmental and well-being problems posed by the packing of high density of people in restricted areas, that have to be dealt with. The conventional approach is to find technological solutions that are often expensive and inefficient, especially in what concerns the use of energy and raw materials, limiting long term sustainability and urban ecosystems' resilience, and consequent impacts on the quality of life and health of urban populations. To improve city resilience in face of global change threats (climatic change, growing world population, land use change, lower energy availability, reduced mobility as a result of fossil fuels stringency and costs), we need to develop a nested approach binding together various greening actions and management of green infrastructures at various scales (i.e. household, neighbourhood, city and urban/wildland interface). This paper presents the conceptual strategy being developed at the Coimbra City (Centre of Portugal) to increase the resilience of urban ecosystems, using them to reduce natural risk occurrence (such as flash floods), the promotion of human health and increasing city resilience towards an improve food self sufficiency. We present a discussion and evaluation of the different solutions designed and implemented to improve the overall urban sustainability at different scales of intervention, from the household solutions to more structural solutions such as the recover of riparian forests or the preservation and improvement of green corridors. Of paramount importance to improve urban ecosystem resilience is the development of new

  6. Characterizing Urban Air Quality to Provide Actionable Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lary, D. J.

    2017-12-01

    The urbanization of national and global populations is associated with increasing challenges to creation of sustainable and livable communities. In urban environments, there is currently a lack of accurate actionable information on atmospheric composition on fine spatial and temporal scales. There is a pressing need to better characterize the complex spatial distribution of environmental features of cityscapes and improve understanding of their relationship to health and quality of life. This talk gives an overview of integrating sensing of atmospheric composition on multiple scales using a wide range of devices from distributed low cost-sensors, to aerial vehicles, to satellites. Machine learning plays a key role in providing both the cross-calibration and turning the exposure dosimetry into actionable insights for urban environments.

  7. Workers' Objectives in Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossard, Michel

    1990-01-01

    A case study of quality circles in an appliance factory found that circle members and nonmembers obtained better working conditions by improving quality through the direct impact of their work on the company's market position. The study of the quality improvement process shows that workers seek more than psychological rewards for their…

  8. Missing the link: urban stormwater quality and resident behaviour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the linkages between what they do on the land and impacts on urban rivers. The findings suggest ... the impact of poorly-treated wastewater being discharged into urban river ..... discharge, water quality, ecological conditions) that is balanced.

  9. Integrated Quality Management System in Public Urban Traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husein Pašagić

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Public urban traffic (PUT requirements are based on thespecific characteristics that dictate the requirements themselves.The problems faced by all the big cities regarding public urbantransport are very similar, and they range from unacceptabilityof the very organisational structure of the system facing the populationgrowth, limitations and congestions of the traffic routesloaded by an increasing number of automobiles, to the chroniclack of economic funds for the investments that would createthe necessary conditions for positive shifts. In PUT there aremany random parameters whose statistical laws are not easy todetermine and it is often the topic of research of various profilesof scientists. There is always the satisfaction, that is, the lack ofsatisfaction by the final user of the public urban transport andall the other involved groups. The result is that the potential usersof public urban transport give up and try to find other solutionsfor their transport needs, turning in principle to individualtraffic. Consequently, the number of passenger cars on the trafficroutes increases along with all the resulting negative effects.The complex systems of public urban transport facing the increasingrequirements to improve efficiency have to be subjectedto certain changes in order to achieve physical sustainability oftraffic at all, and to satisfy the environmental requirements thatoccur as counterbalance to the pollution of the urban area.With the aim of achieving optimal conditions for the qualityof service, and by introducing acceptable traffic solutionscombined with the integrated quality management systembased on the standards ISO 9001 and ISO 14000 high-qualityshifts are made possible. The integration of these standards resultsin the rational combining of the quality management systeminto a single efficient system, reflected in achieving high-quality traffic and transport service, improved informationflow, unique documentation, positive

  10. Statistical methods for quality improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ryan, Thomas P

    2011-01-01

    ...."-TechnometricsThis new edition continues to provide the most current, proven statistical methods for quality control and quality improvementThe use of quantitative methods offers numerous benefits...

  11. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopke, Philip K. [Center for Air Resources Engineering and Science, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY 13699-5708 (United States)], E-mail: hopkepk@clarkson.edu; Cohen, David D. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation (ANSTO), Physics Division, Private Mail Bag 1, Menai 2234, NSW (Australia); Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K. [Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC), Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka (AECD), P.O. Box 164, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Ni Bangfa [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), China National Nuclear Corp. (CNNC), P.O. Box 275-50, Beijing 102413 (China); Pandit, Gauri Girish [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Santoso, Muhayatun [Center for Nuclear Technology of Material and Radiometry, National Nuclear Energy Agency (BATAN), Jl. Tamansari 71, Bandung 40132 (Indonesia); Chung, Yong-Sam [Hanaro Center, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), 150 Dukjin-dong, Yusung-ku, P.O. Box 105, Daejon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas [Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences (GNS), 30 Gracefield Road, P.O. Box 31-312, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila [Division of Nuclear Chemistry, PINSTECH, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), P.O. Box 1482, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B. [Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI), Commonwealth Avenue, Diliman, P.O. Box 213, Quezon City 1101 (Philippines); Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani [Atomic Energy Authority, 60/460, Baseline Road, Orugodawatta, Wellampitiya (Sri Lanka); Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree [Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (TINT), 16 Vibhavadi Rangsit Road, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Thu Bac Vuong [Centre for Radiation Protection, Institute of Nuclear Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5T-160, Cau Giay (Viet Nam)] (and others)

    2008-10-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries.

  12. Urban air quality in the Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopke, Philip K.; Cohen, David D.; Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Swapan K.; Ni Bangfa; Pandit, Gauri Girish; Santoso, Muhayatun; Chung, Yong-Sam; Davy, Perry; Markwitz, Andreas; Waheed, Shahida; Siddique, Naila; Santos, Flora L.; Pabroa, Preciosa Corazon B.; Seneviratne, Manikkuwadura Consy Shirani; Wimolwattanapun, Wanna; Bunprapob, Supamatthree; Thu Bac Vuong

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, member states of the Regional Co-operation Agreement (RCA), an intergovernmental agreement for the East Asia and Pacific region under the auspices of the IAEA with the assistance of international organizations and financial institutions such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, have started to set in place policies and legislation for air pollution abatement. To support planning and evaluate the effectiveness of control programs, data are needed that characterizes urban air quality. The focus of this measurement program describe in this report is on size segregated particulate air pollution. Such airborne particulate matter can have a significant impact on human health and urban visibility. These data provide the input to receptor models that may permit the mitigation of these impacts by identification and quantitative apportionment of the particle sources. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the measurements of concentrations and composition of particulate air pollution in two size fractions across the participating countries. For many of the large cities in this region, the measured particulate matter concentrations are greater than air quality standards or guidelines that have been adopted in developed countries

  13. Crowd Sourcing to Improve Urban Stormwater Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minsker, B. S.; Band, L. E.; Heidari Haratmeh, B.; Law, N. L.; Leonard, L. N.; Rai, A.

    2017-12-01

    Over half of the world's population currently lives in urban areas, a number predicted to grow to 60 percent by 2030. Urban areas face unprecedented and growing challenges that threaten society's long-term wellbeing, including poverty; chronic health problems; widespread pollution and resource degradation; and increased natural disasters. These are "wicked" problems involving "systems of systems" that require unprecedented information sharing and collaboration across disciplines and organizational boundaries. Cities are recognizing that the increasing stream of data and information ("Big Data"), informatics, and modeling can support rapid advances on these challenges. Nonetheless, information technology solutions can only be effective in addressing these challenges through deeply human and systems perspectives. A stakeholder-driven approach ("crowd sourcing") is needed to develop urban systems that address multiple needs, such as parks that capture and treat stormwater while improving human and ecosystem health and wellbeing. We have developed informatics- and Cloud-based collaborative methods that enable crowd sourcing of green stormwater infrastructure (GSI: rain gardens, bioswales, trees, etc.) design and management. The methods use machine learning, social media data, and interactive design tools (called IDEAS-GI) to identify locations and features of GSI that perform best on a suite of objectives, including life cycle cost, stormwater volume reduction, and air pollution reduction. Insights will be presented on GI features that best meet stakeholder needs and are therefore most likely to improve human wellbeing and be well maintained.

  14. Quantitative research versus quality assurance, quality improvement, total quality management, and continuous quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, J

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a review of the scientific method used in the quantitative research studies for consumers, evaluators, and applied nurse researchers. The fundamental characteristics of the problem-solving/ performance-improvement processes of quality assurance, quality improvement, total quality management, and continuous quality improvement are described. Research is compared with these processes, and is followed by a discussion about the publication of quantitative research findings.

  15. Principles of urban quality of life for a neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamam Serag El Din

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban quality of life is a notion that has been discussed recently in various studies as a response to many problems facing the new towns all over the world as well as in Egypt. The purpose of this paper is to decompose the term urban quality of life into other more precise terms such as quality, quality of life and urban/urban planning. The paper also aims to address the notion of sustainable development and tries to understand its relationship with the notion of quality of life. Further, it deduces urban quality of life definition and dimensions. On the other hand this paper discusses contemporary urban planning theories and approaches raised in the late of twentieth century in order to provide a high and sustainable quality of life and protect the natural environment. Finally, a matrix concluding the relationship between the principles of these contemporary urban planning theories and approaches and urban quality of life dimensions is developed, in order to achieve a set of principles that address environmental, physical, mobility, social, psychological, economical and political concerns called urban quality of life principles. These principles represent a guide useful for participants of the design process and for policy makers.

  16. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusbrock, I.; Nanninga, T.A.; Lieberg, K.; Agudelo, C.; Keesman, K.J.; Zeeman, G.; Rijnaarts, H.

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource

  17. Water quantity and quality at the urban-rural interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge Sun; B. Graeme Lockaby

    2012-01-01

    Population growth and urban development dramatically alter natural watershed ecosystem structure and functions and stress water resources. We review studies on the impacts of urbanization on hydrologic and biogeochemical processes underlying stream water quantity and water quality issues, as well as water supply challenges in an urban environment. We conclude that...

  18. Preanalytical quality improvement : in quality we trust

    OpenAIRE

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Becan-McBride, Kathleen; Behulova, Darina; Bowen, Raffick A.; Church, Stephen; Delanghe, Joris; Grankvist, Kjell; Kitchen, Steve; Nybo, Mads; Nauck, Matthias; Nikolac, Nora; Palicka, Vladimir; Plebani, Mario; Sandberg, Sverre; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Total quality in laboratory medicine should be defined as the guarantee that each activity throughout the total testing process is correctly performed, providing valuable medical decision-making and effective patient care. In the past decades, a 10-fold reduction in the analytical error rate has been achieved thanks to improvements in both reliability and standardization of analytical techniques, reagents, and instrumentation. Notable advances in information technology, quality control and qu...

  19. Quality improvement: the nurse's role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, M J; Johnson, J E

    1992-06-01

    Continuous quality improvement is a concept which includes: Quality assurance--the provision of services that meet an appropriate standard. Problem resolution--including all departments involved in the issue at hand. Quality improvement--a continuous process involving all levels of the organization working together across departmental lines to produce better services for health care clients. Deming (1982b) and others have espoused total system reform to achieve quality improvement--not merely altering the current system, but radically changing it. It must be assumed that those who provide services at the staff level are acting in good faith and are not willfully failing to do what is correct (Berwick, 1991). Those who perform direct services are in an excellent position to identify the need for change in service delivery processes. Based on this premise, the staff nurse--who is at the heart of the system--is the best person to assess the status of health care services and to work toward improving the processes by which these services are provided to clients in the health care setting. The nurse manager must structure the work setting to facilitate the staff nurse's ability to undertake constructive action for improving care. The use of quality circles, quality councils, or quality improvement forums to facilitate the coordination of quality improvement efforts is an effective way to achieve success. The QA coordinator assists departments in documenting that the quality improvement efforts are effective across all departments of the organization, and aggregates data to demonstrate that they meet the requirements of external regulatory agencies, insurers, and professional standards. The nurse executive provides the vision and secures the necessary resources to ensure that the organization's quality improvement efforts are successful. By inspiring and empowering the staff in their efforts to improve the process by which health care is provided, nurse managers

  20. Assessing impact of urbanization on river water quality in the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Tingping; Zhu, Zhaoyu; Kuang, Yaoqiu

    2006-09-01

    The Pearl River Delta Economic Zone is one of the most developed regions in China. It has been undergoing a rapid urbanization since the reformation and opening of China in 1978. This process plays a significant impact on the urban environment, particularly river water quality. The main goal of this present study is to assess the impact of urban activities especially urbanization on river water quality for the study area. Some Landsat TM images from 2000 were used to map the areas for different pollution levels of urban river sections for the study area. In addition, an improved equalized synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the field analytical results. The results indicate that there is a positive correlation between the rapidity of urbanization and the pollution levels of urban river water. Compared to the rural river water, urban river water was polluted more seriously. During the urban development process, urbanization and urban activities had a significant negative impact on the river water quality.

  1. NETWORKS AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag Hadžistević

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Tools used in the past to analyze business value creation, such as value chain and process models, are simply too slow, inadequate, or inappropriate to address this new level of business complexity. In stead of that, company has to find way to create quality management system in a multi-layered supply chain. The problem can be solved by networking in the cluster. Cluster can be known as a competitive cooperation in the purpose to gain higher level of competitiveness and success. Bat there is another problem: Organization of the production process in a company is extremely complex process itself, and when we transfer it to the cluster level, we get a complex task which is difficult to solve. For that purpose, this paper analyses the conditions and possibilities that would enable those structures to adapt to changes in the surroundings - flexibility and management adequacy of production and organizational structures - by creating network value system.

  2. URBAN LANDSCAPE QUALITY AND FACTORS THAT HAVE INFLUENCE ON LANDSCAPE QUALITY IN LATGALE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    Matisovs, Ivars

    2005-01-01

    The paper deals with urban landscape individualities in the cities and towns of Latgale region. Also show facilities and methods of integrated assessment of urban landscape quality. Article provides information about specifics of urban landscape and factors, that have influence on landscape quality. The paper presents the results of Daugavpils and Rēzekne urban landscape quality complex assessment, that have been realised in 2003- 2005. This results don’t establish significant disparities bet...

  3. Citizen Sensing for Improved Urban Environmental Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qijun Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Citizen science is increasingly being used in diverse research domains. With the emergence and rapid development of sensor technologies, citizens potentially have more powerful tools to collect data and generate information to understand their living environment. Although sensor technologies are developing fast, citizen sensing has not been widely implemented yet and published studies are only a few. In this paper, we analyse the practical experiences from an implementation of citizen sensing for urban environment monitoring. A bottom-up model in which citizens develop and use sensors for environmental monitoring is described and assessed. The paper focuses on a case study of Amsterdam Smart Citizens Lab using NO2 sensors for air quality monitoring. We found that the bottom-up citizen sensing is still challenging but can be successful with open cooperation and effective use of online and offline facilities. Based on the assessment, suggestions are proposed for further implementations and research.

  4. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Julie C; Moran, Lisa J; Teede, Helena J; Ranasinha, Sanjeeva; Lombard, Catherine B; Harrison, Cheryce L

    2017-06-08

    Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban ( n = 149) and rural ( n = 394) women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI) energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD), 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264). Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD) 80,000 vs. urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  5. Preanalytical quality improvement: in quality we trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Becan-McBride, Kathleen; Behúlová, Darina; Bowen, Raffick A; Church, Stephen; Delanghe, Joris; Grankvist, Kjell; Kitchen, Steve; Nybo, Mads; Nauck, Matthias; Nikolac, Nora; Palicka, Vladimir; Plebani, Mario; Sandberg, Sverre; Simundic, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    Total quality in laboratory medicine should be defined as the guarantee that each activity throughout the total testing process is correctly performed, providing valuable medical decision-making and effective patient care. In the past decades, a 10-fold reduction in the analytical error rate has been achieved thanks to improvements in both reliability and standardization of analytical techniques, reagents, and instrumentation. Notable advances in information technology, quality control and quality assurance methods have also assured a valuable contribution for reducing diagnostic errors. Nevertheless, several lines of evidence still suggest that most errors in laboratory diagnostics fall outside the analytical phase, and the pre- and postanalytical steps have been found to be much more vulnerable. This collective paper, which is the logical continuum of the former already published in this journal 2 years ago, provides additional contribution to risk management in the preanalytical phase and is a synopsis of the lectures of the 2nd European Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (EFLM)-Becton Dickinson (BD) European Conference on Preanalytical Phase meeting entitled "Preanalytical quality improvement: in quality we trust" (Zagreb, Croatia, 1-2 March 2013). The leading topics that will be discussed include quality indicators for preanalytical phase, phlebotomy practices for collection of blood gas analysis and pediatric samples, lipemia and blood collection tube interferences, preanalytical requirements of urinalysis, molecular biology hemostasis and platelet testing, as well as indications on best practices for safe blood collection. Auditing of the preanalytical phase by ISO assessors and external quality assessment for preanalytical phase are also discussed.

  6. Vermiculture improves urban farming in Argentina | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-14

    Jul 14, 2011 ... AGROPOLIS is a component of the Global Initiative of the Support Group on Urban ... Worldwide, some 800 million people are involved in urban ... ​Around the world, food insecurity affects an estimated 850 million people.

  7. Restorative Qualities of and Preference for Natural and Urban Soundscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzywicka, Paulina; Byrka, Katarzyna

    2017-01-01

    Psychological restoration in urban agglomerations has become a growing challenge. Although scientific proof of the significance of nature is irrefutable, an increase in built-up areas has led to a decrease in urban greenery. Thus, a growing need for restorativeness in urban surroundings has emerged. To investigate whether positively evaluated sonic environments, represented by natural and urban sounds, have comparable restorative qualities we conducted two studies. The aim of the first (Study 1) was to explore the restorative qualities of positively assessed natural and urban sounds. Participants ( N = 88) were asked to listen and to rate 22 recordings (each 1 min long) either from natural or urban environments. In the second (Study 2) we investigated whether positively evaluated sonic environments (natural and urban), demand for restoration (feeling relaxed or fatigued) and company (being alone or with a friend) affect the restorative qualities of natural and urban soundscapes. After reading assigned scenarios (feeling relaxed or fatigued; being alone or with a friend), participants ( N = 120) were asked to imagine a walk in presented sonic environments and to complete forms (one for each sonic environment) concerning the restorative qualities of given soundscapes (natural and urban). Top five recordings of natural and urban sonic environments were selected from Study 1 and combined into a 154-s soundtrack, to provide a background for the imagined walks in both settings. Our findings confirmed that natural sounds are perceived more favorably than urban recordings. Even when only the most positively assessed soundscapes were compared, nature was still perceived as being more restorative than urban areas. Company of a friend was found to be more beneficial in the urban surroundings, particularly when there was no need for restoration.

  8. Restorative Qualities of and Preference for Natural and Urban Soundscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Krzywicka

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Psychological restoration in urban agglomerations has become a growing challenge. Although scientific proof of the significance of nature is irrefutable, an increase in built-up areas has led to a decrease in urban greenery. Thus, a growing need for restorativeness in urban surroundings has emerged. To investigate whether positively evaluated sonic environments, represented by natural and urban sounds, have comparable restorative qualities we conducted two studies. The aim of the first (Study 1 was to explore the restorative qualities of positively assessed natural and urban sounds. Participants (N = 88 were asked to listen and to rate 22 recordings (each 1 min long either from natural or urban environments. In the second (Study 2 we investigated whether positively evaluated sonic environments (natural and urban, demand for restoration (feeling relaxed or fatigued and company (being alone or with a friend affect the restorative qualities of natural and urban soundscapes. After reading assigned scenarios (feeling relaxed or fatigued; being alone or with a friend, participants (N = 120 were asked to imagine a walk in presented sonic environments and to complete forms (one for each sonic environment concerning the restorative qualities of given soundscapes (natural and urban. Top five recordings of natural and urban sonic environments were selected from Study 1 and combined into a 154-s soundtrack, to provide a background for the imagined walks in both settings. Our findings confirmed that natural sounds are perceived more favorably than urban recordings. Even when only the most positively assessed soundscapes were compared, nature was still perceived as being more restorative than urban areas. Company of a friend was found to be more beneficial in the urban surroundings, particularly when there was no need for restoration.

  9. Impact of urban sprawl on water quality in eastern Massachusetts, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jun; Xia, Zong-Guo; Clarke, Keith C; Frei, Allan

    2007-08-01

    A study of water quality, land use, and population variations over the past three decades was conducted in eastern Massachusetts to examine the impact of urban sprawl on water quality using geographic information system and statistical analyses. Since 1970, eastern Massachusetts has experienced pronounced urban sprawl, which has a substantial impact on water quality. High spatial correlations are found between water quality indicators (especially specific conductance, dissolved ions, including Ca, Mg, Na, and Cl, and dissolved solid) and urban sprawl indicators. Urbanized watersheds with high population density, high percentage of developed land use, and low per capita developed land use tended to have high concentrations of water pollutants. The impact of urban sprawl also shows clear spatial difference between suburban areas and central cities: The central cities experienced lower increases over time in specific conductance concentration, compared to suburban and rural areas. The impact of urban sprawl on water quality is attributed to the combined effects of population and land-use change. Per capita developed land use is a very important indicator for studying the impact of urban sprawl and improving land use and watershed management, because inclusion of this indicator can better explain the temporal and spatial variations of more water quality parameters than using individual land use or/and population density.

  10. Improving and monitoring air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, André

    2018-05-01

    Since the authorization of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the air quality in the USA has significantly improved because of strong public support. The lessons learned over the last 25 years are being shared with the policy analysts, technical professionals, and scientist who endeavor to improve air quality in their communities. This paper will review how the USA has achieved the "high" standard of air quality that was envisioned in the early 1990s. This document will describe SO 2 gas emission reduction technology and highlight operation of emission monitoring technology. This paper describes the basic process operation of an air pollution control scrubber. A technical review of measures required to operate and maintain a large-scale pollution control system will be described. Also, the author explains how quality assurance procedures in performance of continuous emission monitoring plays a significant role in reducing air pollution.

  11. IMPROVING QUALITY MANAGEMENT IN PANIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Petroman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Consumers of panification products (as well as consumers of any other type of product or service are concerned about the quality of the products they purchase. Implementing the quality management system in the food industry is not compulsory, but it can bring about numerous, palpable benefits, particularly in reducing the amount of acryl amide. It is a modern system allowing the management analysis aiming at checking and reaching the goals to define new objectives, and the continuous improvement of the quality of processes and products.

  12. Hourly Water Quality Dynamics in Rivers Downstream of Urban Areas: Quantifying Seasonal Variation and Modelling Impacts of Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, M.; McGrane, S. J.; Miller, J. D.; Hitt, O.; Bowes, M.

    2016-12-01

    Continuous monitoring of water flows and quality is invaluable in improving understanding of the influence of urban areas on river health. When used to inform predictive modelling, insights can be gained as to how urban growth may affect the chemical and biological quality of rivers as they flow downstream into larger waterbodies. Water flow and quality monitoring in two urbanising sub-catchments (long term flow records are available, but particular focus is given to monitoring of an extended set of sites during prolonged winter rainfall. In the Ray sub-catchment streams were monitored in which urban cover varied across a range of 7-78%. A rural-urban gradient in DO was apparent in the low flow period prior to the storms. Transient low DO (works (STW). In this respect temperature- and respiration-driven DO sags in summer were at least if not more severe than those driven by the winter storms. Likewise, although winter storm NH4 concentrations violated EU legislation downstream of the STW, they were lower than summer concentrations in pollutant flushes following dry spells. In contrast the predominant phenomenon affecting water quality in the Cut during the storms was dilution. Here, a river water quality model was calibrated and applied over the course of a year to capture the importance of periphyton photosynthesis and respiration cycles in determining water quality and to predict the influence of hypothetical urban growth on downstream river health. The periods monitored intensively, dry spells followed by prolonged rainfall, represent: (i) marked changes in conditions likely to become more prevalent in future, (ii) situations under which water quality in urban areas is likely to be particularly vulnerable, being influenced for example by first flush effects followed by capacity exceedance at STW. Despite this, whilst being somewhat long lasting in places, impacts on DO were not severe.

  13. Assessment of Urban Infrastructure Quality and User Satisfaction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed urban infrastructure quality and the level of user satisfaction with urban infrastructure in low income residential neighbourhoods in Minna, Nigeria. Five (5) neighbourhoods were selected for the study, and a total of 250 housing units were sampled. Questionnaire was administered on households that fell ...

  14. Outlier Detection in Urban Air Quality Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoest, V.M.; Stein, A.; Hoek, Gerard

    2018-01-01

    Low-cost urban air quality sensor networks are increasingly used to study the spatio-temporal variability in air pollutant concentrations. Recently installed low-cost urban sensors, however, are more prone to result in erroneous data than conventional monitors, e.g., leading to outliers. Commonly

  15. Air quality effects of urban trees and parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak; Gordon Heisler

    2010-01-01

    Parks are significant parts of the urban landscape and comprise about 6% of city and town areas in the conterminous United States. These urban parks are estimated to contain about 370 million trees with a structural value of approximately $300 billion. The number of park trees varies by region of the country, but they can produce significant air quality effects in and...

  16. Biofuels, vehicle emissions, and urban air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallington, Timothy J; Anderson, James E; Kurtz, Eric M; Tennison, Paul J

    2016-07-18

    Increased biofuel content in automotive fuels impacts vehicle tailpipe emissions via two mechanisms: fuel chemistry and engine calibration. Fuel chemistry effects are generally well recognized, while engine calibration effects are not. It is important that investigations of the impact of biofuels on vehicle emissions consider the impact of engine calibration effects and are conducted using vehicles designed to operate using such fuels. We report the results of emission measurements from a Ford F-350 fueled with either fossil diesel or a biodiesel surrogate (butyl nonanoate) and demonstrate the critical influence of engine calibration on NOx emissions. Using the production calibration the emissions of NOx were higher with the biodiesel fuel. Using an adjusted calibration (maintaining equivalent exhaust oxygen concentration to that of the fossil diesel at the same conditions by adjusting injected fuel quantities) the emissions of NOx were unchanged, or lower, with biodiesel fuel. For ethanol, a review of the literature data addressing the impact of ethanol blend levels (E0-E85) on emissions from gasoline light-duty vehicles in the U.S. is presented. The available data suggest that emissions of NOx, non-methane hydrocarbons, particulate matter (PM), and mobile source air toxics (compounds known, or suspected, to cause serious health impacts) from modern gasoline and diesel vehicles are not adversely affected by increased biofuel content over the range for which the vehicles are designed to operate. Future increases in biofuel content when accomplished in concert with changes in engine design and calibration for new vehicles should not result in problematic increases in emissions impacting urban air quality and may in fact facilitate future required emissions reductions. A systems perspective (fuel and vehicle) is needed to fully understand, and optimize, the benefits of biofuels when blended into gasoline and diesel.

  17. Urban environment quality assessment. Management and knowledge instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovisolo, G.A.; Marino, C.

    1998-01-01

    This report summarizes various studies for characterization and quantization of air quality in urban environment. In this work are also reported information on electromagnetic fields effects, acoustic pollution and sanitary effects [it

  18. ASSESSMENT OF URBAN BUILT ENVIRONMENT QUALITY ON THE URBANIZED TERRITORIES: INTERREGIONAL COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovsiannikova T. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization and growth of a cities role, formation of cities as reference points of regions economic development are modern global tendencies. Cities concentrate human and investment resources on their territory, so in large part cities cause competitiveness of the regions in the global market. For preservation of competitive advantages regions need to form on the urbanized territories not only the favorable environment for business, but also for the population life. This paper deals with the problem of an assessment of urban built environment quality, due to urban built environment is a space-material basis of life quality of the population on the urbanized territories. The role of the cities in social and economic development of regions and their considerable influence on competitiveness of territories in the global competition for economic resources are proved. The method of assessment of urban built environment quality on the basis of calculation of an integrated index is proposed. Interregional comparisons on the example of regions of the Siberian and Ural Federal districts are completed. The offered method of assessment of urban built environment quality allows to range the urbanized territories on usefulness for living, to reveal most and the least developed spheres of city infrastructure.

  19. Quality Improvement with Trustee Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaffee, Ellen Earle; Seymour, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    Total Quality Management is a comprehensive system for developing organizationwide participation in planning for and implementing continuous improvement in critical processes. In colleges, trustees can be central to the success of the method through their commitment and the development of supportive policy and procedures. (MSE)

  20. Quality Improvement Practices and Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlgaard, Jens J.; Hartz, Ove; Edgeman, Rick L.

    1998-01-01

    professor, as well as key individuals from various industries. In addition to the above activities, Rick will be working with the European Foundation for Quality Management on their "European Master's Programme in Total Quality Management." That program involves a consortium of European universities. Rick......The following article, "Quality Improvement Practices and Trends in Denmark," is the first in a series of papers arranged for and co-authored by Dr. Rick L. Edgeman. Rick is a member of QE's Editorial Board and is on sabbatical from Colorado State University. During the year, Rick and his family...... has begun the process of developing a comparable consortium of American universities for the same purpose-- an activity which is cosponsored by the Education Division of the American Society for Quality (ASQ)....

  1. Continuous improvement of software quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivertsen, Terje

    1999-04-01

    The present report is the first Halden Work Report delivered from the OECD Halden Reactor Project's research activity on formal methods and software quality. Of particular concern in this activity is to reach a consensus between regulators, licensees and the nuclear industry on questions related to the effective, industrial use of formal methods. The report gives considerable attention to the importance of continuous improvement as a characteristic of a living software quality system, and to the need of providing a basis for software process/product quality integration. In particular, the report discusses these aspects from the perspectives of defect prevention, formal methods, Total Quality Management (TQM), and Bayesian Belief Nets. Another concern is to promote controlled experiments on the use of new methods, techniques, and tools. This is achieved partly by reviewing suggestions on the collection and experimental use of data, and by surveying a number of metrics believed to have some potential for comparison studies (author) (ml)

  2. Urbanization and Environmental Quality in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Effiong, Ekpeno

    2016-01-01

    Africa’s rapid urbanization pose challenges for her sustainable development. This paper investigates the environmental impact of urbanization for 49 African countries from 1990 to 2010. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, a recently developed semi-parametric panel fixed-effects regression technique, and two atmospheric air pollutants, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) and ambient particulate matter PM10 emissions, the evidenc...

  3. Quality improvement tools and processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Catherine Y

    2015-04-01

    The Model for Improvement and the Plan-Do-Study-Act cycle is a popular quality improvement (QI) tool for health care providers to successfully lead QI projects and redesign care processes. This tool has several distinct components that must be addressed in sequence to organize and critically evaluate improvement activities. Unlike other health sciences clinical research, QI projects and research are based on dynamic hypotheses that develop into observable, serial tests of change with continuous collection and feedback of performance data to stakeholders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Contemplating ‘Quality Street’ : integration of environmental quality in planning sustainable urban development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Stigt, M.

    2016-01-01

    The challenge of sustainable urban development entails integration of environmental interests in decision-making about urban plans. In practice, this is not always successful. This dissertation offers explanations and suggests some strategies for further improvement. Three different perspectives are

  5. Improving Urban Water Environment in Eastern China by Blending Traditional with Modern Landscape Planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiajie; Yu, Junjun; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Cai; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality. In addition, urban water landscapes hardly provided ecological functions given excessive construction. Accordingly, a proposition to connect tradition with modernism in the improvement and innovation of urban water landscape planning was put forward, and further, the way to achieve it was explored. By taking Qinhu Wetland Park as a case, the principles and specific planning methods on macro- and microperspectives were discussed to guide the development of urban landscape in eastern China.

  6. Improving Urban Water Environment in Eastern China by Blending Traditional with Modern Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Cao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and poor water quality. In addition, urban water landscapes hardly provided ecological functions given excessive construction. Accordingly, a proposition to connect tradition with modernism in the improvement and innovation of urban water landscape planning was put forward, and further, the way to achieve it was explored. By taking Qinhu Wetland Park as a case, the principles and specific planning methods on macro- and microperspectives were discussed to guide the development of urban landscape in eastern China.

  7. The Impacts of Urbanization on Meteorology and Air Quality in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Zhang, J.; Sailor, D.; Ban-Weiss, G. A.

    2017-12-01

    Urbanization has a profound influence on regional meteorology in mega cities like Los Angeles. This influence is driven by changes in land surface physical properties and urban processes, and their corresponding influence on surface-atmosphere coupling. Changes in meteorology from urbanization in turn influences air quality through weather-dependent chemical reaction, pollutant dispersion, etc. Hence, a real-world representation of the urban land surface properties and urban processes should be accurately resolved in regional climate-chemistry models for better understanding the role of urbanization on changing urban meteorology and associated pollutant dynamics. By incorporating high-resolution land surface data, previous research has improved model-observation comparisons of meteorology in urban areas including the Los Angeles basin, and indicated that historical urbanization has increased urban temperatures and altered wind flows significantly. However, the impact of urban expansion on air quality has been less studied. Thus, in this study, we aim to evaluate the effectiveness of resolving high-resolution heterogeneity in urban land surface properties and processes for regional weather and pollutant concentration predictions. We coupled the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry to the single-layer Urban Canopy Model to simulate a typical summer period in year 2012 for Southern California. Land cover type and urban fraction were determined from National Land Cover Data. MODIS observations were used to determine satellite-derived albedo, green vegetation fraction, and leaf area index. Urban morphology was determined from GIS datasets of 3D building geometries. An urban irrigation scheme was also implemented in the model. Our results show that the improved model captures the diurnal cycle of 2m air temperature (T2) and Ozone (O3) concentrations. However, it tends to overestimate wind speed and underestimate T2, which leads to an underestimation of O

  8. Improving Exclusive Breastfeeding in an Urban Academic Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Laura P; Williamson, Susan; Burke, Stephanie; Crawford-Hemphill, Ruby; Thompson, Amy M

    2017-02-01

    Breastfeeding has many well-established health benefits for infants and mothers. There is greater risk reduction in health outcomes with exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). Our urban academic facility has had long-standing low EBF rates, serving a population with breastfeeding disparities. We sought to improve EBF rates through a Learning Collaborative model by participating in the Best Fed Beginnings project. Formal improvement science methods were used, including the development of a key driver diagram and plan-do-study-act cycles. Improvement activities followed the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding. We demonstrated significant improvement in the median adherence to 2 process measures, rooming in and skin-to-skin after delivery. Subsequently, the proportion of infants exclusively breastfed at hospital discharge in our facility increased from 37% to 59%. We demonstrated an increase in sustained breastfeeding in a subset of patients at a postpartum follow-up visit. These improvements led to Baby-Friendly designation at our facility. This quality improvement initiative resulted in a higher number of infants exclusively breastfed in our patient population at "high risk not to breastfeed." Other hospitals can use these described methods and techniques to improve their EBF rates. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas during rapid urbanization in Shanghai, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junying; Da Liangjun; Song Kun; Li Bailian

    2008-01-01

    As the economic and financial center of China, Shanghai has experienced an extensive urban expansion since the early 1980s, with an attendant cost in environmental degradation. We use an integrated pollution index to study the temporal variations of surface water quality in urban, suburban and rural areas between 1982 and 2005. Data on monitored cross-sections were collected from the Shanghai Environmental Monitoring Center. The results indicated that the spatial pattern of surface water quality was determined by the level of urbanization. Surface water qualities in urban and suburban areas were improved by strengthening the environmental policies and management, but were worsening in rural areas. The relationship between economic growth and surface water quality in Shanghai showed an inversed-U-shaped curve, which reflected a similar pattern in most developed countries. This research suggests that decision makers and city officials should be more aware of the recent pollution increases in Shanghai. - An integrated pollution index documents the deterioration of water quality in greater Shanghai, recently most serious in rural sections

  10. Modalities of hemodialysis: Quality improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Karkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD treatment had, over many years, improved the survival rate of patients with end-stage renal disease. However, standard or conventional HD prescription is far from being optimal in replacing the function of normal kidneys. Its unphysiologic clearance pattern and inability to remove all types and sizes of uremic toxins results in inter- and intra-dialysis complications and an unacceptably high rate of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Efficiency of HD can be improved by increasing blood and dialysate flow rates, dialyzer size and surface area and duration and frequency of dialysis sessions. Home HD, where short daily or long slow nocturnal HD sessions can conveniently be performed, provides an excellent option for quality of life improvement and reduction in morbidity and mortality. Recent innovations in the specifications of HD machines and improvement in dialysis membranes characteristics and water treatment technology paved the way for achieving quality HD. These advancements have resulted in efficient implementation of adsorption, diffusion and/or convection principles using adsorption HD, hemofiltration, hemodiafiltration (HDF and online HDF modalities in order to achieve optimum HD. Implementation of these innovations resulted in better quality care achievements in clinical practice and reduction in morbidity and mortality rates among HD patients.

  11. QUALITY OF PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION SERVICES IN URBAN AREA OF ORADEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silaghi Simona

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Intensification of public transport in urban areas due to increased mobility at regional and national levels, discrepancies among urban areas with same population and lack of statistical data related to performance and quality of public transport services are the main determinants of this paper. A separation line must be drawn between quality of services and performance indicators of public transport system. Service quality is a multi subjective outcome of an array of intangible variables. Service quality can be approached from four directions: consumer, vehicle performance (including the human operator, specialized company in passenger transport, and the Government (local Councils. Availability, comfort and convenience are the two main indicators that must be evaluated by citizens as being with high grades for a good quality of urban transport services. The instrument used to gather data is the preference survey.

  12. Improving urban wind flow predictions through data assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Jorge; Gorle, Catherine

    2017-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamic is fundamentally important to several aspects in the design of sustainable and resilient urban environments. The prediction of the flow pattern for example can help to determine pedestrian wind comfort, air quality, optimal building ventilation strategies, and wind loading on buildings. However, the significant variability and uncertainty in the boundary conditions poses a challenge when interpreting results as a basis for design decisions. To improve our understanding of the uncertainties in the models and develop better predictive tools, we started a pilot field measurement campaign on Stanford University's campus combined with a detailed numerical prediction of the wind flow. The experimental data is being used to investigate the potential use of data assimilation and inverse techniques to better characterize the uncertainty in the results and improve the confidence in current wind flow predictions. We consider the incoming wind direction and magnitude as unknown parameters and perform a set of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulations to build a polynomial chaos expansion response surface at each sensor location. We subsequently use an inverse ensemble Kalman filter to retrieve an estimate for the probabilistic density function of the inflow parameters. Once these distributions are obtained, the forward analysis is repeated to obtain predictions for the flow field in the entire urban canopy and the results are compared with the experimental data. We would like to acknowledge high-performance computing support from Yellowstone (ark:/85065/d7wd3xhc) provided by NCAR.

  13. Proposed methodology for estimating the impact of highway improvements on urban air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    The aim of this methodology is to indicate the expected change in ambient air quality in the vicinity of a highway improvement and in the total background level of urban air pollution resulting from the highway improvement. Both the jurisdiction in w...

  14. Dealing with Variations over Space and Time in Urban Vegetation-Air Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Studies on role of urban vegetation ameliorate poor air quality frequently encountered in urban areas should aim to answer a pertinent question: what is the net impact of urban vegetation in improving public health directly or indirectly through removal of air pollutants? Answers to this question need to consider that role of urban vegetation in air quality improvement is not just dependent on physical and physiological processes mediated by plants, it is also highly dependent on atmospheric processes. The roles of these two components thus need to be separated. This uncertainty is further complicated by heterogeneity of air quality over spatial scales and fluctuations in air quality over time. Singapore is used to illustrate these complexities. Between seasons, the main external source of atmospheric pollutants is aerosols from biomass burning in plantations in surrounding SE Asian countries, and air quality is highly dependent on wind directions dictated by monsoon systems. When air quality does deteriorate from transboundary pollution, there are also spatial differences within the city, as air pollutant levels differ in different regions. Rainfall from monsoons and other rain-bearing weather systems over Singapore also dictate the relative amounts of wet and dry deposition and the persistence of particulate matter deposited on vegetation surfaces. For locally generated air pollutants, diurnal fluctuations of anthropogenic activities, such as vehicular emissions between peak and non-peak hours, should also lead to fluctuations over the day. Not only does air quality vary from region to region, air quality within a vertical transect in the urban canopy layer also differs due to urban morphology and urban elements. A pedestrian along a treed street may experience poorer air quality than one living on highrise building, despite proximity to vegetation. There are thus interactions between climate, weather and urban context, which lead to spatial heterogeneity over

  15. Using Lean to Advance Quality Improvement Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Christopher Craig; Williams, Barbara L; Ching, Joan M; Chafetz, Lynne A; Kaplan, Gary S

    2016-01-01

    Quality improvement research skills are not commonplace among quality improvement practitioners, and research on the effectiveness of quality improvement has not always kept pace with improvement innovation. However, the Lean tools applied to quality improvement should be equally relevant to the advancement of quality improvement research. We applied the Lean methods to develop a simplified quality improvement publication pathway enabling a small research methodology group to increase quality improvement research throughout the institution. The key innovations of the pathway are horizontal integration of the quality improvement research methods group across the institution, implementation of a Lean quality improvement research pathway, and application of a just-in-time quality improvement research toolkit. This work provides a road map and tools for the acceleration of quality improvement research. At our institution, the Lean quality improvement research approach was associated with statistically significant increases in the number (annual mean increase from 3.0 to 8.5, p = .03) and breadth of published quality improvement research articles, and in the number of quality improvement research projects currently in process. Application of Lean methods to the quality improvement research process can aid in increasing publication of quality improvement articles from across the institution.

  16. Improving coal quality and service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-06-01

    Russia's new coal export industry has quickly produced a generation of extremely experienced operators. While improvements are happening, can buyers also expect the service, flexibility and quality control that they get from other export sources? In the light of the first-ever Coaltrans Russia conference held in April the article reports on developments in Russia's coal industry, quoting from many of the papers presented. 5 photos.

  17. Exploring Diet Quality between Urban and Rural Dwelling Women of Reproductive Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie C. Martin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Health disparities, including weight gain and obesity exist between urban and rural dwelling women. The primary aim was to compare diet quality in urban and rural women of reproductive age, and secondary analyses of the difference in macronutrient and micronutrient intake in urban and rural women, and the predictors of diet quality. Diet quality was assessed in urban (n = 149 and rural (n = 394 women by a modified version of the Dietary Guideline Index (DGI energy, macronutrient and micronutrient intake from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ and predictors of diet quality. Diet quality did not significantly differ between urban and rural women (mean ± standard deviation (SD, 84.8 ± 15.9 vs. 83.9 ± 16.5, p = 0.264. Rural women reported a significantly higher intake of protein, fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, cholesterol and iron and a higher score in the meat and meat alternatives component of the diet quality tool in comparison to urban women. In all women, a higher diet quality was associated with higher annual household income (>$Australian dollar (AUD 80,000 vs. <$AUD80,000 p = 0.013 and working status (working fulltime/part-time vs. unemployed p = 0.043. Total diet quality did not differ in urban and rural women; however, a higher macronutrient consumption pattern was potentially related to a higher lean meat intake in rural women. Women who are unemployed and on a lower income are an important target group for future dietary interventions aiming to improve diet quality.

  18. URBAN RUNOFF QUALITY MANAGEMENT (BOOK REVIEW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manual of practice is geared toward a technical audience but the first four chapters can be understood by anyone interested in stormwater issues and the use of best management practices (BMPs) to mitigate urban stormwater effects. These chapters outline the stormwater probl...

  19. quality and safety characteristics of cassava crisps sold in urban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    QUALITY AND SAFETY CHARACTERISTICS OF CASSAVA CRISPS SOLD IN. URBAN KENYA. G.O. ABONG', S.I. SHIBAIRO, ... This study sought to characterise the quality and safety in terms of cyanide levels of cassava crisps ... Crantz) to food security and incomes for rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa, cannot be.

  20. The role of economic clusters in improving urban planning support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Zhenshan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/251865274

    2010-01-01

    Improving the mechanism of integrating economic and spatial developments is an important issue in urban policy analysis and design. As Economic Clusters (ECs) become an important organisation in contemporary urban development in both economic and spatial practices, the research addresses the

  1. Urban scale air quality modelling using detailed traffic emissions estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrego, C.; Amorim, J. H.; Tchepel, O.; Dias, D.; Rafael, S.; Sá, E.; Pimentel, C.; Fontes, T.; Fernandes, P.; Pereira, S. R.; Bandeira, J. M.; Coelho, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The atmospheric dispersion of NOx and PM10 was simulated with a second generation Gaussian model over a medium-size south-European city. Microscopic traffic models calibrated with GPS data were used to derive typical driving cycles for each road link, while instantaneous emissions were estimated applying a combined Vehicle Specific Power/Co-operative Programme for Monitoring and Evaluation of the Long-range Transmission of Air Pollutants in Europe (VSP/EMEP) methodology. Site-specific background concentrations were estimated using time series analysis and a low-pass filter applied to local observations. Air quality modelling results are compared against measurements at two locations for a 1 week period. 78% of the results are within a factor of two of the observations for 1-h average concentrations, increasing to 94% for daily averages. Correlation significantly improves when background is added, with an average of 0.89 for the 24 h record. The results highlight the potential of detailed traffic and instantaneous exhaust emissions estimates, together with filtered urban background, to provide accurate input data to Gaussian models applied at the urban scale.

  2. Urban waterfront rehabilitation: can it contribute to environmental improvements in the developing world?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vollmer, Derek

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines urban waterfront rehabilitation as a sustainable development strategy in Chinese cities. Though waterfront rehabilitation is increasingly being employed in developed world cities, the environmental benefits are not always clear. Nonetheless, China, like other developing countries, has shown interest in this strategy, for improving its local water quality, upgrading environmental management, and improving quality of life for urban residents. As developing world cities struggle to break from the traditional model of 'pollute first, clean up later', it is critical that they employ strategies which minimize or remediate environmental impacts while still promoting economic development. This paper analyzes three such projects: the Qinhuai River Environmental Improvement Project in Nanjing, the Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation in Shanghai, and the Wuli Lake Rehabilitation in Wuxi. A critical analysis indicates that these projects have served numerous purposes which contribute to the cities' sustainable development. Though waterways may not be restored to pristine conditions, the incremental improvements appear to be a necessary catalyst for sustainable urban development.

  3. URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water quality was analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes (LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro- invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality

  4. Scale effects on spatially varying relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanwei; Guo, Qinghai; Liu, Jian; Wang, Run

    2014-08-01

    Scientific interpretation of the relationships between urban landscape patterns and water quality is important for sustainable urban planning and watershed environmental protection. This study applied the ordinary least squares regression model and the geographically weighted regression model to examine the spatially varying relationships between 12 explanatory variables (including three topographical factors, four land use parameters, and five landscape metrics) and 15 water quality indicators in watersheds of Yundang Lake, Maluan Bay, and Xinglin Bay with varying levels of urbanization in Xiamen City, China. A local and global investigation was carried out at the watershed-level, with 50 and 200 m riparian buffer scales. This study found that topographical features and landscape metrics are the dominant factors of water quality, while land uses are too weak to be considered as a strong influential factor on water quality. Such statistical results may be related with the characteristics of land use compositions in our study area. Water quality variations in the 50 m buffer were dominated by topographical variables. The impact of landscape metrics on water quality gradually strengthen with expanding buffer zones. The strongest relationships are obtained in entire watersheds, rather than in 50 and 200 m buffer zones. Spatially varying relationships and effective buffer zones were verified in this study. Spatially varying relationships between explanatory variables and water quality parameters are more diversified and complex in less urbanized areas than in highly urbanized areas. This study hypothesizes that all these varying relationships may be attributed to the heterogeneity of landscape patterns in different urban regions. Adjustment of landscape patterns in an entire watershed should be the key measure to successfully improving urban lake water quality.

