Riedel, David J; Mwangi, Evelyn Ivy W; Fantry, Lori E; Alexander, Carla; Hossain, Mian B; Pauza, C David; Redfield, Robert R; Gilliam, Bruce L
To determine mortality associated with a new cancer diagnosis in an urban, predominantly African-American, HIV-infected population. Retrospective cohort study. All HIV-infected patients diagnosed with cancer between 1 January 2000 and 30 June 2010 were reviewed. Mortality was examined using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models. There were 470 cases of cancer among 447 patients. Patients were predominantly African-American (85%) and male (79%). Non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADCs, 69%) were more common than AIDS-defining cancers (ADCs, 31%). Cumulative cancer incidence increased significantly over the study period. The majority (55.9%) was taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) at cancer diagnosis or started afterward (26.9%); 17.2% never received ART. Stage 3 or 4 cancer was diagnosed in 67%. There were 226 deaths during 1096 person years of follow-up, yielding an overall mortality rate of 206 per 1000 person years. The cumulative mortality rate at 30 days, 1 year, and 2 years was 6.5, 32.2, and 41.4%, respectively. Mortality was similar between patients on ART whether they started before or after the cancer diagnosis but was higher in patients who never received ART. In patients with a known cause of death, 68% were related to progression of the underlying cancer. In a large cohort of urban, predominantly African-American patients with HIV and cancer, many patients presented with late-stage cancer. There was substantial 30-day and 2-year mortality, although ART had a significant mortality benefit. Deaths were most often caused by progression of cancer and not from another HIV-related or AIDS-related event.
Murray, Kantahyanee W.; Haynie, Denise L.; Howard, Donna E.; Cheng, Tina L.; Simons-Morton, Bruce
This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of…
Larson, Kristine E.
The purpose of this paper was to review the literature in terms of professional development activities that researchers have enlisted to reduce student problem behaviors and improve classroom management competencies among teachers who work in urban environments serving predominately African American students. First, the author conducted a…
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bagdi, Aparna; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Although there is a growing body of research documenting the deleterious effect of experiencing relational aggression, few studies have explored how children cope with relational aggression, especially when it occurs between close friends. Moreover, relational aggression is understudied among urban African American children. Using data from a…
Murray, Kantahyanee W; Haynie, Denise L; Howard, Donna E; Cheng, Tina L; Simons-Morton, Bruce
This research examined the relation between early adolescent aggression and parenting practices in an urban, predominately African American sample. Sixth graders (N = 209) completed questionnaires about their overt and relational aggressive behaviors and perceptions of caregivers' parenting practices. Findings indicated that moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions at Time 1 were associated with a lower likelihood of overt aggression at Time 2. Furthermore, findings suggest that when caregivers' support and knowledge of adolescents' whereabouts were relatively low or when caregivers' exerted high psychological control, moderate levels of parental expectations for peaceful solutions protected early adolescents against engagement in both overt and relational aggression. The implications of the findings for schools and other youth violence prevention settings are discussed.
Urban Harvest, a system-wide initiative of the Consultative Group on Agricultural ...... and urban old, using criteria of population density, land availability, and the prevalence of crop ...... Contact between milk and containers or the environment;.
Hotchkins, Bryan K.
This study addresses African American students' leadership experiences at predominantly White institutions. Findings indicated participants utilized servant leadership in historically Black organizations and transformational leadership in predominantly White organizations. The differences displayed showed that participants' leadership perceptions…
Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.
A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…
Jackson, Alicia D.
African American women represented a growing proportion within the field of education in attaining leadership roles as school principals. As the numbers continued to rise slowly, African American women principals found themselves leading in diverse or even predominately White school settings. Leading in such settings encouraged African American…
Thompson, Loren Wright
The purpose of this study was to examine of stereotype vulnerability, sense of belonging and campus climate for African American college students at a Predominately White Institution (PWI) in the Southeast. This research used a sociocultural model to explore African American student perceptions at a PWI in the southeast of the United States. This…
Stebleton, Michael J.; Aleixo, Marina B.
A growing number of college-age Blacks in the United States are Black African immigrants. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, the researchers interviewed 12 undergraduate Black African immigrant college students attending a predominately White institution (PWI) about their experiences and perceptions of belonging. Findings suggest…
Geyer, H S
"As a potentially important urban development policy consideration, attention is focused in this paper on differential urbanization trends in South Africa at the metropolitan level. Recent informal urban settlement patterns of the African population within the major metropolitan areas are contrasted against these differential urbanization trends to determine the implications of both for residential development in the metropolitan areas during the post-apartheid era." excerpt
Whitfield-Harris, Lisa; Lockhart, Joan Such
Diversity in academia requires attention, especially with the expected increase in minority populations in the United States (American Association of Colleges of Nursing, (AACN) 2014). Despite theoretical papers that suggest that several challenges are encountered by minority faculty employed in predominately White institutions, a dearth of research on this topic has been published. The purpose of this literature review was to analyze the published research that addressed the workplace environment of African-American faculty employed in predominately White institutions. In utilizing the keywords in various combinations, 236 articles were retrieved through multiple databases. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, 15 studies were reviewed with only three related to nursing. Two themes were extracted from the review: 1) the cultural climate of the workplace environment and, 2) underrepresentation of African-American faculty. It is apparent from this review that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of this group of faculty to target effective recruitment and retention strategies.
Adjei Boakye, Eric; Hussaini, Adnan S.; Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Ganesh, Rajan N.; Snider, Matthew; Thompson, Devin; Varvares, Mark A.
Purpose To characterize smoking and alcohol use, and to describe predictors of oral cancer knowledge among a predominantly African-American population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between September, 2013 among drag racers and fans in East St. Louis. Oral cancer knowledge was derived from combining questionnaire items to form knowledge score. Covariates examined included age, sex, race, marital status, education status, income level, insurance status, tobacco and alcohol use. Adjusted linear regression analysis measured predictors of oral cancer knowledge. Results Three hundred and four participants completed questionnaire; 72.7% were African Americans. Smoking rate was 26.7%, alcohol use was 58.3%, and mean knowledge score was 4.60 ± 2.52 out of 17. In final adjusted regression model, oral cancer knowledge was associated with race and education status. Compared with Caucasians, African Americans were 29% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge (β = -0.71; 95% CI: -1.35, -0.07); and participants with a high school diploma or less were 124% less likely to have high oral cancer knowledge compared with college graduates (β = -1.24; 95% CI: -2.44, -0.41). Conclusions There was lower oral cancer knowledge among African Americans and those with low education. The prevalence of smoking was also very high. Understanding predictors of oral cancer knowledge is important in future design of educational interventions specifically targeted towards high-risk group for oral cancer. PMID:28545057
Smith, Amber R.
This study explores the impact of a predominantly White university's efforts to improve engagement of African American female students through the lens of organizational theory. This qualitative study consists of 10 semistructured interviews of undergraduate, African American women. Research on psychological presence and its impact on employee…
Blockus, Linda Helen
The purpose of this study is to describe and explore some of the social and academic experiences of successful African American undergraduate science majors at predominately White universities with the expectation of conceptualizing emerging patterns for future study. The study surveyed 80 upperclass African Americans at 11 public research universities about their perceptions of the influences that affect their educational experiences and career interests in science. The mailed survey included the Persistence/ voluntary Dropout Decision Scale, the Cultural Congruity Scale and the University Environment Scale. A variety of potential influences were considered including family background, career goals, psychosocial development, academic and social connections with the university, faculty relationships, environmental fit, retention factors, validation, participation in mentored research projects and other experiences. The students' sources of influences, opportunities for connection, and cultural values were considered in the context of a research university environment and investigated for emerging themes and direction for future research. Results indicate that performance in coursework appears to be the most salient factor in African American students' experience as science majors. The mean college gpa was 3.01 for students in this study. Challenging content, time demands, study habits and concern with poor grades all serve to discourage students; however, for most of the students in this study, it has not dissuaded them from their educational and career plans. Positive course performance provided encouragement. Science faculty provide less influence than family members, and more students find faculty members discouraging than supportive. Measures of faculty relations were not associated with academic success. No evidence was provided to confirm the disadvantages of being female in a scientific discipline. Students were concerned with lack of minority role models
Smith, Tyler K; Tandon, S Darius; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Hanson, Janice L
Fathers play a critical role in children's development; similarly, fatherhood positively affects men's health. Among the larger population of fathers relatively little is known about the parenting knowledge of urban, African American fathers. Focusing on urban, African American fathers, the objectives of this study were to (1) understand the primary sources from which fathers learn about parenting, (2) determine where and how fathers prefer to receive future parenting education, and (3) explore the information perceived as most valuable to fathers and how this compares with the recommended anticipatory guidance (Bright Futures-based) delivered during well visits. Five focus groups, with a total of 21 participants, were conducted with urban fathers at a community-based organization. Study eligibility included being more than 18 years old, English speaking, and having at least one child 0 to 5 years old. During the focus groups, fathers were asked where they received parenting information, how and where they preferred to receive parenting information, and what they thought about Bright Futures parenting guidelines. Fathers most commonly described receiving parenting information from their own relatives rather than from their child's health care provider. Most fathers preferred to learn parenting from a person rather than a technology-based source and expressed interest in learning more about parenting at community-based locations. Although fathers viewed health care providers' role as primarily teaching about physical health, they valued Bright Futures anticipatory guidance about parenting. Fathers valued learning about child rearing, health, and development. Augmenting physician counseling about Bright Futures with community-based parenting education may be beneficial for fathers. © The Author(s) 2014.
Stroud, George H.
Some African American undergraduate men attending Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) are adversely affected by perception of institutional barriers, such as negative stereotypes, that may exist on campus. The awareness of the possibility of being stereotyped can have a negative impact on a student's academic performance. This phenomenon is…
Steinfeldt, Jesse A.; Reed, Courtney; Steinfeldt, M. Clint
This study examined racial and athletic identity among African American football players at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) and predominantly White institutions (PWIs). Negotiating the dualism of racial and athletic identities can be problematic because both roles are subject to prejudice and discrimination, particularly for…
Burden, Joe W., Jr.; Harrison, Louis, Jr.; Hodge, Samuel R.
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American (1) institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African…
Allen, Ayana Ma-el
A narrative analysis of the lived experiences of seven undergraduate African American females at Predominately White Institutions (PWIs) is presented in this study. The purpose of the study was to explore the ways the seven women constructed their identity and self-concept in the context of their PWI environment. Other key purposes of the study…
Hannon, Christine R.; Woodside, Marianne; Pollard, Brittany L.; Roman, Jorge
Because both race and gender are important to the development of African American women, student affairs professionals need to understand the unique experiences of African American women within the context of the college environment. In this phenomenological study, we examined African American women's lived experiences as college students at a…
Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine
Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...
Greyerbiehl, Lindsay; Mitchell, Donald, Jr.
Research exploring the college experiences of African American women at predominantly White institutions (PWI) continues to be a necessity as African American women graduate at lower rates than their racial/ethnic peers. This qualitative study explored the influence historically Black sororities had on the college experiences of African American…
Ard, Jamy D; Cox, Tiffany L; Zunker, Christie; Wingo, Brooks C; Jefferson, Wendy K; Brakhage, Cora
The workplace may be an ideal venue for engaging African American women in behavioral interventions for weight reduction. To examine the effectiveness of a culturally enhanced EatRight dietary intervention among a group of predominately African American women in a workplace setting. Crossover design study. Workplace. A total of 39 women volunteered for this study, of whom 27 completed it. The control period involved observation of participants for 22 weeks after receiving standard counseling on lifestyle methods to achieve a healthy weight; following the control period, participants crossed over to the 22-week intervention period. The intervention was culturally enhanced using feedback derived from formative assessment and delivered as 15 group sessions. The primary outcome measure was the difference in weight change between the control and intervention periods; changes in waist circumference and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Most participants were obese, with a mean baseline body mass index of 36 kg/m², weight of 97.9 kg, and waist circumference of 111 cm. Weight increased during the control period by 0.7 kg but decreased by 2.6 kg during the intervention (net difference = -3.4 kg, P culturally enhanced behavioral weight loss intervention in a predominately African American workplace setting. The workplace may be conducive for targeting African American women who are disproportionately affected by obesity.
Sulas, Federica; Wynne-Jones, Stephanie
As new urban histories emerge from marginal regions, archetypal city models became increasingly untenable to capture the sheer variety of past urban expressions. A shift of focus from origin and (re-) evolution to forms, dynamics and properties is now challenging archaeological approaches...... to urbanism. Africa offers ample expressions of the intrinsic diversity of ancient urban phenomena with ‘unconventional’ urban forms found alongside model-like cities. Yet, past urban footprints are hard to trace on African ground due to visibility and recovery constraints: even prolonged urban sequences...... are often condensed into shallow stratigraphies. The risks of missing key information or simplifying urban trajectories are thus particularly acute. To illustrate the point, this paper develops a contextual and integrative approach to examine two very different urban landscapes (1st mill. AD). First, Aksum...
Sarel S. Cilliers
Full Text Available Little urban ecological research has been done in South Africa. The papers in the Ecology and Society special feature Urban Ecological and Social-Ecological Research in the City of Cape Town make, therefore, an important contribution to the development of urban ecology locally and globally. Different approaches have been used in the study of urban ecology of different urban areas in South Africa. Cape Town is situated in a biodiversity hotspot and is the only South African city which includes a national park. As a result the urban ecological studies were mainly driven by urban nature conservation concerns. In other cities such as Durban, open space planning and environmental management were the major issues which focused ecological studies on urban areas whereas other studies of urban areas in the Eastern Cape and North-West provinces included private and public open spaces and man-made habitats. We reflect on the Cape Town studies in a South African context and highlight conservation of biodiversity, protection of ecosystem services, management of control measures, and the conflict between humans and nature. A brief synthesis has also been given of South African urban ecological research in general.
Rogerson, Christian M.
Growing international attention has focussed on the potential role of urban agriculture in poverty alleviation. The aim in this paper is to analyse the existing challenge of urban poverty in South Africa and examine the potential role of urban agriculture as a component of a pro-poor urban development strategy.
Pool, Robert W.
This qualitative study sought to explore best practices at small, private liberal arts institutions that experienced large increases in African American graduation rates. Particular focus was on institutions that enrolled less than 17% minority students whose overall enrollment fell within the middle 50% of all SAT scores and the middle 50% of…
Burden, Joe W; Harrison, Louis; Hodge, Samuel R
The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of African American faculty on their organizational socialization in kinesiology-based (i.e., sport pedagogy, exercise physiology, motor behavior, sport management/history) programs at predominantly White American institutions of higher education (PW-IHE). Participants were 9 African American tenure-track faculty members from various kinesiology-based programs at PW-IHE. Data were gathered via interviewing and analyzed within the framework of critical race theory (Ladson-Billings, 2000). Findings are presented using storytelling and thematic narratives. Interviews with the participants revealed four major recurring themes with regard to: (a) resources, opportunities, and power structures; (b) programmatic neglects and faculty mentoring needs; (c) social isolation, disengagement, and intellectual inferiority issues; and (d) double standards, marginalization, and scholarship biases. This study suggests that faculty and administrators at PW-IHE should develop sensitivity toward organizational socialization issues relevant to faculty of color.
African fermented dairy products - Overview of predominant technologically important microorganisms focusing on African Streptococcus infantarius variants and potential future applications for enhanced food safety and security.
Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Kogi-Makau, Wambui; Lamuka, Peter; Renault, Pierre; Kreikemeyer, Bernd; Lacroix, Christophe; Hattendorf, Jan; Zinsstag, Jakob; Schelling, Esther; Fokou, Gilbert; Bonfoh, Bassirou
Milk is a major source of nutrients, but can also be a vehicle for zoonotic foodborne diseases, especially when raw milk is consumed. In Africa, poor processing and storage conditions contribute to contamination, outgrowth and transmission of pathogens, which lead to spoilage, reduced food safety and security. Fermentation helps mitigate the impact of poor handling and storage conditions by enhancing shelf life and food safety. Traditionally-fermented sour milk products are culturally accepted and widely distributed in Africa, and rely on product-specific microbiota responsible for aroma, flavor and texture. Knowledge of microbiota and predominant, technologically important microorganisms is critical in developing products with enhanced quality and safety, as well as sustainable interventions for these products, including Africa-specific starter culture development. This narrative review summarizes current knowledge of technologically-important microorganisms of African fermented dairy products (FDP) and raw milk, taking into consideration novel findings and taxonomy when re-analyzing data of 29 publications covering 25 products from 17 African countries. Technologically-important lactic acid bacteria such as Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii), Lactobacillus spp. and yeasts predominated in raw milk and FDP across Africa. Re-analysis of data also suggests a much wider distribution of Sii and thus a potentially longer history of use than previously expected. Therefore, evaluating the role and safety of African Sii lineages is important when developing interventions and starter cultures for FDP in Africa to enhance food safety and food security. In-depth functional genomics, epidemiologic investigations and latest identification approaches coupled with stakeholder involvement will be required to evaluate the possibility of African Sii lineages as novel food-grade Streptococcus lineage. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by
This study was designed to examine urban African American girls' participation in physical education and its association with academic performance. One hundred eighty four participants completed questionnaires assessing moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and learning engagement in physical education while their academic performance was based…
Ali, Bina; Mittal, Mona; Schroder, Allison; Ishman, Najah; Quinton, Sylvia; Boekeloo, Bradley
Physical and sexual violence are commonly researched as risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, psychological violence and its relationship with HIV risk behaviors have received limited attention among African American/Black (Black) women. This study examined (a) the frequency of recent (past 3 months) psychological violence, physical violence, and sexual violence and (b) the association of HIV risk behaviors, including unprotected sex, sex under the influence of alcohol/drugs, and sex exchange for money/drugs/shelter, with psychological violence. Participants included 191 women (89.2% Black), who were recruited through information sessions held at community centers, Parent Teacher Association meetings, substance use and HIV counseling centers, radio public service announcements, and word of mouth. Interested women participated in a multisession HIV and substance use prevention program and completed a self-reported assessment at program baseline. The current study utilized baseline data collected for a longitudinal study. Results from descriptive analysis indicated that the rate of psychological violence was higher than physical violence or sexual violence, and it was strongly associated with physical and sexual violence. Furthermore, hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that unprotected sex was significantly associated with recent psychological violence after controlling for covariates. Findings suggest that recent psychological violence is more common than physical or sexual violence and it relates to sexual risk behaviors among Black women. Recent psychological violence may indicate psychosocial and sexual vulnerability for HIV and warrants particular attention among Black women.
Prieto Gajardo, Carlos; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Vílchez-Gómez, Rosendo
The effects of noise pollution on human quality of life and health were recognised by the World Health Organisation a long time ago. There is a crucial dilemma for the study of urban noise when one is looking for proven methodologies that can allow, on the one hand, an increase in the quality of predictions, and on the other hand, saving resources in the spatial and temporal sampling. The temporal structure of urban noise is studied in this work from a different point of view. This methodology, based on Fourier analysis, is applied to several measurements of urban noise, mainly from road traffic and one-week long, carried out in two cities located on different continents and with different sociological life styles (Cáceres, Spain and Talca, Chile). Its capacity to predict annual noise levels from weekly measurements is studied. The relation between this methodology and the categorisation method is also analysed.
Goldstick, Jason E; Roche, Jessica S; Carter, Patrick M; Arterberry, Brooke J; Bonar, Erin E; Walton, Maureen A; Zimmerman, Marc; Cunningham, Rebecca M
Video gaming, a remarkably popular hobby in the United States, has been consistently identified as a correlate of aggressive behavior, and this association is not limited to violent video gaming. Prior studies of sex differences in the association between video gaming and aggression have not controlled for other well-known violence correlates (e.g., substance use, community violence exposure, violence attitudes) or focused primarily on high-risk youth. In this study, we used data from an emergency department in Flint, Michigan ( N = 409, 59.9% female, 93.4% African American) to identify sex differences in the association between video gaming and serious peer violence. Youth aged 14 to 20 years were recruited from October 2011 to March 2015, and self-administered computerized surveys including measures of demographics, violence perpetration, gaming frequency, substance use, community violence exposure, and violence attitudes. The primary outcome was an indicator of any serious violence perpetration (e.g., choking, burning, weapon violence) in the past 2 months. Using logistic regression, we estimated the association between gaming and serious violence perpetration, and how it varied by sex, while controlling for demographics, substance use, community violence exposure, and violence attitudes. Approximately 36.6% of males and 27.3% of females reported past 2-month serious violence. On adjusted analysis, hours spent gaming was associated with violence among females (odds ratio [OR] = 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.16, 1.78]), but not males (OR = 1.03, 95% CI = [0.89, 1.19]); in the model including both males and females, the interaction between hours gaming and sex was significant ( p gaming is a stronger marker of severe violence perpetration in females than males among at-risk youth. Violence interventions among females may be improved by including content related to video gaming and identifying other prosocial activities for youth as an alternative to
Karlsson Nyed, Patrik; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Herslund, Lise Byskov
East African cities are in the process of assessing their vulnerabilities to climate change, but face difficulties in capturing the complexity of the various facets of vulnerability. This holistic approach, captures four different dimensions of vulnerability to flooding - Assets, Institutions......, Attitudes and the Physical environment, with Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, as a case city. The methodology is actively involving the expertise of the stakeholders, and uses GIS to analyze and compile the data. The final output is presented as a comprehensible map, delineating the varying vulnerability...
Burrows, Stephanie; Laflamme, Lucie
Knowledge of suicide epidemiology in low- and middle-income settings is important for both well-tailored policies and an increased global understanding of suicide macro-determinants. Adolescents are an important target group in that respect, and those from South Africa are a particular concern, given the additional challenges associated with dramatic political, economic, and health transition. This study presents a profile of adolescent suicide occurrence and sex, race, and city differences. Adolescents aged 10-19 years in post-apartheid urban South Africa. Sex-, race- and city-specific suicide rates were calculated for two age groups (10-14, 15-19 years). Using logistic regression, odds ratios were compiled, first adjusting for age, then additionally for sex, race, and city. Female subjects, those classified as 'coloured' (denoting mixed racial origin), and those living in Tshwane were used as reference groups. Proportions (with 95% confidence intervals) of leading suicide methods were compared. Suicide rates were considerably higher among older adolescents and varied by sex, race, and city. Males had more than twice the odds of committing suicide compared with females. In the fully adjusted model, differences between races were not significant, but city-level differences remained. The leading suicide method was hanging for males and both hanging and poisoning for females. In contemporary urban South Africa, male sex, and city of residence, but not race, were associated with the commission of adolescent suicide, which tends to occur by quite specific methods. The findings warrant research into the possible underlying contextual, demographic, and individual mechanisms.
African American students and former students from a predominantly white institution (PWI) were interviewed to understand their perceptions regarding the impact of their families on their academic achievement and persistence. The characteristics of families that students perceived to support and hinder their academic success at college are…
Sparks, David M.
The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).…
Walls, Jill K.; Hall, Scott S.
Past research has drawn attention to the unique challenges for students of color attending predominantly white colleges and universities, yet few have focused on the classroom as a micro-context in which race-related discussions often occur. Using a focus group methodology, 22 African American undergraduate students from a variety of academic…
Alexander, Quentin R.; Hermann, Mary A.
In this phenomenological investigation we used qualitative research methodology to examine the experiences of 8 African American women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) graduate programs at 1 predominantly White university (PWU) in the South. Much of the current research in this area uses quantitative methods and only…
Dutton, Mary Ann; Bermudez, Diana; Matas, Armely; Majid, Haseeb; Myers, Neely L.
In this article, we consider the use of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 1991) as a community-based intervention for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among low-income, predominantly African American women with a history of intimate partner violence (IPV). The results of a pilot randomized clinical trial (RCT) of MBSR as an…
Alang, Sirry M
Discrepancies exist between how some Black populations perceive depression and how depression is conceptualized within research and clinical settings. Based on a 12-month ethnography of mental health in a predominantly Black disadvantaged urban neighborhood in Midwestern United States, the current study identifies meanings and common ways of expressing depression among African Americans. Depression was often considered a sign of weakness rather than a health problem that might need medical attention. Associated emotions like sadness and hopelessness were inconsistent with notions of strength. Common indicators of depression included classic symptoms such as hopelessness, loss of sleep, and feeling worthless. However, expressions of depression such as anger, agitation, violent behavior, and a frantic search for social interaction that are inconsistent with DSM-V criteria were also common. These findings have implications for the clinical assessment of depression and for the measurement of depression in community surveys. In addition, the context and meaning of symptoms play an important role in determining whether experiences are indicative of depression. This paper underscores that the provision of patient-centered mental health care requires a better understanding of the conceptualization of disorders within specific contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The international adventure tourism literature is remarkably silent on the geographical nature of the industry. This study seeks to provide a geographical analysis of the sector within the context of South Africa. The spatial analysis was undertaken by metropolitan area, secondary towns and small towns, using a dataset of adventure tourism enterprises. It was found that the sector is spatially concentrated and highly urbanised, despite the perception that adventure tourism requires ‘wild’ and outdoor spaces. With many adventure tourism enterprises located in South Africa’s metropolitan areas, it is a hither too unknown sub-sector of the South African urban tourism market. Urban settlements with large populations and a strong general tourism sector form a significant support base for adventure tourism operators. Cape Town is the dominant adventure tourism destination, making it the adventure capital of South Africa. A few small settlements were found to be highly dependent upon the sector for survival.
Jones, Brandolyn; Hwang, Eunjin; Bustamante, Rebecca M.
In their pursuit of tenure and promotion, African American female faculty members continue to prevail over workplace adversities such as ridicule, marginalization, alienation, isolation, and lack of information. In this descriptive phenomenological study, the lived experiences of five African American female professors who successfully navigated…
Russell, Melody L.; Atwater, Mary M.
This study focuses on 11 African American undergraduate seniors in a biology degree program at a predominantly white research institution in the southeastern United States. These 11 respondents shared their journeys throughout the high school and college science pipeline. Participants described similar precollege factors and experiences that contributed to their academic success and persistence at a predominantly white institution. One of the most critical factors in their academic persistence was participation in advanced science and mathematics courses as part of their high school college preparatory program. Additional factors that had a significant impact on their persistence and academic success were family support, teacher encouragement, intrinsic motivation, and perseverance.
George B. Richardson
Full Text Available Recent research suggests human life history strategy (LHS may be subsumed by multiple dimensions, including mating competition and Super-K, rather than one. In this study, we test whether a two-dimensional structure best fit data from a predominantly urban sample of young adults ages 18–24. We also test whether latent life history dimensions are associated with environmental harshness and unpredictability as predicted by life history theory. Results provide evidence that a two-dimensional model best fit the data. Furthermore, a moderate inverse residual correlation between mating competition and Super-K was found, consistent with a life history trade-off. Our findings suggest that parental socioeconomic status may enhance investment in mating competition, that harshness might persist into young adulthood as an important correlate of LHS, and that unpredictability may not have significant effects in young adulthood. These findings further support the contention that human LHS is multidimensional and environmental effects on LHS are more complex than previously suggested. The model presented provides a parsimonious explanation of an array of human behaviors and traits and can be used to inform public health initiatives, particularly with respect to the potential impact of environmental interventions.
Hayes, Robert E., III
Globalization of the world economy has confirmed the need for citizens to exemplify competitive capacities in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics fields. Since the 1970s, American higher education has seen increasing numbers of students entering college but has witnessed a decline in the number of students enrolling in STEM programs. African American men fall behind other students in regards to academic performance, persistence, and success throughout primary, secondary, and tertiary schooling. Accordingly, participation of African American men in STEM disciplines is low in comparison to White males and other race groups. Various factors have been identified as contributing to the academic failures of Black men. Poor academic and social preparedness, racial identity issues, institutional climates, negative stereotypes, and fear of success have been cited as potential contributors to the relative invisibility of African American men in STEM disciplines. This study explores the life stories of five African American male scholars in the college of engineering at a predominantly white university. The goal of the qualitative investigation is to help university faculty and administrators understand the institutional, interpersonal, and collective mechanisms influencing the success identities of African American male undergraduates in STEM academic programs. Understanding the lived experiences of this population may help universities innovate stronger supports for men of color in college and broaden the borders for all students interested in STEM careers.
Swaidan, Christina Michelle
Double consciousness is the identity conflict of being Black and being an American (Du Bois, 1903). Double consciousness leads to "identity confusion and inherent contradictions in the collective psyche of people of African descent" (Benjamin, 2005, p. 21.). This study employed grounded theory to collect and analyze the data that emerged from the…
Simmons, Robert W., III
African American males from urban communities have been attending Jesuit high schools in urban spaces for many years, yet little to no literature exists that explores their experiences while attending these elite private schools. This qualitative study of 10 African American males from an urban community attending a similarly positioned Jesuit…
Sparks, David M.
The purpose of this research was to distinguish the similarities and differences in coping strategies of African American engineering students by analyzing their perceptions of stereotype threat at three academic institution types, Predominantly White Institutions (PWI), ethnically diverse, and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs). The researcher collected demographic and survey data using the Stereotype Vulnerability Scale (SVS). The study was offered to the entire population of African American engineering students at each college using an online survey. Results were analyzed using MANOVA and Pearson's correlational statistical analyses to test the hypotheses. Findings revealed that little differences exist between students' scores on an assessment of stereotype vulnerability, with a few areas showing that HBCUs and ethnically diverse universities are doing a similar job in addressing perceptions of their African American engineering students. Finding also revealed that the percentage of African American students at a university did not correlate with the scores on the SVS accept on questions related to the personal feelings students have about their race. The strongest findings related to the differences in male and female students across the universities. African American female engineering students appeared to perceive more stereotype threat than did their male counterparts; although, this fining was not statistically significant. Overall, no statistically significant differences were found between students' perceptions of stereotype threat at the three types of universities. Future research should expand the number of survey participants at the current universities, add more HBCUs to the study population, run similar experiments in different parts of the country, compare stereotype threat in private and elite universities, use ethnically diverse universities as models for minority student development, and use new or improved survey instruments
Background. A suitable tool is needed to assess child development in South Africa (SA). Using Western normed tools presents difficulties. Aim. To determine whether the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (Bayley-III) can be used on black African urban infants in SA. Method. One hundred and twenty-two black African ...
Wasserberg, Martin J.
This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…
Ameling, Jessica M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Bone, Lee R.; Levine, David M.; Roter, Debra L.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Noronha, Gary J.; Fagan, Peter J.; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette
African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions’ cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community ...
Edith Marie Williams
Full Text Available Lupus patients should avoid stress because physical or emotional stress can affect overall physical health. It has been suggested that social support has a positive influence on health status, but there is a lack of information in the literature on the association between the two among lupus patients. The current study investigated the association between social support and self-reported stress and coping status among African American women with lupus using data collected from two linked cross-sectional surveys. No social support differences in groups of high and low stress/coping were revealed; a duplicate study with a larger sample size is required.
Lewis, Chance W.; James, Marlon; Hancock, Stephen; Hill-Jackson, Valerie
Grounded in critical race theory, this article seeks to frame the ideological positions of success and failure for African American students in urban school settings. First, we revisit national data and research literature that illustrate the ongoing urban Black-White achievement gap. Second, the Matrix of Achievement Paradigms is shared in an…
Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres
If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health.
Full Text Available Accommodation shortages on campus force students to find accommodation in the private sector. These shortages result in single family residents increasingly being targeted for redevelopment into student housing. Studentification is a process where the original residents in the vicinity of tertiary institutions are gradually displaced due to an in-migration of students causing spatial dysfunctionality where, eventually, only the needs of a student subculture are catered for. The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the reshaping of urban space due to studentification in the two South African cities of Bloemfontein and Stellenbosch. Empirical data on key aspects of studentification was obtained from two questionnaire surveys among permanent residents, as well as students, in both cities. The paper proposes that the main role-players, such as universities and local municipalities, should ideally all form part of planning strategies for student housing.
History of cities in Africa is a recent field of research which interrogates – in the last two decades – the ways in which Africans shape the patterns of urbanisation and how urbanisation influences African social and cultural practices. The development of numerous case studies testifies to this new interest in African cities.
Harris, Allyssa L
Many African-American teenaged girls are reading urban literature. This genre of literature is known for its gritty portrayal of urban life and has themes of violence, promiscuity, substance abuse and misogyny. Although research has demonstrated that the portrayal of sex and violence in the media are influential on adolescent sexual behavior, to date there has been little research on the influence of "urban lit" on adolescent sexual risk behaviors. This qualitative study explores the influence of urban literature on the sexual risk behaviors among a group of African-American adolescent girls. Findings from this study suggest that African-American adolescent girls may be influenced by the sexual themes depicted in this genre of literature. Additional research is needed to gain a greater understanding of this phenomon.
Ross, Ian; Boulle, Andrew; Soule, Steven; Levitt, Naomi; Pirie, Fraser; Karlsson, Anders; Mienie, Japie; Yang, Ping; Wang, Hongjie; She, Jin-Xiong; Winter, William; Schatz, Desmond
We sought to determine whether autoimmunity is the predominant cause of Addison's disease in South Africa and whether human leucocyte antigen (HLA) DQ association exists. We compiled a national registry of patients from primary care, referral centres and private practices. A total of 144 patients, 94 of European descent, 34 Mixed Ancestry, 5 Asian and 11 Black Africans (mean age 45.9 years, range 2.7-88 years; mean duration of disease 13.1 years, range 0-50 years) and controls were matched for gender and ethnicity. All potential causes were investigated. Fifty one per cent of cases (74 patients) were autoimmune in aetiology. Either 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies (72 patients, 50% of entire patient group) or adrenocortical autoantibodies (35 patients, 24%) were present, while 23% of patients had both. None of the Asian (n = 5) or Black (n = 11) patients had evidence of autoimmune disease. Overall 8% of patients had tuberculosis, 4% adrenoleucodystrophy, 1% adrenocorticotrophic hormone resistance syndrome and 6% X-linked adrenal hypoplasia. In those with autoimmune disease primary hypothyroidism (47%), premature ovarian failure (8%) and type 1 diabetes (7%) were the most prevalent accompanying autoimmune conditions. HLA DQB1*0201 alleles predominated in the autoimmune group (DQB1*0201: 65%vs 43% of controls P = 0.017) with the *0201/*0302 heterozygous genotype being the most prevalent (28%vs 8%P = 0.02). While autoimmunity accounts for at least half of patients with Addison's disease in South Africa and is associated with HLA DQB1*0201, none of the Black Africans or Asians in this cohort had adrenal autoantibodies. Moreover, 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies were detectable in a higher proportion than adrenocortical autoantibodies, especially in those patients with a long history after disease onset.
Jan 1, 2010 ... Over the past two decades, how has urban agriculture changed in sub-Saharan Africa? ... and urban environment present a unique collection of case studies that ... Prior to that, he led a network in Asia that supported research and ... was the sub-Saharan Africa Regional Coordinator for Urban Harvest.
Ameling, Jessica M; Ephraim, Patti L; Bone, Lee R; Levine, David M; Roter, Debra L; Wolff, Jennifer L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Albert, Michael C; Flynn, Sarah J; Boulware, L Ebony
African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions' cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial.
Ameling, Jessica M.; Ephraim, Patti L.; Bone, Lee R.; Levine, David M.; Roter, Debra L.; Wolff, Jennifer L.; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie L.; Noronha, Gary J.; Fagan, Peter J.; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Hickman, Debra; Simmons, Michelle; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Cooper, Lisa A.; Aboumatar, Hanan J.; Albert, Michael C.; Flynn, Sarah J.; Boulware, L. Ebony
African Americans suffer disproportionately poor hypertension control despite the availability of efficacious interventions. Using principles of community-based participatory research and implementation science, we adapted established hypertension self-management interventions to enhance interventions’ cultural relevance and potential for sustained effectiveness among urban African Americans. We obtained input from patients and their family members, their health care providers, and community members. The process required substantial time and resources, and the adapted interventions will be tested in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:24569158
Plowden, Keith O; Young, Anthony E
African-American men are suffering disproportionately from most illnesses. Seemingly, action is needed if health disparities that disproportionately affect African-American men as compared to their White and female counterparts are to be reduced or eliminated. An important step in decreasing common health disparities evidenced among African-American men is to understand social factors that act as motivators and barriers to seeking care for most of this vulnerable population. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social structure factors that motivate urban African-American men to seek care. Leininger's Culture Care Diversity and Universality Theory guided this study. Qualitative interviews were conducted with urban African-American men and other individuals in the community to explore understanding, attitudes, and beliefs about health. Critical issues examined included social factors associated with health seeking behaviors. Themes that emerged from these data indicated that critical social factors include: 1) Kinship/significant others; 2) accessibility of resources; 3) ethnohealth belief; and 4) accepting caring environment. The data also indicated a relationship between these social factors and health seeking behaviors of urban African-American men.
Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Wu, Chun Yi
African American women are at greater risk for complications related to high blood pressure. This study examined relationships between high blood pressure, pulse pressure, body mass index, family adaptability, family cohesion and social support among 146 Urban African American women. Significant relationships were found between family adaptability and systolic blood pressure (p = .03) and between adaptability and pulse pressure (p ≤ .01). Based on study results, practitioners should routinely assess family functioning, specifically family adaptability, in African American women who are at risk for high blood pressure or diagnosed with high blood pressure to minimize complications associated with hypertension. PMID:21076625
Focuses on cross-cultural perspectives of urbanization and urbanism by comparing the Yoruba cities of western Nigeria with cities of Europe and North America. Concludes that cross-cultural counselors working with Yoruba clients must understand Yoruba city clients and their home life, physical environment, family structure, parent attitudes, and…
Jørgensen, Gertrud; Herslund, Lise Byskov; Lund, Dorthe Hedensted
Resilience of urban structures towards impacts of a changing climate is one of the emerging tasks that cities all over the world are facing at present. Effects of climate change take many forms, depending on local climate, spatial patterns, and socioeconomic structures. Cities are only just...... beginning to be aware of the task, and some time will pass before it is integrated into mainstream urban governance. This chapter is based on work in progress. It covers urban governance and planning aspects of climate change adaptation as studied in the CLUVA project (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability...... in Africa), as well as some experiences from Denmark. Focus is on the responses and capacities of urban authorities, strengths and weaknesses of the efforts, data needs and possible ways forward. The chapter concludes that many adaptation activities are taking place in the CLUVA case cities...
