WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban organic waste

  1. Systematic Quantification of Biogas Potential in Urban Organic Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos

    incubation tests, and monitoring of production in laboratory reactors, for example, is considerably time-consuming and lasts from 30 up to 90 days, or sometimes even longer. Analytical and modelling methods were combined to develop a rapid, reliable and robust method for the BMP prediction of urban organic...... waste sources. In total, the methane potentials of 87 urban organic waste samples were determined. In addition, 88 plant biomass samples were included in the dataset used for building a combined methane prediction model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS). The model was moderately...... successful in predicting the BMP of urban organic waste sources and could potentially replace traditional techniques currently employed for BMP measurement. The model provides firsthand estimations of BMP and biochemical transformation in fewer than 72 hours, and it could provide support to biogas plant...

  2. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Gani Haji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties to decompose organic waste can be handled naturally by pyrolisis so it can  decomposes quickly that produces charcoal as the product. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of activated carbon from urban organic waste. Charcoal results of pyrolysis of organic waste activated with KOH 1.0 M at a temperature of 700 and 800oC for 60 to 120 minutes. Characteristics of activated carbon were identified by Furrier Transform Infra Red (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. However, their quality is determined yield, moisture content, ash, fly substances, fixed carbon, and the power of adsorption of iodine and benzene. The identified functional groups on activated carbon, such as OH (3448,5-3436,9 cm-1, and C=O (1639,4 cm-1. In general, the degree and distance between the layers of active carbon crystallites produced activation in all treatments showed no significant difference. The pattern of activated carbon surface topography structure shows that the greater the pore formation in accordance with the temperature increase the more activation time needed. The yield of activated carbon obtained ranged from 72.04 to 82.75%. The results of characterization properties of activated carbon was obtained from 1.11 to 5.41% water, 13.68 to 17.27% substance fly, 20.36 to 26.59% ash, and 56.14 to 62.31% of fixed carbon . Absorption of activated carbon was good enough at 800oC and 120 minutes of activation time, that was equal to 409.52 mg/g of iodine and 14.03% of benzene. Activated carbon produced has less good quality, because only the water content and flying substances that meet the standards.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94 [How to cite this article: Haji, A.G., Pari, G., Nazar, M., and Habibati.  (2013. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste . International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,89-94. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94

  3. Composting of selected organic wastes from peri-urban areas of Harare, Zimbabwe

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhindu, RL

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available of selected o e a se f pi d degradation, atmospheric pollution, soil health, soil bio- waste and rely on agriculture as a source of livelihood. Mhindu et al. International Journal Of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture 2013, : http... is an important source of organic matter. Soil organic matter improves physico-chemical and biological properties and Composting as a waste management strategy has multiple benefits for peri-urban agriculture considering the scarcity of animal manures among small...

  4. Optimising the anaerobic co-digestion of urban organic waste using dynamic bioconversion mathematical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Dorini, G.

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical anaerobic bioconversion models are often used as a convenient way to simulate the conversion of organic materials to biogas. The aim of the study was to apply a mathematical model for simulating the anaerobic co-digestion of various types of urban organic waste, in order to develop...... in a continuously stirred tank reactor. The model's outputs were validated with experimental results obtained in thermophilic conditions, with mixed sludge as a single substrate and urban organic waste as a co-substrate at hydraulic retention times of 30, 20, 15 and 10 days. The predicted performance parameter...... (methane productivity and yield) and operational parameter (concentration of ammonia and volatile fatty acid) values were reasonable and displayed good correlation and accuracy. The model was later applied to identify optimal scenarios for an urban organic waste co-digestion process. The simulation...

  5. Metal mobility assessment for the application of an urban organic waste amendment in two degraded semiarid soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Párraga-Aguado, Isabel; Álvarez-Rogel, José; González-Alcaraz, María Nazaret; Conesa, Héctor M.

    2017-01-01

    Urban organic waste materials may find a potential use as amendments in agricultural or environmental fields. However, before being applied in field practices, urban organic wastes must meet some environmental and legal requirements. The objective of this work was to assess the metal (Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb

  6. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Jara-Samaniego

    Full Text Available Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador, more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17 with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10 with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25 with C/N ratio 33, prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter

  7. Development of organic fertilizers from food market waste and urban gardening by composting in Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Samaniego, J; Pérez-Murcia, M D; Bustamante, M A; Paredes, C; Pérez-Espinosa, A; Gavilanes-Terán, I; López, M; Marhuenda-Egea, F C; Brito, H; Moral, R

    2017-01-01

    Currently, the management of urban waste streams in developing countries is not optimized yet, and in many cases these wastes are disposed untreated in open dumps. This fact causes serious environmental and health problems due to the presence of contaminants and pathogens. Frequently, the use of specific low-cost strategies reduces the total amount of wastes. These strategies are mainly associated to the identification, separate collection and composting of specific organic waste streams, such as vegetable and fruit refuses from food markets and urban gardening activities. Concretely, in the Chimborazo Region (Ecuador), more than 80% of municipal solid waste is dumped into environment due to the lack of an efficient waste management strategy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a demonstration project at field scale in this region to evaluate the feasibility of implanting the composting technology not only for the management of the organic waste fluxes from food market and gardening activities to be scaled-up in other developing regions, but also to obtain an end-product with a commercial value as organic fertilizer. Three co-composting mixtures were prepared using market wastes mixed with pruning of trees and ornamental palms as bulking agents. Two piles were created using different proportions of market waste and prunings of trees and ornamental palms: pile 1 (50:33:17) with a C/N ratio 25; pile 2: (60:30:10) with C/N ratio 24 and pile 3 (75:0:25) with C/N ratio 33), prepared with market waste and prunings of ornamental palm. Throughout the process, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored and organic matter evolution was determined using thermogravimetric and chemical techniques. Additionally, physico-chemical, chemical and agronomic parameters were determined to evaluate compost quality. The results obtained indicated that all the piles showed a suitable development of the composting process, with a significant organic matter decomposition

  8. Current organic waste recycling and the potential for local recycling through urban agriculture in Metro Manila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Yuji; Furutani, Takashi; Murakami, Akinobu; Palijon, Armando M; Yokohari, Makoto

    2011-11-01

    Using the solid waste management programmes of three barangays (the smallest unit of local government in the Philippines) in Quezon City, Metro Manila, as a case study, this research aimed to further the development of efficient organic waste recycling systems through the promotion of urban agricultural activities on green and vacant spaces. First, the quantity of organic waste and compost produced through ongoing barangay projects was measured. The amount of compost that could potentially be utilized on farmland and vacant land within the barangays was then identified to determine the possibility of a local recycling system. The results indicate that, at present, securing buyers for compost is difficult and, therefore, most compost is distributed to large neighbouring farm villages. However, the present analysis of potential compost use within the barangay demonstrates that a more local compost recycling system is indeed feasible.

  9. Analysis of the organic matter which are present in solid organic wastes from urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canellas, Luciano Pasqualoto; Santos, Gabriel de Araujo; Amarai Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil do; Mazur, Nelson; Moraes, Anselmo Alpande

    1997-01-01

    This study analyses the organic matter which are present in the solid wastes from the Rio de Janeiro city - Brazil. The humic acids were extracted and purified. After the purification, the humic acids were dried by lyophilization. Visible UV, infrared and NMR spectra were obtained for the humic acids extracted

  10. INFORMAL AND FORMAL SECTORS PARTNERSHIP IN URBAN WASTE MANAGEMENT (Case Study: Non-Organic Waste Management in Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoko Indrosaptono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE The urban waste management is still crucial issues in most regions in Indonesia. Urban waste is considered as a cultural issue because of its impact on various life factors , especially in big cities such as Jakarta, Semarang, Surabaya, Bandung, Palembang and Medan. Currently, the average productivity of the urban waste is 0.5 kg / capita / day. If this is multiplied by number of people in some cities in Java and Bali, the total waste will reach about 100,000 tons / day. This number will still increase by increasing population growth. Therefore, the urban waste management is very important for cities in Indonesia, alhough currently not many cities applied the urban waste management system. Urban waste management in Indonesia is not merely caused by formal sector, but it is also supported by informal sector in reducing daily production waste up to 30%. The informal sector management is mainly conducted by sorting the waste to recycleable or not. The recycleable waste is then sold back to the mills to be converted to other valuable products. This reserach was aimed to evaluate the partnership between formal and informal sector in reduction of waste production in Semarang city through urban waste management system. The research about informal sector was conducted by communal interaction and qualitative analysis focusing at Semarang City especially at Old Town area. The research has provided substantive knowledge of informal sector partnerships and formal sector in urban waste management with case inorganic waste management in the city of Semarang through 3R (recycle, reuse and reduce knwoledge management. Basic knowledge of the structure / surface is characterized by empirical knowledge which was easily caught by the direct perspective of human. Middle knowledge could be adjusted to different loci

  11. Life cycle analysis of management options for organic waste collected in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Maria, Francesco; Micale, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Different options for managing the organic fraction (OF) of municipal solid waste generated in a given urban area were analyzed by life cycle assessment (LCA) for different source segregation (SS) intensities ranging from 0 to 52%. The best management option for processing the OF remaining in the residual organic fraction (ROF) for the different SS intensities was by incineration. Landfilling and mechanical biological treatment (MBT) of ROF gave higher impacts. Aerobic treatment alone or combined with anaerobic digestion (AD) for processing the source-segregated organic fraction (SSOF) led to relevant environmental impact reduction even if the difference between the two options was quite negligible. The weighted impact showed that scenarios using incineration always gave environmental gains, whereas there was a higher environmental burden with the scenarios using MBT.

  12. Rapid biochemical methane potential prediction of urban organic waste with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Triolo, Jin Mi; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    . The aim of the present study is to develop a fast and reliable model based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for the BMP prediction of urban organic waste (UOW). The model comprised 87 UOW samples. Additionally, 88 plant biomass samples were included, to develop a combined model predicting...... BMP. The coefficient of determination (R2) and root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) of the UOW model were 0.88 and 44 mL CH4/g VS, while the combined model was 0.89 and 50 mL CH4/g VS. Improved model performance was obtained for the two individual models compared to the combined version...

  13. Comparative Analysis of the Possibility to Use Urban Organic Waste for Compost or Biogas Productions. Application to Rosario City, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentini, Rubén D.; Vega, Marcelo

    2017-10-01

    The city waste is one of the main urban problems to be solved, since they generate large impacts on the environment, like use of land, contamination of the soil, water and air, and human diseases, among others. In Rosario city, placed in the Argentina Humid Pampa and having about 1 million inhabitants, the Municipality is developing different strategies in order to reduce the waste impact (295 000 Tons in 2016). One of the most important actions was the construction of the Bella Vista compost plant in 2012 (within the largest in South America). In the present work we analysed the possibility to use urban organic waste (that for Rosario city represents about 58% of the total waste in the last years) for: a) compost production and b) biogas production, with compost as a by-product. We determined the produced compost and biogas and the corresponding greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, considering three possible scenarios: A reference scenario (Sr ) where 24 100 Tons of urban solid waste per year is transported from the city houses and buildings to a transfer landfill and then to the a final disposal landfill; a scenario number one (S1 ) in which the same fraction of waste is transported to the Compost plant and transformed to compost and a scenario number two (S2 ) where the same quantity of waste is used for the production of biogas (and compost). Applying the IPCC 2006 Model, we compare the results of the annual GHG emissions, in order to select the best alternative: to expand the Compost plant or to build a Biogas (plus compost) plant. We also discussed the extension of the present analysis to the situation in which all the capability of the Compost plant (25% of the 2016 waste production of the city) is used and the impact these plants are having for a better quality of life of persons involved in the informal waste activity.

  14. Sustainable valorisation of organic urban wastes : insights from African case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheinberg, A.; Agathos, N.; Gachugi, J.W.; Kirai, P.; Alumasa, V.; Shah, B.; Woods, M.; Waarts, Y.R.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the problems and potentials of the organic waste stream is perhaps the single most important step that city authorities in Africa could take in moving towards sustainable, affordable, effective and efficient waste management. This publication presents four examples of recent attempts

  15. Dynamic bioconversion mathematical modelling and simulation of urban organic waste co-digestion in continuously stirred tank reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Boldrin, Alessio; Dorini, G.

    of this study was to apply a dynamic mathematical model to simulate the co-digestion of different urban organic wastes (UOW). The modelling was based on experimental activities, during which two reactors (R1, R2) were operated at hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 30, 20, 15, 10 days, in thermophilic conditions......The application of anaerobic digestion (AD) as process technology is increasing worldwide: the production of biogas, a versatile form of renewable energy, from biomass and organic waste materials allows mitigating greenhouse gas emission from the energy and transportation sectors while treating...... waste. However, the successful operation of AD processes is challenged by economic and technological issues. To overcome these barriers, mathematical modelling of the bioconversion process can provide support to develop strategies for controlling and optimizing the AD process. The objective...

  16. The influence of institutions and organizations on urban waste collection systems: an analysis of waste collection system in Accra, Ghana (1985-2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fobil, Julius N; Armah, Nathaniel A; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Carboo, Derick

    2008-01-01

    Urban waste collection system is a pivotal component of all waste management schemes around the world. Therefore, the efficient performance and the success of these schemes in urban pollution control rest on the ability of the collection systems to fully adapt to the prevailing cultural and social contexts within which they operate. Conceptually, institutions being the rules guiding the conduct of public service provision and routine social interactions, waste collection systems embedded in institutions can only realize their potentials if they fully evolve continuously to reflect evolving social and technical matrices underlying the cultures, organizations, institutions and social conditions they are designed to address. This paper is a product of an analysis of waste collection performance in Ghana under two different institutional and/or organizational regimes; from an initial entirely public sector dependence to a current mix of public-private sector participation drawing on actual planning data from 1985 to 2000. The analysis found that the overall performance of waste collection services in Ghana increased under the coupled system, with efficiency (in terms of total waste clearance and coverage of service provision) increasing rapidly with increased private-sector controls and levels of involvement, e.g. for solid waste, collection rate and disposal improved from 51% in 1998 to about 91% in the year 2000. However, such an increase in performance could not be sustained beyond 10 years of public-private partnerships. This analysis argues that the sustainability of improved waste collection efficiency is a function of the franchise and lease arrangements between private sector group on the one hand and public sector group (local authorities) on the other hand. The analysis therefore concludes that if such franchise and lease arrangements are not conceived out of an initial transparent process, such a provision could undermine the overall sustainability of

  17. Energy Contribution of OFMSW (Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste to Energy-Environmental Sustainability in Urban Areas at Small Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Di Matteo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban waste management is one of the most challenging issues in energy planning of medium and large cities. In addition to the traditional landfill method, many studies are investigating energy harvesting from waste, not as a panacea but as a foreseeable solution. Thermo-chemical conversion to biogas, or even bio-methane under certain conditions, could be an option to address this challenge. This study focuses on municipal solid waste conversion to biogas as a local energy supply for the cities. Three urban models and their subdivision into urban areas were identified along with a typical Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (OFMSW matrix for each urban area. Then, an energy analysis was carried out to provide an optimization map for an informed choice by urban policy-makers and stakeholders. The results highlighted how the urban context and its use could affect the opportunity to produce energy from waste or to convert it in fuel. So, in this case, sustainability means waste turning from a problem to a renewable resource.

  18. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  19. Sewage sludges compost and organic fraction urban solid waste from selective collection; Compostaje de lodos de depuradora y FORSU procedente de recogida selectiva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chica, A.; Diaz, M. M.; Mohedo, J.

    2001-07-01

    The organic fraction of urban solid waste (FORSU) from selective collection has been analysed to make a good quality compost for soils an agricultural use. Different mixtures of FORSU, sludge from the municipal water treatment plant, and pruning garden has been composted in turned windrow. The composting process and the obtained refined compost were characterised. The results on evolution of pH, conductivity, C/N relation, P, metals,-organic matter and recovery yield were related. (Author) 15 refs.

  20. Urban Waste Grease Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1999-03-17

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban waste grease resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Two major categories (yellow grease feedstock collected from restaurants by rendering companies; and grease trap wastes from restaurants, which can either be pumped into tank trucks for disposal or flow through municipal sewage systems into wastewater treatment plants) were considered in this study.

  1. Decentralized Urban Solid Waste Management in Indonesia | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban areas of Indonesia generate about 55 000 tonnes of solid waste per day, ... four models of decentralized solid waste management in low-income urban ... En partenariat avec l'Organization for Women in Science for the Developing ...

  2. Feasibility of a Dual-Fuel Engine Fuelled with Waste Vegetable Oil and Municipal Organic Fraction for Power Generation in Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Simio

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass, in form of residues and waste, can be used to produce energy with low environmental impact. It is important to use the feedstock close to the places where waste are available, and with the shortest conversion pathway, to maximize the process efficiency. In particular waste vegetable oil and the organic fraction of municipal solid waste represent a good source for fuel production in urban areas. Dual fuel engines could be taken into consideration for an efficient management of these wastes. In fact, the dual fuel technology can achieve overall efficiencies typical of diesel engines with a cleaner exhaust emission. In this paper the feasibility of a cogeneration system fuelled with waste vegetable oil and biogas is discussed and the evaluation of performance and emissions is reported on the base of experimental activities on dual fuel heavy duty engine in comparison with diesel and spark ignition engines. The ratio of biogas potential from MSW and biodiesel potential from waste vegetable oil was estimated and it results suitable for dual fuel fuelling. An electric power installation of 70 kW every 10,000 people could be achieved.

  3. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-01-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system

  4. Characterization of urban solid waste in Chihuahua, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Guadalupe; Meneses, Montserrat; Ballinas, Lourdes; Castells, Francesc

    2008-12-01

    The characterization of urban solid waste generation is fundamental for adequate decision making in the management strategy of urban solid waste in a city. The objective of this study is to characterize the waste generated in the households of Chihuahua city, and to compare the results obtained in areas of the city with three different socioeconomic levels. In order to identify the different socioeconomic trends in waste generation and characterization, 560 samples of solid waste were collected during 1 week from 80 households in Chihuahua and were hand sorted and classified into 15 weighted fractions. The average waste generation in Chihuahua calculated in this study was 0.676 kg per capita per day in April 2006. The main fractions were: organic (48%), paper (16%) and plastic (12%). Results show an increased waste generation associated with the socioeconomic level. The characterization in amount and composition of urban waste is the first step needed for the successful implementation of an integral waste management system.

  5. Emissions from urban waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacha, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Indiscriminate emission of gases and fumes from improper storage, transport systems and wastes disposals have polluted the environment especially surface and underground water and air. This has irreversibly affects on the environment some of which can be devastating to life.Some of the potential adverse effects on environment include the ozone depletion, acid rain,soil degradation and climate change

  6. An Overview of Organic Waste in Composting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Aeslina Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviewed studies on the composting process of organic waste. Organic wastes are wastes that easily biodegradable. These wastes are produced from many sources such as agricultural waste, market waste, kitchen waste, urban solid food wastes and municipal solid waste. Without proper management, these waste could create several environment problem. Therefore, composting is the best low cost alternative solution to overcome this problem. Composting method can degrade all types of organic wastes like fruits, vegetables, plants, yard wastes and others. The composition from organic waste that could be used as nutrients for crops, soil additive and for environmental management. However, many factors can contribute to the quality of the compost products as different types of organic wastes have different concentrations of nutrients, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium (N, P, K which are the common macro nutrients present in fertilizers. The presences of heavy metals show how composts can be applied to soils without contributing any ill effect. In term of the factor affecting the composting process, temperature, pH, moisture contents and carbon nitrogen ratio (C:N are the main parameters that contribute to the efficiency of the composting process.

  7. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-01-01

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris

  8. A new strategy to maximize organic matter valorization in municipalities: Combination of urban wastewater with kitchen food waste and its treatment with AnMBR technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moñino, P; Aguado, D; Barat, R; Jiménez, E; Giménez, J B; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of treating the kitchen food waste (FW) jointly with urban wastewater (WW) in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) by anaerobic membrane technology (AnMBR). The experience was carried out in six different periods in an AnMBR pilot-plant for a total of 536days, varying the SRT, HRT and the food waste penetration factor (PF) of food waste disposers. The results showed increased methane production of up to 190% at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, compared with WW treatment only. FW COD and biodegradability were higher than in WW, so that the incorporation of FW into the treatment increases the organic load and the methane production and reduces sludge production (0.142 vs 0.614kgVSSkgremovedCOD -1 , at 70days SRT, 24h HRT and 80% PF, as compared to WW treatment only). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Organic waste treatment with organically modified clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.C.; Pancoski, S.E.; Alther, G.

    1989-01-01

    The use of organically modified clays in hazardous waste management applications offers a significant new and untapped potential. These clays may be used in the stabilization of organic wastes and organically contaminated soils, for waste water treatment, for oil spill control, for liner systems beneath fuel oil storage tanks, and as a component within liner systems of hazardous waste storage treatment and disposal facilities. Organically modified clays (organophilic clays) may be employed in each of these systems to adsorb organic waste constituents, enhancing the performance of the applications

  10. Organic waste incineration processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P. [CEA Valrho, Bagnols sur Ceze Cedex (France); Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2001-07-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and {alpha}-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  11. Organic waste incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemort, F.; Charvillat, J.P.; Nabot, J.P.; Chateauvieux, H.; Thiebaut, C.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear activities produce organic waste compatible with thermal processes designed to obtain a significant weight and volume reduction as well as to stabilize the inorganic residue in a form suitable for various interim storage or disposal routes. Several processes may be implemented (e.g. excess air, plasma, fluidized bed or rotating furnace) depending on the nature of the waste and the desired objectives. The authors focus on the IRIS rotating-kiln process, which was used for the first time with radioactive materials during the first half of 1999. IRIS is capable of processing highly chlorinated and α-contaminated waste at a rate of several kilograms per hour, while limiting corrosion due to chlorine as well as mechanical entrainment of radioactive particles in the off-gas stream. Although operated industrially, the process is under continual development to improve its performance and adapt it to a wider range of industrial applications. The main focus of attention today is on adapting the pyrolytic processes to waste with highly variable compositions and to enhance the efficiency of the off-gas purification systems. These subjects are of considerable interest for a large number of heat treatment processes (including all off-gas treatment systems) for which extremely durable, high-performance and low-flow electrostatic precipitators are now being developed. (author)

  12. An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

  13. Radioactive waste management of urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Z.; Gu, S.X.

    1993-01-01

    The several years experience of radioactive waste management in Shanghai of China shows that the centralized management is quite successful and effective. Rad waste generated in urban area would be treated with further concern in the respect of radiation and environmental protection. In this respect, there is a need for a professional organisation to undertake the necessary regulation, and demonstrate that high standards of design, planning, management and operation could be met. The experience in China is suitable to manage and dispose rad waste generated from the civil applications in urban area, and valuable to the developing country and area in particular. It is concluded that the centralized management of intermediate level and low level radioactive waste is an optimum choice for urban area

  14. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in old solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, J; Hernández, A J

    2012-03-01

    This study was designed to determine the state of polluted soils in the main landfills of the Community of Madrid (central Spain), as part of a continuous assessment of the impacts of urban solid waste (USW) landfills that were capped with a layer of soil 20 years ago. Our analysis of this problem has been highly conditioned by the constant re-use of many of the USW landfills, since they have never been the target of any specific restoration plan. Our periodical analysis of cover soils and soils from discharge areas of the landfills indicates soil pollution has worsened over the years. Here, we examined heavy metal, salts, and organic compounds in soil and surface water samples taken from 15 landfills in the Madrid region. Impacts of the landfill soil covers on nematode and plant diversity were also evaluated. These analyses continue to reveal the presence of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd) in soils, and salts (sulphates, chlorides and nitrates) in soils and surface waters. In addition, non-agricultural organic compounds, mainly aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons, often appeared in very high concentrations, and high levels of insecticides such as gamma-HCH (lindane) were also detected in soils. Around 50% of the water samples collected showed chemical demand of oxygen (CDO) values in excess of 150 mg/l. Traces of phenolic compounds were detected in some landfills, some of which exhibited high levels of 2-chlorophenol and pentachlorophenol. All these factors are conditioning both the revegetation of the landfill systems and the remediation of their slopes and terrestrial ecosystems arising in their discharge areas. This work updates the current situation and discusses risks for the health of the ecosystems, humans, domestic animals and wildlife living close to these landfills. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond energy efficiency, there are now urgent challenges around the supply of resources, materials, energy, food and water. After debating energy efficiency for the last decade, the focus has shifted to include further resources and material efficiency. In this context, urban farming has emerged as a valid urban design strategy, where food is produced and consumed locally within city boundaries, turning disused sites and underutilized public space into productive urban landscapes and community gardens. Furthermore, such agricultural activities allow for effective composting of organic waste, returning nutrients to the soil and improving biodiversity in the urban environment. Urban farming and resource recovery will help to feed the 9 billion by 2050 (predicted population growth, UN-Habitat forecast 2009. This paper reports on best practice of urban design principles in regard to materials flow, material recovery, adaptive re-use of entire building elements and components (‘design for disassembly’; prefabrication of modular building components, and other relevant strategies to implement zero waste by avoiding waste creation, reducing wasteful consumption and changing behaviour in the design and construction sectors. The paper touches on two important issues in regard to the rapid depletion of the world’s natural resources: the built environment and the education of architects and designers (both topics of further research. The construction and demolition (C&D sector: Prefabricated multi-story buildings for inner-city living can set new benchmarks for minimizing construction wastage and for modular on-site assembly. Today, the C&D sector is one of the main producers of waste; it does not engage enough with waste minimization, waste avoidance and recycling. Education and research: It’s still unclear how best to introduce a holistic understanding of these challenges and to better teach practical and affordable solutions to architects, urban

  16. The Impact of Urban Solid Waste Management on Urban Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    خالد عبد الوهاب

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The growing population and the rising standard of living in cities as well as the increased commercial, industrial and agricultural activities around the world led to massive production of waste containing different materials and one of them is the municipal solid waste (MSW, so there is a major problem facing the cities around the world about the waste, how to collect, transfer it and how to discard it. Because the accumulation of wastes, whether in the city alleys or in its squares and especially in its residential areas affect the health of their populations besides this situation will be a major indication of the deteriorating quality of life in the city, as hygiene considered a fundamental criterion for the city beauty as well as an indication of the protection provided by the city to their environment and the level of protection provided to the health of city residence. The accumulated waste which is left in the city without treatment significantly affects the psychological behavior of the residence of these areas towards their community and environment and therefore their behavior towards their regions and their cities. From here emerged the general research problem concerning the modern civilization and its lifestyle that produced great amounts of (municipal solid waste, which became a big problem facing the modern cities concerning their collection, transportation and finally their disposal, how can these great amounts of waste be used whether by recycling, energy recovery or transferring to plant fertilizers ... etc. To serve the sustainable growth of these modern cities, this lead to the specific research problem concerning the lack of clarity concerning the impact of waste collection, transporting and treating and city urban environment and its townscape. Research Hypothesis: The process of collecting, transporting and. treating city solid waste or using it has a great impact on city urban environment and its townscape.

  17. Landfill gas from solid urban waste - an opportunity evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gramatikov, Plamen; Kovachev, Vassil; Gramatikova, Marija

    2004-01-01

    The problems (technical, economic, social etc.) which have to be solved by municipal waste treatment, especially in Central/East European towns, are discussed in this work. Percentages of products and calorific values of the main solid organic wastes are estimated. Different urban waste utilisation methods - Landfills Anaerobic digestion, Incineration, Refuse-derived fuels, Pyrolysis and Gasification are comment in this paper. These methods are compared using the town of Blagoevgrad (Bulgaria) as an example. It is round that a well established landfill gas production technology offers simplicity of collection (such as is practised in most of low and moderately developed countries like Bulgaria), relatively simple operation and maintenance, improvement of the environmental protection and of the energy production (based on the local disposal and renewable energy sources) and is more feasible for the East European urban concentrations. (Author)

  18. Immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3-month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  19. Decontamination of organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulz, W.

    1977-01-01

    Decontamination stands for the sack collecting of wc-waste water of nuclear-medical tracts and especially the collecting of primary urine and primary faeces of patients after application of radio-isotopes (e.g. iodine 131). They are tied up in the sacks, treated with antiseptic and decomposition-preventing agents, and finally stored in a decupation depot over the time constant. The decupation depot can, for example, be a deep-freezor with separations and clocks, which is radiation-isolated. After the time constant a chemical and/or physical destruction (e.g. comminution) takes place, with simultaneous disinfection and thawing (vapour heating) and the transfer to the canalization. (DG) [de

  20. Discovering the energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes: An input–output model for a metropolis case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Junnian; Yang, Wei; Li, Zhaoling; Higano, Yoshiro; Wang, Xian’en

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating various urban wastes and technologies. • Waste-to-energy industries are formed and introduced into current socioeconomic system. • A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis. • Complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes are discovered. - Abstract: Tremendous amounts of wastes are generated in urban areas due to accelerating industrialization and urbanization. The current unreasonable waste disposal patterns and potential energy value of urban wastes necessitates the promotion of waste-to-energy implementation. This study is intent on discovering the complete energy, economic and environmental potentials of urban wastes taking municipal solid wastes, waste oil, organic wastewater and livestock manure into consideration. A waste-to-energy system is constructed incorporating these wastes and five waste-to-energy technologies. A novel input–output simulation model is developed and applied to a metropolis to introduce the waste-to-energy system into the current socioeconomic system and form five waste-to-energy industries. The trends in waste generation and energy recovery potential, economic benefits and greenhouse gas mitigation contribution for the study area are estimated and explored from 2011 to 2025. By 2025, biodiesel production and power generation could amount to 72.11 thousand t and 1.59 billion kW h respectively. Due to the highest energy recovery and the most subsidies, the organic wastewater biogas industry has the highest output and net profit, followed by the waste incineration power generation industry. In total 17.97 million t (carbon dioxide-equivalent) accumulative greenhouse gas emission could be mitigated. The organic wastewater biogas industry and waste incineration power generation industry are more advantageous for the study area in terms of better energy, economic and environmental performances. The

  1. Organic diagenesis in commercial nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The nuclear industry currently faces numerous challenges. Large volumes of already existing wastes must be permanently disposed using environmentally acceptable technologies. Numerous criteria must be addressed before wastes can be permanently disposed. Waste characterization is certainly one of the key criteria for proper waste management. some wastes are complex melting pots of inorganics, radiochemicals, and, occasionally, organics. It is clear, for example, that organics have been used extensively in nuclear operations, such as waste reprocessing, and continue to be used widely as solvents, decontamination agents, etc. The authors have analyzed the organic content of many kinds of nuclear wastes, ranging from commercial to defense wastes. In this paper, the finale analyses are described of three commercial wastes: one waste from a pressurized water reactor (PWR) and two wastes from a boiling water reactor (BWR). The PWR waste is a boric acid concentrate waste. The two BWR wastes, BWR wastes Nos. 1 and 2, are evaporator concentrates of liquid wastes produced during the regeneration of ion-exchange resins used to purify reactor process water. In preliminary analyses, which were reported previously, a few know organics and myriad unknowns were detected. Recent reexamination of mass-spectral data, coupled with reanalysis of the wastes, has resulted in the firm identification of the unknowns. Most of the compounds, over thirty distinct organics, are derived from the degradation, or diagenesis, of source-term organics, revealing, for the first time, that organic diagenesis in commercial wastes is both vigorous and varied

  2. Electrochemical oxidation of organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almon, A.C.; Buchanan, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Both silver catalyzed and direct electrochemical oxidation of organic species are examined in analytical detail. This paper describes the mechanisms, reaction rates, products, intermediates, capabilities, limitations, and optimal reaction conditions of the electrochemical destruction of organic waste. A small bench-top electrocell being tested for the treatment of small quantities of laboratory waste is described. The 200-mL electrochemical cell used has a processing capacity of 50 mL per day, and can treat both radioactive and nonradioactive waste. In the silver catalyzed process, Ag(I) is electrochemically oxidized to Ag(II), which attacks organic species such as tributylphosphate (TBP), tetraphenylborate (TPB), and benzene. In direct electrochemical oxidation, the organic species are destroyed at the surface of the working electrode without the use of silver as an electron transfer agent. This paper focuses on the destruction of tributylphosphate (TBP), although several organic species have been destroyed using this process. The organic species are converted to carbon dioxide, water, and inorganic acids

  3. Organic Carbon Storage in China's Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuqing; Zhu, Chao; Zhou, Decheng; Huang, Dian; Werner, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    China has been experiencing rapid urbanization in parallel with its economic boom over the past three decades. To date, the organic carbon storage in China's urban areas has not been quantified. Here, using data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks, we estimated that total carbon storage in China's urban areas was 577±60 Tg C (1 Tg  = 1012 g) in 2006. Soil was the largest contributor to total carbon storage (56%), followed by buildings (36%), and vegetation (7%), while carbon storage in humans was relatively small (1%). The carbon density in China's urban areas was 17.1±1.8 kg C m−2, about two times the national average of all lands. The most sensitive variable in estimating urban carbon storage was urban area. Examining urban carbon storages over a wide range of spatial extents in China and in the United States, we found a strong linear relationship between total urban carbon storage and total urban area, with a specific urban carbon storage of 16 Tg C for every 1,000 km2 urban area. This value might be useful for estimating urban carbon storage at regional to global scales. Our results also showed that the fraction of carbon storage in urban green spaces was still much lower in China relative to western countries, suggesting a great potential to mitigate climate change through urban greening and green spaces management in China. PMID:23991014

  4. Organic analyses of mixed nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Lucke, R.B.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.; Hendren, D.J.; Myers, R.B.

    1987-04-01

    Analytical methods are being developed for the organic analysis of nuclear wastes. Our laboratory analyzed the organic content of three commercial wastes and an organic-rich, complex concentrate waste. The commercial wastes contained a variety of hydrophobic and hydrophilic organics, at concentrations ranging from nanomolar to micromolar. Alkyl phenols, chelating and complexing agents, as well as their degradation products, and carboxylic acids were detected in the commercial wastes. The complex concentrate waste contained chelating and complexing agents, as well as numerous degradation products, at millimolar concentrations. 75.1% of the complex concentrate waste's total organic carbon content has been identified. The presence of chelator fragments in all of the wastes analyzed, occasionally at elevated concentrations, indicates that organic diagenesis, or degradation, in nuclear wastes is both widespread and quite vigorous. 23 refs., 3 tabs

  5. Thermal treatment of organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chrubasik, A.; Stich, W.

    1993-01-01

    The organic radioactive waste which is generated in nuclear and isotope facilities (power plants, research centers and other) must be treated in order to achieve a waste form suitable for long term storage and disposal. Therefore the resulting waste treatment products should be stable under influence of temperature, time, radioactivity, chemical and biological activity. Another reason for the treatment of organic waste is the volume reduction with respect to the storage costs. For different kinds of waste, different treatment technologies have been developed and some are now used in industrial scale. The paper gives process descriptions for the treatment of solid organic radioactive waste of low beta/gamma activity and alpha-contaminated solid organic radioactive waste, and the pyrolysis of organic radioactive waste

  6. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  7. ORGANIC WASTE USED IN AGRICULTURAL BIOGAS PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Kazimierowicz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of organic waste is an ecological and economical problem. Searching method for disposal of these wastes, interest is methane fermentation. The use of this process in agricultural biogas plants allows disposal of hazardous waste, obtaining valuable fertilizer, while the production of ecologically clean fuel – biogas. The article presents the characteristics of organic waste from various industries, which make them suitable for use as substrates in agricultural biogas plants.

  8. Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varavipour, M.; Akhondi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

  9. Biogas. Biofuels. Urban waste. Solid biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The European production of primary energy from biogas reached 7.5*10 6 toe in 2008, it means a 4.4% increase on 2007. The bio-fuel consumption rose to 10.5 Mtoe in 2008, i.e. 2.5 Mtoe more than in 2007, this 31.4% growth seems relatively slow when compared with previous performances of 45.7% (between 2006 and 2007) and 70.9% (between 2005 and 2006). Primary energy production by combustion of renewable municipal solid waste in the European Union rose slightly in 2008 by 3% over 2007 to reach 6806 ktoe. The solid biomass that is made up of wood and its waste in addition to organic and animal waste was one of renewable energy production's safe bets. The primary energy production from this sector rose by 4.6% and reached 70292 ktoe. In all the renewable energy sources we have reviewed Germany ranks first in terms of global production. (A.C.)

  10. Decentralized Urban Solid Waste Management in Indonesia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Urban areas of Indonesia generate about 55 000 tonnes of solid waste per day, an amount that ... The lessons learned and best (and worst) practices will be compiled, ... development and production to benefit farmers across the Global South.

  11. Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adverse Effects of Waste Generation in Calabar Urban, Nigeria. ... degradation, blocking of drainage and emission of greenhouse gases. We found a number of health hazards, ranging from pollution to diseases on both human and animals.

  12. Characterization of urban waste management practices in developing Asian countries: A new analytical framework based on waste characteristics and urban dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleluia, João; Ferrão, Paulo

    2016-12-01

    This paper characterizes municipal solid waste (MSW) management practices in developing Asia, with a focus on low and middle-income countries. The analysis that is conducted supports a proposed framework that maps out the trends observed in the region in relation to two parameters, waste compositions and urban dimension, which was prepared based on a set of national and urban case studies. The management of MSW in developing Asian countries is driven, first and foremost, by a public health imperative: the collection and disposal of waste in order to avoid the spread of disease vectors from uncollected waste. This comes, however, at a high cost, with local government authorities in these countries spending up to 50% of their budgets in the provision of these services. Little or no value is derived from waste, which is typically seen as a liability and not as a resource that can be harnessed. On the other hand, in many cities in developing Asia there is an informal sector that ekes out a living from the recovery of recyclable materials found in waste. Members of this "informal waste sector" are especially active in areas that are not served by formal waste collection systems, such as slums or squatter areas. A distinctive element shared among many cities in developing Asian countries concerns the composition of the municipal solid waste. MSW in those countries tends to be richer in biodegradable organic matter, which usually accounts for more than 50% of the total waste composition, suggesting that biological methods are more appropriate for treating this organic fraction. Conversely, thermal combustion technologies, which are extensively applied in high-income countries, are technically and economically challenging to deploy in light of the lower calorific value of waste streams which are rich in organics and moisture. Specific approaches and methods are therefore required for designing adequate waste management systems in developing Asian countries. In addition

  13. Managing the Monster: Urban Waste and Governance in Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Managing the Monster critically examines urban governance in Africa, with ... in African studies and urban planning; donor organizations worldwide working on ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  14. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Lăcătuşu Radu; Căpăţână Romeo; Lăcătuşu Anca-Rovena

    2016-01-01

    The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33%) of...