  5. SQIMSO: Quality Improvement for Small Software Organizations

    OpenAIRE

    Rabih Zeineddine; Nashat Mansour

    2005-01-01

    Software quality improvement process remains incomplete if it is not initiated and conducted through a wide improvement program that considers process quality improvement, product quality improvement and evolution of human resources. But, small software organizations are not capable of bearing the cost of establishing software process improvement programs. In this work, we propose a new software quality improvement model for small organizations, SQIMSO, based on three ...

  6. Capabilities and Gaps Assessments of Urban Air Quality Manage-ment in Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Tamale Kiggundu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, large cities across the globe are facing a pervasive problem of air pollution.  The purpose of this study is to assess the capabilities and gaps in urban air quality management in Uganda as well as proposing strategies for curbing air pollution. This study applied face to face interviews, targeting key informants such as the environmental experts, urbanization researchers and officials from the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA. Results show that rapid motorization, continued dependence on fossil fuels, open waste burning, biomass burning, industrialization, bushfires and urbanization are the key causes of air pollution in Uganda. To reduce air pollution and improve urban air quality it is critical to promote non-motorised mass transport, increase electricity access, regulate open waste burning, establish laboratories, strengthen local research and training capacity, promote collaborations, introduce more fuel efficient vehicles and periodic vehicle inspection and carry out public awareness campaigns about air pollution.

  7. URBAN GROWTH AND WATER QUALITY IN THIMPHU, BHUTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandu Giri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Detailed study was undertaken in 2008 and 2009 on assessment of water quality of River Wang Chhu which flows through Thimphu urban area, the capital city of Bhutan. The water samples were examined at upstream of urban area, within the urban area and its downstream. The water samples were analyzed by studying the physico-chemical, biological and benthic macro-invertebrates. The water quality data obtained during present study are discussed in relation to land use/land cover changes(LULC and various ongoing human activities at upstream, within the each activity areas and it’s downstream. Analyses of satellite imagery of 1990 and 2008 using GIS revealed that over a period of eighteen years the forest, scrub and agricultural areas have decreased whereas urban area and road network have increased considerably. The forest cover, agriculture area and scrub decreased from 43.3% to 42.57%, 6.88% to 5.33% and 42.55% to 29.42%, respectively. The LULC changes effect water quality in many ways. The water temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate, chloride, total coliform, and biological oxygen demand were lower at upstream and higher in urban area. On the other hand dissolved oxygen was found higher at upstream and lower in urban area. The pollution sensitive benthic macro-invertebrates population were dominant at upstream sampling sites whereas pollution tolerant benthic macro-invertebrates were found abundant in urban area and its immediate downstream. The rapid development of urban infrastructure in Thimphu city may be posing serious threats to water regime in terms of its quality. Though the deterioration of water quality is restricted to a few localized areas, the trend is serious and needs proper attention of policy planners and decision makers. Proper treatment of effluents from urban areas is urgently needed to reduce water pollution in such affected areas to check further deterioration of water quality

  8. Air quality and urban form in U.S. urban areas: evidence from regulatory monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lara P; Millet, Dylan B; Marshall, Julian D

    2011-08-15

    The layout of an urban area can impact air pollution via changes in emissions and their spatial distribution. Here, we explore relationships between air quality and urban form based on cross-sectional observations for 111 U.S. urban areas. We employ stepwise linear regression to quantify how long-term population-weighted outdoor concentrations of ozone, fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), and other criteria pollutants measured by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency depend on urban form, climate, transportation, city size, income, and region. Aspects of urban form evaluated here include city shape, road density, jobs-housing imbalance, population density, and population centrality. We find that population density is associated with higher population-weighted PM(2.5) concentrations (p urban form variables are associated with 4%-12% changes in population-weighted concentrations-amounts comparable, for example, to changes in climatic factors. Our empirical findings are consistent with prior modeling research and suggest that urban form could potentially play a modest but important role in achieving (or not achieving) long-term air quality goals.

  9. Achieving Improvement Through Nursing Home Quality Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Yael; Clauser, Steven B.

    2002-01-01

    CMS has initiated the Nursing Home Quality Initiative (NHQI) to improve the quality of nursing home care. Central to the NHQI is the public reporting of nursing home quality measures that serve as the basis for the Initiative's communication and quality improvement program. This article provides an overview of the NHQI, focusing on the role of nursing home quality measures in achieving improvements in nursing home care. We also describe the evolution of quality measurement in nursing homes, a...

  10. City logistics initiatives aimed at improving sustainability by changing the context of urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Snežana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available City logistics is a field that attracts increasing attention of professionals and scientific community and international organizations. Research on problems of urban areas' logistics gives different results and practical solutions. City logistics flows are characterized by partiality, spatial dispersion of generators, diversity in terms of the logistics chains structure, frequency of a large number of smaller shipments, dynamism, stochasticity etc. Problems and the complexity of logistics in urban areas as well as significant decline in the quality of life in modern cities have caused the development of initiatives and concepts of city logistics which should allow the sustainable development of urban areas. The first part of this paper presents the problems of city logistics and impact of logistics activities on urban areas in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. The second part presents city logistics initiatives that involve the change of urban area context, in order to improve its sustainability.

  11. Soil invertebrates as bioindicators of urban soil quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santorufo, Lucia; Van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Rocco, Annamaria; Maisto, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed at relating the abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities of urban soils to chemical and physical soil characteristics and to identify the taxa most sensitive or tolerant to soil stressors. The invertebrate community of five urban soils in Naples, Italy, was sampled. To assess soil quality invertebrate community indices (Shannon, Simpson, Menhinick and Pielou indices), Acarina/Collembola ratios, and the soil biological quality index (QBS) were calculated. The chemical and physical characteristics of the soils strongly differed. Abundance rather than taxa richness of invertebrates were more affected by soil characteristics. The community was more abundant and diverse in the soils with high organic matter and water content and low metal (Cu, Pb, Zn) concentrations. The taxa more resistant to the urban environment included Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. Collembolans appeared particularly sensitive to changing soil properties. Among the investigated indices, QBS seems most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Highlights: ► The abundance and diversity of invertebrate communities was related to properties and metal contents of urban soils. ► Several (biodiversity) indices were calculated and compared to evaluate soil quality. ► Metal contamination affected invertebrate density and diversity. ► The taxa more tolerant to metal contamination were Acarina, Enchytraeids, Collembola and Nematoda. ► The soil biological quality index QBS index was most appropriate for soil quality assessment. - Soil metal contamination negatively affected soil invertebrate abundance and diversity.

  12. Urban Landscape Characterization Using Remote Sensing Data For Input into Air Quality Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Crosson, William; Khan, Maudood

    2005-01-01

    The urban landscape is inherently complex and this complexity is not adequately captured in air quality models that are used to assess whether urban areas are in attainment of EPA air quality standards, particularly for ground level ozone. This inadequacy of air quality models to sufficiently respond to the heterogeneous nature of the urban landscape can impact how well these models predict ozone pollutant levels over metropolitan areas and ultimately, whether cities exceed EPA ozone air quality standards. We are exploring the utility of high-resolution remote sensing data and urban growth projections as improved inputs to meteorological and air quality models focusing on the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area as a case study. The National Land Cover Dataset at 30m resolution is being used as the land use/land cover input and aggregated to the 4km scale for the MM5 mesoscale meteorological model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling schemes. Use of these data have been found to better characterize low density/suburban development as compared with USGS 1 km land use/land cover data that have traditionally been used in modeling. Air quality prediction for future scenarios to 2030 is being facilitated by land use projections using a spatial growth model. Land use projections were developed using the 2030 Regional Transportation Plan developed by the Atlanta Regional Commission. This allows the State Environmental Protection agency to evaluate how these transportation plans will affect future air quality.

  13. Urban Densification and Recreational Quality of Public Urban Green Spaces—A Viennese Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne Arnberger

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Public urban green spaces play an important role in urban sustainability. These places should provide high-quality recreation experiences for the urban residents. However, they are often overused. The Wienerberg area in the south of Vienna, Austria, was transformed from a waste disposal site into a natural recreation area. During the past years, intensive settlement densification processes have taken place, resulting in a doubling of the local population living within a few minutes walking distance. An on-site survey among green space visitors (N = 231 revealed that the majority of them considered the area to be overcrowded on Sundays/holidays and reported a perceived increase in visitor numbers during the past years. Visitors with more past experience, as well as those who have perceived an increase in visitor numbers during recent years, reported higher crowding perceptions. A significant proportion of them try to avoid these crowds, relying on behavioral coping strategies, such as inter-area displacement. While urban regeneration has provided an attractive recreation area, urban densification around the green space appears to have reduced its recreational quality. Monitoring recreation quality indicators, such as crowding perceptions, seems to be useful for sustainable urban green space management and city planning.

  14. Quality Improvement and Learning in Productive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Charles H. Fine

    1986-01-01

    Recent interest in product quality suggests that effort devoted to improving the quality of manufactured products may reduce unit costs. This conjecture---that improving quality can lower costs---challenges the traditional assumption that unit costs increase with increased quality assurance activities and has significant implications for quality management. By introducing the idea of a quality-based learning curve, this paper links the previously disjoint literatures of quality control and le...

  15. Trading emissions improve air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lents, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    While admitting sharply contrasting views exist, James M. Lents of the South Coast Air Quality Management District in southern California sees emissions trading open-quotes as a lifesaver for our troubled planet.close quotes He explains: open-quotes If political support for the environment is to be maintained, we must seek the most economical and flexible means of pursuing cleanup. At present, market incentives and emissions trading represent our best hope.close quotes Lents is putting his money where his pen is. The air quality management district he heads plans to use market incentives, including emissions trading, to reduce air pollution in the notoriously dirty southern California area. When the system goes into operation in 1994, he estimates it will save southern California businesses more than $400 million a year in compliance costs, while also making major improvements in the region's air quality. If the idea works there, why won't it work elsewhere, even on a global scale, Lents asks? He believes it will. But open-quotes the ultimate success of emissions-trading programs, whether regional, national, or international in scope, lies in the proof that they're actually achieving reductions in harmful emissions,close quotes he emphasizes. open-quotes These reductions must be real and verifiable to satisfy the Clean Air Act and a skeptical public.close quotes

  16. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R.J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S.; Zebregs, M. [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

    1995-12-31

    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  17. The implementation challenge of urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lint, R J.T. van; Buitenkamp, S; Zebregs, M [Ministry of Housing, The Hague (Netherlands). Air Quality and Acidification Abatement Div.

    1996-12-31

    In recent years, the policy followed has booked some significant successes in the structural reduction of the emissions by a number of air polluting substances (e.g. sulphur dioxide and lead). However, the Third Environmental Outlook 1993-2015 has determined that the policy goals for a number of other air polluting substances will not be achieved, particularly in urban areas. This concerns fine dust (PM-10) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrogen dioxide, benzene and black smoke. The policy goals for the above priority substances have been set so as to protect the population against the negative effects on health from too high concentrations of these substances. Forty-six per cent of the Dutch population live in cities of more than 100,000 inhabitants, and, hence, many people are exposed to (too) high concentrations. For this reason, the Netherlands` Second National Environmental Policy Plan lays down that government, provinces and municipalities will together develop a plan of action to reduce urban air pollution to acceptable levels. The formulated strategy is presented in the document here. To that end, the problem analysis and current policy related to the issue are considered in more detail below. On the basis of this, the additional policy strategy is formulated. (author)

  18. Influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, An; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Guan, Yuntao; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-02-01

    The accuracy and reliability of urban stormwater quality modelling outcomes are important for stormwater management decision making. The commonly adopted approach where only a limited number of factors are used to predict urban stormwater quality may not adequately represent the complexity of the quality response to a rainfall event or site-to-site differences to support efficient treatment design. This paper discusses an investigation into the influence of rainfall and catchment characteristics on urban stormwater quality in order to investigate the potential areas for errors in current stormwater quality modelling practices. It was found that the influence of rainfall characteristics on pollutant wash-off is step-wise based on specific thresholds. This means that a modelling approach where the wash-off process is predicted as a continuous function of rainfall intensity and duration is not appropriate. Additionally, other than conventional catchment characteristics, namely, land use and impervious surface fraction, other catchment characteristics such as impervious area layout, urban form and site specific characteristics have an important influence on both, pollutant build-up and wash-off processes. Finally, the use of solids as a surrogate to estimate other pollutant species was found to be inappropriate. Individually considering build-up and wash-off processes for each pollutant species should be the preferred option. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Scientific research in urban areas air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allegrini, I.

    1998-01-01

    The presence of consistent amounts of polluting agents in the urban atmosphere is a fact widely confirmed which poses serious problems to the people responsible for the environment management. It is well known that the majority of the polluting agents are produced by the intense traffic or vehicles which introduces in the atmosphere a large quantity of compounds. The toxic effect of some of these (primary polluters) is direct; others (secondary polluters) are the result of chemical reactions occurring within the atmosphere. Consequently, the management of the atmospheric environment requires the knowledge of a great number of processes, which begin with the emission of the polluting agents, and continue with their diffusion in the air, their transformation, the way they move, and how they are deposited or removed [it

  20. The impacts of road traffic management on urban air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oduyemi, K.O.K. [School of Construction and Environment, University of Abertay Dundee, Dundee (United Kingdom); Davidson, B. [Department of Environmental Health and Consumer Protection, Dundee City Council, Tayside House, Crichton Street, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    1998-07-11

    The effects of road traffic emissions on urban air quality are investigated, using long-term nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) data. The effectiveness of the several traffic management measures that have been made in Dundee city centre, UK, within the last 5 years in relation to urban air quality is discussed. The information assessed during this study indicates that the annual mean NO{sub 2} levels at all the study sites are, at present, below the current EC and WHO (long-term) air quality standards for NO{sub 2} concentration in the ambient air. Traffic restrictions appear to be effective in protecting urban air quality. The annual mean NO{sub 2} concentration at two of the study sites is currently close to 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, a value published in the Air Quality Regulations 1997 for the air quality objective to be achieved by the year 2005. Proactive traffic management mitigation measures are proposed for these sites and a methodology for the consideration of traffic management alternatives, based upon traffic flow modal split, is described. Some measures proposed are based upon a survey of vehicle occupancy rates, carried out at the busiest of the four study sites. The methodology and assessment procedures presented should be invaluable to assessors of traffic management and local air quality management in a small city, both at the planning and at the auditing stage

  1. Solutions to Improve Educational Management Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Ramezan Jahanian; Masoomeh Motahari

    2013-01-01

    Nowadays, enhancing the quality in educational systems of different countries has gained especial importance and stand. Improving utilizing and increasing the quality in our country’s educational system is felt too. One of the utilizing factors in education system is to improve the educational management quality.In this article, effective factors in educational management quality and one of its improving solutions, thorough management quality, is analyzed.

  2. Improving Tanzanian childbirth service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaribu, Jennie; Penfold, Suzanne; Green, Cathy; Manzi, Fatuma; Schellenberg, Joanna

    2018-04-16

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe a quality improvement (QI) intervention in primary health facilities providing childbirth care in rural Southern Tanzania. Design/methodology/approach A QI collaborative model involving district managers and health facility staff was piloted for 6 months in 4 health facilities in Mtwara Rural district and implemented for 18 months in 23 primary health facilities in Ruangwa district. The model brings together healthcare providers from different health facilities in interactive workshops by: applying QI methods to generate and test change ideas in their own facilities; using local data to monitor improvement and decision making; and health facility supervision visits by project and district mentors. The topics for improving childbirth were deliveries and partographs. Findings Median monthly deliveries increased in 4 months from 38 (IQR 37-40) to 65 (IQR 53-71) in Mtwara Rural district, and in 17 months in Ruangwa district from 110 (IQR 103-125) to 161 (IQR 148-174). In Ruangwa health facilities, the women for whom partographs were used to monitor labour progress increased from 10 to 57 per cent in 17 months. Research limitations/implications The time for QI innovation, testing and implementation phases was limited, and the study only looked at trends. The outcomes were limited to process rather than health outcome measures. Originality/value Healthcare providers became confident in the QI method through engagement, generating and testing their own change ideas, and observing improvements. The findings suggest that implementing a QI initiative is feasible in rural, low-income settings.

  3. Improving the quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyono, H

    1993-12-01

    It is encouraging that most developing countries now have population policies, but it is discouraging that some countries have been unable to implement their policies. Therefore, Indonesia believes technical cooperation should be strengthened among developing countries. International cooperation is working in 108 developing countries, but the desired impact has yet to be reached, and the quality of life in many countries is still unacceptable. For example, life expectancy at birth in developing countries is 14-17 years shorter for females and 10-13 years shorter for males as compared to developed countries which have superior health and welfare systems. The speed of population growth is also hindering efforts to help improve living conditions, and the biggest increase in growth will occur in Asia and Africa. This will increase the numbers of poor, hungry, and illiterate in developing countries and will lead to a lack of arable land, deterioration in education, and increase in unsafe sanitation. In order to slow population growth, quality family planning (FP) services must be provided to those who want them. By the year 2000, developed countries and donors should be ready to provide half of the required US$10.5 billion to FP services in developing countries. In Indonesia, population programs and policies have been governed by the National FP Coordinating Board as well as by the State Ministry for Population and the Environment, which was divided into two ministries in 1993 in order to deal with the enormity and seriousness of the two issues.

  4. A first-approximation urban-air-quality indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    David M. Paproski; Julian R. Walker

    1977-01-01

    Development of the first-approximation-urban-air-quality indicator was reported by the Economic Council of Canada. The indicator takes account of ambient concentrations of five pollutants: sulfur dioxide, particulate matter, oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and total oxidants. Epidemiological evidence indicating the potential impact of these pollutants on human...

  5. Data quality in citizen science urban tree inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; Bryant C. Scharenbroch; Johan P.A. Ostberg; Lee S. Mueller; Jason G. Henning; Andrew K. Koeser; Jessica R. Sanders; Daniel R. Betz; Rebecca C. Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Citizen science has been gaining popularity in ecological research and resource management in general and in urban forestry specifically. As municipalities and nonprofits engage volunteers in tree data collection, it is critical to understand data quality. We investigated observation error by comparing street tree data collected by experts to data collected by less...

  6. Impact of development and urbanization on variation of water quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The spatial and temporal variations of the physico-chemical water quality parameters, microfauna and micro-flora composition of the Nima Creek in Accra vividly illustrate the environmental problems associated with water bodies in a community where development and urbanization are in progress. Monthly water and ...

  7. Deconstructing Teacher Quality in Urban Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jemimah L.; Butler, Bettie Ray; Dolzhenko, Inna N.; Ardrey, Tameka N.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to deconstruct the extant scholarship on quality in early childhood education and to emphasize the importance of extending the literature to explore the potential influence that a teachers' educational background may have on kindergarten readiness for African American children in urban early learning settings.…

  8. Retrospective and Prospective Evaluations of Environmental Quality under Urban Renewal as Determinants of Residents' Subjective Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chau-kiu; Leung, Kwan-kwok

    2008-01-01

    Claims about the impacts of environmental quality associated with urban renewal on the resident's subjective quality of life are more speculative than empirically grounded. To clarify the impacts of environmental quality under urban renewal, this study surveyed 876 residents living in housing surrounding seven urban renewal sites in Hong Kong. It…

  9. Geospatial Technologies to Improve Urban Energy Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharanidharan Hemachandran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The HEAT (Home Energy Assessment Technologies pilot project is a FREE Geoweb mapping service, designed to empower the urban energy efficiency movement by allowing residents to visualize the amount and location of waste heat leaving their homes and communities as easily as clicking on their house in Google Maps. HEAT incorporates Geospatial solutions for residential waste heat monitoring using Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA and Canadian built Thermal Airborne Broadband Imager technology (TABI-320 to provide users with timely, in-depth, easy to use, location-specific waste-heat information; as well as opportunities to save their money and reduce their green-house-gas emissions. We first report on the HEAT Phase I pilot project which evaluates 368 residences in the Brentwood community of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, and describe the development and implementation of interactive waste heat maps, energy use models, a Hot Spot tool able to view the 6+ hottest locations on each home and a new HEAT Score for inter-city waste heat comparisons. We then describe current challenges, lessons learned and new solutions as we begin Phase II and scale from 368 to 300,000+ homes with the newly developed TABI-1800. Specifically, we introduce a new object-based mosaicing strategy, an adaptation of Emissivity Modulation to correct for emissivity differences, a new Thermal Urban Road Normalization (TURN technique to correct for scene-wide microclimatic variation. We also describe a new Carbon Score and opportunities to update city cadastral errors with automatically defined thermal house objects.

  10. Developing effective urban air quality management systems in the United Kingdom. Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsom, D.M.; Crabbe, H. [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). Geography Unit

    1995-12-31

    During the past few years an increasing number of local authorities have expressed concern about the ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and fine particulates that residents may be experiencing in traffic-congested parts of towns and cities. Although recent legislation is intended to reduce vehicle emissions (e.g. stricter exhaust emission standards requiring new cars to be equipped with catalytic converters), the growth in the number of motor vehicles, their frequency of use and the congestion they are causing in urban centres have resulted in little or no improvement in air quality. Although total vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to fall significantly during the next ten years, air quality will still remain a problem in some urban areas. Clearly, not all local air quality problems can be eliminated by the use of national legislation. For several years, local authorities and environmental organisations (e.g. National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection) have argued for local authorities to be given a statutory duty, together with appropriate funding from central government, to produce local air quality management plans which assess the seriousness of any air quality problems and which, if necessary, set out how poor air quality can be improved. This presentation examines the progress towards urban air quality management in the UK. (author)

  11. Developing effective urban air quality management systems in the United Kingdom. Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsom, D M; Crabbe, H [Oxford Brookes Univ. (United Kingdom). Geography Unit

    1996-12-31

    During the past few years an increasing number of local authorities have expressed concern about the ambient levels of nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, benzene and fine particulates that residents may be experiencing in traffic-congested parts of towns and cities. Although recent legislation is intended to reduce vehicle emissions (e.g. stricter exhaust emission standards requiring new cars to be equipped with catalytic converters), the growth in the number of motor vehicles, their frequency of use and the congestion they are causing in urban centres have resulted in little or no improvement in air quality. Although total vehicle emissions of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are expected to fall significantly during the next ten years, air quality will still remain a problem in some urban areas. Clearly, not all local air quality problems can be eliminated by the use of national legislation. For several years, local authorities and environmental organisations (e.g. National Society for Clean Air and Environmental Protection) have argued for local authorities to be given a statutory duty, together with appropriate funding from central government, to produce local air quality management plans which assess the seriousness of any air quality problems and which, if necessary, set out how poor air quality can be improved. This presentation examines the progress towards urban air quality management in the UK. (author)

  12. Quality improvement and emerging global health priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah Abrampah, Nana; Syed, Shamsuzzoha Babar; Hirschhorn, Lisa R; Nambiar, Bejoy; Iqbal, Usman; Garcia-Elorrio, Ezequiel; Chattu, Vijay Kumar; Devnani, Mahesh; Kelley, Edward

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Quality improvement approaches can strengthen action on a range of global health priorities. Quality improvement efforts are uniquely placed to reorient care delivery systems towards integrated people-centred health services and strengthen health systems to achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This article makes the case for addressing shortfalls of previous agendas by articulating the critical role of quality improvement in the Sustainable Development Goal era. Quality improvement can stimulate convergence between health security and health systems; address global health security priorities through participatory quality improvement approaches; and improve health outcomes at all levels of the health system. Entry points for action include the linkage with antimicrobial resistance and the contentious issue of the health of migrants. The work required includes focussed attention on the continuum of national quality policy formulation, implementation and learning; alongside strengthening the measurement-improvement linkage. Quality improvement plays a key role in strengthening health systems to achieve UHC. PMID:29873793

  13. Urban Quality vs single travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with the con­sequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, together with short-sighted policies of transport and urban development spread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion and unlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel to people living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to those living in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonable urban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic, conside­red, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of the deterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italian cities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities, although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovative solutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by public administrations. One of the main environmental detractors is car traffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike the previous period. Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reaching the modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managing the demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation., such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developing and increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport, car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollution reduction and vehicular traffic reduction. For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal Rapid Transit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to join two apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuring individual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acoustic and air pol­lution as well as the congestion caused by private vehicular traffic. In Italy this system is still not well known

  14. Appreciating Site-Specific Qualities in Urban Harbours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    of observa-tions from Marseille in southern France. After modernization and dislocation of its harbor territories in the early 20th century already, this city is currently taking important steps from industrial urbanism into cultural planning. This transformation allows for new and unprogrammed experiences......When “site-specificity” becomes a central value in city and harbor transformation, it soon proves necessary to address the ways in which scholars and professionals actually determine site-specific qualities in urban fabrics and social life. This paper delves into the above questions by means...

  15. Towards improvement in quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-03-01

    This first document in the series of the International Nuclear Safety Advisory Group (INSAG) Technical Notes is a general guideline for the establishment of effective quality assurance procedures at nuclear facilities. It sets out primary requirements such as quality objectives, methods for measuring the effectiveness of the quality assurance programme, priority of activities in relation to importance of safety of items, motivation of personnel

  16. The urban harvest approach as framework and planning tool for improved water and resource cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leusbrock, I; Nanninga, T A; Lieberg, K; Agudelo-Vera, C M; Keesman, K J; Zeeman, G; Rijnaarts, H H M

    2015-01-01

    Water and resource availability in sufficient quantity and quality for anthropogenic needs represents one of the main challenges in the coming decades. To prepare for upcoming challenges such as increased urbanization and climate change related consequences, innovative and improved resource management concepts are indispensable. In recent years we have developed and applied the urban harvest approach (UHA). The UHA aims to model and quantify the urban water cycle on different temporal and spatial scales. This approach allowed us to quantify the impact of the implementation of water saving measures and new water treatment concepts in cities. In this paper we will introduce the UHA and its application for urban water cycles. Furthermore, we will show first results for an extension to energy cycles and highlight future research items (e.g. nutrients, water-energy-nexus).

  17. Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G; Simone, A.; Simone, A.; Traverso, M.; Nicolosi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

  18. Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers State, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin-West, Charles Ibiene; Isodje, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    Nigeria ranks among countries with the highest burden of tuberculosis. Yet evidence continues to indicate poor treatment outcomes which have been attributed to poor quality of care. This study aims to identify some of the systemic problems in order to inform policy decisions for improved quality of services and treatment outcomes in Nigeria. A comparative assessment of the quality of TB care in rural and urban health facilities was carried out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0. The level of significance was set at p facility infrastructures were more constrained in the urban than rural settings. Both the urban and rural facilities lacked adequate facilities for infection control such as, running water, air filter respirators, hand gloves and extractor fans. Health education and HIV counselling and testing (HCT) were limited in rural facilities compared to urban facilities. Although anti-TB drugs were generally available in both settings, the DOTS strategy in patient care was completely ignored. Finally, laboratory support for diagnosis and patient monitoring was limited in the rural facilities. The study highlights suboptimal quality of TB care in Rivers State with limitations in health education and HCT of patients for HIV as well as laboratory support for TB care in rural health facilities. We, therefore, recommend that adequate infection control measures, strict observance of the DOTS strategy and sufficient laboratory support be provided to TB clinics in the State.

  19. The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaker, Prashant; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different urban traffic-flow patterns on pollutant dispersion in different winds in a real asymmetric street canyon. Free-flow traffic causes more turbulence in the canyon facilitating more dispersion and a reduction in pedestrian level concentration. The comparison of with and without a vehicle-induced-turbulence revealed that when winds were perpendicular, the free-flow traffic reduced the concentration by 73% on the windward side with a minor increase of 17% on the leeward side, whereas for parallel winds, it reduced the concentration by 51% and 29%. The congested-flow traffic increased the concentrations on the leeward side by 47% when winds were perpendicular posing a higher risk to health, whereas reduced it by 17–42% for parallel winds. The urban air quality and public health can, therefore, be improved by improving the traffic-flow patterns in street canyons as vehicle-induced turbulence has been shown to contribute significantly to dispersion. - Highlights: • CFD is used to study impact of traffic-flow patterns on urban air quality. • Facilitating free-flow patterns induce more turbulence in street canyons. • Traffic-generated turbulence alters pollutant levels in urban street canyons. - This study investigates the effect of vehicle-induced-turbulence generated during free-flow traffic pattern in reduction of air pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons.

  20. Improving local air quality in cities: To tree or not to tree?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, Peter E.J.; Maiheu, Bino; Vankerkom, Jean; Janssen, Stijn

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation is often quoted as an effective measure to mitigate urban air quality problems. In this work we demonstrate by the use of computer models that the air quality effect of urban vegetation is more complex than implied by such general assumptions. By modelling a variety of real-life examples we show that roadside urban vegetation rather leads to increased pollutant concentrations than it improves the air quality, at least locally. This can be explained by the fact that trees and other types of vegetation reduce the ventilation that is responsible for diluting the traffic emitted pollutants. This aerodynamic effect is shown to be much stronger than the pollutant removal capacity of vegetation. Although the modelling results may be subject to a certain level of uncertainty, our results strongly indicate that the use of urban vegetation for alleviating a local air pollution hotspot is not expected to be a viable solution. Highlights: ► We model the impact of roadside urban vegetation on the local air quality. ► Vegetation in general lowers the wind speed thereby reducing the ventilation. ► In general roadside urban vegetation does not appear to decrease concentrations. ► Roadside urban trees have a pronounced detrimental effect on the local air quality. ► City planners and policy makers need to be better informed about this topic. -- Rather than improving the local air quality, our results suggest that roadside urban vegetation increases the pollutant concentrations at the footpath

  1. Voltage Quality Improvement Using Solar Photovoltaic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisa Galzina

    2015-06-01

    This paper briefly shows the methods of power quality improvement, and then the results of on-site power quality measurements in the grid before and after the connection of the solar photovoltaic system.

  2. San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPAs grant program to protect and restore San Francisco Bay. The San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) has invested in 58 projects along with 70 partners contributing to restore wetlands, water quality, and reduce polluted runoff.,

  3. Trend analysis of a tropical urban river water quality in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Faridah; M E, Alaa Eldin; Mohamed, Ibrahim

    2012-12-01

    Rivers play a significant role in providing water resources for human and ecosystem survival and health. Hence, river water quality is an important parameter that must be preserved and monitored. As the state of Selangor and the city of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, are undergoing tremendous development, the river is subjected to pollution from point and non-point sources. The water quality of the Klang River basin, one of the most densely populated areas within the region, is significantly degraded due to human activities as well as urbanization. Evaluation of the overall river water quality status is normally represented by a water quality index (WQI), which consists of six parameters, namely dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, ammoniacal nitrogen and pH. The objectives of this study are to assess the water quality status for this tropical, urban river and to establish the WQI trend. Using monthly WQI data from 1997 to 2007, time series were plotted and trend analysis was performed by employing the first-order autocorrelated trend model on the moving average values for every station. The initial and final values of either the moving average or the trend model were used as the estimates of the initial and final WQI at the stations. It was found that Klang River water quality has shown some improvement between 1997 and 2007. Water quality remains good in the upper stream area, which provides vital water sources for water treatment plants in the Klang valley. Meanwhile, the water quality has also improved in other stations. Results of the current study suggest that the present policy on managing river quality in the Klang River has produced encouraging results; the policy should, however, be further improved alongside more vigorous monitoring of pollution discharge from various point sources such as industrial wastewater, municipal sewers, wet markets, sand mining and landfills, as well as non-point sources such as

  4. Does quality improvement work in neonatology improve clinical outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsbury, Dan L; Clark, Reese H

    2017-04-01

    Quality improvement initiatives in neonatology have been promoted as an important way of improving outcomes of newborns. The purpose of this review is to examine the effectiveness of recent quality improvement work in improving the outcomes of infants requiring neonatal intensive care. Quality improvement collaboratives and single-center projects demonstrate improvement of clinical processes and outcomes in neonatology that impact both preterm and term infants. Declines in morbidities, resource use, and length of stay have been associated with reductions in healthcare costs. Recent quality improvement work has shown evidence of improvement in clinical outcomes in neonatal intensive care patients. These improvements have important implications for the reduction of healthcare costs in this population.

  5. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  6. Nature-based strategies for improving urban health and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Eugenia C. South; Charles C. Branas

    2015-01-01

    Place-based programs are being noticed as key opportunities to prevent disease and promote public health and safety for populations at-large. As one key type of place-based intervention, nature-based and green space strategies can play an especially large role in improving health and safety for dwellers in urban environments such as US legacy cities that lack nature...

  7. Temporal and spatial variations in the relationship between urbanization and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lijun; Cui, Erqian; Sun, Haoyu

    2014-12-01

    With the development of economy, most of Chinese cities are at the stage of rapid urbanization in recent years, which has caused many environmental problems, especially the serious deterioration of water quality. Therefore, the research of the relationship between urbanization and water quality has important theoretical and practical significance, and it is also the main restriction factor in the urbanization advancement. In this work, we investigated the impact of urbanization on the water quality of the nearby river. We established a comprehensive environmental assessment framework by combining urbanization and water quality, and one model was designed to examine the impact of urbanization on the water quality in Jinan from 2001 to 2010 with factor component analysis. The assessment of urbanization level was accomplished using a comprehensive index system, which was based on four aspects: demographic urbanization, economic urbanization, land urbanization, and social urbanization. In addition, synthetic pollution index method was utilized to assess the water pollution of Xiaoqing River in the study area. Through the analysis of regression curves, we conclude that (1) when the urbanization level is below 25 %, the relationship is low and irregular; (2) if the urbanization level varies between 25 and 40 %, there will be an irreversible degradation of stream water quality; (3) there is a positive correlation between urbanization and pollution levels of urban river after the adjustment period; and (4) land and demographic aspects have the highest independent contribution. This study is a useful reference for policymakers in terms of economic and environmental management.

  8. How to Begin a Quality Improvement Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; Harel, Ziv; McQuillan, Rory; Weizman, Adam V; Thomas, Alison; Chertow, Glenn M; Nesrallah, Gihad; Bell, Chaim M; Chan, Christopher T

    2016-05-06

    Quality improvement involves a combined effort among health care staff and stakeholders to diagnose and treat problems in the health care system. However, health care professionals often lack training in quality improvement methods, which makes it challenging to participate in improvement efforts. This article familiarizes health care professionals with how to begin a quality improvement project. The initial steps involve forming an improvement team that possesses expertise in the quality of care problem, leadership, and change management. Stakeholder mapping and analysis are useful tools at this stage, and these are reviewed to help identify individuals who might have a vested interest in the project. Physician engagement is a particularly important component of project success, and the knowledge that patients/caregivers can offer as members of a quality improvement team should not be overlooked. After a team is formed, an improvement framework helps to organize the scientific process of system change. Common quality improvement frameworks include Six Sigma, Lean, and the Model for Improvement. These models are contrasted, with a focus on the Model for Improvement, because it is widely used and applicable to a variety of quality of care problems without advanced training. It involves three steps: setting aims to focus improvement, choosing a balanced set of measures to determine if improvement occurs, and testing new ideas to change the current process. These new ideas are evaluated using Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles, where knowledge is gained by testing changes and reflecting on their effect. To show the real world utility of the quality improvement methods discussed, they are applied to a hypothetical quality improvement initiative that aims to promote home dialysis (home hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis). This provides an example that kidney health care professionals can use to begin their own quality improvement projects. Copyright © 2016 by the American

  9. Urban groundwater quality in sub-Saharan Africa: current status and implications for water security and public health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, D. J.; Nkhuwa, D. C. W.; Okotto-Okotto, J.; Pedley, S.; Stuart, M. E.; Tijani, M. N.; Wright, J.

    2017-06-01

    Groundwater resources are important sources of drinking water in Africa, and they are hugely important in sustaining urban livelihoods and supporting a diverse range of commercial and agricultural activities. Groundwater has an important role in improving health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). An estimated 250 million people (40% of the total) live in urban centres across SSA. SSA has experienced a rapid expansion in urban populations since the 1950s, with increased population densities as well as expanding geographical coverage. Estimates suggest that the urban population in SSA will double between 2000 and 2030. The quality status of shallow urban groundwater resources is often very poor due to inadequate waste management and source protection, and poses a significant health risk to users, while deeper borehole sources often provide an important source of good quality drinking water. Given the growth in future demand from this finite resource, as well as potential changes in future climate in this region, a detailed understanding of both water quantity and quality is required to use this resource sustainably. This paper provides a comprehensive assessment of the water quality status, both microbial and chemical, of urban groundwater in SSA across a range of hydrogeological terrains and different groundwater point types. Lower storage basement terrains, which underlie a significant proportion of urban centres in SSA, are particularly vulnerable to contamination. The relationship between mean nitrate concentration and intrinsic aquifer pollution risk is assessed for urban centres across SSA. Current knowledge gaps are identified and future research needs highlighted.

  10. Do Clinical Practice Guidelines Improve Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldassari, Cristina M

    2017-07-01

    Controversy exists surrounding how to best define and assess quality in the health care setting. Clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) have been developed to improve the quality of medical care by highlighting key clinical recommendations based on recent evidence. However, data linking CPGs to improvements in outcomes in otolaryngology are lacking. Numerous barriers contribute to difficulties in translating CPGs to improvements in quality. Future initiatives are needed to improve CPG adherence and define the impact of CPG recommendations on the quality of otolaryngologic care provided to our patients.

  11. [Combining microcredit, microinsurance, and the provision of health care can improve access to quality care in urban areas of Africa: Results of an experiment in the Bandalungwa health zone in Kinshasa, the Congo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzambi Kuwekita, J; Gosset, C; Guillaume, M; Balula Semutsari, M-P; Tshiama Kabongo, E; Bruyere, O; Reginster, J-Y

    2015-01-01

    This study, based on a survey conducted in 2008, examines how combining microcredit, microinsurance, and health care provision can improve access to quality care in the health zone of Bandalungwa, in Kinshasa. The bivariate analysis showed a significant association between increased purchasing power and earnings (p = 0.001), between earnings and savings (p = 0.000), and between health insurance and improved access to health care. These results show that 68.8% of borrowers reported an increase in their purchasing power, of whom 82% reported profits. Those with savings were 24.7 times more likely to purchase health insurance than those without; and 72% of those who regularly made health insurance payments improved their access to care. Combining microcredit, health microinsurance, and health care can improve access to quality health care at lower cost. This suggests that health insurance could usefully be integrated into the primary health-care system.

  12. Prediction of water quality variation caused by dredging urban river-bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hong-Je; Lee, Byung-Ho; Kim, Jung-Sik [University of Ulsan, Ulsan(Korea); Lee, Kun-Bae [Metropolitan City Hall of Ulsan, Ulsan(Korea)

    2002-04-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of water quality improvement due to dredging the bottom deposit at the downstream of a urban river. The finite difference method was used to analyze the water quality variations caused by the depths of dredging and intercepting ratios of the goal years. 21 boring points were selected along the 11.2 Km river reach running through a metropolitan city. The pollution levels of the deposits from the bored points were examined by the leaching test. The improvement effect of the water quality, measured as changes of COD, were carried at under drought, minimal, and normal flow. The result indicates that the dredging of the contaminated sludge contributes the improvement of the water quality. (author). 10 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  13. EMMA model: an advanced operational mesoscale air quality model for urban and regional environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, R.S.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Cortes, E.; Gonzalez, R.M.

    1999-01-01

    Mesoscale air quality models are an important tool to forecast and analyse the air quality in regional and urban areas. In recent years an increased interest has been shown by decision makers in these types of software tools. The complexity of such a model has grown exponentially with the increase of computer power. Nowadays, medium workstations can run operational versions of these modelling systems successfully. Presents a complex mesoscale air quality model which has been installed in the Environmental Office of the Madrid community (Spain) in order to forecast accurately the ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide air concentrations in a 3D domain centred on Madrid city. Describes the challenging scientific matters to be solved in order to develop an operational version of the atmospheric mesoscale numerical pollution model for urban and regional areas (ANA). Some encouraging results have been achieved in the attempts to improve the accuracy of the predictions made by the version already installed. (Author)

  14. Software process improvement, quality assurance and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.J.M.; Kusters, R.J.; Balla, K.; Kontogiannis, K.; Zou, Y.; Di Penta, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this workshop was to present and discuss emergent software quality improvement approaches, with an emphasis on practical applications. Different views on the improvement of software processes, software products, and their interrelations, have been addressed during the workshop.

  15. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  16. Urban and Rural MSW Stream Characterization for Separate Collection Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Ciuta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the new legislation framework enacted by new member countries of the European Union (EU, the characterization of municipal solid waste (MSW represents an important instrument for local governments and sanitation operators in setting and achieving targets for waste recycling and recovery. This paper presents the results of a study conducted in accordance with the Romanian methodology for domestic wastes characterization ROMECOM, aiming to provide a proper basis for developing clear and realistic forecasts in current municipal waste management, based on MSW composition and generation rate. The analyzed MSW came both from areas where the waste is collected in mixed and separate ways, in urban and rural areas. The MSW composition by fraction is detailed for dense urban areas, urban areas, rural and touristic areas from Romania. Based on these results, the MSW composition was determined for the eight development regions in Romania, and a generation rate of 0.9·kgMSW inhabitant−1·day−1 for the urban region and 0.4·kgMSW inh−1·day−1 for the rural region was established. The calorific values of urban and rural areas were determined as 6801 kJ·kg−1 and 5613 kJ·kg−1, respectively. In the perspective of sustainable development in this technical area, based on the obtained results and on the prognosis made for the following years, two proposals for urban and rural areas were developed for MSW treating options improvement. The two systems are characterized by selective collection (different efficiencies for urban and rural areas with subsequent recovery of the separated materials and energy recovery of the residual waste in a large-scale waste to energy (WTE plant.

  17. Past successes and future challenges: Improving the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gade, M.

    1994-12-31

    The author discusses issues related to the Chicago urban environment from her perspective in the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Understanding of the ozone air pollution problem in the Chicago area has undergone significant changes in the past three years, and there is still more to be understood about the complex factors which contribute to ozone pollution over urban areas such as Chicago. Ability to address these problems to present clean air standards is not in hand at present. The author asserts that information, and the ability of governmental agencies to ingest and respond to that information in a timely manner is a key to improvement of the environment in urban areas in reasonable time spans. In addition cost and price information on environmental control and protection needs to be more clearly presented to the people so they can understand the difficult choices which must be made in addressing these environmental problems.

  18. Past successes and future challenges: Improving the urban environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gade, M.

    1994-01-01

    The author discusses issues related to the Chicago urban environment from her perspective in the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Understanding of the ozone air pollution problem in the Chicago area has undergone significant changes in the past three years, and there is still more to be understood about the complex factors which contribute to ozone pollution over urban areas such as Chicago. Ability to address these problems to present clean air standards is not in hand at present. The author asserts that information, and the ability of governmental agencies to ingest and respond to that information in a timely manner is a key to improvement of the environment in urban areas in reasonable time spans. In addition cost and price information on environmental control and protection needs to be more clearly presented to the people so they can understand the difficult choices which must be made in addressing these environmental problems

  19. [Quality assurance and quality improvement. Personal experiences and intentions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, B G; Sommer, C

    1995-01-01

    In may 1994 we were selected by the surgical Swiss association to make a study about quality in USA. During our travel we visited 3 types of institutions: Hospitals, National Institute of standard and Technology, Industry, Johnson & Johnson. We appreciate to compare 2 types of quality programs: Quality Assurance (QA) and Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI). In traditional healthcare circles, QA is the process established to meet external regulatory requirements and to assure that patient care is consistent with established standards. In a modern quality terms, QA outside of healthcare means designing a product or service, as well as controlling its production, so well that quality is inevitable. The ideas of W. Edward Deming is that there is never improvement just by inspection. He developed a theory based on 14 principles. A productive work is accomplished through processes. Understanding the variability of processes is a key to improve quality. Quality management sees each person in an organisation as part of one or more processes. The job of every worker is to receive the work of others, add value to that work, and supply it to the next person in the process. This is called the triple role the workers as customer, processor, and supplier. The main source of quality defects is problems in the process. The old assumption is that quality fails when people do the right thing wrong; the new assumption is that, more often, quality failures arise when people do the wrong think right. Exhortation, incentives and discipline of workers are unlikely to improve quality. If quality is failing when people do their jobs as designed, then exhorting them to do better is managerial nonsense. Modern quality theory is customer focused. Customers are identified internally and externally. The modern approach to quality is thoroughly grounded in scientific and statistical thinking. Like in medicine, the symptom is a defect in quality. The therapist of process must perform diagnostic

  20. Impact of different irrigation systems on water quality in peri-urban areas of Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vangani, Ruchi; Saxena, Deepak; Gerber, Nikolaus; Mavalankar, Dileep; von Braun, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The ever-growing population of India, along with the increasing competition for water for productive uses in different sectors - especially irrigated agriculture and related local water systems and drainage - poses a challenge in an effort to improve water quality and sanitation. In rural and peri-urban settings, where agriculture is one of the main sources of livelihood, the type of water use in irrigated agriculture has complex interactions with drinking water and sanitation. In particular,...

  1. Reducing urban heat island effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinescu, Dan; Ochinciuc, Cristina Victoria; Cheval, Sorin; Comşa, Ionuţ; Sîrodoev, Igor; Andone, Radu; Caracaş, Gabriela; Crăciun, Cerasella; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Georgescu, Mihaela; Ianoş, Ioan; Merciu, Cristina; Moraru, Dan; Opriş, Ana; Paraschiv, Mirela; Raeţchi, Sonia; Saghin, Irina; Schvab, Andrei; Tătui-Văidianu, Nataşa

    2017-04-01

    technical solutions for mitigating the UHI impacts and sustainable reconfiguration of urban settlements, comprising packages of architectural and urban and landscape planning solutions. This study was funded by the Romanian Programme Partnership in Priority Domains, PN - II - PCCA - 2013 - 4 - 0509 - Reducing UHI effects to improve urban comfort and balance energy consumption in Bucharest (REDBHI).

  2. Urban Quality vs Single Travel: the Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Gargiulo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The great increase in the demand for private mobility with theconsequent macroscopic growth of channels to meet it, togetherwith short-sighted policies of transport and urban developmentspread above all in Italy, has produced pollution, congestion andunlivability in the last fifty years.The hope of assuring the maximum individual freedom of travel topeople living in consolidated urban centres, in addition to thoseliving in the outskirts arisen and developed without any reasonableurban logic, still goes on producing congestion of vehicular traffic,considered, by the majority of citizens, the main cause of thedeterioration of the quality of life in our cities.Indeed, also the most recent reports on environment in Italiancities show that the pollution levels are increasing in the big cities,although the news are full of very expensive projects, innovativesolutions and unexpected goals continuously shown by publicadministrations. One of the main environmental detractors is cartraffic, which has recently gained on public transport. unlike theprevious period.Most of mobility policies implemented in our cities aims at reachingthe modal balance by means of measures for controlling and managingthe demand for mobility, for mitigating traffic and limiting circulation.,such as the road pricing and the parking strategies; for developingand increasing public transport and not polluting means of transport,car sharing and car pooling.All of them have showed modest results both in terms of pollutionreduction and vehicular traffic reduction.For over fifty years, mostly in the United States, the Personal RapidTransit has been tested, a system of public transport trying to jointwo apparently incompatible factors: the possibility of assuringindividual travels and the need for decreasing the levels of acousticand air pollution as well as the congestion caused by privatevehicular traffic.In Italy this system is still not well known despite the versatility ofits fields

  3. "Rheum to Improve": Quality Improvement in Outpatient Rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Shirley L; Shojania, Kaveh G

    2017-09-01

    The commitment to improve care processes and patient outcomes is a professional mandate for clinicians and is also seen as an operational priority for institutions. Quality improvement now figures in the accreditation of training programs, specialty examinations, and hospital scorecards. Rheumatologists have traditionally focused primarily on quality problems such as guideline adherence; however, improvement goals should also include other aspects of care that are helpful to patients and are professionally rewarding for practitioners. This review makes use of improvement projects in outlining tangible tools rheumatologists can use to resolve quality concerns in their practices.