Kollipara, Usha K; Mo, Vivian; Toto, Kathleen H; Nelson, Lauren L; Schneider, Ruth A; Neily, Jennifer B; Drazner, Mark H
Sodium restriction is important in the management of heart failure (HF). Although many low-sodium educational resources are available, few are directed specifically at urban African Americans. A registered dietitian prospectively interviewed 50 African-American and 25 white patients in an urban public hospital (derivation cohort) in Dallas, TX, using a food-frequency instrument that listed 146 food choices. Foods >300 mg sodium/serving consumed at least weekly by 50% of an ethnic group were classified as being a high-sodium core food for that group. Classification of foods (core or not core) was validated in a second African-American cohort (n = 144). Five high-sodium food choices were classified as core food in both the derivation and validation African-American cohorts (salt in cooking, canned vegetables, cheese, processed meats, and cold cereal) and another 3 when the derivation and validation cohorts were combined (fast food, fried chicken, and corn bread). Four of these 8 foods were not classified as core foods in whites. Eight high-sodium foods were frequently consumed by southern, urban African Americans with heart failure. Several of these foods were not commonly consumed by whites, emphasizing the need to be sensitive to ethnic differences in dietary habits when educating patients about sodium intake.
Hall, Diane M.; Cassidy, Elaine F.; Stevenson, Howard C.
African American adolescents (132 males and 128 females; age M=14.8 years, SD=0.92) enrolled in an urban community social skills development program participated in a study assessing the relationship among perceptions of family and community social support, fear of calamitous events, depression, and anger expression. Expressing fear of calamitous…
Van Reenen, CA
Full Text Available This multiple case study was designed to investigate acoustics in multi-bed general wards in four urban South African hospitals. Evidence-based research shows that a quiet indoor environment has positive outcomes for hospital patients and staff...
Lewin, Amy; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Burrell, Lori; Beers, Lee S. A.; Duggan, Anne K.
This study examined the relationship between a teen mother's perceptions of nurturance from her mother and father and her mental health and parenting attitudes. One-hundred and thirty-eight urban, primarily African American adolescent mothers were interviewed. Multivariate results indicate that teen mothers who felt nurtured by their mothers had…
Kruger, Herculina S.; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J.; Tieland, Michael
Background: Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y)
Anderson, James Sebastian
The researcher investigated the achievement of third- and fifth-grade urban African American students who attended science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), Non-STEM, and Theme Title I schools in science and mathematics on the 2015 Georgia Milestones Assessment. The researcher used data from 29 Non-STEM, 14 STEM, and 10 Theme…
M Keith Rawlings
Full Text Available M Keith Rawlings1, Jennifer Klein1, Edna P Toubes Klingler1, Ejeanée Queen1, Lauren Rogers1, Linda H Yau2, Keith A Pappa2, Gary E Pakes21AIDS Arms Peabody Health Clinic, Dallas, Texas; 2GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USAPurpose: Renal impairment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients could potentially be caused by many factors. HIV-related renal impairment risks have been little studied in African Americans and Hispanics. We investigated the impact of HIV itself, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, comorbidities, and non-HIV-related drug treatment on glomerular filtration rate in a predominantly African American/Hispanic HIV-infected population who had received HAART for at least one year. This study was a retrospective electronic medical record database evaluation of renal impairment risks in a largely African American/Hispanic HIV population obtaining medical care at an HIV clinic in Dallas, Texas.Methods: Proportional hazards models were used to investigate an association between an estimated glomerular filtration rate decrease >25% from baseline (ie, renal impairment and demographics, antiretroviral/nonantiretroviral medications, comorbidities (hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection, hepatitis B virus [HBV] infection, CD4+ counts, viral load, and duration patients were monitored at the clinic (time on study.Results: In total, 323 patients were evaluated: 82% males; 61% African American/12% Hispanic/19% Caucasian; mean age 37.9 years (standard deviation [SD] 8.5; 6% HBV-positive; 34% HCV-positive; 29% hypertensive; 3% diabetic; 52% tenofovir-treated; mean weight 75.4 kg (SD, 15.4; mean estimated glomerular filtration 114.5 mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD, 36.7 using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD calculation method; mean creatinine clearance (from which estimated glomerular filtration was extrapolated by the Cockcroft-Gault calculation method 120.6 mL/min/1
Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen; Sollien, Silje Erøy; Costa, Ana Bénard da
This chapter deals with key concepts and preliminary findings of the ressearch programme "Home Space-Meanings and perceptions of the built envioment in Peri-urban Maputo, Mozambique." The Programme examines the nature of emerging forms of "urbanism as a way of Life" in a rapidly urbanizing African...
Full Text Available Chronic diseases are prevalent in ethnic communities. Churches represent a potent resource for targeted health promotion. A Faith-Based Kiosk (FBK was developed as an informational tool and placed in four predominantly (>80% African-American churches. Congregants were surveyed to describe Kiosk use, kiosk-user characteristics, health status, and self-reported behavior changes attributed to the kiosk. We analyzed 1,573 questionnaires. Mean age of respondents was 46.4 years and >70% were women. Older congregations (mean age > 46.1 years had more reports of diabetes (p=0.002 and heart disease (p=0.01 than younger churches (mean age 40 years (p2 health conditions, adjusted Odds Ratio (95% Confidence Interval=1.43 (1.0-2.0, p=0.05. Male Kiosk-users preferred to select disease-specific content, aOR=1.87 (1.10-3.17, p=0.02, while females tended to select information about supportive community resources, aOR=0.49 (0.23-1.04, p=0.062. Knowledge of Kiosk-user characteristics and the health status of a congregation, provide an opportunity for targeted, church-based health promotion.
du Toit, Brian M.
Research carried out among urban residents in a satellite city in South Africa shows that while nearly all the subjects were members of Christian churches and attended church services, traditional supernatural beliefs and ritual practices were common. (Author/GC)
For instance, female characters like Esi the protagonist and her friend Opokuya, in spite of attempts to assert their independence and autonomy because of their economic empowerment as wage – earners in the city, still treasure the African traditional values of marriage. To corroborate the fact that foreign or nonindigenous ...
The impact of different socio-economic levels, height, weight and sum of four skinfolds on the menarcheal age of 302 Black, South African school girls ranging in age from 8 to 17 years was researched. Socioeconomic status was obtained by means of a questionnaire that focused on the education, income, and occupations ...
du Plessis, A; Malan, L; Malan, N T
Urbanisation is associated with obesity, hypertension and development of the metabolic syndrome (MS). We aimed to assess the use of different coping styles and their influence on increases in MS indicators and target end-organ damage (TOD) in urban black African men. A sample of 53 men was classified as clear high active (AC, n = 30) or passive coping (PC, n = 23) responders, using the Amirkhan African validated coping style indicator. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded with an aneroid sphygmomanometer and waist circumference (WC) was determined. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and microalbuminuria were analysed to determine TOD. Fasting serum and eight-hour urine samples revealed elevated MS indicators in AC men. Strong associations existed between MS indicators and TOD in AC but not PC men. To conclude, only BP and seeking social support were positively associated with TOD in urban PC African men, while in urban AC African men, most MS indicators were positively associated with TOD, i.e. sub-clinical atherosclerosis and renal impairment.
Vizzi, Esmeralda; Bastidas, Gilberto; Hidalgo, Mariana; Colman, Laura; Pérez, Hilda A
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency causes acute haemolytic anaemia triggered by oxidative drugs such as primaquine (PQ), used for Plasmodium vivax malaria radical cure. However, in many endemic areas of vivax malaria, patients are treated with PQ without any evaluation of their G6PD status. G6PD deficiency and its genetic heterogeneity were evaluated in northeastern and southeastern areas from Venezuela, Cajigal (Sucre state) and Sifontes (Bolívar state) municipalities, respectively. Blood samples from 664 randomly recruited unrelated individuals were screened for G6PD activity by a quantitative method. Mutation analysis for exons 4-8 of G6PD gen was performed on DNA isolated from G6PD-deficient (G6PDd) subjects through PCR-RFLP and direct DNA sequencing. Quantitative biochemical characterization revealed that overall 24 (3.6%) subjects were G6PDd (average G6PD enzyme activity 4.5 ± 1.2 U/g Hb, moderately deficient, class III), while DNA analysis showed one or two mutated alleles in 19 of them (79.2%). The G6PD A-(202A/376G) variant was the only detected in 17 (70.8%) individuals, 13 of them hemizygous males and four heterozygous females. Two males carried only the 376A → G mutation. No other mutation was found in the analysed exons. The G6PDd prevalence was as low as that one shown by nearby countries. This study contributes to the knowledge of the genetic background of Venezuelan population, especially of those living in malaria-endemic areas. Despite the high degree of genetic mixing described for Venezuelan population, a net predominance of the mild African G6PD A-(202A/376G) variant was observed among G6PDd subjects, suggesting a significant flow of G6PD genes from Africa to Americas, almost certainly introduced through African and/or Spanish immigrants during and after the colonization. The data suggest that 1:27 individuals of the studied population could be G6PDd and therefore at risk of haemolysis under precipitating factors
Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Bradshaw, Catherine P.
Increasing research documents the negative short- and long-term effects of relational aggression on children's behavior and social-emotional functioning. Although parents likely play an important role in the way children learn to cope with and attempt to resolve relational aggression, there is little research on this issue. The present study…
The object of this community based study was to determine the prevalence of selected cardiovascular risk factors in an urban inner city community which had been followed up prospectively from 1993 to 1998. Results show that the prevalence of hypertension (Blood Pressure BP > 160/95 mm Hg) was 12.4 percent with an ...
Yet despite this hypothetical sce- nario, in a study of 2 364 urban-born black children .... Srevens CE, Toy PT, Tong Mj, el al. Perinatal hepatitis B virus ... randomized double-blind placebo-controlled and comparative trial. Pedialries 1985; 76: ...
South Africa has the largest population of people living with HIV globally and is associated with high population mobility. The majority of migrants move in search of improved livelihood opportunities, and many who migrate (both internally and across borders) move into urban areas, often through peripheral informal ...
Diogo, V.; Schlecht, E.; Buerkert, A.; Rufino, M.C.; Wijk, van M.T.
In many African cities urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) plays a major role in creating jobs and contributing to food security. However, many small-scale UPA systems are characterised by excessive nutrient inputs to the livestock unit and poor handling of manure. To assess the impact of
Full Text Available Contemporary and historical state interventions in South African cities and towns have distorted urban land markets affecting especially the poor. This has resulted in market failure for less wealthy individuals and households in their attempts...
Full Text Available The research question addressed in the study was to determine the prevalence of the following lifestyle risk factors: obesity, waist-hip ratio, physical inactivity, high blood glucose, and hypertension in an urban community. The research objective for the study was to determine the prevalence of specific risk factors in an urban community. Based on the results, a health intervention could be planned and implemented to reduce the prevalence of the risk factors and the possibility of chronic noncommunicable diseases in later life. The design was a quantitative survey using physical measurement and a structured questionnaire. The target population of the study was black urban adults (n=218. The sampling method was convenient and purposive. The results of the study indicated that the prevalence of hypertension and obesity were higher than the national prevalence for South Africa. The waist-hip ratio revealed that 20% of the men and 49.7% of the women were at risk for cardiovascular disease. High blood glucose levels were demonstrated for 21.6% of the group. Physical activity was also shown to be inadequate. In conclusion, the potential for cardiovascular and metabolic health problems in future is high. It is recommended that an intervention, based on the results of the study, should and must be developed and implemented. The more challenging question is to know what to do and how to do it. A framework is suggested to guide the development of an intervention.
Bacon, La Shawn Catrice
The relationship between academic self-concept and academic achievement in African American students who have experienced geographic mobility was the focus of this study. Specifically, this study used quantitative methods to assess African American students from counties in Iowa to obtain information about the students' relocation from urban to…
Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.
The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…
Harris, Allyssa L; Sutherland, Melissa A; Hutchinson, M Katherine
This study examined the influence of parental marital status, parent-child sexual communication, parent-child closeness on the HIV-related knowledge, safer-sex intentions, and behaviors of late adolescent urban African American males. The study employed a cross-sectional design with retrospective recall of salient parental influences and behaviors. Data were collected via paper-and-pencil questionnaire from 134 late adolescent African American males, 18 to 22 years of age, recruited from urban communities in and around Boston, Massachusetts. Data were analyzed using bivariate correlations, paired t tests, and regression modeling. Young men reported greater amounts of sexual communication with mothers than fathers (p fathers (p permissive sexual attitudes (p father-son communication and develop strategies to help parents communicate effectively with sons. Evidence has shown that African American adolescent males are more likely to engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. Understanding the sexual risk communication between African American adolescent males and their parents is important to developing strategies in reducing sexual risk behavior. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Key words: Sustainability, CATPCA, two-step cluster analysis, farm types, nutrient balances, West Africa, gross margin, NUTMON/MONQI.
Urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) is defined as the cultivation of crops and keeping livestock within and around cities. In addition to providing the
Frillman, Sharron Ann
This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in…
Walters, Sabrina Denise
African American males face daunting obstacles as they pursue higher education as research has shown. This study sought to better understand the impact of specific factors--social support, racial identity, perceived racial discrimination, coping, and religious coping--on the academic achievement of African American male college student…
Plowden, Keith O; Fletcher, Audwin; Miller, J Lawrence
Urban African Americans are disproportionately affected by HIV, the virus associated with AIDS. Although incidence and mortality appear to be decreasing in some populations, they continue to remain steady among inner-city African Americans. A major concern is the number of HIV-positive individuals who continue to practice high-risk behaviors. Understanding factors that increase risks is essential for the development and implementation of effective prevention initiatives. Following a constructionist epistemology, this study used ethnography to explore social and cultural factors that influence high-risk behaviors among inner-city HIV-positive African Americans. Leininger's culture care diversity and universality theory guided the study. Individual qualitative interviews were conducted with HIV-positive African Americans in the community to explore social and cultural factors that increase HIV-risky behaviors. For this study, family/kinship, economic, and education factors played a significant role in risky behaviors. Reducing HIV disparity among African Americans is dependent on designing appropriate interventions that enhance protective factors. Clinicians providing care to HIV-positive individuals can play a key role in reducing transmission by recognizing and incorporating these factors when designing effective prevention interventions.
Budenz, Donald L; Barton, Keith; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Schiffman, Joyce; Bandi, Jagadeesh; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Kim, Hanna; Hay-Smith, Graham; Tielsch, James M
Multiple studies have found an increased prevalence, younger age at onset, and more severe course of glaucoma in people of African descent, but these findings are based on studies conducted outside Africa. To determine the prevalence of glaucoma in an urban West African population of adults. A population-based, cross-sectional study of adults 40 years and older conducted from September 1, 2006, through December 31, 2008, from 5 communities in Tema, Ghana. Participants from randomly selected clusters underwent a screening examination that consisted of visual acuity, frequency doubling perimetry, applanation tonometry, and optic disc photography. Participants who failed any of these tests were referred for complete examination, including gonioscopy, standard automated perimetry, and stereoscopic optic disc photography. A total of 6806 eligible participants were identified, and 5603 (82.3%) were enrolled in the study. The field examination referred 1869 participants (33.3%) to the clinic examination, and 1538 (82.2%) came for complete examination. A total of 362 participants were identified as having glaucoma of any type and category. Primary open-angle glaucoma was the underlying diagnosis in 342 participants (94.5%). The prevalence of primary open-angle glaucoma was 6.8% overall, increasing from 3.7% among those 40 to 49 years old to 14.6% among those 80 years and older, and was higher in men than in women in all age groups, with an overall male-female prevalence ratio of 1.5. Of the participants with glaucoma, 9 (2.5%) were blind using World Health Organization criteria, and only 12 (3.3%) were aware that they had glaucoma. The prevalence of glaucoma is higher in this urban West African population than in previous studies of people of East or South African and of non-African descent. Strategies to identify affected persons and effectively manage the burden of glaucoma are needed in West Africa.
Rafiu O. Salami
Full Text Available In the recent past, the frequency and gravity of large-scale flood disasters have increased globally, resulting in casualties, destruction of property and huge economic loss. The destructive flood disaster devastating Louisiana, USA, is a recent example. Despite the availability of advanced technological capabilities for dealing with floods in developed nations, flood disasters continue to become more rampant and disastrous. Developing countries in Africa such as Benin, Ghana, Nigeria, Senegal and Sudan have recently experienced severe flooding, leaving a considerable number of human casualties and thousands displaced. In African cities, most vulnerable urban residents usually have lesser capacity and fewer resources to recover from the shocks of disaster as a result of the failure of governments to build human security for poor African residents. Many scholars have acknowledged the lack of appropriate vulnerability assessment frameworks and policies, questioning the efficiency and effectiveness of the tested models in Africa. The ability to accurately identify, measure and evaluate the various vulnerabilities of affected people and communities is a right step towards reducing disaster risk. This article aimed at developing a framework for assessing urban settlements’ vulnerability to flood risks in Africa. The framework is currently being tested to assess various dimensions of vulnerability drivers in three urban communities in Ibadan metropolis, the third largest city in Nigeria, focusing more on flood risk perceptions and behaviour of the risk bearers. It uses participatory and mixed method approaches to socially construct vulnerability of populations at risk. This model emanates from the evaluation of considerable relevant literature and an array of vulnerability assessment frameworks. It integrates some approaches that are applicable to African cities in a bid to create a versatile tool to assess, identify and mitigate the effects of
Bondima, Michelle Harris
This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher
BORDERS, TYRONE F.; BOOTH, BRENDA M.; STEWART, KATHARINE E.; CHENEY, ANN M.; CURRAN, GEOFFREY M.
Objective To examine how rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other factors impede or facilitate perceived need for drug use treatment, a concept closely linked to treatment utilization. Study Design Two hundred rural and 200 urban African American cocaine users who were not receiving treatment were recruited via Respondent-Driven Sampling and completed a structured in-person interview. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to test the associations between perceived need and rural/urban residence, perceived access, and other predisposing (eg, demographics), enabling (eg, insurance), and health factors (eg, psychiatric distress). Principal Findings In bivariate analyses, rural relative to urban cocaine users reported lower perceived treatment need (37% vs 48%), availability, affordability, overall ease of access, and effectiveness, as well as lower perceived acceptability of residential, outpatient, self-help, and hospital-based services. In multivariate analyses, there was a significant interaction between rural/urban residence and the acceptability of religious counseling. At the highest level of acceptability, rural users had lower odds of perceived need (OR=.23); at the lowest level, rural users had higher odds of perceived need (OR=2.74) than urban users. Among rural users, the acceptability of religious counseling was negatively associated with perceived need (OR=.64). Ease of access was negatively associated (OR=.71) whereas local treatment effectiveness (OR=1.47) and the acceptability of hospital-based treatment (OR=1.29) were positively associated with perceived need among all users. Conclusions Our findings suggest rural/urban disparities in perceived need and access to drug use treatment. Among rural and urban cocaine users, improving perceptions of treatment effectiveness and expanding hospital-based services could promote treatment seeking. PMID:25213603
Mahomed-Asmail, Faheema; Swanepoel, De Wet; Eikelboom, Robert H
This study aimed to describe the prevalence and characteristics of hearing loss in school-aged children in an urban South African population. Children from grade one to three from five schools in the Gauteng Province of South Africa formed a representative sample for this study. All children underwent otoscopic examinations, tympanometry and pure tone screening (25dB HL at 1, 2 and 4kHz). Children who failed the screening test and 5% of those who passed the screening test underwent diagnostic audiometry. A total of 1070 children were screened. Otoscopic examinations revealed that a total of 6.6% ears had cerumen and 7.5% of ears presented with a type-B tympanogram. 24 children (12 male, 12 female) were diagnosed with hearing loss. The overall prevalence of hearing loss was 2.2% with Caucasian children being 2.9 times more (95% confidence interval, 1.2-6.9) likely to have a hearing loss than African children. Hearing loss prevalence in urban South African school-aged children suggest that many children (2.2%) are in need of some form of follow-up services, most for medical intervention (1.2%) with a smaller population requiring audiological intervention (0.4%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wilson, Helen W.; Woods, Briana A.; Emerson, Erin; Donenberg, Geri R.
Objective This study examined the relationship between violence exposure and sexual risk-taking among low-income, urban African American (AA) adolescent girls, considering overlap among different types and characteristics of violence. Methods AA adolescent girls were originally recruited from outpatient mental health clinics serving urban, mostly low-SES communities in Chicago, IL as part of a two-year longitudinal investigation of HIV-risk behavior. A subsequent follow-up was completed to assess lifetime history of trauma and violence exposure. The current study (N=177) included violence exposure and sexual risk behavior reported at the most recent interview (ages 14-22). Multiple regression was used to examine combined and unique contributions of different types, ages, settings, and perpetrators or victims of violence to variance in sexual risk. Results More extensive violence exposure and cumulative exposure to different kinds of violence were associated with overall unsafe sex, more partners, and inconsistent condom use. The most significant unique predictors, accounting for overlap among different forms of violence, were physical victimization, adolescent exposure, neighborhood violence, and violence involving dating partners. Conclusions These findings put sexual risk in the context of broad traumatic experiences but also suggest that the type and characteristics of violence exposure matter in terms of sexual health outcomes. Violence exposure should be addressed in efforts to reduce STIs among low-income, urban African American girls. PMID:24563808
Ashipala, N; Armitage, N P
In recent decades South Africa has witnessed a substantial growth in its urban population. This growth has been accompanied by the mushrooming of informal settlements (shantytowns) flanking more formal development. The lack of adequate urban drainage in many of these informal settlements has resulted in extremely polluted environments which add to the disease burden of the poor people who live there. In many instances, informal settlements in South Africa are established on marginal land that is inherently difficult to service using conventional gravity sewerage. International experience has shown that various alternative wastewater collection systems may present more appropriate ways of providing water-borne sewerage in areas that are difficult to service by conventional means. Alternative sewerage schemes have however had a poor record of success in South African informal settlements - primarily stemming from the implementing agencies' failure to adequately address various social and institutional factors. In this paper, a review of South African experiences with simplified sewerage, settled sewerage and vacuum sewerage in urban informal settlements is used to highlight the key constraints that currently impede the application of these technologies.
Full Text Available fermentation for the preparation of Gari, and their technologically relevant characteristics were investigated with a view towards selection of appropriate starter cultures. A total of 139 predominant strains isolated from fermenting cassava were identified...
This critical ethnography focused on five urban African American students, coming from economically disadvantaged homes in Philadelphia, who were considered at risk with regard to their position within society as well as within the small learning community of their low-academically performing school. As participants in the study, they were employed from June 11, 2001 from 9:00 AM until 1:00 PM and continuing until September 7, 2001 at $7.50 per hour under research grants from the Spencer Foundation and the National Science Foundation. Through this study, these five youth were provided with traditional and nontraditional opportunities to build understandings of some of the most essential concepts of physics as learners. Moreover, they also had the chance to work as research assistants, teacher educators and curriculum developers. The findings of the research conclusively reveal that African American, urban youth from some of the most challenging situations are capable of learning physics concepts. Moreover, the most success resulted when students' strategies of action were directed towards the objective of learning although, in the process of meaning-making, their personal goals unrelated to science were also met. In addition, the research results show that urban African American students come to school with strategies of action replete with cultural practices, symbols and their underlying meanings from fields outside of school including both the home and the neighborhood. These cultural resources, when triggered, then become apparent within learning environments and can powerfully assist learning when the desired outcomes of the student(s) are in tune with the objective of learning physics. Through the physics teaching and learning that occurred within this study, as well as their work as researchers, teacher educators and curriculum developers, April, Ebony, Markist, Pierre and Ya-Meer had opportunities to utilize their cultural capital to build new knowledge
Frillman, Sharron Ann
This phenomenological study examined the experiences of twelve female African Americans enrolled as fulltime undergraduate engineering students at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University, an historically Black university, and seven female African Americans enrolled as undergraduate engineering students at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana, a traditionally White institution. Interviews provided insights into the "lived" experiences of these young women and the factors they believe have contributed to their success in their respective engineering programs. Data analysis involved coding each participant's responses to interview questions using Atlas.ti, a powerful qualitative data analysis tool. This generated 181 codes that were further categorized into nine emergent themes, indicating the potential for extensive associations among the variables. The emergent themes are as follows: (1) Demographic information/special circumstances, (2) Personal attributes and characteristics, (3) Personal insights, (4) Sense of mission, (5) Sources of negative stress, (6) Success strategies, (7) Various forms of support, (8) Would/would not have made it to where she is now, and (9) Being African American and female in engineering. Analysis of these themes and their relationships led to the development of the Frillman Model of Emergent Themes in Female African American Engineering Students. Success. In addressing similarities and differences, three overriding theme categories emerged. These were: (1) Four personhood themes and dual social identity theme; (2) Environmental input and response theme; and (3) Outcome emergent theme of Would/Would not have made it to where she is now. Recommendations were made for future research to expand upon this exploratory study.
Bowen, Felesia; O'Brien-Richardson, Patricia
Hair holds cultural meaning and value for women of African descent. The values placed on hair type and hair style date back to preslavery days. There is a small body of literature that addresses the relationship between cultural hair practices and physical inactivity among black women. Understanding this is important because inactivity during childhood and adolescent years contributes to increased weight-related morbidity and mortality during adult years. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cultural hair practices, physical activity, and obesity among urban African-American adolescent girls. A convenience sample of 50 African-American girls completed questionnaires and were weighed and measured for body mass index (BMI) calculation. Cultural hair practices such as the amount of money (p = .047) and time (p = .015) spent on hair maintenance were associated with decreased physical activity but were not associated with BMI. Inactivity during adolescence can result in obesity, a major cause of chronic health conditions that contribute to morbidity and mortality as an adult. When nurse practitioners understand and appreciate the cultural differences and beliefs around cultural hair practices they will be able to develop culturally appropriate strategies that will aid in weight loss. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J
Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.
Collins, James W; Simon, Dyan M; Jackson, Tara A; Drolet, Aimee
This study sought to determine whether neighborhood poverty modifies the relationship between maternal age and infant birth weight among urban African Americans. Stratified analyses were performed on the vital records of African Americans born in Chicago by means of 1992-1995 computerized birth file with appended 1990 US Census income and 1995 Chicago Department of Public Health data. Four neighborhood-level variables (low median family income, high rates of unemployment, homicide, and lead poisoning) were analyzed. This is a population-based study. Twenty-one percent (n=21,811) of women resided in nonimpoverished neighborhoods (zero ecologic risk factors); 23% (n=24,914) of women lived in extremely impoverished neighborhoods (four ecologic risk factors). In nonimpoverished neighborhoods, 30-34 year old women had a moderately low birth weight (1500-2499 g) rate of 13.9% compared to 10.3% for women aged 20-24 years; risk difference (95% confidence interval [CI])=3.5 (2.2-4.6). In contrast, extremely impoverished women aged 30-34 years had a moderately low birth weight rate of 19.8% compared to 11.8% for women aged 20-24 years; risk difference (95% CI)=7.7 (6.1-9.3). This trend persisted among women who received early prenatal care and were primagravids or of low parity. Neighborhood poverty did not modify the association of advancing maternal age and the risk of very low birth weight (poverty accelerates the rise in moderately low birth weight but not very low birth weight; rates were associated with advancing maternal age among urban African Americans.
Hudgens Edward E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma and allergy represent complex phenotypes, which disproportionately burden ethnic minorities in the United States. Strong evidence for genomic factors predisposing subjects to asthma/allergy is available. However, methods to utilize this information to identify high risk groups are variable and replication of genetic associations in African Americans is warranted. Methods We evaluated 41 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP and a deletion corresponding to 11 genes demonstrating association with asthma in the literature, for association with asthma, atopy, testing positive for food allergens, eosinophilia, and total serum IgE among 141 African American children living in Detroit, Michigan. Independent SNP and haplotype associations were investigated for association with each trait, and subsequently assessed in concert using a genetic risk score (GRS. Results Statistically significant associations with asthma were observed for SNPs in GSTM1, MS4A2, and GSTP1 genes, after correction for multiple testing. Chromosome 11 haplotype CTACGAGGCC (corresponding to MS4A2 rs574700, rs1441586, rs556917, rs502581, rs502419 and GSTP1 rs6591256, rs17593068, rs1695, rs1871042, rs947895 was associated with a nearly five-fold increase in the odds of asthma (Odds Ratio (OR = 4.8, p = 0.007. The GRS was significantly associated with a higher odds of asthma (OR = 1.61, 95% Confidence Interval = 1.21, 2.13; p = 0.001. Conclusions Variation in genes associated with asthma in predominantly non-African ethnic groups contributed to increased odds of asthma in this African American study population. Evaluating all significant variants in concert helped to identify the highest risk subset of this group.
Modiehi Heather Sedibe; Pedro T. Pisa; Alison B. Feeley; Titilola M. Pedro; Kathleen Kahn; Shane A. Norris
The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to ...
Ramos-Marcuse, Fatima; Oberlander, Sarah E; Papas, Mia A; McNary, Scot W; Hurley, Kristen M; Black, Maureen M
Maternal depressive symptomatology is an important public health issue with negative consequences for both mothers and infants. This study examined prevalence and patterns of depressive symptoms among 181 urban, low-income, first-time, African American adolescent mothers recruited from urban hospitals following delivery. Follow-up evaluations were conducted at 6 (N=148; 82%) and 24 (N=147; 81%) month home visits. Depressive symptoms were measured with Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Half of mothers (49%) had BDI scores >9 at baseline, with significant correlations between BDI scores across all visits (r=0.28-0.50). Depressive symptom trajectories analyzed using group-based trajectory modeling revealed three trajectories of depressive symptoms: Low (41%), Medium (45%), and High (14%). The high depressive symptom group reported lower self-esteem, more negative life events, and lower parenting satisfaction than the low and moderate depressive symptoms groups. Depressive symptoms were self-reported and not verified with a clinical interview. Findings are limited to urban, low-income, African American adolescent mothers and may not be generalizable to other populations. The high prevalence and relative stability of depressive symptoms through 2years of parenting suggest the need for early identification and treatment of maternal depressive symptoms. Brief screening for maternal depressive symptoms conducted during pediatric well-child visits is a feasible and effective method for identifying mothers with depressive symptoms, however, screening measures can not differentiate between high and low levels of depressive symptoms. Brief intervention may be an effective treatment for mothers with mild symptoms of depression; mothers with moderate to severe symptoms may require more intensive intervention. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Threlfall, Jennifer M; Seay, Kristen D; Kohl, Patricia L
This qualitative study examines low-income African American fathers' perceptions of their parenting role and the strategies they employ to bring up children in poor urban neighborhoods. Focus groups and individual interviews were conducted with 36 fathers who had contact with their children at least twice a month. Men in the study expressed conventional views of their fathering roles as provider, nurturer, and teacher, but placed the most emphasis on "being there" for their children, as their financial circumstances limited other forms of involvement. Many fathers felt their circumstances to be exacerbated by a hostile child-support system. They desired to teach their children alternatives to the negative practices and values they saw in their urban neighborhoods and to have the skills to prosper in mainstream society. Overall, the findings suggest that many low-income urban fathers already desire to be responsible fathers but see themselves as limited by material and structural challenges. Services and policies that promote the economic stability of low-income fathers are recommended.
Mohamed, Roslyn J. F. Billy
With the signing of the No Child Left Behind Act in 2001, much emphasis has been placed on the accountability of schools and school districts to ensure higher academic achievement of all students. The achievement gap remains among African American male students in urban school districts. This purposed quantitative study explored the relationship…
Ritchie, Lorrene D.; Raman, Aarthi; Sharma, Sushma; Fitch, Mark D.; Fleming, Sharon E.
Objective: To identify family and child nutrition and dietary attributes related to children's dietary intakes. Design: African American children (ages 8-11 years, n = 156), body mass index greater than 85th percentile, from urban, low-income neighborhoods. Baseline, cross-sectional data collected as part of an ongoing diabetes prevention…
Kane, Justine M.
This is a qualitative study of identities constructed and enacted by four 3rd-grade African American children (two girls and two boys) in an urban classroom that engaged in a year-long, integrated science-literacy project. Juxtaposing narrative and discursive identity lenses, coupled with race and gender perspectives, I examined the ways in which the four children saw and performed themselves as students and as science students in their classroom. Interview data were used for the narrative analysis and classroom Discourse and artifacts were used for the discursive analysis. A constructivist grounded theory framework was adopted for both analyses. The findings highlight the diversity and richness of perspectives and forms of engagement these young children shared and enacted, and help us see African American children as knowers, doers, and talkers of science individually and collectively. In their stories about themselves, all the children identified themselves as smart but they associated with smartness different characteristics and practices depending on their strengths and preferences. Drawing on the children's social, cultural, and ethnolinguistic resources, the dialogic and multimodal learning spaces facilitated by their teacher allowed the children to explore, negotiate, question, and learn science ideas. The children in this study brought their understandings and ways of being into the "lived-in" spaces co-created with classmates and teacher and influenced how these spaces were created. At the same time, each child's ways of being and understandings were shaped by the words, actions, behaviors, and feelings of peers and teacher. Moreover, as these four children engaged with science-literacy activities, they came to see themselves as competent, creative, active participants in science learning. Although their stories of "studenting" seemed dominated by following rules and being well-behaved, their stories of "sciencing" were filled with exploration, ingenuity
Ogunbodede, E O; Kida, I A; Madjapa, H S; Amedari, M; Ehizele, A; Mutave, R; Sodipo, B; Temilola, S; Okoye, L
Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.
Budenz, Donald L; Bandi, Jagadeesh R; Barton, Keith; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Hay-Smith, Graham; Kim, Hanna; Tielsch, James
To determine the prevalence, causes, and risk factors of blindness and visual impairment among persons aged 40 years or older residing in an urban West African location. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 5603 participants residing in Tema, Ghana. Proportionate random cluster sampling was used to select participants aged 40 years or older living in the city of Tema. Presenting distance visual acuity (VA) was measured at 4 and 1 m using a reduced logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution tumbling E chart and then with trial frame based on autorefraction. A screening examination was performed in the field on all participants. Complete clinical examination by an ophthalmologist was performed on participants with best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) Tema, Ghana, West Africa. Refractive error is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in this population, followed by cataract, glaucoma, and corneal disease. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Larson, R W; Richards, M H; Sims, B; Dworkin, J
The time budgets of a population of youth provide important information about their daily experience and socialization. This study reports data on the time budgets of a sample of 253 urban African American poor to working- and middle-class 5th-8th graders in Chicago. These youth were found to spend less time in school than other postindustrial adolescent populations, but spent no less time doing homework than White suburban U.S. young adolescents. They spent large quantities of time at home and with their families--at rates comparable to rates for young adolescents in a society with collectivist values like India. Unlike with other populations, early adolescence was not associated with major age changes in time allocations. Amount of time in schoolwork did not differ by grade, and amount of time with family did not show the decline with age that has been found for European American suburban adolescents.
Nebbitt, Von E; Williams, James Herbert; Lombe, Margaret; McCoy, Henrika; Stephens, Jennifer
African American adolescents are disproportionately represented in urban public housing developments. These neighborhoods are generally characterized by high rates of poverty, crime, violence, and disorganization. Although evidence is emerging on youths in these communities, little is known about their depressive symptoms, perceived efficacy, or frequency of substance use and sex-risk behavior. Further, even less is known about their exposure to community and household violence, their parents' behavior, or their sense of connection to their communities. Using a sample of 782 African American adolescents living in public housing neighborhoods located in four large U.S. cities, this article attempts to rectify the observed gap in knowledge by presenting a descriptive overview of their self-reported depressive symptoms; self-efficacy; frequencies of delinquent and sexual-risk behavior; and alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use. The self-reported ratings of their parents' behavior as well as their exposure to community and household violence are presented. Analytic procedures include descriptive statistics and mean comparisons between genders and across research cities. Results suggest several differences between genders and across research sites. However, results are not very different from national data. Implications for social work practice are discussed.
Compton, Michael T; Esterberg, Michelle L; Broussard, Beth
Although mental health professionals' "etiologic beliefs" concerning schizophrenia have evolved in accordance with diathesis-stress and neurodevelopmental models, little is known about etiologic attributions in nonclinical general population samples in the United States. Yet, course and outcome for people with the illness may be indirectly influenced by beliefs about causes in the larger community. Because of very limited research in this area, especially among African Americans in particular, this descriptive study investigated the causes of schizophrenia reported by 127 urban African Americans from the general population. The aim of this study was to assess the most commonly reported causes of schizophrenia, as well as the frequency of endorsing items from a list of 30 factors, some of which are congruent with current psychiatric conceptualizations of schizophrenia, whereas others are not. Results of this report complement previously reported findings from the same setting involving family members of patients with schizophrenia [Esterberg ML, Compton MT. Causes of schizophrenia reported by family members of urban African American hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. Compr Psychiatry 2006;47:221-226]. The 5 most commonly reported causes were disturbance of brain biochemistry (49.6%), drug/alcohol abuse (42.5%), hereditary factors (40.9%), brain injury (40.2%), and avoidance of problems in life (37.8%). The mean number of likely or very likely causes endorsed by participants was 7.5 +/- 5.7. Some 47.9% reported one or more esoteric factors as a cause. Of the 6 esoteric factors, possession by evil spirits (28.3%), radiation (20.2%), and punishment by God (19.7%) were most common. Esoteric causes were more commonly chosen by male participants, those with 12 years of education or less, and participants who reported never having known someone with schizophrenia. Future research should seek to better understand how esoteric beliefs about causation affect attitudes
Ginsburg, Carren; Griffiths, Paula L.; Richter, Linda M.; Norris, Shane A.
Adolescents who are changing residence, as well as their social and economic circumstances may experience lifestyle changes that have an effect on body composition outcomes such as undernutrition, overweight or obesity. This paper uses data from Birth to Twenty, a birth cohort of South African urban children, to determine the relationship between residential mobility and body mass index (BMI) amongst Black adolescents aged 15 (n=1613), and to examine the role of changes in household socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of overweight and obesity in the sample was 25% in females and 8% in males. Amongst the females, a strong positive association between residential mobility and BMI was observed for those who also experienced an increase in household SES between birth and 15 years (β=0.42, SE=0.13), while no effect was identified for males. The study shows the potential for environmental change and increased resources to influence the risk for obesity. It also highlights the value in considering the range of social environmental factors and changes across the early life course that might play a part in evolving nutritional patterns in urban transitioning environments. PMID:23211581
Nkoke, Clovis; Makoge, Christelle; Dzudie, Anastase; Mfeukeu, Liliane Kuate; Luchuo, Engelbert Bain; Menanga, Alain; Kingue, Samuel
Objective: The pattern of heart disease is diverse within and among world regions. The little data on the spectrum of heart disease in Cameroon has been so far limited to major cities. We sought to describe the pattern of heart disease in Buea, the South West Region of Cameroon, a semi-urban
Mitchell, Stephanie J; Godoy, Leandra; Shabazz, Kanya; Horn, Ivor B
There is considerable potential for mobile technologies to empower pediatric patients and families by improving their communication with health professionals. National surveys suggest minority parents frequently communicate via mobile technology, but it is uncertain how amenable they are to receiving health care information in this format. Although the low cost and far reach characteristics of mobile health (mHealth) technology makes it advantageous for communication with minority parents, data on acceptance are needed. The objective of the study was to determine utilization of mobile and Internet technology by African American parents in an urban, underserved population, and to assess their interest in receiving health information via text messaging or other technologies (eg, social media and the Internet). A survey was administered to parents of children aged 1-12 years covered by public insurance receiving care at 3 pediatric primary care centers in Washington, DC. The African American sample (N=302) was composed of primarily single (75.8%, 229/302) mothers. Almost half had more than a high school education (47.7%, 144/302) and incomes above US $25,000 per year (43.0%, 130/302). Most (97.0%, 293/302) reported owning a cell phone, of which 91.1% (275/302) used it to text and 78.5% (237/302) used it to access the Internet. Most had service plans with unlimited text and data, but 26.5% (80/302) experienced service interruptions in the previous year. Home Internet access was more prevalent among those with higher income (86.2%, 112/130), but it was still relatively pervasive among lower income families (66.9%, 83/124). In adjusted logistic regression models, African American mothers with income greater than US $25,000 annually were 4 times as likely to own a tablet computer than their lower income counterparts. Of the participants, 80.8% (244/302) used social networking, primarily Facebook, and 74.2% (224/302) were interested in joining a social networking group
The Relationship Between Online Social Network Use, Sexual Risk Behaviors, and HIV Sero-Status Among a Sample of Predominately African American and Latino Men Who have Sex with Men (MSM) Social Media Users.