  15. Harmful organisms in urban green areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanousková, Irena; Boháč, Jaroslav; Sedláček, František; Šerá, Božena; Lepšová, A.; Zacharda, Miloslav

    -, č. 23 (2004), s. 58-68 ISSN 1335-342X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC C11.001 Grant - others:ÚEK AV ČR(CZ) OC C11.001 Program:OC Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : urban green areas, harmful organisms, management, * planning Subject RIV: AP - Urban, Regional and Transport Planning

  16. Method of decomposing radioactive organic solvent wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To decompose radioactive organic solvent wastes or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom into organic materials under moderate conditions, as well as greatly decrease the amount of secondary wastes generated. Method: Radioactive organic solvent wastes comprising an organic phosphoric acid ester ingredient and a hydrocarbon ingredient as a diluent therefor, or radioactive hydrocarbon solvents separated therefrom are oxidatively decomposed by hydrogen peroxide in an aqueous phosphoric acid solution of phosphoric acid metal salts finally into organic materials to perform decomposing treatment for the radioactive organic solvent wastes. The decomposing reaction is carried out under relatively moderate conditions and cause less burden to facilities or the likes. Further, since the decomposed liquid after the treatment can be reused for the decomposing reaction as a catalyst solution secondary wastes can significantly be decreased. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Waste minimization via destruction of hazardous organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is developing technologies that are capable of destroying hazardous organics, that is, converting them basically to water and carbon dioxide. If these technologies were incorporated into the main processing operation where the waste is produced, then the volume and toxicity of the hazardous or mix hazardous waste generated would be significantly reduced. This presentation will briefly discuss some of the waste treatment technologies under development at Los Alamos National Laboratory focused on destroying hazardous organics

  18. Factors Influencing Household Solid Waste Management in Urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main objective of this study was to determine factors that influence household solid waste management practices in urban Nyeri Municipality. Descriptive cross- sectional ... Results from the survey showed that 26.2% of households practiced correct methods of household solid waste management. The percentage of ...

  19. Repeated application of organic waste affects soil organic matter composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltre, Clément; Gregorich, Edward G.; Bruun, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Land application of organic waste is an important alternative to landfilling and incineration because it helps restore soil fertility and has environmental and agronomic benefits. These benefits may be related to the biochemical composition of the waste, which can result in the accumulation...... of different types of carbon compounds in soil. The objective of this study was to identify and characterise changes in soil organic matter (SOM) composition after repeated applications of organic waste. Soil from the CRUCIAL field experiment in Denmark was sampled after 12 years of annual application...... that there was accumulation in soil of different C compounds for the different types of applied organic waste, which appeared to be related to the degree to which microbial activity was stimulated and the type of microbial communities applied with the wastes or associated with the decomposition of applied wastes...

  20. Urban tree effects on soil organic carbon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill L Edmondson

    Full Text Available Urban trees sequester carbon into biomass and provide many ecosystem service benefits aboveground leading to worldwide tree planting schemes. Since soils hold ∼75% of ecosystem organic carbon, understanding the effect of urban trees on soil organic carbon (SOC and soil properties that underpin belowground ecosystem services is vital. We use an observational study to investigate effects of three important tree genera and mixed-species woodlands on soil properties (to 1 m depth compared to adjacent urban grasslands. Aboveground biomass and belowground ecosystem service provision by urban trees are found not to be directly coupled. Indeed, SOC enhancement relative to urban grasslands is genus-specific being highest under Fraxinus excelsior and Acer spp., but similar to grasslands under Quercus robur and mixed woodland. Tree cover type does not influence soil bulk density or C∶N ratio, properties which indicate the ability of soils to provide regulating ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and flood mitigation. The trends observed in this study suggest that genus selection is important to maximise long-term SOC storage under urban trees, but emerging threats from genus-specific pathogens must also be considered.

  1. Organizing waste reduction in the Dutch waste sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Jong, P.T.

    2000-01-01

    Many organizations in the Netherlands are concerned with the collection, treatment and disposal of waste (either by tipping or incineration). They make up what is called the refuse market, and they all have their own business interests. What they have in common is that their internal objectives are not necessarily concerned with limiting the size or altering the composition of refuse streams. On the contrary, the organizations have an interest in the destination of waste streams. Besides the market-oriented organization, the waste sector also comprises various tiers of government, policy support groups and pressure and lobby organizations. All these organizations have their own different sets of interests. In other words, the refuse sector in the Netherlands is complex. The research project on 'Organizing Waste Reduction in the Dutch Waste Sector' focuses on the structure of the sector: the organizations, the relations between them, and organizational factors such as tariff systems, ownership relations and the market situation. An important question, which the research seeks to answer, is whether a modification in the structure of the sector can lead to the encouragement of reduction in the quantity of waste

  2. Treatment of radioactive organics liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales Galarce, Tania

    1999-01-01

    Because of the danger that radioactive wastes can pose to society and to the environment a viable treatment alternative must be developed to prepare these wastes for final disposal. The waste studied in this work is a liquid organic waste contaminated with the radioisotope tritium. This must be treated and then changed into solid form in a 200 liter container. This study defined an optimum formulation that immobilizes the liquid waste. The organic waste is first submitted to an absorption treatment, with Celite absorbent, which had the best physical characteristics from the point of view of radioactive waste management. Then this was solidified by forming a cement mortar, using a highly resistant local cement, Polpaico 400. Various mixes were tested, with different water/cement, waste/absorbent and absorbed waste/cement ratios, until a mixture that met the quality control requirements was achieved. The optimum mixture obtained has a water/cement ratio of 0.35 (p/p) that is the amount of water needed to make the mixture workable, and minimum water for hydrating the cement; a waste/absorbent ration of 0.5 (v/v), where the organic liquid is totally absorbed, and is incorporated in the solid's crystalline network; and an absorbed waste/cement ratio of 0.8 (p/p), which represents the minimum amount of cement needed to obtain a solid product with the required mechanical resistance. The mixture's components join together with no problem, to produce a good workable mixture. It takes about 10 hours for the mixture to harden. After 14 days, the resulting solid product has a resistance to compression of 52 Kgf/cm2. The formulation contains 22.9% immobilized organic waste, 46.5% cement, 14.3% Celite and 16.3% water. Organic liquid waste can be treated and a solid product obtained, that meets the qualitative and quantitative parameters required for its disposal. (CW)

  3. Heavy metals, salts and organic residues in solid urban waste landfills and surface waters in their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their discharge areas: determinants for restoring their impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, A. J.; Pastor, J.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes a continuous assessment of the impact of solid urban waste (SUW) landfills in the central Iberian Peninsula that were sealed with a layer of soil 20 years ago. cover soils and soils from discharge areas have been periodically analysed. Soil concentrations of salts and heavy metals affect the biotic components of these ecosystems. (Author)

  4. Microbial population dynamics in urban organic waste anaerobic co-digestion with mixed sludge during a change in feedstock composition and different hydraulic retention times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Treu, Laura; Boldrin, Alessio

    2017-01-01

    -degrading Clostridium were the significantly more abundant bacteria in the reactor fed with an increased share of lignocellulosic biomass in the form of grass clippings and garden waste. Finally, microbes belonging to Coprothermobacter, Syntrophomonas and Clostridium were correlated significantly with the specific...

  5. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  6. Organic fraction of solid waste in biodigester; Fracao organica de lixo urbano como substrato para biodigestor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorgati, Claudia Q. [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agronomicas. Curso de Pos-graduacao em Energia na Agricultura; Lucas Junior, Jorge de [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Engenharia Rural

    1999-12-01

    The study of the anaerobic digestion was accomplished with the organic fraction of urban solid waste collected at the composting plant - CONSTRUFERT- from the municipal district of Sao Jose do Rio Preto - SP. The essay was conducted in six bio digesters at the Rural Engineering Department of the Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias, in Jaboticabal/SP, three of them with fresh urban organic waste and remaining ones with dried and ground material. With regard to the anaerobic digestion the biogas production was monitored and the data indicated the energetic potential of urban waste, which was found to be 0.1034 - 0.1395 m{sup 3}/Kg of raw urban waste with reduction of volatile solids between 56 and 66.50%. (author)

  7. HUMIC ACID-LIKE MATTER ISOLATED FROM GREEN URBAN WASTES. PART I: STRUCTURE AND SURFACTANT PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Montoneri

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A humic acid-like substance (cHAL2 isolated from urban green wastes before composting was compared to a humic acid-like substance (cHAL isolated from a mix of urban organic humid waste fraction and green residues composted for 15 days. cHAL2 was found to contain more aliphatic and O-alkyl C atoms relative to aromatic, phenol, and carboxyl C atoms, and to yield higher critical micellar concentration (cmc = 0.97 g L-1 and surface tension at the cmc (cmc = 37.8 mN/min water than cHAL (cmc = 0.40 g L-1; cmc = 36.1 mN/m. The results point out that biomass wastes may be an interesting source of biosurfactants with diversified properties that depend on the nature of waste and on its process of treatment.

  8. Vitrification of organics-containing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, D.F.

    1997-01-01

    A process is described for stabilizing organics-containing waste materials and recovering metals therefrom, and a waste glass product made according to the process is also disclosed. Vitrification of wastes such as organic ion exchange resins, electronic components and the like can be accomplished by mixing at least one transition metal oxide with the wastes, and, if needed, glass formers to compensate for a shortage of silicates or other glass formers in the wastes. The transition metal oxide increases the rate of oxidation of organic materials in the wastes to improve the composition of the glass-forming mixture: at low temperatures, the oxide catalyzes oxidation of a portion of the organics in the waste; at higher temperatures, the oxide dissolves and the resulting oxygen ions oxidize more of the organics; and at vitrification temperatures, the metal ions conduct oxygen into the melt to oxidize the remaining organics. In addition, the transition metal oxide buffers the redox potential of the glass melt so that metals such as Au, Pt, Ag, and Cu separate from the melt in the metallic state and can be recovered. After the metals are recovered, the remainder of the melt is allowed to cool and may subsequently be disposed of. The product has good leaching resistance and can be disposed of in an ordinary landfill, or, alternatively, used as a filler in materials such as concrete, asphalt, brick and tile. 1 fig

  9. Urban solid waste challenges in the BRICS countries: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriani Tavares Tenório Gonçalves

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban Solid Waste Management (USWM is a worldwide challenge. The problems faced are even greater due to the disproportional increase of Urban Solid Waste (USW generation in volume, especially in a context of increased urbanization, population growth and economic globalization in the BRICS countries (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. In this context, the objective of this work is to analyze the status of MSW management in the BRICS countries, as well as to promote an exchange of experience and management strategies, pointing out possible ways to improve USWM systems that have to be adapted to each local reality. Focusing on this, a systematic literature revision was carried out through a bibliometric analysis. Results showed that the management system of these BRICS countries does not possess well-developed structures. The collection stage is quite often inefficient, the solid waste being stored in inappropriate ways and also disposed of in irregular locations. The participation of the informal sector is a trademark characteristic in USWM for BRICS countries, highlighting the need to integrate and formalize these activities for USW collection. Due to the high organic fraction, it is known that composting offers advantages as a way to promote a better use of organic waste and also as a means of reducing the amount of waste sent to sanitary landfills. Finally, with a better knowledge about solid waste generation and decentralization of the offered services, the decision makers will be able to successfully provide this essential public service.

  10. Organic household waste - incineration or recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    The Danish Environmental Protection Agency has carried out a cost benefit analysis of the consequences of increasing recycling of organic household waste. In the cost benefit analysis both the economic consequences for the affected parties and the welfare-economic consequences for the society as a whole have been investigated. In the welfare-economic analysis the value of the environmental effects has been included. The analysis shows that it is more expensive for the society to recycle organic household waste by anaerobic digestion or central composting than by incineration. Incineration is the cheapest solution for the society, while central composting is the most expensive. Furthermore, technical studies have shown that there are only small environmental benefits connected with anaerobic digestion of organic waste compared with incineration of the waste. The primary reason for recycling being more expensive than incineration is the necessary, but cost-intensive, dual collection of the household waste. Treatment itself is cheaper for recycling compared to incinerating. (BA)

  11. Advanced Conversion of Organic Waste into Biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offenbacher, Elmar [BDI-BioEnergy International AG, Grambach/Graz (Austria)

    2012-11-01

    Day by day, every human generates significant amounts of organic waste that most of the time ends on landfills. Disposing of organic residues is not just a waste of energy resources but also a burden to the environment as anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are produced. In contrast to waste combustion that can't generate any energy out of organic waste but the contrary, anaerobic digestion is the most suitable technology for the sustainable and efficient conversion of all kind of organic waste into valuable biogas. Biogas generated from organic waste typically consists of 55-60% methane (CH{sub 4}) and provides an energy content of more than 20 MJ/Nm{sup 3}. The average biogas yield is around 150 Nm{sup 3} per ton of organic waste that can be converted into 350 kW of electricity plus the same amount of process heat. In other words a typical household could recover about one twentieth of its power consumption just out of the organic waste it is producing. Anaerobic digestion significantly reduces the amount of waste going to landfill as well as the uncontrolled emissions of methane. The BDI High Load Hybrid Reactor merges the core concepts of CSTR and UASB fermenters while providing a two phase anaerobic digestion system. The first process step accommodates hydrolysis and acidification to break down the complex organic molecules into simple sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids under acid conditions. In the second stage acetic acids are finally converted into methane (CH{sub 4}), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and water. This two-phase concept ensures maximum yield of biogas generated, paired with high loading rates and feedstock flexibility.

  12. Organic waste processing using molten salt oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, M. G., LLNL

    1998-03-01

    Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO) is a thermal means of oxidizing (destroying) the organic constituents of mixed wastes, hazardous wastes, and energetic materials while retaining inorganic and radioactive constituents in the salt. For this reason, MSO is considered a promising alternative to incineration for the treatment of a variety of organic wastes. The U. S. Department of Energy`s Office of Environmental Management (DOE/EM) is currently funding research that will identify alternatives to incineration for the treatment of organic-based mixed wastes. (Mixed wastes are defined as waste streams which have both hazardous and radioactive properties.) One such project is Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Expedited Technology Demonstration of Molten Salt Oxidation (MSO). The goal of this project is to conduct an integrated demonstration of MSO, including off-gas and spent salt treatment, and the preparation of robust solid final forms. Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has constructed an integrated pilot-scale MSO treatment system in which tests and demonstrations are presently being performed under carefully controlled (experimental) conditions. The system consists of a MSO process vessel with dedicated off-gas treatment, a salt recycle system, feed preparation equipment, and equipment for preparing ceramic final waste forms. In this paper we describe the integrated system and discuss its capabilities as well as preliminary process demonstration data. A primary purpose of these demonstrations is to identify the most suitable waste streams and waste types for MSO treatment.

  13. Leaching tests of cemented organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calabria, Jaqueline A. Almeida; Haucz, Maria Judite A.; Tello, Cledola Cassia O.

    2011-01-01

    The use of radioisotopes in research, medical and industrial activities generates organic liquid radioactive wastes. At Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) are produced organic liquid wastes from different sources, one of these are the solvent extraction activities, whose the waste volume is the largest one. Therefore a research was carried out to treat them. Several techniques to treat organic liquid radioactive wastes have been evaluated, among them incineration, oxidation processes, alkaline hydrolysis, distillation, absorption and cementation. Laboratory experiments were accomplished to establish the most adequate process in order to obtain qualified products for storage and disposal. Absorption followed by cementation was the procedure used in this study, i.e. absorbent substances were added to the organic liquid wastes before mixing with the cement. Initially were defined the absorbers, and evaluated the formulation in relation to the compressive strength of its products. Bentonite from different suppliers (B and G) and vermiculite in two granulometries (M - medium and F - small) were tested. In order to assess the product quality the specimens were submitted to the leaching test according the Standard ISO 6961 and its results were evaluated. Then they were compared with the values established by Standard CNEN NN 6.09 A cceptance criteria for waste products to be disposed , to verify if they meet the requirements for safely storage and disposal. Through this study the best formulations to treat the organic wastes were established. (author)

  14. The immobilization of organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1986-01-01

    This report describes a portland cement immobilization process for the disposal treatment of radioactive organic liquid wastes which would be generated in a FFTF fuels reprocessing line. An incineration system already on-hand was determined to be too costly to operate for the 100 to 400 gallons per year organic liquid. Organic test liquids were dispersed into an aqueous phosphate liquid using an emulsifier. A total of 109 gallons of potential and radioactive aqueous immiscible organic liquid wastes from Hanford 300 Area operations were solidified with portland cement and disposed of as solid waste during a 3 month test program with in-drum mixers. Waste packing efficiencies varied from 32 to 40% and included pump oils, mineral spirits, and TBP-NPH type solvents

  15. Energy use of biomass composed by agroforestry and organic matter from the urban solid waste and applicable techniques for better performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Frutos, Jose Luis; Iza Lopez, Jon Mario; Orella Saenz, Josu

    2009-01-01

    The energy crises, increase of the price of petroleum, fear to the shortage of supplies, shift towards more sustainable energy policies, make return the view towards renewable production systems of energy. A common error is to use the term 'biomass' like synonymous of energy, without considering that the relation between useful energy and biomass is as variable as variable they are the elements that can conform the biomass. The useful energy can be extracted of the biomass by two conduits: either by direct combustion, or by products obtained from the transformations of physical-chemistry-biological processes. The present work to try to analyze the power advantage of the biomass as mixture of residues of the wood, agricultural residues and the MO contained in the urban solid residues, as well as the main usable systems for its advantage. (author)

  16. Anaerobic digester for treatment of organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, V. K. [Indian Insitute of Technology, Delhi (India)]|[ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy); Fortuna, F.; Canditelli, M.; Cornacchia, G. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Matera (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente; Farina, R. [ENEA, centro Ricerche ``Ezio Clementel``, Bologna (Italy). Dipt. Ambiente

    1997-09-01

    The essential features of both new and more efficient reactor systems and their appropriate applications for various organic waste management situations, description of several working plants are discussed in the present communication. It is hoped that significant development reported here would be useful in opening a new vista to the application of anaerobic biotechnology for the waste treatment of both low/high organic strength and specialized treatment for toxic substances, using appropriate anaerobic methods.

  17. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  18. BIOGAS POTENTIAL OF ORGANIC WASTE IN NIGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chima C. Ngumah

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demerits of fossil fuels - its finitude and its negative impact on the environment and public health - renewable energy is becoming a favoured emerging alternative. For over a millennium anaerobic digestion (AD has been employed in treating organic waste (biomass. The two main products of anaerobic digestion, biogas and biofertilizer, are very important resources. Since organic wastes are always available and unavoidable too, anaerobic digestion provides an efficient means of converting organic waste to profitable resources. This paper elucidates the potential benefits of organic waste generated in Nigeria as a renewable source of biofuel and biofertilizer. The selected organic wastes studied in this work are livestock wastes (cattle excreta, sheep and goat excreta, pig excreta, poultry excreta; and abattoir waste, human excreta, crop residue, and municipal solid waste (MSW. Using mathematical computation based on standard measurements, Nigeria generates about 542.5 million tons of the above selected organic waste per annum. This in turn has the potential of yielding about 25.53 billion m³ of biogas (about 169 541.66 MWh and 88.19 million tons of biofertilizer per annum. Both have a combined estimated value of about N 4.54 trillion ($ 29.29 billion. This potential biogas yield will be able to completely displace the use of kerosene and coal for domestic cooking, and reduce the consumption of wood fuel by 66%. An effective biogas programme in Nigeria will also remarkably reduce environmental and public health concerns, deforestation, and greenhouse gas (GHG emissions.

  19. Hydrothermal processing of actinide contaminated organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worl, A.; Buelow, S.J.; Le, L.A.; Padilla, D.D.; Roberts, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is an innovative process for the destruction of organic wastes, that occurs above the critical temperature and pressure of water. The process provides high destruction and removal efficiencies for a wide variety of organic and hazardous substances. For aqueous/organic mixtures, organic materials, and pure organic liquids hydrothermal processing removes most of the organic and nitrate components (>99.999%) and facilitates the collection and separation of the actinides. We have designed, built and tested a hydrothermal processing unit for the removal of the organic and hazardous substances from actinide contaminated liquids and solids. Here we present results for the organic generated at the Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility

  20. Urban strategies for Waste Management in Tourist Cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Luca, Claudia; Perello, Michelle; Romein, Arie

    2017-01-01

    , tourism industry operators and tourists. The questionnaires directed to waste workers and tourism workers mostly aimed at understanding the influence of tourism in waste production and management of the pilot cases included in the URBANWASTE analysis. The analysis of this data will feed the urban......To further explore tourists’ waste behaviours and to contribute to fill this knowledge gap, the URBANWASTE project developed and circulated three surveys targeting three different categories considered relevant for providing a significant insight on waste and tourism value chains: waste workers...... metabolism analysis that is taking place in parallel within WP2 and will contribute to provide a comprehensive overview of the state of the art in terms of waste and tourism in the 11 pilots considered in URBANWASTE. Moreover, this integrated analysis will contribute to identify relations and pinpoint...

  1. Women play larger role in Latin America's commercial urban waste ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    21 juin 2016 ... The research examines the role women play in marketing urban waste as a commercial enterprise and their important contribution to municipal recyclable waste activities. This book ... De courts téléromans pour encourager l'éducation financière et l'inclusion des femmes au Pérou. Le fait de ne pas avoir ...

  2. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO2-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All

  3. Who owns urban waste? Appropriation conflicts in emerging countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavé, Jérémie

    2014-09-01

    Managing solid waste in developing cities is not an easy task and many public policies have failed to bring the expected results. It is here argued that comprehending the solid waste handling in the South implies reconsidering the proper definition of waste. Where does the product end and where does rubbish begin? The answer to this question is far from being obvious. Solid waste appears as a blurred concept. Such a thorny issue is all the more relevant today, as municipal solid waste management approaches in the developing world are being reformulated: dumping sites are banned, sanitary landfills are imposed, and separate collection is being introduced. The current sector transformations are here analysed through a novel theoretical analysis combined with an original qualitative and quantitative empirical work. Through two case-studies of one-million inhabitant cities from emerging countries, it is shown that if appropriation conflicts arise that is because the urban solid waste deposit in Southern countries can be defined as an impure public good. This issue does not only involve private service operators and informal wastepickers; several other actors covet the urban solid waste deposit's cream, that is, recyclable items. In emerging countries, huge industrial groups are starting to target domestic recyclable waste as an alternative for raw materials, which costs are increasing ever more. © The Author(s) 2014.

  4. Assessment of radiological properties of wastes from urban decontamination procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva, D.N.G.; Guimarães, J.R.D.; Rochedo, E.R.R.; Rochedo, P.R.R.; De Luca, C.

    2015-01-01

    One important activity associated to urban areas contaminated from accidental releases to the atmosphere of nuclear power plants is the management of radioactive wastes generated from decontamination procedures. This include the collection, conditioning, packing, transport and temporary/final disposition. The final destination is defined usually through a political decision. Thus, transport of packed radioactive wastes shall depend on decisions not just under the scope of radiological protection issues. However, the simulations performed to assess doses for the public and decontamination workers allows the estimate of radiological aspects related to the waste generated and these characteristics may be included in a multi-criteria decision tool aiming to support, under the radiological protection point of view, the decision-making process on post-emergency procedures. Important information to decision makers are the type, amount and activity concentration of wastes. This work describes the procedures to be included in the urban area model to account for the assessment of qualitative and quantitative description of wastes. The results will allow the classification of different procedures according to predefined criteria that shall then feed the multi-criteria assessment tool, currently under development, considering basic radiological protection aspects of wastes generated by the different available cleanup procedures on typical tropical urban environments. (authors)

  5. Benefits for agriculture and the environment from urban waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sortino, Orazio; Montoneri, Enzo; Patanè, Cristina; Rosato, Roberta; Tabasso, Silvia; Ginepro, Marco

    2014-07-15

    Soluble bio-based substances (SBO) that have been isolated from urban biowaste have recently been reported to enhance plant leaf chlorophyll content and growth. The same SBO have also been shown to enhance the photochemical degradation of organic pollutants in industrial effluent. These findings suggest that SBO may promote either C fixation or mineralization, according to operating conditions. The present work aims to investigate SBO performance, as a function of source material. Thus, three materials have been sampled from a municipal waste treatment plant: (i) the digestate of the anaerobic fermentation of a humid organic fraction, (ii) a whole vegetable compost made from gardening residues and (iii) compost made from a mixture of digestate, gardening residues and sewage sludge. These materials were hydrolyzed at pH13 and 60°C to yield SBO that display different chemical compositions. These products were applied to soil at 30, 145 and 500 kg ha(-1) doses for tomato cultivation. Soil and plant leaf chemical composition, plant growth, leaf chlorophyll content and CO2 exchange rate as well as fruit quality and production rate were measured. Although it did not affect the soil's chemical composition, SBO were found to significantly increase plant photosynthetic activity, growth and productivity up to the maximum value achieved at 145 kg ha(-1). The effects were analyzed as a function of SBO chemical composition and applied dose. The results of this work, compared with those of previous works, indicate that urban biowaste, if properly exploited, may furnish conjugate economic and environmental benefits, within a friendly sustainable ecosystem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbial utilisation of natural organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, V. K.; Smirnov, I. A.; Soldatov, P. E.; Korniushenkova, I. N.; Grinin, A. S.; Lykov, I. N.; Safronova, S. A.

    2004-03-01

    The waste management strategy for the future should meet the benefits of humanity safety, respect principals of planet ecology, and compatibility with other habitability systems. For these purpose the waste management technologies, relevant to application of the biodegradation properties of bacteria are of great value. The biological treatment method is based upon the biodegradation of organic substances by various microorganisms. The advantage of the biodegradation waste management in general: it allows to diminish the volume of organic wastes, the biological hazard of the wastes is controlled and this system may be compatible with the other systems. The objectives of our study were: to evaluate effectiveness of microbial biodegradation of non-pretreated substrate, to construct phneumoautomatic digester for organic wastes biodegradation and to study microbial characteristics of active sludge samples used as inoculi in biodegradation experiment. The technology of vegetable wastes treatment was elaborated in IBMP and BMSTU. For this purpose the special unit was created where the degradation process is activated by enforced reinvention of portions of elaborated biogas into digester. This technology allows to save energy normally used for electromechanical agitation and to create optimal environment for anaerobic bacteria growth. The investigations were performed on waste simulator, which imitates physical and chemical content of food wastes calculated basing on the data on food wastes of moderate Russian city. The volume of created experimental sample of digester is 40 l. The basic system elements of device are digesters, gas receiver, remover of drops and valve monitoring and thermal control system. In our testing we used natural food wastes to measure basic parameters and time of biodegradation process. The diminution rate of organic gained 76% from initial mass taking part within 9 days of fermentation. The biogas production achieved 46 l per 1 kg of substrate

  7. Students' Preconceptions about Urban Environmental Problems and Solid Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Membiela, Pedro; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined students' preconceptions about environmental problems in cities, particularly that of urban disposable waste. They found that students' ideas were dominated by what they perceived, without regard to existing interactions, and that students were unaware of the fundamental role of reuse and recycling in the solution of the disposal of solid…

  8. Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Focus Cities : Urban Waste Management in the City of Cochabamba (Bolivia). The city of ... Project status. Closed ... Studies. Inclusión social y económica de los recicladores en la gestión integrada de los residuos sólidos urbanos. 49088.

  9. Reducing construction waste: A study of urban infrastructure projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Magalhães, Ruane Fernandes; Danilevicz, Ângela de Moura Ferreira; Saurin, Tarcisio Abreu

    2017-09-01

    The construction industry is well-known for producing waste detrimental to the environment, and its impacts have increased with the development process of cities. Although there are several studies focused on the environmental impact of residential and commercial buildings, less knowledge is available regarding decreasing construction waste (CW) generation in urban infrastructure projects. This study presents best practices to reduce waste in the said projects, stressing the role of decision-making in the design stage and the effective management of construction processes in public sector. The best practices were identified from literature review, document analysis in 14 projects of urban infrastructure, and both qualitative and quantitative survey with 18 experts (architects and engineers) playing different roles on those projects. The contributions of these research are: (i) the identification of the main building techniques related to the urban design typologies analyzed; (ii) the identification of cause-effect relationships between the design choices and the CW generation diagnosis; (iii) the proposal of a checklist to support the decision-making process, that can be used as a control and evaluation instrument when developing urban infrastructure designs, focused on the construction waste minimization (CWM). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Ecosystem Approach to Urban Household Waste Management in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Ecosystem Approach to Urban Household Waste Management in the context of ... in Ecohealth (COPEH) supported by IDRC's Ecosystem Approaches to Human ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, ...

  11. The integral treatment of urban solid wastes. Experience at Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderon U, R.

    1995-01-01

    In this work, which is the origin of the urban solid wastes in a City, how is it classify and which are the most important methods for its elimination, once have been collected are presented. Statistics on the Spanish Case, how is the treatment system and which are the most representative methods for its elimination is describe

  12. Management of poultry waste and its implications on urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One important technique for soil management in most urban farms has been the use of poultry waste due to its perceived benefits.. In spite of these benefits, the management has been associated with pest and disease attacks on crops, environmental pollution and threats to public health .This situation has raised concern ...

  13. Urban observatories opportunities for environmental monitoring: solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Caldelas, R I; Corona Zambrano, E A

    2008-01-01

    Towns concentrate around 50% of world-wide population and the trend is oriented to underscore an urban profile of population. In addition, towns have become important for their economic contribution to the Gross Internal Product. The negative side of towns is the environmental and social impacts as a result of productive and domestic activities, besides the lack of available data. In order to overcome these shortcomings, the United Nations has established a project of urban monitoring throughout the Global Network of Urban Observatories; Mexico joined the project in 2005. The Local Urban Observatory of Mexicali has the task to produce information about cities that is useful to design public policies. Some of this information deals with a set of environmental indicators in the United Nations Habitat Agenda, which includes solid wastes. Therefore, this paper deals with two main topics; firstly, from the Habitat Agenda, a comparative urban analysis of waste production and coverage of domestic waste collection services; secondly, from the Local Agenda, the identification and ranking of environmental problems according to public perception coming from people involved in the municipal planning and decision making process. Results will be used to develop local indicators and public environmental policies.

  14. Geographic patterns of cigarette butt waste in the urban environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marah, Maacah; Novotny, Thomas E

    2011-05-01

    This reports the initial phase of a study to quantify the spatial pattern of cigarette butt waste in an urban environment. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was used to create a weighted overlay analysis model which was then applied to the locations of businesses where cigarettes are sold or are likely to be consumed and venues where higher concentrations of butts may be deposited. The model's utility was tested using a small-scale litter audit in three zip codes of San Diego, California. We found that cigarette butt waste is highly concentrated around businesses where cigarettes are sold or consumed. The mean number of butts for predicted high waste sites was 38.1 (SD 18.87), for predicted low waste sites mean 4.8 (SD 5.9), psales and consumption. A GIS and weighted overlay model may be a useful tool in predicting urban locations of greater and lesser amounts of cigarette butt waste. These data can in turn be used to develop economic cost studies and plan mitigation strategies in urban communities.

  15. The concern with the radioactive waste and the reality of the urban waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zancheta, Marcio Nestor; Jiurgiu, Paulo Adriano

    2009-01-01

    One of the greatest present urban challenges, faced by public administrators, legislators and technicians, is the management of urban waste. A significant part of it is still disposed of in an inadequate way that is aggressive to the environment and to society. Initially, this work starts with a brief history of aspects connected to urban waste, then, despite the lack of comprehensive information, quantities generated and associated factors, aspects and impacts referring to landfills, techniques related to the burning process and biological treatments, for specific types of waste, are analyzed. The final destination of almost the whole amount of waste collected worldwide is, also, approached herein. In parallel, after the discovery of radioactivity and its usage in different areas of activities, the destination of the radioactive waste, in a much smaller amount, however potentially much more dangerous, has also been an object of concern that is more in evidence than the problem related to urban waste, due to a strong negative media influence. After the comparison between volumes and impacts which are involved and considering that both represent environmental liability, a more detailed analysis of cases showing risks to the public should be initiated, showing the importance of the adequate management of both wastes and, mainly, the consequent real proportions regarding development, growth and demographic densification. The aim of this work is to analyze the present world situation regarding available information on the involved volumes in the process of urban waste disposal and its environmental impacts in medium and long terms, comparing these data to the same parameters applied to nuclear waste, showing that both activities present inherent risks and relevant impacts. (author)

  16. Decontamination of organic wastes containing radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unsworth, T.J.; Pimblott, S.M.; Brown, N.W.

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical oxidation treatment has been developed by Arvia Technology for organic wastes containing radionuclides, in which GIC-bisulphate is used as an adsorbent and electrode. Significant work has been carried out in the irradiation of graphite for medical and nuclear applications and in the use of carbonaceous adsorbents but knowledge of the applicability of graphite intercalation compounds (GICs) in these roles is limited. This project will attempt to fill this gap. It will investigate the suitability of GIC-bisulphate as an adsorbent in an electrochemical treatment process for radioactive organic liquids. The process was initially used to treat waste-water from non-nuclear operations and now requires technical knowledge and research to adapt the treatment for the nuclear industry. Adsorption processes involving organic wastes containing mobile radionuclides such as 137 Cs are difficult to understand. The effects of gamma radiation on the chemistry of water and organics could complicate the treatment process further. To ensure the suitability and effectiveness of the electrochemical oxidation treatment for radioactive organic wastes, the following effects are being investigated: -) radiolytic degradation of GIC-bisulphate in solution, -) leaching of intercalated ions due to gamma radiation, -) effect of gamma radiation on the adsorption of organics by GIC-bisulphate, -) changes in the sorption behaviour of radioactive contaminants, -) distribution coefficients of contaminants in organic and aqueous phases, and -) selective or competitive adsorption on graphite surface sites

  17. Composite Compost Produced from Organic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lăcătuşu Radu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The soil fertilization in ecological agriculture is done mostly using organic fertilizers. Some of them are prepared as compost from waste, but other haven’t, until now, any recycling possibility. In this context, for the preparation of new types of compost, we used three type of waste: sewage sludge from waste water treatment, marine algae and farmyard manure. We have made four different composting variants, each consisting of different proportions of the three waste: equal parts (33.33% of each waste, 50% of each of the three wastes separately, the difference being made up in equal amounts (25% of the other two wastes. Composting process was performed in Könemann silos (cubs with side by 1.20m and lasted 60 days, from July 19 until September 16, when the composted material has passed the stages of reduction and oxidation. During composting process, in the reductive stage the material has reached a temperature up to 63°C Celsius, enough heat for its sterilization. Initial material, semi composted and final composted material were been chemical analyzed, especially in terms of macro- and microelements, analytical results revealing high and normal content of such chemicals. Therefore the achieved compost could be used in organic farming systems.

  18. Self-organized criticality and urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Batty

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban society is undergoing as profound a spatial transformation as that associated with the emergence of the industrial city two centuries ago. To describe and measure this transition, we introduce a new theory based on the concept that large-scale, complex systems composed of many interacting elements, show a surprising degree of resilience to change, holding themselves at critical levels for long periods until conditions emerge which move the system, often abruptly, to a new threshold. This theory is called ‘self-organized criticality’; it is consistent with systems in which global patterns emerge from local action which is the hallmark of self-organization, and it is consistent with developments in system dynamics and their morphology which find expression in fractal geometry and weak chaos theory. We illustrate the theory using a unique space–time series of urban development for Buffalo, Western New York, which contains the locations of over one quarter of a million sites coded by their year of construction and dating back to 1773, some 60 years before the city began to develop. We measure the emergence and growth of the city using urban density functions from which measures of fractal dimension are used to construct growth paths of the way the city has grown to fill its region. These phase portraits suggest the existence of transitions between the frontier, the settled agricultural region, the centralized industrial city and the decentralized postindustrial city, and our analysis reveals that Buffalo has maintained itself at a critical threshold since the emergence of the automobile city some 70 years ago. Our implied speculation is: how long will this kind of urban form be maintained in the face of seemingly unstoppable technological change?