  4. 2010 World Expo and Urban Life Quality in Shanghai in Terms of Sustainable Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Dajian; Peter P.Rogers

    2006-01-01

    Based on sustainable development theory and the UN's Human Development Index, this thesis puts forward what the quality of urban life implies,makes a study of the world Expo's potential influences on the urban life of Shanghai and advances the strategy and measures to strengthen the life-quality-facing urban management

  5. Nationwide quality improvement in lung cancer care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Erik Winther; Green, Anders; Oesterlind, Kell

    2013-01-01

    To improve prognosis and quality of lung cancer care the Danish Lung Cancer Group has developed a strategy consisting of national clinical guidelines and a clinical quality and research database. The first edition of our guidelines was published in 1998 and our national lung cancer registry...... was opened for registrations in 2000. This article describes methods and results obtained by multidisciplinary collaboration and illustrates how quality of lung cancer care can be improved by establishing and monitoring result and process indicators....

  6. Practical Approaches to Quality Improvement for Radiologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Aine Marie; Cronin, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Continuous quality improvement is a fundamental attribute of high-performing health care systems. Quality improvement is an essential component of health care, with the current emphasis on adding value. It is also a regulatory requirement, with reimbursements increasingly being linked to practice performance metrics. Practice quality improvement efforts must be demonstrated for credentialing purposes and for certification of radiologists in practice. Continuous quality improvement must occur for radiologists to remain competitive in an increasingly diverse health care market. This review provides an introduction to the main approaches available to undertake practice quality improvement, which will be useful for busy radiologists. Quality improvement plays multiple roles in radiology services, including ensuring and improving patient safety, providing a framework for implementing and improving processes to increase efficiency and reduce waste, analyzing and depicting performance data, monitoring performance and implementing change, enabling personnel assessment and development through continued education, and optimizing customer service and patient outcomes. The quality improvement approaches and underlying principles overlap, which is not surprising given that they all align with good patient care. The application of these principles to radiology practices not only benefits patients but also enhances practice performance through promotion of teamwork and achievement of goals. © RSNA, 2015.

  7. Structured data quality reports to improve EHR data quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Jane; Liaw, Siaw-Teng; Yu, Hairong

    2015-12-01

    To examine whether a structured data quality report (SDQR) and feedback sessions with practice principals and managers improve the quality of routinely collected data in EHRs. The intervention was conducted in four general practices participating in the Fairfield neighborhood electronic Practice Based Research Network (ePBRN). Data were extracted from their clinical information systems and summarised as a SDQR to guide feedback to practice principals and managers at 0, 4, 8 and 12 months. Data quality (DQ) metrics included completeness, correctness, consistency and duplication of patient records. Information on data recording practices, data quality improvement, and utility of SDQRs was collected at the feedback sessions at the practices. The main outcome measure was change in the recording of clinical information and level of meeting Royal Australian College of General Practice (RACGP) targets. Birth date was 100% and gender 99% complete at baseline and maintained. DQ of all variables measured improved significantly (pImprovement was greatest with allergies. There was no significant change in duplicate records. SDQRs and feedback sessions support general practitioners and practice managers to focus on improving the recording of patient information. However, improved practice DQ, was not sufficient to meet RACGP targets. Randomised controlled studies are required to evaluate strategies to improve data quality and any associated improved safety and quality of care. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Improving Quality in Colorectal Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Slieker (Juliette)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Colorectal surgery is an important aspect of our current health system, due to the high incidence of colorectal cancer combined with an ageing population, improved long-term outcomes after colorectal surgery, and the perfectioning of the operative and postoperative

  9. Technological measures to improve automotive product quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gladkov, V.; Kruglov, S.

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the basic technological measures aimed at improving product quality in automotive industry. While paying due attention to solving organizational and technological problems, including the development of certification systems for production processes, it is also necessary to improve the technical standards of specific technologies, equipment and materials as they largely determine product quality. Special emphasis is given to the importance of improving the production of auto...

  10. Storm water and wastewater management for improving water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boogaard, Floris; Vojinovic, Zoran; Heikoop, Rick

    Climate change and urbanization will increase the frequency and magnitude of urban flooding and water quality problems in many regions of the world. In coastal and delta areas like The Netherlands and the Philippines, where urbanization is often high, there has been an increase in the adoption of

  11. Does competition improve health care quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, Dennis P; Swaminathan, Shailender; Lee, Woolton; Chernew, Michael

    2008-12-01

    To identify the effect of competition on health maintenance organizations' (HMOs) quality measures. Longitudinal analysis of a 5-year panel of the Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) and Consumer Assessment of Health Plans Survey(R) (CAHPS) data (calendar years 1998-2002). All plans submitting data to the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) were included regardless of their decision to allow NCQA to disclose their results publicly. NCQA, Interstudy, the Area Resource File, and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Fixed-effects models were estimated that relate HMO competition to HMO quality controlling for an unmeasured, time-invariant plan, and market traits. Results are compared with estimates from models reliant on cross-sectional variation. Estimates suggest that plan quality does not improve with increased levels of HMO competition (as measured by either the Herfindahl index or the number of HMOs). Similarly, increased HMO penetration is generally not associated with improved quality. Cross-sectional models tend to suggest an inverse relationship between competition and quality. The strategies that promote competition among HMOs in the current market setting may not lead to improved HMO quality. It is possible that price competition dominates, with purchasers and consumers preferring lower premiums at the expense of improved quality, as measured by HEDIS and CAHPS. It is also possible that the fragmentation associated with competition hinders quality improvement.

  12. Quality improvement through multiple response optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorossana, R.; Alemzad, H.

    2003-01-01

    The performance of a product is often evaluated by several quality characteristics. Optimizing the manufacturing process with respect to only one quality characteristic will not always lead to the optimum values for other characteristics. Hence, it would be desirable to improve the overall quality of a product by improving quality characteristics, which are considered to be important. The problem consists of optimizing several responses using multiple objective decision making approach and design of experiments. A case study will be discussed to show the application of the proposal method

  13. Measuring and improving cardiopulmonary resuscitation quality inside the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Christopher; Bobrow, Bentley J; Vadeboncoeur, Tyler F; Dameff, Christian; Stolz, Uwe; Silver, Annemarie; Roosa, Jason; Page, Rianne; LoVecchio, Frank; Spaite, Daniel W

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate CPR quality during cardiac resuscitation attempts in an urban emergency department (ED) and determine the influence of the combination of scenario-based training, real-time audiovisual feedback (RTAVF), and post-event debriefing on CPR quality. CPR quality was recorded using an R Series monitor-defibrillator (ZOLL Medical) during the treatment of adult cardiac arrest patients. Phase 1 (P1; 11/01/2010-11/15/2012) was an observation period of CPR quality. Phase 2 (P2; 11/15/2012-11/08/2013) was after a 60-min psychomotor skills CPR training and included RTAVF and post-event debriefing. A total of 52 cardiac arrest patients were treated in P1 (median age 56 yrs, 63.5% male) and 49 in P2 (age 60 yrs, 83.7% male). Chest compression (CC) depth increased from 46.7 ± 3.8mm in P1 to 61.6 ± 2.8mm in P2 (p training, real-time audiovisual CPR feedback, and post-event debriefing was associated with improved CPR quality and compliance with CPR guidelines in this urban teaching emergency department. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The impact of leadership qualities on quality management improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. Radoslaw Wolniak

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the importance of leadership is considered more and more often in quality management. The need of an appropriate leader has been already emphasized in ISO 9000 standards, in TQM philosophy as well as in different models of improvement which are used in the methodologies of prizing quality. Yet, it is in the concept of TQL where the attitude based on the need of leadership in an organization has achieved its best-developed, full shape. On the basis of the conducted studies, the following publication presents the analysis of the dependence between leadership qualities of managers and the improvement of quality management. There has been an attempt to define the qualities, which a manager being responsible for quality management, should have.

  15. The impact of leadership qualities on quality management improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslaw Wolniak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the importance of leadership is considered more and more often in quality management. The need of an appropriate leader has been already emphasized in ISO 9000 standards, in TQM philosophy as well as in different models of improvement which are used in the methodologies of prizing quality. Yet, it is in the concept of TQL where the attitude based on the need of leadership in an organization has achieved its best-developed, full shape. On the basis of the conducted studies, the following publication presents the analysis of the dependence between leadership qualities of managers and the improvement of quality management. There has been an attempt to define the qualities, which a manager being responsible for quality management, should have.

  16. Urban waterfront rehabilitation: can it contribute to environmental improvements in the developing world?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vollmer, Derek [National Academies, 500 5th Street NW, Washington, DC 20001 (United States)], E-mail: dvollmer@nas.edu

    2009-04-15

    This paper examines urban waterfront rehabilitation as a sustainable development strategy in Chinese cities. Though waterfront rehabilitation is increasingly being employed in developed world cities, the environmental benefits are not always clear. Nonetheless, China, like other developing countries, has shown interest in this strategy, for improving its local water quality, upgrading environmental management, and improving quality of life for urban residents. As developing world cities struggle to break from the traditional model of 'pollute first, clean up later', it is critical that they employ strategies which minimize or remediate environmental impacts while still promoting economic development. This paper analyzes three such projects: the Qinhuai River Environmental Improvement Project in Nanjing, the Suzhou Creek Rehabilitation in Shanghai, and the Wuli Lake Rehabilitation in Wuxi. A critical analysis indicates that these projects have served numerous purposes which contribute to the cities' sustainable development. Though waterways may not be restored to pristine conditions, the incremental improvements appear to be a necessary catalyst for sustainable urban development.

  17. Urban sprawl and air quality in large US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Brian

    2008-03-01

    This study presents the results of a paper of urban spatial structure and exceedances of the 8-h national ambient air quality standard for ozone in 45 large US metropolitan regions. Through the integration of a published index of sprawl with metropolitan level data on annual ozone exceedances, precursor emissions, and regional climate over a 13-year period, the association between the extent of urban decentralization and the average number of ozone exceedances per year, while controlling for precursor emissions and temperature, is measured. The results of this analysis support the hypothesis that large metropolitan regions ranking highly on a quantitative index of sprawl experience a greater number of ozone exceedances than more spatially compact metropolitan regions. Importantly, this relationship was found to hold when controlling for population size, average ozone season temperatures, and regional emissions of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, suggesting that urban spatial structure may have effects on ozone formation that are independent of its effects on precursor emissions from transportation, industry, and power generation facilities.

  18. Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: Temperature and Air quality): A Study of how the Urban Landscape Affects Meteorology and Air Quality Through Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G.; Lo, C. P.; Kidder, Stanley Q.; Hafner, Jan; Taha, Haider; Bornstein, Robert D.; Gillies, Robert R.; Gallo, Kevin P.

    1998-01-01

    It is our intent through this investigation to help facilitate measures that can be Project ATLANTA (ATlanta Land-use ANalysis: applied to mitigate climatological or air quality Temperature and Air-quality) is a NASA Earth degradation, or to design alternate measures to sustain Observing System (EOS) Interdisciplinary Science or improve the overall urban environment in the future. investigation that seeks to observe, measure, model, and analyze how the rapid growth of the Atlanta. The primary objectives for this research effort are: 1) To In the last half of the 20th century, Atlanta, investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta Georgia has risen as the premier commercial, urban growth, land cover change, and the development industrial, and transportation urban area of the of the urban heat island phenomenon through time at southeastern United States. The rapid growth of the nested spatial scales from local to regional; 2) To Atlanta area, particularly within the last 25 years, has investigate and model the relationship between Atlanta made Atlanta one of the fastest growing metropolitan urban growth and land cover change on air quality areas in the United States. The population of the through time at nested spatial scales from local to Atlanta metropolitan area increased 27% between 1970 regional; and 3) To model the overall effects of urban and 1980, and 33% between 1980-1990 (Research development on surface energy budget characteristics Atlanta, Inc., 1993). Concomitant with this high rate of across the Atlanta urban landscape through time at population growth, has been an explosive growth in nested spatial scales from local to regional. Our key retail, industrial, commercial, and transportation goal is to derive a better scientific understanding of how services within the Atlanta region. This has resulted in land cover changes associated with urbanization in the tremendous land cover change dynamics within the Atlanta area, principally in transforming

  19. Impact of green roofs on stormwater quality in a South Australian urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Kazemi, F

    2014-02-01

    Green roofs are an increasingly important component of water sensitive urban design systems and can potentially improve the quality of urban runoff. However, there is evidence that they can occasionally act as a source rather than a sink for pollutants. In this study, the water quality of the outflow from both intensive and extensive green roof systems were studied in the city of Adelaide, South Australia over a period of nine months. The aim was to examine the effects of different green roof configurations on stormwater quality and to compare this with runoff from aluminium and asphalt roofs as control surfaces. The contaminant concentrations in runoff from both intensive and extensive green roofs generally decreased during the study period. A comparison between the two types of green roof showed that except for some events for EC, TDS and chloride, the values of the parameters such as pH, turbidity, nitrate, phosphate and potassium in intensive green roof outflows were higher than in the outflows from the extensive green roofs. These concentrations were compared to local, state, national and international water quality guidelines in order to investigate the potential for outflow runoff from green roofs to be reused for potable and non-potable purposes. The study found that green roof outflow can provide an alternative water source for non-potable purposes such as urban landscape irrigation and toilet flushing. © 2013.

  20. Air pollution and decreased semen quality: A comparative study of Chongqing urban and rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Niya; Cui, Zhihong; Yang, Sanming; Han, Xue; Chen, Gangcai; Zhou, Ziyuan; Zhai, Chongzhi; Ma, Mingfu; Li, Lianbing; Cai, Min; Li, Yafei; Ao, Lin; Shu, Weiqun; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association and effects of air pollution level on male semen quality in urban and rural areas, this study examines the outdoor concentrations of particulate matter (PM 10 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrous dioxide (NO 2 ) and semen quality outcomes for 1346 volunteers in both urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. We found the urban area has a higher pollution level than the rural area, contrasted with better semen quality in the rural residents, especially for sperm morphology and computer assistant semen analysis (CASA) motility parameters. A multivariate linear regression analysis demonstrates that concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 significantly and negatively are associated with normal sperm morphology percentage (P  10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 in urban ambient air may account for worse semen quality in urban males. - Highlights: • We investigate the distributions of PM 10 , SO 2 and NO 2 in urban and rural areas in Chongqing, China. • We explore the associations of air pollution and male semen quality. • The concentrations of PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 are significantly higher in urban areas. • Median values of some semen quality parameters in rural male were higher than urban male. • PM 10 , SO 2 , and NO 2 were negatively associated with semen quality parameters. - Air pollution is higher in the urban area while there is better semen quality in rural males. Polluted air may thus account for worse semen quality in urban males

  1. [Ecological hygienic assessment of soils quality in urban areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodyanova, M A; Kriatov, I A; Donerian, L G; Evseeva, I S; Ushakov, D I; Sbitnev, A V

    Assessment of the soil quality is ofprime importance essential for the characterization of the ecological and hygienic condition of the territory, as the soil is the first link of the food chain, the source of secondary air and water pollution, as well as an integral index of ecological well-being of the environment. Herewith the qualitative analysis of soil complicated by the specifics of the soil genesis in the urban environment, in which an important role is played by manmade land bulk and alluvial soils; the inclusion of construction of material debris and household garbage in upper horizons; the growing up of the profile due to the perpetual introduction of different materials and intensive aeolian deposition. It is advisable to consider the currently neglected question of the study of soil vapor containing volatile chemicals. These pollutants penetrate into the building through cracks in the foundation and openings for utilities. Soil evaporation may accumulate in residential areas or in the soil under the building. Because of this, it is necessary to pay attention to the remediation of areas allocated for the built-up area, possessing a large-scale underground parking. Soil contamination is the result of significant anthropogenic impacts on the environment components. In general, about 89.1 million people (62.6% of the population of the country) live in terms of complex chemical load, determined by contamination offood, drinking water, air and soil. The list of microbiological and sanitary-chemical indices of the assessment of soils of urban areas may vary in dependence on the data obtained in pilot studies due to changes and additions to the assigned tasks. Timely forecast for the possibility of the usage of released lands of urban territories for the construction and the creation of new objects for different purposes should become the prevention of chronic non-infectious diseases in the population residing in urban areas.

  2. Quality and sensitivity of high-resolution numerical simulation of urban heat islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dan; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2014-05-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of the urban heat island (UHI) effect with the widely-used Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are assessed. Both the sensitivity of the results to the simulation setup, and the quality of the simulated fields as representations of the real world, are investigated. Results indicate that the WRF-simulated surface temperatures are more sensitive to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme choice during nighttime, and more sensitive to the surface thermal roughness length parameterization during daytime. The urban surface temperatures simulated by WRF are also highly sensitive to the urban canopy model (UCM) used. The implementation in this study of an improved UCM (the Princeton UCM or PUCM) that allows the simulation of heterogeneous urban facets and of key hydrological processes, together with the so-called CZ09 parameterization for the thermal roughness length, significantly reduce the bias (Changing UCMs and PBL schemes does not alter the performance of WRF in reproducing bulk boundary layer temperature profiles significantly. The results illustrate the wide range of urban environmental conditions that various configurations of WRF can produce, and the significant biases that should be assessed before inferences are made based on WRF outputs. The optimal set-up of WRF-PUCM developed in this paper also paves the way for a confident exploration of the city-scale impacts of UHI mitigation strategies in the companion paper (Li et al 2014).

  3. Power theories for improved power quality

    CERN Document Server

    Pasko, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Power quality describes a set of parameters of electric power and the load’s ability to function properly under specific conditions. It is estimated that problems relating to power quality costs the European industry hundreds of billions of Euros annually. In contrast, financing for the prevention of these problems amount to fragments of these costs. Power Theories for Improved Power Quality addresses this imbalance by presenting and assessing a range of methods and problems related to improving the quality of electric power supply. Focusing particularly on active compensators and the DSP based control algorithms, Power Theories for Improved Power Quality introduces the fundamental problems of electrical power. This introduction is followed by chapters which discuss: •‘Power theories’ including their historical development and application to practical problems, •operational principles of active compensator’s DSP control based algorithms using examples and results from laboratory research, and •t...

  4. Research on construction quality and improvement of assembly construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fei

    2017-11-01

    Based on the acceleration of the urbanization process and the improvement of the quality of life of our residents, the demand for building construction has been increasing. In this context, the construction industry in order to promote the construction efficiency, quality improvement, to meet the needs of the development of the times to strengthen the new technology, the use of new technologies. At present, China’s engineering construction units in the process of carrying out the project to strengthen the use of assembly-type construction technology, which thus achieved for the traditional construction work low-level, high time-consuming issues, and promote the steady improvement of production efficiency. Based on this, this paper focuses on the analysis of the connotation of the assembly structure and analyzes the quality problems in the construction process of the construction projects and puts forward the improvement measures to promote the improvement of the building quality and the construction of the building Construction speed. Based on this, this paper analyzes the structural system and design of prefabricated building.

  5. Reaching Rural Mammographers for Quality Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urban, Nicole

    1997-01-01

    The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the University of Washington, and the Washington State Department of Health are collaborating to develop and implement a mammography quality improvement program (MQIP...

  6. Reaching Rural Mammographers for Quality Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urban, Nicole

    1998-01-01

    The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the University of Washington, and the Washington State Department of Health are collaborating to develop and implement a mammography quality improvement. program (MQIP...

  7. Reaching Rural Mammographers for Quality Improvement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urban, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, the University of Washington, and the Washington State Department of Health are collaborating to develop and implement a mammography quality improvement program (MQIP...

  8. Quality Improvement Initiatives in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Sameer K; Siegel, Corey A; Melmed, Gil Y

    2017-08-01

    This article serves as an overview of several quality improvement initiatives in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is associated with significant variation in care, suggesting poor quality of care. There have been several efforts to improve the quality of care for patients with IBD. Quality improvement (QI) initiatives in IBD are intended to be patient-centric, improve outcomes for individuals and populations, and reduce costs-all consistent with "the triple aim" put forth by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). Current QI initiatives include the development of quality measure sets to standardize processes and outcomes, learning health systems to foster collaborative improvement, and patient-centered medical homes specific to patients with IBD in shared risk models of care. Some of these programs have demonstrated early success in improving patient outcomes, reducing costs, improving patient satisfaction, and facilitating patient engagement. However, further studies are needed to evaluate and compare the effects of these programs over time on clinical outcomes in order to demonstrate long-term value and sustainability.

  9. Formalising medical quality indicators to improve guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Gendt, Marjolein; Ten Teije, Annette; Serban, Radu; Van Harmelen, Frank

    2005-01-01

    Medical guidelines can significantly improve quality of medical care and reduce costs. But how do we get sound and well-structured guidelines? This paper investigates the use of quality indicators that are formulated by medical institutions to evaluate medical care. The main research questions are

  10. GREEN ROOFS AND GREEN WALLS AS INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS TO IMPROVE THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH OF URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilona Małuszyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas are exposed on those originating in various sources, emissions of pollutants that pose a threat to the health of living organisms. The type of pollutant and its toxicity to organisms and mold exposure as well as the frequency of their occurrence in the environment can have a negative impact on living organisms occurring in the area. Another element negatively affecting the environmental health is a rush of individuals and communities to prosperity, which, combined with a weak nervous resistance to stressful situations contributes to the reduction of resistance to disease becoming the scourge of society as bulimia, diabetes and cancer. The tendency to increase building occurring in urban areas and the increasing number of urban dwellers in Europe as well as increasing awareness of the population about the need to protect environmental health, points to the need to seek alternative and innovative solutions for urban greenery. Investments included in that group, the green roofs and green walls, the implementation of which will increase the biologically active surface in the cities, may be an essential element of urban infrastructure that contributes to improving the quality of life of communities living in the city.

  11. Urban drinking water quality: A survey of selected literature. Issues in urban sustainability No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pip, E

    1993-01-01

    This literature survey covers a variety of issues relating to the quality of the urban water supply. It begins with a brief historical overview, and goes on to look at the health and politics of water, including issues of contamination. Next, it discusses water quantity including the main uses to which we put our water supply, and means of regulating or charging for usage. The main part of the report deals with water quality, describing how drinking water is assessed in terms of physical, chemical and biological parameters which are deemed to be important because of health or aesthetic reasons. Municipal water treatment and distribution discusses storage and disinfection, followed by a discussion of other treatments such as fluoridation and aeration. Incidental effects of distribution looks at a variety of other related issues such as asbestos fibres or metals in water.

  12. Urban nonpoint source pollution buildup and washoff models for simulating storm runoff quality in the Los Angeles County

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Long; Wei Jiahua; Huang Yuefei; Wang Guangqian; Maqsood, Imran

    2011-01-01

    Many urban nonpoint source pollution models utilize pollutant buildup and washoff functions to simulate storm runoff quality of urban catchments. In this paper, two urban pollutant washoff load models are derived using pollutant buildup and washoff functions. The first model assumes that there is no residual pollutant after a storm event while the second one assumes that there is always residual pollutant after each storm event. The developed models are calibrated and verified with observed data from an urban catchment in the Los Angeles County. The application results show that the developed model with consideration of residual pollutant is more capable of simulating nonpoint source pollution from urban storm runoff than that without consideration of residual pollutant. For the study area, residual pollutant should be considered in pollutant buildup and washoff functions for simulating urban nonpoint source pollution when the total runoff volume is less than 30 mm. - Highlights: → An improved urban NPS model was developed. → It performs well in areas where storm events have great temporal variation. → Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined. - An improved urban NPS model was developed. Threshold of total runoff volume for ignoring residual pollutant was determined.

  13. Characterisation of current and future GNSS performance in urban canyons using a high quality 3-D urban model of Melbourne, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gang-jun, Liu; Kefei, Zhang; Falin, Wu; Liam, Densley; Retscher, Günther

    2009-03-01

    Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is a critical space-borne geospatial infrastructure providing essential positioning supports to a range of location-sensitive applications. GNSS is currently dominated by the US Global Positioning System (GPS) constellation. The next generation GNSS is expected to offer more satellites, better positioning provision, and improved availability and continuity of navigation support. However, GNSS performance in 3-D urban environments is problematic because GNSS signals are either completely blocked or severely degraded by high-rising geographic features like buildings. The aim of this study is to gain an in-depth understanding of the changing spatial patterns of GNSS performance, measured by the number of visible satellites (NVS) and position dilution-of-precision (PDOP), in the urban canyons of Melbourne, Australia. The methodology used includes the following steps: (1) determination of the dynamic orbital positions of current and future GNSS satellites; (2) development of a 3-D urban model of high geometric quality for Melbourne Central Business District (CBD); (3) evaluation of GNSS performance for every specified location in the urban canyons; and (4) visualisation and characterisation of the dynamic spatial patterns of GNSS performances in the urban canyons. As expected, the study shows that the integration of the GPS and Galileo constellations results in higher availability and stronger geometry, leading to significant improvement of GNSS performance in urban canyons of Melbourne CBD. Some conclusions are drawn and further research currently undertaken is also outlined.

  14. Urban Water and Riverine Quality: Participatory Science in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgitt, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore is a highly urbanised environment experiencing tropical monsoon hydrological regimes. A heavily engineered fluvial system has been developed over time to provide efficient drainage and reduce the area subject to flood risk. However, recent interest in ecosystem-based approaches to river management and the enhancement of the aesthetic and ecological 'quality' of riverine landscape, coupled with concerns about climate change, has challenged the prevailing engineering view. This is reflected in the Public Utility Board (PUB) ABC Waters Programme, which also seeks to develop community interest in riverine environments and engagement with water-related concerns. As part of a programme developing participatory GIS (PGIS) with school and university students, we have undertaken applications involving participant observation, reporting and analysis of water quality data and habitat quality based on a simplified version of the UK Environment Agency's River Habitat Survey. From an educational perspective, there is evidence that these PGIS initiatives raise environmental awareness and enhance geospatial thinking, particularly in relation to catchment management concepts. The extent to which participant-derived data can contribute to a citizen science of urban water quality and hence deliver some aspects of the community engagement sought after by the authorities, is a topic of debate.

  15. Improving embryo quality in assisted reproduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mantikou, E.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to improve embryo quality in assisted reproductive technologies by gaining more insight into human preimplantation embryo development and by improving in vitro culture conditions. To do so, we investigated an intriguing feature of the human preimplantation embryo, i.e.

  16. Nature-Based Strategies for Improving Urban Health and Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; South, Eugenia C; Branas, Charles C

    2015-10-01

    Place-based programs are being noticed as key opportunities to prevent disease and promote public health and safety for populations at-large. As one key type of place-based intervention, nature-based and green space strategies can play an especially large role in improving health and safety for dwellers in urban environments such as US legacy cities that lack nature and greenery. In this paper, we describe the current understanding of place-based influences on public health and safety. We focus on nonchemical environmental factors, many of which are related to urban abandonment and blight. We then review findings from studies of nature-based interventions regarding impacts on health, perceptions of safety, and crime. Based on our findings, we suggest that further research in this area will require (1) refined measures of green space, nature, and health and safety for cities, (2) interdisciplinary science and cross-sector policy collaboration, (3) observational studies as well as randomized controlled experiments and natural experiments using appropriate spatial counterfactuals and mixed methods, and (4) return-on-investment calculations of potential economic, social, and health costs and benefits of urban greening initiatives.

  17. Stormwater harvesting: Improving water security in South Africa's urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Fisher-Jeffes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The drought experienced in South Africa in 2016 one of the worst in decades has left many urbanised parts of the country with limited access to water, and food production has been affected. If a future water crisis is to be averted, the country needs to conserve current water supplies, reduce its reliance on conventional surface water schemes, and seek alternative sources of water supply. Within urban areas, municipalities must find ways to adapt to, and mitigate the threats from, water insecurity resulting from, inter alia, droughts, climate change and increasing water demand driven by population growth and rising standards of living. Stormwater harvesting (SWH is one possible alternative water resource that could supplement traditional urban water supplies, as well as simultaneously offer a range of social and environmental benefits. We set out three position statements relating to how SWH can: improve water security and increase resilience to climate change in urban areas; prevent frequent flooding; and provide additional benefits to society. We also identify priority research areas for the future in order to target and support the appropriate uptake of SWH in South Africa, including testing the viability of SWH through the use of real-time control and managed aquifer recharge.

  18. Assessing the Future Vehicle Fleet Electrification: The Impacts on Regional and Urban Air Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Wenwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-17

    There have been significant advancements in electric vehicles (EVs) in recent years. However, the different changing patterns in emissions at upstream and on-road stages and complex atmospheric chemistry of pollutants lead to uncertainty in the air quality benefits from fleet electrification. This study considers the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region in China to investigate whether EVs can improve future air quality. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model enhanced by the two-dimensional volatility basis set module is applied to simulate the temporally, spatially, and chemically resolved changes in PM 2.5 concentrations and the changes of other pollutants from fleet electrification. A probable scenario (Scenario EV1) with 20% of private light-duty passenger vehicles and 80% of commercial passenger vehicles (e.g., taxis and buses) electrified can reduce average PM 2.5 concentrations by 0.4 to 1.1 μg m -3 during four representative months for all urban areas of YRD in 2030. The seasonal distinctions of the air quality impacts with respect to concentration reductions in key aerosol components are also identified. For example, the PM 2.5 reduction in January is mainly attributed to the nitrate reduction, whereas the secondary organic aerosol reduction is another essential contributor in August. EVs can also effectively assist in mitigating NO 2 concentrations, which would gain greater reductions for traffic-dense urban areas (e.g., Shanghai). This paper reveals that the fleet electrification in the YRD region could generally play a positive role in improving regional and urban air quality.

  19. Quality measurement and improvement in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Amit K; Talwalkar, Jayant

    2018-06-01

    There is growing interest in the quality of health care delivery in liver transplantation. Multiple stakeholders, including patients, transplant providers and their hospitals, payers, and regulatory bodies have an interest in measuring and monitoring quality in the liver transplant process, and understanding differences in quality across centres. This article aims to provide an overview of quality measurement and regulatory issues in liver transplantation performed within the United States. We review how broader definitions of health care quality should be applied to liver transplant care models. We outline the status quo including the current regulatory agencies, public reporting mechanisms, and requirements around quality assurance and performance improvement (QAPI) activities. Additionally, we further discuss unintended consequences and opportunities for growth in quality measurement. Quality measurement and the integration of quality improvement strategies into liver transplant programmes hold significant promise, but multiple challenges to successful implementation must be addressed to optimise value. Copyright © 2018 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluating Quality of Life in Urban Areas (Case Study: Noorabad City, Iran)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani, Mohammad Reza; Mansourian, Hossain; Sattari, Mohammad Hossain

    2013-01-01

    Quality of urban life (QOUL) has become an important field within urban studies. The increased level of attention to this topic is due to the increasing importance of QoL studies in monitoring public policies and in the role they can play as effective tools in urban management and planning. The main objective of this study is to measure the QOUL…

  1. Assessment and improvement of urban streets maintenance: Case study Kragujevac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jokanović Igor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available City of Kragujevac struggles with providing road maintenance services due to limited funds and low capacity within the existing Public Utility Companies. As a solution to problems with traditional methods of contracting, many road authorities have moved to contracting road maintenance works to the private sector based on performance measures. The paper presents the outcomes of the study conducted for the purpose of improving current practice and condition of urban network within the City of Kragujevac through the application of performance-based maintenance contracting.

  2. Pioneering a Nursing Home Quality Improvement Learning Collaborative: A Case Study of Method and Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Suzanne M; Olsan, Tobie; Liebel, Dianne; Cai, Xueya; Stewart, Reginald; Katz, Paul R; Karuza, Jurgis

    2016-02-01

    To describe the development of a nursing home (NH) quality improvement learning collaborative (QILC) that provides Lean Six Sigma (LSS) training and infrastructure support for quality assurance performance improvement change efforts. Case report. Twenty-seven NHs located in the Greater Rochester, NY area. The learning collaborative approach in which interprofessional teams from different NHs work together to improve common clinical and organizational processes by sharing experiences and evidence-based practices to achieve measurable changes in resident outcomes and system efficiencies. NH participation, curriculum design, LSS projects. Over 6 years, 27 NHs from urban and rural settings joined the QILC as organizational members and sponsored 47 interprofessional teams to learn LSS techniques and tools, and to implement quality improvement projects. NHs, in both urban and rural settings, can benefit from participation in QILCs and are able to learn and apply LSS tools in their team-based quality improvement efforts. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Rural and Urban Differences in Air Quality, 2008-2012, and Community Drinking Water Quality, 2010-2015 - United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosnider, Heather; Kennedy, Caitlin; Monti, Michele; Yip, Fuyuen

    2017-06-23

    concentration for a community water system (CWS) to the maximum contaminant level (MCL) defined by EPA for 10 contaminants: arsenic, atrazine, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), haloacetic acids (HAA5), nitrate, perchloroethene (PCE), radium, trichloroethene (TCE), total trihalomethanes (TTHM), and uranium. Findings are presented by urban-rural classification scheme: four metropolitan (large central metropolitan, large fringe metropolitan, medium metropolitan, and small metropolitan) and two nonmetropolitan (micropolitan and noncore) categories. Regression modeling was used to determine whether differences in the measures by urban-rural categories were statistically significant. Patterns for all three air-quality measures suggest that air quality improves as areas become more rural (or less urban). The mean total number of ozone days decreased from 47.54 days in large central metropolitan counties to 3.81 days in noncore counties, whereas the mean total number of PM 2.5 days decreased from 11.21 in large central metropolitan counties to 0.95 in noncore counties. The mean average annual PM 2.5 concentration decreased from 11.15 μg/m 3 in large central metropolitan counties to 8.87 μg/m 3 in noncore counties. Patterns for the water-quality measure suggest that water quality improves as areas become more urban (or less rural). Overall, 7% of CWSs reported at least one annual mean concentration greater than the MCL for all 10 contaminants combined. The percentage increased from 5.4% in large central metropolitan counties to 10% in noncore counties, a difference that was significant, adjusting for U.S. region, CWS size, water source, and potential spatial correlation. Similar results were found for two disinfection by-products, HAA5 and TTHM. Arsenic was the only other contaminant with a significant result. Medium metropolitan counties had 3.1% of CWSs reporting at least one annual mean greater than the MCL, compared with 2.4% in large central counties. Noncore (rural) counties

  4. Improving patient safety through quality assurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Stephen S

    2006-05-01

    Anatomic pathology laboratories use several quality assurance tools to detect errors and to improve patient safety. To review some of the anatomic pathology laboratory patient safety quality assurance practices. Different standards and measures in anatomic pathology quality assurance and patient safety were reviewed. Frequency of anatomic pathology laboratory error, variability in the use of specific quality assurance practices, and use of data for error reduction initiatives. Anatomic pathology error frequencies vary according to the detection method used. Based on secondary review, a College of American Pathologists Q-Probes study showed that the mean laboratory error frequency was 6.7%. A College of American Pathologists Q-Tracks study measuring frozen section discrepancy found that laboratories improved the longer they monitored and shared data. There is a lack of standardization across laboratories even for governmentally mandated quality assurance practices, such as cytologic-histologic correlation. The National Institutes of Health funded a consortium of laboratories to benchmark laboratory error frequencies, perform root cause analysis, and design error reduction initiatives, using quality assurance data. Based on the cytologic-histologic correlation process, these laboratories found an aggregate nongynecologic error frequency of 10.8%. Based on gynecologic error data, the laboratory at my institution used Toyota production system processes to lower gynecologic error frequencies and to improve Papanicolaou test metrics. Laboratory quality assurance practices have been used to track error rates, and laboratories are starting to use these data for error reduction initiatives.

  5. Improving PSA quality of KSNP PSA model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Joon Eon; Ha, Jae Joo

    2004-01-01

    In the RIR (Risk-informed Regulation), PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) plays a major role because it provides overall risk insights for the regulatory body and utility. Therefore, the scope, the level of details and the technical adequacy of PSA, i.e. the quality of PSA is to be ensured for the successful RIR. To improve the quality of Korean PSA, we evaluate the quality of the KSNP (Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant) internal full-power PSA model based on the 'ASME PRA Standard' and the 'NEI PRA Peer Review Process Guidance.' As a working group, PSA experts of the regulatory body and industry also participated in the evaluation process. It is finally judged that the overall quality of the KSNP PSA is between the ASME Standard Capability Category I and II. We also derive some items to be improved for upgrading the quality of the PSA up to the ASME Standard Capability Category II. In this paper, we show the result of quality evaluation, and the activities to improve the quality of the KSNP PSA model

  6. [QUIPS: quality improvement in postoperative pain management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Winfried

    2011-01-01

    Despite the availability of high-quality guidelines and advanced pain management techniques acute postoperative pain management is still far from being satisfactory. The QUIPS (Quality Improvement in Postoperative Pain Management) project aims to improve treatment quality by means of standardised data acquisition, analysis of quality and process indicators, and feedback and benchmarking. During a pilot phase funded by the German Ministry of Health (BMG), a total of 12,389 data sets were collected from six participating hospitals. Outcome improved in four of the six hospitals. Process indicators, such as routine pain documentation, were only poorly correlated with outcomes. To date, more than 130 German hospitals use QUIPS as a routine quality management tool. An EC-funded parallel project disseminates the concept internationally. QUIPS demonstrates that patient-reported outcomes in postoperative pain management can be benchmarked in routine clinical practice. Quality improvement initiatives should use outcome instead of structural and process parameters. The concept is transferable to other fields of medicine. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  7. Laboratory quality improvement in Thailand's northernmost provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitvittaya, S; Suksai, U; Suksripanich, O; Pobkeeree, V

    2010-01-01

    In Thailand nearly 1000 public health laboratories serve 65 million people. A qualified indicator of a good quality laboratory is Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. Consequently, Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center established a development program for laboratory certification for 29 laboratories in the province. This paper seeks to examine this issue. The goal was to improve laboratory service quality by voluntary participation, peer review, training and compliance with standards. The program consisted of specific activities. Training and workshops to update laboratory staffs' quality management knowledge were organized. Staff in each laboratory performed a self-assessment using a standard check-list to evaluate ten laboratory management areas. Chiang Rai Regional Medical Sciences Center staff supported the distribution of quality materials and documents. They provided calibration services for laboratory equipment. Peer groups performed an internal audit and successful laboratories received Thailand Medical Technology Council certification. By December 2007, eight of the 29 laboratories had improved quality sufficiently to be certified. Factors that influenced laboratories' readiness for quality improvement included the number of staff, their knowledge, budget and staff commitment to the process. Moreover, the support of each hospital's laboratory working group or network was essential for success. There was no clear policy for supporting the program. Laboratories voluntarily conducted quality management using existing resources. A bottom-up approach to this kind of project can be difficult to accomplish. Laboratory professionals can work together to illustrate and highlight outcomes for top-level health officials. A top-down, practical approach would be much less difficult to implement. Quality certification is a critical step for laboratory staff, which also encourages them to aspire to international quality standards like ISO. The

  8. Electronic health records improve clinical note quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Harry B; Sessums, Laura L; Hoang, Albert; Becher, Dorothy A; Fontelo, Paul; Liu, Fang; Stephens, Mark; Pangaro, Louis N; O'Malley, Patrick G; Baxi, Nancy S; Bunt, Christopher W; Capaldi, Vincent F; Chen, Julie M; Cooper, Barbara A; Djuric, David A; Hodge, Joshua A; Kane, Shawn; Magee, Charles; Makary, Zizette R; Mallory, Renee M; Miller, Thomas; Saperstein, Adam; Servey, Jessica; Gimbel, Ronald W

    2015-01-01

    The clinical note documents the clinician's information collection, problem assessment, clinical management, and its used for administrative purposes. Electronic health records (EHRs) are being implemented in clinical practices throughout the USA yet it is not known whether they improve the quality of clinical notes. The goal in this study was to determine if EHRs improve the quality of outpatient clinical notes. A five and a half year longitudinal retrospective multicenter quantitative study comparing the quality of handwritten and electronic outpatient clinical visit notes for 100 patients with type 2 diabetes at three time points: 6 months prior to the introduction of the EHR (before-EHR), 6 months after the introduction of the EHR (after-EHR), and 5 years after the introduction of the EHR (5-year-EHR). QNOTE, a validated quantitative instrument, was used to assess the quality of outpatient clinical notes. Its scores can range from a low of 0 to a high of 100. Sixteen primary care physicians with active practices used QNOTE to determine the quality of the 300 patient notes. The before-EHR, after-EHR, and 5-year-EHR grand mean scores (SD) were 52.0 (18.4), 61.2 (16.3), and 80.4 (8.9), respectively, and the change in scores for before-EHR to after-EHR and before-EHR to 5-year-EHR were 18% (pquality scores significantly improved over the 5-year time interval. The EHR significantly improved the overall quality of the outpatient clinical note and the quality of all its elements, including the core and non-core elements. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that the EHR significantly improves the quality of clinical notes. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  9. Quality and sensitivity of high-resolution numerical simulation of urban heat islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dan; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution numerical simulations of the urban heat island (UHI) effect with the widely-used Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are assessed. Both the sensitivity of the results to the simulation setup, and the quality of the simulated fields as representations of the real world, are investigated. Results indicate that the WRF-simulated surface temperatures are more sensitive to the planetary boundary layer (PBL) scheme choice during nighttime, and more sensitive to the surface thermal roughness length parameterization during daytime. The urban surface temperatures simulated by WRF are also highly sensitive to the urban canopy model (UCM) used. The implementation in this study of an improved UCM (the Princeton UCM or PUCM) that allows the simulation of heterogeneous urban facets and of key hydrological processes, together with the so-called CZ09 parameterization for the thermal roughness length, significantly reduce the bias (<1.5 °C) in the surface temperature fields as compared to satellite observations during daytime. The boundary layer potential temperature profiles are captured by WRF reasonable well at both urban and rural sites; the biases in these profiles relative to aircraft-mounted senor measurements are on the order of 1.5 °C. Changing UCMs and PBL schemes does not alter the performance of WRF in reproducing bulk boundary layer temperature profiles significantly. The results illustrate the wide range of urban environmental conditions that various configurations of WRF can produce, and the significant biases that should be assessed before inferences are made based on WRF outputs. The optimal set-up of WRF-PUCM developed in this paper also paves the way for a confident exploration of the city-scale impacts of UHI mitigation strategies in the companion paper (Li et al 2014). (letter)

  10. Quality of life in patients with sickle cell disease in Jamaica: rural-urban differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnani, Monika R; Reid, Marvin E; Ali, Susanna B; Lipps, Garth; Williams-Green, Pauline

    2008-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) refers to people's ability to function in the ordinary tasks of living. It moves beyond direct manifestations of illness to the patient's personal morbidity. These assessments are an important aspect of chronic disease management. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a chronic and potentially, quite a debilitating disease. The disease is severe and may result in significant morbidity, as well as a shortened life span. It is the most common genetic disorder seen in Jamaica and impacts on physical, psychological, social and occupational wellbeing. Jamaica is a developing country where support systems that exist for patients with SCD are sparse. Health related QOL has been shown to be poorer in people living in the rural areas as compared with urban populations. Utilization of comprehensive sickle cells disease services has also been shown to be lower for individuals with the disease living in rural areas than for those living in urban areas. As there are rural-urban differences in Jamaica's health services, it is hypothesized that there may be rural-urban differences in the experiences of the disease and the QOL of these patients in these subgroups. The SF 36 v2 (Short Form 36) questionnaire has been validated for use in the Jamaican SCD population. This validated questionnaire was interviewer-administered to 166 patients presenting to an urban clinic for routine health maintenance visits and to 90 patients presenting to the rural clinics for routine visits. Socio-demographic information was also collected on these two groups. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to study predictors of QOL in these two sub-populations. The study received ethical approval from the University of the West Indies/University Hospital of the West Indies Ethics Committee. There were no significant differences in the measured socio-demographic characteristics of the rural and urban patients. Living in rural areas compared with urban areas (p <0.001), being

  11. Improving care at cystic fibrosis centers through quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraynack, Nathan C; McBride, John T

    2009-10-01

    Quality improvement (QI) using a clinical microsystems approach provides cystic fibrosis (CF) centers the opportunity to make a significant positive impact on the health of their patients. The availability of center-specific outcomes data and the support of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation are important advantages for these quality improvement efforts. This article illustrates how the clinical microsystems methodology can improve care delivery and outcomes by describing the gradual application of quality improvement principles over the past 5 years by the CF team at the Lewis Walker Cystic Fibrosis Center at Akron Children's Hospital in Akron, Ohio. Using the example of a project to improve the pulmonary function of the pediatric patients at our center as a framework, we describe the QI process from the initial team-building phase, through the assessment of care processes, standardization of care, and developing a culture of continuous improvement. We outline how enthusiastic commitment from physician leadership, clinical managers and central administration, the availability of coaches, and an appreciation of the importance of measurement, patient involvement, communication, and standardization are critical components for successful process improvement. Copyright Thieme Medical Publishers.

  12. Improving Urban Minority Girls' Health Via Community Summer Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohnert, Amy M; Bates, Carolyn R; Heard, Amy M; Burdette, Kimberly A; Ward, Amanda K; Silton, Rebecca L; Dugas, Lara R

    2017-12-01

    Summertime has emerged as a high-risk period for weight gain among low-income minority youth who often experience a lack of resources when not attending school. Structured programming may be an effective means of reducing risk for obesity by improving obesogenic behaviors among these youth. The current multi-method study examined sedentary time, physical activity, and dietary intake among low-income urban minority girls in two contexts: an unstructured summertime setting and in the context of a structured 4-week community-based summer day camp program promoting physical activity. Data were analyzed using paired-sample t tests and repeated-measure analyses of variance with significance at the p time of over 2 h/day and dairy consumption when engaged in structured summer programming. All improvements were independent of weight status and age, and African-American participants evidenced greater changes in physical activity during programming. The study concludes that structured, community-based summertime programming may be associated with fewer obesogenic behaviors in low-income urban youth and may be a powerful tool to address disparities in weight gain and obesity among high-risk samples.

  13. Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quality and rural-urban comparison of tuberculosis care in Rivers State, Nigeria. ... out between May and June 2013, employing the Donabedian model of quality assessment. Data was analysed using the SPSS software package version 20.0.