Chiu, ChingChe J; Young, Sean D
Social networking technologies have emerged as potential platforms to reach HIV(+) MSM in HIV interventions. This study sought to compare use of online social networking sites (SNSs) and sexual risk behaviors between HIV(+) and HIV(-) individuals among a sample of predominately African American and Latino SNS-using MSM. A total of 112 MSM Facebook users were recruited online and offline and completed an online survey. We performed regression models to assess the association between HIV status, SNS use, and sexual risk behaviors. After adjusting for age, race, and employment status, being HIV positive was significantly associated with a greater number of sexual partners (ARR = 2.84, p = 0.0017) and lower comfort levels of discussing HIV/STI status on SNSs (AOR: 0.23, p = 0.011). Findings suggest that HIV status is associated with sexual risk behaviors and SNS use among SNS-using MSM. We discuss the implications for online HIV prevention.
Matcher, G. F.; Froneman, P. W.; Meiklejohn, I.; Dorrington, R. A.
Worldwide, estuaries are regarded as amongst the most ecologically threatened ecosystems and are increasingly being impacted by urban development, agricultural activities and reduced freshwater inflow. In this study, we examined the influence of different human activities on the diversity and structure of bacterial communities in the water column and sediment in three distinct, temperate permanently open estuarine systems within the same geographic region of southern Africa. The Kariega system is freshwater-deprived and is considered to be relatively pristine; the Kowie estuary is marine-dominated and impacted by urban development, while the Sundays system is fresh-water dominated and impacted by agricultural activity in its catchment. The bacterial communities in all three systems comprise predominantly heterotrophic species belonging to the Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria phyla with little overlap between bacterioplankton and benthic bacterial communities at the species level. There was overlap between the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) of the Kowie and Kariega, both marine-influenced estuaries. However, lower species richness in the Kowie, likely reflects the impact of human settlements along the estuary. The dominant OTUs in the Sundays River system were distinct from those of the Kariega and Kowie estuaries with an overall decrease in species richness and evenness. This study provides an important snapshot into the microbial population structures of permanently open temperate estuarine systems and the influence of anthropogenic impacts on bacterial diversity and community structure.
Cavan, Gina; Lindley, Sarah; Kibassa, Deusdedit; Shemdoe, Riziki; Capuano, Paolo; De Paola, Francesco; Renner, Florian; Pauleit, Stephan
Urban green structure provides important regulating ecosystem services, such as temperature and flood regulation, and thus, has the potential to increase the resilience of African cities to climate change. Green structures within urban areas are not only limited to discrete units associated with recreational parks, agricultural areas and open spaces: they also exist within zones which have other primary functions, such as church yards, along transport routes, and within residential areas. Differing characteristics of urban areas can be conceptualised and subsequently mapped through the idea of urban morphology types. Urban morphology types are classifications which combine facets of urban form and function. When mapped, UMT units provide biophysically relevant meso-scale geographical zones which can be used as the basis for understanding climate-related impacts and adaptations. For example, they support the assessment of urban temperature patterns and the temperature regulating services provided by urban green structures. There are some examples of the use of UMTs for assessing regulating ecosystem services in European cities but little similar knowledge is available in an African context. This paper outlines the concept of urban morphology types (UMTs) and how they were applied to African case study cities (Cavan et al., 2012). It then presents the methods used to understand temperature regulating ecosystem services across an example African case study city, including (i) a GIS-based assessment of urban green structures, and (ii) applying an energy balance model to estimate current and future surface temperatures under climate change projections. The assessment is carried out for Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Existing evidence suggests increases in both mean and extreme temperatures in the city. Historical analysis of the number of hot days per year suggests a rise from a maximum of 47 days per year in the period 1961-87 to 72 days per year in 2003-2011 (Giugni et al
Greif, Geoffrey L.; Jones, Joseph T., Jr.; Worthy, James; White, Eddie; Davis, Will; Pitchford, Edward
Urban, African American fathers have been a difficult population for social workers and other helping professionals to effectively serve. This article, based on interviews with front-line African American service professionals at a father-focused program, who also participated in writing this article, provides information about and suggestions for…
Full Text Available Introduction. Telemedicine is promoted as a means to increase access to specialty medical care among the urban underserved, yet little is known about its acceptability among these populations. We used components of a diffusion of innovation conceptual framework to analyze preexperience perceptions about telemedicine to assess its appeal among urban underserved African Americans and Latinos. Methods. Ten focus groups were conducted with African American (=43 and Latino participants (=44 in both English and Spanish and analyzed for key themes. Results. Both groups perceived increased and immediate access to multiple medical opinions and reduced wait time as relative advantages of telemedicine. However, African Americans expressed more concerns than Latinos about confidentiality, privacy, and the physical absence of the specialist. This difference may reflect lower levels of trust in new health care innovations among African Americans resulting from a legacy of past abuses in the US medical system as compared to immigrant Latinos who do not have this particular historical backdrop. Conclusions. These findings have implications for important issues such as adoption of telemedicine, patient satisfaction, doctor-patient interactions, and the development and tailoring of strategies targeted to each of these populations for the introduction, marketing, and implementation of telemedicine.
Goon, D T; Toriola, A L; Shaw, B S; Amusa, L O; Khoza, L B; Shaw, I
To explore gender and racial profiling of percentage body fat of 1136 urban South African children attending public schools in Pretoria Central. This is a cross-sectional survey of 1136 randomly selected children (548 boys and 588 girls) aged 9-13 years in urban (Pretoria Central) South Africa. Body mass, stature, skinfolds (subscapular and triceps) were measured. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (means and standard deviations). Differences in the mean body fat percentage were examined for boys and girls according to their age group/race, using independent t-test samples. Girls had a significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat (22.7 ± 5.7%, 95% CI = 22.3, 23.2) compared to boys (16.1 ± 7.7%, 95% CI = 15.5, 16.8). Percentage body fat fluctuated with age in both boys and girls. Additionally, girls had significantly (p = 0.001) higher percentage body fat measurements at all ages compared to boys. Viewed racially, black children (20.1 ± 7.5) were significantly (p = 0.010) fatter than white children (19.0 ± 7.4) with a mean difference of 4.0. Black children were fatter than white children at ages 9, 10, 12 and 13 years, with a significant difference (p = 0.009) observed at age 12 years. There was a considerably higher level of excessive percentage body fat among school children in Central Pretoria, South Africa, with girls having significantly higher percentage body fat compared to boys. Racially, black children were fatter than white children. The excessive percentage body fat observed among the children in this study has implications for their health and fitness. Therefore, an intervention programme must be instituted in schools to prevent and control possible excessive percentage body fat in this age group.
HUSSEIN, M.F.; ISLAM, A.; GAMAL, S.; GAETAN, M.; DJEBEBE, C.
Africa south of the Great Sahara has abundant water resources, however, its aquifers are seldom studied and/or inadequately managed. This study presents a geochemical and isotope hydrology study on the aquifer of Bangui city, the capital of the Central African Republic (RCA), on the northern borders of Congo with RCA.The obtained chemical data demonstrated the role of biogenic CO 2 gas, solid phases and cation exchange in the hydrochemistry of the studied groundwater. The conjunctive use of the major dissolved constituents and the isotope contents ( 18 O and 2 H) showed that the alteration of primary silicates and the dissolution of carbonates are the predominant processes that locally define the zones of dilute and relatively charged groundwater, respectively.The isotope data illustrated that evaporation is non-significantly contributing to the water loss from the aquifer, while transpiration (process that goes almost without isotopic fractionation) is prevailing in the water balance of the local drainage basin, with a significant fraction of the transpired vapour being recycled. An isotopic i nverse continental effect(eastward from Cameron to RCA) is explained through differences in air temperatures, amount and altitude of precipitation rather than by inverse movement of humid air masses westward in Central Africa
Slemming, W; Kagura, J; Saloojee, H; Richter, L M
Stunting is a measure of overall nutritional status and is a major public health concern because of its association with child mortality and morbidity and later adult performance. This study examined the effects of pregnancy events, birth characteristics and infant risk exposure on stunting at age 2 years. The study, established in 1990 in Soweto, an urban South African township, included 1098 mother-infant pairs enroled in the Birth to Twenty Plus longitudinal birth cohort study. In total, 22% of children were stunted at age 2 years, with males at greater risk than females [24.8 v. 19.4%, odds ratio (OR)=1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.83]. In unadjusted analysis, male sex, household socio-economic status (SES), overcrowding, maternal age, maternal education, single motherhood, ethnicity, birth weight, gestational age and duration of infant breastfeeding were all significantly associated with stunting. In multivariable analysis, higher birth weight was protective against stunting for both sexes. Higher maternal education was protective for females only (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.35; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.87), whereas wealthier household SES protected males (AOR for richest SES group=0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92). In this and other similar settings, current stunting prevention efforts focussing on primarily providing targeted proximal interventions, such as food supplements, risk undermining the critical importance of addressing key distal determinants of stunting such as SES and maternal education.
Budenz, Donald L.; Bandi, Jagadeesh R.; Barton, Keith; Nolan, Winifred; Herndon, Leon; Whiteside-de Vos, Julia; Hay-Smith, Graham; Kim, Hanna; Tielsch, James
Objective To determine the prevalence, etiologies, and risk factors of blindness and visual impairment among persons age 40 years and older residing in an urban West African location. Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Participants Five thousand six hundred and three participants residing in Tema, Ghana. Methods Proportionate random cluster sampling was used to select participants age 40 and over living in the city of Tema. Presenting distance visual acuity was measured at 4 and 1 meters using a reduced Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution (logMAR) tumbling E chart and then with trial frame based on autorefraction. A screening examination was performed in the field on all participants. Complete clinical examination by an ophthalmologist was performed on participants with best corrected visual acuity blindness (visual acuity in the better eye of blindness was 1.2%. After refraction and spectacle correction, the prevalence of visual impairment and blindness decreased to 6.7% and 0.75% respectively, suggesting that refractive error is the major correctable etiology of visual impairment and blindness in this population. Of 65 subjects having visual acuity blindness and visual impairment. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among those aged ≥40 years in Tema, Ghana, West Africa. Refractive error is a major cause of blindness and visual impairment in this population, followed by cataract, glaucoma, and corneal disease. PMID:22677425
McMahon, Susan D; Todd, Nathan R; Martinez, Andrew; Coker, Crystal; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Washburn, Jason; Shah, Seema
We use longitudinal multilevel modeling to test how exposure to community violence and cognitive and behavioral factors contribute to the development of aggressive and prosocial behaviors. Specifically, we examine predictors of self-, peer-, and teacher-reported aggressive and prosocial behavior among 266 urban, African American early adolescents. We examine lagged, within-person, between-person, and protective effects across 2 years. In general, results suggest that higher levels of violence exposure and aggressive beliefs are associated with more aggressive and less prosocial peer-reported behavior, whereas greater self-efficacy to resolve conflict peacefully is associated with less aggression across reporters and more teacher-reported prosocial behavior. Greater knowledge and violence prevention skills are associated with fewer aggressive and more prosocial teacher-reported behaviors. Results also suggest that greater self-efficacy and lower impulsivity have protective effects for youth reporting higher levels of exposure to community violence, in terms of teacher-reported aggressive behavior and peer-reported prosocial behavior. Differences among reporters and models are discussed, as well as implications for intervention.
Full Text Available This paper presents the first assessment of the Behavioural Rating Scale of Presented Self-Esteem (Haltiwanger, 1989 in South Africa. The analyses are based on teachers’ evaluation of self-esteem of 57 young isiZulu and Sesotho-speaking children attending a South African government-funded urban primary school. Although we found Cronbach’s Alpha to be very high (α = .96, an exploratory factor analysis revealed a possible two-factor solution. However, the second factor did not match the two-factor solution reported in previous research (Fuchs-Beauchamp, 1996 and explained only a small amount of total variance. No self-esteem differences were detected between boys and girls, or between isiZulu- and Sesotho-speakers. The association between subjective summary ratings of self-esteem by teachers and the PSE scores in Soweto matches the associations measured in the US by Haltiwanger (1989. Interestingly, teachers’ subjective assessment of children’s future leadership status correlated positively with evaluation of the children’s self-esteem, while teachers’ subjective assessment of being burdened by major problems in the children’s future did not. Measurement issues relating to ecological validity, culture-sensitivity, and subsequent work on self-esteem of children and education in South Africa are discussed.
Kruger, Herculina S; Havemann-Nel, Lize; Ravyse, Chrisna; Moss, Sarah J; Tieland, Michael
Black women are believed to be genetically less predisposed to age-related sarcopenia. The objective of this study was to investigate lifestyle factors associated with sarcopenia in black South African (SA) urban women. In a cross-sectional study, 247 women (mean age 57 y) were randomly selected. Anthropometric and sociodemographic variables, dietary intakes, and physical activity were measured. Activity was also measured by combined accelerometery/heart rate monitoring (ActiHeart), and HIV status was tested. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure appendicular skeletal mass (ASM). Sarcopenia was defined according to a recently derived SA cutpoint of ASM index (ASM/height squared) decreasing to 8.1% after exclusion of participants who were HIV positive. In multiple regressions with ASM index, grip strength, and gait speed, respectively, as dependent variables, only activity energy expenditure (β = .27) was significantly associated with ASM index. Age (β = -.50) and activity energy expenditure (β = .17) were significantly associated with gait speed. Age (β = -.11) and lean mass (β = .21) were significantly associated with handgrip strength. Sarcopenia was prevalent among these SA women and was associated with low physical activity energy expenditure.
de Kock, A; Malan, L; Potgieter, J C; Steenekamp, W; van der Merwe, M T
Psychosocial stress relating to an urban environment or acculturation increases the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The objectives of this study were firstly to indicate and compare differences regarding appraisal of stress or active coping responses in urban African (n=88) and Caucasian (n=101) male teachers of South Africa, in accord with the prevalence of MetS indicators. And secondly to investigate the extent to which utilisation of active coping responses, together with MetS indicators, predict target organ damage, in these men. The Coping Strategy Indicator determined high and low active coping responses in male teachers from the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study. SABPA inclusion and exclusion criteria were used. Additionally, diabetic medication users (n=8), and participants with renal impairment (n=2) or HIV positive (n=13), were excluded. MetS indicators included glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure, and waist circumference, independent of confounders (age, physical activity, gamma glutamyl transferase). Microalbuminuria and carotid intima-media thickness indicated target organ damage. More MetS indicators exceeded the IDF cut-off points in high active coping African men (14.71%) than in their Caucasian counterparts (3.33%), as determined from χ² analyses. Furthermore, stepwise regressions indicated that more MetS indicators predicted endothelial dysfunction, especially in the high active coping African men. High active coping African men showed more manifestation of MetS, compared to their Caucasian counterparts, and revealed progress towards endothelial dysfunction. © J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Muzigaba, M; Puoane, T
There is an increasing awareness of the role played by the food retail characteristics in determining individuals' healthy food purchasing and consumption behaviors. The perceived costs of healthier food alternatives have been shown to contribute negatively to individual's food choices in developed societies. However, there is still a dearth of knowledge regarding this phenomenon in low to middle income countries particularly in Africa. This study explored health club member's experiences in buying healthier food options and compared their perceived cost of selected healthier and less healthy foods with actual market costs in a South African township. A cross-sectional study design using quantitative and qualitative research methods. The study was conducted in Khayelitsha, a township in the Western Cape Province in South Africa. Participants were 50 members of a health club, mostly female and above 50 years of age. The study was conducted in three phases. The first phase involved interviews with all 50 health club members. During the second phase ten purposively selected members participated in in-depth interviews based on their unhealthy food-purchasing and consumption patterns identified in the first phase. The third phase involved food price audits from supermarkets as well as convenient stores located in the study setting. Quantitative data were subjected to descriptive statistical analysis, while content analysis was used to analyze qualitative data. Most of the members were illiterate and unemployed, largely dependent on government grants. Qualitative findings showed that low household incomes, their inability to read and interpret nutritional information and personal food preferences contributed to Health club members' unhealthy food-purchasing behaviour. When objectively measured in local stores, the healthier food options proved to be more expensive than their less healthy equivalents. This was consistent with subjects' perceptions about the relative cost
Interval: 1.01, 1.63, and a null association was found for those who frequently asked others for prayer. No evidence of moderation by the other religious coping variables was present. Non-organizational religious coping may buffer against the adverse effects of neighborhood disadvantage on PTD rates, among urban AA women. Future research should examine the mechanisms of the reported relationships. Keywords: Neighborhood context, Preterm delivery, Religious coping, African American
Andreasen, Manja Hoppe; Agergaard, Jytte; Robert, Kiunsi
Urban growth is a significant trend in Africa. Scholarly attention and urban planning efforts have focused disproportionately on the challenges of big cities, while small and medium-sized urban settlements are growing most rapidly and house the majority of urban residents. Small towns have received...
Urban agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa has gained momentum in recent years in terms of research and policy, as well as in practical terms. The paradox of accelerated urbanization and the increase in urban agriculture in developing countries is widely recognized. More than ever before, urban
Ephraim, Patti L; Hill-Briggs, Felicia; Roter, Debra L; Bone, Lee R; Wolff, Jennifer L; Lewis-Boyer, LaPricia; Levine, David M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Cooper, Lisa A; Fitzpatrick, Stephanie J; Gudzune, Kimberly A; Albert, Michael C; Monroe, Dwyan; Simmons, Michelle; Hickman, Debra; Purnell, Leon; Fisher, Annette; Matens, Richard; Noronha, Gary J; Fagan, Peter J; Ramamurthi, Hema C; Ameling, Jessica M; Charlston, Jeanne; Sam, Tanyka S; Carson, Kathryn A; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Crews, Deidra C; Greer, Raquel C; Sneed, Valerie; Flynn, Sarah J; DePasquale, Nicole; Boulware, L Ebony
Given their high rates of uncontrolled blood pressure, urban African Americans comprise a particularly vulnerable subgroup of persons with hypertension. Substantial evidence has demonstrated the important role of family and community support in improving patients' management of a variety of chronic illnesses. However, studies of multi-level interventions designed specifically to improve urban African American patients' blood pressure self-management by simultaneously leveraging patient, family, and community strengths are lacking. We report the protocol of the Achieving Blood Pressure Control Together (ACT) study, a randomized controlled trial designed to study the effectiveness of interventions that engage patient, family, and community-level resources to facilitate urban African American hypertensive patients' improved hypertension self-management and subsequent hypertension control. African American patients with uncontrolled hypertension receiving health care in an urban primary care clinic will be randomly assigned to receive 1) an educational intervention led by a community health worker alone, 2) the community health worker intervention plus a patient and family communication activation intervention, or 3) the community health worker intervention plus a problem-solving intervention. All participants enrolled in the study will receive and be trained to use a digital home blood pressure machine. The primary outcome of the randomized controlled trial will be patients' blood pressure control at 12months. Results from the ACT study will provide needed evidence on the effectiveness of comprehensive multi-level interventions to improve urban African American patients' hypertension control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gary, Tiffany L; Stark, Sarah A; LaVeist, Thomas A
Aspects of the environment in which one lives are increasingly being recognized as major contributors to health, yet few empirical studies have focused on mental health. Therefore, we sought to determine if neighborhood characteristics were associated with mental health outcomes among 1408 African-American (59.3%) and white (40.7%) adults living in a socio-economically homogeneous, racially integrated, urban community in Baltimore, MD. Among African Americans and whites, the perception of severe problems in the community was associated with higher levels of stress (approximately 1.8 units higher), anxiety (approximately 1.8 units higher), and depression (OR= approximately 2.0) compared to those who perceived no or few problems (all pCommunity cohesion, the perception that people generally work together, was associated with better mental health among whites only. These findings give further insight into the complex environment of inner-city communities.
Nelia P. Steyn
Full Text Available Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544, stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E and women (33.4%E in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01 in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016, saturated fat (p = 0.001, monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002 and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046. Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001. Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers.
Wilson, Kimi Leemar
experiences impact mathematics-science identity development. The goal of the study seeks to inform educational, psychological and sociological theory about how urban adolescent African American males understand, develop and make use of their mathematics and science knowledge. Finally, this work seeks to inform mathematics and science educational research to include identity theory, beyond a personal or individual identity perspective, but also to include relational, collective, and material identity components to understand how the culture of mathematics and science within and outside of K-12 public schooling impacts African American males in an endeavor to become learners of mathematics and science.
Redwood, Yanique; Schulz, Amy J; Israel, Barbara A; Yoshihama, Mieko; Wang, Caroline C; Kreuter, Marshall
Growing evidence suggests that the built environment features found in many high-poverty urban areas contribute to negative health outcomes. Both built environment hazards and negative health outcomes disproportionately affect poor people of color. We used community-based participatory research and Photovoice in inner-city Atlanta to elicit African Americans' perspectives on their health priorities. The built environment emerged as a critical factor, impacting physical and mental health outcomes. We offer a conceptual model, informed by residents' perspectives, linking social, economic, and political processes to built environment and health inequities. Research, practice, and policy implications are discussed within an environmental justice framework.
This study examined relationships between cumulative trauma (CT) and urban African American (AA) adolescents' blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and perceptions of health. A correlational design using secondary data analysis studied effects of CT, health outcomes, and perceptions of health. Participants were 175 urban AA youth (11-16 years) who completed structured surveys and physiological measures of HR and BP before and after exercise. AA youth were experiencing high levels of CT. Negative correlations were obtained between AA females' perceptions of their health and systolic BP with levels of trauma. No gender differences were found in HR or BP. AA females with high CT may perceive themselves as less healthy and can be at risk for health problems. © 2014, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nebbitt, Von E.; Lambert, Sharon F.
This study examines individual, social, and contextual correlates of anxiety sensitivity among African American adolescents living in public housing. The study also reports prevalence of anxiety sensitivity among this population of youth. Participants included 238 African American adolescents (mean age = 15.6) living in three public housing…
Hall Brown, Tyish; Mellman, Thomas A
African Americans residing in stressful urban environments have high rates of insomnia and short sleep duration, both of which are associated with adverse health outcomes. However, limited data exist that explore factors influencing inadequate sleep in this high-risk population. This study sought to evaluate the contributions of demographics, trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, sleep fears, and neighborhood stress to both insomnia and short sleep in urban African American young adults. Data were analyzed from self-report measures completed by 378 participants 18-35 years of age. PTSD symptom severity and sleep fears were independently associated with insomnia severity, and sleep fears was associated with sleep duration. Results have implications for preventative health intervention strategies for urban African American young adults.
Sims, Mario; Rainge, Yolanda
This study examined neighborhood and infant health disparities between African-American and white mothers in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Census-block data were used for 1990 and Vital Statistics data were used for 1992 through 1994. African-American mothers lived in less desirable, more segregated neighborhoods than white mothers did in 1990. African-American infant and neonatal mortality rates were twice those of whites (2.3 and 2.0, respectively), while African-American postneonatal mortality rates were three times that of whites (3.0). African-American low and very low birth weight rates were more than twice those of whites (2.5 and 2.6, respectively). All African-American mothers were nearly eight times as likely as all white mothers to have inadequate prenatal care, whereas poor African-American mothers were three times as likely to have inadequate prenatal care as were poor white mothers. Public health experts and practitioners may want to consider the communities of minority patients to devise interventions suitable for addressing health disparities.
Full Text Available from work conducted as part of a Department of Science and Technology (DST)-funded Integrated Planning and Development Modelling (IPDM) project, the article argues that decisions about infrastructure investment in South African metropolitan areas ought...
The purpose of the Minority Population Focussed Training Program was to prepare the trainee to conduct research in the area of excess burden of prostate cancer among African American men, with excess...
Full Text Available us? , - Volume 17 (1) June 2016 Southern African Journal of Demography Southern African Journal of Demography Volume 17(1) June 2016 CONTENTS Estimation of Swaziland fertility: What do the methods tell.... Quantitative and qualitative articles that enhance knowledge of the demography and its interaction with population issues in the Southern Africa region are considered. Articles may cover pure demography (fertility, mortality and migration...
Savage, Carter Julian
This paper details how African-American boys' club workers, their Clubs as well as their service to African-American youth, gained legitimacy within the Boys' Club Federation, now Boys & Girls Clubs of America (BGCA). Specifically, it illustrates what facilitated a predominantly urban, northeastern organization to begin opening Clubs for…
Bowe, Anica G.; Desjardins, Christopher D.; Covington Clarkson, Lesa M.; Lawrenz, Frances
This study utilized a mixed-methods approach to holistically examine single-sex and coeducational urban elementary mathematics classes through situated cognitive theory. Participants came from two urban low-income Midwestern elementary schools with a high representation of minority students (n = 77 sixth graders, n = 4 teachers, n = 2 principals).…
The review of literature on urban land subdivision provides us with useful ... The second section is the methodology detailing the literature review approach ... problem of shortages of urban land, and to increase access to land for the ..... gradual integration of the informal sector into political decision-making process and.
Mario G. Ortiz-Martínez
Full Text Available African Dust Events (ADE are a seasonal phenomenon that has been suggested to exacerbate respiratory and proinflammatory diseases in Puerto Rico (PR. Increases in PM10 concentration and the effects of biological endotoxins (ENX are critical factors to consider during these storms. ENX promote proinflammatory responses in lungs of susceptible individuals through activation of the Toll-like receptors (TLR2/4 signaling pathways. The objective of the study was to evaluate the toxicological and proinflammatory responses stimulated by ADE PM10 ENX reaching PR using human bronchial epithelial cells. PM10 organic extracts from a rural and urban site in PR (March 2004 were obtained from ADE and non-ADE and compared. A retrospective data analysis (PM10 concentration, aerosol images, and pediatric asthma claims was performed from 2000 to 2012 with particular emphasis in 2004 to classify PM samples. Urban extracts were highly toxic, proinflammatory (IL-6/IL-8 secretion, and induced higher TLR4 expression and NF-κB activation compared to rural extracts. ENX were found to contribute to cytotoxicity and inflammatory responses provoked by urban ADE PM10 exposure suggesting a synergistic potency of local and natural ENX incoming from ADE. The contribution of ADE PM10 ENX is valuable in order to understand interactions and action mechanisms of airborne pollutants as asthma triggers in PR.
Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Prioreschi, Alessandra; Nyati, Lukhanyo H; van Heerden, Alastair; Munthali, Richard J; Kahn, Kathleen; Tollman, Stephen M; Gómez-Olivé, Francesc Xavier; Houle, Brian; Dunger, David B; Norris, Shane A
The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. We compared 18-23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood.
Abstract Background: The pre-pubertal socioeconomic environment may be an important determinant of age at menarche, adult height, body proportions and adiposity: traits closely linked to adolescent and adult health. Aims: This study explored differences in age at menarche, adult height, relative leg-length and waist circumference between rural and urban black South African young adult women, who are at different stages of the nutrition and epidemiologic transitions. Subjects and methods: We compared 18–23 year-old black South African women, 482 urban-dwelling from Soweto and 509 from the rural Mpumalanga province. Age at menarche, obstetric history and household socio-demographic and economic information were recorded using interview-administered questionnaires. Height, sitting-height, hip and waist circumference were measured using standardised techniques. Results: Urban and rural black South African women differed in their age at menarche (at ages 12.7 and 14.5 years, respectively). In urban women, a one-year increase in age at menarche was associated with a 0.65 cm and 0.16% increase in height and relative leg-length ratio, respectively. In both settings, earlier age at menarche and shorter relative leg-length were independently associated with an increase in waist circumference. Conclusions: In black South African women, the earlier onset of puberty, and consequently an earlier growth cessation process, may lead to central fat mass accumulation in adulthood. PMID:29557678
Ownby, Dennis R; Tingen, Martha S; Havstad, Suzanne; Waller, Jennifer L; Johnson, Christine C; Joseph, Christine L M
The high prevalence of asthma among urban African American (AA) populations has attracted research attention, whereas the prevalence among rural AA populations is poorly documented. We sought to compare the prevalence of asthma among AA youth in rural Georgia and urban Detroit, Michigan. The prevalence of asthma was compared in population-based samples of 7297 youth attending Detroit public high schools and in 2523 youth attending public high schools in rural Georgia. Current asthma was defined as a physician diagnosis and symptoms in the previous 12 months. Undiagnosed asthma was defined as multiple respiratory symptoms in the previous 12 months without a physician diagnosis. In Detroit, 6994 (95.8%) youth were AA compared with 1514 (60.0%) in Georgia. Average population density in high school postal codes was 5628 people/mile(2) in Detroit and 45.1 people/mile(2) in Georgia. The percentages of poverty and of students qualifying for free or reduced lunches were similar in both areas. The prevalence of current diagnosed asthma among AA youth in Detroit and Georgia was similar: 15.0% (95% CI, 14.1-15.8) and 13.7% (95% CI, 12.0-17.1) (P = .22), respectively. The prevalence of undiagnosed asthma in AA youth was 8.0% in Detroit and 7.5% in Georgia (P = .56). Asthma symptoms were reported more frequently among those with diagnosed asthma in Detroit, whereas those with undiagnosed asthma in Georgia reported more symptoms. Among AA youth living in similar socioeconomic circumstances, asthma prevalence is as high in rural Georgia as it is in urban Detroit, suggesting that urban residence is not an asthma risk factor. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
, ... development costs substantially, making it difficult in particular for the urban poor ... data and case studies detailing informal land subdivision largely drawn from ..... in a partnership for the unified planning, servicing and subdivision of their ...
Silbiger, Vivian N; Hirata, Mario H; Luchessi, Andre D; Genvigir, Fabiana D V; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C; Willrich, Maria A V; Arazi, Simone S; Dorea, Egidio L; Bernik, Marcia M S; Faludi, Andre A; Bertolami, Marcelo C; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Angel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D C
Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case-control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA 0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers.
Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B
This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi.
Hammack, Phillip L.; Robinson, W. LaVome; Crawford, Isiaah; Li, Susan T.
We examined the role of family stress as a mediator of the relationship between poverty and depressed mood among 1,704 low-income, inner-city African-American adolescents. Nearly half of participants (47%) reported clinically significant levels of depressive symptoms. Being female, reporting higher levels of family stress, and scoring higher on a…
The purpose of this ethnonursing research was to systematically discover, describe, and analyze the beliefs, practices, and values of African American women related to prenatal care. The domain of inquiry was prenatal care of African American women within their familiar cultural contexts. The study was conceptualized within Leininger's Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality which enabled the researcher to study professional and generic care as influenced by the worldview, social structural factors, cultural values and beliefs, ethnohistory, and environmental context. The goal of the study was to discover knowledge that could be used by health professionals to provide culturally congruent prenatal care that would increase the health and well being of the people. The rationale for the study was based on studies that showed the lack of prenatal care in the African American cultural group leads to low birth weights and high infant mortality rates. Four major themes that focused on the domain of inquiry were identified: 1) Cultural care meant protection, presence, and sharing; 2) social structural factors that greatly influenced the health and well being were spirituality, kinship, and economics; 3) professional prenatal care was seen by the women as necessary and essential but there was distrust of noncaring professionals, and barriers to such care; and 4) folk health beliefs, practices, and indigenous health care providers were widely used by women in the African American community.
Li, Xiaoming; And Others
Examined relationships between drug trafficking (selling and delivering), cigarette and alcohol use, and illicit drug use among African-American adolescents. Found that drug trafficking is equally likely to occur with or without cigarette and alcohol use or illicit drug involvement, suggesting that intervention should extend to drug trafficking in…
Gooden, Mark A.
The research reported here is the result of an exploration of the challenges and triumphs of an African American secondary principal who used a culture-specific leadership style in his quest to raise the standards at an information technology high school. This case study of the principal explores his combining of the elements of traditional…
A cross sectional dietary study, utilising the 24 hour recall method, was conducted among 983 African adults aged 15 to 64 years resident in the Cape Peninsula during 1990. An evaluation of the dietary intake pattern revealed a diet confined to a relatively narrow range of foods, but little evidence of nutrient-empty food ...
Green, Kerry M.; Doherty, Elaine E.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Although previous studies have identified a protective effect of marriage on risky health behaviors, gaps remain in our understanding of how marriage improves health, particularly among African Americans. This study uses longitudinal data to take selection into account and examines whether marital trajectories that incorporate timing, stability,…
Ball, Joanna; Armistead, Lisa; Austin, Barbara-jeanne
Study provides a description of religiosity in a sample of African-American female teens and examines religion as a resource for these adolescents by focusing on the association between religiosity and sexual activity, self-esteem, and general psychological functioning. Results reveal that greater overall religiosity was associated with greater…
Emmanuel Lubango Ndetto
Full Text Available A long-term simulation of urban climate was done using the easily available long-term meteorological data from a nearby synoptic station in a tropical coastal city of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The study aimed at determining the effects of buildings’ height and street orientations on human thermal conditions at pedestrian level. The urban configuration was represented by a typical urban street and a small urban park near the seaside. The simulations were conducted in the microscale applied climate model of RayMan, and results were interpreted in terms of the thermal comfort parameters of mean radiant (Tmrt and physiologically equivalent (PET temperatures. PET values, high as 34°C, are observed to prevail during the afternoons especially in the east-west oriented streets, and buildings’ height of 5 m has less effect on the thermal comfort. The optimal reduction of Tmrt and PET values for pedestrians was observed on the nearly north-south reoriented streets and with increased buildings’ height especially close to 100 m. Likewise, buildings close to the park enhance comfort conditions in the park through additional shadow. The study provides design implications and management of open spaces like urban parks in cities for the sake of improving thermal comfort conditions for pedestrians.
Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the first introduction of measles vaccine (MV) in Guinea-Bissau in 1979. SETTING: Urban community study of the anthropometric status of all children under 6 years of age. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 1451 children in December 1978; 82% took part in t...
Tomlinson, Mark; Cooper, Peter; Murray, Lynne
A sample of 147 mother-infant dyads was recruited from a peri-urban settlement outside Cape Town and seen at 2- and 18-months postpartum. At 18 months, 61.9% of the infants were rated as securely attached (B); 4.1% as avoidant (A); 8.2% as resistant (C); and 25.8% disorganized (D). Postpartum depression at 2 months, and indices of poor parenting…
Floods are natural phenomena, but damage and losses from floods are the consequence of human action. The increasing climatic variability, storminess and more frequent flooding driven by climate change will affect poor urban communities far more than other people living in towns and cities. Although driven by human activities ranging from modernisation and development to land degradation by poor farmers and grazing flocks, climate change in Africa has uneven impacts, affecting the poor severely. Flooding in urban areas is not just related to heavy rainfall and extreme climatic events; it is also related to changes in the built-up areas themselves. Urbanisation aggravates flooding by restricting where floods waters can go, by covering large parts of the ground with roofs, roads and pavements, by obstructing sections of natural channels, and by building drains that ensure that water moves to rivers more rapidly than it did under natural conditions. As people crowd into African cities, these human impacts on urban land surfaces and drainage intensify. The proportions of small stream and river catchment areas that are urbanised will increase. As a result, even quite moderate storms now produce quite high flows in rivers because much more of the catchment area supplies direct surface runoff from its hard surfaces and drains. Where streams flow through a series of culverts and concrete channels, they cannot adjust to changes in the frequency of heavy rain as natural streams do. They often get obstructed by silt and urban debris, particularly when houses are built close to the channels. Such situations frequently arise where poor people build their shelters on low-lying flood plains, over swamps or above the tidewater on the coast. The effects of climate change are superimposed on these people-driven local land surface modifications. The links between changes in land use and in heavy rainfall patterns, the frequency and depth of flooding and the problems of the urban poor
Klinnert, Mary D.; Holsey, Chanda Nicole; McQuaid, Elizabeth L.
Objective To examine the reliability and validity of the Family Asthma Management System Scale for low-income African-American children with poor asthma control and caregivers under stress. The FAMSS assesses eight aspects of asthma management from a family systems perspective. Methods Forty-three children, ages 8–13, and caregivers were interviewed with the FAMSS; caregivers completed measures of primary care quality, family functioning, parenting stress, and psychological distress. Children rated their relatedness with the caregiver, and demonstrated inhaler technique. Medical records were reviewed for dates of outpatient visits for asthma. Results The FAMSS demonstrated good internal consistency. Higher scores were associated with adequate inhaler technique, recent outpatient care, less parenting stress and better family functioning. Higher scores on the Collaborative Relationship with Provider subscale were associated with greater perceived primary care quality. Conclusions The FAMSS demonstrated relevant associations with asthma management criteria and family functioning for a low-income, African-American sample. PMID:19776230
This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical prob...