  19. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO 2 emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO 2 -eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A comprehensive

  20. Environmental-benefit analysis of two urban waste collection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda Usón, Alfonso, E-mail: alaranda@unizar.es; Ferreira, Germán; Zambrana Vásquez, David; Zabalza Bribián, Ignacio; Llera Sastresa, Eva

    2013-10-01

    Sustainable transportation infrastructure and travel policies aim to optimise the use of transportation systems to achieve economic and related social and environmental goals. To this end, a novel methodology based on life cycle assessment (LCA) has been developed in this study, with the aim of quantifying, in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions equivalent, the impact associated with different alternatives of waste collection systems in different urban typologies. This new approach is focussed on saving energy and raw materials and reducing the environmental impact associated with the waste collection system in urban areas, as well as allowing the design and planning of the best available technologies and most environment-friendly management. The methodology considers a large variety of variables from the point of view of sustainable urban transport such as the location and size of the urban area, the amount of solid waste generated, the level of social awareness on waste separation procedures, the distance between houses and waste collection points and the distance from the latter to the possible recovery plants and/or landfills, taking into account the material and energy recovery ratio within an integrated waste management system. As a case study, two different waste collection systems have been evaluated with this methodology in the ecocity Valdespartera located in Zaragoza, Spain, consisting of approximately 10,000 homes: (i) a system based on traditional truck transportation and manual collection, and (ii) a stationary vacuum waste collection system. Results show that, when operating at loads close to 100%, the stationary collection system has the best environmental performance in comparison with the conventional system. In contrast, when operating at load factors around 13% the environmental benefits in terms of net CO{sub 2}-eq. emissions for the stationary collection system are around 60% lower in comparison with the conventional one. - Highlights: • A

  1. A multiple criteria analysis for household solid waste management in the urban community of Dakar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapepula, Ka-Mbayu; Colson, Gerard; Sabri, Karim; Thonart, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Household solid waste management is a severe problem in big cities of developing countries. Mismanaged solid waste dumpsites produce bad sanitary, ecological and economic consequences for the whole population, especially for the poorest urban inhabitants. Dealing with this problem, this paper utilizes field data collected in the urban community of Dakar, in view of ranking nine areas of the city with respect to multiple criteria of nuisance. Nine criteria are built and organized in three families that represent three classical viewpoints: the production of wastes, their collection and their treatment. Thanks to the method PROMETHEE and the software ARGOS, we do a pair-wise comparison of the nine areas, which allows their multiple criteria rankings according to each viewpoint and then globally. Finding the worst and best areas in terms of nuisance for a better waste management in the city is our final purpose, fitting as well as possible the needs of the urban community. Based on field knowledge and on the literature, we suggest applying general and area-specific remedies to the household solid waste problems.

  2. Cooperative urban mining in Brazil: Collective practices in selective household waste collection and recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutberlet, J

    2015-11-01

    Solid waste is a major urban challenge worldwide and reclaiming the resources embedded in waste streams, involving organized recyclers, is a smart response to it. Informal and organized recyclers, mostly in the global south, already act as important urban miners in resource recovery. The paper describes the complex operations of recycling cooperatives and draws attention to their economic, environmental, and social contributions. A detailed discussion based on empirical data from the recycling network COOPCENT-ABC in metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, contextualizes this form of urban mining. The analysis is situated within Social and Solidarity Economy (SSE) and Ecological Economy (EE) theory. Current challenges related to planning, public policy, and the implementation of cooperative recycling are analysed on the level of individual recyclers, cooperatives, municipalities and internationally. There are still many hurdles for the informal, organized recycling sector to become recognized as a key player in efficient material separation and to up-scale these activities for an effective contribution to the SSE and EE. Policies need to be in place to guarantee fair and safe work relations. There is a win-win situation where communities and the environment will benefit from organized urban mining. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Degradation of organic contaminants found in organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelidaki, Irini; Mogensen, Anders Skibsted; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, great interest has arisen in recycling of the waste created by modern society. A common way of recycling the organic fraction is amendment on farmland. However, these wastes may contain possible hazardous components in small amounts, which may prevent their use in farming. The ob...... phenol ethoxylates. The results are promising as they indicate that a great potential for biological degradation is present, though the inoculum containing the microorganisms capable of transforming the recalcitrant xenobiotics has to be chosen carefully....

  4. Sustainable Urban (re-Development with Building Integrated Energy, Water and Waste Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Goo Lee

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The construction and service of urban infrastructure systems and buildings involves immense resource consumption. Cities are responsible for the largest component of global energy, water, and food consumption as well as related sewage and organic waste production. Due to ongoing global urbanization, in which the largest sector of the global population lives in cities which are already built, global level strategies need to be developed that facilitate both the sustainable construction of new cities and the re-development of existing urban environments. A very promising approach in this regard is the decentralization and building integration of environmentally sound infrastructure systems for integrated resource management. This paper discusses such new and innovative building services engineering systems, which could contribute to increased energy efficiency, resource productivity, and urban resilience. Applied research and development projects in Germany, which are based on integrated system approaches for the integrated and environmentally sound management of energy, water and organic waste, are used as examples. The findings are especially promising and can be used to stimulate further research and development, including economical aspects which are crucial for sustainable urban (re-development.

  5. Toxic urban waste's assault on cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. De Rosa

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A cardiovascular health survey of 1203 persons in households located near the hazardous waste disposal sites and in a reference community, was conducted from 2009 until today to assess whether rates of adverse cardiovascular health outcomes were elevated among persons living near the sites. Data included medical records of reported cardiovascular disease certificates and hospital admission for cardiovascular diseases from hospital database. The study areas appeared similar with respect to mortality, cancer incidence, and pregnancy outcomes. In contrast, rate ratios were greater than 1.5 for 2 of 19 reported diseases, i.e., angina pectoris, and strokes. The apparent broad-based elevation in reported diseases and symptoms may reflect increased perception or recall of conditions by respondents living near the sites. Our study found that cardiovascular risk is associated only with PM2.5 concentrations, derived from uncontrolled burning of municipal solid waste in particular sites of our country. Their analysis demonstrated a relationship between increased levels of eventual fine particulate pollution and higher rates of death and complications from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Management of solid waste releases a number of toxic substances, most in small quantities and at extremely low levels. Because of the wide range of pollutants, the different pathways of exposure, long-term low-level exposure, and the potential for synergism among the pollutants, concerns remain about potential health effects but there are many uncertainties involved in the assessment. Future community-based health studies should include medical and psychosocial assessment instruments sufficient to distinguish between changes in health status and effects of resident reporting tendency.

  6. A Feasibility Study on District Heating and Cooling Business Using Urban Waste Heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Joon; Choi, Byoung Youn; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Lee, Jae Bong [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jae In; Yoon, Jae Ho; Oh, Myung Do; Park, Moon Su; Kang, Han Kee; Yoo, Kyeoung Hoon; Bak, Jong Heon; Kim, Sun Chang; Park, Heong Kee; Bae, Tae Sik [Korea Academy of Industrial Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Investigation of papers related to waste heat utilization using heat pump. Estimate of various kinds of urban waste heat in korea. Investigation and study on optimal control of district heating and cooling system. Prediction of energy saving and environmental benefits when the urban waste heat will be used as heat source and sink of heat pump for district heating and cooling. Estimation of economic feasibility on district heating and cooling project utilizing urban waste heat. (author). 51 refs., figs

  7. Gasification from waste organic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Ramírez Rubio

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the fixed bed biomass gasifier operation designed and built by the Clean Development Mechanisms and Energy Management research group, the gasifier equipment and the measurement system. The experiment involved agro-industrial residues (biomass such wood chips, coconut shell, cocoa and coffee husk; some temperatures along the bed, its pressure, inlet air flow and the percentage of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the syngas composition were measured. The test results showed that a fuel gas was being obtained which was suitable for use with an internal combustion engine for generating electricity because more carbon monoxide than carbon dioxide was being obtained during several parts of the operation. The gasification experimentation revealed that a gasifier having these characteristics should be ideal for bringing energy to areas where it is hard to obtain it (such as many rural sites in Latin-America or other places where large amounts of agro-industrial wastes are produced. Temperatures of around 1,000°C were obtained in the combustion zone, generating a syngas having more than 20% carbon monoxide in its composition, thereby leading to obtaining combustible gas.

  8. Bio-charcoal production from municipal organic solid wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlKhayat, Z. Q.

    2017-08-01

    The economic and environmental problems of handling the increasingly huge amounts of urban and/or suburban organic municipal solid wastes MSW, from collection to end disposal, in addition to the big fluctuations in power supply and other energy form costs for the various civilian needs, is studied for Baghdad city, the ancient and glamorous capital of Iraq, and a simple control device is suggested, built and tested by carbonizing these dried organic wastes in simple environment friendly bio-reactor in order to produce low pollution potential, economical and local charcoal capsules that might be useful for heating, cooking and other municipal uses. That is in addition to the solve of solid wastes management problem which involves huge human and financial resources and causes many lethal health and environmental problems. Leftovers of different social level residential campuses were collected, classified for organic materials then dried in order to be supplied into the bio-reactor, in which it is burnt and then mixed with small amounts of sugar sucrose that is extracted from Iraqi planted sugar cane, to produce well shaped charcoal capsules. The burning process is smoke free as the closed burner’s exhaust pipe is buried 1m underground hole, in order to use the subsurface soil as natural gas filter. This process has proved an excellent performance of handling about 120kg/day of classified MSW, producing about 80-100 kg of charcoal capsules, by the use of 200 l reactor volume.

  9. Organic carbon storage change in China's urban landfills from 1978-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Shidong; Zhao, Shuqing

    2017-10-01

    China has produced increasingly large quantities of waste associated with its accelerated urbanization and economic development and deposited these wastes into landfills, potentially sequestering carbon. However, the magnitude of the carbon storage in China’s urban landfills and its spatial and temporal change remain unclear. Here, we estimate the total amount of organic carbon (OC) stored in China's urban landfills between 1978 and 2014 using a first order organic matter decomposition model and data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks. Our results show that total OC stored in China’s urban landfills increased nearly 68-fold from the 1970s to the 2010s, and reached 225.2-264.5 Tg C (95% confidence interval, hereafter) in 2014. Construction waste was the largest OC pool (128.4-157.5 Tg C) in 2014, followed by household waste (67.7-83.8 Tg C), and sewage sludge was the least (19.7-34.1 Tg C). Carbon stored in urban landfills accounts for more than 10% of the country’s carbon stocks in urban ecosystems. The annual increase (i.e. sequestration rate) of OC in urban landfills in the 2010s (25.1 ± 4.3 Tg C yr-1, mean ± 2SD, hereafter) is equivalent to 1% of China's carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production during the same period, but represents about 9% of the total terrestrial carbon sequestration in the country. Our study clearly indicates that OC dynamics in landfills should not be neglected in regional to national carbon cycle studies as landfills not only account for a substantial part of the carbon stored in urban ecosystems but also have a respectable contribution to national carbon sequestration.

  10. Organic carbon storage change in China's urban landfills from 1978 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, S.; Zhao, S.

    2017-12-01

    China has produced increasingly large quantities of waste associated with her accelerated urbanization and economic development and deposited these wastes into landfills potentially sequestering carbon. However, the magnitude of the carbon storage in China's urban landfills and its spatial and temporal change remain unclear. Here, we estimate the total amount of organic carbon (OC) stored in China's urban landfills between 1978 and 2014 using a first order organic matter decomposition model and data compiled from literature review and statistical yearbooks. Our results show that total OC stored in China's urban landfills increased nearly 68 folds from the 1970s to the 2010s, and reached 225.2 - 264.5 Tg C (95% confidence interval, hereafter) in 2014. Construction waste was the largest OC pool (128.4 - 157.5 Tg C) in 2014, followed by household waste (67.7 - 83.8 Tg C), and sewage sludge was the least (19.7 - 34.1 Tg C). Carbon stored in urban landfills accounts for more than 10% of the country's carbon stocks in urban ecosystems. The annual increase (i.e., sequestration rate) of OC in urban landfills in the 2010s (25.1 ± 4.3 Tg C yr-1, mean±2SD, hereafter) is equivalent to 1% of China's carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production during the same period, but represents about 9% of the total terrestrial carbon sequestration in the country. Our study clearly indicates that OC dynamics in landfills should not be neglected in regional to national carbon cycle studies as landfills not only account for a substantial part of the carbon stored in urban ecosystems but also contribute respectably to national carbon sequestration.

  11. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoada, Ramatta Massa; Chirawurah, Dennis; Adongo, Philip Baba

    2014-07-08

    Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases.

  12. Domestic waste disposal practice and perceptions of private sector waste management in urban Accra

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Waste poses a threat to public health and the environment if it is not stored, collected, and disposed of properly. The perception of waste as an unwanted material with no intrinsic value has dominated attitudes towards disposal. This study investigates the domestic waste practices, waste disposal, and perceptions about waste and health in an urban community. Methods The study utilised a mixed-method approach. A cross-sectional survey questionnaire and in-depth interview were used to collect data. A total of 364 household heads were interviewed in the survey and six key informants were interviewed with the in-depth interviews. Results The results of the study revealed that 93.1% of households disposed of food debris as waste and 77.8% disposed of plastic materials as waste. The study also showed that 61.0% of the households disposed of their waste at community bins or had waste picked up at their homes by private contractors. The remaining 39.0% disposed of their waste in gutters, streets, holes and nearby bushes. Of those who paid for the services of private contractors, 62.9% were not satisfied with the services because of their cost and irregular collection. About 83% of the respondents were aware that improper waste management contributes to disease causation; most of the respondents thought that improper waste management could lead to malaria and diarrhoea. There was a general perception that children should be responsible for transporting waste from the households to dumping sites. Conclusion Proper education of the public, the provision of more communal trash bins, and the collection of waste by private contractors could help prevent exposing the public in municipalities to diseases. PMID:25005728

  13. Heavy Metal Leaching as Affected by Long-Time Organic Waste Fertilizer Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Holm, Peter E; Kjærgaard, Charlotte; Magid, Jakob

    2017-07-01

    The recycling of urban waste products as fertilizers in agriculture may introduce contaminants such as heavy metals into soil that may leach and contaminate groundwater. In the present study, we investigated the leaching of heavy metals from intact soil cores collected in the long-term agricultural field trial CRUCIAL. At the time of sampling, the equivalent of >100 yr of urban waste fertilizers following Danish legislation had been applied. The leaching of Cu was significantly increased in the treatments receiving organic waste products compared with the unfertilized control but remained below the permissible level following Danish drinking water guidelines. The leaching of Cu was controlled primarily by the topsoil Cu content and by the leaching of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) but at the same time significantly correlated with leaching of colloids in soils that had not received fertilizer or had received an organic fertilizer with a low concentration of Cu. The leaching of Zn, Cd, and Co was not significantly increased in urban waste-fertilized treatments. The leaching of Mo was elevated in accelerated waste treatments (both agricultural and urban), and the leaching of Mo was linked to the leaching of DOC. Since leaching of Cr and Pb was strongly linked to the level of colloid leaching, leaching of these metals was reduced in the urban waste treatments. Overall, the results presented should not raise concern regarding the agricultural use of urban waste products in agriculture as long as the relevant guidelines are followed. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  14. Organic Tanks Safety Program: Waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Lenihan, B.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1994-11-01

    The underground storage tanks at the Hanford Complex contain wastes generated from many years of plutonium production and recovery processes, and mixed wastes from radiological degradation processes. The chemical changes of the organic materials used in the extraction processes have a direct on several specific safety issues, including potential energy releases from these tanks. This report details the first year's findings of a study charged with determining how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds disposed to the tank. Their approach relies on literature precedent, experiments with simulated waste, and studies of model reactions. During the past year, efforts have focused on the global reaction kinetics of a simulated waste exposed to γ radiation, the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion, and the decomposition reactions of nitro compounds. In experiments with an organic tank non-radioactive simulant, the authors found that gas production is predominantly radiolytically induced. Concurrent with gas generation they observe the disappearance of EDTA, TBP, DBP and hexone. In the absence of radiolysis, the TBP readily saponifies in the basic medium, but decomposition of the other compounds required radiolysis. Key organic intermediates in the model are C-N bonded compounds such as oximes. As discussed in the report, oximes and nitro compounds decompose in strong base to yield aldehydes, ketones and carboxylic acids (from nitriles). Certain aldehydes can react in the absence of radiolysis to form H 2 . Thus, if the pathways are correct, then organic compounds reacting via these pathways are oxidizing to lower energy content. 75 refs

  15. Urban solid waste in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan H. M. de Abreu

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to verify the potential of urban solid wastes as substrate for production of seedlings of Lafoensia pacari. Five treatments were tested, four with solid wastes and one standard substrate, namely: sewage sludge from Alegria Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP; sewage sludge from Ilha do Governador WTP; sewage sludge from Sarapuí WTP; domestic garbage compost (Fertlurb; and a commercial substrate made of biostabilized pine bark (standard substrate. The wastes received 20% (in volume of shredded coconut fiber. At 105 days after sowing, the seedlings were evaluated for different quality parameters. Seedlings produced with Sarapuí WTP sewage sludge showed the best results in all the parameters, followed by seedlings produced with sewage sludge from Alegria and Ilha do Governador WTPs, which did not differ. Seedlings produced with domestic garbage compost showed satisfactory results, higher than the ones observed for seedlings produced with commercial substrate. The urban solid wastes with 20% of coconut fiber showed high potential and can be recommended for the composition of substrate in the production of Lafoensia pacari seedlings.

  16. CONFRONTING THE RECKLESS GAMBLING WITH PEOPLE’S HEALTH AND LIVES: URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN ZIMBABWE

    OpenAIRE

    Enock C.Makwara; Snodia Magudu

    2013-01-01

    Litter has become a common sight along high ways and in many urban and peri-urban communities in Zimbabwe. In spite of the numerous clean-up and anti-litter campaigns that have been initiated by different individuals and organizations coupled with the tremendous effort that has been put in making the public aware of the disadvantages associated with littering, endemic and insistent filth engulfs Zimbabwe as people continue to litter. Zimbabwe’s waste management has virtually collapsed, trigge...

  17. Organic analyses of an actual and simulated mixed waste. Hanford's organic complexant waste revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Osborn, B.C.; Polach, K.J.; Lechner-Fish, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Reanalysis of the organics in a mixed waste, an organic complexant waste, from the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site, has yielded an 80.4% accounting of the waste's total organic content. In addition to several complexing and chelating agents (citrate, EDTA, HEDTA and NTA), 38 chelator/complexor fragments have been identified, compared to only 11 in the original analysis, all presumably formed via organic degradation. Moreover, a mis identification, methanetricarboxylic acid, has been re-identified as the chelator fragment N-(methylamine)imino-diacetic acid (MAIDA). A nonradioactive simulant of the actual waste, containing the parent organics (citrate, EDTA, HEDTA and NTA), was formulated and stored in the dark at ambient temperature for 90 days. Twenty chelator and complexor fragments were identified in the simulant, along with several carboxylic acids, confirming that myriad chelator and complexor fragments are formed via degradation of the parent organics. Moreover, their abundance in the simulant (60.9% of the organics identified) argues that the harsh chemistries of mixed wastes like Hanford's organic degradation, even in the absence of radiation. (author). 26 refs., 2 tabs

  18. Co-Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Waste With Other Waste Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2002-01-01

    Several characteristics make anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) difficult. By co-digestion of OFMSW with several other waste types it will be possible to optimize the anaerobic process by waste management. The co-digestion concept involves the treatment...... of several waste types in a single treatment facility. By combining many types of waste it will be possible to treat a wider range of organic waste types by the anaerobic digestion process (figure 1). Furthermore, co-digestion enables the treatment of organic waste with a high biogas potential that makes...... the operation of biogas plants more economically feasible (Ahring et al., 1992a). Thus, co-digestion gives a new attitude to the evaluation of waste: since anaerobic digestion of organic waste is both a waste stabilization method and an energy gaining process with production of a fertilizer, organic waste...

  19. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley

    2017-01-01

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas. PMID:28869572

  20. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nachalida Yukalang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  1. Barriers to Effective Municipal Solid Waste Management in a Rapidly Urbanizing Area in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukalang, Nachalida; Clarke, Beverley; Ross, Kirstin

    2017-09-04

    This study focused on determining the barriers to effective municipal solid waste management (MSWM) in a rapidly urbanizing area in Thailand. The Tha Khon Yang Subdistrict Municipality is a representative example of many local governments in Thailand that have been facing MSWM issues. In-depth interviews with individuals and focus groups were conducted with key informants including the municipality staff, residents, and external organizations. The major influences affecting waste management were categorized into six areas: social-cultural, technical, financial, organizational, and legal-political barriers and population growth. SWOT analysis shows both internal and external factors are playing a role in MSWM: There is good policy and a reasonably sufficient budget. However, there is insufficient infrastructure, weak strategic planning, registration, staff capacity, information systems, engagement with programs; and unorganized waste management and fee collection systems. The location of flood prone areas has impacted on location and operation of landfill sites. There is also poor communication between the municipality and residents and a lack of participation in waste separation programs. However, external support from government and the nearby university could provide opportunities to improve the situation. These findings will help inform municipal decision makers, leading to better municipal solid waste management in newly urbanized areas.

  2. Bio-extraction of precious metals from urban solid waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subhabrata; Natarajan, Gayathri; Ting, Yen-Peng

    2017-01-01

    Reduced product lifecycle and increasing demand for electronic devices have resulted in the generation of huge volumes of electronic waste (e-waste). E-wastes contain high concentrations of toxic heavy metals, which have detrimental effects on health and the environment. However, e-wastes also contain significant concentrations of precious metals such as gold, silver and palladium, which can be a major driving force for recycling of urban waste. Cyanogenic bacteria such as Chromobacterium violaceum generate cyanide as a secondary metabolite which mobilizes gold into solution via a soluble gold-cyanide complex. However, compared to conventional technology for metal recovery, this approach is not effective, owing largely to the low concentration of lixiviants produced by the bacteria. To overcome the challenges of bioleaching of gold from e-waste, several strategies were adopted to enhance gold recovery rates. These included (i) pretreatment of e-waste to remove competing metal ions, (ii) mutation to adapt the bacteria to high pH environment, (iii) metabolic engineering to produce higher cyanide lixiviant, and (iv) spent medium leaching with adjusted initial pH. Compared to 7.1 % recovery by the wild type bacteria, these strategies achieved gold recoveries of 11.3%, 22.5%, 30% and 30% respectively at 0.5% w/v pulp density respectively. Bioleached gold was finally mineralized and precipitated as gold nanoparticles using the bacterium Delftia acidovorans. This study demonstrates the potential for enhancement of biocyanide production and gold recovery from electronic waste through different strategies, and extraction of solid gold from bioleached leachate.

  3. Characterization of radioactive organic liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez A, I.; Monroy G, F.; Quintero P, E.; Lopez A, E.; Duarte A, C.

    2014-10-01

    With the purpose of defining the treatment and more appropriate conditioning of radioactive organic liquid wastes, generated in medical establishments and research centers of the country (Mexico) and stored in drums of 208 L is necessary to characterize them. This work presents the physical-chemistry and radiological characterization of these wastes. The samples of 36 drums are presented, whose registrations report the presence of H-3, C-14 and S-35. The following physiochemical parameters of each sample were evaluated: ph, conductivity, density and viscosity; and analyzed by means of gamma spectrometry and liquid scintillation, in order to determine those contained radionuclides in the same wastes and their activities. Our results show the presence of H-3 (61%), C-14 (13%) and Na-22 (11%) and in some drums low concentrations of Co-60 (5.5%). In the case of the registered drums with S-35 (8.3%) does not exist presence of radioactive material, so they can be liberated without restriction as conventional chemical wastes. The present activities in these wastes vary among 5.6 and 2312.6 B g/g, their ph between 2 and 13, the conductivities between 0.005 and 15 m S, the densities among 1.05 and 1.14, and the viscosities between 1.1 and 39 MPa. (Author)

  4. Effects of biochar, waste water irrigation and fertilization on soil properties in West African urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häring, Volker; Manka'abusi, Delphine; Akoto-Danso, Edmund K; Werner, Steffen; Atiah, Kofi; Steiner, Christoph; Lompo, Désiré J P; Adiku, Samuel; Buerkert, Andreas; Marschner, Bernd

    2017-09-06

    In large areas of sub-Saharan Africa crop production must cope with low soil fertility. To increase soil fertility, the application of biochar (charred biomass) has been suggested. In urban areas, untreated waste water is widely used for irrigation because it is a nutrient-rich year-round water source. Uncertainty exists regarding the interactions between soil properties, biochar, waste water and fertilization over time. The aims of this study were to determine these interactions in two typical sandy, soil organic carbon (SOC) and nutrient depleted soils under urban vegetable production in Tamale (Ghana) and Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso) over two years. The addition of biochar at 2 kg m -2 made from rice husks and corn cobs initially doubled SOC stocks but SOC losses of 35% occurred thereafter. Both biochar types had no effect on soil pH, phosphorous availability and effective cation exchange capacity (CEC) but rice husk biochar retained nitrogen (N). Irrigation with domestic waste water increased soil pH and exchangeable sodium over time. Inorganic fertilization alone acidified soils, increased available phosphorous and decreased base saturation. Organic fertilization increased SOC, N and CEC. The results from both locations demonstrate that the effects of biochar and waste water were less pronounced than reported elsewhere.

  5. Incineration of urban solid waste containing radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronchin, G.P., E-mail: giulio.ronchin@mail.polimi.i [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy); Campi, F.; Porta, A.A. [Dipartimento di Energia (Sezione nucleare - Cesnef), Politecnico di Milano, Via Ponzio 34/3, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2011-01-15

    Incineration of urban solid waste accidentally contaminated by orphan sources or radioactive material is a potential risk for environment and public health. Moreover, production and emission of radioactive fumes can cause a heavy contamination of the plant, leading to important economic detriment. In order to prevent such a hazard, in February 2004 a radiometric portal for detection of radioactive material in incoming waste has been installed at AMSA (Azienda Milanese per i Servizi Ambientali) 'Silla 2' urban solid waste incineration plant of Milan. Radioactive detections performed from installation time up to December 2006 consist entirely of low-activity material contaminated from radiopharmaceuticals (mainly {sup 131}I). In this work an estimate of the dose that would have been committed to population, due to incineration of the radioactive material detected by the radiometric portal, has been evaluated. Furthermore, public health and environmental effects due to incineration of a high-activity source have been estimated. Incineration of the contaminated material detected appears to have negligible effects at all; the evaluated annual collective dose, almost entirely conferred by {sup 131}I, is indeed 0.1 man mSv. Otherwise, incineration of a 3.7 x 10{sup 10} Bq (1 Ci) source of {sup 137}Cs, assumed as reference accident, could result in a light environmental contamination involving a large area. Although the maximum total dose, owing to inhalation and submersion, committed to a single individual appears to be negligible (less than 10{sup -8} Sv), the environmental contamination leads to a potential important exposure due to ingestion of contaminated foods. With respect to 'Silla 2' plant and to the worst meteorological conditions, the evaluated collective dose results in 0.34 man Sv. Performed analyses have confirmed that radiometric portals, which are today mainly used in foundries, represent a valid public health and environmental

  6. Electrooxidation of organics in waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchens, G. D.; Murphy, Oliver J.; Kaba, Lamine; Verostko, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    Electrooxidation is a means of removing organic solutes directly from waste waters without the use of chemical expendables. Research sponsored by NASA is currently being pursued to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept for oxidation of organic impurities common to urine, shower waters and space-habitat humidity condensates. Electrooxidation of urine and waste water ersatz was experimentally demonstrated. This paper discusses the electrooxidation principle, reaction kinetics, efficiency, power, size, experimental test results and water-reclamation applications. Process operating potentials and the use of anodic oxidation potentials that are sufficiently low to avoid oxygen formation and chloride oxidation are described. The design of an electrochemical system that incorporates a membrane-based electrolyte based on parametric test data and current fuel-cell technology is presented.

  7. Removal of organic wastes containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    TBP in dodecane and kerosene is one of the waste solutions from the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels by the Purex process. The following methods were investigated for removing the organic solvents: adsorption on suitable solids, extraction, reaction with neutral salts, and saponification with acids or alkalis. Results showed that the best method of TBP removal is saponification with alkali hydroxides, either with dibutyl phosphate or with ortho-phosphate

  8. Microbiological air quality in an urban solid waste selection plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Del Cimmuto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: Exposure to bioaerosols may pose health risks to workers operating in the processing of Urban Solid Waste (USW. The aim of this study is to evaluate microbiological air quality within an USW selection facility.

    Methods: Nine sampling points in an USW selection plant situated in central-southern Italy were selected. One outdoor sampling point provided the background data. Sampling was performed on a yearly basis (2005 – 2009 upon request by the management of the selection plant. Total Mesophilic Counts (TMC, as well as fungal and Gram-negative concentrations were determined.

    Results: The highest viable fungal particles concentrations (medians were found in waste delivery areas (about 20000 CFU/m3, while the lowest were found in the control rooms (485 – 967 CFU/m3. TMC (median was highest (6116 CFU/m3 at the delivery pit, followed by the machine shop (3147 CFU/m3, where no waste processing takes place. Medians of Gram-negative bacteria are below the suggested Occupational Exposure Limit of 1000 CFU/m3, although this limit was exceeded at several single time-points in the waste delivery areas, and also in a personnel resting room. The lowest Gram-negative contamination was found in the control rooms (medians <1 CFU/m3.

    Conclusions: Some areas within a USW selection plant act as internal sources of contamination towards those areas where partially processed waste, or no waste at all, is present. Well-designed air flows, or carefullythought positioning of areas that are not directly involved in waste processing are necessary and effective in obtaining

  9. Evolving partnerships in the collection of urban solid waste in the developing world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.; Post, J.

    2004-01-01

    -Post, Johan. (2004) Evolving Partnerships in the Collection of Urban Solid Waste in the Developing World, in: Baud, Isa., Johan. Post and Christine Furedy (2004) Solid Waste Management and Recycling; Actors, Partnerships and Policies in Hyderabad, India

  10. Urban Environmental Education Project, Curriculum Module VI: Solid Waste - Trash or Treasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biglan, Barbara

    Included in this module are four activities dealing with issues of solid waste disposal relative to urban concerns. Included activities are: (1) sources and composition of solid waste; (2) a "garbage game"; (3) disposal options for solid waste; and (4) an example county plan for solid waste disposal. Also included are an overview, teacher…

  11. Transforming Argonne's waste management organization - the road to energy quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, T.A.; Sodaro, M.A.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's (ANL's) Waste Management Department began its journey to excellence in 1990. The department was organized to provide for waste cleanup, waste handling, decontamination, and other services. The staff was principally workers and foremen with few professional staff. The department has transitioned into a highly effective organization that has competed for the President's Energy Quality Award. The department is currently staffed by 58 people, including professional staff and waste mechanics. The department began by recognizing and addressing the problems that existed: There was no formal waste safety program or waste reduction culture. Formal procedures did not cover all aspects of waste operations, waste handling procedures and acceptance criteria were out of date, and the Waste Management Department did not have a customer-centered culture. The department began a step by step program to improve the waste management organization

  12. Urban infrastructure influences dissolved organic matter quality and bacterial metabolism in an urban stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban streams are degraded by a suite of factors, including burial beneath urban infrastructure (i.e., roads, parking lots) that eliminates light and reduces direct organic matter inputs to streams, with likely consequences for organic matter metabolism by microbes and carbon lim...

  13. Alternative oxidation technologies for organic mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borduin, L.C.; Fewell, T.

    1998-01-01

    The Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) is currently supporting the development and demonstration of several alternative oxidation technology (AOT) processes for treatment of combustible mixed low-level wastes. AOTs have been defined as technologies that destroy organic material without using open-flame reactions. AOTs include both thermal and nonthermal processes that oxidize organic wastes but operate under significantly different physical and chemical conditions than incinerators. Nonthermal processes currently being studied include Delphi DETOX and acid digestion at the Savannah River Site (SRS), and direct chemical oxidation at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). All three technologies are at advanced stages of development or are entering the demonstration phase. Nonflame thermal processes include catalytic chemical oxidation, which is being developed and deployed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and steam reforming, a commercial process being supported by the Department of Energy (DOE). Although testing is complete on some AOT technologies, most require additional support to complete some or all of the identified development objectives. Brief descriptions, status, and planned paths forward for each of the technologies are presented

  14. Assessment of anaerobic biodegradability of five different solid organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristanto, Gabriel Andari; Asaloei, Huinny

    2017-03-01

    The concept of waste to energy emerges as an alternative solution to increasing waste generation and energy crisis. In the waste to energy concept, waste will be used to produce renewable energy through thermochemical, biochemical, and physiochemical processes. In an anaerobic digester, organic matter brake-down due to anaerobic bacteria produces methane gas as energy source. The organic waste break-down is affected by various characteristics of waste components, such as organic matter content (C, N, O, H, P), solid contents (TS and VS), nutrients ratio (C/N), and pH. This research aims to analyze biodegradability and potential methane production (CH4) from organic waste largely available in Indonesia. Five solid wastes comprised of fecal sludge, cow rumen, goat farm waste, traditional market waste, and tofu dregs were analyzed which showed tofu dregs as waste with the highest rate of biodegradability compared to others since the tofu dregs do not contain any inhibitor which is lignin, have 2.7%VS, 14 C/N ratios and 97.3% organic matter. The highest cumulative methane production known as Biochemical Methane Potential was achieved by tofu dregs with volume of 77 ml during 30-day experiment which then followed by cow rumen, goat farm waste, and traditional market waste. Subsequently, methane productions were calculated through percentage of COD reduction, which showed the efficiency of 99.1% that indicates complete conversion of the high organic matter into methane.

  15. Organic rankine cycle waste heat applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasz, Joost J.; Biederman, Bruce P.

    2007-02-13

    A machine designed as a centrifugal compressor is applied as an organic rankine cycle turbine by operating the machine in reverse. In order to accommodate the higher pressures when operating as a turbine, a suitable refrigerant is chosen such that the pressures and temperatures are maintained within established limits. Such an adaptation of existing, relatively inexpensive equipment to an application that may be otherwise uneconomical, allows for the convenient and economical use of energy that would be otherwise lost by waste heat to the atmosphere.

  16. Treatment technology for organic radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, S. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Shon, J. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    In this report, various alternative technologies to the incineration for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes were described and reviewed, fallen into two groups of low temperature technologies and high temperature technologies. These technologies have the advantages of low volume gaseous emission, few or no dioxin generation, and operation at low enough temperature that radionuclides are not volatilized. Delphi chemical oxidation, mediated electrochemical oxidation, and photolytic ultraviolet oxidation appear to be the most promising low temperature oxidation process and steam reforming and supercritical water oxidation in the high temperature technologies. 52 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  17. Treatment of organic radioactive waste in decommissioning project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimovic, S.; Plecas, I.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes methods of treatment of organic radioactive waste in the aspect of its integral part of radioactive waste which will arise during decommissioning process of nuclear power reactor RA (author)

  18. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Boateng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson’s Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas. PMID:27807453

  20. Simulating sanitation and waste flows and their environmental impacts in East African urban centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oyoo, R.

    2014-01-01

    Simulating Sanitation and Waste Flows and their Environmental Impacts in East African Urban Centres

    Abstract

    If improperly managed, urban waste flows can pose a significant threat to the quality of both the natural environment and public health.

  1. Comparative Analysis of Households Solid Waste Management in Rural and Urban Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boateng, Simon; Amoako, Prince; Appiah, Divine Odame; Poku, Adjoa Afriyie; Garsonu, Emmanuel Kofi

    2016-01-01

    The comparative analysis of solid waste management between rural and urban Ghana is largely lacking. This study investigated the solid waste situation and the organisation of solid waste management in both urban and rural settings from the perspective of households. The study employed cross-sectional survey covering both rural and urban districts in the Ashanti and Greater Accra Regions of Ghana. The study systematically sampled houses from which 400 households and respondents were randomly selected. Pearson's Chi square test was used to compare demographic and socioeconomic variables in rural and urban areas. Multivariate Test, Tests of Between-Subjects Effects, and Pair-Wise Comparisons were performed through one-way MANOVA to determine whether or not solid waste situations in rural and urban areas are significantly different. The results revealed that location significantly affects solid waste management in Ghana. Urban communities had lower mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in homes. However, urban communities had higher mean scores than rural communities for poor solid waste situation in principal streets and dumping sites. The study recommends that the local government authorities implement very comprehensive policies (sanitary inspection, infrastructure development, and community participation) that will take into consideration the specific solid waste management needs of both urban and rural areas.

  2. Theme 10: greenhouse effect transport policies and urban organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This document describes the reference framework of the theme 10 ''greenhouse effect, transport policies and urban organization'' which is a part of the urban transports interface. It presents the specific actions realized by the theme 10 for a future integration in theme 1, 5 and 8. (A.L.B.)

  3. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lishan Xiao

    Full Text Available The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  4. Characterizing Urban Household Waste Generation and Metabolism Considering Community Stratification in a Rapid Urbanizing Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lishan; Lin, Tao; Chen, Shaohua; Zhang, Guoqin; Ye, Zhilong; Yu, Zhaowu

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between social stratification and municipal solid waste generation remains uncertain under current rapid urbanization. Based on a multi-object spatial sampling technique, we selected 191 households in a rapidly urbanizing area of Xiamen, China. The selected communities were classified into three types: work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities in the context of housing policy reform in China. Field survey data were used to characterize household waste generation patterns considering community stratification. Our results revealed a disparity in waste generation profiles among different households. The three community types differed with respect to family income, living area, religious affiliation, and homeowner occupation. Income, family structure, and lifestyle caused significant differences in waste generation among work-unit, transitional, and commercial communities, respectively. Urban waste generation patterns are expected to evolve due to accelerating urbanization and associated community transition. A multi-scale integrated analysis of societal and ecosystem metabolism approach was applied to waste metabolism linking it to particular socioeconomic conditions that influence material flows and their evolution. Waste metabolism, both pace and density, was highest for family structure driven patterns, followed by lifestyle and income driven. The results will guide community-specific management policies in rapidly urbanizing areas.