  14. ISO certification pays off in quality improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeer, F.J.G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that by obtaining and maintaining International Standards Organization (ISO) 9001 certification, a company can improve its quality control system, cut waste, and motivate its employees. In so doing it improves its competitive position in both international and domestic markets. The success of a number of countries (notably Japan) in the world markets has focused the attention of the industrialized countries on improving quality levels and striving for a unified, worldwide quality standard. This has been particularly true in Europe; with several countries competing in a single market, a common quality standard has been a highly desirable goal for decades. One of the first multinational quality standards evolved in the European Community, which is estimated to become a single market with a gross national product of $4.5 trillion by 1992. As a consequence, in 1987 the International Standards Organization created ISO 9000, a single standard to ensure uniform quality in products and services offered with this growing market. U.S. petroleum and natural gas companies must recognize and implement the ISO 9000 standards or possibly lose international markets. If the present worldwide trend towards ISO 9000 continues (and there is no reason to believe that it will not), the standards will be just as important in the domestic market

  15. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M Todd

    2018-04-17

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns.

  16. Assessing the Impact of Urbanization on Direct Runoff Using Improved Composite CN Method in a Large Urban Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunlin; Liu, Miao; Hu, Yuanman; Shi, Tuo; Zong, Min; Walter, M. Todd

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization is one of the most widespread anthropogenic activities, which brings a range of physical and biochemical changes to hydrological system and processes. Increasing direct runoff caused by land use change has become a major challenge for urban ecological security. Reliable prediction of the quantity and rate of surface runoff is an inherently difficult and time-consuming task for large ungauged urban areas. In this study, we combined Geographic Information System and remote sensing technology with an improved Soil Conservation Service curve number model to evaluate the effects of land use change on direct runoff volume of the four-ring area in Shenyang, China, and analyzed trends of direct runoff at different scales. Through analyzing trends of direct runoff from 1984 to 2015 at different scales, we explored how urbanization and other potential factors affect direct runoff changes. Total direct runoff volume increased over time, and trends varied from the inner urban area to suburban area. Zones 1 and 2 had a tendency toward decreasing direct runoff volume and risks, while Zones 3 and 4 showed gradual increases at both regional and pixel scales. The most important influence on direct runoff change was urban surface change caused by urbanization. This study presents a framework for identifying hotspots of runoff increase, which can provide important guidance to urban managers in future green infrastructure planning, in the hopes of improving the security of urban water ecological patterns. PMID:29673182

  17. Improvements in geomagnetic observatory data quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reda, Jan; Fouassier, Danielle; Isac, Anca

    2011-01-01

    between observatories and the establishment of observatory networks has harmonized standards and practices across the world; improving the quality of the data product available to the user. Nonetheless, operating a highquality geomagnetic observatory is non-trivial. This article gives a record...... of the current state of observatory instrumentation and methods, citing some of the general problems in the complex operation of geomagnetic observatories. It further gives an overview of recent improvements of observatory data quality based on presentation during 11th IAGA Assembly at Sopron and INTERMAGNET...

  18. Runoff quality and pollution loadings from a tropical urban catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusop, Z; Tan, L W; Ujang, Z; Mohamed, M; Nasir, K A

    2005-01-01

    Runoff quality draining from 17.14 km2 urban catchment in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, was analysed. The land-use consists of residential (30.3%), agricultural (27.3%), open space (27.9%), industrial (8.1%) and commercial (6.4%) areas. Three storm events were sampled in detail. These storms produced stormflow between 0.84 mm and 27.82 mm, and peakflow from 2.19 m3/s to 42.36 m3/s. Water quality showed marked variation during storms especially for TSS, BOD and COD with maximum concentrations of 778 mg/l, 135 mg/l and 358 mg/l, respectively. Concentrations of TOC, DOC, NH3-N, Fe and level of colour were also high. In general, the river quality is badly polluted and falls in Class V based on the Malaysian Interim National Water Quality Standards. Event Mean Concentrations (EMC) for various parameters varied considerably between storms. The largest storm produced higher EMC for TSS, NO3-N and SS whereas the smaller storms tend to register higher EMC for BOD, COD, NH3-N, TOC, Ca, K, Mg, Fe and Zn. Such variations could be explained in terms of pollutant availability and the effects of flushing and dilution. Based on a three-month average recurrence interval (ARI) of rainfall, the estimated event loadings (ton/ha) of TSS, BOD, COD, TOC, NH3-N and NO3-N were 0.055, 0.016, 0.012, 0.039, 0.010, 0.0007 and 0.0002, respectively. Heavy metals present in trace quantities. Storms with 3 months ARI could capture about 70% of the total annual loads of major pollutants.

  19. Sleep and quality of life in urban poverty: the effect of a slum housing upgrading program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonelli, Guido; Leanza, Yvan; Boilard, Alexandra; Hyland, Martín; Augustinavicius, Jura L; Cardinali, Daniel P; Vallières, Annie; Pérez-Chada, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel E

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of a housing transition on sleep quality and quality of life in slum dwellers, participating in a slum housing upgrading program. Observational before-and-after study with a convergent-parallel mixed method design. Five slums located in the metropolitan area of Buenos Aires, Argentina. A total of 150 slum dwellers benefited by a housing program of the nonprofit organization TECHO (spanish word for "roof"). Participants moved from their very low-quality house to a basic prefabricated 18 m(2) modular house provided by TECHO. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and World Health Organization Quality of Life brief scale (WHOQOL-BREF) were administered before and after housing upgrading. Data about housing conditions, income, education, sleeping conditions, and cardiovascular risk were also collected. Semistructured interviews were used to expand and nuance quantitative data obtained from a poorly educated sample. Results showed that sleep quality significantly increased after the housing program (z = -6.57, P urban settlements could help to define what kind of low-cost intervention may improve sleep quality, quality of life, and reduce existent sleep disparity.

  20. Strategies to improve quality of childbirth care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    farahnaz Changaee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Access to affordable and quality health care is one of the most important ways for reducing maternal and child mortality. The purpose of this study was to provide strategies to promote the quality of care during childbirth in Lorestan province in 2011. Materials and Methods: This research was a mixed method (quantitative, qualitative, study in which quality of 200 care during childbirth in hospitals of Lorestan Province were evaluated. Data gathered through self-made tools (Checklists prepared according to the guidelines of the ministry of health. Descriptive statistics and SPSS software were used to data analysis.In the second part of the study which was qualitative, interview with service providers, hospital officials and high-ranking officials of Lorestan university of medical sciences (decision makers was used to discuss strategies to improve the quality of care. Results: The results showed that the care of the first stage delivery in %54.5, second stage %57 and third stage 66% were in accordance with the desired status and care in this three stages was of moderate quality. Based on the interviews, the officials who are in charge of Lorestan university of medical sciences, proposed strategies such as financial incentives and in-service training of midwives as suitable strategies to improve quality of services. Conclusion: According to the results, strategies such as financial incentives, increased use of private sector services to reduce the workload of the public sector and increase of quality and use of more in-service training, to improve the quality of services, are recommended.

  1. Study of the air quality in the surroundings of an urban park: A micrometeorological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Mariano; Yagüe, Carlos; Arrillaga, Jon A.; Román-Cascón, Carlos; Maqueda, Gregorio; Artíñano, Begoña; Díaz-Ramiro, Elías; Gómez-Moreno, Francisco J.; Barreiro, Marcos; Borge, Rafael; Narros, Adolfo; Pérez, Javier; Quaassdorff, Christina

    2017-04-01

    In this work we study the differences showed by two types of pollutants, particulate matter (PM) and NOx, by comparing ambient concentration measurements within an urban park versus the corresponding values nearby (but outside) it. The results are linked to both proximity to emission sources, such as road traffic, and the microscale atmospheric conditions. The work is motivated by the fact that poor air quality is a crucial issue of current cities. For some of them it is not uncommon to face this problem with occasional traffic restrictions when high concentrations of pollutants are reached. These events occur more frequently with specific large-scale atmospheric conditions, for example when a strong anticyclone is present. As the meteorological conditions may significantly influence the pollutants concentrations, the research project TECNAIRE-CM (Innovative technologies for the assessment and improvement of urban air quality) aims to provide new approaches to obtain proper descriptions of the urban pollution and its dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales, not only the synoptic scale. So far, a few field campaigns have been developed within TECNAIRE-CM at two locations in the city of Madrid, which are considered hot spots according to the air quality network records. Here we use the data from a field campaign carried out during summer 2016, which consider standard pollution and meteorological measurements, as well as sonic anemometer data. The latter help to include atmospheric turbulence as a significant agent for air quality characterization. The instrumentation was deployed at a location with considerable traffic density, but nearby a border of the main urban park of the city, so that its influence might be investigated. Supplementary data considered for this work correspond to permanent instrumentation within the park. With this extra information we can compare both measurements inside and outside the park. Therefore, we study the effect on wind

  2. Water Quality and Environmental Flow Management in Rapidly Urbanizing Shenzhen Estuary Area, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, H.; Su, Q.

    2011-12-01

    Shenzhen estuary is located in a rapidly urbanizing coastal region of Southeast China, and forms the administrative border between mainland China and Hong Kong. It receives the waters of the Shenzhen River, where it enters the Deep Bay. The estuary has great ecological importance with the internationally recognized mangrove wetlands, which provides a habitat for some rare and endangered waterfowl and migratory birds.Water quality in the esturay has deteriorated not only due to increasing wastewater discharges from domestic and industrial sources, but also as a consequence of decreasing base environmental flow during rapid urbanization in the Shenzhen River catchment since 1980s. Measures to improve water quality of the estuary include not only reducing pollutant inputs by intercepting wastewater, but also increasing environmental flow by reusing reclaimed wastewater or withdrawing nearshore seawater into the river. However, salinity alternation due to flow increase is deemed to have impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. In this paper, Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code (EFDC) is used to simulate hydrodynamics, salinity, and water quality condition in the Shenzhen estuary. After calibration and validation, the model is used to evaluate effects of various control measures on water quality improvement and salinity alteration in the estuary. The results indicate that implementing different measures independently does not reach the goals of water quality improvement; furthermore, increasing environmental flow by importing nearshore seawater may greatly increase the salinity in the Shenzhen River, destroy the fresh ecosystem of the river and have non-negligible impacts on the mangrove wetland ecosystem. Based on the effectiveness and impacts of the measures, an integrated measure, which combine pollutant loads reduction and environmental flow increase by reusing reclaimed wastewater, is proposed to achieve water environmental sustainability in the study area.

  3. Incorporating wind availability into land use regression modelling of air quality in mountainous high-density urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yuan; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun; Ng, Edward

    2017-08-01

    Urban air quality serves as an important function of the quality of urban life. Land use regression (LUR) modelling of air quality is essential for conducting health impacts assessment but more challenging in mountainous high-density urban scenario due to the complexities of the urban environment. In this study, a total of 21 LUR models are developed for seven kinds of air pollutants (gaseous air pollutants CO, NO 2 , NO x , O 3 , SO 2 and particulate air pollutants PM 2.5 , PM 10 ) with reference to three different time periods (summertime, wintertime and annual average of 5-year long-term hourly monitoring data from local air quality monitoring network) in Hong Kong. Under the mountainous high-density urban scenario, we improved the traditional LUR modelling method by incorporating wind availability information into LUR modelling based on surface geomorphometrical analysis. As a result, 269 independent variables were examined to develop the LUR models by using the "ADDRESS" independent variable selection method and stepwise multiple linear regression (MLR). Cross validation has been performed for each resultant model. The results show that wind-related variables are included in most of the resultant models as statistically significant independent variables. Compared with the traditional method, a maximum increase of 20% was achieved in the prediction performance of annual averaged NO 2 concentration level by incorporating wind-related variables into LUR model development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Improving Power Quality in AC Supply Grids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Fabijański

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a digital and actual model of the UPQC (Unified Power Quality Conditioner integrated system for power quality improvement. The UPQC’s design and its connection to an AC supply grid, 1-phase and 3-phase alike, provide effective compensation of unwanted interferences in the waveforms of load supply voltages and non-linear load currents. This article presents an overview of topologies and control strategies. The study of the UPQC confirmed its positive impact on the power quality. The electricity parameters were significantly improved. Total harmonic distortion in supply voltage THDu decreased six-fold to 1.89%, and total harmonic distortion in load current THDi decreased more than ten-fold to 2.38% for a non-linear load (uncontrolled bridge rectifier with load L. Additionally, symmetrisation of supply voltages and reactive power compensation Q of linear load was obtained. The UPQC integrated system for power quality improvement can be used wherever high-quality and PN-EN 50160 standard – compliant electricity is required.

  5. Quality of community basic medical service utilization in urban and suburban areas in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Guo

    Full Text Available Urban areas usually display better health care services than rural areas, but data about suburban areas in China are lacking. Hence, this cross-sectional study compared the utilization of community basic medical services in Shanghai urban and suburban areas between 2009 and 2014. These data were used to improve the efficiency of community health service utilization and to provide a reference for solving the main health problems of the residents in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai. Using a two-stage random sampling method, questionnaires were completed by 73 community health service centers that were randomly selected from six districts that were also randomly selected from 17 counties in Shanghai. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and forecast analysis were used to complete a gap analysis of basic health services utilization quality between urban and suburban areas. During the 6-year study period, there was an increasing trend toward greater efficiency of basic medical service provision, benefits of basic medical service provision, effectiveness of common chronic disease management, overall satisfaction of community residents, and two-way referral effects. In addition to the implementation effect of hypertension management and two-way referral, the remaining indicators showed a superior effect in urban areas compared with the suburbs (P<0.001. In addition, among the seven principal components, four principal component scores were better in urban areas than in suburban areas (P = <0.001, 0.004, 0.036, and 0.022. The urban comprehensive score also exceeded that of the suburbs (P<0.001. In summary, over the 6-year period, there was a rapidly increasing trend in basic medical service utilization. Comprehensive satisfaction clearly improved as well. Nevertheless, there was an imbalance in health service utilization between urban and suburban areas. There is a need for the health administrative department to address this

  6. Improving the Quality of Constructive Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggoner Denton, Ashley

    2018-01-01

    This article presents some simple strategies that instructors can use to improve the quality of the feedback students provide each other during a peer review activity. Briefly, I recommend that emphasis be placed solely on the provision of constructive comments, and that in order to qualify as constructive, a comment must: (1) identify a specific…

  7. Improving the Quality of Think-Alouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ness, Molly; Kenny, MaryBeth

    2016-01-01

    An essential element in teaching children to effectively comprehend text is the use of teacher-led think alouds. This article presents a three-step model to improve the quality and quantity of think alouds in K-6 classrooms. The article follows elementary teachers who planned, implemented, transcribed, and reflected upon think aloud lessons to…

  8. Teaching Quality Improvement Through a Book Club

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Doolittle

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Quality Improvement projects are an important part of residency education in the United States and are required for accreditation by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education. Participation in standard chart-based quality improvement had failed to generate excitement among residents in our program. The objective of our innovation was to inspire interest in quality improvement among our residents. Methods: Our residency program instituted a book discussion group. Attendance and participation of attendees was recorded, and residents were sent a follow-up survey one month after the activity to gauge their impressions. Results: Out of 16 residents in the program, 12 attended the discussion group, and all attendees participated in the discussion. The follow-up survey revealed that 10/11 (91% of respondents had read at least part of the book and 11/11 (100% wanted to have another book discussion group in the upcoming year. Conclusion: We believe that the use of a book discussion group can be a novel, inspiring strategy to teach quality improvement in a residency program.

  9. Fostering Quality Improvement in EHDI Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradham, Tamala S.; Hoffman, Jeff; Houston, K. Todd; Guignard, Gayla Hutsell

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that consisted of 12 evaluative areas of EHDI programs. For the quality improvement area, a total of 218 items were listed by 47 EHDI coordinators, and themes were identified in each…

  10. National Quality Improvement Center on Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Charlyn Harper

    2014-01-01

    The national Quality Improvement Center on early Childhood (QIC-eC) funded four research and demonstration projects that tested child maltreatment prevention approaches. The projects were guided by several key perspectives: the importance of increasing protective factors in addition to decreasing risk factors in child maltreatment prevention…

  11. Semen quality improves marginally during young adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perheentupa, Antti; Sadov, Sergey; Rönkä, Riitta

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Does semen quality improve during early adulthood? SUMMARY ANSWER: Semen variables change little during the third decade of life, however some improvement in sperm morphology and motility may occur. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: A suspicion of deteriorating semen quality has been raised...... in several studies. The longitudinal development of semen quality in early adulthood is insufficiently understood. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: A longitudinal follow-up of two cohorts of volunteer young adult Finnish men representing the general population was carried out. Cohorts A (discovery cohort, born...... 1979-1981, n = 336) and B (validation cohort, born 1983, n = 197) were followed up from the age of 19 years onward for 10 years. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Inclusion criteria included that both the men and their mothers were born in Finland. Semen analysis was performed in cohorts...

  12. Improvement of social infrastructure as a way to ensure a comfortable urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Elena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century the mankind to came to understanding that the comfortable living environment is the basis of a high-quality life, which represents the strategic resource of the state. The comfortable environment consists of numerous factors, which include the social infrastructure as well. The author of the article stats with the statement that the project of creation of the comfortable urban environment includes: economical, commercial and budget efficiency of the project, ecological consequences or results of the project impact on the environment, contribution of the project implementable to improvement of the social environment. Developing such approach, the author comes to a wider concept of the life quality. Thus, all three elements of the project of creation of the comfortable urban environment influence the quality of life of the population. According to the research results, presented in the article it becomes obvious that medical-and-demographic characteristics are being improved when the development of housing is followed by the corresponding development of the social infrastructure. Thus, the author makes the conclusion that for the solution of the task of creation of the social infrastructure as the environment for a healthy lifestyle, development of managerial decisions, which are made not on intuition basis but on rational estimation taking into account above-mentioned factors are necessary.

  13. A spatially distributed model for assessment of the effects of changing land use and climate on urban stream quality: Development of a Spatially Distributed Urban Water Quality Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ning [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Yearsley, John [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Baptiste, Marisa [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA; Cao, Qian [Department of Geography, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA USA; Lettenmaier, Dennis P. [Department of Geography, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles CA USA; Nijssen, Bart [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle WA USA

    2016-08-22

    While the effects of land use change in urban areas have been widely examined, the combined effects of climate and land use change on the quality of urban and urbanizing streams have received much less attention. We describe a modeling framework that is applicable to the evaluation of potential changes in urban water quality and associated hydrologic changes in response to ongoing climate and landscape alteration. The grid-based spatially distributed model, DHSVM-WQ, is an outgrowth of the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) that incorporates modules for assessing hydrology and water quality in urbanized watersheds at a high spatial and temporal resolution. DHSVM-WQ simulates surface runoff quality and in-stream processes that control the transport of nonpoint-source (NPS) pollutants into urban streams. We configure DHSVM-WQ for three partially urbanized catchments in the Puget Sound region to evaluate the water quality responses to current conditions and projected changes in climate and/or land use over the next century. Here we focus on total suspended solids (TSS) and total phosphorus (TP) from nonpoint sources (runoff), as well as stream temperature. The projection of future land use is characterized by a combination of densification in existing urban or partially urban areas, and expansion of the urban footprint. The climate change scenarios consist of individual and concurrent changes in temperature and precipitation. Future precipitation is projected to increase in winter and decrease in summer, while future temperature is projected to increase throughout the year. Our results show that urbanization has a much greater effect than climate change on both the magnitude and seasonal variability of streamflow, TSS and TP loads largely due to substantially increased streamflow, and particularly winter flow peaks. Water temperature is more sensitive to climate warming scenarios than to urbanization and precipitation changes. Future urbanization and

  14. Interconnecting Urban Planning with Multi-Scale Urban Quality : Review of Macro Scale Urban Redevelopment Project on Micro Scale Urban Quality in Shenzhen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Shenzhen planning system has been effective in promoting economic growth through the prodigious urbanization of land. It has given priority to the ‘macro-level’ planning goals of economic growth through physical development. Questions can be raised about the physical and social outcomes from the

  15. Evaluating Urban Quality: Indicators and Assessment Tools for Smart Sustainable Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Garau

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of urban sustainability is key to urban planning, and its usefulness extends to smart cities. Analyses of urban quality typically focus on applying methodologies that evaluate quality objectives at environmental, urban, and building levels. Research has shown that a system of indicators can be useful for developing qualitative and quantitative descriptors of urban environments. The first step in this study was to formulate a methodology to measure the quality of urban life based on investigative checklists and objective and subjective indicators, aggregated to develop an index to evaluate a city’s level of smart urban quality. The second step was to apply this methodology to evaluate the city of Cagliari (Italy at the neighbourhood scale, which is considered by literature the most suitable as a self-sufficient spatial unit for showing redevelopment results. In addition to sharing its research findings, this study aims to verify whether the methodology can be applied to similar urban contexts. The main outcomes of this research pertain to opportunities to numerically measure both objective and subjective aspects that affect urban quality. In this way, the most critical areas to be requalified have been highlighted in order to prepare policies congruent with the local context.

  16. Prioritizing quality improvement in general surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Peter L; Dimick, Justin B; Birkmeyer, John D

    2008-11-01

    Despite growing interest in quality improvement, uncertainty remains about which procedures offer the most room for improvement in general surgery. In this context, we sought to describe the relative contribution of different procedures to overall morbidity, mortality, and excess length of stay in general surgery. Using data from the American College of Surgeons' National Surgery Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP), we identified all patients undergoing a general surgery procedure in 2005 and 2006 (n=129,233). Patients were placed in 36 distinct procedure groups based on Current Procedural Terminology codes. We first examined procedure groups according to their relative contribution to overall morbidity and mortality. We then assessed procedure groups according to their contribution to overall excess length of stay. Ten procedure groups alone accounted for 62% of complications and 54% of excess hospital days. Colectomy accounted for the greatest share of adverse events, followed by small intestine resection, inpatient cholecystectomy, and ventral hernia repair. In contrast, several common procedures contributed little to overall morbidity and mortality. For example, outpatient cholecystectomy, breast procedures, thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy, and outpatient inguinal hernia repair together accounted for 34% of procedures, but only 6% of complications (and only 4% of major complications). These same procedures accounted for surgery. Focusing quality improvement efforts on these procedures may be an effective strategy for improving patient care and reducing cost.

  17. Engaging Clinical Nurses in Quality Improvement Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Susan; Stichler, Jaynelle F

    2015-10-01

    Clinical nurses have the knowledge and expertise required to provide efficient and proficient patient care. Time and knowledge deficits can prevent nurses from developing and implementing quality improvement or evidence-based practice projects. This article reviews a process for professional development of clinical nurses that helped them to define, implement, and analyze quality improvement or evidence-based practice projects. The purpose of this project was to educate advanced clinical nurses to manage a change project from inception to completion, using the Six Sigma DMAIC (Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control) Change Acceleration Process as a framework. One-to-one mentoring and didactic in-services advanced the knowledge, appreciation, and practice of advanced practice clinicians who completed multiple change projects. The projects facilitated clinical practice changes, with improved patient outcomes; a unit cultural shift, with appreciation of quality improvement and evidence-based projects; and engagement with colleagues. Project outcomes were displayed in poster presentations at a hospital exposition for knowledge dissemination. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Sound quality indicators for urban places in Paris cross-validated by Milan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricciardi, Paola; Delaitre, Pauline; Lavandier, Catherine; Torchia, Francesca; Aumond, Pierre

    2015-10-01

    A specific smartphone application was developed to collect perceptive and acoustic data in Paris. About 3400 questionnaires were analyzed, regarding the global sound environment characterization, the perceived loudness of some emergent sources and the presence time ratio of sources that do not emerge from the background. Sound pressure level was recorded each second from the mobile phone's microphone during a 10-min period. The aim of this study is to propose indicators of urban sound quality based on linear regressions with perceptive variables. A cross validation of the quality models extracted from Paris data was carried out by conducting the same survey in Milan. The proposed sound quality general model is correlated with the real perceived sound quality (72%). Another model without visual amenity and familiarity is 58% correlated with perceived sound quality. In order to improve the sound quality indicator, a site classification was performed by Kohonen's Artificial Neural Network algorithm, and seven specific class models were developed. These specific models attribute more importance on source events and are slightly closer to the individual data than the global model. In general, the Parisian models underestimate the sound quality of Milan environments assessed by Italian people.

  19. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanglin Fang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS, Spatial Lag Model (SAR, and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variations of China’s urbanization process on air quality. The results show that a significant spatial dependence and heterogeneity existed in AQI values. Regression models revealed urbanization has played an important negative role in determining air quality in Chinese cities. The population, urbanization rate, automobile density, and the proportion of secondary industry were all found to have had a significant influence over air quality. Per capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP and the scale of urban land use, however, failed the significance test at 10% level. The GWR model performed better than global models and the results of GWR modeling show that the relationship between urbanization and air quality was not constant in space. Further, the local parameter estimates suggest significant spatial variation in the impacts of various urbanization factors on air quality.

  20. Optimal redistribution of an urban air quality monitoring network using atmospheric dispersion model and genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yufang; Xie, Shaodong

    2018-03-01

    Air quality monitoring networks play a significant role in identifying the spatiotemporal patterns of air pollution, and they need to be deployed efficiently, with a minimum number of sites. The revision and optimal adjustment of existing monitoring networks is crucial for cities that have undergone rapid urban expansion and experience temporal variations in pollution patterns. The approach based on the Weather Research and Forecasting-California PUFF (WRF-CALPUFF) model and genetic algorithm (GA) was developed to design an optimal monitoring network. The maximization of coverage with minimum overlap and the ability to detect violations of standards were developed as the design objectives for redistributed networks. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm was applied to optimize the network size and site locations simultaneously for Shijiazhuang city, one of the most polluted cities in China. The assessment on the current network identified the insufficient spatial coverage of SO2 and NO2 monitoring for the expanding city. The optimization results showed that significant improvements were achieved in multiple objectives by redistributing the original network. Efficient coverage of the resulting designs improved to 60.99% and 76.06% of the urban area for SO2 and NO2, respectively. The redistributing design for multi-pollutant including 8 sites was also proposed, with the spatial representation covered 52.30% of the urban area and the overlapped areas decreased by 85.87% compared with the original network. The abilities to detect violations of standards were not improved as much as the other two objectives due to the conflicting nature between the multiple objectives. Additionally, the results demonstrated that the algorithm was slightly sensitive to the parameter settings, with the number of generations presented the most significant effect. Overall, our study presents an effective and feasible procedure for air quality network optimization at a city scale.

  1. Improving Urban Accessibility: A Methodology for Urban Dynamics Analysis in Smart, Sustainable and Inclusive Cities

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-delHoyo, Raquel; Garcia-Mayor, Clara; Mora, Higinio; Gilart, Virgilio; Andújar-Montoya, María Dolores

    2016-01-01

    Despite the improvisations of current urban accessibility regulations and their application in urban systems, it is a fact that our cities are not accessible. Both, the assessment of the effectiveness of urban accessibility and its maintenance over time are issues that require a more consistent approach. In order to address these aspects, it is necessary to have an accurate awareness of the existing condition of urban accessibility. Therefore, the way this information is transformed into spec...

  2. Distributed power quality improvement in residential microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderi Zarnaghi, Yahya; Hosseini, Seyed Hossein; Ghassem Zadeh, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    The importance of power quality issue on micro grids and also the changing nature of power system distortions will lead the future power systems to use distributed power quality improvement (DPQI) devices. One possible choice of these DPQIs are multifunctional DGs that could compensate some...... harmonics in the location of generation and prevent the harmonics to enter main power grid. In this paper a control method based on virtual harmonic impedance is presented for these multifunctional DGs and the effect of the location of these DGs on compensation procedure is studied with simulating...

  3. Pediatric CT quality management and improvement program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larson, David B.; Chan, Frandics P.; Newman, Beverley; Fleischmann, Dominik [Stanford University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Molvin, Lior Z. [Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford, CA (United States); Wang, Jia [Stanford University, Environmental Health and Safety, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Modern CT is a powerful yet increasingly complex technology that continues to rapidly evolve; optimal clinical implementation as well as appropriate quality management and improvement in CT are challenging but attainable. This article outlines the organizational structure on which a CT quality management and improvement program can be built, followed by a discussion of common as well as pediatric-specific challenges. Organizational elements of a CT quality management and improvement program include the formulation of clear objectives; definition of the roles and responsibilities of key personnel; implementation of a technologist training, coaching and feedback program; and use of an efficient and accurate monitoring system. Key personnel and roles include a radiologist as the CT director, a qualified CT medical physicist, as well as technologists with specific responsibilities and adequate time dedicated to operation management, CT protocol management and CT technologist education. Common challenges in managing a clinical CT operation are related to the complexity of newly introduced technology, of training and communication and of performance monitoring. Challenges specific to pediatric patients include the importance of including patient size in protocol and dose considerations, a lower tolerance for error in these patients, and a smaller sample size from which to learn and improve. (orig.)

  4. Pediatric CT quality management and improvement program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, David B.; Chan, Frandics P.; Newman, Beverley; Fleischmann, Dominik; Molvin, Lior Z.; Wang, Jia

    2014-01-01

    Modern CT is a powerful yet increasingly complex technology that continues to rapidly evolve; optimal clinical implementation as well as appropriate quality management and improvement in CT are challenging but attainable. This article outlines the organizational structure on which a CT quality management and improvement program can be built, followed by a discussion of common as well as pediatric-specific challenges. Organizational elements of a CT quality management and improvement program include the formulation of clear objectives; definition of the roles and responsibilities of key personnel; implementation of a technologist training, coaching and feedback program; and use of an efficient and accurate monitoring system. Key personnel and roles include a radiologist as the CT director, a qualified CT medical physicist, as well as technologists with specific responsibilities and adequate time dedicated to operation management, CT protocol management and CT technologist education. Common challenges in managing a clinical CT operation are related to the complexity of newly introduced technology, of training and communication and of performance monitoring. Challenges specific to pediatric patients include the importance of including patient size in protocol and dose considerations, a lower tolerance for error in these patients, and a smaller sample size from which to learn and improve. (orig.)

  5. Targeting Environmental Quality to Improve Population Health ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key goals of health care reform are to stimulate innovative approaches to improve healthcare quality and clinical outcomes while holding down costs. To achieve these goals value-based payment places the needs of the patient first and encourages multi-stakeholder cooperation. Yet, the stakeholders are typically all within the healthcare system, e.g. the Accountable Care Organization or Patient-Centered Medical Home, leaving important contributors to the health of the population such as the public health and environmental health systems absent. And rarely is the quality of the environment regarded as a modifiable factor capable of imparting a health benefit. Underscoring this point, a PubMed search of the search terms “environmental quality” with “value-based payment”, “value-based healthcare” or “value-based reimbursement” returned no relevant articles, providing further evidence that the healthcare industry largely disregards the quality of the environment as a significant determinant of wellbeing and an actionable risk factor for clinical disease management and population health intervention. Yet, the quality of the environment is unequivocally related to indicators of population health including all-cause mortality. The EPA’s Environmental Quality Index (EQI) composed of five different domains (air, land use, water, built environment and social) has provided new estimates of the associations between environmental quality and health stat

  6. Creating quality improvement culture in public health agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mary V; Mahanna, Elizabeth; Joly, Brenda; Zelek, Michael; Riley, William; Verma, Pooja; Fisher, Jessica Solomon

    2014-01-01

    We conducted case studies of 10 agencies that participated in early quality improvement efforts. The agencies participated in a project conducted by the National Association of County and City Health Officials (2007-2008). Case study participants included health directors and quality improvement team leaders and members. We implemented multiple qualitative analysis processes, including cross-case analysis and logic modeling. We categorized agencies according to the extent to which they had developed a quality improvement culture. Agencies were conducting informal quality improvement projects (n = 4), conducting formal quality improvement projects (n = 3), or creating a quality improvement culture (n = 4). Agencies conducting formal quality improvement and creating a quality improvement culture had leadership support for quality improvement, participated in national quality improvement initiatives, had a greater number of staff trained in quality improvement and quality improvement teams that met regularly with decision-making authority. Agencies conducting informal quality improvement were likely to report that accreditation is the major driver for quality improvement work. Agencies creating a quality improvement culture were more likely to have a history of evidence-based decision-making and use quality improvement to address emerging issues. Our findings support previous research and add the roles of national public health accreditation and emerging issues as factors in agencies' ability to create and sustain a quality improvement culture.

  7. Creating Quality Improvement Culture in Public Health Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahanna, Elizabeth; Joly, Brenda; Zelek, Michael; Riley, William; Verma, Pooja; Fisher, Jessica Solomon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We conducted case studies of 10 agencies that participated in early quality improvement efforts. Methods. The agencies participated in a project conducted by the National Association of County and City Health Officials (2007–2008). Case study participants included health directors and quality improvement team leaders and members. We implemented multiple qualitative analysis processes, including cross-case analysis and logic modeling. We categorized agencies according to the extent to which they had developed a quality improvement culture. Results. Agencies were conducting informal quality improvement projects (n = 4), conducting formal quality improvement projects (n = 3), or creating a quality improvement culture (n = 4). Agencies conducting formal quality improvement and creating a quality improvement culture had leadership support for quality improvement, participated in national quality improvement initiatives, had a greater number of staff trained in quality improvement and quality improvement teams that met regularly with decision-making authority. Agencies conducting informal quality improvement were likely to report that accreditation is the major driver for quality improvement work. Agencies creating a quality improvement culture were more likely to have a history of evidence-based decision-making and use quality improvement to address emerging issues. Conclusions. Our findings support previous research and add the roles of national public health accreditation and emerging issues as factors in agencies’ ability to create and sustain a quality improvement culture. PMID:24228680

  8. A cluster-randomised quality improvement study to improve two inpatient stroke quality indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Linda; Daggett, Virginia; Slaven, James E; Yu, Zhangsheng; Sager, Danielle; Myers, Jennifer; Plue, Laurie; Woodward-Hagg, Heather; Damush, Teresa M

    2016-04-01

    Quality indicator collection and feedback improves stroke care. We sought to determine whether quality improvement training plus indicator feedback was more effective than indicator feedback alone in improving inpatient stroke indicators. We conducted a cluster-randomised quality improvement trial, randomising hospitals to quality improvement training plus indicator feedback versus indicator feedback alone to improve deep vein thrombosis (DVT) prophylaxis and dysphagia screening. Intervention sites received collaborative-based quality improvement training, external facilitation and indicator feedback. Control sites received only indicator feedback. We compared indicators pre-implementation (pre-I) to active implementation (active-I) and post-implementation (post-I) periods. We constructed mixed-effect logistic models of the two indicators with a random intercept for hospital effect, adjusting for patient, time, intervention and hospital variables. Patients at intervention sites (1147 admissions), had similar race, gender and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores to control sites (1017 admissions). DVT prophylaxis improved more in intervention sites during active-I period (ratio of ORs 4.90, pimproved similarly in both groups during active-I, but control sites improved more in post-I period (ratio of ORs 0.67, p=0.04). In logistic models, the intervention was independently positively associated with DVT performance during active-I period, and negatively associated with dysphagia performance post-I period. Quality improvement training was associated with early DVT improvement, but the effect was not sustained over time and was not seen with dysphagia screening. External quality improvement programmes may quickly boost performance but their effect may vary by indicator and may not sustain over time. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  9. Spatio-temporal dynamics of surface water quality in a Portuguese peri-urban catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    Urban development poses great pressure on water resources, but the impact of different land-uses on streamwater quality in partly urbanized catchments is not well understood. Focussing on a Portuguese peri-urban catchment, this paper explores the impact of a mosaic of different urban and non-urban land-uses on streamwater quality, and the influence of a seasonal Mediterranean climate on pollutant dynamics. The catchment has a 40% urban cover, dispersed amongst patches of woodland (56%) and agricultural fields (4%). Apart from the catchment outlet, streamwater quality was assessed at three sub-catchment sites: (i) Porto Bordalo, encompassing a 39% urban area with a new major road; (ii) Espírito Santo, draining a sub-catchment with 49% urban cover, mostly comprising detached houses surrounded by gardens; and (iii) Quinta, with a 25% urban cover. The Porto Bordalo sub-catchment is underlain by limestone, whereas the Espírito Santo and Quinta sub-catchments overlie sandstone. Water quality variables (notably nutrients, heavy metals and COD) were assessed for samples collected at different stages in the storm hydrograph responses to ten rainfall events occurring between October 2011 and March 2013. Urban areas had great impacts on COD, with highest median concentrations in Espírito Santo (18.0 mg L-1) and lowest in Quinta (9.5 mgL-1). In Espírito Santo, the management of gardens triggered greatest median concentrations of N-NO3 (1.46 mgL-1, purban patterns and storm drainage system, should help enable urban planners to minimize adverse impacts of urbanization on water quality.

  10. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kardel, F.; Wuyts, K.; Babanezhad, M.; Vitharana, U.W.A.; Wuytack, T.; Potters, G.; Samson, R.

    2010-01-01

    This study has evaluated urban habitat quality by studying specific leaf area (SLA) and stomatal characteristics of the common herb Plantago lanceolata L. SLA and stomatal density, pore surface and resistance were measured at 169 locations in the city of Gent (Belgium), distributed over four land use classes, i.e., sub-urban green, urban green, urban and industry. SLA and stomatal density significantly increased from sub-urban green towards more urbanised land use classes, while the reverse was observed for stomatal pore surface. Stomatal resistance increased in the urban and industrial land use class in comparison with the (sub-) urban green, but differences between land use classes were less pronounced. Spatial distribution maps for these leaf characteristics showed a high spatial variation, related to differences in habitat quality within the city. Hence, stomatal density and stomatal pore surface are assumed to be potentially good bio-indicators for urban habitat quality. - Stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata can be used for biomonitoring of urban habitat quality.

  11. Urban heat island and linkage with air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greuillet, C.; Galsomies, L.

    2013-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) effect can be noticed in cities where the temperature is higher than the surrounding countryside, on average 2 deg. C above. In summer during a heat wave, the gap can up to over ten-degree. UHI causes a thermal stress which induces some repercussions on health. The formation of UHI is more and more documented but further studies have to be conducted in order to qualify and quantify the impacts on our health and environment, and the link with atmospheric pollution. Studies have shown air quality deterioration in UHI areas: Both phenomena can be simultaneous because their conditions of appearance are often linked. Henceforth the stake is to manage and if possible reduce UHI to adapt cities to the expected climate change. Dense cities in the future will also have to be naturally cooled down. In order to do so, we will have to act on the most influential UHI formation factors, namely: vegetation and water, buildings (shapes and materials), production and consumption of energy. (authors)

  12. Impact of urbanization level on urban air quality: a case of fine particles (PM(2.5)) in Chinese cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lijian; Zhou, Weiqi; Li, Weifeng; Li, Li

    2014-11-01

    We examined and compared PM2.5 concentrations in urban and the surrounding regions, and further investigated the impact of urbanization on urban PM2.5 concentrations at the Chinese prefectures. Annual PM2.5 concentrations in most prefectures were greater than 10 μg/m(3), the air quality guideline of the World Health Organization. Those prefectures were mainly distributed along the east coast and southeast of Sichuan province; The urban PM2.5 concentrations ( [Formula: see text] ) in 85 cities were greater than (>10 μg/m(3)) those in the surrounding area. Those cities were mainly located in the Beijing-Sichuan and Shanghai-Guangxi belts. In addition, [Formula: see text] was less than (urban population (R(2) = 0.99, P urban second industry fraction (R(2) = 0.71, P urbanization had considerable impact on PM2.5 concentrations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsworth, Kerrie, E-mail: Kerrie.unsworth@uwa.edu.au [UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Adriasola, Elisa; Johnston-Billings, Amber; Dmitrieva, Alina [UWA Business School, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Hodkiewicz, Melinda [School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: > We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. > We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. > Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.

  14. Goal hierarchy: Improving asset data quality by improving motivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, Kerrie; Adriasola, Elisa; Johnston-Billings, Amber; Dmitrieva, Alina; Hodkiewicz, Melinda

    2011-01-01

    Many have recognized the need for high quality data on assets and the problems in obtaining them, particularly when there is a need for human observation and manual recording. Yet very few have looked at the role of the data collectors themselves in the data quality process. This paper argues that there are benefits to more fully understanding the psychological factors that lay behind data collection and we use goal hierarchy theory to understand these factors. Given the myriad of potential reasons for poor-quality data it has previously proven difficult to identify and successfully deploy employee-driven interventions; however, the goal hierarchy approach looks at all of the goals that an individual has in their life and the connections between them. For instance, does collecting data relate to whether or not they get a promotion? Stay safe? Get a new job? and so on. By eliciting these goals and their connections we can identify commonalities across different groups, sites or organizations that can influence the quality of data collection. Thus, rather than assuming what the data collectors want, a goal hierarchy approach determines that empirically. Practically, this supports the development of customized interventions that will be much more effective and sustainable than previous efforts. - Highlights: → We need to consider psychological aspects of data collectors to improve data quality. → We show how goal hierarchy theory furthers understanding. → Looks at the multiple goals of each individual to determine their behavior.

  15. Improving the ignition quality of fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2017-06-08

    Provided herein are compounds and methods of producing compounds for improving ignition quality and combustion efficiency of fuels, for example fossil fuels. In various aspects we generate highly oxygenated compounds from hydrocarbon feedstocks. The feedstock can be a branched alkane or n-alkane having a chain length greater than or equal to 6, a cycloalkane with a 5 or 6 membered ring structure, or a alkylated cycloalkane with 5 or more carbon atoms. The reactant can be fed in the gas- phase to a partial oxidation reactor (with or without a catalyst), and at a fixed temperature, mixture composition, and residence time. The reactant can be converted to a mixture of products including keto hydroperoxides, diketo hydroperoxides, keto dihydroperoxides, hydroperoxyl cyclic ethers, and alkenyl hydroperoxides. The compounds are inherently unstable and can quickly decompose to highly reactive radical species that can be used to improve the ignition quality of a fuel and advance ignition in an engine.

  16. A Model to Improve the Quality Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan GOKKAYA

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this paper is to present a solution who can improve product qualityfollowing the idea: “Unlike people who have verbal skills, machines use "sign language"to communicate what hurts or what has invaded their system’. Recognizing the "signs"or symptoms that the machine conveys is a required skill for those who work withmachines and are responsible for their care and feeding. The acoustic behavior of technical products is predominantly defined in the design stage, although the acoustic characteristics of machine structures can be analyze and give a solution for the actual products and create a new generation of products. The paper describes the steps intechnological process for a product and the solution who will reduce the costs with the non-quality of product and improve the management quality.

  17. Improving the ignition quality of fuels

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani; Wang, Zhandong; Shankar, Vijai Shankar Bhavani

    2017-01-01

    Provided herein are compounds and methods of producing compounds for improving ignition quality and combustion efficiency of fuels, for example fossil fuels. In various aspects we generate highly oxygenated compounds from hydrocarbon feedstocks. The feedstock can be a branched alkane or n-alkane having a chain length greater than or equal to 6, a cycloalkane with a 5 or 6 membered ring structure, or a alkylated cycloalkane with 5 or more carbon atoms. The reactant can be fed in the gas- phase to a partial oxidation reactor (with or without a catalyst), and at a fixed temperature, mixture composition, and residence time. The reactant can be converted to a mixture of products including keto hydroperoxides, diketo hydroperoxides, keto dihydroperoxides, hydroperoxyl cyclic ethers, and alkenyl hydroperoxides. The compounds are inherently unstable and can quickly decompose to highly reactive radical species that can be used to improve the ignition quality of a fuel and advance ignition in an engine.

  18. Modeling Effects of Climate Change on Air Quality and Population Exposure in Urban Planning Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Gidhagen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We employ a nested system of global and regional climate models, linked to regional and urban air quality chemical transport models utilizing detailed inventories of present and future emissions, to study the relative impact of climate change and changing air pollutant emissions on air quality and population exposure in Stockholm, Sweden. We show that climate change only marginally affects air quality over the 20-year period studied. An exposure assessment reveals that the population of Stockholm can expect considerably lower NO2 exposure in the future, mainly due to reduced local NOx emissions. Ozone exposure will decrease only slightly, due to a combination of increased concentrations in the city centre and decreasing concentrations in the suburban areas. The increase in ozone concentration is a consequence of decreased local NOx emissions, which reduces the titration of the long-range transported ozone. Finally, we evaluate the consequences of a planned road transit project on future air quality in Stockholm. The construction of a very large bypass road (including one of the largest motorway road tunnels in Europe will only marginally influence total population exposure, this since the improved air quality in the city centre will be complemented by deteriorated air quality in suburban, residential areas.

  19. Quality Improvement in Athletic Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Sauers, Andrea D; Sauers, Eric L; Valier, Alison R Snyder

    2017-11-01

    Quality improvement (QI) is a health care concept that ensures patients receive high-quality (safe, timely, effective, efficient, equitable, patient-centered) and affordable care. Despite its importance, the application of QI in athletic health care has been limited.   To describe the need for and define QI in health care, to describe how to measure quality in health care, and to present a QI case in athletic training.   As the athletic training profession continues to grow, a widespread engagement in QI efforts is necessary to establish the value of athletic training services for the patients that we serve. A review of the importance of QI in health care, historical perspectives of QI, tools to drive QI efforts, and examples of common QI initiatives is presented to assist clinicians in better understanding the value of QI for advancing athletic health care and the profession. Clinical and Research Advantages:  By engaging clinicians in strategies to measure outcomes and improve their patient care services, QI practice can help athletic trainers provide high-quality and affordable care to patients.

  20. In Brief: Improving Mississippi River water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-10-01

    If water quality in the Mississippi River and the northern Gulf of Mexico is to improve, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) needs to take a stronger leadership role in implementing the federal Clean Water Act, according to a 16 October report from the U.S. National Research Council. The report notes that EPA has failed to use its authority to coordinate and oversee activities along the river. In addition, river states need to be more proactive and cooperative in efforts to monitor and improve water quality, and the river should be monitored and evaluated as a single system, the report indicates. Currently, the 10 states along the river conduct separate and widely varying water quality monitoring programs. ``The limited attention being given to monitoring and managing the Mississippi's water quality does not match the river's significant economic, ecological, and cultural importance,'' said committee chair David A. Dzombak, director of the Steinbrenner Institute for Environmental Education and Research at Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pa. The report notes that while measures taken under the Clean Water Act have successfully reduced much point source pollution, nutrient and sediment loads from nonpoint sources continue to be significant problems. For more information, visit the Web site: http://books.nap.edu/catalog.php?record_id=12051.

  1. Improving quality of service in the internet

    OpenAIRE

    Flückiger, François

    2000-01-01

    The Internet transport technology was designed to be robust, resilient to link or node outages, and with no single point of failure. The resulting connectionless system supports what is called a "best effort datagram delivery service", the perfo rmance of which is often greatly unpredictable. To improve the predictability of IP-based networks, several Quality of Service technologies have been designed over the past decade. The first one, RSVP, based on reservation of resources, is operational...

  2. Air quality and its integration within urban planning: Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elva Alicia Corona–Zambrano

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of world wide urbanization and industrialization, urban air pollution shows a growing trend directly proportional to increasing demands on energy for domestic and industrial activities. From this point of view, cities along with their urban, functional and morphological structure are not being planned with pollution prevention or minimum environmental impacts in mind. This work has two purposes: first, it sets an assessment of air quality in Mexicali by analyzing O3, CO, SO2, NO2 and PM10 emissions in relation to urban structure. And second, the assessment of already implemented urban strategies aimed to minimize environmental impacts. This work also presents a scheme that incorporates air quality issues into town planning and urban management.