Miller, Edgar R; Cooper, Lisa A; Carson, Kathryn A; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Appel, Lawrence J; Gayles, Debra; Charleston, Jeanne; White, Karen; You, Na; Weng, Yingjie; Martin-Daniels, Michelle; Bates-Hopkins, Barbara; Robb, Inez; Franz, Whitney K; Brown, Emily L; Halbert, Jennifer P; Albert, Michael C; Dalcin, Arlene T; Yeh, Hsin-Chieh
Unhealthy diets, often low in potassium, likely contribute to racial disparities in blood pressure. We tested the effectiveness of providing weekly dietary advice, assistance with selection of higher potassium grocery items, and a $30 per week food allowance on blood pressure and other outcomes in African American adults with hypertension. We conducted an 8-week RCT with two parallel arms between May 2012 and November 2013. We randomized 123 African Americans with controlled hypertension from an urban primary care clinic in Baltimore, Maryland, and implemented the trial in partnership with a community supermarket and the Baltimore City Health Department. Mean (SD) age was 58.6 (9.5) years; 71% were female; blood pressure was 131.3 (14.7)/77.2 (10.5) mmHg; BMI was 34.5 (8.2); and 28% had diabetes. Participants randomized to the active intervention group (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension [DASH]-Plus) received coach-directed dietary advice and assistance with weekly online ordering and purchasing of high-potassium foods ($30/week) delivered by a community supermarket to a neighborhood library. Participants in the control group received a printed DASH diet brochure along with a debit account of equivalent value to that of the DASH-Plus group. The primary outcome was blood pressure change. Analyses were conducted in January to October 2014. Compared with the control group, the DASH-Plus group increased self-reported consumption of fruits and vegetables (mean=1.4, 95% CI=0.7, 2.1 servings/day); estimated intake of potassium (mean=0.4, 95% CI=0.1, 0.7 grams/day); and urine potassium excretion (mean=19%, 95% CI=1%, 38%). There was no significant effect on blood pressure. A program providing dietary advice, assistance with grocery ordering, and $30/week of high-potassium foods in African American patients with controlled hypertension in a community-based clinic did not reduce BP. However, the intervention increased consumption of fruits, vegetables, and urinary
Anna Mia Ekström
Full Text Available Background : The perspectives of heterosexual males who have large sexual networks comprising concurrent sexual partners and who engage in high-risk sexual behaviours are scarcely documented. Yet these perspectives are crucial to understanding the high HIV prevalence in South Africa where domestic violence, sexual assault and rape are alarmingly high, suggesting problematic gender dynamics. Objective : To explore the construction of masculinities and men's perceptions of women and their sexual relationships, among men with large sexual networks and concurrent partners. Design : This qualitative study was conducted in conjunction with a larger quantitative survey among men at high risk of HIV, using respondent-driven sampling to recruit participants, where long referral chains allowed us to reach far into social networks. Twenty in-depth, open-ended interviews with South African men who had multiple and concurrent sexual partners were conducted. A latent content analysis was used to explore the characteristics and dynamics of social and sexual relationships. Results : We found dominant masculine ideals characterised by overt economic power and multiple sexual partners. Reasons for large concurrent sexual networks were the perception that women were too empowered, could not be trusted, and lack of control over women. Existing masculine norms encourage concurrent sexual networks, ignoring the high risk of HIV transmission. Biological explanations and determinism further reinforced strong and negative perceptions of women and female sexuality, which helped polarise men's interpretation of gender constructions. Conclusions : Our results highlight the need to address sexuality and gender dynamics among men in growing, informal urban areas where HIV prevalence is strikingly high. Traditional structures that could work as focal entry points should be explored for effective HIV prevention aimed at normative change among hard-to-reach men in high
Method: A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research design was used. Primary schools intwo education districts in Western Cape, South Africa, were sampled. The POSHA-S, a selfadministeredquestionnaire, was completed by a cluster sample of 469 participants. Results: Overall positive attitudes towards stuttering were found, specifically related to thepotential of people who stutter, although the result should be interpreted with caution as thesample was not homogenously positive. Teachers still had misconceptions about personalitystereotypes and the cause of stuttering. The attitudes of the South African sample were slightlymore positive compared with the samples in the current POSHA-S database. Conclusion: When developing stuttering intervention strategies, there are a number of keyconsiderations to take into account. The study provides a basis for speech-language therapiststo think about intervention with teachers and which areas of stuttering to consider.
Hosier, R.H.; Milukas, M.V.
This paper examines charcoal markets in two African cities: Mogadishu, Somalia and Kigali, Rwanda. Economic theory dictates that if woodfuel resources become scarce, their real price will increase commensurately with the interest rate. Although Rwanda and Somalia represent drastically different physical environments, both are considered to be wood-scarce. But neither market has demonstrated straightforward depletion effects. In Mogadishu, the price first rose and then fell in reaction to shifts in the structure of the charcoal market, relaxed regulations, and economic contraction. In Rwanda, the price began rising only after the closing of the Bugasera Region to charcoal producers. Charcoal must be increasingly produced from private farmland. These two case studies highlight the importance of agricultural land clearance, conflicting government regulations, and shifts in market structure in determining whether or not charcoal prices will demonstrate depletion effects, and whether or not charcoal production will lead to local environmental degradation. (author)
Williams, Patrick Bassey; Sallar, Anthony M
We assessed the differences and similarities in knowledge, attitude, beliefs, myths, and misconceptions; and the various high-risk behavioral factors that influence the rate of infectivity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS among African American men in urban and rural communities of Mississippi. A cross-sectional sample survey was conducted on 466 African American men in 2 sites between 2005 and 2007. With the main outcome variables of knowledge, attitude/feelings, behavior/practices, and potentials for behavior change, we administered a 64-item, ethnically sensitive, gender-specific instrument to the subjects via a person-to-person interview. Of the 466 respondents (urban, 33%; rural, 67%), 70%, 14.4%, and 16.6%, respectively, were heterosexual, bisexual, and men who have sex with men (MSM). The number of the respondents' sexual partners in the previous 12 months were: 1 to 2 (54%), 3 to 4 (25.7%), and 5 or more (20.2%). Statistically significant differences were observed between the 2 populations on HIV knowledge (p sexually transmitted infection testing history (p sexual partners (p = .038), unprotected sexual intercourse with drug users (p sexual limits prior to intercourse (p = .027). Although the level of HIV/AIDS knowledge and education were lower among urban than rural respondents, subjects' negative overall beliefs, attitude/feelings, behavior and potentials for behavioral change did not differ significantly among the African American men in the 2 communities.
Full Text Available Low and middle income countries bear the majority burden of self-harm, yet there is a paucity of evidence detailing risk-factors for self-harm in these populations. This study aims to identify environmental, socio-economic and demographic household-level risk factors for self-harm in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg, South Africa.Annual serial cross-sectional surveys were undertaken in five impoverished urban communities in Johannesburg for the Health, Environment and Development (HEAD study. Logistic regression analysis using the HEAD study data (2006-2011 was conducted to identify household-level risk factors associated with self-harm (defined as a self-reported case of a fatal or non-fatal suicide attempt within the household during the preceding year. Stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis was employed to identify factors associated with self-harm.A total of 2 795 household interviews were conducted from 2006 to 2011. There was no significant trend in self-harm over time. Results from the final model showed that self-harm was significantly associated with households exposed to a violent crime during the past year (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR 5.72; 95% CI 1.64-19.97; that have a member suffering from a chronic medical condition (AOR 8.95; 95% 2.39-33.56 and households exposed to indoor smoking (AOR 4.39; CI 95% 1.14-16.47.This study provides evidence on household risk factors of self-harm in settings of urban poverty and has highlighted the potential for a more cost-effective approach to identifying those at risk of self-harm based on household level factors.
Kiely, M; Gantz, M G; El-Khorazaty, M N; El-Mohandes, A A E
Screening for psychosocial and behavioural risks, such as depression, intimate partner violence, and smoking, during pregnancy is considered to be state of the art in prenatal care. This prospective longitudinal analysis examines the added benefit of repeated screening, compared with a single screening, in identifying such risks during pregnancy. Data were collected as part of a randomised controlled trial to address intimate partner violence, depression, smoking, and environmental tobacco smoke exposure in African American women. Prenatal care sites in the District of Columbia serving mainly women of minority background. A cohort of 1044 African American pregnant women in the District of Columbia. Mothers were classified by their initial response (acknowledgement of risks), and these data were updated during pregnancy. Risks were considered new if they were not previously reported. Standard hypothesis tests and logistic regression were used to predict the acknowledgment of any new risk(s) during pregnancy. New risks: psychosocial variables to understand what factors might help identify the acknowledgement of additional risk(s). Repeated screening identified more mothers acknowledging risk over time. Reported smoking increased by 11%, environmental tobacco smoke exposure increased by 19%, intimate partner violence increased by 9%, and depression increased by 20%. The psychosocial variables collected at the baseline that were entered into the logistic regression model included relationship status, education, Medicaid, illicit drug use, and alcohol use during pregnancy. Among these, only education less than high school was associated with the acknowledgement of new risk in the bivariate analyses, and significantly predicted the identification of new risks (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.90). It is difficult to predict early on who will acknowledge new risks over the course of pregnancy, and thus all women should be screened repeatedly to allow for the identification of risks
Häring, Volker; Manka'abusi, Delphine; Akoto-Danso, Edmund K; Werner, Steffen; Atiah, Kofi; Steiner, Christoph; Lompo, Désiré J P; Adiku, Samuel; Buerkert, Andreas; Marschner, Bernd
In large areas of sub-Saharan Africa crop production must cope with low soil fertility. To increase soil fertility, the application of biochar (charred biomass) has been suggested. In urban areas, untreated waste water is widely used for irrigation because it is a nutrient-rich year-round water source. Uncertainty exists regarding the interactions between soil properties, biochar, waste water and fertilization over time. The aims of this study were to determine these interactions in two typical sandy, soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient depleted soils under urban vegetable production in Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) over two years. The addition of biochar at 2 kg m -2 made from rice husks and corn cobs initially doubled SOC stocks but SOC losses of 35% occurred thereafter. Both biochar types had no effect on soil pH, phosphorous availability and effective cation exchange capacity (CEC) but rice husk biochar retained nitrogen (N). Irrigation with domestic waste water increased soil pH and exchangeable sodium over time. Inorganic fertilization alone acidified soils, increased available phosphorous and decreased base saturation. Organic fertilization increased SOC, N and CEC. The results from both locations demonstrate that the effects of biochar and waste water were less pronounced than reported elsewhere.
Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin
Objectives To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African American adolescents and their mothers. Methods Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago in Fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, and logistic regression models. Results Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal weight- than overweight or obese mothers. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (p<0.05). Conclusions Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association. PMID:19103323
Carswell, Steven B; Hanlon, Thomas E; O'Grady, Kevin E; Watts, Amy M; Pothong, Pattarapan
This paper presents background, implementation, and feasibility findings associated with planning and conducting an after-school intervention program in an alternative education setting designed to prevent the initiation and escalation of violence and substance abuse among urban African American youth at high risk for life-long problem behaviors. Evolving from earlier preventive interventions implemented in clinic and school settings, the program, entitled The Village Model of Care, consisted of structured group mentoring, parental support, and community outreach services administered to alternative education students and their primary caregiver(s) during the school year. Over a two-year intake period, 109 youth participated in the present process evaluation study. Findings from the study not only provided relevant demographic information on the characteristics of youth likely to be included in such programs but also indicated the importance of including the family in the rehabilitation effort and the need for school administrative system support for the underlying alternative education approach. The information presented in this report has a direct bearing on the planning of future prevention efforts conducted in similar settings that are aimed at reducing problem behaviors and promoting positive lifestyles among high-risk youth.
Full Text Available Diet quality may be a unique target for preventing and managing obesity-related osteoarthritis (OA. Using the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010, this study examined the nutrient intake and diet quality of 400 urban overweight and obese primarily African American older adults with self-reported lower extremity OA. Associations between sociodemographic and health-related factors and diet quality were explored. Participants (mean age 67.8 years, SD 5.9 were included. Habitual dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake and diet quality were calculated from the FFQ. Results indicated that diet quality needs improvement (HEI-2010: 66.3 (SD 10.5. Age, body mass index, employment (multivariable model only, and OA severity (bivariate model only were significant predictors of HEI-2010 total score in linear models. Mean intakes for fiber, calcium, and vitamin D were below recommendations, while percentage of calories as total fat exceeded recommendations. These findings can inform future dietary intervention trials and public health messaging for a sub-population at a high risk for obesity-related OA.
Doyle, Otima; Clark Goings, Trenette; Cryer-Coupet, Qiana R; Lombe, Margaret; Stephens, Jennifer; Nebbitt, Von E
Structural factors associated with public housing contribute to living environments that expose families to adverse life events that may in turn directly impact parenting and youth outcomes. However, despite the growth in research on fathers, research on families in public housing has practically excluded fathers and the role fathers play in the well-being of their adolescents. Using a sample of 660 African American adolescents recruited from public housing, we examined the relationship between paternal caregivers' (i.e., fathers' and father figures') parenting practices and adolescents' depressive symptoms, attitudes toward deviance, and self-efficacy. Using a latent profile analysis (LPA), we confirmed a four-class model of paternal parenting practices ranging from high to low levels of monitoring and encouragement. Results from a one-way ANOVA indicated that paternal caregivers with high (compared to moderate) levels of encouragement and monitoring were associated with youth who reported less depressive symptoms, higher levels of self-efficacy, and less favorable attitudes toward deviance. Discriminant analysis results indicated that approximately half of the sample were correctly classified into two paternal caregiver classes. The findings provide evidence that some of these caregivers engage in parenting practices that support youths' psychological functioning. More research is needed to determine what accounts for the variability in levels of paternal encouragement and supervision, including environmental influences, particularly for paternal caregivers exhibiting moderate-to-low levels of paternal encouragement and monitoring. © 2016 Family Process Institute.
KLIEWER, WENDY; DIBBLE, ASHLEY E.; GOODMAN, KIMBERLY L.; SULLIVAN, TERRI N.
This study examined physiological correlates (cortisol and α-amylase [AA]) of peer victimization and aggression in a sample of 228 adolescents (45% male, 55% female; 90% African American; M age = 14 years, SD = 1.6 years) who participated in a longitudinal study of stress, physiology, and adjustment. Adolescents were classified into victimization/aggression groups based on patterns with three waves of data. At Wave 3, youth completed the Social Competence Interview (SCI), and four saliva samples were collected prior to, during, and following the SCI. Repeated-measures analyses of variance with victimization/aggression group as the predictor, and physiological measures as outcomes, controlling for time of day, pubertal status, and medication use revealed significant Group×SCI Phase interactions for salivary AA (sAA), but not for cortisol. The results did not differ by sex. For analyses with physical victimization/aggression, aggressive and nonaggressive victims showed increases in sAA during the SCI, nonvictimized aggressors showed a decrease, and the normative contrast group did not show any change. For analyses with relational victimization/aggression, nonaggressive victims were the only group who demonstrated sAA reactivity. Incorporating physiological measures into peer victimization studies may give researchers and clinicians insight into youth’s behavior regulation, and help shape prevention or intervention efforts. PMID:22559136
Abrahams, Kristen; Harty, Michal; St Louis, Kenneth O; Thabane, Lehana; Kathard, Harsha
As teachers form an important part of the intervention process with childrenwho stutter in primary school, the primary aim was to describe primary school teachers'attitudes in South Africa. The secondary aim was to compare teachers' attitudes towardsstuttering in South Africa with those from a pooled group of respondents in the Public OpinionSurvey of Human Attributes-Stuttering (POSHA-S) database from different countries collectedin 2009-2014. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey research design was used. Primary schools intwo education districts in Western Cape, South Africa, were sampled. The POSHA-S, a selfadministeredquestionnaire, was completed by a cluster sample of 469 participants. Overall positive attitudes towards stuttering were found, specifically related to thepotential of people who stutter, although the result should be interpreted with caution as thesample was not homogenously positive. Teachers still had misconceptions about personalitystereotypes and the cause of stuttering. The attitudes of the South African sample were slightlymore positive compared with the samples in the current POSHA-S database. When developing stuttering intervention strategies, there are a number of keyconsiderations to take into account. The study provides a basis for speech-language therapiststo think about intervention with teachers and which areas of stuttering to consider.
Kabisch, Sigrun; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie
Social vulnerability assessment remains central in discourses on global climatic change and takes a more pertinent meaning considering that natural disasters in African countries continue to deeply affect human settlements and destroys human livelihoods. In recent years, in particular large territories and growing cities have experienced severe weather events. Among them are river and flash floods, affecting the social and economic assets of local populations. The impact of the damage related to floods is not only perceptible during seasonal events but also during unexpected larger disasters which place a particular burden on local population and institutions to adapt effectively to increasing climatic pressures. Important features for social vulnerability assessment are the increasing severity of the physical damages, the shortcoming of social and technical infrastructure, the complexity of land management/market, the limited capacity of local institutions and last but not least the restricted capacities of local population to resist these events. Understanding vulnerability implies highlighting and interlinking relevant indicators and/or perceptions encompassed in four main dimensions: social, institutional, physical and attitudinal vulnerability. Case studies in Dar es Salaam, Ouagadougou and Addis Ababa were carried out to obtain insights into the context-related conditions, behavior routines and survival networks in urban areas in west and east Africa. Using a combination of tools (e.g. focus group discussions, transect walks, interviews) we investigated in close cooperation with African partners how households and communities are being prepared to cope with, as well as to recover from floods. A comprehensive process of dealing with floods can be described based on sequential attributes concerning i) Anticipation before a flood occurs, ii) Resistance and coping activities during a flood event and, iii) Recovery and reconstruction afterwards. A participatory
Hlongwana, K; Mkhize, S
HIV is one of the most obscure viruses that humankind has had to face in recent times. Compounding this obscurity are often contesting perspectives on what it means to be HIV infected, and these perspectives are largely constituted by people's rationalisation of complex situations or experiences. Using qualitative research methods and ethnography in particular, this paper reflects on a broad understanding of what it means to live with HIV in the context of Christianity, using research participants' perspectives in an urban support group setting. Two fundamental patterns are evident in this paper: (1) as support group members rationalise their HIV infection, they continuously construct and reconstruct their identities; and (2) support group members rationalise their HIV infection to enhance their coping abilities, using Christianity and the Bible in particular, as a reference. Whilst rationalising HIV infection, three viewpoints emerge. The first viewpoint perceives HIV infection as an affliction by Satan; the second viewpoint sees it as originating from God; while the last viewpoint interprets HIV infection as a negotiated settlement between God and Satan. The paper is intended to trigger debate, and hopefully also to seek and provide answers from various sectors of society, and religious communities in particular, in order to help other HIV positive people in similar situations better manage their HIV condition.
Coutsoudis, A; Jinabhai, C C; Coovadia, H M; Mametja, L D
Rapid urbanisation in South Africa has led to the creation of informal shack settlements where the health status of children is in jeopardy; it needs to be monitored so that appropriate intervention strategies can be formulated. Accordingly, the nutritional status of 190 children (3-6 years of age) living in Besters, a typical urban shack settlement north of Durban, was assessed anthropometrically. In addition the following biochemical values were determined: vitamins A and E, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, albumin, haemoglobin, serum iron and ferritin and percentage of transferrin saturation. Malnutrition was evident in 13% of the children who were underweight (below the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) third weight-for-age percentile) and 27% who were stunted (below the NCHS third height-for-age percentile). Concentrations of albumin, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus and vitamin E were close to normal, with no more than 10% of the sample having values outside the normal range. However, 44% of the children had low serum retinol levels (poor vitamin A and iron status. A broad multifaceted comprehensive health intervention programme is therefore required.
Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B.; Henry, Elizabeth G.; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A.
Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a…
Atekwana, E. A.; Ali, H.; Ndondo, N.
We conducted an axial survey of salinity, stable isotopes of oxygen (δ18O) of water, nitrates, pH, alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) of DIC in the Douala Estuary, Cameroon, West Africa. Our objective was to assess anthropogenic impact of pollution on carbon cycling in this urbanized tropical estuary. Salinity ranged from 0.03 to 23.95 and increased steeply from the head to 15 km, stayed nearly constant to 24 km, and then increased steadily to the mouth. The δ18O ranged from -0.4‰ to -5.0‰ and increased steadily from the head to13 km, then slowly to 24 km before increasing sharply to the mouth. The similar behaviour between salinity and δ18O was caused by dilution from the Mungo R. to the west and the Dibamba R. to the east. The nitrate concentrations ranged from 0 to 34 mg/L and behaved similarly to salinity, which was low at the head (0 - 4 km), increased steeply to 15 km and stayed nearly constant to 24 km before increasing sharply to mouth. The spatial distribution of nitrates indicate pollution from agricultural input through the Mungo R., sewage discharge along the urbanized Wouri R. and Dibamba R. and from industries and the port facility along the estuary. The alkalinity concentrations ranged from 12 to 60 mg/Kg and DIC concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 15.5 mg C/Kg, are both positively correlated (R2 = 0.94) and both increased from the estuary head towards the mouth. The salinity concentrations show a good positive correlation (R2 = 0.98) with DIC concentrations. The partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) which was decreasing from the estuary head towards the mouth reverses at 10 km and increases down estuary towards the mouth. The pCO2 behaviour indicates that the axial increase in the DIC concentrations is from the addition of CO2, although mixing of ocean water with higher DIC concentrations can also explain this observation. The generation of CO2 in the water column is reflected in the pH which increased
Full Text Available There is substantial evidence for the links between poverty and both physical and mental health; but limited research on the relationship of physical and mental health problems exists in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence and co-morbidity of psychological distress among women with common physical diseases in a socio-economically disadvantaged urban area of South Africa.Women enrolled in the Birth to twenty (Bt20 cohort study were evaluated for this paper. Bt20 was founded in 1990 and has followed more than 3,000 children and their caregivers since birth; this study evaluates the health of the caregivers (average age 44 of these children. Psychological distress was evaluated by administering the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 and we evaluated the presence of physical disease by self-report.Forty percent of the sample presented with psychological distress using the GHQ scoring method. More than half of the women who reported a history of a physical disease, including diabetes, heart attack, asthma, arthritis, osteoporosis, epilepsy, and tuberculosis, reported psychological disorder. Presence of one physical disease was not associated with increased rates of psychological distress. However, women who reported two diseases had increased rates of psychological symptoms, and this upward trend continued with each additional physical disease reported (measured to five.These data indicate high prevalence rates of co-morbid psychological distress among women with physical disease. This argues for the need of greater mental health support for women living with physical diseases.
Sedibe, Modiehi Heather; Pisa, Pedro T; Feeley, Alison B; Pedro, Titilola M; Kahn, Kathleen; Norris, Shane A
The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school) and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural ( n = 392, mean age = 13 years) and urban ( n = 3098, mean age = 14 years) adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114-2.835; p ≤ 0.02), eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106-2.343; p ≤ 0.01), and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007-1.896; p ≤ 0.05) were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For "Year 15" adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099-2.129, p ≤ 0.01), was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299-0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218-0.397; p ≤ 0.00) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324-0.924; p ≤ 0.02) was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.
Modiehi Heather Sedibe
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate differences/similarities in dietary habits and eating practices between younger and older, rural and urban South African adolescents in specific environments (home, community and school and their associations with overweight and obesity. Dietary habits, eating practices, and anthropometric measurements were performed on rural (n = 392, mean age = 13 years and urban (n = 3098, mean age = 14 years adolescents. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between dietary habits and eating practices, with overweight and obesity risk. Differences in dietary habits and eating practices by gender and by site within the three environments were identified. After adjusting for gender, site, dietary habits, and eating practices within the home, community and school environment, eating the main meal with family some days (OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.114–2.835; p ≤ 0.02, eating the main meal with family almost every day (OR = 1.61, 95% CI = 1.106–2.343; p ≤ 0.01, and irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekdays (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.007–1.896; p ≤ 0.05 were all associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For “Year 15” adolescents, irregular frequency of consuming breakfast on weekends within the home environment (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.099–2.129, p ≤ 0.01, was associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity. For both early- and mid-adolescents, being male (OR = 0.401, 95% CI = 0.299–0.537; p ≤ 0.00; OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.218–0.397; p ≤ 0.00 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity, while residing in a rural setting (OR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.324–0.924; p ≤ 0.02 was associated with reduced risk of overweight and obesity only among early-adolescents. Only dietary habits and eating practices within the home environment were associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity.
Full Text Available Sarah J Flynn,1,2 Jessica M Ameling,1,2 Felicia Hill-Briggs,1–3 Jennifer L Wolff,4,5 Lee R Bone,1,3 David M Levine,1,4 Debra L Roter,3 LaPricia Lewis-Boyer,1,2 Annette R Fisher,6 Leon Purnell,6 Patti L Ephraim,2,7 Jeffrey Barbers,1,2 Stephanie L Fitzpatrick,1,2 Michael C Albert,1,8 Lisa A Cooper,1,2 Peter J Fagan,9,10 Destiny Martin,1 Hema C Ramamurthi,1,2 L Ebony Boulware1,2,7 1Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Health, Behavior, and Society, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Department of Health Policy and Management, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Division of Geriatric Medicine and Gerontology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 6Community and Provider Advisory Board, Johns Hopkins Center to Eliminate Cardiovascular Health Disparities, Baltimore, MD, USA; 7Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; 8Johns Hopkins Community Physicians, Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA; 9Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 10Johns Hopkins HealthCare LLC, Glen Burnie, MD, USA Introduction: We aimed to inform the design of behavioral interventions by identifying patients’ and their family members’ perceived facilitators and barriers to hypertension self-management. Materials and methods: We conducted focus groups of African American patients with hypertension and their family members to elicit their views about factors influencing patients’ hypertension self-management. We recruited African American patients with hypertension (n = 18 and their family members (n = 12 from an urban, community-based clinical
Cleveland-Solomon, Tanya E.
What beliefs and cultural models do youth who are underrepresented in science have about the domain of science and about themselves as science learners? What do they imagine is possible for them in relation to science both now and in the future? In other words, what constitutes their figured world of science? This dissertation study, using a mixed methods design, offers new perspectives on the ways that underrepresented youth's unexamined assumptions or cultural models and resources may shape their identities and motivation to learn science. Through analyses of survey and interview data, I found that urban African American youths' social context, gender, racial identity, and perceptions of the science they had in school influenced their motivation to learn science. Analyses of short-term classroom observations and interviews suggested that students had competing cultural models that they used in their constructions of identities as science learners, which they espoused and adopted in relation to how well they leveraged the science-related cultural resources available to them. Results from this study suggested that these 7th graders would benefit from access to more expansive cultural models through access to individuals with scientific capital as a way to allow them to create fruitful identities as science learners. If we want to ensure that students from groups that are underrepresented in science not only have better outcomes, but aspire to and enter the science career pipeline, we must also begin to support them in their negotiations of competing cultural models that limit their ability to adopt science-learner identities in their classrooms. This study endeavored to understand the particular cultural models and motivational beliefs that drive students to act, and what types of individuals they imagine scientists and science workers to be. This study also examined how cultural models and resources influence identity negotiation, specifically the roles youths
Dempster, Robert; Davis, Deborah Winders; Faye Jones, V; Keating, Adam; Wildman, Beth
Significant numbers of children have diagnosable mental health problems, but only a small proportion of them receive appropriate services. Stigma has been associated with help-seeking for adult mental health problems and for Caucasian parents. The current study aims to understand factors, including stigma, associated with African American parents' help-seeking behavior related to perceived child behavior problems. Participants were a community sample of African American parents and/or legal guardians of children ages 3-8 years recruited from an urban primary care setting (N = 101). Variables included child behavior, stigma (self, friends/family, and public), object of stigma (parent or child), obstacles for engagement, intention to attend parenting classes, and demographics. Self-stigma was the strongest predictor of help-seeking among African American parents. The impact of self-stigma on parents' ratings of the likelihood of attending parenting classes increased when parents considered a situation in which their child's behavior was concerning to them. Findings support the need to consider parent stigma in the design of care models to ensure that children receive needed preventative and treatment services for behavioral/mental health problems in African American families.
Golden, Annis G
This study was undertaken in partnership with a publicly funded reproductive healthcare organization to better understand barriers to utilization of its services as perceived by low income African American women in its community and how those barriers might be managed. The study uses a place-based, ecological perspective to theorize privacy challenges across different levels of the communication ecology. Analysis of participant observation, interviews, and focus group data identified three key public-private problematics in African American women's experience of reproductive healthcare seeking in a smaller urban setting: a public-private problematic of organizational identity, of organizational regions, and of organizational members. Potential strategies are identified for managing these problematics by the organization and community members. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen
Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.
The purpose of this empirical study was to explore the lived experiences of African American retired female teachers who have prior experience with educating urban African American students in public schools. Also explored are the experiences of active African American female teachers of urban African American students and comparisons are…
Kruger, Marlena C; Kruger, Iolanthé M; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Kruger, Annamarie
Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the North West Province of South Africa (Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology-South Africa project). Fasting blood samples were taken; and participants were interviewed to complete questionnaires on self-reported diseases, fractures, and dietary intakes. Bone health markers were assessed in a subgroup of 658 women older than 45 years. Specific lifestyle risk factors identified were inactivity, smoking, injectable progestin contraception use, and high alcohol consumption. Dietary risk factors identified were low calcium and high animal protein, phosphorous, and sodium intakes. The 25(OH)D3 and C-terminal telopeptide (CTX) levels were significantly higher in the rural vs the urban women older than 50 years. Parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels increased with age in both groups. The 25(OH)D levels were inversely correlated with CTX and PTH in rural women. In urban women, PTH and CTX were correlated while dietary calcium was inversely correlated with CTX and PTH with 25(OH)D3. The combination of low dietary calcium (<230 mg/d), marginally insufficient 25(OH)D3 status, and raised PTH may result in increased bone resorption. Further research is required to assess bone health and fracture risk in black African women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Rosenbaum, Janet E; Zenilman, Jonathan; Rose, Eve; Wingood, Gina; DiClemente, Ralph
Reproductive coercion has been hypothesized as a cause of unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancies, but research has focused on a narrow set of potential sources of reproductive coercion. We identified and evaluated eight potential sources of reproductive coercion from the Theory of Gender and Power including economic inequality between adolescent girls and their boyfriends, cohabitation, and age differences. The sample comprised sexually active African-American female adolescents, ages 15-21. At baseline (n = 715), 6 months (n = 607), and 12 months (n = 605), participants completed a 40-min interview and were tested for semen Y-chromosome with polymerase chain reaction from a self-administered vaginal swab. We predicted unprotected sex and pregnancy using multivariate regression controlling for demographics, economic factors, relationship attributes, and intervention status using a Poisson working model. Factors associated with unprotected sex included cohabitation (incidence risk ratio (IRR) 1.48, 95 % confidence interval (1.22, 1.81)), physical abuse (IRR 1.55 (1.21, 2.00)), emotional abuse (IRR 1.31 (1.06, 1.63)), and having a boyfriend as a primary source of spending money (IRR 1.18 (1.00, 1.39)). Factors associated with unplanned pregnancy 6 months later included being at least 4 years younger than the boyfriend (IRR 1.68 (1.14, 2.49)) and cohabitation (2.19 (1.35, 3.56)). Among minors, cohabitation predicted even larger risks of unprotected sex (IRR 1.93 (1.23, 3.03)) and unplanned pregnancy (3.84 (1.47, 10.0)). Adolescent cohabitation is a marker for unprotected sex and unplanned pregnancy, especially among minors. Cohabitation may have stemmed from greater commitment, but the shortage of affordable housing in urban areas could induce women to stay in relationships for housing. Pregnancy prevention interventions should attempt to delay cohabitation until adulthood and help cohabiting adolescents to find affordable housing.
Reed, E; Santana, M C; Bowleg, L; Welles, S L; Horsburgh, C R; Raj, A
This study aimed to examine racial discrimination and relation to sexual risk for HIV among a sample of urban black and African American men. Participants of this cross-sectional study were black and African American men (N = 703) between the ages of 18 and 65 years, recruited from four urban clinical sites in the northeast. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the relation of reported racial discrimination to the following: (1) sex trade involvement, (2) recent unprotected sex, and (3) reporting a number of sex partners in the past 12 months greater than the sample average. The majority of the sample (96%) reported racial discrimination. In adjusted analyses, men reporting high levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report recent sex trade involvement (buying and/or selling) (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) range = 1.7-2.3), having recent unprotected vaginal sex with a female partner (AOR = 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-2.0), and reporting more than four sex partners in the past year (AOR = 1.4, 95% CI, 1.1-1.9). Findings highlight the link between experiences of racial discrimination and men's sexual risk for HIV.
Zelda de Lange
Full Text Available Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT. We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009 but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%. Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.
de Lange, Zelda; Rijken, Dingeman C; Hoekstra, Tiny; Conradie, Karin R; Jerling, Johann C; Pieters, Marlien
Data on genetic and environmental factors influencing PAI-1 levels and their consequent effect on clot lysis in black African populations are limited. We identified polymorphisms in the promoter area of the PAI-1 gene and determined their influence on PAI-1act levels and plasma clot lysis time (CLT). We also describe gene-environment interactions and the effect of urbanisation. Data from 2010 apparently healthy urban and rural black participants from the South African arm of the PURE study were cross-sectionally analysed. The 5G allele frequency of the 4G/5G polymorphism was 0.85. PAI-1act increased across genotypes in the urban subgroup (p = 0.009) but not significantly in the rural subgroup, while CLT did not differ across genotypes. Significant interaction terms were found between the 4G/5G polymorphism and BMI, waist circumference and triglycerides in determining PAI-1act, and between the 4G/5G polymorphism and fibrinogen and fibrinogen gamma prime in determining CLT. The C428T and G429A polymorphisms did not show direct relationships with PAI-1act or CLT but they did influence the association of other environmental factors with PAI-1act and CLT. Several of these interactions differed significantly between rural and urban subgroups, particularly in individuals harbouring the mutant alleles. In conclusion, although the 4G/5G polymorphism significantly affected PAI-1act, it contributed less than 1% to the PAI-1act variance. (Central) obesity was the biggest contributor to PAI-1act variance (12.5%). Urbanisation significantly influenced the effect of the 4G/5G polymorphism on PAI-1act as well as gene-environment interactions for the C428T and G429A genotypes in determining PAI-1act and CLT.
Fenzel, L. Mickey; Domingues, Janine
Although the number of urban Catholic schools has declined in recent years, Nativity model middle schools, first developed by the Jesuits over 35 years ago, have appeared throughout the nation to address the need for effective alternative education for urban children placed at risk. The present study compares the effectiveness of two types of…
Does living in an urban environment confer advantages for childhood nutritional status? Analysis of disparities in nutritional status by wealth and residence in Angola, Central African Republic and Senegal.
Kennedy, G.L.; Nantel, G.; Brouwer, I.D.; Kok, F.J.
Objective: The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between childhood undernutrition and poverty in urban and rural areas. Design: Anthropometric and socio-economic data from Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in Angola-Secured Territory (Angola ST), Central African Republic and
Mayfield, K. K.
BackgroundTo minority adolescents in urban centers science inquiry seems like an engagement completed by others with specialized skills (Alkon & Agyeman, 2012). When scientists teach science classes those spaces and pedagogy are underwritten by the science teachers' beliefs about how science happens (Southerland, Gess-Newsome & Johnston, 2002). Further, scientific inquiry is often presented as the realm of upperclass whiteness (Alkon & Agyeman, 2012; Mayfield, 2014). When science educators talk about the achievement gaps between raced and classed learners, accompanying that gap is also a gap in science experience. My high school students in a postindustrial school district: attend a school under state takeover (the lowest 5/5 rating (MA Executive Office of Education, 2017)); have a student body that is 70% Latinx; and 96% of whom receive Free and Reduced Lunch (a Federal marker of a family below the poverty line). Annual Yearly Progress is a goal set by state and federal governments for school populations by race, ability, and language. In 2016, the site has failed to make its goals for special education, black, hispanic, white, and English as a Second Language populations. As a high poverty district there is a paucity of extracurricular science experiences. This lack of science extensions make closing standardized test gaps difficult. Geoscience Skills & FindingsThis after school program does not replicate deficit narratives that keep certain bodies of students away from science inquiry (Mayfield, 2015; Ogbu, 1987). Instead, Science Club uses an array of student-centered science (physics, math, arts, chemistry, biology) projects to help students see themselves as citizen scientists who lead explorations of their world. We meet 1.5 hours a week in a 30 week school year. Science club helps students feel like powerful and capable science inquirers with 80% girls in attendance, and uses science experiments to cultivate essential inquiry skills like: Observation
Tolan, Patrick; Lovegrove, Peter; Clark, Eren
Studies of predictors of development of young men of color have been primarily focused on factors that impede positive development rather than factors that promote it. There are also few examples of longitudinal studies of positive development of this population and few that consider multiple protective factors simultaneously. Little is also known about how such positive outcomes might relate to prediction of problematic functioning. This study tests a developmental-ecological framework of positive and risky development among a sample of young men of color growing up in high-risk urban environments. African American and Latino adolescent males (148 African American, 193 Latino) were followed from early to late adolescence. Stress in early adolescence was related to school engagement and prosocial values as well as depressive symptoms and problems assessed 2 years later. The role of family and individual protective factors as direct effects and as mitigating the stress-outcome relation were also tested. Stress predicted problem outcomes but not positive functioning. Early engagement in prosocial activities and coping skills did predict positive outcomes. In contrast, problem outcomes were predicted directly by stress, with some indication of interaction with some protective factors for both such outcomes. Overall results suggest value in focusing on positive outcomes along with negative outcomes, as they are not the antithesis and have some shared but some different predictors. Implications for supporting positive development are presented. © 2013 American Orthopsychiatric Association.
Dreer, Laura E; Weston, June; Owsley, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to 1) describe a strategic plan for recruitment and retention used in conducting eye health education research with African-Americans living in urban and rural areas of Alabama and 2) characterize recruitment and retention patterns for this community-based project. We evaluated an eye health education program tailored specifically to older African Americans. InCHARGE© was designed to promote eye disease prevention by conveying the personal benefits of annual, dilated, comprehensive eye care and teaching strategies to minimize barriers to regular eye care. The InCHARGE© program or a social contact control program was delivered at 20 senior centers in predominately African American urban and rural communities. From pooled data across three studies, 380 African Americans completed a questionnaire about knowledge and attitudes/beliefs about eye disease and eye care before the program and by telephone at either 3 or 6 months after the presentation. The project consisted of 4 phases and a total of 10 strategic objectives for recruitment as well as retention of older African Americans that were implemented in a systematic fashion. Overall, retention rates for follow-up at either 3 or 6 months were 75% and 66% respectively. African Americans from rural areas were more likely to be lost to follow-up compared to those from urban areas. We discuss the benefits of utilizing a strategic plan that serves to address problems with underrepresentation of minorities in clinical research.
Heavy metal content of selected African leafy vegetables planted in urban and peri-urban Nairobi, Kenya. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Government clean-up activities and monitoring of waste disposal is ...
Ajayi, IkeOluwapo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona; Diamond, Megan B; Bajunirwe, Francis; Guwatudde, David; Njelekela, Marina; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Chiwanga, Faraja S; Volmink, Jimmy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Laurence, Carien; Reid, Todd G; Dockery, Douglas; Hemenway, David; Spiegelman, Donna; Holmes, Michelle D
.18, 7.78], and Tanzania [AOR = 2.68; 95 % CI: 1.60, 4.49] were more likely to have BMI > =25 kg/m 2 compared with the rural and peri-urban sites. The high prevalence of overweight and obesity in these sub-Saharan African countries and the differentials in prevalence and risk factors further highlights the need for urgent focused intervention to stem this trend, especially among women, professionals and urban dwellers.
Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Greener, Judith R; Ruggieri, Dominique; Parvanta, Claudia; Mora, Gabriella; Wolak, Caitlin; Normile, Rebecca; Gordon, Thomas F
Radiological terror presents a real threat, but little is known about how low-income, urban African Americans may respond to such threats. The aim of this study was to understand the unique challenges of this group and to explore their knowledge of what a "dirty bomb" is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their barriers to complying with "shelter in place" recommendations. Thirty-seven 18-65-year-olds who were users of community centers in disadvantaged areas participated in 3 focus groups in Philadelphia. Results were analyzed by using the Krueger method of analyzing narrative text. The responses highlighted little knowledge or concern about a dirty bomb. Lack of trust in local authorities was expressed, with participants indicating that they did not feel their needs were addressed. While shelter in place was understood, most said they would still check on family or talk with others to get the "whole truth" because the most trusted information sources were neighbors and community leaders. Our results indicate that a risk communication intervention for urban minorities may support desirable behaviors in the event of a dirty bomb, but successful communication will require establishing a local leader as a spokesperson to convince people of the importance of sheltering in place.
Koblinsky, Sally A; Kuvalanka, Katherine A; Randolph, Suzanne M
This study examined the role of parenting, family routines, family conflict, and maternal depression in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. A sample of 184 African American mothers of Head Start children completed participant and child measures in a structured interview. Results of regression analyses revealed that mothers who utilized more positive parenting practices and engaged in more family routines had children who displayed higher levels of total prosocial skills. Positive parenting and lower levels of maternal depressive symptoms were predictive of fewer externalizing and internalizing child behavior problems. Lower family conflict was linked with fewer externalizing problems. Implications of the study for future research and intervention are discussed. (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Dimbuene, Zacharie T; Mberu, Blessing; Muthuri, Stella; Ezeh, Alex C
Objective To examine the prevalence and trends in overweight and obesity among non-pregnant urban women in Africa over the past two and a half decades. Design Cross-sectional surveys conducted between 1991 and 2014. Settings Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), repeated cross-sectional data collected in 24 African countries. Participants Adult non-pregnant women aged 15–49 years. The earlier DHS collected anthropometric data on only those women who had children aged 0–5 years. The main analyses were limited to this subgroup. The participants were classified as overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (≥30.0 kg/m2). Results The prevalence of overweight and obesity among women increased in all the 24 countries. Trends were statistically significant in 17 of the 24 countries in the case of obesity and 13 of the 24 for overweight. In Ghana, overweight almost doubled (p=0.001) while obesity tripled (p=0.001) between 1993 and 2014. Egypt has the highest levels of overweight and obesity at 44% (95% CI 42%, 46.5%) and 39% (95% CI 36.6%, 41.8%), respectively, in 2014 and the trend showed significant increase (p=0.005) from 1995 levels. Also, obesity doubled in Kenya, Benin, Niger, Rwanda, Ivory Coast and Uganda, while tripled in Zambia, Burkina Faso, Mali, Malawi and Tanzania. Ethiopia and Madagascar had the lowest prevalence of both obesity and overweight, with overweight ranging from 7% to 12% and obesity from 1% to 4%. Conclusions Overweight and obesity are increasing among women of reproductive age in urban Africa, with obesity among this age group having more than doubled or tripled in 12 of the 24 countries. There is an urgent need for deliberate policies and interventions to encourage active lifestyles and healthy eating behaviour to curb this trend in urban Africa. PMID:29079606
Hamill, Matthew M; Pettifor, John M; Ward, Kate A; Norris, Shane A; Prentice, Ann
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) are associated with bone loss and poor vitamin D status in white populations, though their relative roles are not known. No previous studies have examined longitudinal changes in areal bone mineral density (aBMD), measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), or in vitamin D status in HIV-positive African women. Of 247 premenopausal, urban, black African women from Soweto, South Africa, initially recruited, 187 underwent anthropometry, DXA scanning and blood and urine collections at both baseline and 12 months. Of these, 67 were HIV-negative throughout (Nref), 60 were HIV-positive with preserved CD4 counts at baseline (Ppres), and 60 were HIV-positive with low CD4 counts at baseline, eligible for ART by South African standards of care at the time (Plow). No participant had been exposed to ART at baseline. By 12 months, 51 Plow women had initiated ART, >85% of whom took combined tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), lamivudine, and efavirenz. By 12 months, Plow and Nref, but not Ppres, increased in body weight and fat mass (group-by-timepoint p ≤ 0.001, p = 0.002, respectively). Plow had significant decreases in aBMD of 2% to 3%, before and after size adjustment, at the femoral neck (p ≤ 0.002) and lumbar spine (p ≤ 0.001), despite significant weight gain. These decreases were associated with increased bone turnover but there were no significant differences or changes over time in vitamin D status, serum phosphate concentrations, or renal phosphate handling. Excluding data from nine Plow women unexposed to ART and 11 Ppres women who had initiated ART accentuated these findings, suggesting the bone loss in Plow was related to ART exposure. This is the first study describing DXA-defined bone loss in HIV-positive Sub-Saharan African women in association with ART. Further work is required to establish if bone loss continues with ongoing ART and, if so, whether this
Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Andersen, Andreas; Rodrigues, Amabelia
Background We examined the introduction of diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) and oral polio vaccine (OPV) in an urban community in Guinea-Bissau in the early 1980s. Methods The child population had been followed with 3-monthly nutritional weighing sessions since 1978. From June 1981 DTP and OPV...
O'Donnell, Philip; Richards, Maryse; Pearce, Steven; Romero, Edna
Juvenile delinquency is an ongoing social problem particularly among low-income urban youth who are regularly exposed to numerous risk factors. Although much research has been conducted in this area, the most at-risk youth have been largely neglected. This study examines the role of peer deviance in mediating the influence of adult monitoring on…
Selker, J. S.; Kahsai, S. K.
Green Infrastructure (GI) or Low impact development (LID), is a land use planning and design approach with the objective of mitigating land development impacts to the environment, and is ever more looked to as a way to lessen runoff and pollutant loading to receiving water bodies. Broad-scale approaches for siting GI/LID have been developed for agricultural watersheds, but are rare for urban watersheds, largely due to greater land use complexity. And it is even more challenging when it comes to Urban Africa due to the combination of poor data quality, rapid and unplanned development, and civic institutions unable to reliably carry out regular maintenance. We present a spacio-temporal simulation-based approach to identify an optimal prioritization of sites for GI/LID based on DEM, land use and land cover. Optimization used is a multi-objective optimization tool along with an urban storm water management model (SWMM) to identify the most cost-effective combination of LID/GI. This was applied to an urban watershed in NW Kampala, Lubigi Catchment (notorious for being heavily flooded every year), with a miscellaneous use watershed in Uganda, as a case-study to demonstrate the approach.
Wu, Chun Yi; Prosser, Rachel A; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y
The purpose of this study was to explore the associations between depressive symptoms and perceived social support on blood pressure in African American women. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 159 African American women from multiple sites in the Detroit Metro area. Results from this study found that both higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure were positively associated with higher depressive symptom scores (r= .20 and .18, p social support scores (r=-.44, p social support scores were not significantly correlated with blood pressure readings. Higher depressive symptom scores were associated with increased systolic blood pressure independent of social support. Findings of the present study suggest the importance of appropriate social support to help alleviate depressive symptoms. However, to effectively control blood pressure in patients with depressive symptoms, other pathophysiologic mechanisms between depressive symptoms and elevated blood pressures independent of social support should be examined in future research. Future studies should consider a cohort design to examine the temporal relationship of depressive symptoms, social support, and blood pressure readings. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.
Full Text Available Beyond changing dietary patterns, there is a paucity of data to fully explain the high prevalence of obesity and hypertension in urban African populations. The aim of this study was to determine whether other environmental factors (including sleep duration, smoking and physical activity are related to body anthropometry and blood pressure (BP. Data were collected on 1311 subjects, attending two primary health care clinics in Soweto, South Africa. Questionnaires were used to obtain data on education, employment, exercise, smoking and sleep duration. Anthropometric and BP measurements were taken. Subjects comprised 862 women (mean age 41 ± 16 years and mean BMI 29.9 ± 9.2 kg/m² and 449 men (38 ± 14 years and 24.8 ± 8.3 kg/m². In females, ANOVA showed that former smokers had a higher BMI (p 30 minutes was related to a lower BMI (β = -0.04, p30 minutes/day was related to lower systolic (β = -0.02, p<0.05 and lower diastolic BP (β = -0.02, p = 0.05. Longer night time sleep duration was associated with higher diastolic (β = 0.005, p<0.01 and systolic BP (β = 0.003, p<0.05 in females. No health benefits were noted for physical activity. These data suggest that environmental factors rarely collected in African populations are related, in gender-specific ways, to body anthropometry and blood pressure. Further research is required to fully elucidate these associations and how they might be translated into public health programs to combat high levels of obesity and hypertension.
Tandi E Matsha
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The proposed waist-to-height ratio (WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less optimal for cardiometabolic risk screening in children in many settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal WHtR for children from South Africa, and investigate variations by gender, ethnicity and residence in the achieved value. METHODS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS components were measured in 1272 randomly selected learners, aged 10-16 years, comprising of 446 black Africans, 696 mixed-ancestry and 130 Caucasians. The Youden's index and the closest-top-left (CTL point approaches were used to derive WHtR cut-offs for diagnosing any two MetS components, excluding the waist circumference. RESULTS: The two approaches yielded similar cut-off in girls, 0.465 (sensitivity 50.0, specificity 69.5, but two different values in boys, 0.455 (42.9, 88.4 and 0.425 (60.3, 67.7 based on the Youden's index and the CTL point, respectively. Furthermore, WHtR cut-off values derived differed substantially amongst the regions and ethnic groups investigated, whereby the highest cut-off was observed in semi-rural and white children, respectively, Youden's index0.505 (31.6, 87.1 and CTL point 0.475 (44.4, 75.9. CONCLUSION: The WHtR cut-off of 0.5 is less accurate for screening cardiovascular risk in South African children. The optimal value in this setting is likely gender and ethnicity-specific and sensitive to urbanization.
This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners’ products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional
This paper critically examines the morality of advertising by practitioners in spiritual healing and herbal medicine heretofore referred to as traditional medicine, in southern African urban societies. While the subject of traditional medicine has been heavily contested in medical studies in the last few decades, the monumental studies on the subject have emphasised the place of traditional medicine in basic health services. Insignificant attention has been devoted to examine the ethical problems associated with traditional medicine advertising. Critical look at the worthiness of some advertising strategies used by practitioners in traditional medicine in launching their products and services on market thus has been largely ignored. Yet, though advertising is key to helping traditional medicine practitioners' products and services known by prospective customers, this research registers a number of morally negative effects that seem to outweigh the merits that the activity brings to prospective customers. The paper adopts southern African urban societies, and in particular Mozambique, South Africa and Zimbabwe as particular references. The choice of the trio is not accidental, but based on the fact that these countries have in the last few decades been flooded with traditional medicine practitioners/traditional healers from within the continent and from abroad. Most of these practitioners use immoral advertising strategies in communicating to the public the products and services they offer. It is against this background that this paper examines the morality of advertising strategies deployed by practitioners in launching their products and services. To examine the moral worthiness of the advertising strategies used by traditional medical practitioners, I used qualitative analysis of street adverts as well as electronic and print media. From the results obtained through thematic content analysis, the paper concludes that most of the practitioners in traditional
Ouma, Emily; Dione, Michel; Birungi, Rosemirta; Lule, Peter; Mayega, Lawrence; Dizyee, Kanar
Pig production in peri-urban smallholder value chains in Uganda is severely constrained by impact of disease, particularly African swine fever (ASF), and the economic consequences of an inefficient pig value chain. Interventions in the form of biosecurity to control ASF disease outbreaks and pig business hub models to better link smallholder farmers to pig markets have the potential to address the constraints. However, there is a dearth of evidence of the effects of the interventions on performance and distribution of outcomes along the pig value chain. An ex-ante impact assessment utilising System Dynamics model was used to assess the impact of the interventions in peri-urban pig value chains in Masaka district. The results showed that although implementation of biosecurity interventions results in reduction of ASF outbreaks, it also leads to a 6.3% reduction in farmer profit margins per year but more than 7% increase in other value chain actors' margins. The pig business hub intervention alone results in positive margins for all value chain actors but minimal reduction in ASF outbreaks. When biosecurity and the pig business hub interventions are implemented together, the interaction effects of the interventions result in positive outcomes for both the control of ASF and improvement in farmers' margins. Farmers may therefore be unwilling to adopt biosecurity practices if implemented alone to control ASF outbreaks unless there is a corresponding financial incentive to compensate for the high costs. This has implications for policy or developing institutions to facilitate cost sharing arrangement among chain actors and/or third party subsidy to provide incentives for producers to adopt biosecurity measures. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Assini-Meytin, Luciana C; Green, Kerry M
The aim of this study was to improve understanding of long-term socioeconomic consequences of teen parenting for men and women. Analysis is based on the Woodlawn Study, a longitudinal study of an African-American cohort from a socially disadvantaged community in Chicago; data were collected at childhood (N = 1,242), adolescence (N = 705), young adulthood (age 32 years, N = 952), and midlife (age 42 years, N = 833). This analysis focused on the 1,050 individuals with data on teen parenting. We used propensity score matching to account for differences in background characteristics between teenage parents and their peers and used multiple imputation to account for differential attrition. The regression models after propensity score matching showed that at the age of 32 years, in comparison to nonteen mothers, teenage mothers were more likely to be unemployed, live in poverty, depend on welfare, and have earned a GED or completed high school compared to finishing college. At the age of 32 years, teen fathers were more likely to be without a job than nonteen fathers. At the age of 42 years, the effect of teen parenting for women remained statistically significant for education and income. There were no significant associations between teen parenting and outcomes for men at the age of 42 years. Socioeconomic consequences of teenage parenting among African-Americans from disadvantaged background seem to be primarily concentrated in women and persist throughout adulthood. In addition to promoting the delay of parenting after the teenage years, it is critical to provide programs at early stages in the life course to mitigate the negative socioeconomic consequences of teenage motherhood as effects for women are broad. Copyright © 2015 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Murphy, Eleanor; Hankerson, Sidney
Major depression is increasingly viewed in the United States public as a medical disorder with biological and psychosocial causes. Yet little is known about how causal attributions about depression vary among low-income racial minorities. This study examined beliefs about causes of depression and their demographic, clinical and treatment correlates in a lower income African American sample. Volunteers (N = 110) aged 24-79 years, who participated in a family study of depression, completed a 45-item questionnaire on their beliefs about the causes of depression. We used multidimensional scaling (MDS) to cluster items into causal domains and multivariate regression analyses to test associations of causal domains with demographic and clinical characteristics and treatments received. Three causal domains, conceptualized as Eastern culture/supernatural (ECS), Western culture/natural/psychosocial (WCN-P), and /neurobiological (WCN-N) attributions, were derived from MDS clusters. WCN-P was most commonly endorsed (50%-91%) and ECS least endorsed as causes of depression (10-44%). This pattern held across gender, age, educational levels, and diagnostic category. WCN-N items were moderately endorsed, with some distinction between genetic causes and other biological causes. WCN-N was positively associated with medication as opposed to other forms of treatment (B = 1.17; p = .049). Among low-income African Americans, beliefs about causes of depression are varied but broadly consistent explanatory models that include a combination of psychosocial causes with genetic/biological contributions. For certain individuals, supernatural and natural causal attributions may coexist without dissonance. Causal attributions may be associated with types of treatment accepted and have implications for treatment compliance and adherence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Wilson, Helen W; Samuelson, Sarah L; Staudenmeyer, Anna H; Widom, Cathy Spatz
The current study examined patterns of psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, and sexual behavior associated with childhood abuse and neglect in a high-risk sample of low-income African American girls seeking mental health treatment. Participants (N=177) were African American girls recruited from mental health clinics serving low-income communities in Chicago, IL and followed over six waves of data collection (T1-T6) reflecting early (mean age 14) to late (mean age 17) adolescence. Child abuse and neglect history was determined from adolescent and caregiver reports. Latent curve modeling examined patterns of internalizing and externalizing psychopathology, drug and alcohol use, sexual experience, and risky sexual behavior reported by girls and associations with reported child abuse and neglect. Overall, these trajectories indicated a decrease in internalizing and externalizing symptoms, stability of drug and alcohol use, and an increase in sexual experience and risky sexual behaviors over time. Child abuse and neglect was associated with increased internalizing symptoms and sexual experience at baseline and with externalizing symptoms and risky sexual behavior both at baseline and the final point. Child abuse and neglect was not significantly associated with alcohol or drug use. This study adds to the literature on the long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect by demonstrating patterns of psychopathology and risky behavior that persist over time in a high-risk group of girls with self or parent reported histories of abuse and neglect. Interventions that address externalizing problems and health risk behaviors may be of particular importance for this population. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Herrmann, Michael; Khan, Haider
Rapid urbanization is a fact of live even in the least developed countries (LDCs) where the lion’s share of the population presently lives in rural areas and will continue to do so for decades to come. At the turn of the millennium 75% of the LDCs’ population still lived in rural areas and 71% of the LDCs’ labor force was involved in agriculture. But even though the largest share of their population lives in rural areas and directly or indirectly derives their livelihoods from agriculture, a ...
Smid, Marcela C; Ahmed, Yusuf; Stoner, Marie C D; Vwalika, Bellington; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Stringer, Jeffrey S A
To evaluate the association between severity of prior low birth weight (LBW) delivery and adverse perinatal outcomes in the subsequent delivery among an HIV-prevalent urban African population. A retrospective cohort study was conducted among 41 109 women who had undergone two deliveries in Lusaka, Zambia, between February 1, 2006, and May 31, 2013. The relationship between prior LBW delivery (<2500 g) and a composite measure of adverse perinatal outcome in the second pregnancy was assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Women with prior LBW delivery (n=4259) had an increased risk of LBW in the second delivery versus those without prior LBW delivery (n=37 642). Such risk correlated with the severity of first delivery LBW. The adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 2.89 (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.05-4.09) for a birth weight of 1000-1499 g, 3.05 (95% CI 2.42-3.86) for a birth weight of 1500-1999 g, and 2.02 (95% CI 1.81-2.27) for a birth weight of 2000-2499 g. Previous LBW delivery also increased the risk of adverse perinatal outcome, with an AOR of 1.4 (95% CI 1.2-1.7). Severe prior LBW delivery conferred substantial risk for adverse perinatal outcomes in a subsequent pregnancy. © 2016 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics.
Musci, Rashelle J; Hart, Shelley R; Ballard, Elizabeth D; Newcomer, Alison; Van Eck, Kathryn; Ialongo, Nicholas; Wilcox, Holly
The trajectory of suicidal ideation across early adolescence may inform the timing of suicide prevention program implementation. This study aimed to identify developmental trajectories of suicidal ideation among an urban cohort of community-residing African Americans (AA) longitudinally followed from middle school through early adulthood (ages 11-19 years). Subtypes based on the developmental course of suicidal ideation from late childhood through mid-adolescence were identified using longitudinal latent class analysis (LLCA) with 581 AA adolescents (52.7% male; 71.1% free or reduced school meals). The developmental trajectories of suicidal ideation were then used to predict suicide attempts in young adulthood. Our LLCA indicated two subtypes (i.e., ideators and nonideators), with 8% of the sample in the ideator class. This trajectory class shows a peak of suicidal ideation in seventh grade and a steady decline in ideation in subsequent grades. Additionally, suicidal ideation trajectories significantly predicted suicide attempt. Results of these analyses suggest the need for suicide prevention approaches prior to high school for AA youth. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.
Okop, Kufre Joseph; Levitt, Naomi; Puoane, Thandi
Objective To determine the factors associated with excessive body fat among black African men and women living in rural and urban communities of South Africa. Methods This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from the Prospective Urban and Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, Cape Town, South Africa conducted in 2009/2010. The study sample included 1220 participants (77.2% women) aged 35–70 years, for whom anthropometric measurements were obtained and risk factors documented through face-to-face interviews using validated international PURE study protocols. Sex-specific logistic regression models were used to evaluate socio-demographic, lifestyle and psychological factors associated with three excessive body fat indicators, namely body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percent (BF%). Results The prevalence of excessive body fat based on BF%, WC and BMI cut-offs were 96.0%, 86.1%, and 81.6% for women respectively, and 62.2%, 25.9%, and 36.0% for men respectively. The significant odds of excessive body fat among the currently married compared to unmarried were 4.1 (95% CI: 1.3–12.5) for BF% and 1.9 (95% CI: 1.3–2.9) for BMI among women; and 4.9 (95% CI: 2.6–9.6), 3.2 (95% CI: 1.6–6.4) and 3.6 (95% CI: 1.9–6.8) for BF%, WC and BMI respectively among men. Age ≤50 years (compared to age >50 years) was inversely associated with excessive BF% in men and women, and less-than-a-college education was inversely associated with excessive BMI and WC in men. Tobacco smoking was inversely associated with all three excessive adiposity indicators in women but not in men. Unemployment, depression, and stress did not predict excessive body fat in men or women. Conclusion The sex-differences in the socio-demographic and lifestyle factors associated with the high levels of excessive body fat in urban and rural women and men should be considered in packaging interventions to reduce obesity in these communities. PMID:26447880
Schoenbuchner, Simon M; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Prentice, Ann; Ward, Kate A
There are no longitudinal pQCT data of bone growth and development from sub-Saharan Africa, where rapid environmental, societal, and economic transitions are occurring, and where fracture rates are predicted to rise. The aim of this study was to compare skeletal development in black and white South African adolescents using longitudinal data from the Birth to Twenty study. The Birth to Twenty Bone Health subcohort consisted of 543 adolescents (261 [178 black] girls, 282 [201 black] boys). Annual pQCT measurements of the radial and tibial metaphysis and diaphysis were obtained between ages 12 and 22 years (distal metaphysis: cross-sectional area [CSA] and trabecular bone mineral density [BMD]; diaphysis: total and cortical CSA, cortical BMD, and polar stress-strain index [SSIp]). Age at peak height velocity (APHV) was calculated to account for differences in maturational timing between ethnic groups and sexes. Mixed-effects models were used to describe trajectories for each pQCT outcome. Likelihood-ratio tests were used to summarize the overall difference in trajectories between black and white participants within each sex. APHV (mean ± SD years) was similar in black (11.8 ± 0.8) and white (12.2 ± 1.0) girls, but delayed in black (14.2 ± 1.0) relative to white boys (13.3 ± 0.8). By 4 years post-APHV, white adolescents had significantly greater cortical CSA and SSIp than black adolescents at the radius. There were no significant differences at the radial metaphysis but there was some divergence, such that black adolescents had greater radial trabecular BMD by the end of follow-up. At the tibia, white adolescents had lower diaphyseal CSA and SSIp, and greater metaphyseal CSA. There was no ethnic difference in tibial trabecular BMD. There are ethnic differences in bone growth and development, independent of maturation, in South African adolescents. This work gives new insights into the possible etiology of childhood fractures, which occur most
Tessier, Sophie; Traissac, Pierre; Bricas, Nicolas; Maire, Bernard; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; El Ati, Jalila; Delpeuch, Francis
In the context of the nutrition transition and associated changes in the food retail sector, to examine the socio-economic characteristics and motivations of shoppers using different retail formats (large supermarkets (LSM), medium-sized supermarkets (MSM) or traditional outlets) in Tunisia. Cross-sectional survey (2006). Socio-economic status, type of food retailer and motivations data were collected during house visits. Associations between socio-economic factors and type of retailer were assessed by multinomial regression; correspondence analysis was used to analyse declared motivations. Peri-urban area around Tunis, Tunisia, North Africa. Clustered random sample of 724 households. One-third of the households used LSM, two-thirds used either type of supermarket, but less than 5 % used supermarkets only. Those who shopped for food at supermarkets were of higher socio-economic status; those who used LSM were much wealthier, more often had a steady income or owned a credit card, while MSM users were more urban and had a higher level of education. Most households still frequently used traditional outlets, mostly their neighbourhood grocer. Reasons given for shopping at the different retailers were most markedly leisure for LSM, while for the neighbourhood grocer the reasons were fidelity, proximity and availability of credit (the latter even more for lower-income customers). The results pertain to the transition in food shopping practices in a south Mediterranean country; they should be considered in the context of growing inequalities in health linked to the nutritional transition, as they differentiate use and motivations for the choice of supermarkets v. traditional food retailers according to socio-economic status.
Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Messer, Lynne; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime; Misra, Dawn P
The inter-relationships between objective (census based) and subjective (resident reported) measures of the residential environment is understudied in African American (AA) populations. Using data from the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study (2009-2011; n = 1387) of AA women, we quantified the area-level variation in subjective reports of residential healthy food availability, walkability, safety, and disorder that can be accounted for with an objective neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI). Two-level generalized linear models estimated associations between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment, accounting for individual-level covariates. In unconditional models, intraclass correlation coefficients for block-group variance in subjective reports ranged from 11% (healthy food availability) to 30% (safety). Models accounting for the NDI (vs. both NDI and individual-level covariates) accounted for more variance in healthy food availability (23% vs. 8%) and social disorder (40% vs. 38%). The NDI and individual-level variables accounted for 39% and 51% of the area-level variation in walkability and safety, respectively. Associations between subjective and objective measures of the residential environment were significant and in the expected direction. Future studies on neighborhood effects on health, especially among AAs, should include a wide range of residential environment measures, including subjective, objective, and spatial contextual variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Stanton, B F; Li, X; Galbraith, J; Feigelman, S; Kaljee, L
To evaluate the success of efforts to educate youth not only to use prescription contraceptives to avoid pregnancy, but also to use condoms to avoid sexually transmitted diseases, including infection with the human immunodeficiency virus. Longitudinal study of 383 African-American youth aged 9 to 15 years enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) risk reduction intervention. Data about contraceptive practices were obtained at baseline and 6, 12, and 18 months later using a culturally and developmentally appropriate risk assessment tool administered with "talking" computers (Macintosh, Apple Computer Inc, Cupertino, Calif). Approximately three fourths of sexually active youth used some form of contraception in each 6-month round, with almost half of the youth using combinations of contraceptives. Among all youth at baseline and among control youth throughout the study, more than half used condoms and more than two thirds who used oral contraceptives also used condoms. Receipt of an AIDS education intervention was associated with use of more effective contraceptive practices (eg, condoms and another prescription or nonprescription method of birth control). After receiving the intervention, more than 80% of the youth who used oral contraceptives also used condoms. Contraceptive practices showed considerable stability. Knowledge about AIDS was positively associated with use of more effective contraceptive methods. Many youth are using condoms and prescription birth control simultaneously, and these use rates can be increased through AIDS education interventions.
Coussens, Anna K.; Naude, Celeste E.; Goliath, Rene; Chaplin, George; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Jablonski, Nina G.
Cape Town, South Africa, has a seasonal pattern of UVB radiation and a predominantly dark-skinned urban population who suffer high HIV-1 prevalence. This coexistent environmental and phenotypic scenario puts residents at risk for vitamin D deficiency, which may potentiate HIV-1 disease progression. We conducted a longitudinal study in two ethnically distinct groups of healthy young adults in Cape Town, supplemented with vitamin D3 in winter, to determine whether vitamin D status modifies the response to HIV-1 infection and to identify the major determinants of vitamin D status (UVB exposure, diet, pigmentation, and genetics). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in the majority of subjects in winter and in a proportion of individuals in summer, was highly correlated with UVB exposure, and was associated with greater HIV-1 replication in peripheral blood cells. High-dosage oral vitamin D3 supplementation attenuated HIV-1 replication, increased circulating leukocytes, and reversed winter-associated anemia. Vitamin D3 therefore presents as a low-cost supplementation to improve HIV-associated immunity.
McNamara, Bridgette J; Diouf, Boucar; Hughson, Michael D; Hoy, Wendy E; Bertram, John F
Glomerulomegaly has been associated with an increased risk of renal disease. Few reports have investigated the heterogeneity of glomerular size within kidneys and associated risk factors. This study measured the individual glomerular volume (IGV) of 720 non-sclerotic glomeruli in kidneys of adult West African males, and investigated associations of IGV with age, total glomerular (nephron) number and body surface area (BSA). IGVs were determined in the kidneys of 24 Senegalese males from two age groups (12 subjects aged 20- 30 years and 12 subjects aged 50-70 years). Subjects were randomly chosen at autopsies performed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Volumes of 30 glomeruli per subject were determined using the disector/Cavalieri stereological method. IGVs ranged from 1.31 x 10(6) microm3 to 12.40 x 10(6) microm3 (a 9.4-fold variation). IGV varied up to 5.3-fold within single kidneys. The trimmed range of IGV within subjects (10th to 90th percentile of IGV) was directly correlated with median glomerular size. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of IGV did not differ significantly between age groups or between subjects with higher (> or =1.78 m2) and lower BSA (IGV was significantly and directly correlated with BSA. Kidneys with less than 1 million nephrons had significantly larger mean IGV than kidneys with more than 1 million nephrons, and the trimmed range of IGVs within subjects was inversely correlated with total glomerular number. There was a considerable variation in IGV within kidneys of Senegalese males at autopsy. The heterogeneity of IGV was increased in association with low nephron number and increased BSA, with more pronounced effects in older subjects.
Full Text Available To prevent obesity, it is important to assess dietary habits through self-reported energy intake (EI in children. We investigated how EI is associated with body mass index and which elements of dietary habits and status are associated with EI among African-American (AA children.We assessed and included data from 218 10-14-year-old AA children in Baltimore, MD, USA. EI was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. The basal metabolic rate (BMR was used as the predicted minimal rate of energy expenditure of children. A fully adjusted multiple logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence of obesity (≥ 95th BMI-for-age percentile among the quartiles of EI/BMR ratio using the third quartile for the reference. The differences in the age-adjusted mean EI/BMR among the categories of dietary habits, social support, and socio economic status were analyzed using a general linear model.Children with the lowest EI/BMR had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR of obesity as compared to those in the third quartile of EI/BMR (boys aOR 4.3; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 20 and girls aOR 4.1; 1.02, 21. In girls, the adjusted mean EI/BMR in the group that prepared food less than the means (3.8 times/week was significantly lower than the group that prepared food over the means (P = 0.03. Further, the group that reported eating breakfast under 4 times/week indicated an adjusted mean EI/BMR lower than the group that ate breakfast over 5 times/week in both sexes.When EI was under-reported with reference to BMR, we may observe high prevalence of obesity. Further, food preparation by children and frequent consumption of breakfast may instill food cognition with usual dietary habits. Therefore, holistic assessments including dietary habits are required to examine self-reported food intake especially among overweight/obese children.
Yamaguchi, Miwa; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Shipley, Cara; Hopkins, Laura C; Cheskin, Lawrence J; Gittelsohn, Joel
To prevent obesity, it is important to assess dietary habits through self-reported energy intake (EI) in children. We investigated how EI is associated with body mass index and which elements of dietary habits and status are associated with EI among African-American (AA) children. We assessed and included data from 218 10-14-year-old AA children in Baltimore, MD, USA. EI was calculated using a food frequency questionnaire. The basal metabolic rate (BMR) was used as the predicted minimal rate of energy expenditure of children. A fully adjusted multiple logistic regression was used to determine the prevalence of obesity (≥ 95th BMI-for-age percentile) among the quartiles of EI/BMR ratio using the third quartile for the reference. The differences in the age-adjusted mean EI/BMR among the categories of dietary habits, social support, and socio economic status were analyzed using a general linear model. Children with the lowest EI/BMR had significantly higher adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of obesity as compared to those in the third quartile of EI/BMR (boys aOR 4.3; 95% confidence interval 1.08, 20 and girls aOR 4.1; 1.02, 21). In girls, the adjusted mean EI/BMR in the group that prepared food less than the means (3.8 times/week) was significantly lower than the group that prepared food over the means (P = 0.03). Further, the group that reported eating breakfast under 4 times/week indicated an adjusted mean EI/BMR lower than the group that ate breakfast over 5 times/week in both sexes. When EI was under-reported with reference to BMR, we may observe high prevalence of obesity. Further, food preparation by children and frequent consumption of breakfast may instill food cognition with usual dietary habits. Therefore, holistic assessments including dietary habits are required to examine self-reported food intake especially among overweight/obese children.
Full Text Available High-risk ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-E have been described in wild birds and rodents worldwide. Rats are of special interest not only due to their indicator role for environmental pollution with multi-resistant bacteria but also as possible infection source. Data on the presence of high-risk ESBL-E in urban wildlife from Africa remain scarce, however. Twenty-nine animals from three different rat (Rattus species were captured in the city of Conakry (Guinea, West Africa in 2015. Rectal swabs were analyzed for ESBL-E using selective media. Species typing and phenotypic antimicrobial resistance analysis to broad-spectrum beta-lactams and other classes of antimicrobials was performed for Enterobacteriaceae-like isolates using the VITEK®2 system (BioMérieux, Germany. Confirmed ESBL-producing E. coli and K. pneumoniae were whole-genome sequenced and resistance genes, phylogenetic background and genes related to bacterial fitness and virulence were analyzed. In total, six of twenty-nine rats (20% carried ESBL-E (K. pneumoniae and E. coli. All ESBL-producers were multi-drug resistant with blaCTX−M−15 as the dominating ESBL-type. Interestingly, ESBL-associated clonal lineages E. coli ST38 and K. pneumoniae ST307 were found. The ESBL-plasmid in K. pneumoniae ST307 revealed high sequence similarities to pKPN3-307_TypeC, a >200 kbp IncFII plasmid originating from a human clinical ST307 isolate. This was in contrast to the core genome: the rat isolate was distantly related to the human clinical ST307 isolate (27 SNPs/Mbp. In addition, we identified π-fimbrial, capsule 2, and glycogen synthesis clusters in the rodent ST307 isolate, whose involvement in the adaptation to survival outside the host and in human urinary tracts has been suggested. Our results demonstrate the presence of clinically relevant, ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae ST307 and E. coli ST38 clonal lineages in an urban West African rat population. The human community is likely
Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas
The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Malambo, Pasmore; Kengne, Andre P; Lambert, Estelle V; De Villiers, Anniza; Puoane, Thandi
To investigate the mediation effects of physical activity (PA) on the relationship between the perceived neighborhood aesthetic environment and overweight/obesity in free-living South Africans. A cross-sectional study of 671 adults aged ≥ 35 years was analyzed. PA was assessed using the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Perceived neighborhood aesthetics was assessed using the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale Questionnaire. Of 671 participants, 76.0% were women, 34.1% aged 45-54 years, and 69.2% were overweight or obese. In adjusted logistic regression models, overweight/obesity was significantly associated with neighborhood aesthetics [odds ratio (OR) = 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.50-0.93] and PA (OR = 0.65; 95% CI, 0.65-0.90). In expanded multivariable models, overweight/obesity was associated with age 45-55 years (OR = 1.59; 95% CI, 1.05-2.40), female gender (OR = 6.24; 95% CI, 3.95-9.86), tertiary education (OR = 4.05; 95% CI, 1.19-13.86), and urban residence (OR = 2.46; 95% CI, 1.66-3.65). Aesthetics was positively associated with PA; both aesthetics and PA were negatively associated with overweight and obesity. There was no evidence to support a significant mediating effect of PA on the relationship between aesthetics and overweight/obesity. Future studies should consider objective assessment of aesthetics and PA. In addition, future studies should consider using longitudinal design to evaluate food-related environments, which are related to overweight or obesity.
Kuczmarski, Marie Fanelli; Mason, Marc A; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K
C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory biomarker, is influenced by many factors, including socioeconomic position, genetics, and diet. The inverse association between diet and CRP is biologically feasible because micronutrients with antioxidative properties may enable the body to manage the balance between production and accumulation of reactive species that cause oxidative stress. To determine the quality of the diet consumed by urban, low-income African-American and white adults aged 30 to 64 years, and association of diet quality with CRP. Data from a cross-sectional study were used to evaluate diet quality assessed by mean adequacy ratio (MAR). Two 24-hour recalls were collected by trained interviewers using the US Department of Agriculture automated multiple pass method. The sample consisted of Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span baseline study participants, 2004-2009, who completed both recalls (n=2,017). MAR equaled the average of the ratio of intakes to Recommended Dietary Allowance for 15 vitamins and minerals. CRP levels were assessed by the nephelometric method utilizing latex particles coated with CRP monoclonal antibodies. Linear ordinary least square regression and generalized linear models were performed to determine the association of MAR (independent variable) with CRP (dependent variable) while adjusting for potential confounders. MAR scores ranged from 74.3 to 82.2. Intakes of magnesium and vitamins A, C, and E were the most inadequate compared with Estimated Average Requirements. CRP levels were significantly associated with MAR, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-measured body fat, and hypertension. A 10% increase in MAR was associated with a 4% decrease in CRP. The MAR was independently and significantly inversely associated with CRP, suggesting diet is associated with the regulation of inflammation. Interventions to assist people make better food choices may not only improve diet quality but also their health
Full Text Available Illustration 1 – Centre des affaires, Le CapAuteur : Céline Vacchiani-Marcuzzo.Born with colonial settlement patterns, the South-African urban system has experienced half a century of Apartheid. Under the effects of globalization, this urban system evolves as more developed urban systems and mature settlement patterns. This urbanization process (in the limits of functional urban agglomeration makes South Africa one of the most advanced countries in Africa in terms of urban growth. The world-...
Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Reed, Floyd A.; Friedlaender, Françoise R.; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A.; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T.; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.; Mortensen, Holly; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Omar, Sabah A.; Powell, Kweli; Pretorius, Gideon S.; Smith, Michael W.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Wambebe, Charles; Weber, James L.; Williams, Scott M.
Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic properties. We observed high levels of mixed ancestry in most populations, reflecting historical migration events across the continent. Our data also provide evidence for shared ancestry among geographically diverse hunter-gatherer populations (Khoesan speakers and Pygmies). The ancestry of African Americans is predominantly from Niger-Kordofanian (~71%), European (~13%), and other African (~8%) populations, although admixture levels varied considerably among individuals. This study helps tease apart the complex evolutionary history of Africans and African Americans, aiding both anthropological and genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:19407144
Pisa, Pedro T; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Kagura, Juliana; Ramsay, Michele; Crowther, Nigel J; Norris, Shane A
To report associations between different adiposity indices [anthropometric and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measures] and blood pressure (BP) and hypertension in urban black South African adults. Anthropometric and DXA whole body measures were performed on 1026 men and 982 women. Participants were classified as being hypertensive if they had a systolic BP (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg and/or diastolic (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Within each gender the relationship of adiposity with BP and hypertension risk was assessed using linear and logistic regression models respectively. Bivariate models were computed for each body composition variable. Furthermore, we computed a multiple regression model to illustrates how body composition parameters are associated with the outcome variables independent of each other. The males were significantly taller and had a higher fat free soft tissue mass (FFSTM), DBP and socio-economic status, and were more likely to use tobacco and be hypertensive (48.0% vs. 38.8%). The females had higher body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), FM/FFSTM ratio and body fat % than males. All body composition parameters were positively associated with hypertension. In both males and females, the FM/FFSTM ratio associated the strongest with hypertension illustrating the following odds ratios [males: 70.37 (18.47, 268.16) p ≤ 0.001; females 2.48 (0.86,7.21) p = 0.09]. The multiple regression model, indicated that the VAT and WC significantly associated with both SBP and DBP in the men and women respectively, whilst WC was the only significant predictor for hypertension. All body composition parameters were associated with hypertension and FM/FFSTM ratio showed the strongest relationship. It was reassuring that WC remains a useful measure of central adiposity that can be used as a risk indicator for hypertension if more sophisticated measures are not available
Geronimus, Arline T; Colen, Cynthia G; Shochet, Tara; Ingber, Lori Barer; James, Sherman A
Black youth residing in high-poverty areas have dramatically lower probabilities of surviving to age 65 if they are urban than if they are rural. Chronic disease deaths contribute heavily. We begin to probe the reasons using the Harlem Household Survey (HHS) and the Pitt County, North Carolina Study of African American Health (PCS). We compare HHS and PCS respondents on chronic disease rates, health behaviors, social support, employment, indicators of health care access, and health insurance. Chronic disease profiles do not favor Pitt County. Smoking uptake is similar across samples, but PCS respondents are more likely to quit. Indicators of access to health care and private health insurance are more favorable in Pitt County. Findings suggest rural mortality is averted through secondary or tertiary prevention, not primary. Macroeconomic and health system changes of the past 20 years may have left poor urban Blacks as medically underserved as poor rural Blacks.