  5. Urban solid waste management in Chongqing: Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Hui; Wang Li'ao; Su Fenwei; Hu Gang

    2006-01-01

    The dual influences of the resource supply and protection in ecological environments will pose a significant challenge to China's sustainable development. Solid waste management offers opportunities to improve profits by conserving resources and improving environmental performance. This paper examines municipal solid waste (MSW) management in urban Chongqing, the nation's fourth largest municipality after Beijing, Shanghai and Tianjin. In this paper, we will provide information on the quantity and composition of MSW, as well as give an overview of different methods for collection, transport, treatment and disposal of MSW. At present the daily amount of MSW generated per person is about 1.08 kg; food waste accounts for about 59% of total MSW. MSW in Chongqing has a higher moisture content (64.1%) and a lower LHV (3728 kJ/kg) than other cities in Asia, which is an obstruction for incineration. Landfills are the main method of disposal in Chongqing, but pollution caused by simple landfills and lack of backup MSW disposal capacity are becoming major problems in the main districts of Chongqing. In this paper, the challenges being faced and opportunities to MSW in Chongqing are analyzed and some suggestions are given for improving the MSW system in the future

  6. Organizing and managing radioactive waste disposal as an experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, B.J.; Emel, J.L.; Kasperson, R.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines organization and management issues engendered by the national program for permanent disposal of commercial radioactive wastes. The description of current organizational and managerial responses to the waste disposal problem serves as a springboard for consideration of the technical, political, and organizational constraints that impinge upon the waste-management effort. Taking these constraints into account, the authors apply ideas that have emerged from previous radioactive waste-management studies and research on organizations, concluding that a change of course is needed. As an alternative, they propose an experimental approach predicated on the waste-management organization's acknowledging uncertainty and constructing responses that seek to reduce uncertainty systematically and without distortion

  7. Valorisation of organic wastes: little biogas plant will grow big

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Aude; Talpin, Juliette; Tuille, Frederic; Courtel, Julien

    2016-01-01

    This set of articles first proposes a description of the operation principle of biogas production from the recovery of organic wastes from various origins to their processing to produce biogas and use this bio gas for fuel production or energy co-generation. It addresses the present situation in France where the publication of a new electricity purchase support mechanism is expected and will help reaching ambitious objectives defined in the French multi-year energy planning. The number of projects and the level of supports are indeed increasing. A third article presents an example of biogas production in a farm in Normandy, and outlines that this production is profitable. The next article evokes an Ademe's study which is to be published, which addresses returns on experience from small biogas production units (less than 75 kW), identifies that the liquid process gives a lower kWe cost than the dry process, and outlines the positive influence of new electricity purchase tariffs. An article outlines the role of cooperatives in the emergence of farm biogas production. Issues to be addressed and assessed before launching a project are evoked in an interview. An article then gives an historical overview of the development of waste-based biogas production in France since the 1970's: it was first considered only as a waste processing way, and became a mean for energy production. The types of installations and their share in heat production are indicated. The evolutions (in terms of number and of production) of farm-based installations, of centralised installation, of installations of processing domestic wastes, of industrial installations, of urban water treatment plants are indicated and commented. Finally, the Sinoe database is presented: it contains information about all biogas production installations in France

  8. Study of the operational conditions for anaerobic digestion of urban solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo M, Edgar Fernando; Cristancho, Diego Edison; Victor Arellano, A.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental evaluation of anaerobic digestion technology as an option for the management of organic solid waste in developing countries. As raw material, a real and heterogeneous organic waste from urban solid wastes was used. In the first experimental phase, seed selection was achieved through an evaluation of three different anaerobic sludges coming from wastewater treatment plants. The methanization potential of these sludges was assessed in three different batch digesters of 500 mL, at two temperature levels. The results showed that by increasing the temperature to 15 deg. C above room temperature, the methane production increases to three times. So, the best results were obtained in the digester fed with a mixed sludge, working at mesophilic conditions (38-40 deg. C). Then, this selected seed was used at the next experimental phase, testing at different digestion times (DT) of 25, 20 and 18 days in a bigger batch digester of 20 L with a reaction volume of 13 L. The conversion rates were registered at the lowest DT (18 days), reaching 44.9 L/kg -1 of wet waste day -1 . Moreover, DT also has a strong influence over COD removal, because there is a direct relationship between solids removal inside the reactor and DT

  9. State of the art of composting centre using organic fraction of urban solid wastes in Cataluna (Spain); Situacion actual de las plantas de compostaje que tratan la fraccion organica de los residuos solildos municipales en cataluna (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, L.; Faidella, L.; Gomez, A.; Ramirez, S.; Utrera, P.; Vergara, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain); Rieradevall, J. [Universidad Pompeu Fabra (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    The article describes and argues about the situation of live Composting centres in Cataluna, which represent more than 80% of this types of centres extant in spain, being Cataluna the region with the most important experiences in this area. The analysed centres use two technologies: decomposition in revolved heaps or by means of tunnels. The used surface for this type of treatment of organic fraction of municipal remnants varies between 7.000 and 80.000 m''2. All the centres are above municipal, so the access of material can be bigger. The 80 mortifying urban areas in picking out have made easy the treatment of 21.000 tons in 1998. The associated production to this amount is about 9.000 tons of compost to sale. (Author)

  10. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: The case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are projected to increase with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budget for collection capacity alone does not improve environmental quality; rather an increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a computer laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis

  11. Modeling of urban solid waste management system: the case of Dhaka city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sufian, M.A.; Bala, B.K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a system dynamics computer model to predict solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation from solid waste and to assess the needs for waste management of the urban city Dhaka Bangladesh. Simulated results show that solid waste generation, collection capacity and electricity generation potential from solid waste increase with time. Population, uncleared waste, untreated waste, composite index and public concern are increasing with time for Dhaka city. Simulated results also show that increasing the budge for collection capacity alone does not improve the environmental quality rather increased budget is required for both collection and treatment of solid wastes of Dhaka city. Finally, this model can be used as a compute laboratory for urban solid waste management (USWM) policy analysis. (author)

  12. effects of urban wastes on the quality of asata river in enugu, south ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    xtz

    of Enugu urban where waste generation and management is a growing problem. The study identifies the need for the development of a sustainable municipal waste management strategy that will encourage source reduction, reuse and recycling of solid wastes. The strategy will lead to the enhancement of the ecological ...

  13. A Model of Solid Waste Management Based Multilateral Co-Operation in Semi-Urban Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanchanabhandhu, Chanchai; Woraphong, Seree

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to construct a model of solid waste management based on multilateral cooperation in semi-urban community. Its specific objectives were to 1) study the solid waste situation and involvement of community in the solid waste management in Wangtaku Sub-district, Muang District, Nakhon Pathom Province; 2) construct a…

  14. Low temperature hydrothermal destruction of organics in Hanford tank wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Zacher, A.H.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Schmidt, A.J.; Jones, E.O.; Hart, T.R.; Poshusta, J.C.

    1994-08-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate and develop a low temperature hydrothermal process (HTP) for the destruction of organics that are present wastes temporarily stored in underground tanks at the Hanford Site. Organic compounds contribute to tank waste safety issues, such as hydrogen generation. Some organic compounds act as complexants, promoting the solubility of radioactive constituents such as 90 Sr and 241 Am, which is undesirable for waste pretreatment processing. HTP is thermal-chemical autogenous processing method that is typically operated between 250 degrees C and 375 degrees C and approximately 200 atm. Testing with simulated tank waste, containing a variety of organics has been performed. The distribution of strontium, cesium and bulk metals between the supernatant and solid phases as a function of the total organic content of the waste simulant will be presented. Test results using simulant will be compared with similar tests conducted using actual radioactive waste

  15. Wasted waste—Disappearing reuse at the peri-urban interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Pascale

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Urban waste reuse in farming practices is significant for poor people's livelihoods. • Peri-urban garbage farming contributes to urban food security. • Informal reuse practices are not acknowledged in urban waste management strategies. • Poor people face increasing obstacles to access and use urban waste. • The continuation of reuse practices requires an enabling institutional framework. -- Abstract: Safe and sustainable management of waste presents a major challenge in cities in the Global South. For decades farmers in the peri-urban interface (PUI) have used biodegradable components of urban waste as inputs into their farming practices. Evidence from Kano, Nigeria; Kumasi, Ghana; Hubli-Dharwad and Kolkata, India reveals in rare detail how urban waste reuse plays an important role in the livelihood strategies of lower-income families nd while waste farming also contributes significantly to urban food security. Health implications affecting farmers, farm-workers and community members often overshadow these benefits as highlighted through the case studies. Additionally, increasing competition over land and resources in the PUI paired with other factors triggered by processes of rapid development and urbanisation have rendered it more difficult for the peri-urban poor to access and use urban waste. The article further explores additional challenges of an institutional nature linked to the informality of reuse practices and prevalent sector approaches that are exacerbated by the institutional fragmentation present in the PUI. It is argued that an integrated city-wide policy that reduces the threats to peri-urban reuse practices while enhancing urban food security and integrated waste management is crucial. However, any effort to sustain these practices needs to incorporate adequate health and safety procedures. Thus, peri-urban farmers, farm workers and labourers constitute important stakeholders in urban planning and decision-making processes

  16. Removal of organics from radioactive waste. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Kitchin, J.; Burton, W.H.

    1989-05-01

    This report reviews the available literature concerning the removal of organic substances from radioactive waste streams. A substantial portion of low level wastes generated in the various parts of the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear laboratories and other places where radionuclides are used for research, industrial medical and defense related activities is organic (paper, wood, plastics, rubber etc.) and combustible. These combustible wastes can be processed by incineration. Incineration converts combustible wastes into radioactive ashes and residues that are non-flammable, chemically inert and more homogenous than the initial waste. (author)

  17. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W. [and others

    1999-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs.

  18. Development of the destruction technology for radioactive organic solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Zin; Park, H.S.; Lee, K.W.

    1999-04-01

    The followings were studied through the project entitled 'Technology development for nuclear fuel cycle waste treatment'. 1. Organic waste decomposition technology development A. Destruction technology for organic wastes using Ag(2)-mediated electrochemical oxidation B. Recovery and regeneration technology for the spent chemicals used in the MEO process 2. Radioactive metal waste recycling technology A. Surface decontamination processes B. Decontamination waste treatment technology 3. Volume reduction technology nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) technology A. Estimation of the amount of radwastes and the optimum volume reduction methodology of domestic NFC B. Pretreatment of spent fuel cladding by electrochemical decontamination C. Hot cell process technology for the treatment of NFC wastes 4. Design and fabrication of the test equipment of volume reduction and reuse of alpha contaminated wastes 5. Evaluation on environmental compatibility of NFC A. Development of evaluation methodology on environmental friendliness of NFC B. Residual activity assessment of recycling wastes. (author). 321 refs., 54 tabs., 183 figs

  19. Expanding worldwide urban solid waste recycling: The Brazilian social technology in waste pickers inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Jacqueline E; Rutkowski, Emília W

    2015-12-01

    'If an integrated urban waste management system includes the informal recycling sector (IRS), there is a good chance that more solid waste is recycled' is common sense. However, informal integration brings additional social, environmental, and economic benefits, such as reduction of operational costs and environmental impacts of landfilling. Brazil is a global best practice example in terms of waste picker inclusion, and has received international recognition for its recycling levels. In addition to analysing the results of inclusive recycling approaches, this article evaluates a selection of the best Brazilian inclusive recycling practices and summaries and presents the resulting knowledge. The objective is to identify processes that enable the replication of the inclusion of the informal recycling sector model as part of municipal solid waste management. Qualitative and quantitative data have been collected in 25 Brazilian cities that have contracted waste pickers co-operatives for door-to-door selective collection of recyclables. Field data was collected in action research projects that worked with waste pickers co-operatives between 2006 and 2013. The Brazilian informal recycling sector integration model improves municipal solid waste recycling indicators: it shows an increase in the net tonness recycled, from 140 to 208 t month(-1), at a much lower cost per tonne than conventional selective collection systems. Inclusive systems show costs of US$35 per tonne of recyclables collected, well below the national average of US$195.26. This inclusive model improves the quality of collected material and the efficiency of municipal selective collection. It also diminishes the negative impacts of informal recycling, by reducing child labour, and by improving the conditions of work, occupational health and safety, and uncontrolled pollution. Although treating the Brazilian experience as a blueprint for transfer of experience in every case is unrealistic, the results

  20. Organic complexing agents in low and medium level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, B.; Persson, G.

    1985-11-01

    Low and medium level radioactive wastes will contain various organic agents, such as ion exchange resins (mainly in the operational wastes), plastics and cellulose (mainly in the reprocessing wastes and in the decommissioning wastes) and bitumen (mainly in the reprocessing wastes). The degradation of these organics will lead to the formation of complexing agents that possibly could affect the release of radionuclides from an underground repository and the subsequent transport of these nuclides. The solution chemistry of the actinides may be totally dominated by the presence of such organic degradation products within the repository. However, hydrolysis and formation of carbonates (and possibly humates) will most likely dominate solubility and speciation outside the immediate vicinity of the repository. The minor quantities of strong complexing agents (in the reprocessing waste), notably aminopolycarboxylic acids (EDTA, DTPA) and possibly organic phosphates (DBP) could significantly affect speciation and sorption behaviour of primarily the trivalent actinides even outside the repository. (author)

  1. Shipment and Disposal of Solidified Organic Waste (Waste Type IV) to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Amico, E. L; Edmiston, D. R.; O'Leary, G. A.; Rivera, M. A.; Steward, D. M.

    2006-01-01

    In April of 2005, the last shipment of transuranic (TRU) waste from the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site to the WIPP was completed. With the completion of this shipment, all transuranic waste generated and stored at Rocky Flats was successfully removed from the site and shipped to and disposed of at the WIPP. Some of the last waste to be shipped and disposed of at the WIPP was waste consisting of solidified organic liquids that is identified as Waste Type IV in the Contact-Handled Transuranic Waste Authorized Methods for Payload Control (CH-TRAMPAC) document. Waste Type IV waste typically has a composition, and associated characteristics, that make it significantly more difficult to ship and dispose of than other Waste Types, especially with respect to gas generation. This paper provides an overview of the experience gained at Rocky Flats for management, transportation and disposal of Type IV waste at WIPP, particularly with respect to gas generation testing. (authors)

  2. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF GUWAHATI CITY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta Kumar Pradhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW management has been one of the most environmental concerns for all urban areas of India. Most of the urban centers have neither adequate land nor any facility for MSW disposal. In view of scarcity of lands for making landfill sites, solid wastes can be used for energy recovery resulting in volume reduction, thus requires less area for its disposal. Guwahati is one such city of North-East India, having the potential to recover the energy from solid wastes and at the same time the waste management system of the city can be improved. This paper attempts to characterize the urban solid waste of the city as well as its energy potential for various uses. Results showed that the average generation rate of MSW was 0.7 kg/capita/day and the city has the potential to generate the power of 30 MW from the solid waste.

  3. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT OF GUWAHATI CITY IN NORTH-EAST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Pradhan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years municipal solid waste (MSW management has been one of the most environmental concerns for all urban areas of India. Most of the urban centers have neither adequate land nor any facility for MSW disposal. In view of scarcity of lands for making landfill sites, solid wastes can be used for energy recovery resulting in volume reduction, thus requires less area for its disposal. Guwahati is one such city of North-East India, having the potential to recover the energy from solid wastes and at the same time the waste management system of the city can be improved. This paper attempts to characterize the urban solid waste of the city as well as its energy potential for various uses. Results showed that the average generation rate of MSW was 0.7 kg/capita/day and the city has the potential to generate the power of 30 MW from the solid waste.

  4. New growing media and value added organic waste processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Rijpsma, E.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Public pressure to use peat alternatives in horticultural rooting media offers room for the re-use of local organic waste materials. The re-use of organic wastes requires value added processing such as composting, co-composting, digestion, fractioning/sieving, pressing, binding, stabilising by

  5. An environmental assessment of electricity production from slaughterhouse residues. Linking urban, industrial and waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, R.; Ripa, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal by-products use for electricity generation is investigated as a case-study. • Different methodological approaches to deal with by-products are explored in LCA. • Adopting a holistic perspective is crucial to achieve a circular economy framework. - Abstract: The food processing industry continues to grow, generating large amount of organically rich waste flows per year: these processors face significant economic and environmental pressures for appropriate conversion and disposal of these waste flows. Solid waste disposal problems, mostly in highly urbanized environments, energy shortages (primarily oil) and/or high petroleum prices, as well as environmental issues such as the shrinking landfill capacity, can all be addressed by converting waste material into useful and saleable products. This paper brings to the attention a possible strategy in order to meet the general EU directives concerning the residues utilization and percentage contribution for the total energy consumption by 2020, by evaluating the use of animal by-products (category 3, as defined in the directive 2002/1774/EC) for energy purposes. Slaughterhouse waste represents an important potential source of renewable energy: on average, 40–50% of a live animal is waste, with a potential energy content close to diesel fuel. Treatment of animal waste from slaughterhouse and the subsequent conversion to electricity is investigated as a case study in the Campania Region (Italy): the animal waste undergoes a rendering process, to separate a protein-rich fraction useful for animal meal production and a fat-rich fraction, to be combusted in a diesel engine for power and heat generation (CHP). An environmental assessment of the entire process is performed by means of LCA, providing a quantitative understanding of the plant processing. The study aims to understand to what extent electricity production from animal fat is environmentally sound and if there are steps and/or components

  6. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using organic vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-09-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks has been identified as a safety issue because expanding gases could potentially affect tank dome integrity. Organic liquid waste has been found in some of the waste tanks, but most are thought to contain only trace amounts. Due to the inhomogeneity of the waste, direct sampling of the tank waste to locate organic liquids may not conclusively demonstrate that a given tank is free of risk. However, organic vapors present above the organic liquid waste can be detected with a high degree of confidence and can be used to identify problem tanks. This report presents the results of a screening test that has been applied to 82 passively ventilated high-level radioactive waste tanks at the Hanford Site to identify those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. It includes seven tanks not addressed in the previous version of this report, Screening for Organic Solvents in Hanford Waste Tanks Using Total Non-Methane Organic Compound Vapor Concentrations. The screening test is based on a simple model of the tank headspace that estimates the effective surface area of semivolatile organic liquid waste in a tank. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Thirteen tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Most of the tanks identified as containing potentially significant quantities of organic liquid waste are in the 241-BY and 241-C tank farms, which agrees qualitatively with the fact that these tank farms received the majority of the PUREX process organic wash waste and waste organic liquids

  7. Compost made of organic wastes suppresses fusariosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuryntseva, Polina; Galitskaya, Polina; Biktasheva, Liliya; Selivanovkaya, Svetlana

    2017-04-01

    Fungal plant diseases cause dramatic yield losses worldwide. Usually, pesticides are used for soil sanitation, and it results in practically pest-free soils, although pesticides cause a biological vacuum, which present many horticultural disadvantages. Suppressive composts, which possess both fertilizing properties for plants and inhibiting properties for plant pathogens, represent an effective and environmentally friendly alternative to conventional pesticides. In this study, composts obtained from agricultural organic wastes were applied to suppress Fusarium oxysporum of tomato plants in model experiments. Composts were made of mixtures of the widespread organic wastes sampled in Tatarstan (Russia): straw (SW), corn wastes (CW), chicken manure (ChM), cattle manure (CM) and swine manure (SM). 11 two- and three-component mixtures were prepared to obtain the optimal carbon-nitrogen, moisture and pH balances, and composted for 210 days. It was found that the thermophilic phase of composting in all the mixtures lasted from 2 to 35 days, and was characterized by significant fluctuations in temperature, i.e. from 27°C to 59°C. In the initial mixtures, the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content was between 10 and 62 mg kg-1; it fell significantly on day 13, and then continuously decreased up to day 102, and subsequently remained low. For all the mixtures, maximal respiration activity was observed in the beginning of composting (231.9 mg CO2-C g-1 day-1). After 23 days, this parameter decreased significantly, and fluctuations subsided. The phytotoxicity of the initial compost mixtures varied from 18% (SW+SM) to 100% (CW+ChM+SM, CW+ChM); however, the trends in the dynamics were similar. After 120 days of composting, 5 of 11 samples were not phytotoxic. After 120 days of composting, each mixture was divided into two parts; one was inoculated with a biopreparation consisting of four microbial strains (Trichoderma asperellum, Pseudomonas putida, Pseudomonas fluorescens and

  8. Comparing urban solid waste recycling from the viewpoint of urban metabolism based on physical input–output model: A case of Suzhou in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Sai; Zhang Tianzhu

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Impacts of solid waste recycling on Suzhou’s urban metabolism in 2015 are analyzed. ► Sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. ► Technical levels of reusing scrap tires and food wastes should be improved. ► Other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. ► Secondary wastes from reusing food wastes and sludge should be concerned. - Abstract: Investigating impacts of urban solid waste recycling on urban metabolism contributes to sustainable urban solid waste management and urban sustainability. Using a physical input–output model and scenario analysis, urban metabolism of Suzhou in 2015 is predicted and impacts of four categories of solid waste recycling on urban metabolism are illustrated: scrap tire recycling, food waste recycling, fly ash recycling and sludge recycling. Sludge recycling has positive effects on reducing all material flows. Thus, sludge recycling for biogas is regarded as an accepted method. Moreover, technical levels of scrap tire recycling and food waste recycling should be improved to produce positive effects on reducing more material flows. Fly ash recycling for cement production has negative effects on reducing all material flows except solid wastes. Thus, other fly ash utilization methods should be exploited. In addition, the utilization and treatment of secondary wastes from food waste recycling and sludge recycling should be concerned.

  9. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan; Dong, Xinglong; Wang, Hao; Ma, Dingxuan; Tan, Kui; Jensen, Stephanie; Deibert, Benjamin J.; Butler, Joseph; Cure, Jeremy; Shi, Zhan; Thonhauser, Timo; Chabal, Yves J.; Han, Yu; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li

  10. Report on current research into organic materials in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norris, G.H.

    1987-11-01

    A preliminary review of relevant recent papers on organic materials in radioactive waste is presented. In particular, the effects of chelating or complexing agents, the influence of bacteria and the role of colloids are assessed. The requirement for further radioactive waste inventory detail is indicated. Potential problem areas associated with the presence of organic materials in radioactive waste are identified and appropriate experimental work to assess their significance is proposed. Recommendations for specific further work are made. A list and diagrams of some of the more important polymer structures likely to be present in radioactive waste and their possible degradation products are appended. (author)

  11. Proceedings: energy from urban wastes workshop, Washington, DC, September 11-12, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, A.S.; Brooks, C. (eds.)

    1979-06-01

    This workshop, for members of public interest groups, was sponsored by DOE's Urban Waste Technology Branch to provide information on the use of urban waste as an energy resource. A separate abstract was prepared for each of seven presentations plus the Summary of discussions. Two acts are included as appendices: (1) Public Law 95-238: Department of Energy Act of 1978 - Civilian Applications; and (2) Public Law 94-580: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976.

  12. Electrochemical organic destruction in support of Hanford tank waste pretreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, W.E.; Surma, J.E.; Gervais, K.L.; Buehler, M.F.; Pillay, G.; Schmidt, A.J.

    1994-10-01

    The US Department of Energy's Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, has 177 underground storage tanks that contain approximately 61 million gallons of radioactive waste. The current cleanup strategy is to retrieve the waste and separate components into high-level and low-level waste. However, many of the tanks contain organic compounds that create concerns associated with tank safety and efficiency of anticipated separation processes. Therefore, a need exists for technologies that can safely and efficiently destroy organic compounds. Laboratory-scale studies conducted during FY 93 have shown proof-of-principle for electrochemical destruction of organics. Electrochemical oxidation is an inherently safe technology and shows promise for treating Hanford complexant concentrate aqueous/ slurry waste. Therefore, in support of Hanford tank waste pretreatment needs, the development of electrochemical organic destruction (ECOD) technology has been undertaken. The primary objective of this work is to develop an electrochemical treatment process for destroying organic compounds, including tank waste complexants. Electroanalytical analyses and bench-scale flow cell testing will be conducted to evaluate the effect of anode material and process operating conditions on the rate of organic destruction. Cyclic voltammetry will be used to identify oxygen overpotentials for the anode materials and provide insight into reaction steps for the electrochemical oxidation of complexants. In addition, a bench-scale flow cell evaluation will be conducted to evaluate the influence of process operating conditions and anode materials on the rate and efficiency of organic destruction using the nonradioactive a Hanford tank waste simulant

  13. Potential Impacts of Organic Wastes on Small Stream Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Groffman, P. M.; Findlay, S. E.; Fischer, D. T.; Burke, R. A.; Molinero, J.

    2005-05-01

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River (SFBR) watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. The subwatersheds were chosen to reflect a range of land uses including forested, pasture, mixed, and developed. The SFBR watershed is heavily impacted by organic wastes, primarily from its large poultry industry, but also from its rapidly growing human population. The poultry litter is primarily disposed of by application to pastures. Our monthly monitoring results showed a strong inverse relationship between mean DOC and mean DO and suggested that concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), DOC, and the trace gases nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide are impacted by organic wastes and/or nutrients from animal manure applied to the land and/or human wastes from wastewater treatment plants or septic tanks in these watersheds. Here we estimate the organic waste loads of these watersheds and evaluate the impact of organic wastes on stream DOC and alkalinity concentrations, electrical conductivity, sediment potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratios. All of these water quality parameters are significantly correlated with watershed waste loading. DOC is most strongly correlated with total watershed waste loading whereas conductivity, alkalinity, potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratio are most strongly correlated with watershed human waste loading. These results suggest that more direct inputs (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents, near-stream septic tanks) have a greater relative impact on stream water quality than more dispersed inputs (land applied poultry litter, septic tanks far from streams) in the SFBR watershed. Conductivity, which is generally elevated in organic wastes, is also significantly correlated with total watershed waste loading suggesting it may be a useful indicator of overall

  14. Use of diatomaceous to liquid organic wastes adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza M, Azucena; Padilla S, Ulises

    1999-01-01

    Background: One of the radioactive wastes that the Radioactive Wastes Management Unit must process are organic liquids from external generators and from sections of the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). The wastes from external generators contain H 3 and C 14; while the wastes from the CCHEN are contaminated with uranium. The total volume of liquid organic wastes that must be treated is 5 m3. The options recommended for processing these wastes are incineration or the adsorption of the organic liquid by some adsorbing medium and its subsequent immobilization in cement molds. Due to the cost of incineration, the adsorption method was chosen for study. Objective: To find the optimum amount of adsorbent to be saturated with radioactive organic liquid from liquid scintillation and to study immobilization in cement molds. Methodology: Adsorption granulated (1568 Merck) and diatom earth were tested as adsorbent mediums. The adsorbents were mixed in different ratios of volume with the organic liquid. Then the waste was mixed with different water/cement ratios to define the best immobilization conditions. Conclusions: The tests carried out with 2 adsorbents recommended in the literature and available in the CCHEN show that as adsorbent waste ratio decreases, the percentage of liquid adsorbed increases, as expected: a greater volume of adsorbent retains a greater quantity of liquid, with an increase in the final volume, depending on the adsorbent used. Of these adsorbents, the diatom earth was better for treating liquid organic wastes. It had 100% adsorption and an increased volume of 0%, which is more than enough from the volumetric point of view of waste management. The ratio 0.8 liquid/adsorbent also showed good characteristics, but more study is needed to decide on the above, since liquid remains to be adsorbed. This work must continue to study the repeatability of results, to obtain physical and radiological characteristics for the immobilized products and to

  15. Urban Waste and Sanitation Services for Sustainable Development: Harnessing social and technical diversity in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van B.J.M.; Buuren, van J.C.L.; Mgana, S.

    2014-01-01

    Urban sanitation and solid waste sectors are under significant pressure in East Africa due to the lack of competent institutional capacity and the growth of the region’s urban population. This book presents and applies an original analytical approach to assess the existing socio-technical mixtures

  16. Public health evaluation of waste management plan of urban areas of Florence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corti, Andrea; Lombardi, Lidia; Carpentieri, Matteo; Buiatti, Eva; Bartolacci, Simone; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Linzalone, Nunzia; Minichilli, Fabrizio; Mancuso, Stefano

    2005-01-01

    Public health evaluation impact for solid municipal waste management of Florence urban areas is considered. In this case study the evaluation step of screening show the environmental analysis of pollutants in the urban areas and epidemiologic study of exposed population in the area

  17. Civil society participation in urban sanitation and solid waste management in Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukahirwa, J.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, P.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The inability of local governments to provide basic environmental services in African urban centres often results in the involvement of other actors in urban sanitation and solid waste provisioning, such as non-governmental organisations (NGOs), community-based organisations (CBOs) and private

  18. impact of waste disposal on health of a poor urban community

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2004-08-08

    Aug 8, 2004 ... and local authorities' policies of hostilities and eviction of poor urban informal settlers(7). This study assessed the human excreta and waste disposal facilities and their health implications among residents of the poor urban settlement of Epworth a few kilometers south east of Harare, Zimbabwe's capital city.

  19. Organic waste process containing at least one radioactive element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roy, F.

    1977-01-01

    The description is given of an organic waste process containing at least one element from the group comprising strontium, cesium, iodine and ruthenium. It comprises the introduction of the organic waste and gaseous oxygen in a bath of melted salt containing an alkaline carbonate, the bath being maintained at a high temperature between 400 and 1000 0 C and at a pressure of 0.5 to 10 bars, so that the organic waste is burnt and oxidised at least partly, the element selected being retained by the bath of melted salt [fr

  20. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, M.C.

    1993-01-01

    Major source of fuel in rural areas is still fire wood, cowdung and crop residues. Cowdung and crop residues can be effectively used as manure too. Bioconversion of organic wastes for fuel and manure can solve the twin problems. The paper deals with various kinds of organic wastes used as fuel, manure and for both, other organic wastes as alternate and supplemental feedstocks, impact of their bioconversion on rural energy and environment, dry fermentation technology, manurial value of the biogas slurry, etc. Important constraints in popularizing the biogas programme have been mentioned and their remedial measures have also been suggested. (author). 32 refs., 4 tabs., 3 figs

  1. Reuse and Upcycling of Municipal Waste for ZEB Envelope Design in European Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Pennacchia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Building energy efficiency and urban waste management are two focal issues for improving environmental status and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The main aim of this paper is to compare economic costs of new building envelope structures designed by authors reusing and upcycling municipal waste in order to decrease energy demand from the building sector and, at the same time, improve eco-friendly waste management at the local scale. The reuse of waste for building envelope structures is one of the main principles of the Earthship buildings model, based on the use of passive solar principles in autonomous earth-sheltered homes. This Earthship principle has been analyzed in order to optimize buildings’ energy performance and reuse municipal waste for new building envelope structures in urban areas. Indeed, the elaborated structures have been designed for urban contexts, with the aim of reuse waste coming from surrounding landfills. The methods include an analysis of thermal performance of urban waste for designing new building envelope structures realized by assembling waste and isolating materials not foreseen in Earthship buildings. The reused materials are: cardboard tubes, automobile tires, wood pallets, and plastic and glass bottles. Finally, comparing economic costs of these new building envelope structures, the obtained results highlight their economic feasibility compared to a traditional structure with similar thermal transmittance.

  2. Effect Various Combination of Organic Waste on Compost Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hapsoh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid waste and agricultural waste have different ratio C/N and nutrients contents. They can be used as compost row materials. The purpose of the research was to get an optimum combination of both wastes to improve compost quality, to meet the Indonesian National Standard 19-7030-2004. Composting process use pots. The treatments were twelve combination of municipal solid waste (garbage market, household waste, restaurant waste and agricultural waste (rice straw, empty fruit bunches of oil palm, cassava peel, banana skin with a ratio of 1:1 and enriche by chicken manure, cow manure, wood ash and cellulolytic microorganisme. The treatment were replicated three times. The results showd that the nutrients content of compost were 0.77 to 1.19% nitrogen, 0.23 to 0.30% phosphorus, 0.46 to 0.69% potassium and 15.48 to 34.69% organic matter. The combination of agricultural waste and municipal solid waste affected the quality of compost. Compost that meets SNI 19-7030-2004 is a combination of rice straw+market waste that contains 1.12% nitrogen, 0.28% phosphorus, 0.63% potassium, ratio C/N 19.50, pH 7.42, and organic matters 37.65%.

  3. Environment, Environmental Restoration, and Waste Management Field Organization Directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-07-01

    This directory was developed by the Office of Environmental Guidance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-231) from an outgrowth of the Departments efforts to identify and establish the regulatory response lead persons in the Field Organizations. The directory was developed for intemal EH-231 use to identify both the DOE and DOE contractor Field Organizations in the Environment, Environmental Restoration and Waste Management areas. The Field Organization directory is divided into three substantive sections: (1) Environment; (2) Environmental Restoration; and (3) Waste Management which are organized to correspond to the management hierarchy at each Field Organization. The information provided includes the facility name and address, individual managers name, and telephone/fax numbers

  4. Poultry Waste Management Techniques in Urban Agriculture and its Implications: A Case of Metropolitan Lagos, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Vide Adedayo

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the existing poultry waste management and utilization technique in urban vegetable farms. It analyses the implications of the management pattern on yield and revenue and further determines the socio-economic differentials of farmers on management pattern. Socio-economic survey was carried out to determine relationship between socio economic characteristics of farmers and poultry waste management while field experiments and estimations were done to determine poultry waste p...

  5. Study of organic waste for production of hydrogen in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzmán Chinea, Jesús Manuel; Guzmán Marrero, Elizabeth; Pérez Ponce, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    Biological processes have long been used for the treatment of organic waste makes, especially our study is based on the anaerobic process in reactors, using residual organic industry. Without excluding other non-industrial we have studied. Fundamental objectives treating organic waste is to reduce the pollutant load to the environment, another aim is to recover the waste recovering the energy contained in it. In this context, the biological hydrogen production from organic waste is an interesting alternative because it has low operating costs and raw material is being used as a residue in any way should be treated before final disposal. Hydrogen can be produced sustainable by anaerobic bacteria that grow in the dark with rich carbohydrate substrates giving as final products H 2 , CO 2 and volatile fatty acids. The whey byproduct from cheese production, has great potential to be used for the generation of hydrogen as it has a high carbohydrate content and a high organic load. The main advantages of using anaerobic processes in biological treatment of organic waste, are the low operating costs, low power consumption, the ability to degrade high organic loads, resistance biomass to stay long in the absence of substrate, without lose their metabolic activity, and low nutritional requirements and increase the performance of 0.9 mol H2 / mol lactose. (full text)Biological processes have long been used for the treatment of organic waste makes, especially our study is based on the anaerobic process in reactors, using residual organic industry. Without excluding other non-industrial we have studied. Fundamental objectives treating organic waste is to reduce the pollutant load to the environment, another aim is to recover the waste recovering the energy contained in it. In this context, the biological hydrogen production from organic waste is an interesting alternative because it has low operating costs and raw material is being used as a residue in any way should be treated

  6. Anaerobic co-digestion of organic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Neves, L.

    2009-01-01

    Tese de doutoramento em Engenharia Química e Biológica Anaerobic digestion is an already established process but the increasing need of bio‐waste recovery has determined the emergence of new substrates, revamping the research in this field. Contrary to some other European countries, in Portugal this technology is still scarcely in use. Nonetheless, the current legislation endorses this application as a waste management and as an energy recovery process. The rapid growth of the ...

  7. BIOESTABILIZATION ANAEROBIC SOLID WASTE ORGANIC:QUANTITATIVE ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valderi Duarte Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that in Brazil, the municipal solid waste produced are constituted on average 55% of fermentable organic solid waste and that this quantity can be applied in aerobic or anaerobic stabilization process. Anaerobic digestion is an important alternative for the treatment of different types of potentially fermentable waste, considering providing an alternative source of energy that can be used to replace fossil fuels. To perform the experimental part of this work was constructed and monitored an experimental system consisting of an anaerobic batch reactor, shredding unit of fermentable organic wastes and additional devices. Fermentable organic wastes consisted of leftover fruits and vegetables and were listed in EMPASA (Paraibana Company of Food and Agricultural Services, located in the city of Campina Grande- PB. The residues were collected and transported to the Experimental Station Biological Sewage Treatment (EXTRABES where they were processed and used for substrate preparation. The substrate consisted of a mixture of fermentable organic waste, more anaerobic sewage sludge in the proportion of 80 and 20 % respectively. In the specific case of this study, it was found that 1m3 of substrate concentration of total COD equal to 169 g L-1, considering the reactor efficiency equal to 80 %, the production of CH4 would be approximately 47.25 Nm3 CH4. Therefore, fermentable organic waste, when subjected to anaerobic treatment process produces a quantity of methane gas in addition to the partially biostabilized compound may be applied as a soil conditioning agent.

  8. Organic analysis of the headspace in Hanford waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucke, R.B.; McVeety, B.D.; Clauss, T.W.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1994-01-01

    Before radioactive mixed waste in Hanford waste tanks can be isolated and permanently stored, several safety issues need to be addressed. The headspace vapors in Hanford Tank 103-C raise two issues: (1) the potential flammability of the vapor and aerosol, and (2) the potential worker health and safety hazards associated with the toxicity of the constituents. As a result, the authors have implemented organic analysis methods to characterize the headspace vapors in Hanford waste tanks. To address the flammability issue, they have used OSHA versatile sampling (OVS) tubes as the sampling method followed by solvent extraction and GC/MS analysis. For analyzing volatile organics and organic air toxins, they have implemented SUMMA trademark canisters as the collection device followed by cryogenic trapping and GC/MS analysis. Strategies for modifying existing NIOSH and EPA methods to make them applicable to vapors in Hanford waste tanks are discussed. Identification and quantification results of volatile and semivolatile organics are presented

  9. Biotransformation of Organic Waste into High Quality Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bryndum, Sofie

    Agriculture faces several challenges of future provision of nutrients such as limited P reserves and increasing prices of synthetic fertilizers and recycling of nutrients from organic waste can be an important strategy for the long-term sustainability of the agricultural systems. Organically...... and S, is often low; and (3) the unbalanced composition of nutrients rarely matches crop demands. Therefore the objective of this project was to investigate the potential for (1) recycling nutrients from agro-industrial wastes and (2) compost biotransformation into high-quality organic fertilizers...... other uses into fertilizer use would be unlikely. An estimated ~50 % of the total organic waste pool, primarily consisting of animal manure and waste from the processing of sugar cane, coffee, oil palm and oranges, is currently being re-used as “fertilizers”, meaning it is eventually returned...