  3. Investigating and improving pedestrian safety in an urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Keshia M; Gielen, Andrea C; Mohd Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Mitzner, Molly; Wu, Michael; Links, Jonathan M

    2014-12-01

    Prompted by a series of fatal and nonfatal pedestrian-vehicle collisions, university leadership from one urban institution collaborated with its academic injury research center to investigate traffic-related hazards facing pedestrians. This descriptive epidemiologic study used multiple data collection strategies to determine the burden of pedestrian injury in the target area. Data were collected in 2011 through a review of university crash reports from campus police; a systematic environmental audit and direct observations using a validated instrument and trained raters; and focus groups with faculty, students, and staff. Study findings were synthesized and evidence-informed recommendations were developed and disseminated to university leadership. Crash reports provided some indication of the risks on the streets adjacent to the campus. The environmental audit identified a lack of signage posting the speed limit, faded crosswalks, issues with traffic light and walk sign synchronization, and limited formal pedestrian crossings, which led to jaywalking. Focus groups participants described dangerous locations and times, signal controls and signage, enforcement of traffic laws, use of cell phones and iPods, and awareness of pedestrian safety. Recommendations to improve pedestrian safety were developed in accordance with the three E's of injury prevention (education, enforcement, and engineering), and along with plans for implementation and evaluation, were presented to university leadership. These results underscore the importance of using multiple methods to understand fully the problem, developing pragmatic recommendations that align with the three E's of injury prevention, and collaborating with leadership who have the authority to implement recommended injury countermeasures. These lessons are relevant for the many colleges and universities in urban settings where a majority of travel to offices, classrooms, and surrounding amenities are by foot.

  4. Bioethanol Quality Improvement of Coffee Fruit Leather

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edahwati Luluk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, Indonesia’s dependence on petroleum is to be reduced and even eliminated. To overcome the problem of finding the needed alternative materials that can produce ethanol, in this case as a substitute material or a transport fuel mix, boosting the octane number, and gasoline ethanol (gasohol can be conducted. In the red coffee processing (cooking that will produce 65% and 35% of coffee beans, coffee leather waste is a source of organic material with fairly high cellulose content of 46.82%, 3.01% of pectin and 7.68% of lignin. In this case, its existence is abundant in Indonesia and optimally utilized. During the coffee fruit peeling, the peel waste is only used as a mixture of animal feed or simply left to rot. The purpose of this study was to produce and improve the quality of the fruit skin of bioethanol from coffee cellulose. However, to improve the quality of bioethanol, the production of the lignin content in the skin of the coffee fruit should be eliminated or reduced. Hydrolysis process using organosolve method is expected to improve the quality of bioethanol produced. In particular, the use of enzyme Saccharomyces and Zymmomonas will change the resulting sugar into bioethanol. On one hand, by using batch distillation process for 8 hours with Saccharomyces, bioethanol obtains high purity which is 39.79%; on the other hand, by using the same batch distillation process with Zymmomonas, the bioethanol obtains 38.78%.

  5. [Ecological environmental quality assessment of Hangzhou urban area based on RS and GIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pengwei; Zhao, Duo

    2006-06-01

    In allusion to the shortage of traditional ecological environmental quality assessment, this paper studied the spatial distribution of assessing factors at a mid-small scale, and the conversion of integer character to girding assessing cells. The main assessing factors including natural environmental condition, environmental quality, natural landscape and urbanization pressure, which were classified into four types with about eleven assessing factors, were selected from RS images and GIS-spatial analyzing environmental quality vector graph. Based on GIS, a comprehensive assessment model for the ecological environmental quality in Hangzhou urban area was established. In comparison with observed urban heat island effects, the assessment results were in good agreement with the ecological environmental quality in the urban area of Hangzhou.

  6. A Quality-Oriented Urban Development Pattern? Two Case Studies in Shanghai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This article concentrates on the transformation of development patterns due to economic transitions in Shanghai through two case studies looking at different spatial levels. In the transformation process, the improvement of spatial quality in the existing urban space will play the central role in achieving a balance in the future among the relevant economic, social and environmental aspects. Relatedly, economic growth is no longer seen as the only important goal. Social and environmental issues have gained more and more attention, and are increasingly seen as the basic foundation for sustainable development. Given that such significant changes have occurred within a very short period of time, the author will discuss different critical factors and related symptoms as embodied in urban planning practice. Two case studies regarding the transformation in goal setting and the implementation process will be introduced, with a focus on the issues of accessibility and quality of life. One case relates to the development plan for Hongqiao Business Park, which is one of three focus development areas for Shanghai and is located near the comprehensive Hongqiao Transport Hub. The other case considers an area located to the south of the area of interest in the first case; both areas are well connected with each other. A new development strategy for the development of new towns in knowledge economy clusters has been advanced in the outskirts of Shanghai's city center, and has also influenced such efforts on the regional level, i.e., where the Huangpu River flows through the planning area and connects to other parts of the broader Shanghai region. KEYWORDS: Quality-oriented, urban development pattern, economic transition, Shanghai

  7. Patterns of Quality Of Life among Older Urban Dwellers with Mobility Disability in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Nairan Abdullah

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobility disability affects the quality of life for the older urban population. The objectives of this research paper were to determine the burden of mobility disability and explore influential factors affecting the quality of life of urban community aged 50 and above with mobility disability. Total of 481 participants who were randomly selected from two urban health centres have been interviewed using structured questionnaire in December 2014. The prevalence of mobility disability was 23.1%. All domains quality of life of older urbanites with mobility disability were significantly affected as compared with those without. These factors need to be emphasized in future planning for elderly.

  8. Quality improvement in neurology: AAN Parkinson disease quality measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, E.M.; Tonn, S.; Swain-Eng, R.; Factor, S.A.; Weiner, W.J.; Bever, C.T.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Measuring the quality of health care is a fundamental step toward improving health care and is increasingly used in pay-for-performance initiatives and maintenance of certification requirements. Measure development to date has focused on primary care and common conditions such as diabetes; thus, the number of measures that apply to neurologic care is limited. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) identified the need for neurologists to develop measures of neurologic care and to establish a process to accomplish this. Objective: To adapt and test the feasibility of a process for independent development by the AAN of measures for neurologic conditions for national measurement programs. Methods: A process that has been used nationally for measure development was adapted for use by the AAN. Topics for measure development are chosen based upon national priorities, available evidence base from a systematic literature search, gaps in care, and the potential impact for quality improvement. A panel composed of subject matter and measure development methodology experts oversees the development of the measures. Recommendation statements and their corresponding level of evidence are reviewed and considered for development into draft candidate measures. The candidate measures are refined by the expert panel during a 30-day public comment period and by review by the American Medical Association for Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) II codes. All final AAN measures are approved by the AAN Board of Directors. Results: Parkinson disease (PD) was chosen for measure development. A review of the medical literature identified 258 relevant recommendation statements. A 28-member panel approved 10 quality measures for PD that included full specifications and CPT II codes. Conclusion: The AAN has adapted a measure development process that is suitable for national measurement programs and has demonstrated its capability to independently develop quality measures. GLOSSARY

  9. Urbanization and ambient quality: the prodution process of the brazilian coast space

    OpenAIRE

    Borelli, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    This text discuss about the question of the relations between urbanization and ambient quality in the coastal zone. The increasing degradation of coastal ecosystems is provoked by the disordered urban expansion, in function of the interests of the capital. Real estate speculation, irregular land divisions, predatory tourism, clandestine nestings, demographic growth with significant migratory movement, are elements that exemplifies the urbanization process that comes occurring of disordered fo...

  10. How to Improve the Quality of Screening Endoscopy in Korea: National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yu Kyung

    2016-07-01

    In Korea, gastric cancer screening, either esophagogastroduodenoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series (UGIS), is performed biennially for adults aged 40 years or older. Screening endoscopy has been shown to be associated with localized cancer detection and better than UGIS. However, the diagnostic sensitivity of detecting cancer is not satisfactory. The National Endoscopy Quality Improvement (QI) program was initiated in 2009 to enhance the quality of medical institutions and improve the effectiveness of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP). The Korean Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy developed quality standards through a broad systematic review of other endoscopic quality guidelines and discussions with experts. The standards comprise five domains: qualifications of endoscopists, endoscopic unit facilities and equipment, endoscopic procedure, endoscopy outcomes, and endoscopic reprocessing. After 5 years of the QI program, feedback surveys showed that the perception of QI and endoscopic practice improved substantially in all domains of quality, but the quality standards need to be revised. How to avoid missing cancer in endoscopic procedures in daily practice was reviewed, which can be applied to the mass screening endoscopy. To improve the quality and effectiveness of NCSP, key performance indicators, acceptable quality standards, regular audit, and appropriate reimbursement are necessary.

  11. Impact of urbanization on inflows and water quality of rawal lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.; Afzal, M.

    2016-01-01

    Two phenomena playing important role in affecting water resources all over the world are: urbanization and climate changes. Urban and peri-urban water bodies are very vulnerable to these phenomena in terms of quality and quantity protection. This study was aimed to perceive the impact of ever-increasing urbanization on water quality in the catchment area of Rawal Lake. Rawal Lake supplies water for domestic use to Rawalpindi city and Cantonment area. The water was found biologically unfit for human consumption due to total and faecal coliforms counts higher than WHO limits. Similarly, turbidity and calcium was more than WHO standards. There should be detailed study on climate change parallel to urbanization in the Rawal catchment to quantify its impacts on water quality and inflows. (author)

  12. Uncertainty propagation in urban hydrology water quality modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torres Matallana, Arturo; Leopold, U.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty is often ignored in urban hydrology modelling. Engineering practice typically ignores uncertainties and uncertainty propagation. This can have large impacts, such as the wrong dimensioning of urban drainage systems and the inaccurate estimation of pollution in the environment caused

  13. Growing quality of life: urban trees, birth weight, and crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Kirkland; Geoffrey Donovan

    2011-01-01

    City dwellers can find many reasons to value neighborhood trees. The urban greenery provides relief from the built environment that many find appealing. In fact, a previous study found that a tree in front of a home increased that home's sales price by more than $7,000. Two new studies explore the measurable effects that urban trees and green spaces have a human...

  14. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-09-15

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish.

  15. Increased Mercury Bioaccumulation Follows Water Quality Improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogle, M.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of aquatic habitats made to reduce or eliminate ecological risks can sometimes have unforeseen consequences. Environmental management activities on the U.S. Dept. of Energy reservation in Oak Ridge, Tennessee,have succeeded in improving water quality in streams impacted by discharges fi-om industrial facilities and waste disposal sites. The diversity and abundance of pollution-sensitive components of the benthic macroinvertebrate communities of three streams improved after new waste treatment systems or remedial actions reduced inputs of various toxic chemicals. Two of the streams were known to be mercury-contaminated from historical spills and waste disposal practices. Waterborne mercury concentrations in the third were typical of uncontaminated systems. In each case, concentrations of mercury in fish, or the apparent biological availability of mercury increased over the period during which ecological metrics indicated improved water quality. In the system where waterborne mercury concentrations were at background levels, increased mercury bioaccumulation was probably a result of reduced aqueous selenium concentrations; however, the mechanisms for increased mercury accumulation in the other two streams remain under investigation. In each of the three systems, reduced inputs of metals and inorganic anions was followed by improvements in the health of aquatic invertebrate communities. However, this reduction in risk to aquatic invertebrates was accompanied by increased risk to humans and piscivorous wildlife related to increased mercury concentrations in fish

  16. Towards a peri-urban political ecology of water quality decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpouzoglou, Timothy; Marshall, Fiona; Mehta, Lyla

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expanding body of peri-urban and urban scholarship. However, recent scholarship has yet to adequately address the central role of politics and power shaping water quality decline. The article focuses on the trans-Hindon region which is part of Ghaziabad city, close to

  17. Total quality drives nuclear plant improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richey, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Total quality (TQ) at Carolina Power and Light (CP and L) is fulfilling a 1985 vision of Sherwood H. Smith, Jr., CP and L's chairman, president, and chief executive officer. The TQ concept has provided a way for employees to align their creative energies toward meeting the business needs of the company. Throughout CP and L, TQ has been recognized as the vehicle for reducing operating costs and improving customer satisfaction. Within the nuclear organization, application of the TQ process has helped to improve communications, resolve challenges, and provide more consistent work practices among CP and L's three nuclear plants. Total quality was introduced from the top down, with initial benefits coming from team interactions. Senior management at CP and L defined the corporate expectations and outlined the training requirements for implementing TQ. Management staffs at each organizational level became steering committees for TQ team activities within their departments. Teams of employees most knowledgeable about a given work area were empowered to solve problems or overcome obstacles related to that work area. Employees learned to become better team players and to appreciate the quality of decisions reached through group consensus. Now, formalized methods that started TQ are becoming part of the day-to-day work ethic

  18. 42 CFR 441.474 - Quality assurance and improvement plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality assurance and improvement plan. 441.474... improvement plan. (a) The State must provide a quality assurance and improvement plan that describes the State... pursue opportunities for system improvement. (b) The quality assurance and improvement plan shall also...

  19. Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Cimmuto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW. The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.

    Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on a yearly basis (2005 – 2009 upon request by the management of the selection plant. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC, as well as fungal and Gram-negative concentrations were determined.

    Results: The highest viable fungal particles concentrations (medians were found in waste delivery areas (about 20000 CFU/m3, while the lowest were found in the control rooms (485 – 967 CFU/m3. TMC (median was highest (6116 CFU/m3 at the delivery pit, followed by the machine shop (3147 CFU/m3, where no waste processing takes place. Medians of Gram-negative bacteria are below the suggested Occupational Exposure Limit of 1000 CFU/m3, although this limit was exceeded at several single time-points in the waste delivery areas, and also in a personnel resting room. The lowest Gram-negative contamination was found in the control rooms (medians <1 CFU/m3.

    Conclusions: Some areas within a USW selection plant act as internal sources of contamination towards those areas where partially processed waste, or no waste at all, is present. Well-designed air flows, or carefullythought positioning of areas that are not directly involved in waste processing are necessary and effective in obtaining

  20. Urban infrastructure influences dissolved organic matter quality and bacterial metabolism in an urban stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban streams are degraded by a suite of factors, including burial beneath urban infrastructure (i.e., roads, parking lots) that eliminates light and reduces direct organic matter inputs to streams, with likely consequences for organic matter metabolism by microbes and carbon lim...

  1. Urban rainwater runoff quantity and quality - A potential endogenous resource in cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrill, Sara; Petit-Boix, Anna; Morales-Pinzón, Tito; Josa, Alejandro; Rieradevall, Joan; Gabarrell, Xavier

    2017-03-15

    Rainwater harvesting might help to achieve self-sufficiency, but it must comply with health standards. We studied the runoff quantity and quality harvested from seven urban surfaces in a university campus in Barcelona according to their use (pedestrian or motorized mobility) and materials (concrete, asphalt and slabs). An experimental rainwater harvesting system was used to collect the runoff resulting from a set of rainfall events. We estimated the runoff coefficient and initial abstraction of each surface and analyzed the physicochemical and microbiological properties, and hydrocarbon and metal content of the samples. Rainfall intensity, surface material and state of conservation were essential parameters. Because of low rainfall intensity and surface degradation, the runoff coefficient was variable, with a minimum of 0.41. Concrete had the best quality, whereas weathering and particulate matter deposition led to worse quality in asphalt areas. Physicochemical runoff quality was outstanding when compared to superficial and underground water. Microorganisms were identified in the samples (>1 CFU/100 mL) and treatment is required to meet human consumption standards. Motorized traffic mostly affects the presence of metals such as zinc (31.7 μg/L). In the future, sustainable mobility patterns might result in improved rainwater quality standards. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. URBAN SPRAWL MODELING, AIR QUALITY MONITORING AND RISK COMMUNICATION: THE NORTHEAST OHIO PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Northeast Ohio Urban Sprawl, Air Quality Monitoring, and Communications Project (hereafter called the Northeast Ohio Project) provides local environmental and health information useful to residents, local officials, community planners, and others in a 15 county region in the ...

  3. Urban-rural status affects associations between domains of environmental quality and adverse birth outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between environmental conditions and human health varies by environmental domain and urbanicity. To account for multiple ambient environmental conditions, we constructed an Environmental Quality Index (EQI) for health research. We used U.S. county level data rep...

  4. Improving tomato seed quality- challenges and possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shrestha, Santosh

    The thesis investigates the possibility of using single seed near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, multispectral imaging (MSI) and NIR hyperspectral imaging (NIR-HSI) in combination with chemometrics for rapid determination of the tomato seed quality. The results of the PhD study are compiled in four...... manuscripts (MS). These non-destructive methods show the potential of sorting tomato seeds as per their viability and varietal identity. The results are discussed in the context of possible contribution from these methods in the improvement of the seed quality in Nepal. In MS I, potential application of NIR...... spectroscopy in combination with chemometrics for prediction of tomato seed viability is demonstrated. The work in MS I also emphasises on identifying the important NIR spectral regions for the chemometric model that are relevant to the separation of viable and non-viable seeds. The NIR-HIS method was also...

  5. IMPROVEMENTS IN THE QUALITY OF COURIER DELIVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Karcz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The functioning of courier companies is a vital component of modern trade. E-commerce services are changing the way of shopping. Along with them, also courier services change and become more advance. Customers of courier companies become more aware of quality, which they should expect from supplier of these services. The article presents the result of the research of the effectiveness and the timelines of deliveries realized by one of the terminals of a leading courier operator in Poland. The survey involved 55 courier routes over the course of 10 business days. The author analyses weak points of the supply chain and presents two solutions, which may improve quality of delivery processes.

  6. Improving wind power quality with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard

    2009-01-01

    The results of simulation of the influence of energy storage on wind power quality are presented. Simulations are done using a mathematical model of energy storage. Results show the relation between storage power and energy, and the obtained increase in minimum available power from the combination...... of wind and storage. The introduction of storage enables smoothening of wind power on a timescale proportional to the storage energy. Storage does not provide availability of wind power at all times, but allows for a certain fraction of average power in a given timeframe to be available with high...... probability. The amount of storage capacity necessary for significant wind power quality improvement in a given period is found to be 20 to 40% of the energy produced in that period. The necessary power is found to be 80 to 100% of the average power of the period....

  7. [Influence of green roof application on water quantity and quality in urban region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-Min; Li, Xing-Yang; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Yu, Hui; Hao, You-Zhi; Yang, Wan-Yi

    2014-07-01

    Green roof is widely used in advanced stormwater management as a major measure now. Taking Huxi catchment in Chongqing University as the study area, the relationships between green roof installation with runoff volume and water quality in urban region were investigated. The results showed that roof greening in the urban region contributed to reducing the runoff volume and pollution load. In addition, the spatial distribution and area of green roof also had effects on the runoff water quality. With the conditions that the roof area was 25% of the total watershed area, rainfall duration was 15 min and rainfall intensity was 14.8 mm x h(-1), the peak runoff and total runoff volume were reduced by 5.3% and 31%, the pollution loads of total suspended solid (TSS), total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) decreased by 40.0%, 31.6% and 29.8%, their peak concentrations decreased by 21.0%, 16.0% and -12.2%, and the EMCs (event mean concentrations) were cut down by 13.1%, 0.9% and -1.7%, respectively, when all impervious roofs were greened in the research area. With the increase of roof greening rate, the reduction rates of TSS and TP concentrations increased, while the reduction rate of TN concentration decreased on the whole. Much more improvement could be obtained with the use of green roofs near the outlet of the watershed.

  8. Improving the quality of care for patients with hypertension in Moshupa District, Botswana: Quality improvement cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy Kande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although there are no prevalence studies on hypertension in Botswana, this condition is thought to be common and the quality of care to be poor.Aim: The aim of this project was to assess and improve the quality of primary care forhypertension.Setting: Moshupa clinic and catchment area, Botswana.Methods: Quality improvement cycle.Results: Two hundred participants were included in the audit. Sixty-eight per cent were women with a mean age of 55 years. In the baseline audit none of the target standards were met. During the re-audit six months later, six out of nine structural target standards, five out of 11 process target standards and one out of two outcome target standards were achieved. Statistically-significant improvement in performance (p < 0.05 was shown in 10 criteria although the target standard was not always met. In the re-audit, the target of achieving blood pressure control (< 140/90 in 70% of patients was achieved.Conclusion: The quality of care for hypertension was suboptimal in our setting. Simple interventions were designed and implemented to improve the quality of care. These interventions led to significant improvement in structural and process criteria. A corresponding significant improvement in the control of blood pressure was also seen.

  9. Landscaping practices, land use patterns and stormwater quantity and quality in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing quantity and decreasing quality of urban stormwater threatens biodiversity in local streams and reservoirs, jeopardizes water supplies, and ultimately contributes to estuarine eutrophication. To estimate the effects that present and alternative landscaping practices and land use patterns may have on urban stormwater quantity and quality, simulations of existing land use/land cover using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a process-based surface hydrology and biogeochemistry model, were developed for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program). The influence of land use patterns and landscaping practices on nutrient export in urban watersheds has been explored as part of the BES; this work has focused on improving our understanding of how residential landscaping practices (i.e. lawn fertilization rates) vary across land use and socioeconomic gradients. Elsewhere, others have explored the political ecology of residential landscaping practices - seeking to understand the economic, political, and cultural influences on the practice of high-input residential turf-grass management. Going forward, my research will synthesize and extend this prior work. Rather than pre-supposing predominant residential land use patterns and landscaping practices (i.e. lower-density periphery development incorporating high-input turf landscapes) alternate land use and landscaping scenarios (e.g. higher-density/transit-oriented development, rain gardens, vegetable gardens, native plant/xeriscaping) will be developed through interviews/focus groups with stakeholders (citizens, public officials, developers, non-profits). These scenarios will then be applied to the RHESSys models already developed for catchments in Baltimore and Durham. The modeled scenario results will be used to identify alternate land

  10. Understanding the role of land use in urban stormwater quality management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Thomas, Evan; Ginn, Simon; Gilbert, Dale

    2005-01-01

    Urbanisation significantly impacts water environments with increased runoff and the degradation of water quality. The management of quantity impacts are straight forward, but quality impacts are far more complex. Current approaches to safeguard water quality are largely ineffective and guided by entrenched misconceptions with a primary focus on 'end-of-pipe' solutions. The outcomes of a research study presented in the paper, which investigated relationships between water quality and six different land uses offer practical guidance in the planning of future urban developments. In terms of safeguarding water quality, high-density residential development which results in a relatively smaller footprint would be the preferred option. The research study outcomes bring into question a number of fundamental concepts and misconceptions routinely accepted in stormwater quality management. The research findings confirmed the need to move beyond customary structural measures and identified the key role that urban planning can play in safeguarding urban water environments.

  11. Quality of community basic medical service utilization in urban and suburban areas in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Li, Shujun; Cai, Yuyang; Sun, Wei; Liu, Qiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas usually display better health care services than rural areas, but data about suburban areas in China are lacking. Hence, this cross-sectional study compared the utilization of community basic medical services in Shanghai urban and suburban areas between 2009 and 2014. These data were used to improve the efficiency of community health service utilization and to provide a reference for solving the main health problems of the residents in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai. Using a two-stage random sampling method, questionnaires were completed by 73 community health service centers that were randomly selected from six districts that were also randomly selected from 17 counties in Shanghai. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and forecast analysis were used to complete a gap analysis of basic health services utilization quality between urban and suburban areas. During the 6-year study period, there was an increasing trend toward greater efficiency of basic medical service provision, benefits of basic medical service provision, effectiveness of common chronic disease management, overall satisfaction of community residents, and two-way referral effects. In addition to the implementation effect of hypertension management and two-way referral, the remaining indicators showed a superior effect in urban areas compared with the suburbs (Pservice utilization. Comprehensive satisfaction clearly improved as well. Nevertheless, there was an imbalance in health service utilization between urban and suburban areas. There is a need for the health administrative department to address this imbalance between urban and suburban institutions and to provide the required support to underdeveloped areas to improve resident satisfaction. PMID:29791470

  12. Quality of community basic medical service utilization in urban and suburban areas in Shanghai from 2009 to 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lijun; Bao, Yong; Ma, Jun; Li, Shujun; Cai, Yuyang; Sun, Wei; Liu, Qiaohong

    2018-01-01

    Urban areas usually display better health care services than rural areas, but data about suburban areas in China are lacking. Hence, this cross-sectional study compared the utilization of community basic medical services in Shanghai urban and suburban areas between 2009 and 2014. These data were used to improve the efficiency of community health service utilization and to provide a reference for solving the main health problems of the residents in urban and suburban areas of Shanghai. Using a two-stage random sampling method, questionnaires were completed by 73 community health service centers that were randomly selected from six districts that were also randomly selected from 17 counties in Shanghai. Descriptive statistics, principal component analysis, and forecast analysis were used to complete a gap analysis of basic health services utilization quality between urban and suburban areas. During the 6-year study period, there was an increasing trend toward greater efficiency of basic medical service provision, benefits of basic medical service provision, effectiveness of common chronic disease management, overall satisfaction of community residents, and two-way referral effects. In addition to the implementation effect of hypertension management and two-way referral, the remaining indicators showed a superior effect in urban areas compared with the suburbs (Pservice utilization. Comprehensive satisfaction clearly improved as well. Nevertheless, there was an imbalance in health service utilization between urban and suburban areas. There is a need for the health administrative department to address this imbalance between urban and suburban institutions and to provide the required support to underdeveloped areas to improve resident satisfaction.

  13. Evaluation of quality of urban life with emphasis on health; A case study in Mashhad city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalilullah Kazemi Khabiri

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The quality of life of the citizens is one of the most important issues studied in different countries and used in the planning and monitoring of public policies. The present study measured and evaluated the indicators of quality of urban life among citizens of Mashhad city. Methods: This analytical study was conducted on 375 citizens of various regions in Mashhad city. The random sampling method using population distribution and short-form questionnaires for data collection were applied. The validity of the questionnaires was verified by experts and the points given each question based on a 5-point Likert scale, and the Cronbach αcoefficient was used to measure the reliability of the questionnaire; the questionnaire rated 0.853%. To analyze the variables under study, SPSS and other statistical methods such as average answers and t test for independent variables were used. Results: Findings of this research showed that the average health-sanitation dimension and environmental quality dimension are lower than 50% in Mashhad city. Sanitation and health, with a standard deviation of 5.838, are situated below the median level. The most common weakness is related to the dietary intake of protein. Environmental quality with a standard deviation of 5.857 is lower than the median level which is related to garbage separation and landfill sites. This result indicates that the quality of health and the environment in Mashhad is undesirable. Conclusion: Citizens’ satisfaction with quality of life index is lower than average in Mashhad city. Plans for improving the quality of life and developing services are highly necessary for increasing the quality of life.

  14. Using genomics to improve fruit quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, Claudio; Orellana, Ariel

    2013-01-01

    New fruit varieties are needed to satisfy consumers, and the industry is facing new challenges in order to respond to these demands. The emergence of genomic tools is releasing information on polymorphisms that can be utilized to expedite breeding processes in species that are difficult to breed, given the long periods of time required to get new varieties. The present review describes the current stages of the ongoing efforts that are being taken to apply these technologies to obtain varieties with improved fruit quality in species of the family Rosaceae.

  15. Implications of groundwater quality to corrosion problem and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    Surface and groundwater chemistry being an important factor in urban ... a network of pipes, conduits, metallic rods, reinforced concrete footings and other ... the WNW running fault belts (Wukro, Mekelle, Chelekot and Felega Mariam) and Rift.

  16. Improving Land Administration and Management for Sustainable Urban Development : Philippines Urbanization Review Policy Notes

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2017-01-01

    This policy note assesses the performance of existing land administration and management (LAM) system in the Philippines in creating an environment for competitive cities. It looks at the influence of LAM (including property rights) in the proper functioning of land markets in urban areas; the effectiveness of land use planning and regulations in shaping urban growth, reducing informality,...

  17. Quality Rating and Improvement System State Evaluations and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    A quality rating and improvement system (QRIS) is a method used by states and local jurisdictions to assess the level of quality of child care and early education programs, improve quality, and convey quality ratings to parents and other consumers. A typical QRIS incorporates the following components: quality standards for participating providers;…

  18. Suggestions of Policy Direction to Improve the Housing Quality in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeon Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent global climate changes, many countries, including developed nations, are announcing greenhouse gas (GHG reduction targets and are actively participating in reducing GHG. Therefore, the role of the building sector on reducing GHG is being emphasized, and the establishment of policy structures for both making environmentally friendly capacity compulsory and improving the housing quality is being demanded. South Korea is also developing a policy for improving housing quality, but in order to achieve more competitive growth, this must be preceded by an analysis of current policy status within various countries on improving housing quality. This study aims to suggest direction about policies that will improve the housing quality in South Korea. For this, the policies of major countries were able to categorize and compare according to three major categories (performance, function, and aesthetics, and seven factors (safety, durability, cost and maintenance, response to residents’ needs, habitability, energy saving, and building design regarding housing quality. As a result, from the performance aspect, policy directions were suggested for safe housing, the urban environment, regeneration of quality stock, and the usage of existing stock; from the functional aspect, policies for improving housing quality that responds to the aging population and energy saving housing were suggested; from the aesthetic aspect, housing designs that consider the urban environment were suggested.

  19. The impact of traffic-flow patterns on air quality in urban street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaker, Prashant; Gokhale, Sharad

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different urban traffic-flow patterns on pollutant dispersion in different winds in a real asymmetric street canyon. Free-flow traffic causes more turbulence in the canyon facilitating more dispersion and a reduction in pedestrian level concentration. The comparison of with and without a vehicle-induced-turbulence revealed that when winds were perpendicular, the free-flow traffic reduced the concentration by 73% on the windward side with a minor increase of 17% on the leeward side, whereas for parallel winds, it reduced the concentration by 51% and 29%. The congested-flow traffic increased the concentrations on the leeward side by 47% when winds were perpendicular posing a higher risk to health, whereas reduced it by 17-42% for parallel winds. The urban air quality and public health can, therefore, be improved by improving the traffic-flow patterns in street canyons as vehicle-induced turbulence has been shown to contribute significantly to dispersion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling the Ecosystem Services Provided by Trees in Urban Ecosystems: Using Biome-BGC to Improve i-Tree Eco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Molly E.; McGroddy, Megan; Spence, Caitlin; Flake, Leah; Sarfraz, Amna; Nowak, David J.; Milesi, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    As the world becomes increasingly urban, the need to quantify the effect of trees in urban environments on energy usage, air pollution, local climate and nutrient run-off has increased. By identifying, quantifying and valuing the ecological activity that provides services in urban areas, stronger policies and improved quality of life for urban residents can be obtained. Here we focus on two radically different models that can be used to characterize urban forests. The i-Tree Eco model (formerly UFORE model) quantifies ecosystem services (e.g., air pollution removal, carbon storage) and values derived from urban trees based on field measurements of trees and local ancillary data sets. Biome-BGC (Biome BioGeoChemistry) is used to simulate the fluxes and storage of carbon, water, and nitrogen in natural environments. This paper compares i-Tree Eco's methods to those of Biome-BGC, which estimates the fluxes and storage of energy, carbon, water and nitrogen for vegetation and soil components of the ecosystem. We describe the two models and their differences in the way they calculate similar properties, with a focus on carbon and nitrogen. Finally, we discuss the implications of further integration of these two communities for land managers such as those in Maryland.

  1. Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    National Cancer Institute; Jewell, Ph.D., Scott D.; Seijo, M.S., Edward; Kelly, Ph.D., Andrea; Somiari, Ph.D., Stella; B.Chir., M.B.; McShane, Ph.D., Lisa M.; Clark, M.D., Douglas; Greenspan, M.D., Renata; Hayes, M.D., Daniel F.; Hainaut, Ph.D., M.S., Pierre; Kim, Paula; Mansfield, Ph.D., Elizabeth; Potapova, Ph.D., Olga; Riegman, Ph.D., Peter; Rubinstein, Ph.D., Yaffa; Weier, Ph.D., Heinz-Ulrich; Zhu, Ph.D., Claire; Moore, Ph.D., Helen M.; Vaught, Ph.D., Jim; Watson, Peter

    2010-09-02

    Human biospecimens are subjected to collection, processing, and storage that can significantly alter their molecular composition and consistency. These biospecimen preanalytical factors, in turn, influence experimental outcomes and the ability to reproduce scientific results. Currently, the extent and type of information specific to the biospecimen preanalytical conditions reported in scientific publications and regulatory submissions varies widely. To improve the quality of research that uses human tissues, it is crucial that information on the handling of biospecimens be reported in a thorough, accurate, and standardized manner. The Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ) recommendations outlined herein are intended to apply to any study in which human biospecimens are used. The purpose of reporting these details is to supply others, from researchers to regulators, with more consistent and standardized information to better evaluate, interpret, compare, and reproduce the experimental results. The BRISQ guidelines are proposed as an important and timely resource tool to strengthen communication and publications on biospecimen-related research and to help reassure patient contributors and the advocacy community that their contributions are valued and respected.

  2. Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Ph.D., Helen M.; Kelly, Ph.D., Andrea B.; Jewell, Ph.D., Scott D.; McShane, Ph.D., Lisa M.; Clark, M.D., Douglas P.; Greenspan, M.D., Renata; Hayes, M.D., Daniel F.; Hainaut, Ph.D., Pierre; Kim, Paula; Mansfield, Ph.D., Elizabeth A.; Potapova, Ph.D., Olga; Riegman, Ph.D., Peter; Rubinstein, Ph.D., Yaffa; Seijo, M.S., Edward; Somiari, Ph.D., Stella; Chir., B; Weier, Ph.D., Heinz-Ulrich; Zhu, Ph.D., Claire; Vaught, Ph.D., Jim; Watson,M.B., Peter

    2010-12-27

    Human biospecimens are subjected to collection, processing, and storage that can significantly alter their molecular composition and consistency. These biospecimen preanalytical factors, in turn, influence experimental outcomes and the ability to reproduce scientific results. Currently, the extent and type of information specific to the biospecimen preanalytical conditions reported in scientific publications and regulatory submissions varies widely. To improve the quality of research that uses human tissues, it is crucial that information on the handling of biospecimens be reported in a thorough, accurate, and standardized manner. The Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ) recommendations outlined herein are intended to apply to any study in which human biospecimens are used. The purpose of reporting these details is to supply others, from researchers to regulators, with more consistent and standardized information to better evaluate, interpret, compare, and reproduce the experimental results. The BRISQ guidelines are proposed as an important and timely resource tool to strengthen communication and publications on biospecimen-related research and to help reassure patient contributors and the advocacy community that their contributions are valued and respected.

  3. Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, Ph.D., Helen M.; Kelly Ph.D., Andrea; Jewell Ph.D., Scott D.; McShane Ph.D., Lisa M.; Clark M.D., Douglas P.; Greenspan M.D., Renata; Hayes M.D., Daniel F.; Hainaut Ph.D.,, Pierre; Kim, Paula; Mansfield Ph.D., Elizabeth; Potapova Ph.D., Olga; Riegman Ph.D., Peter; Rubinstein Ph.D., Yaffa; Seijo M.S., Edward; Somiari Ph.D., Stella; Watson M.B., Peter; Weier Ph.D., Heinz-Ulrich; Zhu Ph.D., Claire; Vaught Ph.D., Jim

    2011-04-26

    Human biospecimens are subject to a number of different collection, processing, and storage factors that can significantly alter their molecular composition and consistency. These biospecimen preanalytical factors, in turn, influence experimental outcomes and the ability to reproduce scientific results. Currently, the extent and type of information specific to the biospecimen preanalytical conditions reported in scientific publications and regulatory submissions varies widely. To improve the quality of research utilizing human tissues it is critical that information regarding the handling of biospecimens be reported in a thorough, accurate, and standardized manner. The Biospecimen Reporting for Improved Study Quality (BRISQ) recommendations outlined herein are intended to apply to any study in which human biospecimens are used. The purpose of reporting these details is to supply others, from researchers to regulators, with more consistent and standardized information to better evaluate, interpret, compare, and reproduce the experimental results. The BRISQ guidelines are proposed as an important and timely resource tool to strengthen communication and publications around biospecimen-related research and help reassure patient contributors and the advocacy community that the contributions are valued and respected.

  4. Potential effects of using biodiesel in road-traffic on air quality over the Porto urban area, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Isabel; Monteiro, Alexandra; Lopes, Myriam

    2016-01-01

    This work aims to assess the impacts of biodiesel blends use in road-traffic on air quality. In this frame, the air quality numerical modelling system WRF-EURAD was applied over Portugal and the Porto urban area, forced by two emission scenarios (including CO, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, NMVOC, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein and benzene): a reference scenario, without biofuels, and a scenario where a B20 fuel (20% biodiesel/80% diesel, v/v) is used by the diesel vehicle fleet. Regarding carbonyl compounds, emission scenarios pointed out that B20 fuel can promote an increase of 20% on formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein emissions, leading to increments on equivalent ozone production. On the other hand, through the air quality modelling exercise, it was verified that the use of B20 helps in controlling air pollution, improving CO and NO2 concentrations in urban airshed in about 20% and 10%, respectively, taking into account a regional simulation grid. However, according to the urban scale simulation, NO2 levels can increase in about 1%, due to the use of B20, over the Porto urban area. For the remaining studied pollutants, namely PM10 and PM2.5, mean concentrations will be reduced all over the territory, however in a negligible amount of <1%.

  5. 45 CFR 1304.60 - Deficiencies and quality improvement plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deficiencies and quality improvement plans. 1304... must correct the deficiency either immediately or pursuant to a Quality Improvement Plan. (c) An Early... Improvement Plan must submit to the responsible HHS official a Quality Improvement Plan specifying, for each...

  6. Strategy to Support Improvement of Healthcare Quality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Andrea Zejdlova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the latest market-based solutions to the rising costs and quality gaps in health care is pay for performance. Pay for performance is the use of financial incentives to promote the delivery of designated standards of care. It is an emerging movement in health insurance (initially in Britain and United States. Providers under this arrangement are rewarded for meeting pre-established targets for delivery of healthcare services. This is a fundamental change from fee for service payment.Also known as "P4P" or “value-based purchasing,” this payment model rewards physicians, hospitals, medical groups, and other healthcare providers for meeting certain performance measures for quality and efficiency. Disincentives, such as eliminating payments for negative consequences of care (medical errors or increased costs, have also been proposed. In the developed nations, the rapidly aging population and rising health care costs have recently brought P4P to the forefront of health policy discussions. Pilot studies underway in several large healthcare systems have shown modest improvements in specific outcomes and increased efficiency, but no cost savings due to added administrative requirements. Statements by professional medical societies generally support incentive programs to increase the quality of health care, but express concern with the validity of quality indicators, patient and physician autonomy and privacy, and increased administrative burdens. This article serves as an introduction to pay for performance. We discuss the goals and structure of pay for performance plans and their limitations and potential consequences in the health care area.

  7. Methodology of quality improvement projects for the Texas Medicare population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergrass, P W; Abel, R L; Bing, M; Vaughn, R; McCauley, C

    1998-07-01

    The Texas Medical Foundation, the quality improvement organization for the state of Texas, develops local quality improvement projects for the Medicare population. These projects are developed as part of the Health Care Quality Improvement Program undertaken by the Health Care Financing Administration. The goal of a local quality improvement project is to collaborate with providers to identify and reduce the incidence of unintentional variations in the delivery of care that negatively impact outcomes. Two factors are critical to the success of a quality improvement project. First, as opposed to peer review that is based on implicit criteria, quality improvement must be based on explicit criteria. These criteria represent key steps in the delivery of care that have been shown to improve outcomes for a specific disease. Second, quality improvement must be performed in partnership with the health care community. As such, the health care community must play an integral role in the design and evaluation of a quality improvement project and in the design and implementation of the resulting quality improvement plan. Specifically, this article provides a historical perspective for the transition from peer review to quality improvement. It discusses key steps used in developing and implementing local quality improvement projects including topic selection, quality indicator development, collaborator recruitment, and measurement of performance/improvement. Two Texas Medical Foundation projects are described to highlight the current methodology and to illustrate the impact of quality improvement projects.

  8. Moving up the Ladder: How Do States Deliver Quality Improvement Supports within Their Quality Rating and Improvement Systems? Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holod, Aleksandra; Faria, Ann-Marie; Weinberg, Emily; Howard, Eboni

    2015-01-01

    As national attention has increasingly focused on the potential for high-quality early childhood education (ECE) to improve children's school readiness, states have developed quality rating and improvement systems (QRISs) to document the quality of ECE programs, support systematic quality improvement, and provide clear information to families…

  9. The urban lighting in the rehabilitation of the minor historical centre. The design scenarios for the architectural valorisation and the energy efficiency improvement of the urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi De Berardinis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, the topic of lighting of the historical minor centres is taking a prominent role in the cultural debate on the urban recovery interventions, because of the development of a greater awareness of the regenerative potential role that a careful planning system of urban lighting can take in this context. The latter, which had a purely functional role in the past, has recently taken a figurative and emotional role, associated with the vision of the urban light scene during the night and its valorization. The study of light, therefore, has inevitably turned into an instrument of knowledge and critical interpretation of the urban spaces, aimed both to functional recovery of the lighting network technology, and the regeneration of the urban image and its night scenes. The needs that this sector should satisfy are multiple and, sometimes, conflicting: the need for road safety, the reduction of light pollution, the need for energy and cost savings. The research aims to define an operative methodology to deal with the light planning in complex contexts as the minor historical centers, in which the concept of transformation of the urban scene clashes directly with the concept of preserving the identity features of the places and its constructive values and materials. Among the goals, there is therefore the aim of highlighting the main gaps in the network, due both to plant engineering reasons and to the obsolescence of the existing lighting fixtures. We operatively work in the urban voids system field, as spaces that characterize the urban scene. Through the knowledge of their dominant features it is possible to preserve their identity and, at the same time, enhance their singularity, with a suitable lighting project, which requires the study of materials, colors and consumption. The purpose is to promote an urban development, able to produce positive economic, social and cultural effects, oriented to improve the quality of life, as well

  10. How can we recognize continuous quality improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Lisa; Khodyakov, Dmitry; Hempel, Susanne; Danz, Margie; Salem-Schatz, Susanne; Foy, Robbie; O'Neill, Sean; Dalal, Siddhartha; Shekelle, Paul

    2014-02-01

    Continuous quality improvement (CQI) methods are foundational approaches to improving healthcare delivery. Publications using the term CQI, however, are methodologically heterogeneous, and labels other than CQI are used to signify relevant approaches. Standards for identifying the use of CQI based on its key methodological features could enable more effective learning across quality improvement (QI) efforts. The objective was to identify essential methodological features for recognizing CQI. Previous work with a 12-member international expert panel identified reliably abstracted CQI methodological features. We tested which features met rigorous a priori standards as essential features of CQI using a three-phase online modified-Delphi process. Primarily United States and Canada. 119 QI experts randomly assigned into four on-line panels. Participants rated CQI features and discussed their answers using online, anonymous and asynchronous discussion boards. We analyzed ratings quantitatively and discussion threads qualitatively. Main outcome measure(s) Panel consensus on definitional CQI features. /st> Seventy-nine (66%) panelists completed the process. Thirty-three completers self-identified as QI researchers, 18 as QI practitioners and 28 as both equally. The features 'systematic data guided activities,' 'designing with local conditions in mind' and 'iterative development and testing' met a priori standards as essential CQI features. Qualitative analyses showed cross-cutting themes focused on differences between QI and CQI. We found consensus among a broad group of CQI researchers and practitioners on three features as essential for identifying QI work more specifically as 'CQI.' All three features are needed as a minimum standard for recognizing CQI methods.

  11. Quality improvement in neurology: dementia management quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odenheimer, Germaine; Borson, Soo; Sanders, Amy E; Swain-Eng, Rebecca J; Kyomen, Helen H; Tierney, Samantha; Gitlin, Laura; Forciea, Mary Ann; Absher, John; Shega, Joseph; Johnson, Jerry

    2014-03-01

    Professional and advocacy organizations have long urged that dementia should be recognized and properly diagnosed. With the passage of the National Alzheimer's Project Act in 2011, an Advisory Council for Alzheimer's Research, Care, and Services was convened to advise the Department of Health and Human Services. In May 2012, the Council produced the first National Plan to address Alzheimer's disease, and prominent in its recommendations is a call for quality measures suitable for evaluating and tracking dementia care in clinical settings. Although other efforts have been made to set dementia care quality standards, such as those pioneered by RAND in its series Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE), practitioners, healthcare systems, and insurers have not widely embraced implementation. This executive summary (full manuscript available at www.neurology.org) reports on a new measurement set for dementia management developed by an interdisciplinary Dementia Measures Work Group (DWG) representing the major national organizations and advocacy organizations concerned with the care of individuals with dementia. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN), the American Geriatrics Society, the American Medical Directors Association, the American Psychiatric Association, and the American Medical Association-convened Physician Consortium for Performance Improvement led this effort. The ACOVE measures and the measurement set described here apply to individuals whose dementia has already been identified and properly diagnosed. Although similar in concept to ACOVE, the DWG measurement set differs in several important ways; it includes all stages of dementia in a single measure set, calls for the use of functional staging in planning care, prompts the use of validated instruments in patient and caregiver assessment and intervention, highlights the relevance of using palliative care concepts to guide care before the advanced stages of illness, and provides evidence-based support

  12. Making quality improvement programs more effective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw-Taylor, Yoku

    2014-01-01

    In the past 25 years, and as recent as 2011, all external evaluations of the Quality Improvement Organization (QIO) Program have found its impact to be small or difficult to discern. The QIO program costs about $200 million on average to administer each year to improve quality of healthcare for people of 65 years or older. The program was created to address questionable quality of care. QIOs review how care is provided based on performance measures. The paper aims to discuss these issues. In 2012, the author supported the production of quarterly reports and reviewed internal monitoring and evaluation protocols of the program. The task also required reviewing all previous program evaluations. The task involved many conversations about the complexities of the program, why impact is difficult to discern and possible ways for eventual improvement. Process flow charts were created to simulate the data life cycle and discrete event models were created based on the sequence of data collection and reporting to identify gaps in data flow. The internal evaluation uncovered data gaps within the program. The need for a system of specification rules for data conceptualization, collection, distribution, discovery, analysis and repurposing is clear. There were data inconsistencies and difficulty of integrating data from one instance of measurement to the next. The lack of good and reliable data makes it difficult to discern true impact. The prescription is for a formal data policy or data governance structure to integrate and document all aspects of the data life cycle. The specification rules for governance are exemplified by the Data Documentation Initiative and the requirements published by the Data Governance Institute. The elements are all in place for a solid foundation of the data governance structure. These recommendations will increase the value of program data. The model specifies which agency units must be included in the governance authority and the data team. The

  13. Quality improvement education to improve performance on ulcerative colitis quality measures and care processes aligned with National Quality Strategy priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Laurence; Moreo, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Studies on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have reported suboptimal approaches to patient care. In the United States, the findings have motivated leading gastroenterology organizations to call for initiatives that support clinicians in aligning their practices with quality measures for IBD and priorities of the National Quality Strategy (NQS). We designed and implemented a quality improvement (QI) education program on ulcerative colitis in which patient charts were audited for 30 gastroenterologists before (n = 300 charts) and after (n = 290 charts) they participated in QI-focused educational activities. Charts were audited for nine measures, selected for their alignment with four NQS priorities: making care safer, ensuring patient engagement, promoting communication, and promoting effective treatment practices. Four of the measures, including guideline-directed vaccinations and assessments of disease type and activity, were part of the CMS Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS). The other five measures involved counseling patients on various topics in ulcerative colitis management, documentation of side effects, assessment of adherence status, and simplification of dosing. The gastroenterologists also completed baseline and post-education surveys designed to assess qualitative outcomes. One of the educational interventions was a private audit feedback session conducted for each gastroenterologist. The sessions were designed to support participants in identifying measures reflecting suboptimal care quality and developing action plans for improvement. In continuous improvement cycles, follow-up interventions included QI tools and educational monographs. Across the nine chart variables, post-education improvements ranged from 0% to 48%, with a mean improvement of 15.9%. Survey findings revealed improvements in self-reported understanding of quality measures and intentions to apply them to practice, and lower rates of perceived significant barriers to high-quality

  14. Urban Surface Water Quality, Flood Water Quality and Human Health Impacts in Chinese Cities. What Do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Rui

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change and urbanization have led to an increase in the frequency of extreme water related events such as flooding, which has negative impacts on the environment, economy and human health. With respect to the latter, our understanding of the interrelationship between flooding, urban surface water and human health is still very limited. More in-depth research in this area is needed to further strengthen the process of planning and implementation of responses to mitigate the negative health impacts of flooding in urban areas. The objective of this paper is to assess the state of the research on the interrelationship between surface water quality, flood water quality and human health in urban areas based on the published literature. These insights will be instrumental in identifying and prioritizing future research needs in this area. In this study, research publications in the domain of urban flooding, surface water quality and human health were collated using keyword searches. A detailed assessment of these publications substantiated the limited number of publications focusing on the link between flooding and human health. There was also an uneven geographical distribution of the study areas, as most of the studies focused on developed countries. A few studies have focused on developing countries, although the severity of water quality issues is higher in these countries. The study also revealed a disparity of research in this field across regions in China as most of the studies focused on the populous south-eastern region of China. The lack of studies in some regions has been attributed to the absence of flood water quality monitoring systems which allow the collection of real-time water quality monitoring data during flooding in urban areas. The widespread implementation of cost effective real-time water quality monitoring systems which are based on the latest remote or mobile phone based data acquisition techniques is recommended

  15. Assessing the state of environmental quality in cities – A multi-component urban performance (EMCUP) index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stossel, Zeev; Kissinger, Meidad; Meir, Avinoam

    2015-01-01

    Urban environmental quality indices can provide policy makers and the public with valuable information. However, common assessment tools have several shortcomings: most indices do leave out some important components of the state of urban environmental quality; they use a relative assessment in which urban environmental performance is evaluated relative to other cities, not against established environmental benchmarks; and only a few assessment tools compare urban performance to environmental quality standards. This paper presents a new multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index aiming to tackle those shortcomings. It analyses the overall state of urban environmental quality by using a list of indicators to evaluate key urban environmental quality topics such as air, water, open space, sanitation and solid waste. It presents an absolute score calculated in relation to both the standard and desired optimum levels. The use of the index is demonstrated by three Israeli cities. - Highlights: • The index provides a new framework for analyzing the overall urban environmental quality. • The index scores are calculated based on environmental standards and desired optimum benchmark values. • The paper demonstrates the gap between the state of existing urban environmental quality and the desired goals. - Introducing a multi component urban performance (EMCUP) index, which measures urban environmental quality related to environmental benchmarks.