Hawkins, Dianne Kendrick
African American students receive placements in special education in numbers disproportionate to their representation in the population at large. They are also placed in most restrictive settings in large numbers. The current quantitative study was designed to examine the influence of participation in ARD/IEP meetings by African American parents…
Stanley, Christine A.
This article, based on a larger, autoethnographic qualitative research project, focuses on the first-hand experiences of 27 faculty of color teaching in predominantly White colleges and universities. The 27 faculty represented a variety of institutions, disciplines, academic titles, and ranks. They identified themselves as African American,…
Shavers, Marjorie C.; Moore, James L., III
Drawing on a larger study, this qualitative investigation uses Black feminist thought as the interpretive lens to investigate perceptions and experiences of African American female doctoral students at predominately White institutions (PWIs). Semistructured interviews were used to gain an understanding of their experiences and how these…
African Journal of Livestock Extension aims to bring to the fore the role and significance of livestock in maintaining rural, peri-urban and urban households, vis-à-vis its impact on poverty alleviation, household nutritional status, economic coping strategy and provision of employment. The focus of the journal relates to all ...
Muhammad al Najib Brimah
Full Text Available Too much time is spent nowadays analyzing the symptoms of urban problems in Africa, without looking at the root causes of those problems. This paper addresses the future of African cities from an African perspective. Urbanization in the context of the west is an aberration because its roots are found in the industrial development of the west. When an African speaks his native tongue, the whole street becomes his neighborhood plaza, playground and the market, even though the western method of planning did not make provision for this. When he speaks the foreign colonial language he only sees the street and not the plaza, the playground, the market or the rest of the neighborhood. From a purely ecological perspective, shanties and their inhabitants are a good example of the new, green urban metabolism. Despite their sanitary and security failings, they often have a social vibrancy and ecological systems that get lost in most planned urban environments.
Moline Jacqueline M.
Full Text Available Objective. Blood lead levels have declined among every age group in the United States, but urban minority residents remain at disproportionate risk for elevated lead levels. Our objective was to measure lead burden in young women of childbearing age in New York City. We also describe successful means of recruiting this population into a cohort study. Material and methods. Healthy women aged 18-25 attending a New York City health care center in 1995-1998 were eligible for participation. Participants were recruited by health care providers, the study coordinator and the participants themselves. Venous blood samples were obtained for whole blood lead, ferritin and hematocrit measurements, and detailed questionnaires were administered. Results. 239 women have been recruited to date. The population is predominately minority: 62% African-American, 33% Hispanic and 5% Caucasian/Asian. The average age of participants is 19.3 years. Recruitment of participants into the study is predominantly (55% through "word of mouth" from previously enrolled participants. Few participants learned of the study through their health care providers. The mean blood lead level among study participants is 2.1 ± 1.7 µg/dl, which is consistent with the most recent United States national survey. Conclusions. Blood lead levels are low in young, urban minority women of childbearing age in New York City. In this population, recruitment efforts were substantially enhanced with the help of enrolled participants and the health care community.
Trude, Angela Cristina Bizzotto; Kharmats, Anna Yevgenyevna; Hurley, Kristen Marie; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Gittelsohn, Joel
Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV) are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA) youth in Baltimore, MD. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10-14 y) dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B'More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice) and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake) controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD) servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth's healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15-1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23-1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03-1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01-1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04-1.16). Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9). In addition, youth shopping more frequently at supermarkets were more likely to have greater vegetable
Angela Cristina Bizzotto Trude
Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity, one of the greatest challenges to public health, disproportionately affects low-income urban minority populations. Fruits and vegetables (FV are nutrient dense foods that may be inversely associated with excessive weight gain. We aimed to identify the individual characteristic, psychosocial, and household factors influencing FV and fiber consumption in low-income African-American (AA youth in Baltimore, MD. Methods Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from 285 low-income AA caregiver-youth (age range: 10–14 y dyads participating in the baseline evaluation of the B’More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial. The Kid's Block FFQ was used to estimate daily intakes of FV (including 100 % fruit juice and dietary fiber. Questionnaires were used to assess household socio-demographics, caregiver and youth food purchasing and preparation behavior, and youth psychosocial information. Ordered logit regression analyses were conducted to examine psychosocial and food-related behavior associated with FV and dietary fiber intake (quartile of intake controlling for youth age, sex, BMI percentile, total calorie intake and household income. Results On average, youth consumed 1.5 ± 1.1 (M ± SD servings of fruit, 1.8 ± 1.7 serving of vegetables, and 15.3 ± 10.9 g of fiber/day. There were no differences by gender, age or household income. Greater youth’s healthy eating intentions and self-efficacy scores were associated with greater odds ratio for higher intake of FV and fiber (Intention: ORfruit 1.22; 95 % CI: 1.06–1.41, ORvegetable 1.31; 1.15–1.51 and ORfiber 1.46; 1.23–1.74, Self-efficacy: ORfruit 1.07; 1.03–1.12, ORvegetable 1.04; 1.01–1.09, ORfiber 1.10; 1.04–1.16. Youth receiving free/low-cost breakfast were more than twice as likely to have higher fiber intake than those who did not receive free breakfast (OR 2.7; 1.10; 6.9. In addition, youth shopping more
Kruger, Annamarie; Kruger, Marlena C.; Kruger, Iolanthé Marike; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss
Globally, rural to urban migration is accompanied by changes in dietary patterns and lifestyle that have serious health implications, including development of low bone mass. We hypothesized that serum 25 (OH) vitamin D3 (25[OH]D3) levels will be lower, bone turnover higher, and nutrition inadequate in urban postmenopausal black women, increasing risk for low bone mass. We aimed to assess the prevalence of risk factors for low bone mass in 1261 black women from rural and urban areas in the Nor...
Kinser, Patricia; Masho, Saba
Perinatal health disparities are of particular concern with pregnant, urban, African-American (AA) adolescents, who have high rates of stress and depression during pregnancy, higher rates of adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes, and many barriers to effective treatment. The purpose of this study was to explore pregnant, urban, AA teenagers' experience of stress and depression and examine their perceptions of adjunctive nonpharmacologic management strategies, such as yoga. This community-based, qualitative study used nontherapeutic focus groups to allow for exploration of attitudes, concerns, beliefs, and values regarding stress and depression in pregnancy and nonpharmacologic management approaches, such as mind-body therapies and other prenatal activities. The sample consisted of pregnant, AA, low-income adolescents (n=17) who resided in a large urban area in the United States. The themes that arose in the focus group discussions were that 1) stress and depression symptoms are pervasive in daily life, 2) participants felt a generalized sense of isolation, 3) stress/depression management techniques should be group based, interactive, and focused on the specific needs of teenagers, and 4) yoga is an appealing stress management technique to this population. Findings from this study suggest that pregnant, urban, adolescents are highly stressed; they interpret depression-like symptoms to be signs of stress; they desire group-based, interactive activities; and they are interested in yoga classes for stress/depression management and relationship building. It is imperative that health care providers and researchers focus on these needs, particularly when designing prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Haisma, H; Coward, WA; Albernaz, E; Visser, GH; Wells, JCK; Wright, A; Victoria, CG; Victora, C.G.
Objective: To investigate the extent to which breast milk is replaced by intake of other liquids or foods, and to estimate energy intake of infants defined as exclusively (EBF), predominantly (PBF) and partially breast-fed (PartBF). Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Community-based study in urban
Holt, Cheryl L.; Schulz, Emily; Wynn, Theresa A.
Extensive literature reviews suggest that religiousness is positively associated with health. Much less understood is the particular nature of the religion-health connection. Religion and the church play a central role in the lives of many African Americans. This study used a mixed-methods approach to examine perceptions of the religion-health…
Purpose: Black history as represented in social studies textbooks often lacks depth demanded by historians and authenticity required for cultural relevance to African American students. However, important Black historical narratives sometimes contain difficult prose and refer to times or circumstances that are far removed from students' life…
Internet Accessibility: Challenges Before The African Nations. 207. Information ... increasing internet access in Africa (Jensen, ... bite, particularly in the area of policy ... especially the urban and rural poor. ... supply, but electricity power supply.
Managing the Monster critically examines urban governance in Africa, with ... in African studies and urban planning; donor organizations worldwide working on ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.
Oelofse, A.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Benade, A.J.S.; Dhansay, M.A.; Tolboom, J.J.M.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.
The study was conducted to look at the effectiveness of a multimicronutrient-fortified complementary food on the micronutrient status, linear growth and psychomotor development of 6- to 12-month-old infants from a black urban disadvantaged community in the Western Cape, South Africa. The study was
Ryan, Alison; Graves, Scott, Jr.; Sobalvarro, Adriana; Nichols, Kayla; Schutte, Kerry; Aston, Candice; Griffin, Amanda
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a social-emotional learning curriculum, Strong Kids, for children at risk for begin referred for placement in emotional and behavioral support classrooms. Thirty-nine fourth- and fifth-grade students enrolled in an urban elementary school participated in the intervention. The results of this…
Although the current demographics of urban schools in the United States reflect a rapid growth of culturally and linguistically diverse students, curricula continue to emphasize mainstream culture; cultural and linguistic experiences of these diverse students are ignored. In this article, the author examines how the use of counter storytelling in…
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... It provides a forum for African and Africanist anthropologists to publish research reports, articles, book ... A Qualitative Exploration · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT
Tasnim F. Imran
Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology that affects multiple organ systems. Neurological manifestations of sarcoidosis are less common and can include cranial neuropathies and intracranial lesions. We report the case of a 21-year-old man who presented with vertigo and uveitis. Extensive workup including brain imaging revealed enhancing focal lesions. A lacrimal gland biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of sarcoidosis. The patient was initially treated with prednisone, which did not adequately control his symptoms, and then was switched to methotrexate with moderate symptomatic improvement. Our patient had an atypical presentation with vertigo as the predominant manifestation of sarcoidosis. Patients with neurosarcoidosis typically present with systemic involvement of sarcoidosis followed by neurologic involvement. Vertigo is rarely reported as an initial manifestation. This case highlights the importance of consideration of neurosarcoidosis as an entity even in patients that may not have a typical presentation or systemic involvement of disease.
Hibbs, Shayna D; Rankin, Kristin M; DeSisto, Carla; Collins, James W
Few studies have examined contributions of paternal factors to birth outcomes. Weathering is a pattern of increasing rates of adverse birth outcome with increasing maternal age. This study evaluates for an association between paternal involvement and weathering in the context of preterm birth (PTB, poverty. Using the Illinois transgenerational dataset with appended US census income information of infants (1989-1991) and their mothers (1956-1976), we compared infants of women by degree of paternal involvement: married, unmarried with father named on birth certificate, and unnamed father. Data were stratified by maternal residence in higher or lower income neighborhoods at both the time of mothers' birth and infants' birth, estimating maternal lifelong economic context. We computed race-specific PTB rates according to maternal age, lifelong neighborhood income, and paternal involvement. We calculated Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests of linear trend from contingency tables to evaluate weathering. Among African-Americans (n = 39,991) with unnamed fathers and lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, PTB rate was lowest among teens at 18.8%, compared to 21.5% for 30-35 year-old mothers (p for linear trend rate among teens was 16%, compared to 25% for 30-35 year-old mothers (p = 0.21). Among married African-Americans with lifelong residence in lower income neighborhoods, PTB rate among teens was 16.4%, compared to 12.5% for 30-35 year-old mothers (p = 0.79). Among married African-Americans with lifelong residence in higher income neighborhoods, PTB rate among teens was 20%, compared to 11.4% for 30-35 year-old mothers (p = 0.40). White mothers (n = 31,981) did not demonstrate weathering, regardless of paternal involvement and neighborhood poverty. We conclude that weathering was not seen among married African-Americans, independent of neighborhood income, suggesting a potentially protective mechanism associated with paternal involvement
Schneider, John; Makelarski, Jennifer A; Van Haitsma, Martha; Lipton, Rebecca B; Abramsohn, Emily; Lauderdale, Diane S; Lindau, Stacy Tessler
Digital communication technologies (DCT), such as cell phones and the internet, have begun to replace more traditional technologies even in technology-poor communities. We characterized access to DCT in an underserved urban population and whether access is associated with health and study participation. A general probability community sample and a purposive high-turnover housing sample were recruited and re-interviewed after 3 months. Selected characteristics were compared by sample type and retention. Associations between DCT access and self-reported health were examined using multivariable logistic regression. Of 363 eligible individuals, 184 (general community = 119; high-turnover housing = 65) completed the baseline survey. Eighty-four percent of respondents had a cell phone and 62% had ever texted. Ever use of the internet was high (69%) overall, but frequency and years of internet use were higher in the general community sample. Self-reported fair or poor health was more common for residents of cell phone-only households and those with less frequent internet use. Technology use was similar for those retained and not retained. Overall, access to DCT was high in this underserved urban population but varied by sample type. Health varied significantly by DCT use, but study retention did not. These data have implications for incorporating DCT into health-related research in urban populations.
Items 51 - 56 of 56 ... Research Review of the Institute of African Studies. Please note: As of 2013 the Research Review of the Institute of African Studies is now publishing under the title Contemporary Journal of African Studies. You can view the CJAS pages on AJOL here: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/contjas/index.
Full Text Available The persistence of food insecurity, malnutrition, increasing adiposity, and decreasing physical activity, heightens the need to understand relationships between body image satisfaction, eating attitudes, BMI and physical activity levels in South Africa. Females aged 18-23 years were recruited from rural (n = 509 and urban (n = 510 settings. Body image satisfaction was measured using Stunkard's silhouettes, and the 26-item Eating Attitudes questionnaire (EAT-26 was used to evaluate participants' risk of disordered eating. Minutes per week of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA was assessed using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. Significant linear correlates were included in a series of regressions run separately for urban and rural participants. Structural equation modeling (SEM was used to test the relationships between variables. Urban females were more likely to be overweight and obese than rural females (p = 0.02, and had a greater desire to be thinner (p = 0.02. In both groups, being overweight or obese was positively associated with a desire to be thinner (p<0.01, and negatively associated with a desire to be fatter (p<0.01. Having a disordered eating attitude was associated with body image dissatisfaction in the urban group (β = 1.27, p<0.01, CI: 0.38; 2.16, but only with a desire to be fatter in the rural group (β = 0.63, p = 0.04, CI: 0.03; 1.23. In the SEM model, body image dissatisfaction was associated with disordered eating (β = 0.63, as well as higher MVPA participation (p<0.01. These factors were directly associated with a decreased risk of disordered eating attitude, and with a decreased desire to be thinner. Findings indicate a shift in both settings towards more Westernised ideals. Physical activity may provide a means to promote a healthy body image, while reducing the risk of disordered eating. Given the high prevalence of overweight and obesity in both rural and urban women, this study provides
Mason, Marc A; Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie; Allegro, Deanne; Zonderman, Alan B; Evans, Michele K
Analysing dietary data to capture how individuals typically consume foods is dependent on the coding variables used. Individual foods consumed simultaneously, like coffee with milk, are given codes to identify these combinations. Our literature review revealed a lack of discussion about using combination codes in analysis. The present study identified foods consumed at mealtimes and by race when combination codes were or were not utilized. Duplicate analysis methods were performed on separate data sets. The original data set consisted of all foods reported; each food was coded as if it was consumed individually. The revised data set was derived from the original data set by first isolating coded foods consumed as individual items from those foods consumed simultaneously and assigning a code to designate a combination. Foods assigned a combination code, like pancakes with syrup, were aggregated and associated with a food group, defined by the major food component (i.e. pancakes), and then appended to the isolated coded foods. Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study. African-American and White adults with two dietary recalls (n 2177). Differences existed in lists of foods most frequently consumed by mealtime and race when comparing results based on original and revised data sets. African Americans reported consumption of sausage/luncheon meat and poultry, while ready-to-eat cereals and cakes/doughnuts/pastries were reported by Whites on recalls. Use of combination codes provided more accurate representation of how foods were consumed by populations. This information is beneficial when creating interventions and exploring diet-health relationships.
Wang, Youfa; Li, Ji; Caballero, Benjamin
To examine the association and predictors of dietary intake resemblance between urban low-income African-American adolescents and their mothers. Detailed dietary data collected from 121 child-parent pairs in Chicago during fall 2003 were used. The association was assessed using correlation coefficients, kappa, and percentage of agreement, as well as logistic regression models. Overall, the association was weak as indicated by correlations and other measures. None of the mother-son correlations for nutrients and food groups were greater than 0.20. Mother-daughter pairs had stronger correlations (0.26 for energy and 0.30 for fat). The association was stronger in normal-weight mothers than in mothers with overweight or obesity. Logistic models showed that mother being a current smoker, giving child more pocket money, and allowing child to eat or purchase snacks without parental permission or presence predicted a higher probability of resemblance in undesirable eating patterns, such as high-energy, high-fat, and high-snack intakes (P<0.05). Mother-child diet association was generally weak, and varied considerably across groups and intake variables in this homogenous population. Some maternal characteristics seem to affect the association.
Jayne M. Rogerson
Full Text Available South Africa is among the most urbanized countries in Africa and has an urban population that is growing rapidly. The country’s urban challenges sometimes are considered as distinctive and separate to those of rest of Africa because of the apartheid legacy of a fragmented and racially splintered urban landscape. Nevertheless, 20 years after democratic transition the issues that confront its cities increasingly exhibit a set of sustainability challenges that typify those problems of many other fast-growing African urban areas. This introduction locates the collection of articles as a contribution to the expanding corpus of scholarship on urban South Africa.
This phenomenon stands in stark contrast with traditional African ethos and social mores. In traditional African setting, the role of the youth was well defined and demarcated. ... With the advent of urbanization, traditional African life mutates rapidly as the pressure of modern life redefines social roles and responsibilities.
Jones, Rachel; Hoover, Donald R; Lacroix, Lorraine J
Love, Sex, and Choices (LSC) is a soap opera video series created to reduce HIV sex risk in women. LSC was compared to text messages in a randomized trial in 238 high-risk mostly Black young urban women. 117 received 12-weekly LSC videos, 121 received 12-weekly HIV prevention messages on smartphones. Changes in unprotected sex with high risk partners were compared by mixed models. Unprotected sex with high risk men significantly declined over 6 months post-intervention for both arms, from 21-22 acts to 5-6 (p video over the text arm, though this difference was not statistically significant. However, the LSC was highly popular and viewers wanted the series to continue. This is the first study to report streaming soap opera video episodes to reduce HIV risk on smartphones. LSC holds promise as an Internet intervention that could be scaled-up and combined with HIV testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bergdall, Anna R; Kraft, Joan Marie; Andes, Karen; Carter, Marion; Hatfield-Timajchy, Kendra; Hock-Long, Linda
Communication technology is a central feature of young people's lives, but its role in romantic and sexual relationships has not been thoroughly examined. This article describes how young adults use communication technology for partnering across relationship stages (formation, maintenance, and dissolution) and types (serious/casual), and proposes implications of usage in relationships. This study analyzed qualitative data from a five-week, prospective, coital diary method with related debriefing interviews (N = 70) of African American and Puerto Rican men and women aged 18 to 25 years in Hartford and Philadelphia. Cell phones, including calls, text messaging, and mobile Internet, were the most common forms of communication technology used for partnering goals. Participants reported using cell phones to pursue partnering goals across all relationship stages, including formation (meeting, screening, and getting to know new partners), maintaining existing relationships, and breaking up. Cell phone uses depended on the type of relationship (serious/casual) and the participants' intentions and desires. Results indicated that cell phones are an important element of communication among young adults in romantic and sexual relationships. Specific features of cell phone communication shape the process and context of partnering. Future research should explore emerging communication technologies and implications for psychosocial development, dating violence, and sexual behavior.
Gissing, Stefanie C; Pradeilles, Rebecca; Osei-Kwasi, Hibbah A; Cohen, Emmanuel; Holdsworth, Michelle
To (i) systematically review the literature to determine the factors influencing diet and dietary behaviour in women living in urban Africa; (ii) present these in a visual map; and (iii) utilize this to identify potentially important areas for future research. Systematic mapping review. The review protocol was registered at PROSPERO (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; registration number CRD42015017749). Six databases were systematically searched, followed by reference and citation searching. Eligibility criteria included women aged 18-70 years living in urban Africa, any design/methodology, exploring any driver, using any measure of dietary behaviour. Quality appraisal occurred parallel with data extraction. Twelve predominantly cross-sectional quantitative studies were included; reported in seventeen publications. Determinants were synthesized narratively and compiled into a map adapted from an existing ecological model based on research in high-income countries. Urban Africa. African women aged 18-70 years. Determinants significantly associated with unhealthy dietary behaviour ranged from the individual to macro level, comprising negative body image perception, perceptions of insufficient food quantity and poorer quality, poorer food knowledge, skipping meals, snacking less, higher alcohol consumption, unhealthy overall lifestyle, older age, higher socio-economic status, having an education, lower household food expenditure, frequent eating outside the home and media influence. Marital status and strong cultural and religious beliefs were also identified as possible determinants. Few studies have investigated drivers of dietary behaviours in urban African settings. Predominantly individual-level factors were reported. Gaps in the literature identified a need for research into the neglected areas: social, physical and macro-level drivers of food choice.
Robertson, M. A.; Harington, J. S.; Bradshaw, Evelyn
The incidence of cancer among the African workers on the gold mines of South Africa has been studied for the period 1964-68. Considering the degree of selection to which they are subjected, the crude cancer rate was unexpectedly high. The most common cancers were those of the liver, the oesophagus, the respiratory system and the bladder. Geographical and tribal analysis showed that both liver and bladder cancers were predominantly found in Africans from Mozambique, while most of the oesophageal cancer occurred in Xhosas from the Transkei. The highest rate for cancer of the respiratory system was found in Africans from Natal, predominantly Zulu. The findings of this survey confirm those of previous South African surveys. The differences in cancer incidence are linked to both geographical area (physical environment), and to tribe, which may mean an association with tribal habit and custom. These factors need further investigation. PMID:5144513
Robertson, M A; Harington, J S; Bradshaw, E
The incidence of cancer among the African workers on the gold mines of South Africa has been studied for the period 1964-68. Considering the degree of selection to which they are subjected, the crude cancer rate was unexpectedly high.The most common cancers were those of the liver, the oesophagus, the respiratory system and the bladder. Geographical and tribal analysis showed that both liver and bladder cancers were predominantly found in Africans from Mozambique, while most of the oesophageal cancer occurred in Xhosas from the Transkei. The highest rate for cancer of the respiratory system was found in Africans from Natal, predominantly Zulu.The findings of this survey confirm those of previous South African surveys. The differences in cancer incidence are linked to both geographical area (physical environment), and to tribe, which may mean an association with tribal habit and custom. These factors need further investigation.
African Zoology, a peer-reviewed research journal, publishes original scientific contributions and critical reviews that focus principally on African fauna in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine ecosystems. Research from other regions that advances practical and theoretical aspects of zoology will be considered. Rigorous ...
Fanelli Kuczmarski, Marie; Cotugna, Nancy; Pohlig, Ryan T; Beydoun, May A; Adams, Erica L; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B
Stress affects health-related quality of life through several pathways, including physiological processes and health behaviors. There is always a relationship between stress (the stimulus) and coping (the response). The relationship between snacking and snackers' diet quality and stress coping is a topic overlooked in research. The study was primarily designed to determine whether energy provided by snacks and diet quality were associated with coping behaviors to manage stress. We analyzed a baseline cohort of the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study (2004 to 2009). The sample was composed of 2,177 socioeconomically diverse African-American and white adults who resided in Baltimore, MD. Energy from snacks was calculated from 2 days of 24-hour dietary recalls collected using the US Department of Agriculture's Automated Multiple Pass Method. Snack occasions were self-reported as distinct eating occasions. Diet quality was evaluated by the Healthy Eating Index-2010. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine whether coping factors were associated with either energy provided by snacks or Healthy Eating Index-2010, adjusting for age, sex, race, socioeconomic status, education, literacy, and perceived stress. Coping was measured by the Brief COPE Inventory with instrument variables categorized into three factors: problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and use of support. Perceived stress was measured with the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale. Adjusting for perceived stress and selected demographic characteristics, emotion-focused coping strategies were associated with greater energy intakes from snacks (P=0.020), and use of coping strategies involving support was positively associated with better diet quality (P=0.009). Energy contributed by snacks and diet quality were affected by the strategy that an individual used to cope with stress. The findings suggest that health professionals working with individuals seeking
Udoh, Ekong; Devanarayana, Niranga Manjuri; Rajindrajith, Shaman; Meremikwu, Martin; Benninga, Marc Alexander
To determine the prevalence, pattern, and predisposing factors of abdominal pain-predominant functional gastrointestinal disorders (AP-FGIDs) in adolescent Nigerians. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2 states in the southern part of Nigeria in June 2014. Adolescents of age 10 to 18 years were recruited from 11 secondary schools using a stratified random sampling technique. A validated self-administered questionnaire on Rome III criteria for diagnosing AP-FGIDs and its determinants were filled by the participants in a classroom setting. A total of 874 participants filled the questionnaire. Of this, 818 (93.4%) filled it properly and were included in the final analysis. The mean age of the participants was 14.6 ± 2.0 years with 409 (50.0%) being boys. AP-FGIDs were present in 81 (9.9%) participants. Forty six (5.6%) of the study participants had irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), 21 (2.6%) functional abdominal pain, 15 (1.8%) abdominal migraine while 3 (0.4%) had functional dyspepsia. The difference in AP-FGIDs between adolescents residing in rural and urban areas was not statistically significant (P = 0.22). Intestinal and extra-intestinal symptoms occurred more frequently in those with AP-FGIDs. Nausea was the only symptom independently associated with AP-FGIDs (p = 0.015). Multiple regression analysis showed no significant association between stressful life events and AP-FGIDs. AP-FGIDs are a significant health problem in Nigerian adolescents. In addition to the intestinal symptoms, most of the affected children and others also had extraintestinal symptoms. None of the stressful life events evaluated was significantly associated with FGIDs.
Full Text Available This article is about an investigation into the English spoken language competence of 144 first graders in two urban (‘township’ schools in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The study was conducted from an anthropological and a cognitive developmental perspective. In one school isiZulu and Sesotho are used mainly as medium of instruction, while in the other school the language of teaching and learning is English. The inquiry is part of longitudinal panel research in which children’s overall development and school progress over four years is documented by way of growth modelling. This initial assessment of the children’s basic interpersonal communication skills in English found, not unexpectedly, that the children in the first mentioned school know English mostly to the extent of the naming of objects, while the children in the other school are able to use morpho-syntactically more complex language. These findings may shed some light on the phenomenon of school culture liminality in its interplay with linguistic liminality, considering that children’s basic English may scaffold their academic English.
Holmes, Michelle D; Dalal, Shona; Sewram, Vikash; Diamond, Megan B; Adebamowo, Sally N; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Adebamowo, Clement; Chiwanga, Faraja S; Njelekela, Marina; Laurence, Carien; Volmink, Jimmy; Bajunirwe, Francis; Nankya-Mutyoba, Joan; Guwatudde, David; Reid, Todd G; Willett, Walter C; Adami, Hans-Olov; Fung, Teresa T
To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity. Cross-sectional study.Setting/SubjectsWe used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men. We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern's lowest tertile (both Pobesity. We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.
Williams, Jessica Roberts; Fredland, Nina; Han, Hae-Ra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Kub, Joan E
The purpose of this study was to examine relational aggression and its relationship with adverse psychosocial and physical health symptoms among urban, African American youth. Quantitative, cross-sectional survey design. The sample consisted of 185 predominantly African American (95.1%) seventh-grade students (mean age: 13.0; female: 58%) attending 4 urban middle schools. The Children's Social Behavior Scale and Social Experience Questionnaire were used to measure relational aggression and relational victimization. The Pediatric Symptom Checklist was used to assess psychosocial difficulties, including internalizing behaviors, externalizing behaviors, and attention problems. Physical health symptoms were measured with questions about colds/flu, headaches, and stomach aches. 2-way multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant differences in externalizing behavior, with perpetrators reporting higher levels than nonperpetrators. Victims reported more internalizing behavior than nonvictims; however, this was only significant for males. For females, significant negative effects on health outcomes were found, resulting from the interaction of perpetration and victimization. Findings suggest that relational aggression is a common occurrence among urban, minority adolescents and may result in adverse health outcomes. These results provide several avenues for future research and implications for healthcare practice. Intervention strategies are needed to prevent relational aggression and continual or subsequent adverse health symptoms.
Full Text Available The paper analyses the pattern of recent growth in African towns, examines the population component in this growth process and discusses the attendant urban planning problems. The contention in the study is that there are problems of definition. policy enunciation, and organisational co-ordination in the conceptualization. planning. orchestration and implementation of urban development and service systems. The magnitude of African urban developmental problems, and its multi-faceted nature demands that the latest in scientific knowledge and technological innovations should be integrated and incorporated into the urban planning and implementation processes.
Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... in the international state system and seek for African initiative in solving African problems. ... of the African Union by examining the efforts of African Leaders towards African integration, ...
It is essential that the precautions that are advisable for travel in sub-Saharan Africa, including antimalarial prophylaxis, are supported by evidence. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 90% of global malaria cases and the more serious falciparum form predominates. The risk of malaria transmission is qualitatively much greater in rural than urban areas. However, there is little quantitative data on the risk in urban areas on which to base a risk assessment. Rapid urban population growth and trends of tourism to urban-only (rather than rural) areas both support the need to focus attention on the level of risk in malaria endemic African cities. There is evidence in urban settings that the reduced intensity of malaria transmission is due to a decline in the level of parasitism in the local population and reduced anophelism. The most useful evidence for an urban risk assessment is the entomological inoculation rate (EIR) which is generally below 30 infective bites per person per year. Transmission is acknowledged to be much lower in central urban areas compared with peri-urban areas or rural areas. Transmission is local and focal because the anopheles mosquito has a limited flight range of several kilometres. The risk assessment should examine nocturnal activities outside an air-conditioned environment (because the anopheline mosquito only bites between dusk and dawn) and the level of adherence to accompanying protective measures. Several studies have noted the protection air-conditioning provides against malaria. Evidence of low occupational risk for airline crew, unprotected by prophylaxis, from brief layovers of several nights in quality hotels in 8 endemic cities is explored. A literature search examines the evidence of environmental surveys and entomological inoculation rates. The limitations of the available data are discussed, including the highly focal nature of malaria transmission.
discusses the ongoing discourse of “traditional” versus “modern” in urban Burkina Faso.
Jor'dan, Jamilah R.
There are more than 22,000 Montessori schools in over 100 countries worldwide. Beginning in the 1950s the American Montessori movement was primarily a private pre-school movement. There are more than 5,000 schools in the United States; over 500 of these are public. Montessori schools are an increasingly popular choice in the U.S. for public school…
Jun 8, 1974 ... female tubercular patients, and this group was approached first. The response was ... Accurate statistics of the number of live births in these two years are not ... but it is my impression that such an increase was not significant.
Tarver, J D
Over 185 million inhabitants were added to the urban areas of Africa between 1950 and 1990. Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland is the most highly urbanized, with 55% in 1990; while less than a quarter of Eastern Africa's population is living in urban centers. By the year 2015 more than half of Africa's population will be living in urban areas. Many parts of Africa have suffered prolonged droughts, overgrazing, locust infestations, and desertification. Millions have become refugees from natural disasters, political oppression, and rural poverty. The large exodus from Africa's rural areas has gone to cities but the large cities have attracted disproportionately large numbers of destitute migrants. Alexandria (1 million), Cairo (2.4 million) and the Witwatersrand in South Africa were the only African urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants in 1950. By 1990 the two Egyptian cities together had 12.7 million inhabitants and the Witwatersrand some 5 million, whereas the other 25 urban agglomerations with a million inhabitants each in 1990 had a total population of about 51 million. Lagos, Kinshasa, and Algiers ranged from 3 to 7.7 million. The capitals are the largest cities in at least 54 of the 59 countries and territories. Lagos, Nairobi, and Dar es Salaam are disproportionately larger than the next most populous cities in their countries. The 28 urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants had a total population of 70 million in 1990, and are projected to reach 100 million in the year 2000. Overall, Africa's urban population is projected to increase by approximately 135 million in the 1990-2000 decade (from 217 million to 352 million). About 105 million of the growth probably will occur in the smaller urban centers. The total African urban population is likely to reach one billion inhabitants within the next 50 years. It stood at 32 million in 1950. Presently, the United Nations projects 912 million urban residents
Full Text Available This article analyses the village concept of caring among African people. The old pattern of caring was based on the concept of ubuntu (humanity which respects people, because they are created in the imago Dei. Then the article compares the western concept of caring, which is based on individualism and people's privacy. Finally, economy, globalisation and this western concept are analysed. The impact of the above concepts affects Africans in urban areas, who are caught up in the two worlds, namely the African and western worlds.
African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest online library of ... AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans ... South African Medical Journal ... Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Immunizations Immunizations and African Americans African American adults are less ... 19 to 35 months had comparable rates of immunization. African American women are as likely to have ...
Thus, theseAfrican valuesmake lifemeaningful. Presently, the trend in Africa is the pursuance of nation-building and every person's sincere effort to uplift his living standard. Consequently there has been a rapid growth of cities and urban centers to the detriment of some most cherished African values such as a large family, ...
Le Roux, Alize
Full Text Available Cities, towns and settlements provide housing and livelihoods for a growing global population. Estimates indicate that in 2014, 54% of the world’s population and 40% of the population on the African continent were considered urban. African city...
Full Text Available ObjectivesDisparities in obesity care exist among African-American children and adults. We sought to test the feasibility of a pilot program, a 1-year family-based intervention for African-American families with obesity [shape up and eat right (SUPER], adopting the shared medical appointment model (SMA at an urban safety net hospital.OutcomesPrimary outcomes: (1 family attendance rate and (2 program satisfaction. Secondary outcomes: change in body mass index (BMI, eating behaviors, and sedentary activity.MethodsAdult parents (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 ≥18 years and their child(ren (BMI ≥ 85th percentile ages 6–12 years from adult or pediatric weight management clinics were recruited. One group visit per month (n = 12 consisting of a nutrition and exercise component was led by a nurse practitioner and registered dietitian. Height and weight were recorded during each visit. Participants were queried on program satisfaction, food logs and exercise journals, Food Stamp Program’s Food Behavior, and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program food checklists.ResultsThirteen participants from lower socioeconomic zip codes consented [n = 5 mothers mean age 33 years, BMI of 47.4 kg/m2 (31.4–73.6 kg/m2; n = 8 children; mean age 9 years, BMI of 97.6th percentile (94–99th percentile; 60% enrolled in state Medicaid]. Average individual attendance was 23.4% (14–43%; n = 13; monthly session attendance rates declined from 100 to 40% by program completion; two families completed the program in entirety. Program was rated (n = 5 adults very satisfactory (40% and extremely satisfactory (60%. Pre-intervention, families rated their eating habits as fair and reported consuming sugar-sweetened beverages or sports drinks, more so than watching more than 1 h of television (p < 0.002 or video game/computer activity (p < 0.006 and consuming carbonated sodas (p < 0.004. Post-intervention, reducing salt
This essay explores the growth of boxing among the African populations on the Witwatersrand region of South Africa between 1924 and 1959. It details how the sport's jump in popularity with Africans paralleled migration to Johannesburg. Africans increasingly saw boxing as an activity and skill conducive with survival in this new environment, and thus the sport grew in popularity, stature, and skill-level amongst this emergent urban population. The essay further explores the various ways that the sport was disseminated and popularized during the era, thus detailing how the sport reached both the African masses and petit-bourgeois educated elite. As their presence in Johannesburg became more and more permanent, boxing came to encompass various meanings and ideals, such as notions of discipline, independence and civility, to these urban populations.
Ellis, Auburn E.
In 2012 an African Centered single case study was conducted in the United States. The problem is as follows: K-12 practitioners in urban areas are faced with unique circumstances while serving marginalized students in urban areas. As a response to this issue, the purpose of this study was to identify and describe curricula used in three African…
Environmental Studies and Regional Planning Bulletin African Environment is published in French and English, and for some issues, in Arabic. (only the issue below has been received by AJOL). Vol 10, No 3 (1999). DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT Subscription or Fee Access. Table of ...
Aug 3, 2016 ... Older women play predominant role in building social ties and preventing ... brief demonstrates their contribution to building social cohesion and driving ... From learning to policy-oriented research: Lessons from South Africa's ...
African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Home > African Journals Online: Central African Republic. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This ...
Pelição, Fabrício Souza; Peres, Mariana Dadalto; Pissinate, Jauber Fornaciari; de Paula, Daniela Mendes Louzada; de Faria, Maria das Graças Corrêa; Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; De Martinis, Bruno Spinosa
The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of alcohol and illicit drug use among victims of fatal traffic accidents in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Brazil, during the period 2011-2012. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for the presence of drugs from 391 deceased victims of traffic crashes that occurred in the Metropolitan Region of Vitória, Brazil. The victims included drivers, passengers, and pedestrians. Sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, day of the week, and period of the year in which the accidents occurred were recorded. The analyses were performed by a gas chromatography-flame ionization method for alcohol and by a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for amphetamines, cocaine, and cannabis. The results showed that 44.8% (n = 175) of all cases were positive for alcohol and/or illicit drugs. The detection of alcohol and/or drugs was more frequent in young males, aged 17 to 34, whose samples were positive in 46.8% of cases. Small differences among drivers, passengers, and pedestrians were observed (drivers = 45.9%, passengers = 46.4%, and pedestrians = 45.6%). In general, the most prevalent drug was alcohol, with 141 positive cases (36.1%), followed by cocaine, with 47 positive cases (12%). Amphetamines and cannabis had positivity rates of 4.1 and 4.3%, with 16 and 17 positive cases, respectively. The combined use of alcohol and other drugs was found in 36 cases (9.2%). Crack cocaine use was observed in 27.7% of the positive cases for cocaine. For the effective reduction of traffic accidents related to driving under influence of drugs (DUID), we suggest the intensification of enforcement actions against the use of alcohol by drivers, the definition of which illicit drugs should be surveyed, as well the cutoff values, the promotion of changing legislation to oblige drivers to provide samples for toxicological testing, and the establishment of public information programs and specific actions aimed at young drivers to promote behavioral changes.