  10. Hydrochar from sewage sludge and urban wastes as a peat replacement in growing media preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Maria Luisa; Méndez, Ana; Paz-Ferreiro, Jorge; Soler-Rovira, Pedro; García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Plaza, César; Gascó, Gabriel

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, there is an important trend in Europe for peat replacement with biochar in growing media formulation in order to reduce the environmental impact of peat exploitation. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is a thermochemical process of converting organic feedstock into a high carbon rich solid product named hydrochar. It is performed in water mild temperature (180-260°C) under pressure conditions (2-6MPa) for 5-250 min. The reaction pressure is not controlled in the process and is autogenic with the saturation vapour pressure of water corresponding to the reaction temperature. In recent years, the possibility of subjecting organic wastes to HTC has attracted the scientific community attention due to their interesting advantages over other thermal treatments such as pyrolysis, torrefaction or gasification. The aim of the present paper is to study the possible use of two hydrochars produced by Ingelia (Spain) from sewage sludge and urban waste treatment as growing media material in horticulture. For this, thermal, chemical and hydrophysical properties were determined and compared with that of brown commercial peat.

  11. Repeated soil application of organic waste amendments reduces draught force and fuel consumption for soil tillage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peltrea, Clément; Nyord, Tavs; Bruun, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Soil application of organic waste products (OWP) can maintain or increase soil organic carbon (SOC) content, which in turn could lead to increased porosity and potentially to reduced energy use for soil tillage. Only a few studies have addressed the effect of SOC content on draught force...... for soil tillage, and this still needs to be addressed for fields that receive diverse types of organic waste of urban, agricultural and agro-industrial origin. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of changes in SOC induced by repeated soil application of OWP on draught force for soil...... tillage and tractor fuel consumption. Draught force was measured for tillage with conventional spring tillage tines, as well as bulk density, soil texture and SOC content in the CRUCIAL field experiment, Denmark in which diverse types of OWP had been applied annually for 11 years. The OWP included...

  12. URBAN SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN CAXIAS DO SUL/BRAZIL: PRACTICES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Poletto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste management is becoming a challenge for the cities’ authorities in developing countries mainly due to the rapid economic growth and population increasing. In cities of the developing world, the informal sector plays an important role in the management of urban solid waste. This work examines the participation of scavengers in an integrated municipal solid waste management system. The paper is based on direct field observations, interviews with scavengers and characterization of the urban solid waste generated in Caxias do Sul. The partnership between municipal government and local scavengers were also evaluated as well as the contribution of the scavengers in the urban solid waste management system. The study reveals that it is necessary to realize a campaign for improving the waste segregation at source. The infrastructure of the scavengers associations need to be improved and finally the scavengers need to be more deeply involved in the policies associated with the urban solid waste management system adopted in the city.

  13. The use of urban wood waste as an energy resource

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudyakova, G. I.; Danilova, D. A.; Khasanov, R. R.

    2017-06-01

    The capabilities use of wood waste in the Ekaterinburg city, generated during the felling of trees and sanitation in the care of green plantations in the streets, parks, squares, forest parks was investigated in this study. In the cities at the moment, all the wood, that is removed from city streets turns into waste completely. Wood waste is brought to the landfill of solid household waste, and moreover sorting and evaluation of the quantitative composition of wood waste is not carried out. Several technical solutions that are used in different countries have been proposed for the energy use of wood waste: heat and electrical energy generation, liquid and solid biofuel production. An estimation of the energy potential of the city wood waste was made, for total and for produced heat and electrical energy based on modern engineering developments. According to our estimates total energy potential of wood waste in the city measure up more 340 thousand GJ per year.

  14. Biogas from organically high polluted industrial waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, H

    1985-06-01

    Organically high polluted waste water sets special claims for an economical purification and the process treatment. Up to now these waste waters are being purified by anaerobic processes with simultaneous biogas generation. The fourstep anaerobic degradation is influenced by a lot of important parameters. Extensive researchers in the field of anaerobic microbiology has improved the knowledge of the fundamental principles. Parallel the reactor technology is developed worldwide. In general it seems that the fixed-film-reactor with immobilized bacteria has the best future to purify organically high polluted industrial waste water with short retention times under stable operation conditions.

  15. Radiolytic decomposition of organic C-14 released from TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Yuko; Noshita, Kenji; Kawasaki, Toru; Nishimura, Tsutomu; Sakuragi, Tomofumi; Asano, Hidekazu

    2007-01-01

    It has been found that metallic TRU waste releases considerable portions of C-14 in the form of organic molecules such as lower molecular weight organic acids, alcohols and aldehydes. Due to the low sorption ability of organic C-14, it is important to clarify the long-term behavior of organic forms under waste disposal conditions. From investigations on radiolytic decomposition of organic carbon molecules into inorganic carbonic acid, it is expected that radiation from TRU waste will decompose organic C-14 into inorganic carbonic acid that has higher adsorption ability into the engineering barriers. Hence we have studied the decomposition behavior of organic C-14 by gamma irradiation experiments under simulated disposal conditions. The results showed that organic C-14 reacted with OH radicals formed by radiolysis of water, to produce inorganic carbonic acid. We introduced the concept of 'decomposition efficiency' which expresses the percentage of OH radicals consumed for the decomposition reaction of organic molecules in order to analyze the experimental results. We estimated the effect of radiolytic decomposition on the concentration of organic C-14 in the simulated conditions of the TRU disposal system using the decomposition efficiency, and found that the concentration of organic C-14 in the waste package will be lowered when the decomposition of organic C-14 by radiolysis was taken into account, in comparison with the concentration of organic C-14 without radiolysis. Our prediction suggested that some amount of organic C-14 can be expected to be transformed into the inorganic form in the waste package in an actual system. (authors)

  16. The use of fly larvae for organic waste treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čičková, Helena; Newton, G Larry; Lacy, R Curt; Kozánek, Milan

    2015-01-01

    The idea of using fly larvae for processing of organic waste was proposed almost 100 years ago. Since then, numerous laboratory studies have shown that several fly species are well suited for biodegradation of organic waste, with the house fly (Musca domestica L.) and the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens L.) being the most extensively studied insects for this purpose. House fly larvae develop well in manure of animals fed a mixed diet, while black soldier fly larvae accept a greater variety of decaying organic matter. Blow fly and flesh fly maggots are better suited for biodegradation of meat processing waste. The larvae of these insects have been successfully used to reduce mass of animal manure, fecal sludge, municipal waste, food scrapes, restaurant and market waste, as well as plant residues left after oil extraction. Higher yields of larvae are produced on nutrient-rich wastes (meat processing waste, food waste) than on manure or plant residues. Larvae may be used as animal feed or for production of secondary products (biodiesel, biologically active substances). Waste residue becomes valuable fertilizer. During biodegradation the temperature of the substrate rises, pH changes from neutral to alkaline, ammonia release increases, and moisture decreases. Microbial load of some pathogens can be substantially reduced. Both larvae and digested residue may require further treatment to eliminate pathogens. Facilities utilizing natural fly populations, as well as pilot and full-scale plants with laboratory-reared fly populations have been shown to be effective and economically feasible. The major obstacles associated with the production of fly larvae from organic waste on an industrial scale seem to be technological aspects of scaling-up the production capacity, insufficient knowledge of fly biology necessary to produce large amounts of eggs, and current legislation. Technological innovations could greatly improve performance of the biodegradation facilities and

  17. Government, market and community in urban solid waste management; problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Baud, I.S.A.; Baud, I.S.A.; Furedy, C.; Post, J.

    2004-01-01

    -Post, Johan and Isa Baud (2004) Government, market and community in urban solid waste management; problems and potentials in the transition to sustainable development? in: Baud, Isa., Johan. Post and Christine Furedy (2004) Solid Waste Management and Rec

  18. The potential role of waste biomass in the future urban electricity system

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Yu; Werf, van der, Edwin; Ierland, van, Ekko C.; Keesman, Karel J.

    2017-01-01

    The share of intermittent renewable electricity (IRE) in the future urban electricity system is expected to increase significantly. Sufficient back-up capacity is needed in the period when IRE output is low. Bioenergy is both dispatchable and carbon-neutral, and can hence be a promising option to back up IRE. The objective of this study is to explore the potential of urban waste biomass in backing up IRE in an urban electricity system. An urban electricity system model is developed to project...

  19. Insects associated with the composting process of solid urban waste separated at the source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladis Estela Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcosaprophagous macroinvertebrates (earthworms, termites and a number of Diptera larvae enhance changes in the physical and chemical properties of organic matter during degradation and stabilization processes in composting, causing a decrease in the molecular weights of compounds. This activity makes these organisms excellent recyclers of organic matter. This article evaluates the succession of insects associated with the decomposition of solid urban waste separated at the source. The study was carried out in the city of Medellin, Colombia. A total of 11,732 individuals were determined, belonging to the classes Insecta and Arachnida. Species of three orders of Insecta were identified, Diptera, Coleoptera and Hymenoptera. Diptera corresponding to 98.5% of the total, was the most abundant and diverse group, with 16 families (Calliphoridae, Drosophilidae, Psychodidae, Fanniidae, Muscidae, Milichiidae, Ulidiidae, Scatopsidae, Sepsidae, Sphaeroceridae, Heleomyzidae, Stratiomyidae, Syrphidae, Phoridae, Tephritidae and Curtonotidae followed by Coleoptera with five families (Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Ptiliidae, Hydrophilidae and Phalacaridae. Three stages were observed during the composting process, allowing species associated with each stage to be identified. Other species were also present throughout the whole process. In terms of number of species, Diptera was the most important group observed, particularly Ornidia obesa, considered a highly invasive species, and Hermetia illuscens, both reported as beneficial for decomposition of organic matter.

  20. The World Meteorological Organization Focus on Urban Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terblanche, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Many of the milestones of human development can be traced back to people assembled in urban settings where economies of scale, competition and social interaction stimulated innovation. Considering that more than half the global pollution now lives in cities and towns and that most of the growth in the global pollution in the remainder of this century will continue to take place in the urban environment, the question could be asked whether humankind will continue to capitalize on the traditional benefits of city life to find solutions for growing environmental challenges? In the past cities developed organically. They evolved through trial and error into livable environments. Things have now changed. The global population is larger, urbanization is rapid, pressure on Earth's limited resources is constraining and we are faced with a changing climate. If cities are now allowed to develop in a haphazard manner, the fight for survival in the city will overshadow its entrepreneurial spirit. It is for this reason that the 11th Sustainable Development Goal will focus on: 'Making cities and human settlements inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable'. There is now a window of opportunity for weather, climate, water and environmental scientists to contribute towards a more sustainable urban future by ensuring that science based services form an integrated part of urban planning, development and management. WMO recognizes that rapid urbanization will require new types of new and enhanced services. Such integrated urban weather, environment and climate services will assist cities to deal better with hazards such as storm surge, flooding, heat waves, and air pollution episodes, especially in a changing climate. From a research perspective the World Climate Research Programme, the World Weather Research Programme and the Global Atmosphere Watch Programme all have a unique contribution to make in this regard.

  1. Potential for nutrient recovery and biogas production from blackwater, food waste and greywater in urban source control systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerstadius, H; Haghighatafshar, S; Davidsson, Å

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, the focus on waste and wastewater treatment systems has shifted towards increased recovery of energy and nutrients. Separation of urban food waste (FW) and domestic wastewaters using source control systems could aid this increase; however, their effect on overall sustainability is unknown. To obtain indicators for sustainability assessments, five urban systems for collection, transport, treatment and nutrient recovery from blackwater, greywater and FW were investigated using data from implementations in Sweden or northern Europe. The systems were evaluated against their potential for biogas production and nutrient recovery by the use of mass balances for organic material, nutrients and metals over the system components. The resulting indicators are presented in units suitable for use in future sustainability studies or life-cycle assessment of urban waste and wastewater systems. The indicators show that source control systems have the potential to increase biogas production by more than 70% compared with a conventional system and give a high recovery of phosphorus and nitrogen as biofertilizer. The total potential increase in gross energy equivalence for source control systems was 20-100%; the greatest increase shown is for vacuum-based systems.

  2. Treatment of organic solid waste for reuse: a step towards zero waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.; Khan, Z.M.; Raja, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Large amounts of organic solid wastes are being generated from municipal, industrial and agricultural activities. After necessary processing, the organic solid waste can be reused for agriculture not only as a nutrient supplement for plant growth, but also as a conditioner for seedbed soil. Processed organic wastes may improve soil structure and enhance water and nutrient-holding capacity of the soil, as well as increase the microbial activity within the soil, thereby increasing soil fertility. In this study, problems like undesirably high moisture contents and large volumes per unit weight of the processed organic solid wastes have been addressed through pelletization. Physical properties like durability, percent of fines content, and bulk and particle density of the processed and pelletized organic waste have been investigated, and the optimum values for storage, handling and transportation of the pelletized organic waste have been determined. Three different sizes of extruding sieve (4.35, 6.35 and 7.9 mm) and three different waste-mixing ratios (1:1:2, 1:2:2 and 1:3:3) of farmyard waste, wastewater sludge and sugar industry press mud were used respectively for the production of bio-solid pellets. The physical properties of the palletes show that durability increases by increasing the amount of sewage sludge while fines content, bulk density and unit density decrease. The large sieve size has more durability and less fine content. The results showed that the pelletization technique can be efficiently used by the farmers and appears to be a good option for sustainable management and re-use of organic solid wastes. (author)

  3. Potential use of feebate systems to foster environmentally sound urban waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2004-01-01

    Waste treatment facilities are often shared among different municipalities as a means of managing wastes more efficiently. Usually, management costs are assigned to each municipality depending on the size of the population or total amount of waste produced, regardless of important environmental aspects such as per capita waste generation or achievements in composting or recycling. This paper presents a feebate (fee+rebate) system aimed to foster urban waste reduction and recovery. The proposal suggests that municipalities achieving better results in their waste management performance (from an ecological viewpoint) be recompensated with a rebate obtained from a fee charged to those municipalities that are less environmentally sound. This is a dynamic and flexible instrument that would positively encourage municipalities to reduce waste whilst increasing the recycling

  4. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal.... The following will be forwarded to the Administrator, Attention: Water and Waste Disposal Division...

  5. Modeling Cd and Cu mobility in soils amended by long-term urban waste compost applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, Vilim; Cambier, Philippe; Matijević, Lana; Coquet, Yves; Pot, Valérie; Houot, Sabine; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Urban waste compost application to soil is an effective way for organic waste disposal and at the same time may have a positive effect on various soil rhizosphere processes. However, long term applications of organic waste amendments may lead to a noteworthy accumulation of micropollutants in soil. The long-term field experiment QualiAgro, an INRA-Veolia partnership (https://www6.inra.fr/qualiagro_eng/), has been conducted since 1998 with the objectives to characterize the agronomic value of urban composts and the environmental impacts of their application. Numerical modeling was performed using HYDRUS-2D to estimate the movement of Cd and Cu from compost incroporation in the tilled layer. Experimental plots regularly amended with co-compost of sewage sludge and green wastes (SGW), or a municipal solid waste compost (MSW) have been compared to control plot without any organic amendment (CONT). Field site was equipped with wicks lysimeters, TDR probes and tensiometers in order to determine water balance and trace metal concentrations during a 6 years' time period (2004-2010). In the tilled layer different structures (Δ - compacted clods, Γ - macroporous zone, IF - interfurrows, PP - plough pan) corresponding to the tillage and compost incorporation were delimited and reproduced in a 2-D model. The increase of Cd and Cu concentrations due to each compost addition was assumed to be located in IFs for further modeling. Four compost additions were performed during 2004-2010 period which increased the Cd and Cu concentrations in the IF zones considerably. After successful model description of water flow in highly heterogeneous soil profiles, Cd and Cu were added into the model and their fate was simulated during the same time period. Two approaches were followed to estimate plausible trace metals sorption coefficients (Kd), both while assuming equilibrium between dissolved and EDTA-extractable metals. The first approach was based on Kd estimated from ratios between

  6. Technology for safe treatment of radioisotope organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Won Jin; Park, Chong Mook; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. Y.; Kim, B. T.; Park, S. C

    1999-12-01

    An examination of chemical and radiological characteristics of RI organic liquid waste, wet oxidation by Fenton reaction and decomposition liquid waste treatment process were studied. These items will be applied to develop the equipment of wet oxidation and decomposition liquid waste treatment mixed processes for the safe treatment of RI organic liquid waste which is consisted of organic solvents such as toluene, alcohol and acetone. Two types of toluene solutions were selected as a candidate decomposition material. As for the first type, the concentration of toluene was above 20 vol percent. As for the second type, the solubility of toluene was considered. The decomposition ration by Fenton reaction was above 95 percent for both of them. From the adsorption equilibrium tests, a -Na{sup +} substituted/acid treated activated carbon and Zeocarbon mixed adsorbent was selected for the fixed adsorption column. This mixed adsorbent will be used to obtain the basic design data of liquid waste purification equipment for the treatment of decomposition liquid waste arising from the wet oxidation process. Solidification and degree of strength tests were performed with the simulated sludge/spent adsorbent of MgO as an oxide type and KH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}. From the test results, the design and fabrication of wet oxidation and liquid waste purification process equipment was made, and a performance test was carried out. (author)

  7. Technology for safe treatment of radioisotope organic wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Won Jin; Park, Chong Mook; Choi, W. K.; Lee, K. W.; Moon, J. K.; Yang, H. Y.; Kim, B. T.; Park, S. C.

    1999-12-01

    An examination of chemical and radiological characteristics of RI organic liquid waste, wet oxidation by Fenton reaction and decomposition liquid waste treatment process were studied. These items will be applied to develop the equipment of wet oxidation and decomposition liquid waste treatment mixed processes for the safe treatment of RI organic liquid waste which is consisted of organic solvents such as toluene, alcohol and acetone. Two types of toluene solutions were selected as a candidate decomposition material. As for the first type, the concentration of toluene was above 20 vol percent. As for the second type, the solubility of toluene was considered. The decomposition ration by Fenton reaction was above 95 percent for both of them. From the adsorption equilibrium tests, a -Na + substituted/acid treated activated carbon and Zeocarbon mixed adsorbent was selected for the fixed adsorption column. This mixed adsorbent will be used to obtain the basic design data of liquid waste purification equipment for the treatment of decomposition liquid waste arising from the wet oxidation process. Solidification and degree of strength tests were performed with the simulated sludge/spent adsorbent of MgO as an oxide type and KH 2 PO 4 . From the test results, the design and fabrication of wet oxidation and liquid waste purification process equipment was made, and a performance test was carried out. (author)

  8. Inventories and reduction scenarios of urban waste-related greenhouse gas emissions for management potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dewei; Xu, Lingxing; Gao, Xueli; Guo, Qinghai; Huang, Ning

    2018-06-01

    Waste-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been recognized as one of the prominent contributors to global warming. Current urban waste regulations, however, face increasing challenges from stakeholders' trade-offs and hierarchic management. A combined method, i.e., life cycle inventories and scenario analysis, was employed to investigate waste-related GHG emissions during 1995-2015 and to project future scenarios of waste-driven carbon emissions by 2050 in a pilot low carbon city, Xiamen, China. The process-based carbon analysis of waste generation (prevention and separation), transportation (collection and transfer) and disposal (treatment and recycling) shows that the main contributors of carbon emissions are associated with waste disposal processes, solid waste, the municipal sector and Xiamen Mainland. Significant spatial differences of waste-related CO 2e emissions were observed between Xiamen Island and Xiamen Mainland using the carbon intensity and density indexes. An uptrend of waste-related CO 2e emissions from 2015 to 2050 is identified in the business as usual, waste disposal optimization, waste reduction and the integrated scenario, with mean annual growth rates of 8.86%, 8.42%, 6.90% and 6.61%, respectively. The scenario and sensitivity analysis imply that effective waste-related carbon reduction requires trade-offs among alternative strategies, actions and stakeholders in a feasible plan, and emphasize a priority of waste prevention and collection in Xiamen. Our results could benefit to the future modeling of urban multiple wastes and life-cycle carbon control in similar cities within and beyond China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Tjalfe G; Hansen, Jens Aage

    2009-11-01

    Historical data on organic waste and wastewater treatment during the period of 1970-2020 were used to assess the impact of treatment on energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances. The assessment included the waste fractions: Sewage sludge, food waste, yard waste and other organic waste (paper, plastic, etc.). Data were collected from Aalborg, a municipality located in Northern Denmark. During the period from 1970-2005, Aalborg Municipality has changed its waste treatment strategy from landfilling of all wastes toward composting of yard waste and incineration with combined heat and power production from the remaining organic municipal waste. Wastewater treatment has changed from direct discharge of untreated wastewater to full organic matter and nutrient (N, P) removal combined with anaerobic digestion of the sludge for biogas production with power and heat generation. These changes in treatment technology have resulted in the waste and wastewater treatment systems in Aalborg progressing from being net consumers of energy and net emitters of GHG, to becoming net producers of energy and net savers of GHG emissions (due to substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere). If it is assumed that the organic waste quantity and composition is the same in 1970 and 2005, the technology change over this time period has resulted in a progression from a net annual GHG emission of 200 kg CO( 2)-eq. capita(-1) in 1970 to a net saving of 170 kg CO(2)-eq. capita(-1) in 2005 for management of urban organic wastes.

  10. Integrated Solid Waste Management for Urban Area in Basrah District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhussain Abdul Kareem Abbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The success of waste management requires accurate data on generation and composition of waste which is pivotal for the decisions towards the appropriate waste management system. A five years (2008-2012 study was conducted to evaluate the solid wastes management system in all the six divisions of Basrah district (more than 30 sub-districts. Recent investigations in 2012 resulted information that population of Basrah district has reached 1,018,000 person The quantity of municipal solid waste generated was recorded to be 634 tons per day with MSW generation rates of 0.62 kg per capita per day. Municipal solid waste density was conducted as 192.6 kg/m³ with moisture content of 31.1%. The main components of the MSW were Food wastes represents largest proportion (54.8%, followed by plastic (25.2% and paper (7%. The study results reveal that the MSW stream has the largest proportion of biodegradable and recyclable waste. Therefore, the study recommends to use methods of waste treatment such composting, recycling and incineration in order to reduce the amount of waste that are taken to the landfill.

  11. Method of decomposing treatment for radioactive organic phosphate wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uki, Kazuo; Ichihashi, Toshio; Hasegawa, Akira; Sato, Tatsuaki

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To decompose the organic phosphoric-acid ester wastes containing radioactive material, which is produced from spent fuel reprocessing facilities, into inorganic materials using a simple device, under moderate conditions and at high decomposing ratio. Method: Radioactive organic phosphate wates are oxidatively decomposed by H 2 O 2 in an aqueous phosphoric-acid solution of metal phosphate salts. Copper phosphates are used as the metal phosphate salts and the decomposed solution of the radioactive organic phosphate wastes is used as the aqueous solution of the copper phosphate. The temperature used for the oxidizing decomposition ranges from 80 to 100 0 C. (Ikeda, J.)

  12. An environmentally sustainable decision model for urban solid waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costi, P.; Minciardi, R.; Robba, M.; Rovatti, M.; Sacile, R.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to present the structure and the application of a decision support system (DSS) designed to help decision makers of a municipality in the development of incineration, disposal, treatment and recycling integrated programs. Specifically, within a MSW management system, several treatment plants and facilities can generally be found: separators, plants for production of refuse derived fuel (RDF), incinerators with energy recovery, plants for treatment of organic material, and sanitary landfills. The main goal of the DSS is to plan the MSW management, defining the refuse flows that have to be sent to recycling or to different treatment or disposal plants, and suggesting the optimal number, the kinds, and the localization of the plants that have to be active. The DSS is based on a decision model that requires the solution of a constrained non-linear optimization problem, where some decision variables are binary and other ones are continuous. The objective function takes into account all possible economic costs, whereas constraints arise from technical, normative, and environmental issues. Specifically, pollution and impacts, induced by the overall solid waste management system, are considered through the formalization of constraints on incineration emissions and on negative effects produced by disposal or other particular treatments

  13. Biodegradation of radioactive organic liquid waste from spent fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rafael Vicente de Padua

    2008-01-01

    The research and development program in reprocessing of low burn-up spent fuel elements began in Brazil in 70's, originating the lab-scale hot cell, known as Celeste located at Nuclear and Energy Research Institute, IPEN - CNEN/SP. The program was ended at the beginning of 90's, and the laboratory was closed down. Part of the radioactive waste generated mainly from the analytical laboratories is stored waiting for treatment at the Waste Management Laboratory, and it is constituted by mixture of aqueous and organic phases. The most widely used technique for the treatment of radioactive liquid wastes is the solidification in cement matrix, due to the low processing costs and compatibility with a wide variety of wastes. However, organics are generally incompatible with cement, interfering with the hydration and setting processes, and requiring pre -treatment with special additives to stabilize or destroy them. The objective of this work can be divided in three parts: organic compounds characterization in the radioactive liquid waste; the occurrence of bacterial consortia from Pocos de Caldas uranium mine soil and Sao Sebastiao estuary sediments that are able to degrade organic compounds; and the development of a methodology to biodegrade organic compounds from the radioactive liquid waste aiming the cementation. From the characterization analysis, TBP and ethyl acetate were chosen to be degraded. The results showed that selected bacterial consortia were efficient for the organic liquid wastes degradation. At the end of the experiments the biodegradation level were 66% for ethyl acetate and 70% for the TBP. (author)

  14. Organic tanks safety program FY96 waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Clauss, S.A.; Sharma, A.K.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford Site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals, which are stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and partially saturated aqueous brine solutions. The tanks that contain organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes may be at risk for fuel- nitrate combustion accidents. The purpose of the Waste Aging Task is to elucidate how chemical and radiological processes will have aged or degraded the organic compounds stored in the tanks. Ultimately, the task seeks to develop quantitative measures of how aging changes the energetic properties of the wastes. This information will directly support efforts to evaluate the hazard as well as to develop potential control and mitigation strategies

  15. Monitoring plan for routine organic air emissions at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex Waste Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galloway, K.J.; Jolley, J.G.

    1994-06-01

    This monitoring plan provides the information necessary to perform routine organic air emissions monitoring at the Waste Storage Facilities located at the Transuranic Storage Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The Waste Storage Facilities include both the Type I and II Waste Storage Modules. The plan implements a dual method approach where two dissimilar analytical methodologies, Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) and ancillary SUMMA reg-sign canister sampling, following the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) analytical method TO-14, will be used to provide qualitative and quantitative volatile organic concentration data. The Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy will provide in situ, real time monitoring of volatile organic compound concentrations in the ambient air of the Waste Storage Facilities. To supplement the OP-FTIR data, air samples will be collected using SUMMA reg-sign, passivated, stainless steel canisters, following the EPA Method TO-14. These samples will be analyzed for volatile organic compounds with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry analysis. The sampling strategy, procedures, and schedules are included in this monitoring plan. The development of this monitoring plan is driven by regulatory compliance to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, State of Idaho Toxic Air Pollutant increments, Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The various state and federal regulations address the characterization of the volatile organic compounds and the resultant ambient air emissions that may originate from facilities involved in industrial production and/or waste management activities

  16. Production of Valuables Organic Acids from Organic Wastes with Hydrothermal Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports production of valuables organic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i. e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes with or without oxidant (H2O2. Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa, acetic acid of about 26 mg/g-dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H2O2. Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g-glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of PET plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product. Keywords: hydrothermal treatment, organic acids, organic wastes, oxidant, supercritical water oxidation

  17. Waste Management Using Request-Based Virtual Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katriou, Stamatia Ann; Fragidis, Garyfallos; Ignatiadis, Ioannis; Tolias, Evangelos; Koumpis, Adamantios

    Waste management is on top of the political agenda globally as a high priority environmental issue, with billions spent on it each year. This paper proposes an approach for the disposal, transportation, recycling and reuse of waste. This approach incorporates the notion of Request Based Virtual Organizations (RBVOs) using a Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and an ontology that serves the definition of waste management requirements. The populated ontology is utilized by a Multi-Agent System which performs negotiations and forms RBVOs. The proposed approach could be used by governments and companies searching for a means to perform such activities in an effective and efficient manner.

  18. TECHNICAL NOTE LIQUID WASTE DISPOSAL IN URBAN LOW ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the ideal case the liquid waste can safely be disposed of in a properly designed and integrated network of pipes, which collect and transmit the liquid waste into a treatment plant. However, such a system is costly and needs a substantial amount of initial investment to start operating and subsequently to maintain.

  19. Households Willingness to Pay for Improved Urban Solid Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Daniel

    Environmental Economics Policy Forum for Ethiopia (EEPFE), Ethiopian ... directly—should be able to participate in municipal discussions on improving .... solid waste management (SWM) payment that the public pays for improved ..... 6 Private firms may be subcontracted by the waste collection cooperatives, which are.

  20. Continuous organic waste digester and methane gas generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araneta, V.A.

    1979-01-01

    A patent on the construction of a utility model of an industrial product of a continuous organic-waste digester and methane-gas generator is described. It comprises an airtight chamber to receive slurry of organic waste; a gas-water scrubber to purge carbon dioxide, odor-omitting gases and froth or scrum from newly formed methane gas evolving from said slurry of organic wastes; and two dually functioning slurry-feed and -discharge pipes connected to a reversible pump. It has one pipe with an opening at the base of an airtight chamber and the other pipe with up-ended openings below the fluid level of the slurry to be accumulated in the airtight chamber.

  1. Investigation into the Application of Construction and Demolition Waste in Urban Roads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youyun Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The recycling and reuse of waste materials is a topic of global concern and great international interest for those interested in sustainable development and protecting the environment. In recent decades, global production of construction and demolition waste (C&D waste has significantly increased and became a worldwide problem. This research proposes to evaluate the feasibility of using aggregate from recycled C&D waste for urban road embankment applications based on the Sanhuan road construction project in eastern Xi’an. An extensive suite of laboratory and field compaction tests were carried out to determine the physical properties and engineering characteristics of the C&D waste. The effect of curing on the strength of the C&D waste was investigated using unconfined compression strength (UCS, California bearing ratio (CBR, and deflection tests. The results show that the C&D waste has the characteristics of high strength and significant stability after simple treatment and further suggest that the use of these materials for paving urban road embankments is feasible. This study is of value for the reasonable and effective promotion of using C&D waste recycled materials in road subgrade applications.

  2. Applicability of FTIR-spectroscopy for characterizing waste organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, E.

    2001-12-01

    State and development of waste organic matter were characterized by means of FTIR-spectroscopy. Due to the interaction of infrared light with matter energy is absorbed by chemical functional groups. Chemical preparation steps are not necessary and therefore this method offers a more holistic information about the material. The first part of experiments was focussed on spectra of different waste materials representing various stages of decomposition. Due to characteristics in the fingerprint- region the identity of wastes is provable. Heights of significant bands in the spectrum were measured and relative absorbances were calculated. Changes of relative absorbances indicate the development of organic matter during decomposition. Organic matter of waste samples was compared to organic matter originating from natural analogous processes (peat, soil). The second part of experiments concentrated on a composting process for a period of 260 days. Spectral characteristics of the samples were compared to their chemical, physical and biological data. The change of relative absorbances was reflected by conventional parameters. According to the development of the entire sample humic acids underwent a change as well. For practical use the method offers several possibilities: monitoring of a process, comparison of different processes, quality control of products originating from waste materials and the proof of their identity. (author)

  3. Bio-hydrogen production from renewable organic wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shihwu Sung

    2004-04-30

    Methane fermentation has been in practice over a century for the stabilization of high strength organic waste/wastewater. Although methanogenesis is a well established process and methane--the end-product of methanogenesis is a useful energy source; it is a low value end product with relatively less energy content (about 56 kJ energy/g CH{sub 4}). Besides, methane and its combustion by-product are powerful greenhouse gases, and responsible for global climate change. So there is a pressing need to explore alternative environmental technologies that not only stabilize the waste/wastewater but also generate benign high value end products. From this perspective, anaerobic bioconversion of organic wastes to hydrogen gas is an attractive option that achieves both goals. From energy security stand point, generation of hydrogen energy from renewable organic waste/wastewater could substitute non-renewable fossil fuels, over two-third of which is imported from politically unstable countries. Thus, biological hydrogen production from renewable organic waste through dark fermentation represents a critically important area of bioenergy production. This study evaluated both process engineering and microbial physiology of biohydrogen production.

  4. Global Garbage: Urban Imaginaries of Waste, Excess and Abandonment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, C.; Meissner, M.

    2016-01-01

    Global Garbage examines the ways in which garbage, in its diverse forms, is being produced, managed, experienced, imagined, circulated, concealed, and aestheticized in contemporary urban environments and across different creative and cultural practices. The book explores the increasingly complex

  5. Investigation of technologies for producing organic-mineral fertilizers and biogas from waste products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Ivanchenko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern agriculture requires special attention to a preservation of soil fertility; development of cultures fertilization; producing of new forms of organic-mineral fertilizers which nutrient absorption coefficient would be maximum. Application of artificial fertilizers has negative influence on soils. Aim: The aim of the study is to identify the scientific regularities of organic-mineral fertilizers and biogas technologies from waste products and cattle manure with the addition of fermentation additive. Materials and Methods: The affordable organic raw material for production of organic-mineral fertilizers is the cattle manure. Environmental technology of the decontamination and utilization of manure is its anaerobic bioconversion to fermented fertilizer and biogas. The waste decontamination and the degradation of complex polymers into simple renewable and plant-available compounds takes place during the conversion of manner to biogas. Experimental research carried out for the three types of loads to the model reactor of anaerobic fermentation with 1 dm3 volume for dry matter. The mesophilic fermentation mode used in the experiments (at 33 °C. Results: It has been shown that the addition of whey to the input raw materials in a ratio of 1:30 accelerates the process of anaerobic digestion and biogas generation in 1,3...2,1 times. An analysis of organic-mineral fertilizers from cattle manure were conducted. Technological schemes of organic-mineral fertilizers and biogas technologies from waste products were developed. Conclusions: Implementation of research results to farms and urban waste treatment facilities lead to increased energy potential of our country and expansion of high-quality organic-mineral fertilizers variety, which are well absorbed by plants.

  6. Does performance evaluation help public managers? A Balanced Scorecard approach in urban waste services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Bernardo; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Rui Cunha

    2010-12-01

    The urban waste market has evolved significantly in the past decades, which among other changes, has led to the creation of new utilities and new business models. However, very few things have changed for the users. Urban waste collection remains mainly under the responsibility of local authorities and the charges paid by the users in most countries are very low compared to the provision costs. This situation forces the injection of public money into the system, encouraging the 'quiet-life' within the utilities and, therefore, inefficiency. The present study intends to analyze the potential for the application of the Balanced Scorecard (BSc) methodology into the waste utilities. After a comprehensive revision of the urban waste sector in Portugal, the methodology of BSc and its application in local public services is described and discussed. Focusing on implementation rather than on strategy, a set of performance indicators is proposed to be utilized in the different management models of waste utilities in Portugal: the municipalities, semi-autonomous utilities, municipal companies and mixed companies. This implementation is then exemplified through four case studies, one for each type of utility. This paper provides a flexible framework proposal to be applied to waste utilities operating both in Portugal and abroad. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exploring the immediate and long-term impact on bacterial communities in soil amended with animal and urban organic waste fertilizers using pyrosequencing and screening for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Leise; Poulsen, Pernille H. B.; Al-Soud, Waleed A.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated immediate and long-term effects on bacterial populations of soil amended with cattle manure, sewage sludge or municipal solid waste compost in an ongoing agricultural field trial. Soils were sampled in weeks 0, 3, 9 and 29 after fertilizer application. Pseudomonas isolates were...... time. Seasonal changes seemed to prevail with decreasing bacterial richness in week 9 followed by a significant increase in week 29 (springtime). The Pseudomonas population richness seemed temporarily affected by fertilizer treatments, especially in sludge- and compost-amended soils. To explain...... these changes, prevalence of antibiotic- and mercury-resistant pseudomonads was investigated. Fertilizer amendment had a transient impact on the resistance profile of the soil community; abundance of resistant isolates decreased with time after fertilizer application, but persistent strains appeared...

  8. Women play larger role in Latin America's commercial urban waste ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-21

    Jun 21, 2016 ... Image. cover women and solid waste LAC book. Gustavo Riofrío and ... Understanding how emergencies affect internal migration in Costa Rica ... or no savings can be devastating for poor families, especially in times of crisis.

  9. Treatment of radioactive liquid organic waste using bacteria community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafael Vicente de Padua Ferreira; Solange Kazumi Sakata; Maria Helena Bellini; Julio Takehiro Marumo; Fernando Dutra; Patricia Busko Di Vitta; Maria Helena Tirollo Taddei

    2012-01-01

    Waste management plays an important role in radioactive waste volume reduction as well as lowering disposal costs and minimizing the environment-detrimental impact. The employment of biomass in the removal of heavy metals and radioisotopes has a significant potential in liquid waste treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the radioactive waste treatment by using three different bacterial communities (BL, BS, and SS) isolated from impacted areas, removing radioisotopes and organic compounds. The best results were obtained in the BS and BL community, isolated from the soil and a lake of a uranium mine, respectively. BS community was able to remove 92% of the uranium and degraded 80% of tributyl phosphate and 70% of the ethyl acetate in 20 days of experiments. BL community removed 81% of the uranium and degraded nearly 60% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. SS community collected from the sediment of Sao Sebastiao channel removed 76% of the uranium and 80% of the TBP and 70% of the ethyl acetate. Both americium and cesium were removed by all communities. In addition, the BS community showed to be more resistant to radioactive liquid waste than the other communities. These results indicated that the BS community is the most viable for the treatment of large volumes of radioactive liquid organic waste. (author)

  10. Screening for organic solvents in Hanford waste tanks using total non- methane organic compound vapor concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huckaby, J.L.; Glissmeyer, J.A.; Sklarew, D.S.