  16. Involving vendors in continuous quality improvement efforts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDevitt, M C

    1995-03-01

    In the hospital environment, vendors supply a wide range of items, from surgical sutures to the latest in high-cost technological equipment. Also, many clinical and support services, such as respiratory therapy, transcription, and computer databanks are now outsourced to commercial vendors. Interaction with such vendors is often less than satisfactory, with prolonged timelines and disruption of an important process that is being computerized. Although hospitals deal with very few vendors in long-term relationships, such as those seen in manufacturing, this should not preclude the formation of a supplier-customer relationship that goes beyond management's interaction with the sales representative in response to a request for proposal. This is especially true when a process improvement team has studied an internal process and defined a key quality characteristic.

  17. A Report Card on Continuous Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, David; Kilo, Charles M.

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to incorporate the principles of continuous quality improvement (CQI) into health care have been underway for about ten years. In order to understand the lessons of this decade of experience, senior organizational leaders and experts in the field of health care were interviewed. This select group agreed that there have been concrete accomplishments: the tactic of assigning blame for mistakes to individuals is gradually giving way to an emphasis on detecting problems with process; there is a new focus on the health care customer; and many valuable projects have been inaugurated. Nevertheless, the interviews underlined the reality that the movement has not yet made a sizable impact on the U.S. health care system. Until there is a profound, organization-wide recognition of the need for change, universal commitment to CQI principles will not be achieved. PMID:9879305

  18. Quality improvement in neurological surgery graduate medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Scott L; McGirt, Matthew J; Asher, Anthony L; Selden, Nathan R

    2015-04-01

    There has been no formal, standardized curriculum for neurosurgical resident education in quality improvement. There are at least 2 reasons to integrate a formalized quality improvement curriculum into resident education: (1) increased emphasis on the relative quality and value (cost-effectiveness) of health care provided by individual physicians, and (2) quality improvement principles empower broader lifelong learning. An integrated quality improvement curriculum should comprise specific goals and milestones at each level of residency training. This article discusses the role and possible implementation of a national program for quality improvement in neurosurgical resident education. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Regional/Urban Air Quality Modeling Assessment over China Using the Models-3/CMAQ System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, J. S.; Jang, C. C.; Streets, D. G.; Li, Z.; Wang, L.; Zhang, Q.; Woo, J.; Wang, B.

    2004-12-01

    simulations in the Beijing, Shanghai areas are presented with sensitivity analysis. A comparison against available ozone and PM measurement data in Beijing, Shanghai is presented. The local emission inventory improvement in China is to be suggested to investigate. The modeling configuration of the Beijing 4-km x 4-km domain is to demonstrate the development of cost-effective control strategies for the air pollution control such as 2008 Olympic Game air quality management plan.

  20. SF Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund: Projects and Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Francisco Bay Water Quality Improvement Fund (SFBWQIF) projects listed here are part of an EPA competitive grant program to improve SF Bay water quality focused on restoring impaired waters and enhancing aquatic resources.

  1. Improving smoked herring quality by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, D.A.; Abd El-Wahab, S.A.; Hendy, B.A.

    2009-01-01

    Smoked herring which is a highly purchasable product in Egypt, was exposed to different gamma irradiation doses (1.5,3.0 and 5.0 kGy) and stored at environmental temperature (12± 2 deg C) until spoilage of the control. Microbiological, chemical and sensory analyses were performed throughout storage to monitor the quality attributes. It is worthy to mention that irradiation reduced the population of bacteria and the effect was more pronounced at the highest dose used (5.0 kGy). At the same time 1.5 kGy completely eliminated staphylococcus aureus (coagulase + ve) and coliforms. By chemical analysis, there was significant decrease in average moisture content by different gamma irradiation doses and storage. Although the average thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased slightly by γ-irradiation, this increase was highly significant by storage . At the same time there was a significant (p< 0.05)decrease in the average trimethylamine (TMA) value of all irradiated samples compared with unirradiated control, this value increased significantly by storage. interestingly, the average histamine value decreased significantly in all irradiated samples. The sensory analysis revealed a highly significant difference in the average acceptability scores between different irradiation doses used and also by storage. Therefore it could be concluded that the quality of smoked herring during storage at environmental temperature (12 ± 2 deg C) could be improved by using 5.0 kGy γ -irradiation

  2. Influence of roadside hedgerows on air quality in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromke, Christof; Jamarkattel, Nabaraj; Ruck, Bodo

    2016-08-01

    Understanding pollutant dispersion in the urban environment is an important aspect of providing solutions to reduce personal exposure to vehicle emissions. To this end, the dispersion of gaseous traffic pollutants in urban street canyons with roadside hedges was investigated. The study was performed in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel using a reduced-scale (M = 1:150) canyon model with a street-width-to-building-height ratio of W/H = 2 and a street-length-to-building-height ratio of L/H = 10. Various hedge configurations of differing height, permeability and longitudinal segmentation (continuous over street length L or discontinuous with clearings) were investigated. Two arrangements were examined: (i) two eccentric hedgerows sidewise of the main traffic lanes and (ii) one central hedgerow between the main traffic lanes. In addition, selected configurations of low boundary walls, i.e. solid barriers, were examined. For a perpendicular approach wind and in the presence of continuous hedgerows, improvements in air quality in the center area of the street canyon were found in comparison to the hedge-free reference scenario. The pollutant reductions were greater for the central hedge arrangements than for the sidewise arrangements. Area-averaged reductions between 46 and 61% were observed at pedestrian head height level on the leeward side in front of the building for the centrally arranged hedges and between 18 and 39% for the two hedges arranged sidewise. Corresponding area-averaged reductions ranging from 39 to 55% and from 1 to 20% were found at the bottom of the building facades on the leeward side. Improvements were also found in the areas at the lateral canyon ends next to the crossings for the central hedge arrangements. For the sidewise arrangements, increases in traffic pollutants were generally observed. However, since the concentrations in the end areas were considerably lower compared to those in the center area, an overall improvement remained

  3. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yi; Degener, Jan; Gaudreau, Matthew; Li, Yangfan; Kappas, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH_3-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management

  4. Adaptive capacity based water quality resilience transformation and policy implications in rapidly urbanizing landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yi, E-mail: ly463526@gmail.com [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Degener, Jan [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany); Gaudreau, Matthew [Balsillie School of International Affairs, Faculty of Environment, University of Waterloo, 67 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2L 6C2 (Canada); Li, Yangfan, E-mail: yangf@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Coastal and Wetland Ecosystems (Ministry of Education), College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Kappas, Martin [Department of Cartography, GIS and Remote Sensing, Institute of Geography, Georg-August University of Goettingen, Goettingen 37077 (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Resilience-based management focuses on specific attributes or drivers of complex social-ecological systems, in order to operationalize and promote guiding principles for water quality management in urban systems. We therefore propose a resilience lens drawing on the theory of adaptive capacity and adaptive cycle to evaluate the urban resilience between water quality and land use type. Our findings show that the resilience of water quality variables, which were calculated based on their adaptive capacities, showed adaptive and sustainable trends with dramatic fluctuation. NH{sub 3}-N, Cadmium and Total Phosphorus experienced the most vulnerable shifts in the built-up area, agricultural areas, and on bare land. Our framework provided a consistent and repeatable approach to address uncertainty inherent in the resilience of water quality in different landscapes, as well as an approach to monitor variables over time with respect to national water quality standards. Ultimately, we pointed to the political underpinnings for risk mitigation and managing resilient urban system in a particular coastal urban setting. - Highlights: • Integrated framework to analyze the resilience of urban land-water systems • Addressed the changes of adaptive capacity based resilience and transitions • Applied four transition phases of adaptive cycle to water quality management.

  5. Toyota production system quality improvement initiative improves perioperative antibiotic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Kelly H; Mor, Maria K; Jain, Rajiv; Kruszewski, Matthew S; McCray, Ellesha E; Moreland, Michael E; Muder, Robert R; Obrosky, David Scott; Sevick, Mary Ann; Wilson, Mark A; Fine, Michael J

    2009-09-01

    To assess the role of a Toyota production system (TPS) quality improvement (QI) intervention on appropriateness of perioperative antibiotic therapy and in length of hospital stay (LOS) among surgical patients. Pre-post quasi-experimental study using local and national retrospective cohorts. We used TPS methods to implement a multifaceted intervention to reduce nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections on a Veterans Affairs surgical unit, which led to a QI intervention targeting appropriate perioperative antibiotic prophylaxis. Appropriate perioperative antibiotic therapy was defined as selection of the recommended antibiotic agents for a duration not exceeding 24 hours from the time of the operation. The local computerized medical record system was used to identify patients undergoing the 25 most common surgical procedures and to examine changes in appropriate antibiotic therapy and LOS over time. Overall, 2550 surgical admissions were identified from the local computerized medical records. The proportion of surgical admissions receiving appropriate perioperative antibiotics was significantly higher (P <.01) in 2004 after initiation of the TPS intervention (44.0%) compared with the previous 4 years (range, 23.4%-29.8%) primarily because of improvements in compliance with antibiotic therapy duration rather than appropriate antibiotic selection. There was no statistically significant decrease in LOS over time. The use of TPS methods resulted in a QI intervention that was associated with an increase in appropriate perioperative antibiotic therapy among surgical patients, without affecting LOS.

  6. Transferring skills in quality collaboratives focused on improving patient logistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. Weggelaar-Jansen (Anne Marie); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen)

    2018-01-01

    textabstractA quality improvement collaborative, often used by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement, is used to educate healthcare professionals and improve healthcare at the same time. Our research focused on quality improvement collaboratives aiming to improve patient logistics and tried to

  7. Assessment on pattern of urban air quality by using chemometric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study evaluate the relationship between the main daily concentrations of criteria air pollutants in urban areas and their associations by using chemometric technique. Data were gathered from the Department of Environmental for three years observations (2011-2013) consisting of 5 major pollutants such as SO2, NO2, ...

  8. Implications of groundwater quality to corrosion problem and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bheema

    extremely low. Surface water and groundwater system is one of the most important influencing factors in foundation engineering and urban development and is required for design of structures. Hence monitoring and conserving this important resource is essential. (Chatterjee et al., 2010). Understanding the hydrogeology of ...

  9. Coaching for Quality Improvement: Lessons Learned from Quality Rating and Improvement Systems (QRIS). Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tout, Kathryn; Isner, Tabitha; Zaslow, Martha

    2011-01-01

    Coaching and other on-site, individualized professional development strategies (consultation, mentoring, and technical assistance) are promising approaches to support the application of new teaching practices and overall quality improvement among practitioners in early care and education settings. This Research Brief summarizes a recent report…

  10. Criteria for the Evaluation of Quality Improvement Programs and the Use of Quality Improvement Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Psychologist, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document provides a set of criteria to be used by psychologists in evaluating quality improvement programs (QIPs) that have been promulgated by health care organizations, government agencies, professional associations, or other entities. These criteria also address the privacy and confidentiality issues evoked by the intended use of patient…

  11. The Inherent Politics of Managing the Quality of Urban Green Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian; Sullivan, Sidney George; Konijnendijk van den Bosch, Cecil C.

    2015-01-01

    of such ‘inherent politics’ through a case study of a widespread approach to operationalizing quality in urban green space management. We conclude that adoption of any quality model has both limiting and enabling implications for public participation and decision-making and that a critical stance is needed within...

  12. Power quality improvements of wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soebrink, Kent H. [Eltra (Denmark); Stoeber, Ralf; Schettler, Frank; Bergmann, Klaus [Siemens (Germany); Jenkins, Nicholas; Ekanayake, Janaka; Saad-Saoud, Zouhir; Liboa, Maria Luiza; Strbac, Goran [UMIST (United Kingdom); Kaas Pedersen, Joergen; Helgesen Pedersen, Knud Ole [Technical Univ. of Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-06-01

    The main objective of the project was to investigate how the power quality of the electrical output of wind farms could be improved by the use of modern high power electronic technology. Although the research is of direct application to wind energy it will also be relevant to many other types of small-scale generation embedded in utility distribution networks. The operation of wind turbines with asynchronous generators requires reactive power which, if supplied form the network, leads to low voltages and increased losses. In order to improve the power factor of the generation, fixed capacitors are usually used to provide reactive power. However, if they are sized for the full requirement of the wind farm, they can cause self-excitation and potentially damaging and hazardous overvoltages if the wind turbines` connection with the network is interrupted and they become islanded. An advanced Static VAr Compensator (ASVC) uses a power electronic converter to generate or absorb reactive power. They can be used to provide reactive power with rapid control and with only modestly sized passive components (i.e. small capacitors and reactors). The objective of the project was to combine research and development of this novel form of electronic equipment with its application to increase the use of renewable energy, and wind power in particular, in the European Union. (EG) 19 refs.

  13. 40 CFR 63.175 - Quality improvement program for valves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality improvement program for valves... alternative quality improvement programs specified in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section. The decision to... § 63.168 and § 63.175. (1) If the owner or operator elects to continue the quality improvement program...

  14. Urban air quality management : effects of trees on air pollution concentration in urban street canyon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salim, S.M.; Buccolieri, R.; Chan, A.; Sabatino, Di S.; Gromke, C.

    2009-01-01

    The aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on air flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban built-up areas (i.e. street canyons of width to height ratio, W/H=1) are investigated using computational fluid dynamics techniques and complemented with extensive wind tunnel

  15. People’s Preferences of Urban Design Qualities for Walking on a Commercial Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, J.; Surjono; Sudarmo, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to explore people’s preferences of urban design qualities for walking on a commercial street, with Kawi Street located in a commercial neighborhood in the town of Malang Indonesia as the case study. Based on a literature review, this study used eight urban design qualities, i.e., enclosure, legibility, human scale, transparency, complexity, coherence, linkage, and imageability. This study applied a survey research method using a self-administered paper-pencil questionnaire applying two measurement techniques: Likert scale was used to explore people’s evaluations of urban design qualities of the street, while multiple-rating scales were used to measure people’s preference for walking on the street. One hundred and ten people randomly selected as respondents. Regression analysis was employed to explore the influence of urban design qualities on people preference for walking. Results indicated four urban design qualities that affect people’s choice for walking on a commercial street, i.e., transparency, coherence, linkage, and imageability. Implications of the findings will be discussed in the paper.

  16. Value of Clean Water Resources: Estimating the Water Quality Improvement in Metro Manila, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokhrukh-Mirzo Jalilov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available While having many positive impacts, a tremendous economic performance and rapid industrial expansion over the last decades in the Philippines has had negative effects that have resulted in unfavorable hydrological and ecological changes in most urban river systems and has created environmental problems. Usually, these effects would not be part of a systematic assessment of urban water benefits. To address the issue, this study investigates the relationship between poor water quality and resident’s willingness to pay (WTP for improved water quality in Metro Manila. By employing a contingent valuation method (CVM, this paper estimates the benefits of the provision of clean water quality (swimmable and fishable in waterbodies of Metro Manila for its residents. Face-to-face interviews were completed with 240 randomly selected residents. Residents expressed a mean WTP of PHP102.44 (USD2.03 for a swimmable water quality (good quality and a mean WTP of PHP102.39 (USD2.03 for fishable water quality (moderate quality. The aggregation of this mean willingness-to-pay value amounted to annual economic benefits from PHP9443 billion to PHP9447 billion (approx. USD190 million per year for all taxpayers in Metro Manila. As expected, these estimates could inform local decision-makers about the benefits of future policy interventions aimed at improving the quality of waterbodies in Metro Manila.

  17. The effect of transport on air quality in urban areas of Syria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almasri, Radwan; Muneer, Tariq; Cullinane, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    Statistics show that the number of cars per capita in Syria is still low, but that the figure has more than doubled since 2004. Syria also suffers from inadequate public transport provision, poor infrastructure and the absence of suitable traffic management systems, with the average speed of road transport in Damascus at about 4-5 km/h. Only until very recently, a comprehensive network for the continuous monitoring of air pollutants has been lacking. This paper reviews, collates and synthesises the results of numerous studies of Syrian road transport, with an emphasis on air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors. It is revealed that what studies that have been done show that the air quality in Syrian urban areas falls below established national air quality standards, especially during winter when the demand for heating is high. The paper proposes a number of suggestions to improve air quality in Syria by using greener and more public transport, promoting and incentivising rational and efficient energy consumption in all sectors, taking advantage of available renewable energy resources, establishing an active network for routine measurement of pollution, setting local emissions standards that are in line with international standards and which are supported by the imposition of penalties, fines or taxation on polluting agents. - Highlights: → Car ownership in Syria is low, but has more than doubled since 2004. → Air pollution from Syria's transport and energy production sectors are analysed. → Air quality can be improved by using greener and more public transport. → Policy should incentivise efficient energy consumption in all sectors. → The use of renewable energy resources should be promoted.

  18. Analisis Pengaruh Brand Image, Price Perception, Dan Service Quality Terhadap Customer Loyalty Pada Pelanggan Urban Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua, Timothy Joshua; Haryadi, Eddy

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the influence of Brand Image, Price Perception, and Customer Service Qualityon Customer Loyalty in Urban Kitchen. The questionnaires were distributed to 150 respondents in four locations of Urban Kitchen employing simple random sampling technique. The data obtained were processed and analyzed using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) with LISREL8.72. The results indicate that Brand Image and Service Quality have significant influences on Customer Loyalty,...

  19. Estimating the Impact of Urbanization on Air Quality in China Using Spatial Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Chuanglin; Liu, Haimeng; Li, Guangdong; Sun, Dongqi; Miao, Zhuang

    2015-01-01

    Urban air pollution is one of the most visible environmental problems to have accompanied China’s rapid urbanization. Based on emission inventory data from 2014, gathered from 289 cities, we used Global and Local Moran’s I to measure the spatial autorrelation of Air Quality Index (AQI) values at the city level, and employed Ordinary Least Squares (OLS), Spatial Lag Model (SAR), and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) to quantitatively estimate the comprehensive impact and spatial variati...

  20. Capabilities and Gaps Assessments of Urban Air Quality Manage-ment in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Amin Tamale Kiggundu

    2015-01-01

    Today, large cities across the globe are facing a pervasive problem of air pollution.  The purpose of this study is to assess the capabilities and gaps in urban air quality management in Uganda as well as proposing strategies for curbing air pollution. This study applied face to face interviews, targeting key informants such as the environmental experts, urbanization researchers and officials from the National Environment Management Authority (NEMA). Results show that rapid motorization, cont...

  1. RURAL-URBAN DIFFERENCES IN NURSING HOME ACCESS, QUALITY AND COST

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wei; Bradford, Garnett L.

    1995-01-01

    Rural-urban differences in the supply of nursing home services as hypothesized to be jointly affected by competitive and regulatory forces, government policies, and the cost structure. Study findings indicate that rural services are slightly less accessible and lower in quality. A translog cost share function reveals no difference in the operating cost structure of rural and urban homes. Cost shares for nursing care are directly related to the degree of skilled nursing provided by homes. Sign...

  2. [Research on spatial differentiation of urban stormwater runoff quality by source area monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Qing; Zhu, Ren-Xiao; Guo, Shu-Gang; Yin, Cheng-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Runoff samples were collected from 14 source areas in Hanyang district during four rain events in an attempt to investigate the spatial differentiation and influencing factors of urban stormwater runoff quality. The outcomes are expected to offer practical guidance in sources control of urban runoff pollution. The results revealed that particle-bound proportion of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in stormwater runoff were 58% +/- 17%, 65% +/- 13% and 92% +/- 6%, respectively. The fractions of ammonia, nitrate and dissolved organic nitrogen were homogeneous in dissolved nitrogen composition. Urban surface function, traffic volume, land use, population density, and street sweeping practice are the main factors determining spatial differentiation of urban surface runoff quality. The highest magnitude of urban stormwater runoff pollution was expected in the old urban residential area, followed by general residential with restaurants, commercial and transport area, new developments and green land. In addition, the magnitude of road stormwater runoff pollution is positively correlated to traffic volume, in the following order: the first trunk road > the second trunk road > minor road. Street sweeping and critical source areas controls should be implemented to mitigate the adverse effects of urban stormwater runoff on receive waters.

  3. Urban compaction vs city sprawl: impact of road traffic on air quality in the greater Paris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etuman Arthur, Elessa; Isabelle, Coll; Vincent, Viguie; Nicolas, Coulombel; Julie, Prud'homme

    2017-04-01

    Urban pollution remains a major sanitary and economic concern. In France, particulate pollution is known to cause 48,000 premature deaths every year (Santé Publique France, 2016), while the economic cost of air pollution reaches almost 25 billion euros per year (CGDD, 2012). In the Greater Paris, despite strengthened emission standards, restricted traffic areas, car-sharing and incentives for electric vehicle use, road transport plays a substantial role in the exposure of inhabitants to high levels of pollutants. In this context, urban planning could possibly constitute an innovative strategy to reduce emissions from road traffic, through its actions on transport demand, travel distances, modal shift (public transportation, cycling, walking...) or even proximity to emitters. We have developed a multi-scalar modeling of urban pollution by coupling an urban economic growth model NEDUM (CIRED), a model for urban mobility (LISA), a traffic emission model (LISA) and the CHIMERE Chemistry-Transport model (CTM) for air quality simulation (LISA). The innovative aspect of this modeling system is to integrate into a classic CTM the mechanisms underlying the dynamics of an urban system. This way, we establish a quantitative and comprehensive link between a given urban scenario, the associated public and individual transport matrix, and local air quality. We then make it possible to highlight the levers of energy consumption reductions inside compact or sprawled cities. We have been working on the Ile de France region (centered on the Paris agglomeration) which relies on a broad urban structure of megacity, a high density of housing and an expanding urban peripheral zone, clearly raising the issue of transport demand, mobility and traffic congestion. Two scenarios, considering opposite urban development policies from the 1960s to 2010, have been simulated over the whole modelling chain. The first one promotes a dense and compact city while the second favors city spread

  4. EXFOR: Improving the quality of international databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupont, Emmeric

    2014-01-01

    The NEA Data Bank is an international centre of reference for basic nuclear tools used for the analysis and prediction of phenomena in nuclear energy applications. The Data Bank collects, compiles, disseminates and contributes to improving computer codes and associated data. In the area of nuclear data, the Data Bank works in close co-operation with other data centres that contribute to the worldwide compilation of experimental nuclear reaction data in the EXFOR database. EXFOR contains basic nuclear data on low- to medium-energy experiments for incident neutron, photon and various charged particle induced reactions on a wide range of nuclei and compounds. Today, with more than 150 000 data sets from more than 20 000 experiments performed since 1935, EXFOR is by far the most important and complete experimental nuclear reaction database. It is widely used to further improve nuclear reaction models and evaluated nuclear data libraries. The Data Bank supervises the development of the Joint Evaluated Fission and Fusion (JEFF) file, which is one of the major evaluated nuclear data libraries used in the field of nuclear science and technology. As part of its mission, the Data Bank works to maintain the highest level of quality in its databases. One method that was proposed to check the mutual consistency of experimental data in EXFOR is to test for outlier measurements more than a few standard deviations from the mean value as, in principle, several measurements of the same reaction quantity should form a continuous distribution. More recently, another method was developed to cross-check evaluated and experimental data in databases in order to detect aberrant values. It was noted that there is no evidence, on the basis of numerical comparisons only, that outliers represent 'bad' data. The fact that such data deviate significantly from other data of the same reaction may, however, be helpful to nuclear data evaluators who focus on one or a few isotopes and may wish to

  5. Nature based solution for improving mental health and well-being in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujcic, Maja; Tomicevic-Dubljevic, Jelena; Grbic, Mihailo; Lecic-Tosevski, Dusica; Vukovic, Olivera; Toskovic, Oliver

    2017-10-01

    The general disproportion of urban development and the socio-economical crisis in Serbia, followed by a number of acute and chronic stressors, as well as years of accumulated trauma, prevented the parallel physical, mental and social adaptation of society as a whole. These trends certainly affected the quality of mental health and well-being, particularly on the vulnerable urban population, increasing the absolute number of people with depression, stress and psychosomatic disorders. This study was pioneering in Serbia and was conducted in collaboration with the Faculty of Forestry, the Institute of Mental Health and the Botanical Garden in Belgrade, in order to understand how spending time and performing horticulture therapy in specially designed urban green environments can improve mental health. The participants were psychiatric patients (n=30), users of the day hospital of the Institute who were randomly selected for the study, and the control group, assessed for depression, anxiety and stress before and after the intervention, using a DASS21 scale. During the intervention period the study group stayed in the Botanical garden and participated in a special programme of horticulture therapy. In order to exclude any possible "special treatment'' or ''placebo effect", the control group was included in occupational art therapy while it continued to receive conventional therapy. The test results indicated that nature based therapy had a positive influence on the mental health and well-being of the participants. Furthermore, the difference in the test results of the subscale stress before and after the intervention for the study group was F1.28 = 5.442 and pmental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Highly qualified does not equal high quality: A study of urban stakeholders' perceptions of quality in science teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Rommel Joseph

    By employing qualitative methods, this study sought to determine the perceptions that urban stakeholders hold about what characteristics should distinguish a high school science teacher whom they would consider to demonstrate high quality in science teaching. A maximum variation sample of six science teachers, three school administrators, six parents and six students from a large urban public school district were interviewed using semi-structured, in-depth interview techniques. From these data, a list of observable characteristics which urban stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching was generated. Observational techniques were utilized to determine the extent to which six urban high school science teachers, who meet the NCLB Act criteria for being "highly qualified", actually possessed the characteristics which these stakeholders hold as evidence of high quality in science teaching. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyze the data set. The findings suggest that urban stakeholders perceive that a high school science teacher who demonstrates high quality in science teaching should be knowledgeable about their subject matter, their student population, and should be resourceful; should possess an academic background in science and professional experience in science teaching; should exhibit professionalism, a passion for science and teaching, and a dedication to teaching and student learning; should be skillful in planning and preparing science lessons and in organizing the classroom, in presenting the subject matter to students, in conducting a variety of hands-on activities, and in managing a classroom; and should assess whether students complete class goals and objectives, and provide feedback about grades for students promptly. The findings further reveal that some of the urban high school science teachers who were deemed to be "highly qualified", as defined by the NCLB Act, engaged in practices that threatened quality in science

  7. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents research into the possibilities for climate adaptation in Dutch urban areas. We want to know how cities can best prepare for extreme rainfall, droughts, and heat waves in future climates. These events are likely to become more frequent and more extreme. The focus is on heat resistance as this has been a neglected concept in Dutch urban planning. The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate-adaptation measures and to stimulate the implementation of such measures in the design of public space. Anticipating on the effects of climate change, the research was guided by the question: Which urban design principles can be applied in specific Dutch neighbourhoods to respond to the effects of climate change, especially in terms of outdoor thermal comfort and water management? The three stages of the project are:  • A literature review of existing knowledge on climate adaptation and knowledge gaps • Research into the specific field of urban climatology • Applied research on the broader field of urban planning The urban climate and adaptation measures In the evaluation of measures for climate robust urban areas it is important to gauge the extent of the effects of such measures. These effects are generally expressed in terms of air temperature. However, the comparison of results of measures from various studies is not a simple matter: there are significant differences in spatial, climatological and methodological variations adopted in these studies. Bringing results together from very specific studies may give an impression of the potential of certain measures. For example, most studies support the idea that greening has the highest effect on thermal comfort as it provides both shade and active cooling due to ‘evapotranspiration’1. Nevertheless, vegetation can also retain heat, as we can feel after sundown. Other measures that were investigated for their effects are water, urban morphology

  8. Quality procedure management for improved nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forzano, P.; Castagna, P.

    1995-01-01

    Emergency Operating Procedures and Accident Management Procedures are the next step in the computerization of NPP control rooms. Different improvements are presently conceivable for this operator aid tool, and research activities are in development. Undergoing activities regard especially formal aspects of knowledge representation, Human-Machine interface and procedure life cycle management. These aspects have been investigated deeply by Ansaldo, and partially incorporated in the DIAM prototype. Nuclear Power Plant Procedures can be seen from essentially two viewpoints: the process and the information management. From the first point of view, it is important to supply the knowledge apt to solve problems connected with the control of the process, from the second one the focus of attention is on the knowledge representation, its structure, elicitation and maintenance, and formal quality assurance. These two aspects of procedure representation can be considered and solved separately. In particular, methodological, formal and management issues require long and tedious activities, that in most cases constitute a great barrier for procedures development and upgrade. To solve these problems, Ansaldo is developing DIAM, a wide integrated tool for procedure management to support in procedure writing, updating, usage, and documentation. One of the most challenging features of DIAM is AUTO-LAY, a CASE sub-tool that, in a complete automatical way, structures parts or complete flow diagram. This is the feature that is partial present in some other CASE products, that, anyway, do not allow complex graph handling and isomorphism between video and paper representation. AUTO-LAY has the unique prerogative to draw graphs of any complexity to section them in pages, and to automatically compose a document. This has been recognized in the literature as the most important a second-generation CASE improvement. (Author) 9 Figs., 5 Refs

  9. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhojani, Upendra; Devedasan, Narayanan; Mishra, Arima; De Henauw, Stefaan; Kolsteren, Patrick; Criel, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes and other chronic conditions.

  10. Health system challenges in organizing quality diabetes care for urban poor in South India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upendra Bhojani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Weak health systems in low- and middle-income countries are recognized as the major constraint in responding to the rising burden of chronic conditions. Despite recognition by global actors for the need for research on health systems, little attention has been given to the role played by local health systems. We aim to analyze a mixed local health system to identify the main challenges in delivering quality care for diabetes mellitus type 2. METHODS: We used the health system dynamics framework to analyze a health system in KG Halli, a poor urban neighborhood in South India. We conducted semi-structured interviews with healthcare providers located in and around the neighborhood who provide care to diabetes patients: three specialist and 13 non-specialist doctors, two pharmacists, and one laboratory technician. Observations at the health facilities were recorded in a field diary. Data were analyzed through thematic analysis. RESULT: There is a lack of functional referral systems and a considerable overlap in provision of outpatient care for diabetes across the different levels of healthcare services in KG Halli. Inadequate use of patients' medical records and lack of standard treatment protocols affect clinical decision-making. The poor regulation of the private sector, poor systemic coordination across healthcare providers and healthcare delivery platforms, widespread practice of bribery and absence of formal grievance redress platforms affect effective leadership and governance. There appears to be a trust deficit among patients and healthcare providers. The private sector, with a majority of healthcare providers lacking adequate training, operates to maximize profit, and healthcare for the poor is at best seen as charity. CONCLUSIONS: Systemic impediments in local health systems hinder the delivery of quality diabetes care to the urban poor. There is an urgent need to address these weaknesses in order to improve care for diabetes

  11. PROCESS VARIABILITY REDUCTION THROUGH STATISTICAL PROCESS CONTROL FOR QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.P. Mahesh

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Quality has become one of the most important customer decision factors in the selection among the competing product and services. Consequently, understanding and improving quality is a key factor leading to business success, growth and an enhanced competitive position. Hence quality improvement program should be an integral part of the overall business strategy. According to TQM, the effective way to improve the Quality of the product or service is to improve the process used to build the product. Hence, TQM focuses on process, rather than results as the results are driven by the processes. Many techniques are available for quality improvement. Statistical Process Control (SPC is one such TQM technique which is widely accepted for analyzing quality problems and improving the performance of the production process. This article illustrates the step by step procedure adopted at a soap manufacturing company to improve the Quality by reducing process variability using Statistical Process Control.

  12. A quality improvement management model for renal care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlchek, D L; Day, L M

    1991-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore the potential for applying the theory and tools of quality improvement (total quality management) in the renal care setting. We believe that the coupling of the statistical techniques used in the Deming method of quality improvement, with modern approaches to outcome and process analysis, will provide the renal care community with powerful tools, not only for improved quality (i.e., reduced morbidity and mortality), but also for technology evaluation and resource allocation.

  13. Shift Work and Sleep Quality Among Urban Police Officers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekedulegn, Desta; Burchfiel, Cecil M.; Charles, Luenda E.; Hartley, Tara A.; Andrew, Michael E.; Violanti, John M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the study was to examine association of shift work with sleep quality in police officers. Methods Data were obtained from the Buffalo Cardio-Metabolic Occupational Police Stress study (n =363). An electronic work history database was used to define shift as day, afternoon, or night for three durations: past month, 1 year, and 15 years. Sleep quality was determined using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results The overall prevalence of poor sleep quality was 54%; 44% for day, 60% for afternoon, and 69% for night shift. Poor sleep quality was 70% more prevalent among night-shift officers (P shift (P =0.003) relative to officers working on the day shift. Conclusions Night and evening work schedules are associated with elevated prevalence of poor sleep quality among police officers. PMID:26949891

  14. Urban Hydrology and Water Quality Modeling - Resolution Modeling Comparison for Water Quantity and Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, T. J.; Maxwell, R. M.

    2014-12-01

    Urbanization presents challenging water resource problems for communities worldwide. The hydromodifications associated with urbanization results in increased runoff rates and volumes and increased peak flows. These hydrologic changes can lead to increased erosion and stream destabilization, decreased evapotranspiration, decreased ground water recharge, increases in pollutant loading, and localized anthropogenic climate change or Urban Heat Islands. Stormwater represents a complex and dynamic component of the urban water cycle that requires careful mitigation. With the implementation of Phase II rules under the CWA, stormwater management is shifting from a drainage-efficiency focus to a natural systems focus. The natural system focus, referred to as Low Impact Development (LID), or Green Infrastructure, uses best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the impacts caused by urbanization hydromodification. Large-scale patterns of stormwater runoff from urban environments are complex and it is unclear what the large-scale impacts of green infrastructure are on the water cycle. High resolution physically based hydrologic models can be used to more accurately simulate the urban hydrologic cycle. These types of models tend to be more dynamic and allow for greater flexibility in evaluating and accounting for various hydrologic processes in the urban environment that may be lost with lower resolution conceptual models. We propose to evaluate the effectiveness of high resolution models to accurately represent and determine the urban hydrologic cycle with the overall goal of being able to accurately assess the impacts of LID BMPs in urban environments. We propose to complete a rigorous model intercomparison between ParFlow and FLO-2D. Both of these models can be scaled to higher resolutions, allow for rainfall to be spatially and temporally input, and solve the shallow water equations. Each model is different in the way it accounts for infiltration, initial abstraction losses

  15. Improving Urban Water Environment in Eastern China by Blending Traditional with Modern Landscape Planning

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Jiajie; Yu, Junjun; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Cai; Wang, Hao

    2017-01-01

    As a fundamental part of greenspace, urban water landscape contributes greatly to the ecological system and at the same time supplies a leisure area for residents. The paper did an analysis on the number of aquatic plant communities, the form of water spaces, and water quality condition by investigating 135 quadrats (90 at amphibious boundary and the land, 45 in the water) in 45 transects of 15 urban and suburban parks. We found that water spaces had monotonous forms with low biodiversity and...

  16. Applying Triz for Production Quality Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swee Nikalus Shu Luing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to provide a thorough analysis on the application of TRIZ in improving the quality of canned food production. TRIZ tools such as engineering systems analysis, function analysis, cause and effect chain analysis, By-separation model and 40 Inventive Principles are applied in order to discover some feasible and elegant solutions to alleviate the problem. Findings revealed that the rejected canned products on the conveyor belt will be isolated or picked up with other good condition canned products which are lined up very closely to the rejected cans; though the visioning system is able detect the fault printing on the canned product. The main root cause is that the rejected canned product is picked up with other canned products in good condition because all cans are lined up on the belt and are very close to each other or having no gaps between the cans. Conversely, all cans on the conveyor belts are required to be very close to each other to avoid collisions that may damage the cans. The root cause is solved by applying function analysis, By-separation tool and Inventive Principles. Therefore, it can be concluded that TRIZ is a powerful tool in inventive problem solving.

  17. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  18. Development of urban runoff model FFC-QUAL for first-flush water-quality analysis in urban drainage basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sungchul; Nam, Kisung; Kim, Jungsoo; Kwak, Changjae

    2018-01-01

    An urban runoff model that is able to compute the runoff, the pollutant loadings, and the concentrations of water-quality constituents in urban drainages during the first flush was developed. This model, which is referred to as FFC-QUAL, was modified from the existing ILLUDAS model and added for use during the water-quality analysis process for dry and rainy periods. For the dry period, the specifications of the coefficients for the discharge and water quality were used. During rainfall, we used the Clark and time-area methods for the runoff analyses of pervious and impervious areas to consider the effects of the subbasin shape; moreover, four pollutant accumulation methods and the washoff equation for computing the water quality each time were used. According to the verification results, FFC-QUAL provides generally similar output as the measured data for the peak flow, total runoff volume, total loadings, peak concentration, and time of peak concentration for three rainfall events in the Gunja subbasin. In comparison with the ILLUDAS, SWMM, and MOUSE models, there is little difference between these models and the model developed in this study. The proposed model should be useful in urban watersheds because of its simplicity and its capacity to model common pollutants (e.g., biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, Escherichia coli, suspended solids, and total nitrogen and phosphorous) in runoff. The proposed model can also be used in design studies to determine how changes in infrastructure will affect the runoff and pollution loads. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Toward improved public health outcomes from urban nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Danielle F; Lin, Brenda B; Bush, Robert; Gaston, Kevin J; Dean, Julie H; Barber, Elizabeth; Fuller, Richard A

    2015-03-01

    There is mounting concern for the health of urban populations as cities expand at an unprecedented rate. Urban green spaces provide settings for a remarkable range of physical and mental health benefits, and pioneering health policy is recognizing nature as a cost-effective tool for planning healthy cities. Despite this, limited information on how specific elements of nature deliver health outcomes restricts its use for enhancing population health. We articulate a framework for identifying direct and indirect causal pathways through which nature delivers health benefits, and highlight current evidence. We see a need for a bold new research agenda founded on testing causality that transcends disciplinary boundaries between ecology and health. This will lead to cost-effective and tailored solutions that could enhance population health and reduce health inequalities.

  20. Sensitivity of a complex urban air quality model to input data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seigneur, C.; Tesche, T.W.; Roth, P.M.; Reid, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    In recent years, urban-scale photochemical simulation models have been developed that are of practical value for predicting air quality and analyzing the impacts of alternative emission control strategies. Although the performance of some urban-scale models appears to be acceptable, the demanding data requirements of such models have prompted concern about the costs of data acquistion, which might be high enough to preclude use of photochemical models for many urban areas. To explore this issue, sensitivity studies with the Systems Applications, Inc. (SAI) Airshed Model, a grid-based time-dependent photochemical dispersion model, have been carried out for the Los Angeles basin. Reductions in the amount and quality of meteorological, air quality and emission data, as well as modifications of the model gridded structure, have been analyzed. This paper presents and interprets the results of 22 sensitivity studies. A sensitivity-uncertainty index is defined to rank input data needs for an urban photochemical model. The index takes into account the sensitivity of model predictions to the amount of input data, the costs of data acquistion, and the uncertainties in the air quality model input variables. The results of these sensitivity studies are considered in light of the limitations of specific attributes of the Los Angeles basin and of the modeling conditions (e.g., choice of wind model, length of simulation time). The extent to which the results may be applied to other urban areas also is discussed

  1. Improving E-Bike Safety on Urban Highways in China

    OpenAIRE

    Linjun Lu; Chen Wang; Tao Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to examine characteristics of e-bike fatal crashes on urban highways in China. Crash data were retrieved from the three-year crash reports (2010–2012) of Taixing City. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine characteristics of e-bike riders, drivers, and crashes. The important findings include the following: (1) most fatal crashes were related to e-bike riders’ aberrant driving behaviors, including driving in motorized lanes, red-light running, driving against the direct...

  2. Air Quality in Mexico City: Policies Implemented for its Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramo, V.

    2007-12-01

    Ozone and suspended particles (PM) are two pollutants in the atmosphere of Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) that still exceed the recommended Mexican health standards. The other criteria pollutants very seldom exceed their corresponding standards. In 2006, the maximum ozone concentrations were above the health standard (0.11 ppm in 1 hour) during 59 percent of the days for an average of 2.2 hours and 130 points of the Air Quality Index (Índice Metropolitano de la Calidad del Aire - IMECA). In contrast, in 1991, 98 percent of the days exceeded the ozone health standard for an average of 6.6 hours and 200 IMECA points. With regards to PM10, in 2006, 80 percent of the sampled concentrations were below the health standard of 120 µg/m3 in 24 hours. However, the annual health standard of 50 µg/m3 is still exceeded. The air quality management in the MCMA is a difficult task due to several adverse factors. The main one is the large population that increased from nearly 15 million in 1992 to more than 18 million at present. As a result, the urban area grows in the adjoined municipalities of the State of Mexico. The vehicular fleet increases also to almost 4 million and the number of industrial facilities is at present 50,000. Consequently, the fuel consumption is very high. The daily energy consumption is estimated to be 44 million liters of equivalent of gasoline. Despite the fact that the air quality has improved in recent years, the related health standards are still exceeded and therefore it is necessary to continue applying the most cost-effective actions to improve the environment quality. Some actions that have contributed most to the reduction of pollutant emissions are the following: Continuous update of the inspection and maintenance program of the vehicular fleet; substitution of the catalytic converters at the end of their useful life; self-regulation of the diesel fleet; use of alternative fuels; update the No-Driving-Day program; establishment of more

  3. Watershed features and stream water quality: Gaining insight through path analysis in a Midwest urban landscape, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayu Wu; Timothy W. Stewart; Janette R. Thompson; Randy Kolka; Kristie J. Franz

    2015-01-01

    Urban stream condition is often degraded by human activities in the surrounding watershed. Given the complexity of urban areas, relationships among variables that cause stream degradation can be difficult to isolate. We examined factors affecting stream condition by evaluating social, terrestrial, stream hydrology and water quality variables from 20 urban stream...

  4. Water Quality Changes during Rapid Urbanization in the Shenzhen River Catchment: An Integrated View of Socio-Economic and Infrastructure Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-peng Qin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Surface water quality deterioration is a serious problem in many rapidly urbanizing catchments in developing countries. There is currently a lack of studies that quantify water quality variation (deterioration or otherwise due to both socio-economic and infrastructure development in a catchment. This paper investigates the causes of water quality changes over the rapid urbanization period of 1985–2009 in the Shenzhen River catchment, China and examines the changes in relation to infrastructure development and socio-economic policies. The results indicate that the water quality deteriorated rapidly during the earlier urbanization stages before gradually improving over recent years, and that rapid increases in domestic discharge were the major causes of water quality deterioration. Although construction of additional wastewater infrastructure can significantly improve water quality, it was unable to dispose all of the wastewater in the catchment. However, it was found that socio-economic measures can significantly improve water quality by decreasing pollutant load per gross regional production (GRP or increasing labor productivity. Our findings suggest that sustainable development during urbanization is possible, provided that: (1 the wastewater infrastructure should be constructed timely and revitalized regularly in line with urbanization, and wastewater treatment facilities should be upgraded to improve their nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies; (2 administrative regulation policies, economic incentives and financial policies should be implemented to encourage industries to prevent or reduce the pollution at the source; (3 the environmental awareness and education level of local population should be increased; (4 planners from various sectors should consult each other and adapt an integrated planning approach for socio-economic and wastewater infrastructure development.

  5. A state of the art regarding urban air quality prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Cristiana; Nastase, Ilinca

    2018-02-01

    Urban pollution represents an increasing risk to residents of urban regions, particularly in large, over-industrialized cities knowing that the traffic is responsible for more than 25% of air gaseous pollutants and dust particles. Air quality modelling plays an important role in addressing air pollution control and management approaches by providing guidelines for better and more efficient air quality forecasting, along with smart monitoring sensor networks. The advances in technology regarding simulations, forecasting and monitoring are part of the new smart cities which offers a healthy environment for their occupants.

  6. A state of the art regarding urban air quality prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croitoru Cristiana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban pollution represents an increasing risk to residents of urban regions, particularly in large, over-industrialized cities knowing that the traffic is responsible for more than 25% of air gaseous pollutants and dust particles. Air quality modelling plays an important role in addressing air pollution control and management approaches by providing guidelines for better and more efficient air quality forecasting, along with smart monitoring sensor networks. The advances in technology regarding simulations, forecasting and monitoring are part of the new smart cities which offers a healthy environment for their occupants.