BeLue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D; Degboe, Arnold N; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga
Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts. Using an African-centered cultural framework
Maxwell Xolani Rani
Full Text Available Obesity is a growing health issue in South Africa that carries health risk detrimental to those living in Black townships. The author will argue that the use of South African traditional urban dances may be permissible option for replacing aerobics to help prevent and combat obesity. Christian missionaries, colonizers, Western education, urbanization, and apartheid have had negative impacts on South African traditional rural dances; however, South Africans who migrated to urban environments in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries transformed traditions under spatial and ideological constraints and created new South African traditional urban social dances. South African traditional urban social dances were created in urban environments, in slum yards and townships, and do not reach the same level of sacred ritual that South African traditional rural social dances do; thus, their use in Black townships to help fight obesity is a possibility that must be further researched. The use of South African traditional urban social dances may not only help prevent and reduce obesity, but also help build community, teach history, facilitate self-exploration in a holistic manner, and open doors for the youth of today to continue to transform traditional urban social dances to reflect the current realities they are experiencing in Black townships.
Bruijn, de M.E.; Merolla, D.
The studies in this volume are the result of research carried out by students of the Research Masters in African Studies (RMAS) at Leiden University who graduated in 2008. The studies cover such areas as conflict, democracy, migration, urban and rural studies, language, communication and youth. An
Graaff, J F
Trends in urbanization in the South African homelands are analyzed. The need to reconsider the definition of an urban area is first established. Consideration is given to the likely impact of the abolition of migration controls on urbanization trends in South Africa as a whole, particularly as this affects migration to urban areas in South Africa outside the homelands.
Oluwafemi Ayodeji Olajide
Full Text Available Similar to many other cities in sub-Saharan African countries, the struggle between urban development policies and the livelihoods of the urban poor is one of the urban development challenges facing Lagos. This paper examines the realities of the Lagos urban development policies and intiatives on the livelihoods of the urban poor. The state government embarked on series of what it calls sustainable urban transformation policies towards making Lagos ‘an African model megacity’ and a global economic and financial hub that is safe, secure, functional and productive, with a view to achieving poverty alleviation and sustainable development. This paper, through the lens of theoretical and analytical underpinnings of Sustainable Livelihoods Framework, however, argues that the actions of the state government contradict the whole essence of sustainable urban development and poverty alleviation, but reflect an agenda deliberately targeted to further impoverish the poor. While the Sustainable Livelihood was used as the theoretical and analytical framework, this paper essentially focuses on the Policies, Institutions and Processes component of the framework. This provides a unique entry point for understanding the implications of the Lagos urban development aspirations on the livelihoods of the urban poor. The research uses mixed methods research design with a broad range of data-collection methods, including household surveys, interviews, direct observation and photography, documentary review and policy document analysis. The study reveals that there is a disconnection between urban development policies and realities of the poor. The implementation of urban development projects and policies works against the urban poor and resulted in more hardship, through reduction in livelihood opportunities or complete loss of livelihoods. This study, therefore, suggests that one important element in reducing poverty in Lagos’ informal settlements is a policy
Items 1 - 50 of 56 ... Africa Development is the quarterly bilingual journal of CODESRIA. .... relationship in the family, workplace, schools and organisations. .... activities, and personalities driving the democracy and development agenda in the region; 4. Conflict .... with preference for the results of African and Africanist studies.
The challenges of rapid urbanization on sustainable development of Nyanya, Federal Capital ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... unaffordable health care facilities, poor environmental health and traffic congestion on the ...
Regional planning and urban infrastructure development in the Gongola region, ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... In North-eastern Nigeria, the Gongola region has been one of the least developed since independence.
Ongiri, Daniel O.
Describes the practices and ideologies held in common by the African Colonial System of education and the Urban American Educational System. Africans' resistance to the internalization of European values and solutions to the educational dilemmas of urban black families are described. (Author/AM)
Nithyamathi, Kalimuthu; Chandramathi, Samudi; Kumar, Suresh
One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism. A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent's education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05). It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children.
Zhou, Min; Xu, Tao; Shenasi, Shabnam
Guangzhou is the most popular gateway city for African migration to China. Unlike stereotypical international migrants, Africans in Guangzhou are predominantly self-made entrepreneurs, doing business face-to-face with Chinese entrepreneurs who are predominantly internal migrants with truncated citizenship rights. African-Chinese encounters in local markets and residential neighborhoods offer a rare opportunity for studying interracial dynamics beyond the classic black-white dichotomy and trad...
It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is ... African Journal of AIDS Research.
This article deals with the part of urban climatology which is of particular relevance to human beings. Presented first is a summary of all human biometerologically effective complexes, as well as other factors which are relevant to urban planning and which depend on atmospheric conditions in urban structures in a direct or indirect manner. Later, methods for human biometerologically significant assessment of thermal and air pollution components of the urban climate are discussed in detail, because these components can be strongly influenced by urban planning. The application of these methods is illustrated by some results of appropriate investigations in urban areas.
cannot directly influence their structures, they can influence their contours through such leisure practices. In this chapter focus will be on how citizens’ engagement in locative leisure activities may allow them to co-create urban space. This participatory urbanism is a form of everyday democracy......Urban areas are planned structures that cannot easily be changed. Urban areas do however still afford physical spaces for various types of leisure expression and participation, from street art to parkour and from urban gaming to artistic happenings. Thus, while citizens who inhabit the urban areas...
Doralina Guimarães Brum
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is considered relatively more common in non-Whites, whereas multiple sclerosis (MS presents a high prevalence rate, particularly in Whites from Western countries populations. However, no study has used ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate the genetic ancestry contribution to NMO patients. METHODS: Twelve AIMs were selected based on the large allele frequency differences among European, African, and Amerindian populations, in order to investigate the genetic contribution of each ancestral group in 236 patients with MS and NMO, diagnosed using the McDonald and Wingerchuck criteria, respectively. All 128 MS patients were recruited at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (MS-RP, Southeastern Brazil, as well as 108 healthy bone marrow donors considered as healthy controls. A total of 108 NMO patients were recruited from five Neurology centers from different Brazilian regions, including Ribeirão Preto (NMO-RP. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: European ancestry contribution was higher in MS-RP than in NMO-RP (78.5% vs. 68.7% patients. In contrast, African ancestry estimates were higher in NMO-RP than in MS-RP (20.5% vs. 12.5% patients. Moreover, principal component analyses showed that groups of NMO patients from different Brazilian regions were clustered close to the European ancestral population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that European genetic contribution predominates in NMO and MS patients from Brazil.
Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.
This report is concerned with the relations between lifestyles of urban populations on one hand and protection of biodiversity in urban areas on the other. Urban areas are of importance for the general protection of biodiversity. In the surroundings of cities and within urban sprawls there can...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...
Graham, Benjamin C; Keys, Christopher B; McMahon, Susan D
This study explored the extent to which transportation difficulties were associated with social, psychological, and academic experiences of urban, at-risk students who recently experienced a school transition. Participants included 165 predominantly African American and Latino/a high school youth with and without disabilities, a critical population for community psychology to address given their likelihood of multiple marginalizations. Results suggested transportation problems within school predicted more school stressors and aggressive behavior. Transportation problems to and from school predicted fewer school resources, less school belonging, and more school stressors, anxiety, and depression. Greater time to get to school predicted fewer school resources, less school belonging, and more depressive symptoms. This study demonstrates the importance of including transportation in how the school day is conceptualized, and offers several implications for how transportation services can be best addressed.
... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... youthonline . [Accessed 08/18/2017] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY People who are overweight are more likely to ...
Items 1 - 29 of 29 ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... African and international non-governmental organizations (NGOs); African and .... for scholars and practitioners in all spheres of biological sciences to publish ...
Panthera leo) ina. West African national park”. African Zoology is publishing an Editorial Expression of Concern regarding the following article: “New records of a threatened lion population (Panthera leo) in a West African national park” by ...
Urban Physics is the multiscale and interdisciplinary research area dealing with physical processes in urban environments that influence our everyday health, comfort and productivity. It involves disciplines ranging from mesoscale meteorology to human thermophysiology. The introductory lecture
This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me.......This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me....
Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca
Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating
Holmgren, Steen; Svensson, Ole
and without obvious architectural value. These issues raise pertinent questions: what urban architectural problems and qualities exist in the complex, inner suburbs? What differences exist between professionals' and residents' perceptions and assessments of urban architecture? How can a shared language...
70-90% of Africans still live in rural areas, and 25-30% of rural households are headed by women. Standards of living in rural areas are lower than in urban areas. Rural African women's involvement in development is in its initial stages, and social development for women is likely to be slow. Increasing women's opportunities for education is a means of promoting social justice and fairness. Schools should offer courses of practical value for those not planning on higher education and special programs and career counseling for gifted girls. Women's organizations, African leaders, and other influential parties should aggressively create awareness about the oppressive aspects of traditional attitudes, beliefs, and views about women. Laws on ownership of property, inheritance, access to credit, and employment must be equitable and enforced. Consciousness-raising among rural women is an effective means of encouraging rural women to seek and assume new roles and for questioning unreasonable expectations and norms. Women's professional associations serve important functions and fulfill the need for role models. The quality of rural women's life is effectively improved through formulation of policies relevant to women's needs and problems and improve rural conditions. Women should have fair representation at local and national levels of government. Women's role in agriculture is likely to be enhanced through improved transportation systems, electricity supply, and introduction of intermediate technology. This assessment of rural African women's contributions to economic growth emphasizes women's involvement in farming and the informal sector and their lack of equal remuneration or low wages. Illiteracy places women in a disadvantaged position when competing for employment in the formal sector. Lack of access to credit and limits on credit are other obstacles in the informal sector. The reduced participation of rural women in the formal and informal sector is due to lack of
Full Text Available This article maps the vital debate on Prosperity Gospel in Africa and its relevance for socioeconomic change. Prosperity Gospel centres mainly on speech acts surrounding faith, wealth and victory, combined with ritual enactments around secondary evidences of divine blessings. Claiming this-worldly success and material well-being as signs of grace it has captured public spheres and has created African religio-scapes of prosperity. The survey on the socioeconomics of African prosperity-oriented Pentecostalism firstly traces the historic genealogy of Prosperity Gospel as transposable message. It appears as a generic formula in paradigmatic reinventions of Pentecostalism in post-second and/or cold war America and in its globalisation in postcolonial Africa. The double resignification of Pentecostal theology - a rereading of ‘mammon’ alongside a new ethic of being in the world - relates to the question of socioeconomic agency. Academic discourse connects Prosperity Gospel social capital with interpretations of its ritual texture thriving around rituals of tithings and offerings. Prosperity Gospel economies are profiled as forms of sacral consumption or sacrificial economy, or else as Pentecostal kleptocracy. Contrarily Prosperity Gospel is portrayed as a variant and porter of African social change. The contextualisation of Prosperity Gospel highlights diverse social agency in different milieus. Rural and peri-urban theologies of survival differ from urban progressive and metropolitan business management Prosperity Gospel. The findings defy generalised views on Prosperity Gospel socioeconomics. African Prosperity Gospel indicates a transformative potential in immediate social relationships, whereas claims of impacting structural parameters of society remain, with a few exceptions, part of Pentecostal imagination.
Byrd, Marquita L.; Sims, Anntarie L.
A study of 114 Black undergraduates in two predominantly White midwestern universities demonstrates that communication apprehension (CA) among Blacks appears to be an audience-based phenomenon. Black females scored lower than Black males on the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension-24 (PRCA-24). The higher the CA score, the higher the…
Africa’s rapid urbanization pose challenges for her sustainable development. This paper investigates the environmental impact of urbanization for 49 African countries from 1990 to 2010. Using the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, a recently developed semi-parametric panel fixed-effects regression technique, and two atmospheric air pollutants, namely carbon dioxide (CO2) and ambient particulate matter PM10 emissions, the evidenc...
Full Text Available Since 1994 the South African urban landscape has been changing as a result of fundamental social, economic and political transformations. Metropolitan cities, especially, face unique challenges because of the dynamism of urban populations. South...
Urban design and architecture are increasingly used as material and affective strategies for setting the scene, for manipulation and the production of urban life: The orchestration of atmospheres, the framing and staging of urban actions, the programming for contemplation, involvement, play......, experience and consumption are all strategic design tools applied by planners and architects. Whereas urban design in former modernist planning served merely functional or political means, urban design has increasingly become an aesthetical mediator of ideologies embedded in the urban field of life forces....... Under these circumstances affective aesthetics operate strategically within the urban field of interests, capital flows and desires of the social. This ‘affective urbanism’ (Anderson & Holden 2008) is linked to a society influenced by new kinds of information flows, where culture is mediated and enacted...
This paper is based on a study carried out in Old Town Mombasa, a Swahili city in Kenya, situated along the East African Coast. Its focus is on social life of the town's street system as a correlate of urban space design characteristics. Urban design elements within the streets have been disregarded resulting in spaces that do ...
... and the urban environment are greatest challenges facing family members. Focusing on these challenges will contribute to establishment of just equitable and effective interventions for urban children who are hard of hearing, their caregivers (parents), and other related families. African Journal for the Psychological Study ...
Background: Rapid transition from rural to urban lifestyle in Africa has been associated with increasing cardiovascular disease burden and thus, the need for continuous reevaluation of cardiovascular risk factors in African slums which have been shown to harbor 40 to 80% of urban residents cannot be over emphasized.
Everhart, Robin S.; Miller, Sarah; Leibach, Gillian G.; Dahl, Alexandra L.; Koinis-Mitchell, Daphne
Asthma is a significant contributor to missed school days, especially for children living in urban settings. This preliminary study examined the impact of caregiver asthma on school absenteeism in a sample of 102 urban children with asthma from African American, Latino, and non-Latino White backgrounds. Caregivers and children participated in a…
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.; Schwartz, Brendan
. The emergence of Déby’s Chad depends both on its ability to accomplish sub-imperial tasks encouraged by these actors, while obfuscating undemocratic governance and human rights abuses at home. Nonetheless, Déby’s role in regional security has helped him achieve a certain degree of agency in his relationship...... and maintain control of the state. These range from “liberal” desires to help control the region’s trouble spots in places like Mali, to clearly illiberal medaling in the domestic affairs of neighbors like the Central African Republic, with the fight against Boko Haram somewhere in the middle. This paper seeks...
It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the ... Egyptian Journal of Medical Human Genetics.
African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics.
In the contention of Oladipo (2006), the debate on the idea of. African philosophy which has been divided into trends or schools, dates back to the 1960's and 70's, which constitute the modern epoch of African philosophy, when some African thinkers began to question the perspective that traditional African beliefs and.
It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information sources ... Southern African Business Review; The role played by the South African ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...
It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and ... Featured Country: South Africa, Featured Journal: Ergonomics SA ...
Kono, Yoshiaki; Kohn, Joshua R.
Africanized honey bees entered California in 1994 but few accounts of their northward expansion or their frequency relative to European honey bees have been published. We used mitochondrial markers and morphometric analyses to determine the prevalence of Africanized honeybees in San Diego County and their current northward progress in California west of the Sierra Nevada crest. The northernmost African mitotypes detected were approximately 40 km south of Sacramento in California’s central valley. In San Diego County, 65% of foraging honey bee workers carry African mitochondria and the estimated percentage of Africanized workers using morphological measurements is similar (61%). There was no correlation between mitotype and morphology in San Diego County suggesting Africanized bees result from bidirectional hybridization. Seventy percent of feral hives, but only 13% of managed hives, sampled in San Diego County carried the African mitotype indicating that a large fraction of foraging workers in both urban and rural San Diego County are feral. We also found a single nucleotide polymorphism at the DNA barcode locus COI that distinguishes European and African mitotypes. The utility of this marker was confirmed using 401 georeferenced honey bee sequences from the worldwide Barcode of Life Database. Future censuses can determine whether the current range of the Africanized form is stable, patterns of introgression at nuclear loci, and the environmental factors that may limit the northern range of the Africanized honey bee. PMID:26361047
Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.
This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…
Palta, Renee; Sahota, Amandeep; Bemarki, Ali; Salama, Paul; Simpson, Nicole; Laine, Loren
Previous reports of foreign-body ingestions focused primarily on accidental ingestions. To describe the characteristics and management of foreign-body ingestions, with predominantly intentional ingestion, in a lower socioeconomic status population. A retrospective case series. An urban county hospital. Patients >/=17 years old, with foreign-body ingestions between 2000 and 2006. Characteristics of ingestion cases, endoscopic extraction, need for surgery, and complications. Among 262 cases, 92% were intentional, 85% involved psychiatric patients, and 84% occurred in patients with prior ingestions. The time from ingestion to presentation was >48 hours in 168 cases (64%). The overall success rate for endoscopic extraction was 90% (165/183 cases). Surgery was performed in 30 cases (11%) and was more common for objects beyond the pylorus versus objects above the pylorus (16/43 [37%] vs 10/151 [7%], respectively) and in cases with a greater delay from ingestion to presentation (25/168 [15%] if >48 hours vs 4/77 [5%] if 48 hours vs 14/165 [8%] if =48 hours). Perforation occurred in 16 cases (6%), with 6 perforations noted after endoscopy. A retrospective review of medical records. Foreign-body ingestions in an urban county hospital occurred primarily in psychiatric patients who had repeated episodes of intentional ingestions. Endoscopic extraction was unsuccessful in 10% of cases. Long delays from ingestion to presentation and intervention may account for relatively high rates of surgery and perforation. Strategies to prevent ingestions and delays in endoscopic management are needed in this population.
Preston-Cunningham, Tammie; Boyd, Barry L.; Elbert, Chanda D.; Dooley, Kim E.; Peck-Parrott, Kelli
This study investigates the perceptions of leadership of African American undergraduate males who attend a predominately-White institution in the Southwest after participation in a leadership development program. Research concerning African American undergraduate males in education has been from a deficit-orientated narrative and focused primarily…
Hammond, Marie S.; Betz, Nancy E.; Multon, Karen D.; Irvin, Tawana
The psychometric properties of Super's Work Values Inventory-Revised (SWVI-R) were examined in a sample of 213 African American college students. Results indicated that the 12-values scales were as reliable and as valid in a sample of African Americans as has been demonstrated within a predominantly White college student sample. Values of…
Alston, Chandra L.
The debate surrounding how best to support African American student writers continues today as the gap between achievement scores persists. This qualitative analysis documents the classroom structures and instructional practices of two English Language Arts teachers working in a predominately African American public middle school, whose students…
Today, 39% of the African population lives in urban areas. Considering the current urbanization rate of 3.5% per annum, this proportion is expected to grow significantly, increasing the demand for food, shelter and social services in urban areas while putting pressure for increased food production on rural areas.
Uzokwe, V. N. E. N.; Muchelo, R. O.; Odeh, I. A.
In Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), urban intensification and expansion are increasing at alarming rates due to rapid population growth and rural-to-urban migration. This has led to the premise that the proportion of SSA urban residents most vulnerable to food insecurity is the highest in the world. Using a focused survey and multi-temporal (decadal) land use/cover classification of Landsat images, we explored the effect of urban intensification and expansion on urban agriculture and food security, focusing on a megacity and a regional center in Uganda: Kampala and Mbarara, respectively. We found that food insecurity arose due to a number of reasons, among which are: i) expansion and intensification of of urban settlements into previously productive agricultural lands in urban and peri-urban areas; ii) loss of predominantly young (rural agricultural) adult labor force to urban centers, leading to decline in rural food production; iii) lack of proper urban planning incorporating green and agricultural development leading to low productive market garden systems. We discussed these outcomes in light of existing studies which estimated that urban agriculture alone supports over 800 million people globally and accounts for 15-20% of world food supply. In spite of this relatively low contribution by urban/peri-urban agriculture, it probably accounts for higher proportion of food supply to urban poor in SSA and thus are most vulnerable to the loss of urban and peri-urban agricultural land. Further recommendations require policy makers and urban planners to team up to design a suitable framework for sustainable urban planning and development.
The phenomenon of urban blight dates back to the 19th century when industrialisation starting in Europe and North America initiated an uncontrolled urban growth in combination with strong demand in cheap an quickly constructed housing. Ghettoisation of mainly the working-class population and other “marginal groups” were the consequence together with a constant decay of single buildings, whole blocks and quarters. These general aspects of urban blight with its additional facettes or aspects re...
Full Text Available Since the start of the 21st century, humanity has been a predominantly urban species. This Special Issue is about the future of cities and how urbanization will develop when based on principles of sustainability. It explores the underlying dimensions of the transformation of existing cities and the design of low carbon green precincts and their urban systems. The view of the papers presented in this Special Issue is holistic and takes questions of social sustainability into account. This editorial highlights the contents and methodologies of 13 selected papers, while presenting diverse issues in strategies, concepts and policies for sustainable urban development.
Full Text Available Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1 for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized
Olden, Kevin W
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients’ daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1) for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong) 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized treatment plans for patients with this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:22754282
Bose, Sumit; Ganesan, Chitra; Pant, Manish; Lai, Catherine; Tabbara, Imad A
Lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin disease is a rare form of Hodgkin lymphoma that is recognized as a separate histopathological entity. This disease tends to have multiple relapses, but has an overall good prognosis. Owing to its rarity, and the prolonged time period between recurrence and transformation events, there is no consensus regarding optimal management. However, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines indicate that for early stages, appropriate treatment is radiotherapy. Several management options have been reported including observation, radiation, chemotherapy, combined chemoradiotherapy, and anti-CD20 antibody therapy. Salvage therapy remains effective in inducing prolonged remission in patients with relapsed/refractory disease.
This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different...
This anthology is the proceedings publication from the 2015 NAF Symposium in Malmö, Sweden. The aim of the 2015 NAF Symposium “Urban Mobility – Architectures, Geographies and Social Space” was to facilitate a cross-disciplinary discussion on urban mobility in which the juxtaposition of different ...
Urban forests (and trees) constitute the second forest resource considered in this report. We specifically emphasize the fact that agricultural and urban forests exist on a continuum defined by their relationship (and interrelationship) with a given landscape. These two forest types generally serve different purposes, however. Whereas agricultural forests are...
Andersen, Anne Juel
of Chapter 1 ’problem and research questions’, Chapter 2 ’place, discourse and planning as a theoretical framework’ and Chapter 3 ’research design’. Part 2 ’urban practice locally, nationally and globally’ consisting of Chapter 4 ’background and context, urban trans- formations in Aalborg from 1950 to 2013...... of Chapter 9 with the same name. The analysis results and thus the conclusions are at 3 levels of knowledge: ￼Historically specific development in terms of urban planning practices respectively in Aalborg and natio- nally/internationally The tools here have been a focus on different rationales or urban...... projects as a strategic tool in urban policy, development of place perceptions, the use of narratives in the planning processes, the functions of representations as discursive devised imagined realities, power structures and planning approaches - knowledge that can be used in the future practice of other...
Through three different urban performances, the paper investigates how, when and under which circumstances urban space is transformed and distorted from its every day use and power relations. Distortion is an annual street festival in Copenhagen with the objective to distort the functional city...... creates an intensive space for the empowerment and liberation of the body. Occupy Wall street and its action in the autumn 2001 is the ultimate example of how urban political performances intensifies and transform every day spaces. Through examples of how OWS tactically appropriates and transforms urban...... space, I seek to show how representational space, for instance the public square, is transformed and distorted by heterogeneous and unforeseen modes of operating. Despite differing in their goal and outset, I wish to unfold an alternative to urban transformation practices in planning and architecture...
Riet, van 't H.
Urbanisation and lack of economic growth have resulted in increasing urban poverty in developing countries. As urban residents rely on purchasing their foods, food security of the urban poor is predominantly determined by their purchasing power. Street foods provide many urban residents
W.R. Wamuthenya (Wambui Rose)
textabstractFocusing on urban Kenya, this paper attempts to identify the sources of the temporal increase in women’s employment rate between 1986 and 1998. The paper relies on labour survey data, household responses to coping strategies and case studies. The analysis presented in the paper shows
... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...
Burkett, Karen; Morris, Edith; Manning-Courtney, Patricia; Anthony, Jean; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
Cultural factors such as health care access and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptom interpretations have been proposed as impacting delayed diagnosis and treatment for African American children with ASD. A qualitative study of urban African American families caring for their child with autism was conducted with 24 family members and 28 ASD…
Drake, Carl Timothy
The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…
Griffith, Derek M.; Gunter, Katie; Allen, Julie Ober
Despite the potential health consequences, African American men tend to treat their roles as providers, fathers, spouses, and community members as more important than engaging in health behaviors such as physical activity. We conducted 14 exploratory focus groups with 105 urban, middle-aged African American men from the Midwest to examine factors…
John E Pool
Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia, while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa F(ST were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally
Pool, John E.; Corbett-Detig, Russell B.; Sugino, Ryuichi P.; Stevens, Kristian A.; Cardeno, Charis M.; Crepeau, Marc W.; Duchen, Pablo; Emerson, J. J.; Saelao, Perot; Begun, David J.; Langley, Charles H.
Drosophila melanogaster has played a pivotal role in the development of modern population genetics. However, many basic questions regarding the demographic and adaptive history of this species remain unresolved. We report the genome sequencing of 139 wild-derived strains of D. melanogaster, representing 22 population samples from the sub-Saharan ancestral range of this species, along with one European population. Most genomes were sequenced above 25X depth from haploid embryos. Results indicated a pervasive influence of non-African admixture in many African populations, motivating the development and application of a novel admixture detection method. Admixture proportions varied among populations, with greater admixture in urban locations. Admixture levels also varied across the genome, with localized peaks and valleys suggestive of a non-neutral introgression process. Genomes from the same location differed starkly in ancestry, suggesting that isolation mechanisms may exist within African populations. After removing putatively admixed genomic segments, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in southern Africa (e.g. Zambia), while diversity in other populations was largely consistent with a geographic expansion from this potentially ancestral region. The European population showed different levels of diversity reduction on each chromosome arm, and some African populations displayed chromosome arm-specific diversity reductions. Inversions in the European sample were associated with strong elevations in diversity across chromosome arms. Genomic scans were conducted to identify loci that may represent targets of positive selection within an African population, between African populations, and between European and African populations. A disproportionate number of candidate selective sweep regions were located near genes with varied roles in gene regulation. Outliers for Europe-Africa FST were found to be enriched in genomic regions of locally elevated cosmopolitan
Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E
The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence.
Background. Prisons are recognised internationally as institutions with very high tuberculosis (TB) burdens where transmission is predominantly determined by contact between infectious and susceptible prisoners. A recent South African court case described the conditions under which prisoners awaiting trial were kept.
Partnership for African Development in tune with the predominant neoliberal ideology. This discourse critically compares the Lagos Plan and. NEPAD. It argues that the adoption of NEPAD is revisionist, an abandonment of the Lagos Plan crafted in the womb of the dependency paradigm for the prescriptions of the initially ...
. Kracauer’s essay may even provide a conceptual basis for critical studies of modern urbanity. Yet one has to establish a clear distinction between culture industry (e.g. the Tiller Girls) and urban culture. In everyday life as well as in Kracauer’s writings about it, the sphere of city culture may...... transcend capitalist Ratio and enter the domain of utopian fantasy. Far from automatically reproducing the logic of capital, the ornaments of the city provide occasions for cultural and social change. This is what Kracauer is hinting at when he makes improvisation the prime criterion of urban quality....
Raha, Sarbani; Udani, Vrajesh
Acute Infantile Encephalopathy Predominantly Affecting the Frontal Lobes (AIEF) is a relatively recent described entity. This article includes case reports of two patients who had bifrontal involvement during acute febrile encephalopathy. Case 1 describes a 1-y-old boy who presented with hyperpyrexia and dialeptic seizures. Imaging revealed significant bilateral frontal lobe involvement while serology proved presence of Influenza B infection. Over a period of one wk, he recovered with significant cognitive decline and perseveratory behavior. Another 6-y-old boy presented with language and behavioral problems suggestive of frontal dysfunction after recovering from prolonged impairment of consciousness following a convulsive status epilepticus. Bilateral superior frontal lesions with gyral swelling was evident on neuroimaging. These cases are among the very few cases of AIEF described in recent literature and the article also reviews this unique subtype of acute encephalopathy.
The South African Medical Journal is published by the South African Medical Association, which represents ... G Watermeyer, S Thomson, 399-402 ... Assessing the value of Western Cape Provincial Government health administrative data and ...
AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL ... The African Crop Science Journal, a quarterly publication, publishes original ... interactions, information science, environmental science and soil science.
Lwati: A Journal of Contemporary Research. Vol 14, No 3 (2017) ... Journal of Business and Administrative Studies. Vol 6, No 2 (2014) ... Vol 11 (2015): African Journal of Educational Studies in Mathematics and Sciences Vol. 11, 2015. African ...
SAMUS: South African Music Studies is the official organ for the South African ... Shifty Records in Apartheid South Africa: Innovations in Independent Record ... Experiences of Belonging and Exclusion in the Production and Reception of ...
Discusses the effect of liberalism on the African understanding of education, community, and religion. Describes ways in which the European intrusion, that is, colonial governments, schools, and churches, undermined traditional African life and thought. (DM)
The African Studies Monographs is a serial that promotes research and scholarship on the African perspective worldwide. This includes matters of philosophy, history, literature, arts and culture, environment, gender, politics, administration crisis management, etc.
Hatchett, Lena; Brown, Loretta; Hopkins, Joan; Larsen, Kelly; Fournier, Eliza
Food security is a challenge facing many African-American low-income communities nationally. Community and university partners have established urban agriculture programs to improve access to high quality affordable fruits and vegetables by growing, distributing, and selling food in urban neighborhoods. While the challenge of food security is within communities of color, few studies have described these urban agriculture programs and documented their impact on the crew members who work in the programs and live in the low-income communities. More information is needed on the program impact for crew and community health promotion. Using a survey and focus group discussion from the crew and staff we describe the program and activities of four Chicago Urban Agriculture programs. We summarized the impact these programs have on crew members' perception of urban agriculture, health habits, community engagement, and community health promotion in low-income African-American neighborhoods.
Full Text Available Net nearshore sediment drift patterns in Manila Bay were determined by combining the coastal geomorphology depicted in 1 : 50,000scale topographic maps and Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR images, with changes in shoreline position and predominant longshore current directions derived from the interaction of locally generated waves and bay morphology.Manila Bay is fringed by a variety of coastal subenvironments that reflect changing balances of fluvial, wave, and tidal processes. Along the northern coast, a broad tidal-river delta plain stretching from Bataan to Bulacan indicates the importance of tides, where the lateral extent of tidal influences is amplified by the very gentle coastal gradients. In contrast, along the Cavite coast sandy strandplains, spits, and wave-dominated deltas attest to the geomorphic importance of waves that enter the bay from the South China Sea.The estimates of net sediment drift derived from geomorphological, shoreline-change, and meteorological information are generally in good agreement. Sediment drift directions are predominantly to the northeast along Cavite, to the northwest along Manila and Bulacan, and to the north along Bataan. Wave refraction and eddy formation at the tip of the Cavite Spit cause southwestward sediment drift along the coast from Zapote to Kawit. Geomorphology indicates that onshore-offshore sediment transport is probably more important than alongshore transport along the coast fronting the tidal delta plain of northern Manila Bay. Disagreements between the geomorphic-derived and predicted net sediment drift directions may be due to interactions of wave-generated longshore currents with wind- and tide-generated currents.
Sise, Meghan E; Hirsch, Jamie S; Canetta, Pietro A; Herlitz, Leal; Mohan, Sumit
Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) nephrotoxicity is characterized by proximal renal tubular injury and dysmorphic mitochondria resulting in proteinuria, orthoglycemic glycosuria, and other markers of proximal tubular dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of proteinuria in patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity. Retrospective chart review. Patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity were identified and their medical charts and biopsy reports were reviewed. Comparison was made with HIV-infected patients not on TDF who underwent kidney biopsy. We identified 43 biopsy-proven cases of TDF nephrotoxicity; mean age 54.7 ± 0.4 years, 53% men, 42% whites. Thirty-seven cases reported proteinuria by dipstick of which only 60% had at least 2+ proteinuria. Twenty-seven patients had urine protein quantified by either 24-h collection or spot urine protein-to-creatinine ratio; median proteinuria was 1742 mg/day [interquartile range (IQR) 1200-2000 mg] and 1667 mg/g creatinine (IQR 851-1967 mg/g), respectively. Ten patients had concurrent urinary albumin measured, with a median 236 mg/g creatinine (IQR 137-343 mg/g). The mean urine albumin-to-urine protein ratio (uAPR) was 0.17 (IQR 0.14-0.19), confirming that TDF nephrotoxicity is primarily associated with nonalbumin proteinuria. Control cases had a uAPR of 0.65 (IQR 0.55-0.79) P < 0.001. Histopathology showed the predominance of proximal tubular injury with characteristic mitochondrial abnormalities. In the largest published cohort of patients with biopsy-proven TDF nephrotoxicity, we show that low uAPR is a reliable feature of this disease. Because of the predominance of nonalbumin proteinuria, dipstick urinalysis may be unreliable in TDF nephrotoxicity.
Full Text Available This thesis proposes a framework for evaluating the mobility potential and performance of urban areas in the city region, as an instrument to support urban development that contributes positively to regional sustainable mobility objectives. The research takes a quantitative approach, modelling and measuring the characteristics of a city-region and of its individual urban areas, in terms of travel patterns and socioeconomic characteristics of the resident population, and in terms of built environment characteristics. It then explores how the built environment defines the affordances of urban areas for travelling by particular modes of transport, i.e. its walk-ability, cycleability, drive-ability and transit-ability, by developing a typology of what I call their ‘urban modality’. And finally the work combines this typology with the socio-economic characteristics of urban areas to determine their sustainable mobility potential and performance. It focuses on the case of the Randstad region of the Netherlands and its VINEX neighbourhoods, which are an emblematic example of new urban areas created under a policy programme with sustainable mobility objectives. A key stance in this work is the understanding that the location of an urban area in the region can be indicative of its population’s travel patterns, because the built environment (infrastructural and socio-economic characteristics are interrelated and present strong regional spatial patterns. What types of urban areas support sustainable travel patterns, and what are their spatial characteristics? How do new neighbourhoods compare to the best performing urban areas, and to other areas of the same ‘modality’ type? These are some of the questions addressed in this study. There are two main contributions of this research: the methods for building and analysing integrated multimodal network models, and the framework for contextual performance evaluation using urban area typologies. The
Wolfgang G. Stock
Full Text Available Contemporary and future cities are often labeled as "smart cities," "ubiquitous cities," "knowledge cities" and "creative cities." Informational urbanism includes all aspects of information and knowledge with regard to urban regions. "Informational city" is an umbrella term uniting the divergent trends of information-related city research. Informational urbanism is an interdisciplinary endeavor incorporating on the one side computer science and information science and on the other side urbanism, architecture, (city economics, and (city sociology. In our research project on informational cities, we visited more than 40 metropolises and smaller towns all over the world. In this paper, we sketch the theoretical background on a journey from Max Weber to the Internet of Things, introduce our research methods, and describe main results on characteristics of informational cities as prototypical cities of the emerging knowledge society.
The Third International Conference on Urban Storm Drainage will be held in Goteborg, Sweden, June 4-8, 1984. Contact A. Sjoborg, Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goteborg, Sweden, for more information. The Fourth Conference will be in late August 1987 in Lausanne, Switzerland, and the Fifth Conference is planned for Tokyo in 1990. The proceedings of the First International Conference, held in Southampton, England, in April 1978, are available from Wiley-Interscience under the title “Urban Storm Drainage.”The proceedings of the Second International Conference, held in Urbana, Illinois, in June 1981, are available from Water Resources Publications, Littleton, Colo., under the title, “Urban Stormwater Hydraulics and Hydrology” and “Urban Stormwater Quality, Management, and Planning.”
Challenging perspectives on the urban question have arisen in recent years from beyond academic realms through the work of artists and cultural practitioners. Often in dialogue with urban theory and political activism, and employing a range of tactical practices, they have engaged critically......, relationships and situations. Such interventionist practices may rarely be seen as part of the traditional purview of urban studies. Yet in asserting their significance here, this essay argues that growing dialogues across and between urban and spatial theory, and artistic and cultural practice, have...... considerable potential for inspiring and developing critical approaches to cities. The essay highlights a number of specific challenges thrown up by such interconnections that are of political and pedagogical significance and in need of further debate....
Author Guidelines. The African Anthropologist is a biannual journal of the Pan African Anthropological Association. It provides a forum for African and Africanist anthropologists to publish articles, research reports, review articles, and book reviews. The views expressed in any published material are those of the authors and ...
African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... African Research Review; The Roles of Information Communication Technologies in Education: Review Article with Emphasis to the Computer and Internet Ethiopian Journal ...
reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ...
It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Project Work by Students for First ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...
It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Effect of Globalization on Sovereignty of States ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...
It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information sources ... Southern African Business Review; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, ... The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...
Items 1 - 50 of 167 ... African Journal of AIDS Research (AJAR) is a peer-reviewed ... The African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies is an international ... The Journal has been produced through the efforts of Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and the African .... in basic and clinical medical sciences as well as dentistry.
South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation. Vol 17, No 4 (2017). African Health Sciences. Vol 6, No 1 (2015). Nigeria Journal of Pure and Applied Physics. Vol 5, No 2 (2017). Journal of Student Affairs in Africa. Vol 14, No 1 (2017). Annals of African Surgery. Vol 63, No 7-9 (2018).
reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically ... It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with ... Vol 15, No 1 (2018). SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS.
West African Journal of Applied Ecology. Vol 6, No 2 (2017). Filosofia Theoretica: Journal of African Philosophy, Culture and Religions. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL ...
In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to ... African Journal of AIDS Research. Vol 35, No 2 (2017). Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal. Vol 34, No 1 (2018). Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review.
The catalogue is one of the results of a small taught course at teh Aarhus School of Architecture. The course was offered to bachelor students and was specific focused on harvesting materials in an urban context and on building with waste.......The catalogue is one of the results of a small taught course at teh Aarhus School of Architecture. The course was offered to bachelor students and was specific focused on harvesting materials in an urban context and on building with waste....