    1997-02-01

    The potential ignition of organic liquids stored in the Hanford high-level radioactive waste tanks is a safety issue because expanding gases could affect tank dome integrity. This report presents results of a screening test that was applied to 75 passively ventilated waste tanks at Hanford to determine those that might contain a significant amount of organic liquid waste. The screening test is based on a simple model of tank headspace, headspace organic vapor concentrations, and certain tank physical parameters. Analyses indicate that damage to the tank dome is credible only if the organic liquid burn rate is above a threshold value, and this can occur only if the surface area of organic liquid in a tank is above a corresponding threshold value of about one square meter. Twelve tanks were identified as potentially containing at least that amount of semivolatile organic liquid based on conservative estimates. Tank head space organic vapor concentrations and physical parameters required by the screening test have been compiled and are presented for each of the tanks studied. Estimates of the ventilation rates of the waste tanks were revised to reflect recent information obtained from hydrogen monitoring data. A simple analysis of the uncertainty in the test results suggests that the largest current uncertainty in the estimation of organic liquid surface area is that associated with knowledge of the tank ventilation rate. The uncertainty analysis is applied to determine 95% confidence limits for the estimated organic waste surface area in each tank

  11. Waste composting and proving fish for production the organic fertilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda San Martins Sanes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The volumes of waste generated in the fishing activity are increasing due to the increase in demand for these products. This implies the need for fast processing and cycling of these materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the use of waste generated in the fishing activity as a source of organic fertilizers in agricultural production systems familiar ecological basis. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station Cascade / Embrapa Temperate Climate was assessed throughout the composting process and the fermentation of fish waste, identifying the main points that enable the use of these fertilizers in farming systems ecological base. The composting process of rice husk revealed be incomplete during the experiment. The compound prepared with fish waste and exhausted bark of acacia presents itself as a good source of nutrients for crops, which may be suitable as organic fertilizer for production of ecologically-based systems. For liquid organic fertilizer, the conditions under which the experiment was conducted, it is concluded that the compound resulting from aerobic or anaerobic fermentation of fish waste, present themselves as a viable source of nutrients for productive systems of ecological base. However, further studies need to be conducted to better understanding and qualification of both processes.

  12. Exploring the immediate and long-term impact on bacterial communities in soil amended with animal and urban organic waste fertilizers using pyrosequencing and screening for horizontal transfer of antibiotic resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riber, Leise; Poulsen, Pernille H B; Al-Soud, Waleed A; Skov Hansen, Lea B; Bergmark, Lasse; Brejnrod, Asker; Norman, Anders; Hansen, Lars H; Magid, Jakob; Sørensen, Søren J

    2014-10-01

    We investigated immediate and long-term effects on bacterial populations of soil amended with cattle manure, sewage sludge or municipal solid waste compost in an ongoing agricultural field trial. Soils were sampled in weeks 0, 3, 9 and 29 after fertilizer application. Pseudomonas isolates were enumerated, and the impact on soil bacterial community structure was investigated using 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing. Bacterial community structure at phylum level remained mostly unaffected. Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Chloroflexi were the most prevalent phyla significantly responding to sampling time. Seasonal changes seemed to prevail with decreasing bacterial richness in week 9 followed by a significant increase in week 29 (springtime). The Pseudomonas population richness seemed temporarily affected by fertilizer treatments, especially in sludge- and compost-amended soils. To explain these changes, prevalence of antibiotic- and mercury-resistant pseudomonads was investigated. Fertilizer amendment had a transient impact on the resistance profile of the soil community; abundance of resistant isolates decreased with time after fertilizer application, but persistent strains appeared multiresistant, also in unfertilized soil. Finally, the ability of a P. putida strain to take up resistance genes from indigenous soil bacteria by horizontal gene transfer was present only in week 0, indicating a temporary increase in prevalence of transferable antibiotic resistance genes. © 2014 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Energetic use of the urban solid wastes (waste-to-energy); Aproveitamento energetico de residuos solidos urbanos (waste-to-energy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodde, Paula Arrais Moreira; Fonseca, Zilton Jose Sa da [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (PPE/COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: pauladodde@yahoo.com.br, ziltonfonseca@ig.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper approaches the advantages and disadvantages of energetic using of biomass present in the garbage (the urban solid residue is composed by average 65% of organic material)This paper effluents technologically.

  14. Transport of Escherichia Coli and solutes during waste water infiltration in an urban alluvial aquifer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foppen, J.W.A.; van Herwerden, M.; Kebtie, M.; Noman, A.; Schrijven, J.F.; Stuijfzand, P.J.; Uhlenbrook, S.

    2008-01-01

    Recharge of waste water in an unconsolidated poorly sorted alluvial aquifer is a complex process, both physically and hydrochemically. The aim of this paper is to analyse and conceptualise vertical transport mechanisms taking place in an urban area of extensive wastewater infiltration by analysing

  15. Parasitic helminth load in urban waste-water of Kenitra City, Morocco

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Waste-waters of Kenitra City are rejected without any preliminary treatment in the receiving medium (Sebou River, Fouarat Lake). A small fraction is used to irrigate crops in the peri-urban area of Kenitra City. The parasitological characterization revealed an average parasitic helminth egg concentration of 25.07 per liter ...

  16. External costs of the urban solid wastes collect; Custos externos da coleta de residuos solidos urbanos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Luciano Basto; Cruz, Luiz Eduardo Reis da

    2002-07-01

    This work performs a comparison of the urban solid wastes collect through the use of two alternatives: traditional and selective collect, by using the social, operational and external costs (environmental and social). The work demonstrates that, nevertheless the initial costs of the selective collects are higher than the traditional collects, the traditional aggregated social costs are inversely proportional to the traditional collect.

  17. Biodiesel production by various oleaginous microorganisms from organic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyun Uk; Park, Jong Moon

    2018-05-01

    Biodiesel is a biodegradable and renewable fuel. A large amount of research has considered microbial oil production using oleaginous microorganisms, but the commercialization of microbial lipids produced in this way remains uncertain due to the high cost of feedstock or low lipid yield. Microbial lipids can be typically produced by microalgae, yeasts, and bacteria; the lipid yields of these microorganisms can be improved by using sufficient concentrations of organic carbon sources. Therefore, combining low-cost organic compounds contained in organic wastes with cultivation of oleaginous microorganisms can be a promising approach to obtain commercial viability. However, to achieve effective bioconversion of low-cost substrates to microbial lipids, the characteristics of each microorganism and each substrate should be considered simultaneously. This article discusses recent approaches to developing cost-effective microbial lipid production processes that use various oleaginous microorganisms and organic wastes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Organic carbon in Hanford single-shell tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Heasler, P.G.; Whitney, P.D.

    1994-04-01

    Safety of Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs) containing organic carbon is a concern because the carbon in the presence of oxidizers (NO 3 or NO 2 ) is combustible when sufficiently concentrated and exposed to elevated temperatures. A propagating chemical reaction could potentially occur at high temperature (above 200 C). The rapid increase in temperature and pressure within a tank might result in the release of radioactive waste constituents to the environment. The purpose of this study is to gather available laboratory information about the organic carbon waste inventories stored in the Hanford SSTs. Specifically, the major objectives of this investigation are: Review laboratory analytical data and measurements for SST composite core and supernatant samples for available organic data; Assess the correlation of organic carbon estimated utilizing the TRAC computer code compared to laboratory measurements; and From the laboratory analytical data, estimate the TOC content with confidence levels for each of the 149 SSTs

  19. Role of biochar as an additive in organic waste composting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Monedero, M.A.; Cayuela, M.L.; Roig, A.; Jindo, Keiji; Mondini, C.; Bolan, N.S.

    2018-01-01

    The use of biochar in organic waste composting has attracted interest in the last decade due to the environmental and agronomical benefits obtained during the process. Biochar presents favourable physicochemical properties, such as large porosity, surface area and high cation exchange capacity,

  20. Study on the Ozonation of Organic Wastes (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Kang, Il Sik; Hong, Dae Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Ozone is often used in combination with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, UV, peroxides, and the catalyst. These combined processes have the purpose to increase OH radicals, so this combination process is called the advanced oxidation process (AOP, Advanced Oxidation Process). In this study, the possibility of the oxidation treatment of LSC Cocktail solution by using a combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The addition of a suitable amount of hydrogen peroxide increases the efficiency of the oxidation process during ozonation of the organic materials. But on the contrary, the excess addition of hydrogen they can play a role as a scavenger consuming the hydroxyl radicals generated during the ozonation process. So it is very important to find the amount of volume of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of oxidation treatment of organic materials is greatly depended on the properties of liquid waste (pH, concentration and chemical type of organics), the process temperature, the flow rate (waste and ozone gas), the ozone concentration, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the presence or absence of scavengers. In this study, by using an ozone contactor (hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane type), the basic experiments were carried out to evaluate the applicability of ozonation to the organic wastes. First of all, the oxidation treatment was evaluated by ozone alone, and secondly was evaluated according to the changes of the amount of hydrogen peroxide and a pH of wastes.

  1. Study on the Ozonation of Organic Wastes (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hong; Kang, Il Sik; Hong, Dae Seok

    2014-01-01

    Ozone is often used in combination with H 2 O 2 , UV, peroxides, and the catalyst. These combined processes have the purpose to increase OH radicals, so this combination process is called the advanced oxidation process (AOP, Advanced Oxidation Process). In this study, the possibility of the oxidation treatment of LSC Cocktail solution by using a combination of ozone and hydrogen peroxide was investigated. The addition of a suitable amount of hydrogen peroxide increases the efficiency of the oxidation process during ozonation of the organic materials. But on the contrary, the excess addition of hydrogen they can play a role as a scavenger consuming the hydroxyl radicals generated during the ozonation process. So it is very important to find the amount of volume of hydrogen peroxide. The efficiency of oxidation treatment of organic materials is greatly depended on the properties of liquid waste (pH, concentration and chemical type of organics), the process temperature, the flow rate (waste and ozone gas), the ozone concentration, the hydrogen peroxide concentration and the presence or absence of scavengers. In this study, by using an ozone contactor (hydrophobic hollow fiber membrane type), the basic experiments were carried out to evaluate the applicability of ozonation to the organic wastes. First of all, the oxidation treatment was evaluated by ozone alone, and secondly was evaluated according to the changes of the amount of hydrogen peroxide and a pH of wastes

  2. Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo; Al Seadi, T.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes two main concepts of manure-based biogas plants in Denmark (large-scale centralized co-digestion and farm-scale plants), which represent integrated systems of renewable energy production, manure and organic waste treatment, and nutrient recycling, emphasizing the environmental...

  3. Waste Reduction Model (WARM) Resources for Small Businesses and Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page provides a brief overview of how EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM) can be used by small businesses and organizations. The page includes a brief summary of uses of WARM for the audience and links to other resources.

  4. Production of hydrogen from organic waste via hydrogen sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMahon, M.; Davis, B.R.; Roy, A.; Daugulis, A.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper an integrated process is proposed that converts organic waste to hydrogen via hydrogen sulphide. The designed bioreactor has achieved high volumetric productivities comparable to methanogenic bioreactors. Proposed process has advantages of bio-methane production and is more resilient to process upset. Thermochemical conversion of hydrogen sulphide to hydrogen is exothermic and also requires smaller plant infrastructure

  5. Influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The field experiment was conducted at the University of Ghana's Soil and Irrigation Research Centre - Kpong during 2014 and 2015 cropping seasons to evaluate the influence of composted organic waste and urea fertilization on rice yield, Nitrogen-use efficiency and soil chemical characteristics. The study was laid out in a ...

  6. Waste management as an effort to improve urban area cleanliness and community income (journal review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinantan, Bag; Rahim Matondang, A.; Hidayati, Juliza

    2018-02-01

    The problem of urban waste has reached a point of concern. Population and economic growth are thought to be the cause of increasing the waste generation. The major problem related to this condition is the increasing of waste production which is not balance with the increase of its management capacity. Based on the Law Number 18 of 2008 that waste management starts from the source by applying the 3R approach (Reduction, Reuse, Recycle). This regulation provides a way which expect the waste management can be better, so that, the level of waste service can be improved and load on landfills (TPA) can be reduced.The cost of garbage collection and transport are 85% of the total waste management cost, so if this is optimized, it will optimize the system as a whole. Subsequent research focuses on how to optimize the garbage collection and transport sub-systems by finding the shortest route of transportation to the landfill by developing a Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) model. The development of an urban area leads to the preparation of the best route is no longer an optimal solution. The complexity of the waste problem is not only related to the technical matters, but also the social and economic problems of the community. So, it is necessary to develop a model of waste management which does not only pay attention to the technical aspects, but also the social and economic. Waste is expected to be no longer a burden, but can also be utilized economically to increase community income.

  7. Carbon footprint associated with four disposal scenarios for urban pruning waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Yuri Rommel Vieira; de Góis, Monijany Lins; Junior, Luiz Moreira Coelho; Carvalho, Monica

    2018-01-01

    The inadequate disposal of urban pruning residues can cause significant environmental impacts. The objective of the study presented herein was to quantify the carbon footprint and analyze four disposal scenarios for the urban pruning waste of the city of Joao Pessoa (Northeast Brazil). Software SimaPro was utilized for the quantification of the carbon footprint, with the IPCC 2013 GWP 100y impact evaluation method. The end-of-life treatments considered were sanitary landfilling (with and without collection of methane), simple municipal incineration, and reutilization of wood (transformation into briquettes). The results indicated that simple disposal in sanitary landfill generated 136.34 kg CO 2 /t urban pruning waste collected (highest carbon footprint), sanitary landfill with methane collection emitted 113.43 kg CO 2 /t waste, municipal incineration generated 71.31 kg CO 2 /t waste, and reutilization of woody residues was the scenario with the lowest carbon footprint, with 27.82 kg CO 2 /t waste. This study demonstrated that reutilization of biomass, besides being environmentally viable, presents the potential to contribute to the city's environmental quality, including the possibility of being used to obtain carbon credits.

  8. Waste Picker Organizations and Their Contribution to the Circular Economy: Two Case Studies from a Global South Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Gutberlet

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The discussion on the circular economy (CE has attracted a rising interest within global policy and business as a way of increasing the sustainability of production and consumption. Yet the literature mostly portrays a Global North perspective. There is a diverse spectrum of community-based organizations playing important roles in resource recovery and transformation, particularly, but not only, in Global South countries, providing innovative examples for grassroots involvement in waste management and in the CE. This article proposes to add a Southern lens, situated in the context of waste picker organizations, to the concept of CE. The discursive framework in this article couples ecological economy (EE with social/solidarity economy (SSE, focusing not only on environmental sustainability but also on social, economic, political and cultural dimensions involved in production, consumption and discard. We acknowledge that grassroots movements contribute to policy making and improve urban waste management systems. The paper outlines two empirical studies (Argentina, Brazil that illustrate how waste picker organizations perform selective waste collection services, engage with municipalities and industries, and practice the CE. The research reveals that social and political facets need to be added to the debate about the CE, linking environmental management and policy with community development and recognizing waste pickers as protagonists in the CE. Our findings emphasize a need for a change of persisting inequalities in public policy by recognizing the importance of popular waste management praxis and knowledge, ultimately redefining the CE.

  9. Rapid estimation of organic nitrogen in oil shale waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.M.; Daughton, C.G.; Harris, G.J.

    1984-04-01

    Many of the characteristics of oil shale process waste waters (e.g., malodors, color, and resistance to biotreatment) are imparted by numerous nitrogenous heterocycles and aromatic amines. For the frequent performance assessment of waste treatment processes designed to remove these nitrogenous organic compounds, a rapid and colligative measurement of organic nitrogen is essential. Quantification of organic nitrogen in biological and agricultural samples is usually accomplished using the time-consuming, wet-chemical Kjeldahl method. For oil shale waste waters, whose primary inorganic nitorgen constituent is amonia, organic Kjeldahl nitrogen (OKN) is determined by first eliminating the endogenous ammonia by distillation and then digesting the sample in boiling H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The organic material is oxidized, and most forms of organically bound nitrogen are released as ammonium ion. After the addition of base, the ammonia is separated from the digestate by distillation and quantified by acidimetric titrimetry or colorimetry. The major failings of this method are the loss of volatile species such as aliphatic amines (during predistillation) and the inability to completely recover nitrogen from many nitrogenous heterocycles (during digestion). Within the last decade, a new approach has been developed for the quantification of total nitrogen (TN). The sample is first combusted, a

  10. Recov'Heat: An estimation tool of urban waste heat recovery potential in sustainable cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goumba, Alain; Chiche, Samuel; Guo, Xiaofeng; Colombert, Morgane; Bonneau, Patricia

    2017-02-01

    Waste heat recovery is considered as an efficient way to increase carbon-free green energy utilization and to reduce greenhouse gas emission. Especially in urban area, several sources such as sewage water, industrial process, waste incinerator plants, etc., are still rarely explored. Their integration into a district heating system providing heating and/or domestic hot water could be beneficial for both energy companies and local governments. EFFICACITY, a French research institute focused on urban energy transition, has developed an estimation tool for different waste heat sources potentially explored in a sustainable city. This article presents the development method of such a decision making tool which, by giving both energetic and economic analysis, helps local communities and energy service companies to make preliminary studies in heat recovery projects.

  11. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELsourougy, M R; Zaki, A A; Aly, H F [Atomic energy authority, hot laboratory center, Cairo, (Egypt); Khalil, M Y [Nuclear engineering department, Alexandria university. Alexandria, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Investigations on cement/polymer Waste packages containing intermediate level waste and organic exchange resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ELsourougy, M.R.; Zaki, A.A.; Aly, H.F.; Khalil, M.Y.

    1995-01-01

    Polymers can be added to cements to improve its nuclear waste immobilization properties. This trend in cementation processes is attracting attention and requiring through investigations. In this work, polymers of different kinds were added to ordinary portland cement for the purpose of solidifying intermediate level liquid wastes and organic ion exchange resins. Epoxy polymer such as Kemapoxy-150 reduced the leaching rate of cesium compared to cement alone. Latex to cement ratio less than 4% caused an increase in leaching rate of cesium. When cesium was absorbed to an organic resin its leachability was improved. 5 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Energetic reuse: the use of energy from organic material from urban waste for plastics recycling; Reaproveitamento energetico: uso de energia proveniente de material organico dos residuos urbanos para reciclar plasticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, Priscila Alves; Rocha, Carlos Roberto [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (EXCEN/UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Centro de Excelencia em Eficiencia Energetica

    2008-07-01

    The population growth and the elevation of the purchasing status due to economic development impel the gradual increase of residues produced a year. The discarding of these residues represents a great economic and environmental challenge, mainly because of discarded plastic concentration with no energetic and economic use, a also because of the organic material that, after decomposing, produces methane, one of the most responsible for global heating when in contact with atmosphere with no control. The recycling of plastic residues is a solution to minimize its discard and to guarantee an environmental improvement for saving raw matter, however the high consumption of energy endears the process, making it difficult its economic viability. This takes the search of new alternatives for attainment of low cost energy. In the problem of discard of the organic matter it can be the solution for the recycling of these residues. The decomposition of the organic matter produces fuel (biogas) useful as power plant for the generation of necessary electricity to the recycling process. The present study analyses an alternative to recycle plastic residues, after being consumed, in some places for discarding and using energy from biogas produced in landfills or biodigestors. Initially it was carried through a data-collecting and analysis of the physical composition of the residues, indispensable to the development of the study, which allowed to daily find the average percentage of plastics (12,9%) and organic matter (41,9%) made use by the involved population. On the basis of the data of organic matter the determination in such a way of the potential of generation of the biogas as of the electric power 'recycled' was possible to leave of that they would be discarded without any use. Data-collecting on equipment used in the plastic recycling had been essential for attainment of the necessary average energy demand to the process in such a way not only for soft plastic and

  14. Removal of organics from radioactive waste. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.; Kitchin, J.; Burton, W.H.

    1989-05-01

    This report has been prepared to review the methods available to remove organics from nuclear waste. The limitations of the methods and their applicability to the type of waste streams likely to arise in the future is also considered. Although wide experience exists on the application of incineration technology to nuclear waste there is little operational experience that relates to other techniques that have been identified as appropriate for the treatment of nuclear waste streams with the exception of acid digestion which has a moderate amount of operating experience. All the techniques discussed in this report, namely; incineration; acid digestion; wet oxidation; alkaline hydrolysis; microbiological; molten salt; and molten glass; show some potential for dealing with various waste streams. However, the stage of research in each is insufficient to allow any firm conclusions to be drawn on their overall suitability to treating waste arisings, operability, economic cost or environmental costs. Without more research data it is also difficult to establish the overall volume reductions that may be possible. (author)

  15. Adsorbents for radioactive organic solvent wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Shigeo; Kiribayashi, Takehiko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to settle radioactive solvents such as tributyl phosphate (TBP) and n-dodecane as they are without using hydrophobicizing agent such as quaternary ammonium salts. Constitution: The adsorbents are prepared by replacing interlaminer ions of swelling-type synthetic mica with alkaline earth metals or metal ions. For instance, synthetic micas introduced with Zr 4+ or Ca 2+ between the layers provide quite different functions from those of starting materials due to the properties of ions introduced between the layers. That is, they provide an intense affinity to organic phosphates such as TBP and transform into material showing a property of adsorbing and absorbing them. Particularly, the fixing nature to the phosphor content constituting TBP is significantly increased. (Horiuchi, T.)

  16. Microbiological decomposition of the organic radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhin, I.V.; Smelov, V.S.; Borsenkov, I.A.; Belyaev, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This work will determine the applicability of a microbiological oxidation as a replacement process of spent extractant reprocessing. In current 10 days exponential growth of microorganisms is observed, thus of the substratum inhibition is not observed at increase of the extractant concentration up to 6%. In an outcome of experiments in a periodic mode without a cultural solution renewal the degree of destruction diluent varied within the limits of 86-100%, TBP - 28-94% depending on a mode. In view of accumulated biomass a drop of quantity of organic substance in a system in 6 - 10 times was reached. The a-activity decontamination coefficient of water solution after removal biosuspension has made 210. (author)

  17. LCA for household waste management when planning a new urban settlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slagstad, Helene; Brattebø, Helge

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Household waste management of a new carbon neutral settlement. ► EASEWASTE as a LCA tool to compare different centralised and decentralised solutions. ► Environmental benefit or close to zero impact in most of the categories. ► Paper and metal recycling important for the outcome. ► Discusses the challenges of waste prevention planning. - Abstract: When planning for a new urban settlement, industrial ecology tools like scenario building and life cycle assessment can be used to assess the environmental quality of different infrastructure solutions. In Trondheim, a new greenfield settlement with carbon–neutral ambitions is being planned and five different scenarios for the waste management system of the new settlement have been compared. The results show small differences among the scenarios, however, some benefits from increased source separation of paper and metal could be found. The settlement should connect to the existing waste management system of the city, and not resort to decentralised waste treatment or recovery methods. However, as this is an urban development project with ambitious goals for lifestyle changes, effort should be put into research and initiatives for proactive waste prevention and reuse issues.

  18. Microbiological characterization and specific methanogenic activity of anaerobe sludges used in urban solid waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval Lozano, Claudia Johanna; Vergara Mendoza, Marisol; Carreno de Arango, Mariela; Castillo Monroy, Edgar Fernando

    2009-01-01

    This study presents the microbiological characterization of the anaerobic sludge used in a two-stage anaerobic reactor for the treatment of organic fraction of urban solid waste (OFUSW). This treatment is one alternative for reducing solid waste in landfills at the same time producing a biogas (CH 4 and CO 2 ) and an effluent that can be used as biofertilizer. The system was inoculated with sludge from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) (Rio Frio Plant in Bucaramanga-Colombia) and a methanogenic anaerobic digester for the treatment of pig manure (Mesa de los Santos in Santander). Bacterial populations were evaluated by counting groups related to oxygen sensitivity, while metabolic groups were determined by most probable number (MPN) technique. Specific methanogenic activity (SMA) for acetate, formate, methanol and ethanol substrates was also determined. In the acidogenic reactor (R1), volatile fatty acids (VFA) reached values of 25,000 mg L -1 and a concentration of CO 2 of 90%. In this reactor, the fermentative population was predominant (10 5 -10 6 MPN mL -1 ). The acetogenic population was (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and the sulphate-reducing population was (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ). In the methanogenic reactor (R2), levels of CH 4 (70%) were higher than CO 2 (25%), whereas the VFA values were lower than 4000 mg L -1 . Substrate competition between sulphate-reducing (10 4 -10 5 MPN mL -1 ) and methanogenic bacteria (10 5 MPN mL -1 ) was not detected. From the SMA results obtained, acetoclastic (2.39 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) and hydrogenophilic (0.94 g COD-CH 4 g -1 VSS -1 day -1 ) transformations as possible metabolic pathways used by methanogenic bacteria is suggested from the SMA results obtained. Methanotrix sp., Methanosarcina sp., Methanoccocus sp. and Methanobacterium sp. were identified

  19. Improving rubber concrete by waste organic sulfur compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Liang-Hisng; Lin, Chun-Nan; Lu, Chun-Ku; Lee, Cheng-Haw; Lee, Maw-Tien

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the use of crumb tyres as additives to concrete was investigated. For some time, researchers have been studying the physical properties of concrete to determine why the inclusion of rubber particles causes the concrete to degrade. Several methods have been developed to improve the bonding between rubber particles and cement hydration products (C-S-H) with the hope of creating a product with an improvement in mechanical strength. In this study, the crumb tyres were treated with waste organic sulfur compounds from a petroleum refining factory in order to modify their surface properties. Organic sulfur compounds with amphiphilic properties can enhance the hydrophilic properties of the rubber and increase the intermolecular interaction forces between rubber and C-S-H. In the present study, a colloid probe of C-S-H was prepared to measure these intermolecular interaction forces by utilizing an atomic force microscope. Experimental results showed that rubber particles treated with waste organic sulfur compounds became more hydrophilic. In addition, the intermolecular interaction forces increased with the adsorption of waste organic sulfur compounds on the surface of the rubber particles. The compressive, tensile and flexural strengths of concrete samples that included rubber particles treated with organic sulfur compound also increased significantly.

  20. Ozone destruction of Hanford Site tank waste organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.

    1993-04-01

    Ozone processing is one of several technologies being developed to meet the intent of the Secretary of the US Department of Energy, Decision on the Programmatic Approach and Near-Term Actions for Management and Disposal of Hanford Tank Waste Decision Statement, dated December 20, 1991, which emphasizes the need to resolve tank safety issues by destroying or modifying the constituents (e.g., organics) that cause safety concerns. As a result, the major tank treatment objectives on the Hanford Site are to resolve the tank safety issues regarding organic compounds (and accompanying flammable gas generation), which all potentially can react to evolve heat and gases. This report contains scoping test results of an alkaline ozone oxidation process to destroy organic compounds found in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks

  1. Emergy Evaluation of the Urban Solid Waste Handling in Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixiao Zhang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Waste management is a distinct practice aimed at reducing its effects on health and the environment and increasing energy and material recovery. The urban waste management industry has been slow to adopt new technologies, such as sanitary landfills and incineration, which enable better treatment results. The aim of a thorough ecological-economic evaluation of different treatment technologies is to extract the maximum practical benefits from investments and to ensure the minimum environmental impacts of wastes. This paper compares four garbage treatment systems, including sanitary landfills systems, fluidized bed incineration system, grate type incineration system and the current landfills system in Liaoning Province, China. By considering the economic and environmental impacts of waste treatment and disposal, impact of emissions, and contribution of wastes input, this paper constructed an emergy-based urban solid waste model for evaluating the sustainability of the holistic systems. The results in Liaoning indicate that the human health losses caused by the harmful air emissions are ranked in this order: fluidized bed incineration > grate type incineration > current landfills > sanitary landfills, while the ecosystem losses are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. The electricity yield ratios are ranked: grate type incineration > fluidized bed incineration > sanitary landfills > current landfills. Taken together this suggests that in considering the incineration option, decision makers must weigh the benefits of incineration against the significant operating costs, potential environmental impacts, and technical difficulties of operating. Emergy analysis of the urban solid treatment systems can provide a set of useful tools which can be used to compare the comprehensive performances of different waste treatment processes for decision-making and optimizing the whole process.

  2. Advanced organic analysis and analytical methods development: FY 1995 progress report. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes the work performed during FY 1995 by Pacific Northwest Laboratory in developing and optimizing analysis techniques for identifying organics present in Hanford waste tanks. The main focus was to provide a means for rapidly obtaining the most useful information concerning the organics present in tank waste, with minimal sample handling and with minimal waste generation. One major focus has been to optimize analytical methods for organic speciation. Select methods, such as atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, were developed to increase the speciation capabilities, while minimizing sample handling. A capillary electrophoresis method was developed to improve separation capabilities while minimizing additional waste generation. In addition, considerable emphasis has been placed on developing a rapid screening tool, based on Raman and infrared spectroscopy, for determining organic functional group content when complete organic speciation is not required. This capability would allow for a cost-effective means to screen the waste tanks to identify tanks that require more specialized and complete organic speciation to determine tank safety

  3. Nutrient Status of Vermicompost of Urban Green Waste Processed by Three Earthworm Species Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnaik, S.; Vikram, M.

    2010-01-01

    Major nutrient status of vermicompost of vegetable market waste (MW) and floral waste (FW) processed by three species of earthworms namely, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. Their physical parameters temperature, moisture, ph, and electrical conductivity were also recorded. The nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium increased in the vermicompost and compost while the organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios decreased as the composting process progressed from 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The nutrient statuses of vermicomposts of all earthworm species produced from both the wastes were more than that of the compost and that of their respective substrates. Moreover, the vermicompost produced by E. eugeniae possessed higher nutrient contents than that of E. fetida, P. excavatus, and compost. The MW showed higher nutrient contents than the FW. Thus, vermicomposting is the paramount approach of nutrient recovery of urban green waste.

  4. Urban waste compost: Effects on physical, chemical, and biochemical soil properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giusquiani, P.L.; Gigliotti, G.; Businelli, D. [Istituto di Chimica Agraria dell`Universita, Perugia (Italy)] [and others

    1995-01-01

    A long-term field experiment was conducted to determine the effect of the additions of urban waste compost on the physical and chemical properties and enzymatic activities in a calcareous soil (Fluventic Xerochrept). Total Porosity (pores >50 pm measured on thin soil sections from undisturbed samples by image analysis) was greater in the plots treated with compost than the control plots due to a larger amount of elongated pores. In the amended plots total and humified organic C, Pb, Cu, and Zn showed a significant increase compared with nonamended plots. Enzymatic activities (L-asparaginase, arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase, and alkaline phosphomonoesterase) were significantly enhanced by the compost addition thus indicating no inhibiting influence of the heavy metals present. The increased levels of the arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, phosphodiesterase, and phosphomonoesterase activities were significantly correlated with total porosity: the first three with pores ranging from 50 to 1000 {mu}m, mainly with pores 50 to 200 {mu}m in size and phosphomonoesterase only with pores whose size was <500 {mu}m. L-asparaginase activity was not correlated with porosity. Only arylsulphatase, dehydrogenase, and phosphodiesterase were negatively correlated with bulk density. 44 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual.

  6. Recycling of organic wastes by employing Eisenia fetida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anoop; Garg, V K

    2011-02-01

    This paper reports the recycling of nutrients by vermicomposting of cow dung (CD), poultry droppings (PD) and food industry sludge (FIS) employing earthworms (Eisenia fetida). A total of six vermicomposting units were established and dynamics of chemical and biological parameters has been studied for 13 weeks. The waste mixture containing 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS had better fertilizer value among studied waste combinations. At the end of experiment, vermicomposts showed decrease in pH and organic C, but increase in EC, total Kjeldhal N, total available P and total K contents. The C:N ratio of final vermicomposts also reduced to 10.7-12.7 from 22.8 to 56 in different waste combinations. The earthworms have good biomass gain and cocoon production in all vermicomposting units but CD alone and 50% CD+25% PD+25% FIS were better than other studied combinations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Public meetings on nuclear waste management: their function and organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvernoy, E.G.; Marcus, A.A.; Overcast, T.; Schilling, A.H.

    1981-05-01

    This report focuses on public meetings as a vehicle for public participation in nuclear waste management. The nature of public meetings is reviewed and the functions served by meetings highlighted. The range of participants and their concerns are addressed, including a review of the participants from past nuclear waste management meetings. A sound understanding of the expected participants allows DOE to tailor elements of the meeting, such as notification, format, and agenda to accommodate the attendees. Finally, the report discusses the organization of public meetings on nuclear waste management in order to enhance the DOE's functions for such meetings. Possible structures are suggested for a variety of elements that are relevant prior to, during and after the public meeting. These suggestions are intended to supplement the DOE Public Participation Manual

  8. Forecasting generation of urban solid waste in developing countries--a case study in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Vence, J

    2001-01-01

    Based on a study of the composition of urban solid waste (USW) and of socioeconomic variables in Morelia, Mexico, generation rates were estimated. In addition, the generation of residential solid waste (RSW) and nonresidential solid waste (NRSW) was forecasted by means of a multiple linear regression (MLR) analysis. For residential sources, the independent variables analyzed were monthly wages, persons per dwelling, age, and educational level of the heads of the household. For nonresidential sources, variables analyzed were number of employees, area of facilities, number of working days, and working hours per day. The forecasted values for residential waste were similar to those observed. This approach may be applied to areas in which available data are scarce, and in which there is an urgent need for the planning of adequate management of USW.

  9. DECONTAMINATION/DESTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION FOR ORGANICS IN TRANSURANIC WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Jones; Javier Del Campo; Patrick Nevins; Stuart Legg

    2002-08-01

    The United States Department of Energy's Savannah River Site has approximately 5000 55-gallon drums of {sup 238}Pu contaminated waste in interim storage. These may not be shipped to WIPP in TRUPACT-II containers due to the high rate of hydrogen production resulting from the radiolysis of the organic content of the drums. In order to circumvent this problem, the {sup 238}Pu needs to be separated from the organics--either by mineralization of the latter or by decontamination by a chemical separation. We have conducted ''cold'' optimization trials and surrogate tests in which a combination of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process (SILVER II{trademark}) and ultrasonic mixing have been used to decontaminate the surrogate waste materials. The surrogate wastes were impregnated with copper oxalate for plutonium dioxide. Our process combines both mineralization of reactive components (such cellulose, rubber, and oil) and surface decontamination of less reactive materials such as polyethylene, polystyrene and polyvinylchloride. By using this combination of SILVER II and ultrasonic mixing, we have achieved 100% current efficiency for the destruction of the reactive components. We have demonstrated that: The degree of decontamination achieved would be adequate to meet both WIPP waste acceptance criteria and TRUPACT II packaging and shipping requirements; The system can maintain near absolute containment of the surrogate radionuclides; Only minimal pre-treatment (coarse shredding) and minimal waste sorting are required; The system requires minimal off gas control processes and monitoring instrumentation; The laboratory trials have developed information that can be used for scale-up purposes; The process does not produce dioxins and furans; Disposal routes for secondary process arisings have already been demonstrated in other programs. Based on the results from Phase 1, the recommendation is to proceed to Phase 2 and use the equipment at Savannah

  10. Recycling of Different Available Organic Wastes through Vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karmakar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Generation of organic wastes has been increased in an unprecedented rate in India with rapid population expansion, leading to disposal problems. These organic wastes can be converted into valuable wealth by applying vermicomposting technology. Vermicompost which provides macro and micro nutrients to the plants, also reduces pollution by providing a valuable substitute for chemical fertilizers. Present paper deals with vermicomposting of organic wastes from seven different sources and evaluation of nutrient in those vermicomposts following chemical analyses. These seven sources include coconut coir, water hyacinth, mixed materials, cabbage, banana pseudostem, cow dung, and rice husk. Three composting species of earthworms e.g. Eisenia. fetida, Eudrilus. eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus were chosen for the experiment. Chemical analysis of vermicomposts under study clearly showed that the vermicompost from water hyacinth contained maximum amount of organic C, total N, and total K though the phosphorous content was maximum in vermicompost from mixed materials. Lowest nutrient content was observed in vermicompost of coconut coir. Vermicomposts from mixed materials, cabbage, banana pseudostem were at per in their chemical properties. It can be concluded that among the seven sources, vermicompost from water hyacinth is best for its nutrient value.

  11. Evaluation of the leucine incorporation technique for detection of pollution-induced community tolerance to copper in a long-term agricultural field trial with urban waste fertilizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Magid, Jakob; Holm, Peter Engelund

    2014-01-01

    increased bacterial community tolerance to Cu was observed for soils amended with organic waste fertilizers and was positively correlated with total soil Cu. However, metal speciation and whole-cell bacterial biosensor analysis demonstrated that the observed PICT responses could be explained entirely by Cu......Copper (Cu) is known to accumulate in agricultural soils receiving urban waste products as fertilizers. We here report the use of the leucine incorporation technique to determine pollution-induced community tolerance (Leu-PICT) to Cu in a long-term agricultural field trial. A significantly...