  7. How do Housing Subsidies Improve Quality of Life Among Homeless Adults? A Mediation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Maria; Sint, Kyaw; Rosenheck, Robert

    2018-03-01

    Supported housing, combining rent subsidies with intensive case management, is associated with improvements in quality of life of homeless adults, but factors mediating their impact on quality of life have not been studied. Twelve-month outcome data from a randomized trial of the Housing and Urban Development- Veterans Affairs Supported Housing program (HUD-VASH) showed that access to a housing rent subsidy plus intensive case management (ICM) was associated with greater improvement in subjective quality of life than ICM alone. Multiple mediation analyses were applied to identify variables that significantly mediated the relationship between receipt of housing voucher and improvements in quality of life. Significant mediating covariates were those whose 95% bias-corrected confidence intervals, when added to the model predicting improvement in quality of life, did not overlap zero. Increases in the number of days housed, size of social network, and availability of emotional support appear to mediate improvement in quality of life and account for 71% of the benefit attributable to having a rent subsidy. Improvement in subjective quality of life though housing subsidies is mediated by gains in both material and psychosocial factors. Mediating factors deserve special attention in supported housing services. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  8. How changing quality management influenced PGME accreditation: a focus on decentralization and quality improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdemir, Nesibe; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Paternotte, Emma; Schreuder, Bas; Scheele, Fedde

    2017-01-01

    Background: Evaluating the quality of postgraduate medical education (PGME) programs through accreditation is common practice worldwide. Accreditation is shaped by educational quality and quality management. An appropriate accreditation design is important, as it may drive improvements in training.

  9. Groundwater quality assessment of urban Bengaluru using multivariate statistical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulgundi, Mohammad Shahid; Shetty, Amba

    2018-03-01

    Groundwater quality deterioration due to anthropogenic activities has become a subject of prime concern. The objective of the study was to assess the spatial and temporal variations in groundwater quality and to identify the sources in the western half of the Bengaluru city using multivariate statistical techniques. Water quality index rating was calculated for pre and post monsoon seasons to quantify overall water quality for human consumption. The post-monsoon samples show signs of poor quality in drinking purpose compared to pre-monsoon. Cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were applied to the groundwater quality data measured on 14 parameters from 67 sites distributed across the city. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) grouped the 67 sampling stations into two groups, cluster 1 having high pollution and cluster 2 having lesser pollution. Discriminant analysis (DA) was applied to delineate the most meaningful parameters accounting for temporal and spatial variations in groundwater quality of the study area. Temporal DA identified pH as the most important parameter, which discriminates between water quality in the pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons and accounts for 72% seasonal assignation of cases. Spatial DA identified Mg, Cl and NO3 as the three most important parameters discriminating between two clusters and accounting for 89% spatial assignation of cases. Principal component analysis was applied to the dataset obtained from the two clusters, which evolved three factors in each cluster, explaining 85.4 and 84% of the total variance, respectively. Varifactors obtained from principal component analysis showed that groundwater quality variation is mainly explained by dissolution of minerals from rock water interactions in the aquifer, effect of anthropogenic activities and ion exchange processes in water.

  10. Do competition and managed care improve quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Nazmi

    2002-10-01

    In recent years, the US health care industry has experienced a rapid growth of managed care, formation of networks, and an integration of hospitals. This paper provides new insights about the quality consequences of this dynamic in US hospital markets. I empirically investigate the impact of managed care and hospital competition on quality using in-hospital complications as quality measures. I use random and fixed effects, and instrumental variable fixed effect models using hospital panel data from up to 16 states in the 1992-1997 period. The paper has two important findings: First, higher managed care penetration increases the quality, when inappropriate utilization, wound infections and adverse/iatrogenic complications are used as quality indicators. For other complication categories, coefficient estimates are statistically insignificant. These findings do not support the straightforward view that increases in managed care penetration are associated with decreases in quality. Second, both higher hospital market share and market concentration are associated with lower quality of care. Hospital mergers have undesirable quality consequences. Appropriate antitrust policies towards mergers should consider not only price and cost but also quality impacts. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence or? the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  12. Good air quality in offices improves productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fanger, Povl Ole

    2000-01-01

    Three recent independent studies have documented that the quality of indoor air has a significant and positive influence on the productivity of office workers. A combined analysis of the results of the three studies shows a significant relationship between productivity and perceived indoor air...... quality. The impact on productivity justifies a much higher indoor air quality than the minimum levels prescribed in present standards and guidelines. One way of providing air of high quality for people to breathe, without involving excessive ventilation rates and energy use, is to provide "personalized...

  13. Characteristics of selected elements of the air quality management system in urban areas in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sówka, Izabela; Kobus, Dominik; Chlebowska Styś, Anna; Zathey, Maciej

    2017-11-01

    Most of Europeans living in cities are exposed to concentrations of air pollutants in excess of the thresholds given in the WHO guidelines and EU legislation. Due to this fact, for the urban air quality systems, the mechanisms of proper information and warning of the inhabitants as well as legal, economic and spatial planning instruments should be improved. The analysis of Polish air quality management system and its' selected components (exemplary measures, information-spreading methods, spatial planning instruments) in four selected Polish cities (Wroclaw, Warsaw, Poznan and Cracow) indicated the need to develop effective solutions, among others, in terms of: emission requirements for combustion of fuels of power of up to 1 MW; admission of high emission fuels on the market; legal and coordination issues at the level of implementation of the area development policy and coordination of activities covering issues within the scope of the structure of planning documents including mainly: ambient air protection programs, spatial developments plans in communes and voivodeships, low emission economy plans, plans of sustainable development of public transport, plans of providing heat, electric power and gas fuels to communes, acts of regional parliaments, introducing limitations based on the Environmental Protection Act and strategies of voivodeship.

  14. Assessing Essential Qualities of Urban Space with Emotional and Visual Data Based on GIS Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Finding a method to evaluate people’s emotional responses to urban spaces in a valid and objective way is fundamentally important for urban design practices and related policy making. Analysis of the essential qualities of urban space could be made both more effective and more accurate using innovative information techniques that have become available in the era of big data. This study introduces an integrated method based on geographical information systems (GIS and an emotion-tracking technique to quantify the relationship between people’s emotional responses and urban space. This method can evaluate the degree to which people’s emotional responses are influenced by multiple urban characteristics such as building shapes and textures, isovist parameters, visual entropy, and visual fractals. The results indicate that urban spaces may influence people’s emotional responses through both spatial sequence arrangements and shifting scenario sequences. Emotional data were collected with body sensors and GPS devices. Spatial clustering was detected to target effective sampling locations; then, isovists were generated to extract building textures. Logistic regression and a receiver operating characteristic analysis were used to determine the key isovist parameters and the probabilities that they influenced people’s emotion. Finally, based on the results, we make some suggestions for design professionals in the field of urban space optimization.

  15. Title IV Quality Control Project, Stage II. Management Option II: Delivery System Quality Improvements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Advanced Technology, Inc., Reston, VA.

    Stage Two of the Title IV Quality Control Project is an integrated study of quality in five related Federal financial aid programs for postsecondary students. Section 1 of the paper establishes a framework for defining quality improvements, in order to identify the types of changes that would tend to improve quality across all facets of the…

  16. Assessing the link between coastal urbanization and the quality of nekton habitat in mangrove tidal tributaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Justin M.; Bell, Susan S.; McIvor, Carole C.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the potential influence of coastal development on habitat quality for estuarine nekton, we characterized body condition and reproduction for common nekton from tidal tributaries classified as undeveloped, industrial, urban or man-made (i.e., mosquito-control ditches). We then evaluated these metrics of nekton performance, along with several abundance-based metrics and community structure from a companion paper (Krebs et al. 2013) to determine which metrics best reflected variation in land-use and in-stream habitat among tributaries. Body condition was not significantly different among undeveloped, industrial, and man-made tidal tributaries for six of nine taxa; however, three of those taxa were in significantly better condition in urban compared to undeveloped tributaries. Palaemonetes shrimp were the only taxon in significantly poorer condition in urban tributaries. For Poecilia latipinna, there was no difference in body condition (length–weight) between undeveloped and urban tributaries, but energetic condition was significantly better in urban tributaries. Reproductive output was reduced for both P. latipinna (i.e., fecundity) and grass shrimp (i.e., very low densities, few ovigerous females) in urban tributaries; however a tradeoff between fecundity and offspring size confounded meaningful interpretation of reproduction among land-use classes for P. latipinna. Reproductive allotment by P. latipinna did not differ significantly among land-use classes. Canonical correspondence analysis differentiated urban and non-urban tributaries based on greater impervious surface, less natural mangrove shoreline, higher frequency of hypoxia and lower, more variable salinities in urban tributaries. These characteristics explained 36 % of the variation in nekton performance, including high densities of poeciliid fishes, greater energetic condition of sailfin mollies, and low densities of several common nekton and economically important taxa from urban tributaries

  17. Impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality in the Seoul metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Ryu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Modified local meteorology owing to heterogeneities in the urban–rural surface can affect urban air quality. In this study, the impacts of urban land-surface forcing on ozone air quality during a high ozone (O3 episode in the Seoul metropolitan area, South Korea, are investigated using a high-resolution chemical transport model (CMAQ. Under fair weather conditions, the temperature excess (urban heat island significantly modifies boundary layer characteristics/structures and local circulations. The modified boundary layer and local circulations result in an increase in O3 levels in the urban area of 16 ppb in the nighttime and 13 ppb in the daytime. Enhanced turbulence in the deep urban boundary layer dilutes pollutants such as NOx, and this contributes to the elevated O3 levels through the reduced O3 destruction by NO in the NOx-rich environment. The advection of O3 precursors over the mountains near Seoul by the prevailing valley-breeze circulation in the mid- to late morning results in the build-up of O3 over the mountains in conjunction with biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC emissions there. As the prevailing local circulation in the afternoon changes to urban-breeze circulation, the O3-rich air masses over the mountains are advected over the urban area. The urban-breeze circulation exerts significant influences on not only the advection of O3 but also the chemical production of O3 under the circumstances in which both anthropogenic and biogenic (natural emissions play important roles in O3 formation. As the air masses that are characterized by low NOx and high BVOC levels and long OH chain length are advected over the urban area from the surroundings, the ozone production efficiency increases in the urban area. The relatively strong vertical mixing in the urban boundary layer embedded in the

  18. Do farm audits improve milk quality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores-Miyamoto, A.; Reij, M.W.; Velthuis, A.G.J.

    2014-01-01

    Milk quality is assessed using bulk milk analysis and by farm audits in the Netherlands. However, the extent of the effect that dairy farm audits have on milk quality is unknown. Data from over 13,000 audits performed on 12,855 dairy farms from February 2006 to April 2008 were merged with laboratory

  19. The Effect of Increasing Surface Albedo on Urban Climate and Air Quality: A Detailed Study for Sacramento, Houston, and Chicago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jandaghian

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasing surface reflectivity in urban areas can decrease ambient temperature, resulting in reducing photochemical reaction rates, reducing cooling energy demands and thus improving air quality and human health. The weather research and forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem is coupled with the multi-layer of the urban canopy model (ML-UCM to investigate the effects of surface modification on urban climate in a two-way nested approach over North America focusing on Sacramento, Houston, and Chicago during the 2011 heat wave period. This approach decreases the uncertainties associated with scale separation and grid resolution and equip us with an integrated simulation setup to capture the full impacts of meteorological and photochemical reactions. WRF-ChemV3.6.1 simulated the diurnal variation of air temperature reasonably well, overpredicted wind speed and dew point temperature, underpredicted relative humidity, overpredicted ozone and nitrogen dioxide concentrations, and underpredicted fine particular matters (PM2.5. The performance of PM2.5 is a combination of overprediction of particulate sulfate and underprediction of particulate nitrate and organic carbon. Increasing the surface albedo of roofs, walls, and pavements from 0.2 to 0.65, 0.60, and 0.45, respectively, resulted in a decrease in air temperature by 2.3 °C in urban areas and 0.7 °C in suburban areas; a slight increase in wind speed; an increase in relative humidity (3% and dew point temperature (0.3 °C; a decrease of PM2.5 and O3 concentrations by 2.7 µg/m3 and 6.3 ppb in urban areas and 1.4 µg/m3 and 2.5 ppb in suburban areas, respectively; minimal changes in PM2.5 subspecies; and a decrease of nitrogen dioxide (1 ppb in urban areas.

  20. A history of industrial statistics and quality and efficiency improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mast, J.; Coleman, S.; Greenfield, T.; Stewardson, D.; Montgomery, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    The twentieth century witnessed incredible increases in product quality, while in the same period product priced dropped dramatically. These important improvements in quality and efficiency in industry were the result of innovations in management and engineering. But these developments were

  1. 40 CFR 64.8 - Quality improvement plan (QIP) requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quality improvement plan (QIP... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) COMPLIANCE ASSURANCE MONITORING § 64.8 Quality improvement plan (QIP) requirements. (a.... (iii) Appropriate improvements to control methods. (iv) Other steps appropriate to correct control...

  2. Improving Quality Higher Education in Nigeria: The Roles of Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiyai, Romina Ifeoma

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the roles of stakeholders in improving quality of university education in Nigeria. Internal and external stakeholders are identified and the various roles they could play in improving the quality of university education are discussed. The paper contends that continuous and holistic improvement in university education system…

  3. Application of improved quality control technology to pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriedt, F.

    1985-01-01

    Within the last decade, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII-1 instituted requirements for a formal written quality control system. The results, good and bad, of this requirement are discussed. The effects are far reaching from a national economic standpoint. Quality control technology has improved. These improvements are discussed and compared to existing requirements of the CODE. Recommended improvements are suggested

  4. Estuarine habitat quality reflects urbanization at large spatial scales in South Carolina's coastal zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dolah, Robert F; Riekerk, George H M; Bergquist, Derk C; Felber, Jordan; Chestnut, David E; Holland, A Fredrick

    2008-02-01

    Land cover patterns were evaluated in 29 estuarine watersheds of South Carolina to determine relationships between urban/suburban development and estuarine habitat quality. Principal components analysis and Pearson product moment correlation analyses were used to examine the relationships between ten land cover categories and selected measures of nutrient or bacterial enrichment in the water column and contaminant enrichment in sediments. These analyses indicated strong relationships between land cover categories representing upland development and a composite measure of 24 inorganic and organic contaminants using the Effect Range Median-Quotient (ERM-Q). Similar relationships also were observed for the summed concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides, and metals. Data obtained from tidal creeks generally showed stronger correlations between urban/suburban land use and pesticides and metals compared to data obtained from larger open water habitats. Correlations between PAH concentrations and the urban/suburban land cover categories were similar between creek and open water habitats. PCB concentrations generally showed very little relationship to any of the land cover categories. Measures of nutrient enrichment, which included total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN), nitrate-nitrite, phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and total organic carbon, were generally not significantly correlated with any land cover categories, whereas fecal coliform bacteria were significantly and positively correlated with the urban/suburban land cover categories and negatively correlated with the non-urban land cover categories. Fecal coliform correlations were stronger using data from the open water sites than from the tidal creek sites. Both ERM-Q and fecal coliform concentrations were much greater and more pervasive in watersheds with relatively high (>50%) urban/suburban cover compared to watersheds with low (urban/suburban cover. These

  5. Urban Heat Island Versus Air Quality - a Numerical Modelling Study for a European City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallmann, J.; Forkel, R.; Emeis, S.

    2014-12-01

    In 2050 70% of the global population is expected to live in urban areas. Climate change will render these areas more vulnerable to heat waves, which often are accompanied by severe air pollution problems. The Urban Heat Island (UHI) is a feature that adds to the general temperature increase that is expected. Decreasing the UHI can impact air quality as well, because heat influences atmospheric dynamics and accelerates air chemical processes and often also increases the emission of primary pollutants due to increased demand of energy. The goal of this study is to investigate the effect of, e.g., high reflective surfaces and urban greening on mitigating the UHI and the related impact on air quality. A multi-layer urban canopy model is coupled to the mesoscale model WRF-Chem and the urban area of Stuttgart (South-West Germany) is taken as one example. Different scenario runs are executed for short time periods and are compared to a control run. The results show that the UHI effect can be substantially reduced when changing the albedo of roof surfaces, whereas the effect of urban greening is minor. Both scenarios have in common, that they evoke changes in secondary circulation patterns. The effects of these mitigation strategies on chemical composition of the urban atmosphere are complex, attributed to both chemical and dynamical features. Increasing the reflectivity of roof surfaces in the model results in a net decrease of the surface ozone concentration, because ozone formation is highly correlated to temperature. With regard to primary pollutants, e.g. NO, CO and PM10 concentrations are increased when increasing reflectivity. This effect primarily can be ascribed to a reduction of turbulent motion, convection and a decrease of the boundary layer height, coming along with lower temperatures in the urban canopy layer due to increased reflectivity. The table below shows the effect on grid cell mean concentrations for different chemical species and scenarios.

  6. TRENDS IN URBAN STORM WATER QUALITY IN TALLINN AND INFLUENCES FROM STORMFLOW AND BASEFLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharat Maharjan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Temporal trends provide a good interpretation of change in stormwater quality over time. This study aimed to analyse trends and influences due to stormflow and baseflow. Grab samples of 18-19 years from 1995 to 2014 recorded at outlets of 7 Tallinn watersheds were analysed for monotonic trend through seasonal Mann Kendall test for long-term, short-term, baseflow and stormflow. Statistically significant downward trends (P-value (p 0.05 and < 0.2 for 3 – SS, 1 – BOD, 1 – TN and 1 – TP were identified. Statistically significant long-term upward trends of pH were revealed in 5 basins, which reduced to 2 with 5 less significant upward trends over the 10 year period, indicating improvements in pH reduction. Härjapea has the highest pH without trend but it includes an upward trend of TN at p = 0.051. The highly possible causes for downward trends are street sweeping, sewer network improvement, decline in sub-urban agricultural areas, etc. The upward trend results of pH are related to increased alkalinisation due to acidic rain, weathering of carbonate rocks, sewage discharge and alkaline road dust. In most of the basins, stormflow has more influence on trends than baseflow.

  7. On-site and laboratory evaluations of soundscape quality in recreational urban spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Lærke Cecilie; Larsen, Thea Mathilde; Sørensen, Anna Josefine

    2017-01-01

    Regulations for quiet urban areas are typically based on sound level limits alone. However, the nonacoustic context may be crucial for subjective soundscape quality. Aims: This study aimed at comparing the role of sound level and nonacoustic context for subjective urban soundscape assessment...... in the presence of the full on-site context, the visual context only, and without context. Materials and Methods: Soundscape quality was evaluated for three recreational urban spaces by using four subjective attributes: loudness, acceptance, stressfulness, and comfort. The sound level was measured at each site......, the availability of the visual context in the listening experiment had no significant effect on the ratings. The participants were overall more positive toward natural sound sources on site. Conclusion: The full immersion in the on-site nonacoustic context may be important when evaluating overall soundscape...

  8. Applications of geographic information system and expert system for urban runoff and water quality management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Beum-Hee [Pai Chai University, Taejeon(Korea)

    2001-06-30

    It is very important to select appropriate methods of collecting, predicting, and analyzing information for the development of urban water resources and the prevention of disasters. Thus, in this study an accurate data generation method is developed using Geographic Information System (GIS) and Remote Sensing (RS). The methods of development and application of an expert system are suggested to solve more efficiently the problems of water resources and quality induced by the rapid urbanization. The time-varying data in a large region, the An-Yang Cheon watershed, were reasonably obtained by the application of the GIS using ARC/INFO and RS data. The ESPE (Expert System for Parameter Estimation), an expert system is developed using the CLIPS 6.0. The simulated results showed agreement with the measured data globally. These methods are expected to efficiently simulate the runoff and water quality in the rapidly varying urban area. (author). 10 refs., 4 tabs., 10 figs.

  9. The process of managerial control in quality improvement initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovensky, D J; Fottler, M D

    1994-11-01

    The fundamental intent of strategic management is to position an organization with in its market to exploit organizational competencies and strengths to gain competitive advantage. Competitive advantage may be achieved through such strategies as low cost, high quality, or unique services or products. For health care organizations accredited by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations, continually improving both processes and outcomes of organizational performance--quality improvement--in all operational areas of the organization is a mandated strategy. Defining and measuring quality and controlling the quality improvement strategy remain problematic. The article discusses the nature and processes of managerial control, some potential measures of quality, and related information needs.

  10. Student laboratory reports: an approach to improving feedback and quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingsen, Pål Gunnar; Støvneng, Jon Andreas

    2018-05-01

    We present an ongoing effort in improving the quality of laboratory reports written by first and second year physics students. The effort involves a new approach where students are given the opportunity to submit reports at intermediate deadlines, receive feedback, and then resubmit for the final deadline. In combination with a differential grading system, instead of pass/fail, the improved feedback results in higher quality reports. Improvement in the quality of the reports is visible through the grade statistics.

  11. Quality improvement teaching at medical school: a student perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Pooja; Barai, Ishani; Prasad, Sunila; Gadhvi, Karishma

    2016-01-01

    Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit

  12. Quality improvement teaching at medical school: a student perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nair P

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pooja Nair, Ishani Barai, Sunila Prasad, Karishma Gadhvi Department of Medicine, Imperial College School of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Guidelines in the UK require all doctors to actively take part in quality improvement. To ease future doctors into the process, formal quality improvement teaching can be delivered during medical school. Keywords: quality improvement, medical school, patient safety, patient satisfaction, medical student, clinical audit

  13. Quality control of rain data used for urban runoff systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, H. K.; Rosenørn, S.; Madsen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    for collection and quality control of rain data from a network of tipping bucket rain gauges in Denmark carried out by the Danish Meteorological Institute. During rain, the RIMCO gauge counts the number of tips teach of 0.2 mm of precipitation) every minute, The quality control of the rain data includes...... an automatic and a manual bit marking, where the automatic control basically is pointing out minutes with extreme intensities. In the manual control, the maximum intensities as well as the daily totals of precipitation are inspected, using weather charts, intensity plots and precipitation sums of nearby...

  14. Lake Tahoe Water Quality Improvement Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the Lake Tahoe watershed, EPA's protection efforts, water quality issues, effects of climate, change, Lake Tahoe Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL), EPA-sponsored projects, and list of partner agencies.

  15. Productivity quality improvement at UNC Geotech

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The program to improve productivity is presented in a series of view graphs. Key elements of the program are: CEO leadership and commitment; measurable improvements; specific annual goals; system for sharing benefits of improvements; practical training for employees; and intent to institutionalize

  16. Contribution of ecosystem services to air quality and climate change mitigation policies: The case of urban forests in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesc Baró; Lydia Chaparro; Erik Gómez-Baggethun; Johannes Langemeyer; David J. Nowak; Jaume. Terradas

    2014-01-01

    Mounting research highlights the contribution of ecosystem services provided by urban forests to quality of life in cities, yet these services are rarely explicitly considered in environmental policy targets. We quantify regulating services provided by urban forests and evaluate their contribution to comply with policy targets of air quality and climate change...

  17. Urban Ideas From Around the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Liansheng

    2010-01-01

    @@ The Urban Best Practices Area (UBPA) of the World Expo in Shanghai aims to introduce various ongoing practices designed to improve the quality of urban life as global urbanization increases,and provide a platform for all the cities of the world to share and exchange experiences in urban management and development.

  18. Product Quality and the Demand for Food: The Case of Urban China

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Diansheng; Gould, Brian W.

    2007-01-01

    A Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System is used to examine the structure of food demand for a sample of urban Chinese households. The dual choice of product quality and quantity is accounted for in the econometric model via the inclusion of simultaneously estimated unit-value equations.

  19. Situational analysis of the microbial water quality in a peri-urban catchment in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venter, SN

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A situational analysis of a peri-urban catchment experiencing microbial water quality problems was carried out using data collected over two and a half years. The water and land use in the area was determined. The main sources of pollution were...

  20. Context in Quality of Care: Improving Teamwork and Resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Daniel S; Sexton, John Bryan; Adair, Kathryn C; Kaplan, Heather C; Profit, Jochen

    2017-09-01

    Quality improvement in health care is an ongoing challenge. Consideration of the context of the health care system is of paramount importance. Staff resilience and teamwork climate are key aspects of context that drive quality. Teamwork climate is dynamic, with well-established tools available to improve teamwork for specific tasks or global applications. Similarly, burnout and resilience can be modified with interventions such as cultivating gratitude, positivity, and awe. A growing body of literature has shown that teamwork and burnout relate to quality of care, with improved teamwork and decreased burnout expected to produce improved patient quality and safety. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Leveraging Spatial Data to Assess Where Sewers Leak and Impinge on Urban Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, P. A.; Roehrdanz, P.; Lee, D. G.; Feraud, M.; Maier, M.; Means, J. C.; Snyder, S.

    2017-12-01

    In the modern urban water environment (UWE), engineered systems provide wastewater collection, treatment, and reuse; stormwater and graywater management; and potable water treatment, distribution and conservation. Underpinning such systems are physical, private and public, infrastructures whose integrities impinge on major goals of protecting groundwater and surface water resources, managing flooding, and securing safe drinking water. Here we study sanitary sewers, i.e. the main pipes in wastewater collection systems that improve public health by reducing pathogen exposure, and that afford reclaiming water for beneficial reuse. We ask: what is the relationship between sanitary sewer integrity and nearby water quality? Research methods include acquiring spatially defined sewer metadata that are analyzed using a published pipe leakage algorithm with variables of age, depth, materials of construction, length, diameter, slope, and nature of overburden. By executing the algorithm within a geographical information system (GIS), coupled with relating leakage probabilities to shallow groundwater table proximities—also digitally assembled, from well depth data—maps of wastewater exfiltration scores were produced for a city. Field sampling shallow groundwater allowed assessing concentrations of wastewater indicator compounds including personal care products and pharmaceuticals (PCPPs), and showing positive relationships between wastewater exfiltration scores and tryptophan-like fluorescence (TLF), reactive nitrogen species, an artificial sweetener acesulfame, and a stable isotope of oxygen (δ18O). The approach is extended to surface waters, where exfiltrating wastewater may transport from leaking sanitary sewers through the unsaturated zone to nearby storm drains or to storm drains that are submerged in contaminated groundwater. Spatially assessing sewer interactions within the UWE, as such, could aid urban infrastructure management and investment.

  2. Urban housing quality and its health implications in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further analysis reveals that the quality of housing varies across the residential areas identified in the city. Similarly, environmental health challenges vary across the three residential areas in Lokoja. The study recommends that low cost housing scheme should be established in Lokoja as this may reduce housing problems ...

  3. Urban cultivation in allotments maintains soil qualities adversely affected by conventional agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Jill L; Davies, Zoe G; Gaston, Kevin J; Leake, Jonathan R

    2014-08-01

    Modern agriculture, in seeking to maximize yields to meet growing global food demand, has caused loss of soil organic carbon (SOC) and compaction, impairing critical regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which humans also depend. Own-growing makes an important contribution to food security in urban areas globally, but its effects on soil qualities that underpin ecosystem service provision are currently unknown. We compared the main indicators of soil quality; SOC storage, total nitrogen (TN), C : N ratio and bulk density (BD) in urban allotments to soils from the surrounding agricultural region, and between the allotments and other urban greenspaces in a typical UK city. A questionnaire was used to investigate allotment management practices that influence soil properties. Allotment soils had 32% higher SOC concentrations and 36% higher C : N ratios than pastures and arable fields and 25% higher TN and 10% lower BD than arable soils. There was no significant difference between SOC concentration in allotments and urban non-domestic greenspaces, but it was higher in domestic gardens beneath woody vegetation. Allotment soil C : N ratio exceeded that in non-domestic greenspaces, but was lower than that in garden soil. Three-quarters of surveyed allotment plot holders added manure, 95% composted biomass on-site, and many added organic-based fertilizers and commercial composts. This may explain the maintenance of SOC, C : N ratios, TN and low BD, which are positively associated with soil functioning. Synthesis and applications . Maintenance and protection of the quality of our soil resource is essential for sustainable food production and for regulating and supporting ecosystem services upon which we depend. Our study establishes, for the first time, that small-scale urban food production can occur without the penalty of soil degradation seen in conventional agriculture, and maintains the high soil quality seen in urban greenspaces. Given the

  4. Urban air chemistry and diesel vehicles emissions: Quantifying small and big hydrocarbons by CIMS to improve emission inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobson, B. T.; Derstroff, B.; Edtbauer, A.; VanderSchelden, G. S.; Williams, J.

    2017-10-01

    Emissions from vehicles are a major source of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban environments. Photochemical oxidation of VOCs emitted from vehicle exhaust contributes to O3 and PM2.5 formation, harmful pollutants that major urban areas struggle to control. How will a shift to a diesel engine fleet impact urban air chemistry? Diesel vehicles are a growing fraction of the passenger vehicle fleet in Europe as a result of a deliberate policy to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions from the transportation sector (Sullivan et al., 2004). In countries such as France the diesel passenger fleet was already ∼50% of the total in 2009, up from 20% in 1995. Dunmore et al. (2015) have recently inferred that in London, HO radical loss rates to organic compounds is dominated by diesel engine emissions. In the US, increasingly more stringent vehicles emission standards and requirement for improved energy efficiency means spark ignition passenger vehicle emissions have declined significantly over the last 20 years, resulting in the urban diesel fleet traffic (freight trucks) having a growing importance as a source of vehicle pollution (McDonald et al., 2013). The recent scandal involving a major car manufacturer rigging emission controls for diesel passenger cars is a reminder that real world emissions of VOCs from diesel engines are not well understood nor thoroughly accounted for in air quality modeling.

  5. The quality improvement attitude survey: Development and preliminary psychometric characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, Pamela B

    2017-12-01

    To report the development of a tool to measure nurse's attitudes about quality improvement in their practice setting and to examine preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Human factors such as nursing attitudes of complacency have been identified as root causes of sentinel events. Attitudes of nurses concerning use of Quality and Safety Education for nurse's competencies can be most challenging to teach and to change. No tool has been developed measuring attitudes of nurses concerning their role in quality improvement. A descriptive study design with preliminary psychometric evaluation was used to examine the preliminary psychometric characteristics of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale. Registered bedside clinical nurses comprised the sample for the study (n = 57). Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and Cronbach's alpha reliability. Total score and individual item statistics were evaluated. Two open-ended items were used to collect statements about nurses' feelings regarding their experience in quality improvement efforts. Strong support for the internal consistency reliability and face validity of the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale was found. Total scale scores were high indicating nurse participants valued Quality and Safety Education for Nurse competencies in practice. However, item-level statistics indicated nurses felt powerless when other nurses deviate from care standards. Additionally, the sample indicated they did not consistently report patient safety issues and did not have a feeling of value in efforts to improve care. Findings suggested organisational culture fosters nurses' reporting safety issues and feeling valued in efforts to improve care. Participants' narrative comments and item analysis revealed the need to generate new items for the Quality Improvement Nursing Attitude Scale focused on nurses' perception of their importance in quality and

  6. Policy directions in urban health in developing countries--the slum improvement approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpham, T; Stephens, C

    1992-07-01

    The urban development, or housing, sector has a longer experience of addressing the problems of the urban poor in developing countries than the health sector. In recent years the policy of 'slum improvement', which involves both sectors, has attracted the support of international donors. This article documents the development of the slum improvement approach and addresses key issues of the approach which have implications for health planning: covering the poorest dwellers; relocation; land tenure; gentrification; debt burdens and the impact on women. Questions about the approach which still need answering are defined and a summary of the constraints in slum improvement and potential solutions is presented.

  7. How Quality Improvement Practice Evidence Can Advance the Knowledge Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OʼRourke, Hannah M; Fraser, Kimberly D

    2016-01-01

    Recommendations for the evaluation of quality improvement interventions have been made in order to improve the evidence base of whether, to what extent, and why quality improvement interventions affect chosen outcomes. The purpose of this article is to articulate why these recommendations are appropriate to improve the rigor of quality improvement intervention evaluation as a research endeavor, but inappropriate for the purposes of everyday quality improvement practice. To support our claim, we describe the differences between quality improvement interventions that occur for the purpose of practice as compared to research. We then carefully consider how feasibility, ethics, and the aims of evaluation each impact how quality improvement interventions that occur in practice, as opposed to research, can or should be evaluated. Recommendations that fit the evaluative goals of practice-based quality improvement interventions are needed to support fair appraisal of the distinct evidence they produce. We describe a current debate on the nature of evidence to assist in reenvisioning how quality improvement evidence generated from practice might complement that generated from research, and contribute in a value-added way to the knowledge base.

  8. Living Shorelines: Assessing Geomorphic Change and Water Quality in an Urban Waterway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, A.; Schwartz, M. C.; Schmutz, P. P.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, alternative strategies for shoreline armoring have become increasingly popular with coastal property owners. In Northwest Florida, local agencies implemented plans to attenuate wave action and reduce landward shore recession in an urban bayou by installing living shorelines. Living shorelines are constructed in the inter-tidal zones and incorporate both hard and soft structured stabilization. Generally, the hard component is fossilized oyster shells and the soft component is planted intertidal vegetation, such as Spartina alterniflora (Smooth cordgrass) and Juncus roemererianus (Black needlerush). Living shorelines were intended to comprise both ecological and societal implications by significantly slowing erosion processes for property owners, by utilizing oyster beds to improve water quality, and by fostering new ecological habitats in the marsh grasses. The issue presented with living shoreline management is long-term studies have not been carried out on these engineered systems. For this study, geospatial technology was utilized to create 3D images of terrain by interpolation of data points using a TotalStation to compute geomorphic change. Additionally, water samples were analyzed using traditional wet chemistry laboratory methods to determine total oxidized nitrogen (TON), ammonium, and orthophosphate content in water. Over a short three-month preliminary study, sediment accretion was observed primarily within the vegetation with the bulk of the erosion occurring around the oyster beds. TON was detected at levels between 10 µM and 30 µM, ammonium up to 5 µM, and orthophosphate was only detected in very low levels, consistently quality data will be used to establish baseline data for future research to determine volumetric geomorphic change,and to set a standard for water quality trends, surrounding oyster beds and vegetation in response to climatic events.

  9. Improving quality: bridging the health sector divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Mike

    2003-12-01

    All too often, quality assurance looks at just one small part of the complex system that is health care. However, evidently each individual patient has one set of experiences and outcomes, often involving a range of health professionals in a number of settings across multiple sectors. In order to solve the problems of this complexity, we need to establish high-quality electronic recording in each of the settings. In the UK, primary care has been leading the way in adopting information technology and can now use databases for individual clinical care, for quality assurance using significant event and conventional auditing, and for research. Before we can understand and quality-assure the whole health care system, we need electronic patient records in all settings and good communication to build a summary electronic health record for each patient. Such an electronic health record will be under the control of the patient concerned, will be shared with the explicit consent of the patient, and will form the vehicle for quality assurance across all sectors of the health service.

  10. An Urban School Leader's Approach to School Improvement: Toward Contextually Responsive Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Latish C.; Swaminathan, Raji

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines the leadership practices and actions of an urban high school principal who faced many challenges, but worked diligently to improve student achievement and school climate over a 3-year period. Significant improvements were made by using elements of Distributed Leadership, Professional Learning Communities, and Social…

  11. Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving high quality, equitable maternal health services in Malawi (IMCHA) ... In response, the Ministry of Health implemented a Standards-Based Management and Recognition for Reproductive Health initiative to improve ... Total funding.

  12. Modelling the influence of peri-urban trees in the air quality of Madrid region (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Rocio; Vivanco, Marta G.; Gonzalez-Fernandez, Ignacio; Bermejo, Victoria; Palomino, Inmaculada; Garrido, Juan Luis; Elvira, Susana; Salvador, Pedro; Artinano, Begona

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O 3 ) is considered one of the most important air pollutants affecting human health. The role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O 3 concentrations has been analyzed in the Madrid region (Spain) using the V200603par-rc1 version of the CHIMERE air quality model. The 3.7 version of the MM5 meteorological model was used to provide meteorological input data to the CHIMERE. The emissions were derived from the EMEP database for 2003. Land use data and the stomatal conductance model included in CHIMERE were modified according to the latest information available for the study area. Two cases were considered for the period April-September 2003: (1) actual land use and (2) a fictitious scenario where El Pardo peri-urban forest was converted to bare-soil. The results show that El Pardo forest constitutes a sink of O 3 since removing this green area increased O 3 levels over the modified area and over down-wind surrounding areas. - Highlights: → Role of peri-urban vegetation in modifying O 3 pollution in Madrid (Spain). → The CHIMERE air quality model was adapted to Mediterranean conditions. → Preserving the peri-urban forest lowers O 3 concentrations over the surrounding areas. → Evergreen broadleaf and deciduous forests removed more atmospheric O 3 than conifers. - Peri-urban forests contribute to ameliorate ozone air pollution.

  13. Participatory measurements of sustainable urban development and quality of life in post-socialist Zadar, Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavrić Branko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, there has been an intensive discourse and research about measuring sustainable urban development. Many cities, regions and countries have decided to introduce indicators for monitoring and measuring the progress towards sustainability. Today there is a wide spread perception that information on the environment in general, and urban environment in particular, is the determinant of effective rational decisions and allocation of resources. Such information would enable planners and decision makers to formulate redistributive policies and programmes to address some of the disparities that exist in a post-socialist city. Cities of the post-socialist world characterized by sharp disparities, socio-economic contrasts and environmental degradation provide an excellent laboratory for tracing information on the quality of urban life. The current situation in the emerging Croatian coastal city of Zadar reflects the diversity of the post-socialist urban change in a very fragile Mediterranean landscape. This paper takes a critical look at sustainable development and its measurements. It describes the participatory approach through which different local communities in Zadar were evaluating quality of life based on basic pillars of sustainable development. The identification and collection of their opinions provide valuable data base and community input into urban governance and development planning decision making.

  14. Quality improvement primer part 1: Preparing for a quality improvement project in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Lucas B; Cheng, Amy H Y; Stang, Antonia S; Vaillancourt, Samuel

    2018-01-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) providers work in a fast-paced and often hectic environment that has a high risk for patient safety incidents and gaps in the quality of care. These challenges have resulted in opportunities for frontline EM providers to play a role in quality improvement (QI) projects. QI has developed into a mature field with methodologies that can dramatically improve the odds of having a successful project with a sustainable impact. However, this expertise is not yet commonly taught during professional training. In this first of three articles meant as a QI primer for EM clinicians, we will introduce QI methodology and strategic planning using a fictional case study as an example. We will review how to identify a QI problem, define components of an effective problem statement, and identify stakeholders and core change team members. We will also describe three techniques used to perform root cause analyses-Ishikawa diagrams, Pareto charts and process mapping-and how they relate to preparing for a QI project. The next two papers in this series will focus on the execution of the QI project itself using rapid-cycle testing and on the evaluation and sustainability of QI projects.

  15. Chemical predictive modelling to improve compound quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, John G; Davis, Andrew M; Muresan, Sorel; Haeberlein, Markus; Chen, Hongming

    2013-12-01

    The 'quality' of small-molecule drug candidates, encompassing aspects including their potency, selectivity and ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity) characteristics, is a key factor influencing the chances of success in clinical trials. Importantly, such characteristics are under the control of chemists during the identification and optimization of lead compounds. Here, we discuss the application of computational methods, particularly quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), in guiding the selection of higher-quality drug candidates, as well as cultural factors that may have affected their use and impact.

  16. Evaluation of a Quality Improvement Resource for Public Health Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porterfield, Deborah S; Marcial, Laura H; Brown, Stephen; Throop, Cynthia; Pina, Jamie

    Quality improvement is a critical mechanism to manage public health agency performance and to strengthen accountability for public funds. The objective of this study was to evaluate a relatively new quality improvement resource, the Public Health Quality Improvement Exchange (PHQIX), a free online communication platform dedicated to making public health quality improvement information accessible to practitioners. We conducted an internet-based survey of registered PHQIX users (n = 536 respondents) in 2013 and key informant interviews with PHQIX frequent users (n = 21) in 2014, in the United States. We assessed use of the PHQIX website, user engagement and satisfaction, communication and knowledge exchange, use of information, and impact on quality improvement capacity and accreditation readiness. Of 462 respondents, 369 (79.9%) browsed quality improvement initiatives, making it the most commonly used site feature, and respondents described PHQIX as a near-unique source for real-world quality improvement examples. Respondents were satisfied with the quality and breadth of topics and relevance to their settings (average satisfaction scores, 3.9-4.1 [where 5 was the most satisfied]). Of 407 respondents, 237 (58.2%) said that they had put into practice information learned on PHQIX, and 209 of 405 (51.6%) said that PHQIX had helped to improve quality improvement capacity. Fewer than half of respondents used the commenting function, the Community Forum, and the Ask an Expert feature. Findings suggest that PHQIX, particularly descriptions of the quality improvement initiatives, is a valued resource for public health practitioners. Users reported sharing information with colleagues and applying what they learned to their own work. These findings may relate to other efforts to disseminate quality improvement knowledge.

  17. Urban and peri-urban agricultural production in Beijing municipality and its impact on water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolf, J.; Wijk, van M.S.; Cheung, X.; Hu, Y.; Diepen, van C.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Keulen, van H.; Lu, C.H.; Roeter, R.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews water use and water resource issues in Beijing Municipality, the main trends in the agricultural production systems in and around the city with respect to land use, input use, production and economic role, and the impacts of agricultural activities on water quality. Rapid

  18. Households Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia (EEPFE), Ethiopian ... directly—should be able to participate in municipal discussions on improving .... solid waste management (SWM) payment that the public pays for improved ..... 6 Private firms may be subcontracted by the waste collection cooperatives, which are.

  19. Does Automated Feedback Improve Writing Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Joshua; Olinghouse, Natalie G.; Andrada, Gilbert N.

    2014-01-01

    The current study examines data from students in grades 4-8 who participated in a statewide computer-based benchmark writing assessment that featured automated essay scoring and automated feedback. We examined whether the use of automated feedback was associated with gains in writing quality across revisions to an essay, and with transfer effects…

  20. From sensor output to improved product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hertog, M.L.A.T.M.; Vollebregt, Martijntje; Unzueta, I.; Hoofman, R.J.O.M.; Lammertyn, J.

    2015-01-01

    The research conducted in the European PASTEUR project focussed on perishables monitoring through smart tracking of lifetime and quality. The aim was to develop a wireless sensor platform to monitor the environmental conditions of perishable goods in the supply chain between producer and

  1. Data quality improvement in general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, H. J.; Bindels, P. J. E.; Weert, H. C.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The importance of routine data generated by GPs has grown extensively in the last decade. These data have found many applications other than patient care. More attention has therefore been given to the issue of data quality. Several systematic reviews have detected ample space for

  2. Quality assessment and improvements in pathology practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuijpers, C.C.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Every patient has the right to receive optimal quality health care. With regard to pathology practice, a small (interpretational) difference can have major impact for the patient, because prognosis and treatment selection are often based on the pathology report. Unfortunately, it is inevitable that

  3. Improving E-Bike Safety on Urban Highways in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine characteristics of e-bike fatal crashes on urban highways in China. Crash data were retrieved from the three-year crash reports (2010–2012 of Taixing City. Descriptive analysis was conducted to examine characteristics of e-bike riders, drivers, and crashes. The important findings include the following: (1 most fatal crashes were related to e-bike riders’ aberrant driving behaviors, including driving in motorized lanes, red-light running, driving against the direction of traffic, inattentive driving, and drunk driving; (2 e-bike riders with lower educational background tended to perform illegal or inattentive driving behaviors in fatal crashes; (3 most drivers were not found to commit any faults and very few drivers were found to commit drunk driving offences; (4 most nighttime fatal crashes were related to absence of street lightings; (5 heavy good vehicles (HGVs and small passenger cars were the two vehicle types that were mostly involved in the e-bike fatal crashes. This study provides useful information that can help traffic engineers better understand e-bike safety in China and develop safety countermeasures.

  4. Literally better : Analyzing and improving the quality of literals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Wouter; Ilievski, Filip; Debattista, Jeremy; Schlobach, Stefan; Wielemaker, Jan

    2018-01-01

    Quality is a complicated and multifarious topic in contemporary Linked Data research. The aspect of literal quality in particular has not yet been rigorously studied. Nevertheless, analyzing and improving the quality of literals is important since literals form a substantial (one in seven

  5. Quality Improvement in Virtual Higher Education: A Grounded Theory Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdiuon, Rouhollah; Masoumi, Davoud; Farasatkhah, Maghsoud

    2017-01-01

    The article aims to explore the attributes of quality and quality improvement including the process and specific actions associated with these attributes--that contribute enhancing quality in Iranian Virtual Higher Education (VHE) institutions. A total of 16 interviews were conducted with experts and key actors in Iranian virtual higher education.…

  6. Using Quality Tools and Methodologies to Improve a Hospital's Quality Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Daniel; Wicks, Angela M; Visich, John K

    2017-01-01

    The authors identify the quality tools and methodologies most frequently used by quality-positioned hospitals versus nonquality hospitals. Northeastern U.S. hospitals in both groups received a brief, 12-question survey. The authors found that 93.75% of the quality hospitals and 81.25% of the nonquality hospitals used some form of process improvement methodologies. However, there were significant differences between the groups regarding the impact of quality improvement initiatives on patients. The findings indicate that in quality hospitals the use of quality improvement initiatives had a significantly greater positive impact on patient satisfaction and patient outcomes when compared to nonquality hospitals.

  7. [Effect of antecedent dry period on water quality of urban storm runoff pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.

  8. The Brussels-Capital Region. Increasing the Density of Urban Spaces and Preserving the Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Ioulia Pankratieva

    2013-01-01

    Since its foundation in 1989, Region of Brussels Capital has its own government and conducts an independent urban policy. With the constant increase in population the main objectives for the Region are concentrated on development of housing and infrastructure objects, transport security, and improvement of functioning of urban structures.Urban policy is based on the Regional Plan for Sustainable Development (Plan Régional de Développement Durable - PRDD), which is a strategic tool for urban p...

  9. Implications of Continuous Quality Improvement for Program Evaluation and Evaluators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark, Melvin M.; Pines, Edward

    1995-01-01

    Explores the implications that continuous quality improvement (CQI) programs are likely to have for evaluation. CQI, often known as total quality management, offers a structured approach to the analysis of an organization's processes and improvement that should provide advantages to evaluators once they have gained experience with the approach.…

  10. International Accreditations as Drivers of Business School Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Business schools are under pressure to implement continuous improvement and quality assurance processes to remain competitive in a globalized higher education market. Drivers for quality improvement include external, environmental pressures, regulatory bodies such as governments, and, increasingly, voluntary accreditation agencies such as AACSB…

  11. Does the EUA Institutional Evaluation Programme Contribute to Quality Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Diana Amado; Rosa, Maria Joao; Amaral, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to reflect on the relevance of the Institutional Evaluation Programme (IEP) of the European University Association (EUA) to universities' quality improvement. It aims to analyse IEP follow-up reports to determine whether the programme contributes to the development of a quality improvement culture.…

  12. Nationwide quality improvement of cholecystectomy: results from a national database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Kirstine M; Bardram, Linda

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether quality improvements in the performance of cholecystectomy have been achieved in Denmark since 2006, after revision of the Danish National Guidelines for treatment of gallstones.......To evaluate whether quality improvements in the performance of cholecystectomy have been achieved in Denmark since 2006, after revision of the Danish National Guidelines for treatment of gallstones....