Full Text Available We present a comprehensive assessment of genomic diversity in the African-American population by studying three genotyped cohorts comprising 3,726 African-Americans from across the United States that provide a representative description of the population across all US states and socioeconomic status. An estimated 82.1% of ancestors to African-Americans lived in Africa prior to the advent of transatlantic travel, 16.7% in Europe, and 1.2% in the Americas, with increased African ancestry in the southern United States compared to the North and West. Combining demographic models of ancestry and those of relatedness suggests that admixture occurred predominantly in the South prior to the Civil War and that ancestry-biased migration is responsible for regional differences in ancestry. We find that recent migrations also caused a strong increase in genetic relatedness among geographically distant African-Americans. Long-range relatedness among African-Americans and between African-Americans and European-Americans thus track north- and west-bound migration routes followed during the Great Migration of the twentieth century. By contrast, short-range relatedness patterns suggest comparable mobility of ∼15-16km per generation for African-Americans and European-Americans, as estimated using a novel analytical model of isolation-by-distance.
Andreasen, Manja Hoppe
construction of housing, financed, built and inhabited by individual residents, who are predominantly long-term urban residents moving from central parts of the city and who are engaging in urban-based livelihood activities, which are often critically reliant on daily or regular mobility and access to central...... parts of the city. The findings highlight residents’ search for affordable urban housing as well as intra-urban residential mobility as central dynamics in urban expansion. The thesis also highlights how the on-going transformation processes differ from common conceptions of suburbanization in important......Urban expansion is a significant trend in cities of Africa, but the processes and dynamics of urban expansion are still understudied and poorly understood. This PhD thesis presents an explorative study of the processes and dynamics of urban expansion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The research...
to secure African continent, speed up development process, and strengthen our survival ... Regional integration generally involves a somewhat complex web of cooperation ... networking of various government institutions to provide and shape.
Gittelsohn, Joel; Song, Hee-Jung; Suratkar, Sonali; Kumar, Mohan B; Henry, Elizabeth G; Sharma, Sangita; Mattingly, Megan; Anliker, Jean A
Obesity and other diet-related chronic diseases are more prevalent in low-income urban areas, which commonly have limited access to healthy foods. The authors implemented an intervention trial in nine food stores, including two supermarkets and seven corner stores, in a low-income, predominantly African American area of Baltimore City, with a comparison group of eight stores in another low-income area of the city. The intervention (Baltimore Healthy Stores; BHS) included an environmental component to increase stocks of more nutritious foods and provided point-of-purchase promotions including signage for healthy choices and interactive nutrition education sessions. Using pre- and postassessments, the authors evaluated the impact of the program on 84 respondents sampled from the intervention and comparison areas. Exposure to intervention materials was modest in the intervention area, and overall healthy food purchasing scores, food knowledge, and self-efficacy did not show significant improvements associated with intervention status. However, based on adjusted multivariate regression results, the BHS program had a positive impact on healthfulness of food preparation methods and showed a trend toward improved intentions to make healthy food choices. Respondents in the intervention areas were significantly more likely to report purchasing promoted foods because of the presence of a BHS shelf label. This is the first food store intervention trial in low-income urban communities to show positive impacts at the consumer level.
The discussion of the changing structure in urban and rural areas due to changing migration patterns reflects the effect on crop designation and production, the connection to development and fertility issues, and the labor force structure. Different patterns of migration by sex occur between Ethiopia where female rural-to-urban migration is the dominant trend and Indonesia where males moving to urban areas occurs. When countries are identified as primarily male urban and female rural, the migration pattern is male rural-to-urban and is concentrated in African countries, whereas the reverse with female urban and male rural occurs in Latin America and developed countries. The tendency of the age structure in developed and developing countries is for the concentration of the 20 -49 year olds in urban areas and the under 20 and over 49 in rural areas. It is determined that those under 20 have 3 times greater importance in developing rather than developed countries. While in Tunisia and the Near East the over-age-49 rural population has increased, in Cameroon, Myanmar, and Bangladesh, the rural under-age-30 population has increased suggesting different migration patterns; however, there is insufficient computerized data for analysis of regional world trends. The migration pattern of child bearing age women affects the aging rural population in either of two ways. 1) Women stay and bear children and help with farm production while male migrate, thus increasing the youth and over 50 populations. 2) Whole families move with only the aging remaining. The determinants of migration are complex. When there is inequality in land distribution, the most mobile population are those without land or with very small holdings. If agricultural workers are dependent on a landlord, then migration is decreased. Technology and mechanization which have predominated in the last decades can both displace labor in rural areas when situated next to farms and increase labor when multiple
Kamiński, E; Libbey, L M; Stawicki, S; Wasowicz, E
A culture of Aspergillus flavus grown on moistened wheat meal was homogenized with a blendor, and the resulting slurry was vacuum-distilled at 5 mm of Hg and 35 C. The aqueous distillate was collected in traps cooled to -10 to -80 C. The culture volatiles were extracted from the distillate with CH(2)Cl(2), and, after removal of the bulk of the solvent, the concentrated volatiles were examined by packed-column gas chromatography. Nineteen peaks were observed, and coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to identify the larger components. The compounds identified were: 3-methyl-butanol, 3-octanone, 3-octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-octanol, and cis-2-octen-1-ol. The two octenols were the predominant compounds, and sufficient sample was trapped from the gas chromatograph for infrared analyses; this confirmed the mass spectral identifications and permitted the assignment of the cis designation to 2-octen-1-ol. Both oct-1-en-3-ol and cis-2-octen-1-ol are thought to be responsible for the characteristic musty-fungal odor of certain fungi; the latter compound may be a useful chemical index of fungal growth.
A rationalization of the various observed effects of combined creep-fatigue cycling upon predominantly elastic fatigue-crack propagation in austenitic steel is presented. Existing and new evidence is used to show two main groups of behaviour: (i) material and cycling conditions which lead to modest increases (6-8 times) in the rate of crack growth are associated with relaxation-induced changes in the material deformation characteristics, and (ii) material and cycling conditions severe enough to generate internal fracture damage lead to significant (up to a factor of 30) increases in crack growth rate when compared with fast-cycling crack propagation rates at the same temperature. A working hypothesis is presented to show that the boundary between the two groups occurs when the scale of the nucleated creep damage is of the same magnitude as the crack tip opening displacement. This leads to the possibility of unstable crack advance. Creep crack growth rates are shown to provide an upper bound to creep-fatigue crack growth rates when crack advance is unstable. If the deformation properties only are affected by the creep-fatigue cycling then creep crack growth rates provide a lower bound. The role of intergranular oxygen corrosion in very low frequency crack growth tests is also briefly discussed. (author)
Cardiovascular disease risk factors in 5-year-old urban South African children the birth to ten study. Krisela Steyn, Thea de Wet, Linda Richter, Noel Cameron, Naomi S Levitt, Christopher Morrell ...
Food label reading and understanding in parts of rural and urban Zimbabwe. ... The reading and understanding of nutrition information on food packages has been shown to improve food choices and instill ... AJOL African Journals Online.
... improvisational innovations of jazz, the simple truth of the blues, the rhythms of rock and roll, and the urban themes of hip-hop all blend into a refrain of song and narrative that traces our Nation's history. These... and our world. Throughout our history, African-American music has conveyed the hopes and hardships of...
Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.
This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…
African Lion Cities: Deflating the MDG success of East Asian Tigers to a Worldwide Success Story of Dense Urban Areas with Greater Capacity · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. A Krauss, 105-110 ...
The Prevalence of Hepatitis B Co infection in a South African (SA) Urban government HIV Clinic · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. C Firhaber, A Reyneke, D Schulz, B Malope, B Malope, P Macphail, E Sanne, AD Biseglie, 541-544 ...
discourses on urban integration and equitable development and the realty of hard- ... conglomerations, African cities now unevenly mirrored the consumptive ..... (Harvey, 2003: 33-36), entailing large investments in rail and road networks. .... large camps, unlike the small traders who traded from their wagons and operated ...
Objective: The current study sought to explore body figure preference in a cross cultural South African sample, given the established relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorders. Methods: The sample comprised a community based, multi-racial adolescent population in both urban (n=1353) and rural ...
Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia
A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…
By means of questionnaires, appropriate for both individuals and households, surveys of sugar intake have been carried out in the Transvaal on groups of South African Whites, Indians, Malays, Coloureds, and Bantu. Inquiries concerned groups in urban and rural areas, and in different socio-economic circumstances.
Current research indicates that there is an on-going concern for the graduation rate of African American students in urban settings. This particular study sought to investigate the impact of students' self-efficacy, locus of control, and parental involvement on academic achievement via a targeted sample of urban African American high school…
Full Text Available Urban agglomeration has become the predominant form of urbanization in China. In this process, spatial interaction evidently played a significant role in promoting the collaborative development of these correlated cities. The traditional urban model’s focus on individual cities should be transformed to an urban system model. In this study, a multi-scale simulation model has been proposed to simulate the agglomeration development process of the Wuhan urban agglomeration area by embedding the multi-scale spatial interaction into the transition rule system of cellular automata (CA. A system dynamic model was used to predict the demand for new urban land at an aggregated urban agglomeration area scale. A data field approach was adopted to measuring the interaction of intercity at city scale. Neighborhood interaction was interpreted with a logistic regression method at the land parcel scale. Land use data from 1995, 2005, and 2015 were used to calibrate and evaluate the model. The simulation results show that there has been continuing urban growth in the Wuhan urban agglomeration area from 1995 to 2020. Although extension-sprawl was the predominant pattern of urban spatial expansion, the trend of extensive growth to intensive growth is clear during the entire period. The spatial interaction among these cities has been reinforced, which guided the collaborative development and formed the regional urban system network.
Adon, Jacques; Liousse, Cathy; Yoboue, Veronique; Baeza, Armelle; Akpo, Aristide; Bahino, Julien; Chiron, Christelle; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Keita, Sékou
This study is a contribution to the WP2-DACCIWA program with the aim to characterize particulate pollution on domestic fire site, traffic sites and waste burning site of two West-African capitals (Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire and Cotonou, Benin) and to study aerosol biological impacts on lung inflammation. Such an impact is still largely unknown, especially for the particles emitted by intense African traffic sources and domestic fires. In this context, fundamental research of this study is centered on the following key scientific question: what is the link between aerosol size differentiated composition and inflammation markers for the main combustion sources prevailing in South West Africa during dry and wet seasons? To tackle this question, intensive campaigns in Abidjan and Cotonou have been conducted in July 2015, January and July 2016, and January 2017. In this paper, we will present our first results for the campaign of January 2016. In terms of aerosol size differentiated composition, main aerosol components (mass, black carbon, organic carbon, water soluble particles ...) were measured. We may notice that PM measured for all the sites is generally higher than WHO norms. Organic carbon and dust particles are the two more important contributors for the ultra-fine and fine particle sizes with more organic carbon in Abidjan and dust particles in Cotonou respectively. In terms of in vitro biological studies on sampled aerosols on these sites, size-fractionated PM from the different sampling sites were compared for their ability to induce a proinflammatory response characterized by the release of the cytokine IL-6 by human bronchial epithelial cells. PM from waste burning site did not induce significant IL-6 release whatever the size fraction whereas PM from domestic fire were the most reactive especially the ultra-fine fraction. Ultra-fine particles from traffic (Abidjan and Cotonou) always induced a dose-dependent IL-6 release. A tentative cross-analysis between
Wamuthenya, Wambui Rose
textabstractFocusing on urban Kenya, this paper attempts to identify the sources of the temporal increase in women’s employment rate between 1986 and 1998. The paper relies on labour survey data, household responses to coping strategies and case studies. The analysis presented in the paper shows that the bulk of the increase in women’s insertion into the labour market comes from an increase in the work participation of married women. While women’s higher educational endowments, particularly t...
Berrang-Ford, Lea; Lundine, Jamie; Breau, Sebastien
Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has reemerged in sub-Saharan Africa as a disease of major public health importance. The success of HAT elimination in sub-Saharan Africa is subject to the feasibility of controlling, eliminating, or mitigating the determinants of incidence in affected countries. Conflict has been widely recognized and cited as a contributing factor to the resurgence of HAT in many countries, as well as to continuing HAT incidence in politically unstable and resource-poor regions. Despite extensive anecdotal and qualitative recognition of the role of conflict, there has been no quantitative research of this topic at the population level in affected African countries. We characterize the qualitative and quantitative associations between HAT incidence and conflict-related processes in HAT-affected African countries over the past 30 years. HAT and conflict-related data were collected for 35 affected countries in sub-Saharan Africa for the years 1976-2004. Descriptive and univariate inferential statistics, as well as negative binomial regression modeling, are used to assess the associations between HAT and conflict. A space-time scan statistic is used to identify significant incidence clusters. Clusters of HAT incidence over the past 30 years have predominantly coincided with periods of conflict or socio-political instability. HAT cases occurred significantly more often in countries and during years with conflict, high political terror, and internationalized civil war. The results indicate a lag period between the start of conflict events and a peak in incidence of approximately 10 years. We recommend explicit consideration and quantification of socio-political measures such as conflict and terror indices in GIS (Geographic Information Systems)-based risk assessments for HAT policy and intervention. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Spronck, Bart; Merken, Jort J; Reesink, Koen D; Kroon, Wilco; Delhaas, Tammo
In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.
Full Text Available In ureter peristalsis, the orientation of the contracting smooth muscle cells is essential, yet current descriptions of orientation and composition of the smooth muscle layer in human as well as in rat ureter are inconsistent. The present study aims to improve quantification of smooth muscle orientation in rat ureters as a basis for mechanistic understanding of peristalsis. A crucial step in our approach is to use two-photon laser scanning microscopy and image analysis providing objective, quantitative data on smooth muscle cell orientation in intact ureters, avoiding the usual sectioning artifacts. In 36 rat ureter segments, originating from a proximal, middle or distal site and from a left or right ureter, we found close to the adventitia a well-defined longitudinal smooth muscle orientation. Towards the lamina propria, the orientation gradually became slightly more disperse, yet the main orientation remained longitudinal. We conclude that smooth muscle cell orientation in rat ureter is predominantly longitudinal, though the orientation gradually becomes more disperse towards the proprial side. These findings do not support identification of separate layers. The observed longitudinal orientation suggests that smooth muscle contraction would rather cause local shortening of the ureter, than cause luminal constriction. However, the net-like connective tissue of the ureter wall may translate local longitudinal shortening into co-local luminal constriction, facilitating peristalsis. Our quantitative, minimally invasive approach is a crucial step towards more mechanistic insight into ureter peristalsis, and may also be used to study smooth muscle cell orientation in other tube-like structures like gut and blood vessels.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between vocabulary knowledge and the use of contextual clues and whether EFL learners who are well-equipped with reading skills are able to comprehend the text despite a low level of vocabulary knowledge. Therefore, the study focused on which vocabulary dimensions help students guess unfamiliar words. The study was carried out at Hatyai University in Thailand. The population of this study consisted of 34 undergraduates who were studying International Business English and had taken a course in reading techniques. The present study was conducted to conceptually validate the roles of breadth and depth of vocabulary knowledge to improve skills by contextual clue. Vocabulary Depth was specially employed to evaluate two dimensions namely Paradigmatic and Syntagmatic. The Schmitt and Clapham Vocabulary Level Test was used to test vocabulary breadth, while the vocabulary depth was implemented by Read’s Vocabulary Depth Test. Reading parts of the TOEFL were adopted for contextual clue items. There were two statistical analysis tools also implemented in this study: paired-sample t-test and bivariate correlation. First, in an attempt to find which vocabulary dimension predominates in guessing word meaning from the text, a paired-sample t-test was utilized to compare the difference of two vocabulary dimensions in reading part: vocabulary depth and contextual clues, and vocabulary breadth and contextual clues. Second, a bivariate correlation was used to find the degree of relationship between vocabulary knowledge and contextual clues. The consequences of this study identified empirical results that 1 there was a positive relationship between contextual clues and vocabulary depth, the reverse is true in vocabulary breadth. Moreover, vocabulary depth is more significantly crucial than breadth to enhance student’s ability to guess words’ meaning from the context.
What is an urban atmosphere? How can we differentiate an 'atmosphere' from other facets of urban consciousness and experience? This essay explores some of the wider cultural, political, and philosophical connotations of atmospheres as a focal point for critical reflections on space and subjectivity. The idea of an 'affective atmosphere' as a distinctive kind of mood or shared corporeal phenomenon is considered in relation to recent developments in phenomenology, extended conceptions of agency, and new understandings of materialism. The essay draws in particular on the changing characteristics of air and light to reflect on different forms of sensory experience and their wider cultural and political connotations. The argument highlights some of the tensions and anomalies that permeate contemporary understandings of urban atmospheres.
PhD afhandling: 1: Urbane spil 2: [brand TILST] - den nye forstad. 3: 6400:Kollision - udstilling på Sønderborg Slot 2001 4: 4: [0.2:Kollision] - Charlottenborgs Forårsudstilling 2002 5: Havnen på spil - debatten om de bynære havnearealer i Århus 2002-2004 Manual - uddybet guide til PhD-projektet......PhD afhandling: 1: Urbane spil 2: [brand TILST] - den nye forstad. 3: 6400:Kollision - udstilling på Sønderborg Slot 2001 4: 4: [0.2:Kollision] - Charlottenborgs Forårsudstilling 2002 5: Havnen på spil - debatten om de bynære havnearealer i Århus 2002-2004 Manual - uddybet guide til Ph......D-projektet Urbane spil Se også www.urbanespil.dk...
Dietary recalls are common practice in health assessments measuring nutritional status. Previous research has identified characteristics of people who are more likely to underreport, but little research has been done to determine if ethnic match between interviewer and participant influences underre...
Mitchell, Mary M; Isenberg, Sarina R; Maragh-Bass, Allysha C; Knowlton, Amy R
Among persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV), approximately two-thirds report moderate to severe pain. Chronic pain can negatively affect PLHIVs' health behaviors and outcomes by interfering with their reciprocity (mutual exchange) of support in their caregiving relationships, which has been found to be associated with PLHIVs' antiretroviral adherence and viral suppression. Data were longitudinal (baseline, 6- and 12-month follow-up) from 383 PLHIV who were formerly or currently using drugs. Utilizing a longitudinal lagged fixed effects structural equation model, we found that never having pain in the past 6 months was predictive of increased reciprocity of support. Sub-analyses by care relationship type revealed never having pain was a significant predictor of greater reciprocity for sexual partner caregiving dyads, but not for kin or friend caregiving dyads. Our study emphasizes the importance of pain management in quality caregiving relationships characterized by reciprocity, which has consistently been found to be associated with stronger, more supportive caregiving relationships and better quality of life. Our findings suggest the importance of pain management intervention for improving reciprocity between vulnerable PLHIVs and their primary caregivers, especially between PLHIVs and caregivers who are current or former sexual partners.
Jul 27, 2012 ... climate over the cities that affect human comfort and his environment. Proper urban ... Key Words: Urbanization, Comfort, Pollution, Modification, Albedo, Urban Heat Island ... effects of land surface change on the climate of a.
Ilse van der Walt
characterised by a volatile mix of conflict, instability and state weakness, and analysts ... to ensure peace, security and stability on the continent at national, ... half a dozen African economies have been growing at more than 6 per cent per year.
Schans, van der J.W.; Renting, Henk; Veenhuizen, Van René
This issuehighlights innovations in urban agriculture. Innovation and the various forms of innovations are of particular importance because urban agriculture is adapted to specific urban challenges and opportunities. Innovation is taking place continuously, exploring the multiple fundions of urban
Degboe Arnold N
Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD. This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and
Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB); Asian Development Bank (ADB)
This report provides an overview of important urban poverty questions. What defines urban poverty and how is urban poverty being measured? What other factors beyond consumption poverty need to be tackled? Who are the urban poor? What relations exist between urban poverty and city size? What linkages exist between urbanization, income, and urban poverty? What policy responses to urban poverty are implemented in selected Asian countries? The report served as a background study for the Internati...
Iconic architecture plays a crucial role in cities' interurban competition. This is also the case with Copenhagen which has used iconic architecture as part of its boosterism to gain investment, to increase tourism and to attract the creative class. This battle over the symbolic representation of...... intertwined through symbolic, visual and virtual representations of the wrongs of current urban planning...
Considers how visual literacy implies a poetics of technology, one rooted in basic human passion. Notes that most academic forms sanctioned for students to inhabit are as monumentally dull as the urban forms in which they pass an extra-academic portion of their lives. Concludes that technology is most useful when it allows the poetic spirit to…
D'Adamo, Christopher R; McArdle, Patrick F; Balick, Lyssa; Peisach, Erin; Ferguson, Tenaj; Diehl, Alica; Bustad, Kendall; Bowden, Brandin; Pierce, Beverly A; Berman, Brian M
To determine whether an experiential nutrition education intervention focusing on spices and herbs ("Spice MyPlate") is feasible and improves diet quality and healthy eating attitudes among an urban and predominantly African-American sample of adolescents more than standard nutrition education alone. A nonrandomized controlled trial compared standard nutrition education in U.S. Department of Agriculture MyPlate guidelines (control group) with standard nutrition education plus adjuvant Spice MyPlate curriculum (intervention group). Data were collected at baseline and after 3, 6, and 10 weeks. Study setting was two public high schools in Baltimore, Maryland. A total of 110 students in grades 9 to 12 participated. The 6-week school-based intervention conducted during health class focused on cooking using spices and herbs to eat healthier diets according to MyPlate. Dietary intake reported on 3-day food records and healthy eating attitudes questionnaires was analyzed. Differences in diet quality and healthy eating attitudes between study groups were estimated by t-tests, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney tests, and covariate-adjusted regression models. Spice MyPlate was feasible and there were modest but significant improvements (p ≤ .05) in the Spice MyPlate group compared with control in whole grains (31.2 g/wk) and protein foods (13.2 ounces per week) intake, and attitudes toward eating vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and low-fat dairy. Although randomized trials are needed, experiential nutrition education focusing on spices and herbs may help urban and predominantly African-American adolescent populations eat healthier diets. © The Author(s) 2016.
Abraham, Traci; Macauda, Mark; Erickson, Pamela; Singer, Merrill
Common strategies employed in preventing STI/AIDS transmission among young adults in America include abstinence, monogamy and safer sex. These strategies require a high level of vigilance and responsibility and, according to inner city participants in Project PHRESH.comm, neither option is always desirable, available, or rational in the context of their lived experiences. This article reports findings from Project PHRESH.comm, a mixed-method, ethnographic study incorporating data from focus group discussions, semi-structured interviews, coital diaries, systematic cultural assessments and a structured survey designed to explore concepts of risk and decision making about condom use among at risk African American and Puerto Rican young adults aged 18-25 years in Hartford, CT. We found that many young adults from our study population rely on a strategy of using clinic-sponsored STI/AIDS screening when wanting to discontinue condom use with a partner. While our data suggest that screening is a common strategy used by many couples to transition to having sex without a condom, the data also show that most youth do not maintain monogamy even in long-term, serious relationships. Thus, sharing test results may provide a false sense of security in the sexual culture of inner city, minority youth.
Full Text Available This article argues that there is a form of Christian syncretism operating in African Christians� use of traditional African powers to address their spiritual insecurity challenges that arises from their former traditional African worldview of spiritual powers. It provides an overview description of the nature of the spiritual insecurity which still grips African Christians by delving into the traditional African worldview of spiritual powers (such as the notions of a Supreme Being, lesser divinities, spirits and ancestors and the centrality of traditional powers such as diviners in addressing this insecurity. After underscoring the aforementioned, this article proceeds to demonstrate three predominant views proposed by theological scholars as a response to the spiritual insecurity of African Christians. The first stance calls African Christians to discontinue with anything that is linked to traditional African spiritual worldview because Christianity entails a complete new ontological being. The second stance disapproves African Christians� reliance on traditional African powers and then proceeds to argue that Christian ministry should identify positives within the African spiritual world system and worldview that is useful and can be imported for use in contextualising the gospel. The third position advocates for Christians� continual reliance on traditional African spiritual powers in addressing their African contextual needs. In doing this, the weaknesses and strengths of these approaches are established with the view to outline an alternative biblical theological basis to ensure biblical Christianity in the challenging African contexts of spiritual insecurity. This article concludes by drawing from various theological responses to the spiritual insecurity of African Christians to ensure Christian ministry that is thoroughly biblical and contextual in African Christianity.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: This
Kotzé, Elmarie; Els, Lishje; Rajuili-Masilo, Ntsiki
African mourning of loss of lives in South Africa has been shaped by discursive practices of both traditional African cultures and the sociopolitical developments under apartheid and in post-apartheid South Africa. This article reports on changes in mourning practices on the basis of a literature review and uses a collection of examples to highlight the navigation of some cultural and gendered issues relating to mourning, against the backdrop of the everyday experiences of loss of life in South Africa due to violence and HIV/AIDS. The article draws on African womanist and feminist scholarship and focuses on the intersections between cultural and gender practices of bereavement in the lives of professional urban African women. The authors argue for the use of positioning theory and witnessing practices to honor and story the ongoing struggle of African women as these women take different agentic positions by accepting, questioning, resisting, and/or changing cultural mourning practices while they compassionately witness the self and others in the narratives they live.
AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... The African (formerly South African) Journal of Marine Science provides an international forum for the publication of original scientific contributions or critical reviews, ...
Basson, J.K.; Le Roux, P.R.
The use of ionising radiation in South Africa since the turn of the century was initially limited to x-rays and radium, with predominant applications in medicine for diagnosis and therapy. Since 1948 artificial radio-isotopes have been increasingly available and such applications have been widely extended to industry, agriculture and science. Initially, the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research developed radiation protection in South Africa. It was later recommended that an independent forum, the South African Forum for Radiation Protection, be established. The activities of the Forum are described
Continuing Medical Education; Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental foundation, challenges and opportunities ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Gender Relations in ... South African Actuarial Journal.
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Educational leadership and ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Establishing financial markets in Ethiopia: the environmental foundation, challenges ... South African Actuarial Journal.
Hoehn, Jessica L.; Riekert, Kristin A.; Borrelli, Belinda; Rand, Cynthia S.; Eakin, Michelle N.
Objective: To identify barriers and motivators for reducing secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) for families of African-American, low-income, urban children. Method: Audiotaped intervention sessions of 52 African-American caregivers of Head Start children who reported being a smoker and/or had at least one smoker in the home were randomly sampled…
Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge; Geisler, Gisela; Nangulah, Selma; Nygaard, Knut; Pomuti, Akiser; Shifotoka, Albertina; Van Rooy, Gert
The urbanisation of poverty is one of the most dramatic developments on the African continent, yielding contrasting images of affluent residential and business districts and utter misery in sprawling shantytowns or slums. Namibia has one of Africa’s highest urban growth rates, taking thousands of women, men and children to towns in search of a better life. The large majority of these end up in poverty-stricken informal settlements in urban areas. The current service delivery approach of the g...
Chen, RuiJun; Flores, Glenn; Shetgiri, Rashmi
Adolescent fighting affects 25% of youth, with the highest rates among African-Americans and Latinos but little is known about parental views on youth fighting. The purpose of this study was to examine African-American and Latino parents��� perspectives on adolescent fighting and methods to prevent fighting. We conducted four focus groups with parents of African-American and Latino urban adolescents. Focus groups were stratified by race/ethnicity and fighting status. Groups were audiotaped, t...
Wickwire, Emerson M.; Whelan, James P.; Meyers, Andrew W.; Murray, David M.
The present study considered the relation between adolescent gambling behavior and the perceived environment, the component of Jessor and Jessor's (1977) Problem Behavior Theory that assesses the ways that adolescents perceive the attitudes and behaviors of parents and peers. The predominantly African-American sample included 188 sophomores from…
Juel Clemmensen, Thomas
and form and space and time. With this description it becomes clear that the development of modern road systems, which can be linked to the realisation of the functional divided city, has created a modern city which form and structure compromises the simple dichotomies city-country and centreperiphery...... of the traditional conception of the city. In this perspective the modern city appears more like an urban-rural landscape where urban and rural elements constitutes a complex patchwork. The character of this urban-rural landscape challenges the division among the traditional disciplines of urban and landscape......The western culture of planning has a tradition of considering infrastructure predominantly from technical, technocratic or historical perspectives that removes the focus away from infrastructure’s role in the mediating between culture and nature and in the production of the “city” (see Graham...
Mougeot, L J
This news account provides coverage of the satisfaction of urban food needs when retail costs are prohibitively high in developing countries. This account reports that 50-80% of average income is spent on food in nearly 50% of developing country's largest cities. Surveys conducted during the late 1980s confirm a range of 60-80% of income for expenditures on food. Surveys reveal that urban food costs are 10-30% higher than costs for rural dwellers. Urban household food production is a practice that has been around since the times of the Aztecs, the Incas, and Mayan cities. Reports survive of the Javanese and city dwellers along the Tigris and Euphrates producing their own food. Asian policy makers promote urban food production as critical to urban survival. Other factors influence urban food production. These factors include rapid urbanization, ineffective agricultural policies, inadequate food distribution systems, withdrawal of subsidies, reduction of wages, inflation, unemployment, lax urban regulations, civil strife, and drought. Government agencies are sometimes obstacles in outlawing the practice. Recent support for urban agriculture includes ten Asian, six African, and six Latin American countries. The number of urban farm workers is reported as 200 million worldwide. 700 million receive the benefits of urban agriculture. 25% of urban households in the US were engaged in urban food production during the 1980s. Better information, such as in comparative and longitudinal studies, is needed on urban poverty and the links between nutrition, income, employment, waste, and environmental issues. If cost-benefit analysis research finds a positive impact, then urban planners may need to incorporate city farming into conventional land use. The value of city farming needs to be assessed. Street food vending is an important source of income, particularly for women. Urban farming requires efficiency of space and knowledge of advances in technology and planning.
Yamasaki, Y; Kuwatsuru, R; Tsukiyama, Y; Oki, K; Koyano, K
We aimed to investigate mastication predominance in healthy dentate individuals and patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth using objective and subjective methods. The sample comprised 50 healthy dentate individuals (healthy dentate group) and 30 patients with unilateral posterior missing teeth (partially edentulous group). Subjects were asked to freely chew three kinds of test foods (peanuts, beef jerky and chewing gum). Electromyographic activity of the bilateral masseter muscles was recorded. The chewing side (right side or left side) was judged by the level of root mean square electromyographic amplitude. Mastication predominance was then objectively assessed using the mastication predominant score and the mastication predominant index. Self-awareness of mastication predominance was evaluated using a modified visual analogue scale. Mastication predominance scores of the healthy dentate and partially edentulous groups for each test food were analysed. There was a significant difference in the distribution of the mastication predominant index between the two groups (P mastication predominant score was weakly correlated with self-awareness of mastication predominance in the healthy dentate group, whereas strong correlation was observed in the partially edentulous group (P mastication predominance and were more aware of mastication predominance than healthy dentate individuals. Our findings suggest that an objective evaluation of mastication predominance is more precise than a subjective method. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Nypaver, Cynthia F; Shambley-Ebron, Donna
In the United States, African American babies die more than twice as often as White babies. The cause for this difference remains elusive, yet is likely complex with one factor being inadequate cultural care of pregnant African American women. The purpose of this study was to explore African American women's perspectives of meaningful prenatal care. Community-based participatory research was employed for this study using photovoice. The sample included 11 African American mothers in an urban community in Midwestern United States. Five themes were abstracted from the data: (1) Access to Care; (2) Soul Nourishment; (3) Companionship; (4) Help Me, Teach Me; and (5) The Future. Meaningful prenatal care is influenced by culture. African American women need physical, social, and soulful support to enhance meaningfulness of care during pregnancy. The findings support that meaningfulness of prenatal care for African American women may be enhanced by accessible and uniquely designed, culturally congruent models of prenatal care. © The Author(s) 2015.
Mcloughlin, Caven S.; Noltemeyer, Amity L.
Compared to other school typologies, major urban high poverty schools more frequently use exclusionary discipline and apply these techniques disproportionately to African American students. We explored school demographic variables predicting these two outcomes using data from 440 major urban, high poverty schools. Results suggest a different set…
Tukahirwa, J.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.
The inability of local governments to provide basic environmental services in African urban centres often results in the involvement of other actors in urban sanitation and solid waste provisioning, such as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), community-based organisations (CBOs) and private
Gaztambide-Fernandez, Ruben A.
Descriptions of the urban contemporary format remain strongly grounded on the assumption that it is based on musical styles associated with African Americans, such as R&B, soul, hip hop, rap, and reggae. Even for the most progressive educators, to speak of urban music is to refer to a narrow set of musical genres associated with the umbrella term…
Full Text Available Tourism and other culture-based types of small business, which are the leitmotif in the planning of the Europark Ruardi, are becoming the guiding motif in the spatial development of urban centres that are influenced by dynamic transformation processes. The system should build upon the exploitation of both local and regional environmental features. This would encourage the quest for special environmental features, with an emphasis on their conservation, i.e. sustainable development, and connections in a wider context.The Europark is seen as a new strategic point of the Zasavje Region (the region of the central Sava Valley, which is linked to other important points in a region relevant for tourism. Due to the "smallness" of the region and/or the proximity of such points, development can be fast and effective. The interaction of different activities in space yields endless opportunities for users, who choose their own goals and priorities in the use of space. Four theme areas of the Europark area planning are envisaged. The organisation of activities is based on the composition of the mosaic field patterns, where green fields intertwine with areas of different, existing and new, urban functions. The fields of urban and recreation programmes are connected with a network of green areas and walking trails, along which theme park settings are arranged.
The interest in urban spaces and their qualities has become stronger in recent years. A substantial volume of projects aims to create attractive urban spaces reasons of Sustainability, Quality of Life and urban vitality. But who actually uses the urban spaces, which urban spaces are used? How do...... they use them? What characterizes the good urban space? And how and by who is it evaluated? How is a better co-operation between urban space researchers, decision makers and users established? Is it the right urban spaces which receive investments? How can research optimize the basis for decisions......? Proceedings from the conference "Urbanism & urban qualities - new data & methodologies" held 24th of June 2009 at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen....
In the works of African women writers, Africa is seen in the grip of change – through the combined eff ects of colonialism and post-colonialism, the growth of urbanization, the redefi ning of traditional culture, and the blending of the traditional and the modern. Th e ideas of transition and transformation, the blending of old and new values, the increasing disintegration of traditional culture, and uncritical adoption of western values all frequently underpin the plots and themes of African...
South African Family Practice(SAFP) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal, which strives to ... The content of SAFP is designed to reflect and support further development of the broad ... Vol 60, No 2 (2018) ... of doctors and physiotherapists in the rehabilitation of people living with HIV · EMAIL ... AJOL African Journals Online.
The East African Medical Journal is intended for publication of papers on ... research on problems relevant to East Africa and other African countries will receive special ... Analysis of survival patterns of TB‐HIV co‐infected patients in relation to ...
The goal of the Annals of African Surgery is to provide a medium for the exchange of current information between surgeons in the African region. The journal embraces surgery in all its aspects; basic science, clinical research, experimental research, surgical education. It will assist surgeons in the region to keep abreast of ...
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...
Historically, scholarly information has flowed from North to South and from West to East. It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other African academics. In partnership with hundreds of journals from all ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Nigeria Journal of Business Administration ...
African Journals Online: Guernsey. Home > African Journals Online: Guernsey. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
African Journals Online: Grenada. Home > African Journals Online: Grenada. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
African Journals Online: India. Home > African Journals Online: India. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...
African Journals Online: Barbados. Home > African Journals Online: Barbados. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
African Journals Online: Malta. Home > African Journals Online: Malta. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...
African Journals Online: Bahamas. Home > African Journals Online: Bahamas. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Home > African Journals Online: Liechtenstein. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Home > African Journals Online: Vanuatu. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. ... AFRREV IJAH: An International Journal of Arts and Humanities; Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive Overview
Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Conflicts in Africa: Meaning, Causes, Impact and Solution African Research Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? Southern African Business Review; The Rise of ...
African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. Historically, scholarly information ... Ethiopian Journal of Education and Sciences; Advertising practice in Nigeria: Development, new trends, challenges and prospects. EJOTMAS: Ekpoma ...
African Journals Online: Aruba. Home > African Journals Online: Aruba. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...
African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Home > African Journals Online: Kazakhstan. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
African Journals Online: Switzerland. Home > African Journals Online: Switzerland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation based ... International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology. Vol 4, No 1 (2012). International ...
In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to the rest of the world. AJOL is a Non-Profit Organisation ... Featured Country: Nigeria, Featured Journal: Journal of Applied Science, Engineering and Technology ...
It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; Income Tax Assignment under the ... Mizan Law Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research in ...
It has also been difficult for African researchers to access the work of other ... search for an article by title, author/s or keywords,; and find other information ... Southern African Business Review; The Basis of Distinction Between Qualitative and ...
Items 1 - 50 of 67 ... Archives: African Health Sciences. Journal Home > Archives: African Health Sciences. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives. 1 - 50 of 67 Items, 1 2 > >> ...
Mizan Law Review; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries? ... African Journal of Biotechnology; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...
Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of ... African Journal of Biotechnology; The application of just administrative action in the South African environmental governance sphere: An analysis of some ...
The Annals of African Medicine is published by the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, Nigeria and the Annals of African Medicine Society. The Journal is intended to serve as a medium for the publication of research findings in the broad field of Medicine in Africa and other developing countries, and ...
African Journals Online: Andorra. Home > African Journals Online: Andorra. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
African Journals Online: Ireland. Home > African Journals Online: Ireland. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access. Afghanistan ...
Items 1 - 50 of 221 ... African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology ... The African Journal of Drug & Alcohol Studies is an international scientific journal ... d) Critical or analytical reviews in the area of theory, policy, or research in Dentistry. e) Reviews of recently published books or group of books which would be of ...
African Journals Online: Belgium. Home > African Journals Online: Belgium. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Browse By Category · Browse Alphabetically · Browse By Country · List All Titles · Free to read Titles This Journal is Open Access ...
In partnership with hundreds of journals from all over the continent, AJOL works to change this, so that African-origin research output is available to Africans and to ... Ergonomics SA. Vol 9, No 1 (2017). Inkanyiso: Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences. Vol 14, No 5 (2017). Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences.
African Journals OnLine (AJOL) is the world's largest and pre-eminent collection of peer-reviewed, African-published scholarly journals. ... Continuing Medical Education; The competitive advantage of nations: is Porter's Diamond Framework a new theory that explains the international competitiveness of countries?
Art is a good place to learn about our multicultural planet, and African masks are prized throughout the world as powerfully expressive artistic images. Unfortunately, multicultural education, especially for young children, can perpetuate stereotypes. Masks taken out of context lose their meaning and the term "African masks" suggests that there is…
Three different models for the teaching of African art are presented in this paper. A comparison of the differences between the approaches of Western art historians and African art historians informs the articulation of the three models--an approach for determining style, another for dealing with analysis, and a third for synthetic interpretation.…