  12. Mixed waste: The treatment of organic radioactive waste by means of adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanhueza-Mir, A.; Morales-Galarce, T.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: The work described in this paper has been carried in the radioactive waste treatment facilities of the Nuclear Research Center Lo Aguirre, CEN LA, which are operated by Radioactive Waste Management Unit, UGDR. This last, centralizes its activities in order to manage all radioactive waste generated in the country due to the nuclear development. Features of danger and risks presented by organic radioactive liquid waste, make the need to develop a practicable alternative for its treatment and to allow the conditioning towards a suitable final disposal The raw material for this work, is an organic liquid waste arising from scintillation techniques, contaminated with Tritium. This mixed waste has to be treated and then conditioned in a solid form within a 200 I container, according with actual acceptance criteria for our temporary store for radioactive waste. The best formulation which allows to immobilize the liquid waste was determined. The first step consists in the adsorption treatment that waste is humbled. From the available adsorbents, two types were studied: adsorption granulat and diatomaceous earth. From the waste management standpoint, results with diatomaceous earth present physical characteristics better than the other Following, the second stage is the immobilization, which is achieved in a cement matrix made with puzzolanic cement (Polpaico 400) made in Chile. Later, due to cost and availability in the country, the diatomaceous earth is selected for the study, in the form of celite which is comparatively economic. The best mixture, with regard to physical feature, has the following composition: a 0.35 (w/w) water/cement ratio, which represents the needed quantity to obtain workability in the mixture, and it is the minimum amount of water to hydrating the cement; a waste/adsorbent ratio of 0.5 (v/v), in which the organic liquid is completely adsorbed and it is incorporated into the crystalline system of the solid form; and an adsorbed waste

  13. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  14. Hanford Site organic waste tanks: History, waste properties, and scientific issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; Schulz, W.W.; Reynolds, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    Eight Hanford single-shell waste tanks are included on a safety watch list because they are thought to contain significant concentrations of various organic chemical. Potential dangers associated with the waste in these tanks include exothermic reaction, combustion, and release of hazardous vapors. In all eight tanks the measured waste temperatures are in the range 16 to 46 degree C, far below the 250 to 380 degree C temperatures necessary for onset of rapid exothermic reactions and initiation of deflagration. Investigation of the possibility of vapor release from Tank C-103 has been elevated to a top safety priority. There is a need to obtain an adequate number of truly representative vapor samples and for highly sensitive and capable methods and instruments to analyze these samples. Remaining scientific issues include: an understanding of the behavior and reaction of organic compounds in existing underground tank environments knowledge of the types and amounts of organic compounds in the tanks knowledge of selected physical and chemical properties of organic compounds source, composition, quality, and properties of the presently unidentified volatile organic compound(s) apparently evolving from Tank C-103

  15. Consumption patterns and household hazardous solid waste generation in an urban settlement in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado Otoniel, Buenrostro; Liliana, Marquez-Benavides; Gaona Francelia, Pinette

    2008-01-01

    Mexico is currently facing a crisis in the waste management field. Some efforts have just commenced in urban and in rural settlements, e.g., conversion of open dumps into landfills, a relatively small composting culture, and implementation of source separation and plastic recycling strategies. Nonetheless, the high heterogeneity of components in the waste, many of these with hazardous properties, present the municipal collection services with serious problems, due to the risks to the health of the workers and to the impacts to the environment as a result of the inadequate disposition of these wastes. A generation study in the domestic sector was undertaken with the aim of finding out the composition and the generation rate of household hazardous waste (HHW) produced at residences. Simultaneously to the generation study, a socioeconomic survey was applied to determine the influence of income level on the production of HHW. Results from the solid waste generation analysis indicated that approximately 1.6% of the waste stream consists of HHW. Correspondingly, it was estimated that in Morelia, a total amount of 442 ton/day of domestic waste are produced, including 7.1 ton of HHW per day. Furthermore, the overall amount of HHW is not directly related to income level, although particular byproducts do correlate. However, an important difference was observed, as the brands and the presentation sizes of goods and products used in each socioeconomic stratum varied

  16. CAPE-OPEN simulation of waste-to-energy technologies for urban cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreadou, Christina; Martinopoulos, Georgios

    2018-01-01

    Uncontrolled waste disposal and unsustainable waste management not only damage the environment, but also affect human health. In most urban areas, municipal solid waste production is constantly increasing following the everlasting increase in energy consumption. Technologies aim to exploit wastes in order to recover energy, decrease the depletion rate of fossil fuels, and reduce waste disposal. In this paper, the annual amount of municipal solid waste disposed in the greater metropolitan area of Thessaloniki is taken into consideration, in order to size and model a combined heat and power facility for energy recovery. From the various waste-to-energy technologies available, a fluidised bed combustion boiler combined heat and power plant was selected and modelled through the use of COCO, a CAPE-OPEN simulation software, to estimate the amount of electrical and thermal energy that could be generated for different boiler pressures. Although average efficiency was similar in all cases, providing almost 15% of Thessaloniki's energy needs, a great variation in the electricity to thermal energy ratio was observed.

  17. Urban solid waste generation and disposal in Mexico: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buenrostro, O; Bocco, G; Bernache, G

    2001-04-01

    The adequate management of municipal solid waste in developing countries is difficult because of the scarcity of studies about their composition. This paper analyses the composition of urban solid waste (USW) in the city of Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico. Residential and non-residential waste sources were sampled, and a structured interview was made to evaluate the socioeconomic characteristics of the studied area. Also, to determine the seasonal patterns of solid waste generation and the efficiency level of the collection service, quantification of solid waste deposited in the dumping ground was measured. Our results show that the recorded amount of SW deposited in the municipal dumping-ground is less than the estimated amount of SW generated; for this reason, the former amount is not recommended as an unbiased indicator for planning public waste collection services. It is essential that dumping-grounds are permanently monitored and that the incoming waste be weighed in order to have a more efficient record of USW deposited in the dumping-ground per day; these data are fundamental for developing adequate managing strategies.

  18. Cementation of biodegraded radioactive oils and organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunova, O.; Safonov, A.; Tregubova, V.; German, K.

    2015-01-01

    The possibility of the microbiological pre-treatment of the oil-containing organic liquid radioactive waste (LRW) before solidification in the cement matrix has been studied. It is experimentally proved that the oil containing cement compounds during long-term storage are subject to microbiological degradation due to the reaction of biogenic organic acids with the minerals of the cement matrix. We recommend to biodegrade the LRW components before their solidification, which reduces the volume of LRW and prevent the destruction of the inorganic cement matrix during the long term storage. The biodegradation of the oil containing LRW is possible by using the radioresistant microflora which oxidize the organic components of the oil to carbon dioxide and water. Simultaneously there is the bio-sorption of the radionuclides by bacteria and emulsification of oil in cement slurry due to biogenic surface-active substances of glycolipid nature. It was experimentally established that after 7 days of biodegradation of oil-containing liquid radioactive waste the volume of LRW is reduced by the factor from 2 to 10 due to the biodegradation of the organic phase to the non-radioactive gases (CH 4 , H 2 O, CO 2 , N 2 ), which are excluded from the volume of the liquid radioactive waste. At the same time, the microorganisms are able to extract from the LRW up to 80-90% of alpha-radionuclides, up to 50% of 90 Sr, up to 20% of 137 Cs due to sorption processes at the cellular structures. The radioactive biomass is subject to dehydration and solidification in the matrix. The report presents the following experimental data: type of bacterial flora, the parameters of biodegradation, the cementing parameters, the properties of the final cement compound with oil-containing liquid radioactive waste

  19. Organic Waste Diversion Guidance for U.S. Army Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    discharged to the sanitary sewer as grey water . Every three years, the Powerchip sub- strate needs to be replaced at a cost of $1,600 and added to the Power...engineering and environmental challenges. ERDC develops innovative solutions in civil and military engineering, geospatial sciences, water resources, and...18 3.3 Develop or increase on-post capacity for the treatment organic waste

  20. Organic resin anion exchangers for the treatment of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, A.; McGinnes, D.F.

    1988-07-01

    Organic anion exchange resins are evaluated for 99-TcO 4 - (pertechnate) removed from aqueous nuclear waste streams. Chemical, thermal and radiation stabilities were studied. Selected resins were examined in detail for their selectivities in the presence of I - , NO 3 - , SO 4 = , CO 3 = , Cl - and OH - . Ion exchange equilibria and kinetic mechanisms were determined. Preliminary investigations of cement encapsulation in polymer modified form were made and some leach studies carried out. (author)

  1. Hydrothermal oxidation of ammonia/organic waste mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luan, Li; Proesmans, P.I.; Buelow, S.J.

    1997-01-01

    Hydrothermal oxidation is a promising new technology for the treatment of radioactive contaminated hazardous organic wastes. Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently evaluating this technology for the U. S. Department of Energy. In this paper, we present experimental results from the study of the hydrothermal oxidation of an ammonia/alcohol/uranium waste mixture. The use of a co-oxidant system consisting of hydrogen peroxide combined with nitrate is discussed. Experiments demonstrate near complete destruction of ammonia and organic compounds at 500 degrees C, 38 MPa, and 50 seconds reaction time. The ammonia and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in a waste simulant is reduced from 8,500 mg/L of ammonia and 12,500 mg/L TOC to 30 mg/L ammonia and less than 10 mg/L TOC. The major reaction products are CO 2 , N 2 , and a small amount of N 2 O. Comparison experiments with nitrate and hydrogen peroxide used individually show the advantage of the co-oxidant system

  2. Soil organic matter and soil biodiversity spots in urban and semi urban soils of southeast Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta, Esperanza

    2015-04-01

    We have observed how the constant use of compost or vermicompost has created spots of soil restoration in urban and semiurban soils of Chiapas (Huitepec and Teopisca), increasing soil organic matter amount, soil moisture and soil porosity, and enhancing then the presence of soil biodiversity; for example, in a Milpa with vermicompost (polyculture of Zea mays with Curcubita pepo, and Fasolius vulgaris) we have found a high density of an epigeic earthworm (640 ind.m2), Dichogaster bolahui, not present in the same type of soil just some meters of distance, in an Oak forest, where soil macroinvertebrates abundance decreased drastically. In another ecosystem within a Persea Americana culture, we found how above and below ground soil biodiversity is affected by the use of vermicompost, having clearly different microcosmos with and without vermicompost (30-50% more micro and macro invertebrates with vermicompost). So now in Campeche, within those soils that are classified by the mayas as tzequel, soils not use for agriculture, we have implemented home gardens and school gardens by the use of compost of vermicomposts in urban and semiurban soils. In school gardens (mainly primary schools) students have cultivated several plants with alimentary purposes; teachers have observed how the increase of soil biodiversity by the use of compost or vermicompost has enhanced the curiosity of children, even has promoted a more friendly behavior among students, they have learned how to do compost and how to apply it. Urban and semiurban soils can be modified by the use of compost and vermicompost, and soil biodiversity has extremely increased.

  3. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project: Analysis of liquid samples from Hanford waste tank 241-C-103

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, K.H.; Bean, R.M.

    1994-03-01

    A suite of physical and chemical analyses has been performed in support of activities directed toward the resolution of an Unreviewed Safety Question concerning the potential for a floating organic layer in Hanford waste tank 241-C-103 to sustain a pool fire. The analysis program was the result of a Data Quality Objectives exercise conducted jointly with staff from Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The organic layer has been analyzed for flash point, organic composition including volatile organics, inorganic anions and cations, radionuclides, and other physical and chemical parameters needed for a safety assessment leading to the resolution of the Unreviewed Safety Question. The aqueous layer underlying the floating organic material was also analyzed for inorganic, organic, and radionuclide composition, as well as other physical and chemical properties. This work was conducted to PNL Quality Assurance impact level III standards (Good Laboratory Practices)

  4. A QUADTREE ORGANIZATION CONSTRUCTION AND SCHEDULING METHOD FOR URBAN 3D MODEL BASED ON WEIGHT

    OpenAIRE

    C. Yao; G. Peng; Y. Song; M. Duan

    2017-01-01

    The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weigh...

  5. Ammonia emissions from the composting of different organic wastes : dependency on process temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Pagans i Miró, Estel·la

    2006-01-01

    Ammonia emissions were quantified for the laboratory-scale composting of three typical organic wastes with medium nitrogen content: organic fraction of municipal solid wastes, raw sludge and anaerobically digested sludge; and the composting of two wastes with high nitrogen content: animal by-products from slaughterhouses and partially hydrolysed hair from the leather industry. All the wastes were mixed with the proper amount of bulking agent. Ammonia emitted in the composting of the five wast...

  6. Influence of solid waste and topography on urban floods: The case of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambrano, Luis; Pacheco-Muñoz, Rodrigo; Fernández, Tania

    2018-02-24

    Floods in cities are increasingly common as a consequence of multifactor watershed dynamics, including geomorphology, land-use changes and land subsidence. However, urban managers have focused on infrastructure to address floods by reducing blocked sewage infrastructure, without significant success. Using Mexico City as a case study, we generated a spatial flood risk model with geomorphology and anthropogenic variables. The results helped contrast the implications of different public policies in land use and waste disposal, and correlating them with flood hazards. Waste disposal was only related to small floods. 58% of the city has a high risk of experiencing small floods, and 24% of the city has a risk for large floods. Half of the population with the lowest income is located in the high-risk areas for large floods. These models are easy to build, generate fast results and are able to help to flood policies, by understanding flood interactions in urban areas within the watershed.

  7. The future of urban waste water reuse. El futuro de la reutilizacion de las aguas residuales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias Iglesias, M. (PRIDESA. Madrid (Spain))

    1992-11-01

    An explanation is given for the interest in the re-use of urban waste water, together with the possible uses for it. Water quality parameters such as the quantity of material in suspension, fertilizers, heavy metals, boron, bacteria and viruses, salinity, toxicity and pathogenous agents are given for water to be re-used, whether it be for drinking purposes or industrial use. Consideration is also given to the possibility of injecting this water into aquifers. (Author)

  8. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Baiyan; Dong, Xinglong; Wang, Hao; Ma, Dingxuan; Tan, Kui; Jensen, Stephanie; Deibert, Benjamin J; Butler, Joseph; Cure, Jeremy; Shi, Zhan; Thonhauser, Timo; Chabal, Yves J; Han, Yu; Li, Jing

    2017-09-07

    Effective capture of radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste remains a significant challenge due to the drawbacks of current adsorbents such as low uptake capacity, high cost, and non-recyclability. We report here a general approach to overcome this challenge by creating radioactive organic iodide molecular traps through functionalization of metal-organic framework materials with tertiary amine-binding sites. The molecular trap exhibits a high CH 3 I saturation uptake capacity of 71 wt% at 150 °C, which is more than 340% higher than the industrial adsorbent Ag 0 @MOR under identical conditions. These functionalized metal-organic frameworks also serve as good adsorbents at low temperatures. Furthermore, the resulting adsorbent can be recycled multiple times without loss of capacity, making recyclability a reality. In combination with its chemical and thermal stability, high capture efficiency and low cost, the adsorbent demonstrates promise for industrial radioactive organic iodides capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li and co-workers fabricate a stable metal-organic framework functionalized with tertiary amine groups that exhibits high capacities for radioactive organic iodides uptake.

  9. Capture of organic iodides from nuclear waste by metal-organic framework-based molecular traps

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan

    2017-09-01

    Effective capture of radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste remains a significant challenge due to the drawbacks of current adsorbents such as low uptake capacity, high cost, and non-recyclability. We report here a general approach to overcome this challenge by creating radioactive organic iodide molecular traps through functionalization of metal-organic framework materials with tertiary amine-binding sites. The molecular trap exhibits a high CH3I saturation uptake capacity of 71 wt% at 150 °C, which is more than 340% higher than the industrial adsorbent Ag0@MOR under identical conditions. These functionalized metal-organic frameworks also serve as good adsorbents at low temperatures. Furthermore, the resulting adsorbent can be recycled multiple times without loss of capacity, making recyclability a reality. In combination with its chemical and thermal stability, high capture efficiency and low cost, the adsorbent demonstrates promise for industrial radioactive organic iodides capture from nuclear waste. The capture mechanism was investigated by experimental and theoretical methods.Capturing radioactive organic iodides from nuclear waste is important for safe nuclear energy usage, but remains a significant challenge. Here, Li and co-workers fabricate a stable metal-organic framework functionalized with tertiary amine groups that exhibits high capacities for radioactive organic iodides uptake.

  10. Self-organization in interface dynamics and urban development

    OpenAIRE

    Meron, Ehud

    1999-01-01

    The view of the urban environment as an extended nonlinear system introduces new concepts, motivates new questions, and suggests new methodologies in the study of urban dynamics. A review of recent results on interface dynamics in nonequilibrium physical systems is presented, and possible implications on the urban environment are discussed. It is suggested that the growth modes of specific urban zones (e.g. residential, commercial, or industrial) and the factors affecting them can be studied ...

  11. Long-term Effects of Organic Waste Fertilizers on Soil Structure, Tracer Transport, and Leaching of Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Magid, Jakob

    2017-07-01

    Organic waste fertilizers have previously been observed to significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil structure. However, the effect of organic waste fertilizers on colloid dispersibility and leaching of colloids from topsoil has not yet been studied extensively. We investigated how the repeated application of different types of agricultural (liquid cattle slurry and solid cattle manure) and urban waste fertilizers (sewage sludge and composted organic household waste) affected soil physical properties, colloid dispersion from aggregates, tracer transport, and colloid leaching from intact soil cores. Total porosity was positively correlated with SOC content. Yearly applications of sewage sludge increased absolute microporosity (pores 30 μm) compared with the unfertilized control, whereas organic household waste compost fertilization increased both total porosity and the absolute porosity in all pore size classes (though not significant for 100-600 μm). Treatments receiving large amounts of organic fertilizers exhibited significantly lower levels of dispersible colloids compared with an unfertilized control and a treatment that had received moderate applications of cattle slurry. The content of water-dispersible colloids could not be explained by a single factor, but differences in SOC content, electrical conductivity, and sodium adsorption ratio were important factors. Moreover, we found that the fertilizer treatments did not significantly affect the solute transport properties of the topsoil. Finally, we found that the leaching of soil colloids was significantly decreased in treatments that had received large amounts of organic waste fertilizers, and we ascribe this primarily to treatment-induced differences in effluent electrical conductivity during leaching. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Biogas recovery from waste organic materials: a comparative experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beschkov, V.; Angelov, I.; Petrova, P.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Biogas production from organic waste is already traditional method for treatment of agricultural waste with simultaneous energy recovery in the form of biogas. However, biogas can also be produced efficiently treating organic waste from beverage industries and biodiesel production. In the latter case, huge amounts of crude glycerol are released posing severe problems with their treatment. The main obstacle to the efficient waste treatment by anaerobic digestion is the sensitivity of the methanogenic bacteria toward pH variations. When the digester is overloaded, high concentrations of organic acids are produced damping the activity of methanogenes. This problem can be overcome by separating the digester into different compartments, enabling the development of the consecutive processes of hydrolysis, acidogenesis and methanogenesis in different spaces.; In the present study results of biogas production from poultry litter, stillage from ethanol production, and crude glycerol from biodiesel manufacturing are presented. The experiments were carried out in a continuous baffled anaerobic reactor. It was established that the process with glycerol utilization was too sensitive toward the loading because of intensive acid formation as intermediates. The process with stillage as substrate was stable and well steered for months with very high biogas yield (350 I/kg COD) at high production rate, i.e. up to 4 wd ' . The microbial profiles, the pH values and the intermediate concentrations along the reactor were determined and correlated with the biogas yield. Different microbial strains and profiles for the different substrates were observed. In the case of glycerol digestion, almost one bacterial genus, i.e. Klebsiella sp., was detected besides the methanogenes, which enables to make speculations about the pathway of competitive intermediate, biogas, and final products formation

  13. Assessment of the potential of urban organic carbon dynamics to off-set urban anthropogenic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, P.; Churkina, G.; Wattenbach, M.; Cubasch, U.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of urban systems on current and future global carbon emissions has been a focus of several studies. Many mitigation options in terms of increasing energy efficiency are discussed. However, apart from technical mitigation potential urban systems also have a considerable biogenic potential to mitigate carbon through an optimized management of organic carbon pools of vegetation and soil. Berlin city area comprises almost 50% of areas covered with vegetation or largely covered with vegetation. This potentially offers various areas for carbon mitigation actions. To assess the mitigation potentials our first objective is to estimate how large current vegetation and soil carbon stocks of Berlin are. We use publicly available forest and soil inventories to calculate soil organic carbon of non-pervious areas and forest standing biomass carbon. This research highlights data-gaps and assigns uncertainty ranges to estimated carbon resources. The second objective is to assess the carbon mitigation potential of Berlin’s vegetation and soils using a biogeochemical simulation model. BIOME-BGC simulates carbon-, nitrogen- and water-fluxes of ecosystems mechanistically. First, its applicability for Berlin forests is tested at selected sites. A spatial application gives an estimate of current net carbon fluxes. The application of such a model allows determining the sensitivity of key ecosystem processes (e.g. carbon gains through photosynthesis, carbon losses through decomposition) towards external drivers. This information can then be used to optimise forest management in terms of carbon mitigation. Initial results of Berlin’s current carbon stocks and its spatial distribution and preliminary simulations results will be presented.

  14. Treatment of Radioactive Organic Wastes by an Electrochemical Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K.H.; Ryue, Y.G.; Kwak, K.K.; Hong, K.P.; Kim, D.H.

    2007-01-01

    A waste treatment system by using an electrochemical oxidation (MEO, Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation) was installed at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) for the treatment of radioactive organic wastes, especially EDTA (Ethylene Diamine Tetraacetic Acid) generated during the decontamination activity of nuclear installations. A cerium and silver mediated electrochemical oxidation technique method has been developed as an alternative for an incineration process. An experiment to evaluate the applicability of the above two processes and to establish the conditions to operate the pilot-scale system has been carried out by changing the concentration of the catalyst and EDTA, the operational current density, the operating temperature, and the electrolyte concentration. As for the results, silver mediated oxidation was more effective in destructing the EDTA wastes than the cerium mediated oxidation process. For a constant volume of the EDTA wastes, the treatment time for the cerium-mediated oxidation was 9 hours and its conversion ratio of EDTA to water and CO 2 was 90.2 % at 80 deg. C, 10 A, but the treatment time for the silver-mediated oxidation was 3 hours and its conversion ratio was 89.2 % at 30 deg. C, 10 A. (authors)

  15. Biodegradation of organic solid wastes from market places

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ariel Cardona Alzate

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the organic wastes from local market place were characterized, classified and conditioned. Feasible conversion treatments into added value products were analyzed. The transformation of starch and cellulose contained in wastes was chosen. The best conditions of temperature, pH and enzyme doses were established in order to transform the polysaccharides into reducing sugars. Commercial glucoamylase and cellulases for converting starch and cellulose were used. Starch conversion reached 60% at 50 °C and pH of 6.0. Cellulose conversion was of 4% at 60 °C and pH of 4,0. The kinetic research of starch hydrolysis based on Michaelis-Menten model was carried out. Ethanol was obtained from new-formed raw material (reducing sugars. In the same way, biogas and compost production was evaluated. It was determined that from each kilogram of treated wastes can be produced approximately 4 L of biogas at mesophilic range of temperature. It was recognized the possibility to carry out a composting process of plant wastes, despite their relatively low values of C/N ratio. Key words: Enzyme hydrolysis, ethanol, biogas, composting, starch.

  16. Composition and distribution of organic waste in Ireland : implications for land application practices

    OpenAIRE

    Taffese Tanto, Mebrate; Magette, W. L.

    2008-01-01

    Questions about the economic and environmental sustainability of current waste management scenarios in Europe for various organic wastes, the policy drive at the EU, and the subsequent adoption of EU policy at national levels, has given momentum for diversion of organic wastes away from landfills and ultimately on to the land. The land has always been the receptor of choice for animal manures, but it is now becoming a popular management route for other organic wastes. Currently in Ireland, la...

  17. Barriers to Participation in the National FFA Organization According to Urban Agriculture Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Michael J.; Kitchel, Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Urban youth engaged in after-school organizations have more positive attributes compared to their unengaged contemporaries. The FFA is one particular intra-curricular organization with after-school components; yet, urban students do not participate in FFA at the same levels as rural students. The purpose of this descriptive study was to explore…

  18. Waste Tank Organic Safety Project organic concentration mechanisms task. FY 1994 progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.A.

    1994-09-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), Waste Tank Organic Safety Project is conducting research to support Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) Waste Tank Safety Program, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Tank Farm Project Office. The goal of PNL's program is to provide a scientific basis for analyzing organics in Hanford's underground storage tanks (USTs) and for determining whether they are at concentrations that pose a potentially unsafe condition. Part of this research is directed toward determining what organic concentrations are safe by conducting research on organic aging mechanisms and waste energetics to assess the conditions necessary to produce an uncontrolled energy release in tanks due to reactions between the organics and the nitrate and nitrate salts in the tank wastes. The objective of the Organic Concentration Mechanisms Task is to assess the degree of localized enrichment of organics to be expected in the USTs due to concentration mechanisms. This report describes the progress of research conducted in FY 1994 on two concentration mechanisms of interest to the tank safety project: (1) permeation of a separate organic liquid phase into the interstitial spaces of the tank solids during the draining of free liquid from the tanks; and (2) concentration of organics on the surfaces of the solids due to adsorption. Three experiments were conducted to investigate permeation of air and solvent into a sludge simulant that is representative of single-shell tank sludge. The permeation behavior of air and solvent into the sludge simulant can be explained by the properties of the fluid pairs (air/supernate and solvent supernate) and the sludge. One important fluid property is the interfacial tension between the supernate and either the solvent or air. In general, the greater the interfacial tension between two fluids, the more difficult it will be for the air or solvent to displace the supernate during dewatering of the sludge

  19. [Treatment of organic waste gas by adsorption rotor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Run-Ye; Zheng, Liang-Wei; Mao, Yu-Bo; Wang, Jia-De

    2013-12-01

    The adsorption rotor is applicable to treating organic waste gases with low concentration and high air volume. The performance of adsorption rotor for purifying organic waste gases was investigated in this paper. Toluene was selected as the simulative gaseous pollutant and the adsorption rotor was packed with honeycomb modified 13X molecular sieves (M-13X). Experimental results of the fixed adsorption and the rotor adsorption were analyzed and compared. The results indicated that some information on the fixed adsorption was useful for the rotor adsorption. Integrating the characteristics of the adsorbents, waste gases and the structures of the rotor adsorption, the formulas on optimal rotor speed and cycle removal efficiency of the adsorption rotor were deduced, based on the mass and heat balances of the adsorbing process. The numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental data, which meant that the formulas on optimal rotor speed and cycle removal efficiency could be effectively applied in design and operation of the adsorption rotor.

  20. New approach to recycling and waste-to-energy in paper production, Urban Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ristola, P. [Metso Corporation (Finland)

    2002-10-01

    Greenfield paper mills are commonly perceived as massive investments with a high level of associated impact on the local environment. Parallel to this, increasingly strict targets are being set by modem legislation for reducing waste disposal at landfills. One long-term solution to this dilemma lies in extended materials recycling, combined with effective utilisation of waste as energy. Metso Paper's Urban Mill is a unique pilot concept that promises to become an important part of such a solution. The novelty of Metso Paper's new eco-efficient Urban Mill concept lies in its combination of a small paper mill with using solid waste to generate energy. The roots of the concept go back to the early 1990s, when several mini-mills were built to produce raw materials for corrugated containers in North America. The competitiveness of mini-mills like this is based on several benefits: lowcost, high-quality waste paper raw material, utilisation of adjacent facilities for utilities, and modern machines with lean manning and low inbound and outbound logistics costs.

  1. The role of waste bank partnership in efforts to decrease waste volume in urban: A case study at a waste bank in Kalibaru, Cilodong, Depok City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suparmini; Junadi, Purnawan

    2018-03-01

    Waste Bank is a program that the government uses as one of the efforts to tackle the increasingly growing garbage day. The Waste Bank in Depok City serves as a collection of non-organic waste that still has economic value. This study attempts to examine the factors that make Depok City Waste Bank play its role today and its relationship with the community involved in the activities of the Waste Bank. Through qualitative approach with a case study, the authors make observations on the object and conduct in-depth interviews with some informants. This study found four factors that make a Waste Bank continues to play a role, namely the presence of leaders who are reliable (leadership), good management (management), incentive (incentive) and the involvement of partners (partnership). While the characteristics of community-based on the level of education, income levels also affect the community participation in receiving the Waste Bank as a form of waste management in the city of Depok.

  2. Organic carbon in Hanford single-shell tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, J.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Heasler, P.G.; Whitney, P.D.

    1994-07-01

    This report documents an analysis performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) involving the organic carbon laboratory measurement data for Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTS) obtained from a review of the laboratory analytical data. This activity was undertaken at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The objective of this study is to provide a best estimate, including confidence levels, of total organic carbon (TOC) in each of the 149 SSTs at Hanford. The TOC analyte information presented in this report is useful as part of the criteria to identify SSTs for additional measurements or monitoring for the organic safety program. This report is a precursor to an investigation of TOC and moisture in Hanford SSTS, in order to provide best estimates for each together in one report. Measured laboratory data were obtained for 75 of the 149 SSTS. The data represent a thorough investigation of data from 224 tank characterization datasets, including core-sampling and process laboratory data. Liquid and solid phase TOC values were investigated by examining selected tanks with both reported TOC values in solid and liquid phases. Some relationships were noted, but there was no clustering of data or significance between the solid and liquid phases. A methodology was developed for estimating the distribution and levels of TOC in SSTs using a logarithmic scale and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. The methodology grouped tanks according to waste type using the Sort On Radioactive Waste Type (SORWT) grouping method. The SORWT model categorizes Hanford SSTs into groups of tanks expected to exhibit similar characteristics based on major waste types and processing histories. The methodology makes use of laboratory data for the particular tank and information about the SORWT group of which the tank is a member. Recommendations for a simpler tank grouping strategy based on organic transfer records were made

  3. Measuring Individual Skills in Household Waste Recycling: Implications for Citizens' Education and Communication in Six Urban Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passafaro, Paola; Bacciu, Anna; Caggianelli, Ilaria; Castaldi, Viviana; Fucci, Eleonora; Ritondale, Deborah; Trabalzini, Eleonora

    2016-01-01

    This article reports the analysis of six urban contexts in which a practical tool measuring individual skills concerning household waste recycling was tested. The tool is a structured questionnaire including a simulation task that assesses respondents' abilities to sort household waste adequately in a given context/municipality. Results indicate…

  4. Organic waste as a sustainable feedstock for platform chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coma, M; Martinez-Hernandez, E; Abeln, F; Raikova, S; Donnelly, J; Arnot, T C; Allen, M J; Hong, D D; Chuck, C J

    2017-09-21

    Biorefineries have been established since the 1980s for biofuel production, and there has been a switch lately from first to second generation feedstocks in order to avoid the food versus fuel dilemma. To a lesser extent, many opportunities have been investigated for producing chemicals from biomass using by-products of the present biorefineries, simple waste streams. Current facilities apply intensive pre-treatments to deal with single substrate types such as carbohydrates. However, most organic streams such as municipal solid waste or algal blooms present a high complexity and variable mixture of molecules, which makes specific compound production and separation difficult. Here we focus on flexible anaerobic fermentation and hydrothermal processes that can treat complex biomass as a whole to obtain a range of products within an integrated biorefinery concept.

  5. Assessment of Collective Production of Biomethane from Livestock Waste for Urban Transportation Mobility in Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Camile Pasqual

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Water, energy, and food are essential elements for human life, but face constant pressure resulting from economic development, climate change, and other global processes. Predictions of rapid economic growth, increasing population, and urbanization in the coming decades point to rapidly increasing demand for all three. In this context, improved management of the interactions among water, energy, and food requires an integrated “nexus” approach. This paper focuses on a specific nexus case: biogas generated from organic waste, a renewable source of energy created in livestock production, which can have water-quality impacts if waste enters water bodies. An innovative model is presented to make biogas and biomethane systems feasible, termed “biogas condominiums” (based on collective action given that small- and medium-scale farms on their own cannot afford the necessary investments. Based on the “farm to fuel” concept, animal waste and manure are converted into electrical and thermal energy, biofuel for transportation, and high-quality biofertilizer. This nexus approach provides multiple economic, environmental, and social benefits in both rural and urban areas, including reduction of ground and surface water pollution, decrease of fossil fuels dependence, and mitigation of greenhouse gases emissions, among others. The research finds that biogas condominiums create benefits for the whole biogas supply chain, which includes farmers, agroindustry, input providers, and local communities. The study estimated that biomethane potential in Brazil could substitute the country’s entire diesel and gasoline imports as well as 44% of the total diesel demand. In the United States, biomethane potential can meet 16% of diesel demand and significantly diversify the energy matrix.

  6. Phthalic acid esters found in municipal organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    Contamination of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) with xenobiotic compounds and their fate during anaerobic digestion was investigated. The phthalic acid ester di-(2- ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) was identified as the main contaminant in OFMSW in concentrations more than half.......41-0.79 d(-1), which is much higher than in previous investigations. It can be concluded that the higher removal rates are due to the higher temperature and higher initial concentrations per kg dry matter. These results suggest that the limiting factor for DEHP degradation is the bioavailability, which...... is enhanced at higher temperature and higher degradation of solid organic matter, to which the highly hydrophobic DEHP is adsorbed. The investigated reactor configuration with a thermophilic and a hyper-thermophilic treatment is, therefore, a good option for CD combining high rate degradation of organic...

  7. Role of biochar as an additive in organic waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Monedero, M A; Cayuela, M L; Roig, A; Jindo, K; Mondini, C; Bolan, N

    2018-01-01

    The use of biochar in organic waste composting has attracted interest in the last decade due to the environmental and agronomical benefits obtained during the process. Biochar presents favourable physicochemical properties, such as large porosity, surface area and high cation exchange capacity, enabling interaction with major nutrient cycles and favouring microbial growth in the composting pile. The enhanced environmental conditions can promote a change in the microbial communities that can affect important microbially mediated biogeochemical cycles: organic matter degradation and humification, nitrification, denitrification and methanogenesis. The main benefits of the use of biochar in composting are reviewed in this article, with special attention to those related to the process performance, compost microbiology, organic matter degradation and humification, reduction of N losses and greenhouse gas emissions and fate of heavy metals. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Composition and leaching of construction and demolition waste: inorganic elements and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butera, Stefania; Christensen, Thomas H; Astrup, Thomas F

    2014-07-15

    Thirty-three samples of construction and demolition waste collected at 11 recycling facilities in Denmark were characterised in terms of total content and leaching of inorganic elements and presence of the persistent organic pollutants PCBs and PAHs. Samples included (i) "clean" (i.e. unmixed) concrete waste, (ii) mixed masonry and concrete, (iii) asphalt and (iv) freshly cast concrete cores; both old and newly generated construction and demolition waste was included. PCBs and PAHs were detected in all samples, generally in non-critical concentrations. Overall, PAHs were comparable to background levels in urban environments. "Old" and "new" concrete samples indicated different PCB congener profiles and the presence of PCB even in new concrete suggested that background levels in raw materials may be an issue. Significant variability in total content of trace elements, even more pronounced for leaching, was observed indicating that the number of analysed samples may be critical in relation to decisions regarding management and utilisation of the materials. Higher leaching of chromium, sulphate and chloride were observed for masonry-containing and partly carbonated samples, indicating that source segregation and management practices may be important. Generally, leaching was in compliance with available leaching limits, except for selenium, and in some cases chromium, sulphate and antimony. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Self-organization in interface dynamics and urban development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehud Meron

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The view of the urban environment as an extended nonlinear system introduces new concepts, motivates new questions, and suggests new methodologies in the study of urban dynamics. A review of recent results on interface dynamics in nonequilibrium physical systems is presented, and possible implications on the urban environment are discussed. It is suggested that the growth modes of specific urban zones (e.g. residential, commercial, or industrial and the factors affecting them can be studied using mathematical models that capture two generic interface instabilities.

  10. The Structural-functional Organization of the Urban Landschaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile GUŢULEAC

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of the anthropic landschaft characterizes its internal organization, the connections between its components and the natural-anthropic associations of an inferior degree.The anthropic layer is to be analyzed in analogy with the natural component of the landschaft, which includes architectural edifices, communications, the geological component,the anthropic vegetation, the barren heaps resulted from mining activities, etc. The parametres of the anthropic components of the landschaft are the free surface, the built surface, the heightof the buildings and the density.The different geographical elements are reconstituted on the basis of NTCs (National Territorial Complex, separated on subtypes according to their specific (NTC IV – functionallandschaft area, NTC III – human settlement, NTC II – technogene fenced-in district, NTC I– technogene lot. We emphasized the features of these organizational types after we had donemuch research in field and in laboratory. We managed to draw a landschaft – functional mapof Czernowitz town, with a scale of 1: 10 000. We managed to detect 125 types of anthropiccomplex of lanschaft.For the urban territory we proposed two types of classification for the landschaftsystems: 1. NTCs that existed before the intense industrial anthropization; 2. technohenenatural complexes. The map of the anthropic-landschaft complexes of the town can be used asa basis for the geo-chemical map and for some applicative maps, especially ecological ones.

  11. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O.; Ssempebwa, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. Methods. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Results. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Conclusion. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices. PMID:27066081

  12. Practices, Concerns, and Willingness to Participate in Solid Waste Management in Two Urban Slums in Central Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukama, Trasias; Ndejjo, Rawlance; Musoke, David; Musinguzi, Geofrey; Halage, Abdullah Ali; Carpenter, David O; Ssempebwa, John C

    2016-01-01

    Poor solid waste management is among the major challenges facing urban slums in developing countries including Uganda. Understanding community concerns and willingness towards involvement in solid waste management improvement initiatives is critical for informing interventions in slums. We used a cross-sectional study to collect quantitative data from 435 residents in two urban slums in central Uganda. A semistructured questionnaire was used which assessed waste collection practices, separation and disposal methods, concerns regarding solid wastes, and willingness to participate in waste separation and composting. Data was analysed using STATA 12. Food remains (38%) and plastics (37%) formed the biggest proportion of wastes generated in households. Most households (35.9%) disposed of general wastes by open dumping while 27% disposed of plastics by burning. Only 8.8% of households conducted composting while 55% carried out separation for some decomposable wastes. Separation was carried out for only banana peelings and leftover foods for feeding animals. Respondents expressed high willingness to separate (76.6%) and compost (54.9%) solid wastes. Practices in waste disposal and separation were poor despite high willingness to participate in initiatives to improve waste management, highlighting a need for authorities to engage residents of slums to improve their practices.