  13. Economic implications of neonatal intensive care unit collaborative quality improvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, JA; Horbar, JD; Plsek, PE; Baker, LS; Deterding, J; Edwards, WH; Hocker, J; Kantak, AD; Lewallen, P; Lewis, W; Lewit, E; McCarroll, CJ; Mujsce, D; Payne, NR; Shiono, P; Soll, RF; Leahy, K

    Objective. To make measurable improvements in the quality and cost of neonatal intensive care using a multidisciplinary collaborative quality improvement model. Design. Interventional study. Data on treatment costs were collected for infants with birth weight 501 to 1500 g for the period of January

  14. The Role of Staff in Quality Improvement in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Margaret; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2015-01-01

    There is international recognition of the importance of high quality services for young children with a consensus that three pillars contribute to quality improvement: adult: child ratios, staff qualifications and group size. In Australia over the past 5 years, early childhood policy has attempted to drive improvements in early childhood service…

  15. Technical report for effective estimation and improvement of quality system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwan Hyun

    2000-06-01

    This technical report provides the methods on how to improve the Quality System, in R and D part. This report applies on the quality assurance(QA) programmes of the design, fabrication in nuclear projects. The organization having overall responsibility for the nuclear power item design, preservation, fabrication shall be described in this report in each stage of improvement of QA systems

  16. Evaluation of water quality in the Rimac River Basin of Peru: Huaycoloro urban subbasin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldeón Quispe, W.; Vela Cardich, R.; Huamán Paredes, F.

    2013-05-01

    chromium present in concentrations which in some cases exceeds the regulated value (0.043, 0.25, 0.067 and 0.080 mg/l for ES-1, ES-2, ES-3 and ES-4, respectively). This behavior is explained especially by effluent discharges tannery activities carried out in the study area. The relationship BOD5/COD in all cases where it has been determined is less than 0.2 or exceeds narrowly except values 0.51 and 0.74 corresponding to the second sampling 2007 to IS -1 and the sampling of 2008 for ES-3. The relationship between the COD and BOD5 gives an idea of the nature of the organic pollutants contained in the water (Orozco et al, 2003). Thus, these results are located generally below or slightly above 0.2, indicates that the compounds organics in the different sampling stations are predominantly non-biodegradable organic in nature. This study indicates that the Huaycoloro urban subbasin is being highly impacted by domestic and industrial discharges so it is necessary to strengthen environmental management mechanisms to improve its environmental quality with the participation of all actors involved in this water resources.

  17. Sleep Quality Improvement During Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsawh, Holly J; Bomyea, Jessica; Stein, Murray B; Cissell, Shadha H; Lang, Ariel J

    2016-01-01

    Despite the ubiquity of sleep complaints among individuals with anxiety disorders, few prior studies have examined whether sleep quality improves during anxiety treatment. The current study examined pre- to posttreatment sleep quality improvement during cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for panic disorder (PD; n = 26) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD; n = 24). Among sleep quality indices, only global sleep quality and sleep latency improved significantly (but modestly) during CBT. Sleep quality improvement was greater for treatment responders, but did not vary by diagnosis. Additionally, poor baseline sleep quality was independently associated with worse anxiety treatment outcome, as measured by higher intolerance of uncertainty. Additional intervention targeting sleep prior to or during CBT for anxiety may be beneficial for poor sleepers.

  18. Improving understanding of the underlying physical process of sediment wash-off from urban road surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthusamy, Manoranjan; Tait, Simon; Schellart, Alma; Beg, Md Nazmul Azim; Carvalho, Rita F.; de Lima, João L. M. P.

    2018-02-01

    Among the urban aquatic pollutants, the most common is sediment which also acts as a transport medium for many contaminants. Hence there is an increasing interest in being able to better predict the sediment wash-off from urban surfaces. The exponential wash-off model is the most widely used method to predict the sediment wash-off. Although a number of studies proposed various modifications to the original exponential wash-off equation, these studies mostly looked into one parameter in isolation thereby ignoring the interactions between the parameters corresponding to rainfall, catchment and sediment characteristics. Hence in this study we aim (a) to investigate the effect of rainfall intensity, surface slope and initial load on wash-off load in an integrated and systematic way and (b) to subsequently improve the exponential wash-off equation focusing on the effect of the aforementioned three parameters. A series of laboratory experiments were carried out in a full-scale setup, comprising of a rainfall simulator, a 1 m2 bituminous road surface, and a continuous wash-off measuring system. Five rainfall intensities ranging from 33 to 155 mm/h, four slopes ranging from 2 to 16% and three initial loads ranging from 50 to 200 g/m2 were selected based on values obtained from the literature. Fine sediment with a size range of 300-600 μm was used for all of the tests. Each test was carried out for one hour with at least 9 wash-off samples per test collected. Mass balance checks were carried out for all the tests as a quality control measure to make sure that there is no significant loss of sand during the tests. Results show that the washed off sediment load at any given time is proportional to initial load for a given combination of rainfall intensity and surface slope. This indicates the importance of dedicated modelling of build-up so as to subsequently predict wash-off load. It was also observed that the maximum fraction that is washed off from the surface increases

  19. Water quality measure in urban basin of Fossolo; Le misure di qualita` nel bacino urbano Fossolo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artina, Sandro; Maglionico, Marco; Marinelli, Alberto [Bologna, Univ. (Italy); Raffaelli, Giuseppe; Anzalone, Claudio [Consorzio A.Co.Se.R., Bologna (Italy); Lanzarini, Sergio; Guzzinati, Ermes [AMIU, Bologna (Italy)

    1997-03-01

    Water quantity and quality characteristics of a combined sewer system in a 40 ha urban catchment in the vicinity of Bologna have been studied for two years. The catchment, having residential characteristics with about 10000 inhabitants, is loaded with heavy traffic. The drainage network ends with a main duct having a multicenter cross section of 1800 mm x 1440 mm. The monitoring phase has pointed out how some quality parameters often trespass the Italian regulations on water quality. Moreover, it has been observed how BOD{sub 5}, COD and Suspended Solids are strictly correlated.

  20. Improvement of cassava quality through mutation breeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safo-Kantanka, O [Crop Science Dept., Univ. of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana)

    1997-12-01

    Ghana has not been able to take advantage of the high-yielding cassava varieties developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) because these varieties generally do not have the desired cooking quality. The major emphasis of this project therefore is to use mutations to produce varieties with the desired starch characteristics while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics of the IITA varieties. 1 ref., 4 tabs.

  1. Improvement of cassava quality through mutation breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo-Kantanka, O.

    1997-01-01

    Ghana has not been able to take advantage of the high-yielding cassava varieties developed by the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) because these varieties generally do not have the desired cooking quality. The major emphasis of this project therefore is to use mutations to produce varieties with the desired starch characteristics while maintaining the disease-resistance and high-yielding characteristics of the IITA varieties. 1 ref., 4 tabs

  2. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT MODEL AT THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS PREPARATION LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusko Pavletic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper expresses base for an operational quality improvement model at the manufacturing process preparation level. A numerous appropriate related quality assurance and improvement methods and tools are identified. Main manufacturing process principles are investigated in order to scrutinize one general model of manufacturing process and to define a manufacturing process preparation level. Development and introduction of the operational quality improvement model is based on a research conducted and results of methods and tools application possibilities in real manufacturing processes shipbuilding and automotive industry. Basic model structure is described and presented by appropriate general algorithm. Operational quality improvement model developed lays down main guidelines for practical and systematic application of quality improvements methods and tools.

  3. Does Medical Malpractice Law Improve Health Care Quality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakes, Michael; Jena, Anupam B.

    2016-01-01

    We assess the potential for medical liability forces to deter medical errors and improve health care treatment quality, identifying liability’s influence by drawing on variations in the manner by which states formulate the negligence standard facing physicians. Using hospital discharge records from the National Hospital Discharge Survey and clinically-validated quality metrics inspired by the Agency for Health Care Research and Quality, we find evidence suggesting that treatment quality may improve upon reforms that expect physicians to adhere to higher quality clinical standards. We do not find evidence, however, suggesting that treatment quality may deteriorate following reforms to liability standards that arguably condone the delivery of lower quality care. Similarly, we do not find evidence of deterioration in health care quality following remedy-focused liability reforms such as caps on non-economic damages awards. PMID:28479642

  4. Meteorological and air quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative cover in the Greater Toronto Area, Canada; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taha, Haider; Hammer, Hillel; Akbari, Hashem

    2002-01-01

    The study described in this report is part of a project sponsored by the Toronto Atmospheric Fund, performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, to assess the potential role of surface property modifications on energy, meteorology, and air quality in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), Canada. Numerical models were used to establish the possible meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of increased urban albedo and vegetative fraction, i.e., ''cool-city'' strategies that can mitigate the urban heat island (UHI), significantly reduce urban energy consumption, and improve thermal comfort, particularly during periods of hot weather in summer. Mitigation is even more important during critical heat wave periods with possible increased heat-related hospitalization and mortality. The evidence suggests that on an annual basis cool-city strategies are beneficial, and the implementation of such measures is currently being investigated in the U.S. and Canada. We simulated possible scenari os for urban heat-island mitigation in the GTA and investigated consequent meteorological changes, and also performed limited air-quality analysis to assess related impacts. The study was based on a combination of mesoscale meteorological modeling, Lagrangian (trajectory), and photochemical trajectory modeling to assess the potential meteorological and ozone air-quality impacts of cool-city strategies. As available air-quality and emissions data are incompatible with models currently in use at LBNL, our air-quality analysis was based on photochemical trajectory modeling. Because of questions as to the accuracy and appropriateness of this approach, in our opinion this aspect of the study can be improved in the future, and the air-quality results discussed in this report should be viewed as relatively qualitative. The MM5 meteorological model predicts a UHI in the order of 2 to 3 degrees C in locations of maxima, and about 1 degree C as a typical value over most of the urban area

  5. A Smart Thermo-hygrometric Global Index for the Evaluation of Particularly Critical Urban Areas Quality: the City of Messina Chosen as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Cannistraro

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The development of the city, as it has grown up to the present day, is no longer sustainable. The design of the city turns toward smart urban development which achieves the theoretical ideal of an environmental sustainability deeply linked to the well-being of the inhabitants. In this perspective, the idea of comfort is related to the achievement of thermohygrometric conditions satisfaction (both indoor and outdoor. The present work proposes an innovative tool evaluating the external environment quality applied to a case study: the Messina’s urban center. The well-being has been investigated from the point of view of temperature and relative humidity, taking not into account other aspects characterizing quality of the urban environment such as traffic, degree of urbanization, air pollution, etc.. For this reason the overall hygrothermal index formulation results of particular interest: this one can be also used to make comparable various results obtained at international level. One of the key properties of the global index is the comparability of the results, when applied to different realities. Such an important property can be exploited to compare the climatic characteristics of different cities and for different areas of the same city. In fact, with the help of multiple monitoring stations within the urban area, you would be able to detect the so-called heat islands. In this way it is possible constructing a map of the hygrometric comfort suitable to achieve better urban planning (for example improving thermal comfort through the construction of green areas.

  6. Software metrics to improve software quality in HEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lancon, E.

    1996-01-01

    The ALEPH reconstruction program maintainability has been evaluated with a case tool implementing an ISO standard methodology based on software metrics. It has been found that the overall quality of the program is good and has shown improvement over the past five years. Frequently modified routines exhibits lower quality; most buys were located in routines with particularly low quality. Implementing from the beginning a quality criteria could have avoided time losses due to bug corrections. (author)

  7. Proposal for a system of indicators to assess the visual quality of the urban landscape in informal settlements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johana Andrea Mesa-Carranza

    2016-04-01

    define the urban landscape; the main components that comprise it are identified and, from these, an indicator system is proposed to assess their visual quality, low integration inherent ecological, aesthetic and cultural dimensions factors, which help define the diagnosis of each proposed addition to establish an evaluation system that favors improving the visual quality of informal urban landscape, providing results that help the design process and the preservation or improvement of the same component.Keywords: Landscape design, urban design, cultural landscape, natural landscape, landscape protection.Recibido: marzo 10/2014Evaluado: marzo 2/2015Aceptado: agosto 12/2015Publicación: 12 de abril de 2016.               Actualización: 12 de abril de 2016

  8. Quality improvement "201": context-relevant quality improvement leadership training for the busy clinician-educator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stille, Christopher J; Savageau, Judith A; McBride, Jeanne; Alper, Eric J

    2012-01-01

    Development of quality improvement (QI) skills and leadership for busy clinician-educators in academic medical centers is increasingly necessary, although it is challenging given limited resources. In response, the authors developed the Quality Scholars program for primary care teaching faculty. They conducted a needs assessment, evaluated existing internal and national resources, and developed a 9-month, 20-session project-based curriculum that combines didactic and hands-on techniques with facilitated project discussion. They also conducted pre-post tests of knowledge and attitudes, and evaluations of each session, scholars' projects, and program sustainability and costs. In all, 10 scholars from all 3 generalist disciplines comprised the first class. A wide spectrum of previous experiences enhanced collaboration. QI knowledge increased slightly, and reported self-readiness to lead QI projects increased markedly. Protected time for project work and group discussion of QI topics was seen as essential. All 10 scholars completed projects and presented results. Institutional leadership agreed to sustain the program using institutional funds.

  9. Improved MODIS aerosol retrieval in urban areas using a land classification approach and empirical orthogonal functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Nathaniel; Gross, Barry

    2016-10-01

    New, high-resolution aerosol products are required in urban areas to improve the spatial coverage of the products, in terms of both resolution and retrieval frequency. These new products will improve our understanding of the spatial variability of aerosols in urban areas and will be useful in the detection of localized aerosol emissions. Urban aerosol retrieval is challenging for existing algorithms because of the high spatial variability of the surface reflectance, indicating the need for improved urban surface reflectance models. This problem can be stated in the language of novelty detection as the problem of selecting aerosol parameters whose effective surface reflectance spectrum is not an outlier in some space. In this paper, empirical orthogonal functions, a reconstruction-based novelty detection technique, is used to perform single-pixel aerosol retrieval using the single angular and temporal sample provided by the MODIS sensor. The empirical orthogonal basis functions are trained for different land classes using the MODIS BRDF MCD43 product. Existing land classification products are used in training and aerosol retrieval. The retrieval is compared against the existing operational MODIS 3 KM Dark Target (DT) aerosol product and co-located AERONET data. Based on the comparison, our method allows for a significant increase in retrieval frequency and a moderate decrease in the known biases of MODIS urban aerosol retrievals.

  10. Improving data quality in the linked open data: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadhiatma, A.

    2018-03-01

    The Linked Open Data (LOD) is “web of data”, a different paradigm from “web of document” commonly used today. However, the huge LOD still suffers from data quality problems such as completeness, consistency, and accuracy. Data quality problems relate to designing effective methods both to manage and to retrieve information at various data quality levels. Based on review from papers and journals, addressing data quality requires some standards functioning to (1) identification of data quality problems, (2) assessment of data quality for a given context, and (3) correction of data quality problems. However, mostly the methods and strategies dealing with the LOD data quality were not as an integrative approach. Hence, based on those standards and an integrative approach, there are opportunities to improve the LOD data quality in the term of incompleteness, inaccuracy and inconsistency, considering to its schema and ontology, namely ontology refinement. Moreover, the term of the ontology refinement means that it copes not only to improve data quality but also to enrich the LOD. Therefore, it needs (1) a standard for data quality assessment and evaluation which is more appropriate to the LOD; (2) a framework of methods based on statistical relational learning that can improve the correction of data quality problems as well as enrich the LOD.

  11. Improving quality of tuberculosis care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Madhukar; Satyanarayana, Srinath; Hopewell, Phil

    2014-01-01

    In India, the quality of care that tuberculosis (TB) patients receive varies considerably and is often not in accordance with the national and international standards. In this article, we provide an overview of the third (latest) edition of the International Standards of Tuberculosis Care (ISTC). These standards are supported by the existing World Health Organization guidelines and policy statements pertaining to TB care and have been endorsed by a number of international organizations. We call upon all health care providers in the country to practice TB care that is consistent with these standards, as well as the upcoming Standards for TB Care in India (STCI).

  12. Quality improvement in pediatrics: past, present, and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Stephanie P; Rehder, Kyle J

    2017-01-01

    Almost two decades ago, the landmark report "To Err is Human" compelled healthcare to address the large numbers of hospitalized patients experiencing preventable harm. Concurrently, it became clear that the rapidly rising cost of healthcare would be unsustainable in the long-term. As a result, quality improvement methodologies initially rooted in other high-reliability industries have become a primary focus of healthcare. Multiple pediatric studies demonstrate remarkable quality and safety improvements in several domains including handoffs, catheter-associated blood stream infections, and other serious safety events. While both quality improvement and research are data-driven processes, significant differences exist between the two. Research utilizes a hypothesis driven approach to obtain new knowledge while quality improvement often incorporates a cyclic approach to translate existing knowledge into clinical practice. Recent publications have provided guidelines and methods for effectively reporting quality and safety work and improvement implementations. This review examines not only how quality improvement in pediatrics has led to improved outcomes, but also looks to the future of quality improvement in healthcare with focus on education and collaboration to ensure best practice approaches to caring for children.

  13. Improved business driveway delineation in urban work zones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    This report documents the efforts and results of a two-year research project aimed at improving driveway : delineation in work zones. The first year of the project included a closed-course study to identify the most : promising driveway delineation a...

  14. Microbial quality of reclaimed water for urban reuses: Probabilistic risk-based investigation and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhipi-Shrestha, Gyan; Hewage, Kasun; Sadiq, Rehan

    2017-01-15

    Although Canada has abundant freshwater resources, many cities still experience seasonal water shortage. Supply-side and demand-side management is a core strategy to address this water shortage. Under this strategy, reclaimed water, which the Canadian public is willing to use for non-potable purposes, is an option. However, no universal guidelines exist for reclaimed water use. Despite the federal government's long-term goal to develop guidelines for many water reuse applications, guidelines have only been prescribed for reclaimed water use in toilet and urinal flushing in Canada. At the provincial level, British Columbia (BC) has promulgated guidelines for wide applications of reclaimed water but only at broad class levels. This research has investigated and proposed probabilistic risk-based recommended values for microbial quality of reclaimed water in various non-potable urban reuses. The health risk was estimated by using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Two-dimensional Monte Carlo simulations were used in the analysis to include variability and uncertainty in input data. The proposed recommended values are based on the indicator organism E. coli. The required treatment levels for reuse were also estimated. In addition, the recommended values were successfully applied to three wastewater treatment effluents in the Okanagan Valley, BC, Canada. The health risks associated with other bacterial pathogens (Campylobacter jejuni and Salmonella spp.), virus (adenovirus, norovirus, and rotavirus), and protozoa (Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia spp.), were also estimated. The estimated risks indicate the effectiveness of the E. coli-based water quality recommended values. Sensitivity analysis shows the pathogenic E. coli ratio and morbidity are the most sensitive input parameters for all water reuses. The proposed recommended values could be further improved by using national or regional data on water exposures, disease burden per case, and the susceptibility

  15. It Pays to Improve School Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanushek, Eric A.; Ruhose, Jens; Woessmann, Ludger

    2016-01-01

    Congress passed the Every Student Succeeds Act, supplanting No Child Left Behind and placing responsibility for public school improvement squarely upon each of the 50 states. With the federal government's role in school accountability sharply diminished, it now falls to state and local governments to take decisive action. Even though most…

  16. Quality improvement in Vignoles through clonal selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our goal is to select an improved, loose-clustered clone of Vignoles that will contribute to an integrated approach to disease control. Clonal selection has historically proven useful in reducing cluster compactness through a variety of mechanisms, including decreased berry size, lengthening of the ...

  17. Users' Perception as a Tool to Improve Urban Beach Planning and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, Omar; Espejel, Ileana; Arellano, Evarista; Delhumeau, Sheila

    2008-08-01

    Four beaches that share physiographic characteristics (sandy, wide, and long) but differ in socioeconomic and cultural terms (three are located in northwestern Mexico and one in California, USA) were evaluated by beach users. Surveys (565) composed of 36 questions were handed out to beach users on weekends and holidays in 2005. The 25 questions that revealed the most information were selected by factor analysis and classified by cluster analysis. Beach users’ preferences were assigned a value by comparing the present survey results with the characteristics of an “ideal” recreational urban beach. Cluster analysis separated three groups of questions: (a) services and infrastructure, (b) recreational activities, and (c) beach conditions. Cluster linkage distance ( r = 0.82, r = 0.78, r = 0.67) was used as a weight and multiplied by the value of beach descriptive factors. Mazatlán and Oceanside obtained the highest values because there are enough infrastructure and services; on the contrary, Ensenada and Rosarito were rated medium and low because infrastructure and services are lacking. The presently proposed method can contribute to improving current beach evaluations because the final score represents the beach users’ evaluation of the quality of the beach. The weight considered in the present study marks the beach users’ preferences among the studied beaches. Adding this weight to beach evaluation will contribute to more specific beach planning in which users’ perception is considered.

  18. Evaluating sustainable water quality management in the U.S.: Urban, Agricultural, and Environmental Protection Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oel, P. R.; Alfredo, K. A.; Russo, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Sustainable water management typically emphasizes water resource quantity, with focus directed at availability and use practices. When attention is placed on sustainable water quality management, the holistic, cross-sector perspective inherent to sustainability is often lost. Proper water quality management is a critical component of sustainable development practices. However, sustainable development definitions and metrics related to water quality resilience and management are often not well defined; water quality is often buried in large indicator sets used for analysis, and the policy regulating management practices create sector specific burdens for ensuring adequate water quality. In this research, we investigated the methods by which water quality is evaluated through internationally applied indicators and incorporated into the larger idea of "sustainability." We also dissect policy's role in the distribution of responsibility with regard to water quality management in the United States through evaluation of three broad sectors: urban, agriculture, and environmental water quality. Our research concludes that despite a growing intention to use a single system approach for urban, agricultural, and environmental water quality management, one does not yet exist and is even hindered by our current policies and regulations. As policy continues to lead in determining water quality and defining contamination limits, new regulation must reconcile the disparity in requirements for the contaminators and those performing end-of-pipe treatment. Just as the sustainable development indicators we researched tried to integrate environmental, economic, and social aspects without skewing focus to one of these three categories, policy cannot continue to regulate a single sector of society without considering impacts to the entire watershed and/or region. Unequal distribution of the water pollution burden creates disjointed economic growth, infrastructure development, and policy

  19. Perceptual assessment of quality of urban soundscapes with combined noise sources and water sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Lee, Pyoung Jik; You, Jin; Kang, Jian

    2010-03-01

    In this study, urban soundscapes containing combined noise sources were evaluated through field surveys and laboratory experiments. The effect of water sounds on masking urban noises was then examined in order to enhance the soundscape perception. Field surveys in 16 urban spaces were conducted through soundwalking to evaluate the annoyance of combined noise sources. Synthesis curves were derived for the relationships between noise levels and the percentage of highly annoyed (%HA) and the percentage of annoyed (%A) for the combined noise sources. Qualitative analysis was also made using semantic scales for evaluating the quality of the soundscape, and it was shown that the perception of acoustic comfort and loudness was strongly related to the annoyance. A laboratory auditory experiment was then conducted in order to quantify the total annoyance caused by road traffic noise and four types of construction noise. It was shown that the annoyance ratings were related to the types of construction noise in combination with road traffic noise and the level of the road traffic noise. Finally, water sounds were determined to be the best sounds to use for enhancing the urban soundscape. The level of the water sounds should be similar to or not less than 3 dB below the level of the urban noises.

  20. Air Quality Deterioration of Urban Areas Caused by Wildfires in a Natural Reservoir Forest of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noel Carbajal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of the world suffer loss of vegetation and reduced air quality due to wildfires. Studies on aerosol emissions by wildfires often discuss the negative effects of atmospheric contaminants from a regional or mesoscale perspective. The occurrence of wildfires reveals that a high percentage takes place close to large urban areas. Very high concentration of pollutants and PM10 particulate matter reach urban zones and millions of inhabitants. These events of high pollutant concentrations are seasonally recurrent. There are many large urban areas in the world that often undergo severe air deterioration due to wildfires smoke. We document the extreme impact of wildfire that occurs in the Protected Area of Flora and Fauna La Primavera located in neighborhood of Guadalajara, a large urban zone in Mexico. The simultaneous emissions of aerosols by 60 wildfires were simulated and compared with observed data. The plume generated by the wildfires reached large areas of the central part of Mexico. The principal characteristics of smog emissions (CO, NO2, and PM10 over the urban area were acceptably reproduced. Observed and modeled CO, PM10, and NO2 data indicated that aerosol plumes generated by the wildfires increased notably the concentrations over the metropolitan zone of Guadalajara.

  1. Development of quality of life instrument for urban poor in the northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surit, Phrutthinun; Laohasiriwong, Wongsa; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Schelp, Frank Perter

    2008-09-01

    Measuring the quality of life is important for evaluation and prediction of life and social care needs. To evaluate Quality of Life (QOL) in an urban poor population in northeast of Thailand, the Urban Poor Quality of Life (UPQOL) instrument was developed To develop an initial instrument to measure urban poor QOL. The development was started with literature review and investigated in urban poor communities. The results were transformed into the items required to build a structured questionnaire. Five hundred twenty three subjects, representatives of urban poor, were selected to test this instrument. Descriptive statistics described feature of items and the samples, exploratory factor analysis conducted the items score, and confirmatory factor analysis conducted the construct validity. The result found that the UPQOL instrument consisted of nine domains (education, income and employment, environment, health, infrastructure, security and safety, shelter and housing, civil society and political, and human rights domains) with egien value rank from 1.5 to 4.2 and 61 items with the factor loading rank from 0.41 to 0.82. The internal consistency was 0.92. The correlation between items to domain ranged from 0.30 to 0.72 and domains to overall QOL ranged from 0.27 to 0.84. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the structure fit all domains well. Domains and overall structure were good with CFI (> 0.95). The internal consistency value ranged from 0.73-0.93. UPQOL scores were able to discriminate groups of subjects with differences levels of QOL. The UPQOL instrument is conceptually valid. The results support good validity and reliability. It forms the basis for future testing and application in other settings.

  2. Using complaints to enhance quality improvement: developing an analytical tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Sophie Yahui

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to construct an instrument for identifying certain attributes or capabilities that might enable healthcare staff to use complaints to improve service quality. PubMed and ProQuest were searched, which in turn expanded access to other literature. Three paramount dimensions emerged for healthcare quality management systems: managerial, operational, and technical (MOT). The paper reveals that the managerial dimension relates to quality improvement program infrastructure. It contains strategy, structure, leadership, people and culture. The operational dimension relates to implementation processes: organizational changes and barriers when using complaints to enhance quality. The technical dimension emphasizes the skills, techniques or information systems required to achieve successfully continuous quality improvement. The MOT model was developed by drawing from the relevant literature. However, individuals have different training, interests and experiences and, therefore, there will be variance between researchers when generating the MOT model. The MOT components can be the guidelines for examining whether patient complaints are used to improve service quality. However, the model needs testing and validating by conducting further research before becoming a theory. Empirical studies on patient complaints did not identify any analytical tool that could be used to explore how complaints can drive quality improvement. This study developed an instrument for identifying certain attributes or capabilities that might enable healthcare professionals to use complaints and improve service quality.

  3. How to Sustain Change and Support Continuous Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Samuel A; McQuillan, Rory; Harel, Ziv; Weizman, Adam V; Thomas, Alison; Nesrallah, Gihad; Bell, Chaim M; Chan, Christopher T; Chertow, Glenn M

    2016-05-06

    To achieve sustainable change, quality improvement initiatives must become the new way of working rather than something added on to routine clinical care. However, most organizational change is not maintained. In this next article in this Moving Points in Nephrology feature on quality improvement, we provide health care professionals with strategies to sustain and support quality improvement. Threats to sustainability may be identified both at the beginning of a project and when it is ready for implementation. The National Health Service Sustainability Model is reviewed as one example to help identify issues that affect long-term success of quality improvement projects. Tools to help sustain improvement include process control boards, performance boards, standard work, and improvement huddles. Process control and performance boards are methods to communicate improvement results to staff and leadership. Standard work is a written or visual outline of current best practices for a task and provides a framework to ensure that changes that have improved patient care are consistently and reliably applied to every patient encounter. Improvement huddles are short, regular meetings among staff to anticipate problems, review performance, and support a culture of improvement. Many of these tools rely on principles of visual management, which are systems transparent and simple so that every staff member can rapidly distinguish normal from abnormal working conditions. Even when quality improvement methods are properly applied, the success of a project still depends on contextual factors. Context refers to aspects of the local setting in which the project operates. Context affects resources, leadership support, data infrastructure, team motivation, and team performance. For these reasons, the same project may thrive in a supportive context and fail in a different context. To demonstrate the practical applications of these quality improvement principles, these principles are

  4. Air quality in urban, industrial and rural areas of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroebel, R. [Agence de l`Environnement et de la Maitrise de l`Energie, Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    With the financial support of the parafiscal tax on air pollution and with a view to better appraise both the nationwide traffic exhausts and the photochemical air pollution, the national ambient air monitoring equipment is in the process of being renewed. Some networks have been recently created other networks have been thoroughly modernized. The commissioning of new equipments, supplemented by the measurement quality-assurance programme implemented by the National Central Network Laboratory, lead to both a better coverage of the nationwide surveillance and more reliable data. The monitoring programme still has to be enlarged as numerous airborne substances (aromatics, organic micropollutants, heavy metals) are not still systematically measured nowadays. The average concentrations of pollutants in 1992 are similar to the levels recorded in 1991, although the peak levels are slightly lower in 1992. The meteorological conditions have not exhibited winter or summer excess liable to bring about large air pollution episodes. The decrease in SO{sub 2} concentrations, originating mainly from combustion, is noticeable in 1992. The concentrations dropped by 12 % between 1991 and 1992. For the first time in many years, NO{sub x} and CO emissions are levelling off. The peak NO{sub 2} and CO concentrations are lower in 1992 compared to 1991. Partly due to short measurement data sets, it is not possible to identify any clear-cut trend pattern of ozone concentrations. In fact, most of the ozone monitoring stations are in the process of being relocalized and the density of the measurement sites is being strengthened

  5. Air quality in urban, industrial and rural areas of France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroebel, R [Agence de l` Environnement et de la Maitrise de l` Energie, Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    With the financial support of the parafiscal tax on air pollution and with a view to better appraise both the nationwide traffic exhausts and the photochemical air pollution, the national ambient air monitoring equipment is in the process of being renewed. Some networks have been recently created other networks have been thoroughly modernized. The commissioning of new equipments, supplemented by the measurement quality-assurance programme implemented by the National Central Network Laboratory, lead to both a better coverage of the nationwide surveillance and more reliable data. The monitoring programme still has to be enlarged as numerous airborne substances (aromatics, organic micropollutants, heavy metals) are not still systematically measured nowadays. The average concentrations of pollutants in 1992 are similar to the levels recorded in 1991, although the peak levels are slightly lower in 1992. The meteorological conditions have not exhibited winter or summer excess liable to bring about large air pollution episodes. The decrease in SO{sub 2} concentrations, originating mainly from combustion, is noticeable in 1992. The concentrations dropped by 12 % between 1991 and 1992. For the first time in many years, NO{sub x} and CO emissions are levelling off. The peak NO{sub 2} and CO concentrations are lower in 1992 compared to 1991. Partly due to short measurement data sets, it is not possible to identify any clear-cut trend pattern of ozone concentrations. In fact, most of the ozone monitoring stations are in the process of being relocalized and the density of the measurement sites is being strengthened

  6. Urban air quality assessment using monitoring data of fractionized aerosol samples, chemometrics and meteorological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotova, Galina I; Tsitouridou, Roxani; Tsakovski, Stefan L; Simeonov, Vasil D

    2016-01-01

    The present article deals with assessment of urban air by using monitoring data for 10 different aerosol fractions (0.015-16 μm) collected at a typical urban site in City of Thessaloniki, Greece. The data set was subject to multivariate statistical analysis (cluster analysis and principal components analysis) and, additionally, to HYSPLIT back trajectory modeling in order to assess in a better way the impact of the weather conditions on the pollution sources identified. A specific element of the study is the effort to clarify the role of outliers in the data set. The reason for the appearance of outliers is strongly related to the atmospheric condition on the particular sampling days leading to enhanced concentration of pollutants (secondary emissions, sea sprays, road and soil dust, combustion processes) especially for ultra fine and coarse particles. It is also shown that three major sources affect the urban air quality of the location studied-sea sprays, mineral dust and anthropogenic influences (agricultural activity, combustion processes, and industrial sources). The level of impact is related to certain extent to the aerosol fraction size. The assessment of the meteorological conditions leads to defining of four downwind patterns affecting the air quality (Pelagic, Western and Central Europe, Eastern and Northeastern Europe and Africa and Southern Europe). Thus, the present study offers a complete urban air assessment taking into account the weather conditions, pollution sources and aerosol fractioning.

  7. Key interventions and quality indicators for quality improvement of STEMI care: a RAND Delphi survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeyels, Daan; Sinnaeve, Peter R; Claeys, Marc J; Gevaert, Sofie; Schoors, Danny; Sermeus, Walter; Panella, Massimiliano; Coeckelberghs, Ellen; Bruyneel, Luk; Vanhaecht, Kris

    2017-12-13

    Identification, selection and validation of key interventions and quality indicators for improvement of in hospital quality of care for ST-elevated myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients. A structured literature review was followed by a RAND Delphi Survey. A purposively selected multidisciplinary expert panel of cardiologists, nurse managers and quality managers selected and validated key interventions and quality indicators prior for quality improvement for STEMI. First, 34 experts (76% response rate) individually assessed the appropriateness of items to quality improvement on a nine point Likert scale. Twenty-seven key interventions, 16 quality indicators at patient level and 27 quality indicators at STEMI care programme level were selected. Eighteen additional items were suggested. Experts received personal feedback, benchmarking their score with group results (response rate, mean, median and content validity index). Consequently, 32 experts (71% response rate) openly discussed items with an item-content validity index above 75%. By consensus, the expert panel validated a final set of 25 key interventions, 13 quality indicators at patient level and 20 quality indicators at care programme level prior for improvement of in hospital care for STEMI. A structured literature review and multidisciplinary expertise was combined to validate a set of key interventions and quality indicators prior for improvement of care for STEMI. The results allow researchers and hospital staff to evaluate and support quality improvement interventions in a large cohort within the context of a health care system.

  8. IMPROVEMENT OF QUALITY ASSURANCE SYSTEM ACTIVITIES OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Sultalieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the article is the improvement of quality assessment system of higher education institutions in the aspect of management. The problems of quality improvement are revealed and classified. The analysis of criteria assessment sets used to define the efficiency of higher education institutions activity is carried out. The components of quality of higher education institutions activity are specified. The structural model of quality assessment system of higher education institutions activity is offered. The analysis of macro environment of a university based on the method of strategic management is carried out, i.e. PEST analysis. As a result of the research a new model of macro criteria model of quality assessment system of higher education institutions, characterizing quality management as an approach to university efficiency is offered, moreover, this system can define the level of its competitiveness in the aspect of quality management. 

  9. Improvement of power quality using distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Lopez-Rodriguez, M.A.; Flores-Arias, J.M.; Bellido-Outerino, F.J. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento A.C., Electronica y T.E., Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); de-la-Rosa, J.J.G. [Universidad de Cadiz, Area de Electronica, Dpto. ISA, TE y Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior Avda, Ramon Puyol, S/N, E-11202-Algeciras-Cadiz (Spain); Ruiz-de-Adana, M. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This paper addresses how Distributed Generation (DG), particularly when configured in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) mode, can become a powerful reliability solution in highlight automated factories, especially when integrated with complimentary Power Quality (PQ) measures. The paper presents results from the PQ audit conducted at a highly automated plant over last year. It was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags. Among all categories of electrical disturbances, the voltage sag (dip) and momentary interruption are the nemeses of the automated industrial process. The paper analyzes the capabilities of modern electronic power supplies and the convenience of embedded solution. Finally it is addressed the role of the DG/CHP on the reliability of digital factories. (author)

  10. Improving collected rainwater quality in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, S; Aviles, M; Ramirez, A; Gonzalez, A; Montellano, L; Gonzalez, B; de la Paz, J; Ramirez, R M

    2011-01-01

    The country of Mexico is facing serious problems with water quality and supply for human use and consumption in rural communities, mainly due to topographic and isolation. In Mexico the average annual precipitation is 1,500 cubic kilometers of water, if 3% of that amount were used, 13 million Mexicans could be supplied with drinking water that they currently do not have access. Considering the limited infrastructure and management in rural communities, which do not receive services from the centralized systems of large cities, a modified pilot multi-stage filtration (MMSF) system was designed, developed, and evaluated for treating collected rainwater in three rural communities, Ajuchitlan and Villa Nicolas Zapata (Morelos State) and Xacxamayo (Puebla State). The efficiencies obtained in the treatment system were: colour and turbidity >93%. It is worth mentioning that the water obtained for human use and consumption complies with the Mexican Standard NOM-127-SSA1-1994.

  11. The ReACH Collaborative--improving quality home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, Patricia Simino; Pace, Karen B; Lauder, Bonnie; Solomon, Debra A

    2007-08-01

    Research on quality of care has shown that vigorous leadership, clear goals, and compatible incentive systems are critical factors in influencing successful change (Institute of Medicine, 2001). Quality improvement is a complex process, and clinical quality improvement applications are more likely to be effective in organizations that are ready for change and have strong leaders, who are committed to creating and reinforcing a work environment that supports quality goals (Shortell, 1998). Key leadership roles include providing clear and sustained direction, articulating a coherent set of values and incentives to guide group and individual activities, aligning and integrating improvement efforts into organizational priorities, obtaining or freeing up resources to implement improvement activities, and creating a culture of "continuous improvement" that encourages and rewards the pursuit and achievement of shared quality aims (Institute of Medicine, 2001, 70-71). In summary, home health care is a significant and growing sector of the health care system that provides care to millions of vulnerable patients. There seems little doubt that home health agencies want to focus on quality of care issues and provide optimal care to home-based patients. Furthermore, there is a growing awareness of the value for adapting innovative, effective models for improving the culture of home care practice. This awareness stems from the notion that some agencies see quality improvement activities as a way for them to distinguish themselves not only to regulators and customers, but also to meet the cultural and transformational needs to remain viable in a constantly evolving and competitive health care industry.

  12. Association between socioeconomic factors and sleep quality in an urban population-based sample in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Markus P; Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Blettner, Maria

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Good sleep quality is essential for recovery. The risk factors of sleep disorders have been extensively investigated, but there is sparse information on the association of socioeconomic factors with a person's sleep quality. The aim of the present analysis is to investigate...... from the baseline survey taken in 2004. Sleep quality for the same participants was measured with in-depth personal interviews in 2006 using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, together with other relevant characteristics (e.g. anxiety, depression and health status). Multiple logistic regression...... analyses were performed. RESULTS: People living in an urban environment with a high or medium SES have a greater probability of good sleep quality (odds ratio 1.65, 95% confidence interval 1.27-2.14; odds ratio 1.40, 95% confidence interval 1.16-1.69) than persons with a low SES. Anxiety and depression...

  13. Integrity Model Application: A Quality Support System for Decision-makers on Water Quality Assessment and Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirauda, D.; Ostoich, M.; Di Maria, F.; Benacchio, S.; Saccardo, I.

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model has been applied to a river in North-East Italy to describe vulnerability scenarios due to environmental pollution phenomena. Such model, based on the influence diagrams theory, allowed identifying the extremely critical factors, such as wastewater discharges, drainage of diffuse pollution from agriculture and climate changes, which might affect the water quality of the river. The obtained results underlined how the water quality conditions have improved thanks to the continuous controls on the territory, following the application of Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC. Nevertheless, some fluvial stretches did not reach the “good ecological status” by 2015, because of the increasing population in urban areas recorded in the last years and the high presence of tourists during the summer months, not balanced by a treatment plants upgrade.

  14. CONTRIBUTION TO THE IMPROVEMENT OF PRODUCTS QUALITY IN BAKING INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar Marić

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Food industry occupies special place in the processing industry, especially when we talk on the manufacturing of bakery products. Variable products quality on the market initiated the authors of this study to make an attempt, using comparative analysis of methods for quality control that are at most applied in bakery plants and other "convenient" methods to indicate the shortcomings and to argue convenience of using of methods that would improve testing of the quality. That approach could create a base for designing of model of quality improvement the baking industry.

  15. Mixing layer height as an indicator for urban air quality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Geiß

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixing layer height (MLH is a measure for the vertical turbulent exchange within the boundary layer, which is one of the controlling factors for the dilution of pollutants emitted near the ground. Based on continuous MLH measurements with a Vaisala CL51 ceilometer and measurements from an air quality network, the relationship between MLH and near-surface pollutant concentrations has been investigated. In this context the uncertainty of the MLH retrievals and the representativeness of ground-based in situ measurements are crucial. We have investigated this topic by using data from the BAERLIN2014 campaign in Berlin, Germany, conducted from June to August 2014. To derive the MLH, three versions of the proprietary software BL-VIEW and a novel approach COBOLT were compared. It was found that the overall agreement is reasonable if mean diurnal cycles are considered. The main advantage of COBOLT is the continuous detection of the MLH with a temporal resolution of 10 min and a lower number of cases when the residual layer is misinterpreted as mixing layer. We have calculated correlations between MLH as derived from the different retrievals and concentrations of pollutants (PM10, O3 and NOx for different locations in the metropolitan area of Berlin. It was found that the correlations with PM10 are quite different for different sites without showing a clear pattern, whereas the correlation with NOx seems to depend on the vicinity of emission sources in main roads. In the case of ozone as a secondary pollutant, a clear correlation was found. We conclude that the effects of the heterogeneity of the emission sources, chemical processing and mixing during transport exceed the differences due to different MLH retrievals. Moreover, it seems to be unrealistic to find correlations between MLH and near-surface pollutant concentrations representative for a city like Berlin (flat terrain, in particular when traffic emissions are dominant. Nevertheless it is

  16. Quality Improvement of Liver Ultrasound Images Using Fuzzy Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Azadeh; Langarizadeh, Mostafa; Radmard, Amir Reza; Nejad, Ahmadreza Farzaneh

    2016-12-01

    Liver ultrasound images are so common and are applied so often to diagnose diffuse liver diseases like fatty liver. However, the low quality of such images makes it difficult to analyze them and diagnose diseases. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to improve the contrast and quality of liver ultrasound images. In this study, a number of image contrast enhancement algorithms which are based on fuzzy logic were applied to liver ultrasound images - in which the view of kidney is observable - using Matlab2013b to improve the image contrast and quality which has a fuzzy definition; just like image contrast improvement algorithms using a fuzzy intensification operator, contrast improvement algorithms applying fuzzy image histogram hyperbolization, and contrast improvement algorithms by fuzzy IF-THEN rules. With the measurement of Mean Squared Error and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio obtained from different images, fuzzy methods provided better results, and their implementation - compared with histogram equalization method - led both to the improvement of contrast and visual quality of images and to the improvement of liver segmentation algorithms results in images. Comparison of the four algorithms revealed the power of fuzzy logic in improving image contrast compared with traditional image processing algorithms. Moreover, contrast improvement algorithm based on a fuzzy intensification operator was selected as the strongest algorithm considering the measured indicators. This method can also be used in future studies on other ultrasound images for quality improvement and other image processing and analysis applications.

  17. Approaching the Practice Quality Improvement Project in Interventional Radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Stephen P; White, Benjamin; Sutphin, Patrick D; Pillai, Anil K; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Toomay, Seth M

    2015-12-01

    An important component of maintenance of certification and quality improvement in radiology is the practice quality improvement (PQI) project. In this article, the authors describe several methodologies for initiating and completing PQI projects. Furthermore, the authors illustrate several tools that are vital in compiling, analyzing, and presenting data in an easily understandable and reproducible manner. Last, they describe two PQI projects performed in an interventional radiology division that have successfully improved the quality of care for patients. Using the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) quality improvement framework, interventional radiology throughput has been increased, to lessen mediport wait times from 43 to 8 days, and mediport infection rates have decreased from more than 2% to less than 0.4%. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Systematic Quality Improvement in Medicine: Everyone Can Do It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark L. Zeidel

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review, written from the perspective of a physician-leader who has fostered the development of comprehensive quality improvement efforts at two academic medical centers, I review the need for improvement, some conceptual barriers that must be overcome, the goals of a comprehensive quality improvement (QI effort, some of the results we have obtained, and some observations on how to develop a culture of continuous improvement in an academic medical center. The mandate for quality improvement is clear; current healthcare is wasteful and error-prone, leading to excessive morbidity and mortality and unsustainably high costs. Successful quality improvement requires the abandonment of two paradigms: the craft model of medical practice and the notion that many forms of harm to patients are not preventable. I will describe how dramatic improvement has been achieved in reducing, by up to 10-fold, rates of central line infections, ventilator-associated pneumonias, peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, and mortality due to cardiac arrest in hospital. I will describe as well how these methods can improve access to out-patient clinics dramatically and enhance the reliability and safety of hand-offs between covering physicians. To develop and maintain systematic quality improvement in all phases of medical care we must articulate a culture in which: everyone working at the medical center makes improvements every day; front-line staff, who know best how the work is done, are empowered to improve the processes of care; and multidisciplinary teams create the protocols that reduce variation that is due to physician preference, leaving only the variation required by the individual needs of patients. I will review as well the crucial elements of education of trainees and faculty members needed to guide and sustain a culture of quality. Finally, I will add some observations on how oversight boards and medical center leaders can help create

  19. Systematic quality improvement in medicine: everyone can do it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidel, Mark L

    2011-07-01

    In this brief review, written from the perspective of a physician-leader who has fostered the development of comprehensive quality improvement efforts at two academic medical centers, I review the need for improvement, some conceptual barriers that must be overcome, the goals of a comprehensive quality improvement (QI) effort, some of the results we have obtained, and some observations on how to develop a culture of continuous improvement in an academic medical center. The mandate for quality improvement is clear; current healthcare is wasteful and error-prone, leading to excessive morbidity and mortality and unsustainably high costs. Successful quality improvement requires the abandonment of two paradigms: the craft model of medical practice and the notion that many forms of harm to patients are not preventable. I will describe how dramatic improvement has been achieved in reducing, by up to 10-fold, rates of central line infections, ventilator-associated pneumonias, peritonitis in peritoneal dialysis patients, and mortality due to cardiac arrest in hospital. I will describe as well how these methods can improve access to out-patient clinics dramatically and enhance the reliability and safety of hand-offs between covering physicians. To develop and maintain systematic quality improvement in all phases of medical care we must articulate a culture in which: everyone working at the medical center makes improvements every day; front-line staff, who know best how the work is done, are empowered to improve the processes of care; and multidisciplinary teams create the protocols that reduce variation that is due to physician preference, leaving only the variation required by the individual needs of patients. I will review as well the crucial elements of education of trainees and faculty members needed to guide and sustain a culture of quality. Finally, I will add some observations on how oversight boards and medical center leaders can help create systematic quality

  20. Investigation of Quality and Reclamation of Urban Storm Runoff in City of Shiraz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Parvinnia

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban storm runoff is considered as a potentially reclaimable and valuable resource in many arid and semiarid areas, in Iran. Urban storm runoff in Shiraz is collected mainly by Khoshk River and transported to the Maharloo Lake without any treatment or reclamation. In this study, storm runoff quality and the possibility for its reclamation from different parts of the city in certain canals and pipes are investigated. The quality of the first flush in three relatively large and small suburban areas with different land uses is studied. For the purposes of this study, three stations were considered: one near the downstream end of the city on Khoshk River with a relatively large watershed, one in the middle of the city where street runoff is the main constituent of the flush, and a third one near the western outskirts of the city with relatively small mainly residential watershed.