  13. Energy Recovery from the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste: A Real Options-Based Facility Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Ranieri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last years, due to the strict regulations on waste landfilling, anaerobic digestion (AD of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW is increasingly considered a sustainable alternative for waste stabilization and energy recovery. AD can reduce the volume of OFMSW going to landfill and produce, at the same time, biogas and compost, all at a profit. The uncertainty about the collected quantity of organic fraction, however, may undermine the economic-financial sustainability of such plants. While the flexibility characterizing some AD technologies may prove very valuable in uncertain contexts since it allows adapting plant capacity to changing environments, the investment required for building flexible systems is generally higher than the investment for dedicated equipment. Hence, an adequate justification of investments in these flexible systems is needed. This paper presents the results of a study aimed at investigating how different technologies may perform from technical, economic and financial standpoints, in presence of an uncertain organic fraction quantity to be treated. Focusing on two AD treatment plant configurations characterized by a technological process with different degree of flexibility, a real options-based model is developed and then applied to the case of the urban waste management system of the Metropolitan Area of Bari (Italy. Results show the importance of pricing the flexibility of treatment plants, which becomes a critical factor in presence of an uncertain organic fraction. Hence, it has to be taken into consideration in the design phase of these plants.

  14. Engineering solutions of environmental problems in organic waste handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briukhanov, A. Y.; Vasilev, E. V.; Shalavina, E. V.; Kucheruk, O. N.

    2017-10-01

    This study shows the urgent need to consider modernization of agricultural production in terms of sustainable development, which takes into account environmental implications of intensive technologies in livestock farming. Some science-based approaches are offered to address related environmental challenges. High-end technologies of organic livestock waste processing were substantiated by the feasibility study and nutrient balance calculation. The technologies were assessed on the basis of best available techniques criteria, including measures such as specific capital and operational costs associated with nutrient conservation and their delivery to the plants.

  15. Environmental Aspects Of Home Composting Of Organic Household Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldrin, Alessio; Andersen, Jacob Kragh; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    Six composting units were monitored during a two-year long experimental campaign. Data regarding chemical compositions of waste inputs and outputs, gaseous emissions and leachate productions were collected, organized in mass balances and assessed by means of LCA. The management of the home...... composting unit was very relevant for the environmental performance of home composting, as the turning frequency influence the emissions of CH4 which is the main responsible for potential impacts on global warming. Results showed that overall home composting has low environmental impacts (between -2 and 16 m...

  16. Pyrolysis and co-composting of municipal organic waste in Bangladesh: A quantitative estimate of recyclable nutrients, greenhouse gas emissions, and economic benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mia, Shamim; Uddin, Md Ektear; Kader, Md Abdul; Ahsan, Amimul; Mannan, M A; Hossain, Mohammad Monjur; Solaiman, Zakaria M

    2018-05-01

    Waste causes environmental pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions when it is not managed sustainably. In Bangladesh, municipal organic waste (MOW) is partially collected and landfilled. Thus, it causes deterioration of the environment urging a recycle-oriented waste management system. In this study, we propose a waste management system through pyrolysis of selective MOW for biochar production and composting of the remainder with biochar as an additive. We estimated the carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) recycling potentials in the new techniques of waste management. Waste generation of a city was calculated using population density and per capita waste generation rate (PWGR). Two indicators of economic development, i.e., gross domestic product (GDP) and per capita gross national income (GNI) were used to adopt PWGR with a projected contribution of 5-20% to waste generation. The projected PWGR was then validated with a survey. The waste generation from urban areas of Bangladesh in 2016 was estimated between 15,507 and 15,888 t day -1 with a large share (∼75%) of organic waste. Adoption of the proposed system could produce 3936 t day -1 biochar blended compost with an annual return of US $210 million in 2016 while it could reduce GHG emission substantially (-503 CO 2 e t -1 municipal waste). Moreover, the proposed system would able to recover ∼46%, 54%, 54% and 61% of total C, N, P and K content in the initial waste, respectively. We also provide a projection of waste generation and nutrient recycling potentials for the year 2035. The proposed method could be a self-sustaining policy option for waste management as it would generate ∼US$51 from each tonne of waste. Moreover, a significant amount of nutrients can be recycled to agriculture while contributing to the reduction in environmental pollution and GHG emission. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Influence of natural and novel organic carbon sources on denitrification in forest, degraded urban, and restored streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic carbon is important in regulating ecosystem function, and its source and abundance may be altered by urbanization. We investigated shifts in organic carbon quantity and quality associated with urbanization and ecosystem restoration, and its potential effects on denitrific...

  18. Solid Waste Landfill Site Selection in the Sense of Environment Sensitive Sustainable Urbanization: Izmir, Turkey Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    TÜdeş, Şule; Kumlu, Kadriye Burcu Yavuz

    2017-10-01

    Each stage of the planning process should be based on the natural resource protection, in the sense of environmental sensitive and sustainable urban planning. Values, which are vital for the continuity of the life in the Earth, as soil, water, forest etc. should be protected from the undesired effects of the pollution and the other effects caused by the high urbanization levels. In this context, GIS-MCDM based solid waste landfill site selection is applied for Izmir, Turkey, where is a significant attraction place for tourism. As Multi criteria Decision Making (MCDM) technique, Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is used. In this study, geological, tectonically and hydrological data, as well as agricultural land use, slope, distance to the settlement areas and the highways are used as inputs for AHP analysis. In the analysis stage, those inputs are rated and weighted. The weighted criteria are evaluated via GIS, by using weighted overlay tool. Therefore, an upper-scale analysis is conducted and a map, which shows the alternative places for the solid waste landfill sites, considering the environmental protection and evaluated in the context of environmental and urban criteria, are obtained.

  19. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford's underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford's organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes' future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as at sign ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures

  20. Organic Tank Safety Project: development of a method to measure the equilibrium water content of Hanford organic tank wastes and demonstration of method on actual waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bredt, P.R.; Sell, R.L.

    1996-09-01

    Some of Hanford`s underground waste storage tanks contain Organic- bearing high level wastes that are high priority safety issues because of potentially hazardous chemical reactions of organics with inorganic oxidants in these wastes such as nitrates and nitrites. To ensure continued safe storage of these wastes, Westinghouse Hanford Company has placed affected tanks on the Organic Watch List and manages them under special rules. Because water content has been identified as the most efficient agent for preventing a propagating reaction and is an integral part of the criteria developed to ensure continued safe storage of Hanford`s organic-bearing radioactive tank wastes, as part of the Organic Tank Safety Program the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed and demonstrated a simple and easily implemented procedure to determine the equilibrium water content of these potentially reactive wastes exposed to the range of water vapor pressures that might be experienced during the wastes` future storage. This work focused on the equilibrium water content and did not investigate the various factors such as @ ventilation, tank surface area, and waste porosity that control the rate that the waste would come into equilibrium, with either the average Hanford water partial pressure 5.5 torr or other possible water partial pressures.

  1. Forecasting municipal solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban region with system dynamics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyson, Brian; Chang, N.-B.

    2005-01-01

    Both planning and design of municipal solid waste management systems require accurate prediction of solid waste generation. Yet achieving the anticipated prediction accuracy with regard to the generation trends facing many fast-growing regions is quite challenging. The lack of complete historical records of solid waste quantity and quality due to insufficient budget and unavailable management capacity has resulted in a situation that makes the long-term system planning and/or short-term expansion programs intangible. To effectively handle these problems based on limited data samples, a new analytical approach capable of addressing socioeconomic and environmental situations must be developed and applied for fulfilling the prediction analysis of solid waste generation with reasonable accuracy. This study presents a new approach - system dynamics modeling - for the prediction of solid waste generation in a fast-growing urban area based on a set of limited samples. To address the impact on sustainable development city wide, the practical implementation was assessed by a case study in the city of San Antonio, Texas (USA). This area is becoming one of the fastest-growing regions in North America due to the economic impact of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). The analysis presents various trends of solid waste generation associated with five different solid waste generation models using a system dynamics simulation tool - Stella[reg]. Research findings clearly indicate that such a new forecasting approach may cover a variety of possible causative models and track inevitable uncertainties down when traditional statistical least-squares regression methods are unable to handle such issues

  2. Utilization of the household organic wastes in compost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache O, B.

    1995-01-01

    Residues or wastes are a problem to the cities, owing to its collect and disposal produce many negative effects in public health and the environment as odors, microorganism (pathogens), vectors (flies, rodents and mosquitoes), and others. To solve this problem have been propose mainly two alternatives: 1. Sanitary landfills and 2. Recycling. To recover the residues as biodegradable as not-biodegradable, exist alternatives as composting (fermentation process or aerobic oxidation) and recycling - reuse, respectively. The composting process in aspects as the required conditions to that the organism acts efficiently as control of temperature (between 40-75 centigrade degrees), feed (carbon, nitrogen and other organic matter), aeration (by mixing or turning), control of moisture (between 50-60%), are present. Methodology aspects to composting also are described

  3. Methane and organic fertilizers from wood waste and manure fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romashkevich, I F; Karelina, G N

    1961-01-01

    Fermentation of sawdust of foliate trees by mesophyllic microflora is feasible, producing CH/sub 4/; the yield of gas is 500 cu m/ton, which surpasses that from manure and other agricultural wastes. Preliminary acid hydrolysis is unnecessary. At 5% organic matter, sawdust fermentation proceeds normally and with good yield, but 10% initial concentration of organic matter results in poor performance. Fermentation of common manure, that of sawdust and manure, or that of sawdust alone yields essentially the same gases. Fir sawdust does not ferment, but it does not stop manure or ash sawdust from fermenting if mixed with these. Fermented sawdust behaves like a fertilizer; it is beneficial to plants and crops. Nonfermented sawdust does not. Lupine N content is increased by both fermented and nonfermented sawdusts.

  4. Organic tanks safety program FY95 waste aging studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Clauss, S.A.; Lenihan, B.D.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.; Shaw, W.J.

    1995-09-01

    This report gives the second year's findings of a study of how thermal and radiological processes may change the composition of organic compounds in the underground tanks at Hanford. Efforts were focused on the global reaction kinetics in a simulated waste exposed to γ rays and the reactions of organic radicals with nitrite ion. The gas production is predominantly radiolytic. Decarboxylation of carboxylates is probably an aging pathway. TBP was totaly consumed in almost every run. Radiation clearly accelerated consumption of the other compounds. EDTA is more reactive than citrate. Oximes and possibly organic nitro compounds are key intermediates in the radiolytic redox reactions of organic compounds with nitrate/nitrite. Observations are consistent with organic compounds being progressively degraded to compounds with greater numbers of C-O bonds and fewer C-H and C-C bonds, resulting in an overall lower energy content. If the radwaste tanks are adequately ventilated and continually dosed by radioactivity, their total energy content should have declined. Level of risk depends on how rapidly carboxylate salts of moderate energy content (including EDTA fragments) degrade to low energy oxalate and formate

  5. Characteristics of organic matter in PM2.5 from an e-waste dismantling area in Taizhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zeping; Feng, Jialiang; Han, Wenliang; Wu, Minghong; Fu, Jiamo; Sheng, Guoying

    2010-08-01

    Solvent extractable organic compounds in PM(2.5) samples collected in Taizhou, a city famous for its electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) recycling industry in Zhejiang province of China, were analyzed to identify the main emission sources based on molecular markers. Two types of plastics which were most frequently contained in the e-wastes, wires/cables and plastic blocks, were burned in the lab and the particles emitted analyzed. The concentrations of PAHs and phthalate esters at the e-waste dismantling area during our sampling periods were about two times of that at the reference urban site, indicating the high pollution level there. The high concentrations of quaterphenyl found at the dismantling area indicated that burning of plastics or polymers was an important emission source of the PAHs in the fine particles. The diagnostic analysis based on the compositions of alkanes, hopanes and other molecular markers showed that engine exhaust, biomass burning and kitchen emissions were also important emission sources at the e-waste dismantling area. Our results suggested that more effort should be paid to control the correlative emission sources such as transportation and kitchen to achieve better air quality at the e-waste dismantling area besides regulating the recycling activities. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Persistence of urban organic aerosols composition: Decoding their structural complexity and seasonal variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matos, João T.V.; Duarte, Regina M.B.O.; Lopes, Sónia P.; Silva, Artur M.S.; Duarte, Armando C.

    2017-01-01

    Organic Aerosols (OAs) are typically defined as highly complex matrices whose composition changes in time and space. Focusing on time vector, this work uses two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (2D NMR) techniques to examine the structural features of water-soluble (WSOM) and alkaline-soluble organic matter (ASOM) sequentially extracted from fine atmospheric aerosols collected in an urban setting during cold and warm seasons. This study reveals molecular signatures not previously decoded in NMR-related studies of OAs as meaningful source markers. Although the ASOM is less hydrophilic and structurally diverse than its WSOM counterpart, both fractions feature a core with heteroatom-rich branched aliphatics from both primary (natural and anthropogenic) and secondary origin, aromatic secondary organics originated from anthropogenic aromatic precursors, as well as primary saccharides and amino sugar derivatives from biogenic emissions. These common structures represent those 2D NMR spectral signatures that are present in both seasons and can thus be seen as an “annual background” profile of the structural composition of OAs at the urban location. Lignin-derived structures, nitroaromatics, disaccharides, and anhydrosaccharides signatures were also identified in the WSOM samples only from periods identified as smoke impacted, which reflects the influence of biomass-burning sources. The NMR dataset on the H–C molecules backbone was also used to propose a semi-quantitative structural model of urban WSOM, which will aid efforts for more realistic studies relating the chemical properties of OAs with their atmospheric behavior. - Highlights: • 2D NMR spectroscopy was used to decode urban organic aerosols. • Water and alkaline soluble components of urban organic aerosols have been compared. • Persistence of urban organic aerosols composition across different seasons. • Annual background profile of the structural features of urban organic aerosols. • Semi

  7. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of organic waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.

    1995-01-01

    A wet chemical oxidation technology has been developed to address issues facing defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate a heterogenous mixture of radioactive-contaminated solid waste, the technology can also remediate other hazardous waste forms. The process, unique to Savannah River, offers a valuable alternative to incineration and other high-temperature or high-pressure oxidation processes. The process uses nitric acid in phosphoric acid; phosphoric acid allows nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction converts organics to carbon dioxide and water, and generates NO x vapors which can be recycled using air and water. Oxidation is complete in one to three hours. In previous studies, many organic compounds were completely oxidized, within experimental error, at atmospheric pressure below 180 degrees C; more stable compounds were decomposed at 200 degrees C and 170 kPa. Recent studies have evaluated processing parameters and potential throughputs for three primary compounds: EDTA, polyethylene, and cellulose. The study of polyvinylchloride oxidation is incomplete at this time

  8. Utilisation of diesel engine waste heat by Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kölsch, Benedikt; Radulovic, Jovana

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, three different organic liquids were investigated as potential working fluids in an Organic Rankine Cycle. Performance of Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm SES36 was modelled in an ORC powered by a diesel engine waste heat. The ORC model consists of a preheater, evaporator, superheater, turbine, pump and two condensers. With variable maximum cycle temperatures and high cycle pressures, the thermal efficiency, net power output and overall heat transfer area have been evaluated. Methanol was found to have the best thermal performance, but also required the largest heat transfer area. While Toluene achieved lower thermal efficiency, it showed great work potential at high pressures and relatively low temperatures. Our model identified the risks associated with employing these fluids in an ORC: methanol condensing during the expansion and toluene not sufficiently superheated at the turbine inlet, which can compromise the cycle operation. The best compromise between the size of heat exchanger and thermodynamic performance was found for Methanol ORC at intermediate temperatures and high pressures. Flammability and toxicity, however, remain the obstacles for safe implementation of both fluids in ORC systems. - Highlights: • ORC powered by diesel-engine waste heat was developed. • Methanol, Toluene and Solkatherm were considered as working fluids. • Methanol was selected due to the best overall thermal performance. • Optimal cycle operating parameters and heat exchanger area were evaluated

  9. Types of organic materials present in CEGB waste streams and possible encapsulation processes for organic ion-exchange materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haighton, A.P.

    1988-01-01

    The organic composition of low and intermediate-level radioactive wastes is discussed. Work underway in the development of immobilising binders for organic ion exchange resins found in radioactive wastes and in the encapsulation of these ion exchangers is presented. (U.K.)

  10. Selective waste collection optimization in Romania and its impact to urban climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihai, Šercǎianu; Iacoboaea, Cristina; Petrescu, Florian; Aldea, Mihaela; Luca, Oana; Gaman, Florian; Parlow, Eberhard

    2016-08-01

    According to European Directives, transposed in national legislation, the Member States should organize separate collection systems at least for paper, metal, plastic, and glass until 2015. In Romania, since 2011 only 12% of municipal collected waste was recovered, the rest being stored in landfills, although storage is considered the last option in the waste hierarchy. At the same time there was selectively collected only 4% of the municipal waste. Surveys have shown that the Romanian people do not have selective collection bins close to their residencies. The article aims to analyze the current situation in Romania in the field of waste collection and management and to make a proposal for selective collection containers layout, using geographic information systems tools, for a case study in Romania. Route optimization is used based on remote sensing technologies and network analyst protocols. Optimizing selective collection system the greenhouse gases, particles and dust emissions can be reduced.

  11. Thermal destruction of organic waste hydrophobicity for agricultural soils application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comino, Francisco; Aranda, Víctor; Domínguez-Vidal, Ana; Ayora-Cañada, María José

    2017-11-01

    Use of organic amendments is a good strategy for combating the growing problem of soil degradation due to deterioration of organic matter content, particularly severe in semi-arid European Mediterranean regions, while at the same time providing an opportunity for recycling organic wastes. Olive mill pomace (OMP), the main by-product of the olive oil industry, is being used increasingly in olive grove soils for this purpose. Although the positive effects of OMP amendments have been widely studied, they also have some negative effects on soil. One of the most critical is that they increase water repellency (WR) due to the presence of poorly evolved, strongly aliphatic compounds. This detrimental effect has received very little attention, although it may impair plant water availability and infiltration rates, increase erosion and lower long-term soil quality. This study proposed, for the first time, thermal treatment as an effective way of reducing WR in organic amendments (i.e. mixtures of OMP, olive tree pruning, chicken manure and spent coffee grounds) prior to their application to soil. Thermal treatment at 275 °C proved effective in removing WR, while lower temperatures (175 or 225 °C) can even increase it. Changes by thermal treatment in the characteristics of the organic amendments studied with FTIR and UV-Vis spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis showed that it strongly reduced the aliphatic compounds mainly responsible for their hydrophobicity, concentrated aromatic compounds and increased thermostability. Heating also reduced phytotoxicity, making all of the organic amendments usable in the field (germination index over 100%). Therefore, heating at 275 °C could be an acceptable option for removing WR from organic amendments, enhancing their quality with more stable evolved characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SFW-Funk process for gasification of solid urban and industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummelsiep, H; Heinrich, F

    1982-01-01

    It was the purpose of the R+D-project, to develop the SFW-Funk process for gasification of solid urban and industrial waste for commercial plants. On the base of a literature study and some experiments on a laboratory plant, a demonstration plant was designed and built. The test runs can be divided into two sections. During the first, problems of the enlarging of the plant were examined and solved. In the second section, gasification tests where run under several conditions. During the period of run, different input-materials (domestic waste of different composition, grain size and closeners of grain, rubber and wood) were gasified at varying operating conditions (composition, quantity and constitution of the oxidant) with good results. The experiments showed, that, unless the reactor was optimized during the period of run, it is possible to optimize some further elements of the gasification plant.

  13. Waste to Energy in Urban Infrastructure. Experiences from Indo-Swedish collaboration 2009-2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-15

    This report provides an illustration of the progress that has been made in Indo-Swedish biogas collaboration since the delegation Biogas for Urban Infrastructure initiated action in 2009. A number of Swedish government organisations and private sector organisations have worked together with Indian counterparts to develop the Indo-Swedish Waste-to-Energy cooperation. A mere two years later, we can now state that this has been a very fruitful venture. The Swedish-Indian cooperation that was formed in conjunction with the biogas delegation has already resulted in new knowledge, new methods, opportunities for new strategies and new business models.

  14. Towards reinforcement solutions for urban fibre/fabric waste using bio-based biodegradable resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Pramod; Hermes, Alina; Bapeer, Solaf; Luiken, Anton; Bouwhuis, Gerrit; Brinks, Ger

    2017-10-01

    The main research question is how to systematically define and characterize urban textile waste and how to effectively utilise it to produce reinforcement(s) with selected bio-based biodegradable resin(s). Several composite samples have been produced utilising predominantly natural and predominantly synthetic fibres by combining loose fibres with PLA, nonwoven fabric with PLA, woven fabric with PLA, two-layer composite & four-layer composite samples. Physio-chemical characterisations according to the established standards have been conducted. The present work is a step toward the circular economy and closing the loop in textile value chain.

  15. Removal of floating organic in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-103 restart plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T.R.; Hanson, C.

    1994-10-03

    The decision whether or not to remove the organic layer from Waste Tank 241-C-103 was deferred until May, 1995. The following restart plan was prepared for removal of the organic if the decision is to remove the organic from the waste tank 241-C-103.

  16. Removal of floating organic in Hanford Waste Tank 241-C-103 restart plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, T.R.; Hanson, C.

    1994-01-01

    The decision whether or not to remove the organic layer from Waste Tank 241-C-103 was deferred until May, 1995. The following restart plan was prepared for removal of the organic if the decision is to remove the organic from the waste tank 241-C-103

  17. Greenhouse gas footprint and the carbon flow associated with different solid waste management strategy for urban metabolism in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, K M Nazmul

    2017-02-15

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) and associated climate change consequences are gripping attention globally, while MSW management as a vital subsystem of urban metabolism significantly influences the urban carbon cycles. This study evaluates the GHG emissions and carbon flow of existing and proposed MSW management in Bangladesh through scenario analysis, including landfill with landfill gas (LFG) recovery, waste to energy (WtE), and material recovery facility (MRF). The analysis indicates that, scenario H 2 and H 5 emitted net GHGs -152.20kg CO 2 eq. and -140.32kg CO 2 eq., respectively, in comparison with 420.88kg CO 2 eq. of scenario H 1 for managing per ton of wastes during the reference year 2015. The annual horizontal carbon flux of the waste input was 319Gg and 158Gg during 2015 in Dhaka and Chittagong, respectively. An integrated strategy of managing the wastes in the urban areas of Bangladesh involving WtE incineration plant and LFG recovery to generate electricity as well as MRF could reverse back 209.46Gg carbon and 422.29Gg carbon to the Chittagong and Dhaka urban system, respectively. This study provides valuable insights for the MSW policy framework and revamp of existing MSW management practices with regards to reduction of GHGs emissions from the waste sector in Bangladesh. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level waste radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    The influence of organic materials, which are present in some intermediate level wastes, on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents formed as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  19. Volatile organic compounds in the unsaturated zone from radioactive wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ronald J.; Andraski, Brian J.; Stonestrom, David A.; Luo, Wentai

    2012-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are often comingled with low-level radioactive wastes (LLRW), but little is known about subsurface VOC emanations from LLRW landfills. The current study systematically quantified VOCs associated with LLRW over an 11-yr period at the USGS Amargosa Desert Research Site (ADRS) in southwestern Nevada. Unsaturated-zone gas samples of VOCs were collected by adsorption on resin cartridges and analyzed by thermal desorption and GC/MS. Sixty of 87 VOC method analytes were detected in the 110-m-thick unsaturated zone surrounding a LLRW disposal facility. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were detected in 100% of samples collected. Chlorofluorocarbons are powerful greenhouse gases, deplete stratospheric ozone, and are likely released from LLRW facilities worldwide. Soil-gas samples collected from a depth of 24 m and a horizontal distance 100 m south of the nearest waste-disposal trench contained >60,000 ppbv total VOCs, including >37,000 ppbv CFCs. Extensive sampling in the shallow unsaturated zone (0–2 m deep) identified areas where total VOC concentrations exceeded 5000 ppbv at the 1.5-m depth. Volatile organic compound concentrations exceeded background levels up to 300 m from the facility. Maximum vertical diffusive fluxes of total VOCs were estimated to be 1 g m-2 yr-1. Volatile organic compound distributions were similar but not identical to those previously determined for tritium and elemental mercury. To our knowledge, this study is the first to characterize the unsaturated zone distribution of VOCs emanating from a LLRW landfill. Our results may help explain anomalous transport of radionuclides at the ADRS and elsewhere.

  20. Argonne National Laboratory's photo-oxidation organic mixed waste treatment system - installation and startup testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, T.L.; Nelson, R.A.; Torres, T.; Conner, C.; Wygmans, D.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the installation and startup testing of the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL-E) Photo-Oxidation Organic Mixed Waste Treatment System. This system will treat organic mixed (i.e., radioactive and hazardous) waste by oxidizing the organics to carbon dioxide and inorganic salts in an aqueous media. The residue will be treated in the existing radwaste evaporators. The system is installed in the Waste Management Facility at the ANL-E site in Argonne, Illinois. 1 fig

  1. Ecohealth approach to urban waste management: exposure to environmental pollutants and health risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d'Ivoire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouamé, Parfait K; Dongo, Kouassi; Nguyen-Viet, Hung; Zurbrügg, Christian; Lüthi, Christoph; Hattendorf, Jan; Utzinger, Jürg; Biémi, Jean; Bonfoh, Bassirou

    2014-10-02

    Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d'Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen) did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-2.7) compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI) 1.1-3.3). Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area.

  2. Ecohealth Approach to Urban Waste Management: Exposure to Environmental Pollutants and Health Risks in Yamoussoukro, Côte d’Ivoire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parfait K. Kouamé

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poor waste management is a key driver of ill-health in urban settlements of developing countries. The current study aimed at assessing environmental and human health risks related to urban waste management in Yamoussoukro, the political capital of Côte d’Ivoire. We undertook trans-disciplinary research within an Ecohealth approach, comprised of a participatory workshop with stakeholders and mapping of exposure patterns. A total of 492 randomly selected households participated in a cross-sectional survey. Waste deposit sites were characterised and 108 wastewater samples were subjected to laboratory examinations. The physico-chemical parameters of the surface water (temperature, pH, conductivity, potential oxidise reduction, BOD5, COD, dissolved oxygen, nitrates, ammonia and total Kendal nitrogen did not comply with World Health Organization standards of surface water quality. Questionnaire results showed that malaria was the most commonly reported disease. Diarrhoea and malaria were associated with poor sanitation. Households having dry latrines had a higher risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.2–2.7 compared to latrines with septic tanks and also a higher risk for malaria (OR = 1.9, 95% (CI 1.1–3.3. Our research showed that combining health and environmental assessments enables a deeper understanding of environmental threats and disease burdens linked to poor waste management. Further study should investigate the sanitation strategy aspects that could reduce the environmental and health risks in the study area.

  3. The Influence of Neighbor Effect and Urbanization Toward Organ Donation in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wongboonsin, Kua; Jindahra, Pavitra; Teerakapibal, Surat

    2018-03-01

    Toward population wellness, an extreme scarcity of organ supply is proven to be an enormous hindrance. Preferences toward organ donation are vital to raise the organ donation rate. Notably, the area people live in can address the social influence on individual preference toward organ donation. This article studies the impact of the neighbor effect on organ donation decisions, addressing the social influence of urbanization on preferences. How neighborhood-specific variables, population density, and socioeconomic status drive the neighbor effect is investigated. The pursuit of organ donor traits is to be answered. The study uses organ donation interview survey data and neighborhood-specific data from Thailand to estimate a series of logistic regression models. Individuals residing in urban areas exhibit a greater likelihood to sign the donor card than those in rural areas. The neighborhood socioeconomic status is the key driver. An individual is more willing to be an organ donor when having neighbors with higher socioeconomic statuses. Results also reveal positive influences of males and education on the organ donation rate. This article documents the "neighbor effect" on the organ donation decision via living area type, offering an alternative exposition in raising the organ donation rate. In shifting the society norm toward organ donation consent, policy-makers should acknowledge the benefit of urbanization on organ donation decision derived from resourceful urban areas. Moreover, raising education levels does improve not only citizens' well-being but also their tendency to exhibit an altruistic act toward others.

  4. Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments using the species sensitivity distribution from a soil organisms test battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Ramirez, Wilson; Mattana, Stefania; Alcaniz, Josep Maria; Andres, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Safe amendment rates (the predicted no-effect concentration or PNEC) of seven organic wastes were estimated from the species sensitivity distribution of a battery of soil biota tests and compared with different realistic amendment scenarios (different predicted environmental concentrations or PEC). None of the wastes was expected to exert noxious effects on soil biota if applied according either to the usual maximum amendment rates in Europe or phosphorus demands of crops (below 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). However, some of the wastes might be problematic if applied according to nitrogen demands of crops (above 2 tonnes DM ha -1 ). Ammonium content and organic matter stability of the studied wastes are the most influential determinants of the maximum amendment rates derived in this study, but not pollutant burden. This finding indicates the need to stabilize wastes prior to their reuse in soils in order to avoid short-term impacts on soil communities. - Ecological risk assessment of organic waste amendments

  5. Resource Recovery and Reuse in Organic Solid Waste Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lens, P.N.L.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Hoitink, H.; Bidlingmaier, W.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled spreading of waste materials leads to health problems and environmental damage. To prevent these problems a waste management infrastructure has been set to collect and dispose of the waste, based on a hierarchy of three principles: waste prevention, recycling/reuse, and final disposal.

  6. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, William, E-mail: w.hartley@ljmu.ac.u [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip [Liverpool John Moores University, Faculty of Science, Byrom Street, Liverpool L3 3AF (United Kingdom); Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie [Health and Safety Laboratory, Harpur Hill, Buxton, Derbyshire SK17 9JN (United Kingdom); Lepp, Nicholas W., E-mail: nickandeileenlepp@hotmail.co [35 Victoria Road, Formby L37 7DH (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  7. Arsenic mobility and speciation in a contaminated urban soil are affected by different methods of green waste compost application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, William; Dickinson, Nicholas M.; Riby, Philip; Leese, Elizabeth; Morton, Jackie; Lepp, Nicholas W.

    2010-01-01

    Application of green waste compost (GWC) to brownfield land is now common practice in soil restoration. However, previous studies have demonstrated both beneficial and detrimental effects on arsenic and metal mobility. In this paper, trace element behaviour was investigated following GWC application, either as surface mulch to, or mixed into soil from a previously described brownfield site in the U.K. Significant differences in arsenic mobility were observed between treatments. Mulching caused most disturbance, significantly increasing soil pore water As, together with Fe, P, Cr, Ni and dissolved organic carbon, the latter was a critical factor enhancing As mobilization. Arsenate was the main inorganic As species in soil pore water, increasing in concentration over time. An initial flush of potentially more toxic arsenite decreased 4 weeks after compost application. Biological processes appeared to play an important role in influencing As mobility. The results point to the necessity for careful management of As-contaminated soils. - A comparison of mulching and mixing of green waste compost to an urban soil results in differences in arsenic and metal leaching.

  8. Concrete-polymer composite materials and their potential for construction, urban waste utilization, and nuclear waste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, E.E.; Steinberg, Meyer.

    1974-01-01

    A wide range of concrete-polymer composites have been investigated by Brookhaven National Laboratory. Polymer impregnated concrete (PIC) is basically formed by drying cured conventional concrete, displacing the air from open cell void volume, diffusing low viscosity monomer (less than 10 cps) through the open cell structure, saturating the concrete with the monomer and in-situ polymerizing the monomer to polymer by most convenient means. Mainly free-radical vinyl type monomers are used. For increased thermal stability, crosslinking agents and thermosetting monomers such as styrene-trimethylol propane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA) and polyester-styrene are used. Much informations on the formation, structural properties and durability of PIC have been accumulated over past five years. U.S. Patent 3,567,496 has been issued on the production of PIC. Compressive strength can be increased from 352 kg/cm 2 of conventional concrete to 1,410 kg/cm 2 . Water absorption is reduced by 99% and the freeze-thaw resistance is remarkably improved. With high silica cement, strong basaltic aggregate, and high temperature steam curing, strength increase from 845 to over 2,630 kg/cm 2 can be obtained. A maximum of 238 kg/cm 2 tensile strength has been obtained with the steam-cured concrete. In the steam- cured concrete, polymer loading roughly around 8% by weight is obtained. Aggregates can include the urban solid waste discarded by man. Sewage and solid waste refuse-polymer concrete has been produced by using garbage as aggregate and sewage as the hydrating media for cement. The potentially important application of hydrauric cement concrete, in combination with the polymers in PIC and PC, is the storage of long-living radioactive wastes from nuclear industry. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Electrochemical destruction of organics and nitrates in simulated and actual radioactive Hanford tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmore, M.R.; Lawrence, W.E.

    1996-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has conducted an evaluation of electrochemical processing for use in radioactive tank waste cleanup activities. An electrochemical organic destruction (ECOD) process was evaluated, with the main focus being the destruction of organic compounds (especially organic complexants of radionuclides) in simulated and actual radioactive Hanford tank wastes. A primary reason for destroying the organic species in the complexant concentrate tank waste is to decomplex/defunctionalize species that chelate radionuclides. the separations processes required to remove the radionuclides are much less efficient when chelators are present. A second objective, the destruction of nitrates and nitrites in the wastes, was also assessed. Organic compounds, nitrates, and nitrites may affect waste management and safety considerations, not only at Hanford but at other US Department of Energy sites that maintain high- level waste storage tanks

  10. Waste Load Allocation for Conservative Substances to Protect Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutcheson, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    A waste load allocation process is developed to determine the maximum effluent concentration of a conservative substance that will not harm fish and wildlife propagation. If this concentration is not exceeded in the effluent, the acute toxicity criterion will not be violated in the receiving stream, and the chronic criterion will not be exceeded in the zone of passage, defined in many state water quality standards to allow the movement of aquatic organisms past a discharge. Considerable simplification of the concentration equation, which is the heart of any waste load allocation, is achieved because it is based on the concentration in the receiving stream when the concentration gradient on the zone of passage boundary is zero. Consequently, the expression obtained for effluent concentration is independent of source location or stream morphology. Only five independent variables, which are routinely available to regulatory agencies, are required to perform this allocation. It aids in developing permit limits which are protective without being unduly restrictive or requiring large expenditures of money and manpower on field investigations.

  11. Lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radionuclides and organics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuPont, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on lime treatment of liquid waste containing heavy metals, radio nuclides and organics. Lime is wellknown for its use in softening drinking water the treatment of municipal wastewaters. It is becoming important in the treatment of industrial wastewater and liquid inorganic hazardous waste; however, there are many questions regarding the use of lime for the treatment of liquid hazardous waste

  12. Nutritional composition of black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) prepupae reared on different organic waste substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spranghers, Thomas; Ottoboni, Matteo; Klootwijk, Cindy; Ovyn, Anneke; Deboosere, Stefaan; Meulenaer, De Bruno; Michiels, Joris; Eeckhout, Mia; Clercq, De Patrick; Smet, De Stefaan

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Black soldier fly larvae are converters of organic waste into edible biomass, of which the composition may depend on the substrate. In this study, larvae were grown on four substrates: chicken feed, vegetable waste, biogas digestate, and restaurant waste. Samples of prepupae and

  13. Anaerobic Digestion of the Organic Fraction of Municipal Solid Waste With Recirculation of Process Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, H.; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2001-01-01

    A new concept of a wet anaerobic digestion treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) is investigated. Once the waste is diluted with water, the entire liquid fraction of the effluent is recirculated and used as process water for dilution of the waste. This enables a well...

  14. Anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure: effects of food waste particle size and organic loading rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyeman, Fred O; Tao, Wendong

    2014-01-15

    This study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of food waste particle size on co-digestion of food waste and dairy manure at organic loading rates increased stepwise from 0.67 to 3 g/L/d of volatile solids (VS). Three anaerobic digesters were fed semi-continuously with equal VS amounts of food waste and dairy manure. Food waste was ground to 2.5 mm (fine), 4 mm (medium), and 8 mm (coarse) for the three digesters, respectively. Methane production rate and specific methane yield were significantly higher in the digester with fine food waste. Digestate dewaterability was improved significantly by reducing food waste particle size. Specific methane yield was highest at the organic loading rate of 2g VS/L/d, being 0.63, 0.56, and 0.47 L CH4/g VS with fine, medium, and coarse food waste, respectively. Methane production rate was highest (1.40-1.53 L CH4/L/d) at the organic loading rate of 3 g VS/L/d. The energy used to grind food waste was minor compared with the heating value of the methane produced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Decontamination of radioactive liquid wastes by hydrophytic vegetal organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecal, Al; Popa, K.; Potoroaca, V.; Melniciuc-Puica, N.

    2001-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of some radioactive ions from contaminated waste solutions, on hydrophytic vegetal organisms is discussed. In order to follow the distribution of radioactive ions 137 Cs + , 60 Co 2+ and 51 Cr 3+ in various cell components extracted from Spirulina platensis, Porphiridium cruentum, Scenedesmus quadricauda, Lemna minor, Elodea canadensis, Pistia stratiotes and Riccia fluitans, the plants were cultivated in radioactive solutions. The resulting complexes were extracted with acetone or acetic acid and separated chromatographically. The results show an intense activity of the polysaccharide and lipoid fractions in the bioaccumulation process. The bioaccumulation varies in the series: Spirulina > Scenedesmus > Porphiridium > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna ≥ Elodea for 137 Cs + and 60 Co 2+ ; Spirulina > Porphiridium > Scenedesmus > Riccia > Pistia > Lemna > Elodea for 51 Cr 3+ . (author)

  16. The organic waste treatment in UP3-La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginisty, C.; Leybros, J.; Maynadier, P.; Pradel, P.; Dalverny, G.; Lebaillif, M.

    1991-01-01

    Spent solvent is an organic waste the volume of which must be minimized. It has been decided to implement a distillation facility in order to split this spent solvent into three parts: recovered diluent and concentrated TBP, to be recycled, and a residue which contain the radioactivity and most of the impurities. This distillation is performed at low pressure and temperature, with thin films evaporators, in order to minimize the residence times in heated zones. The paper describes the process and the equipment employed. The R and D work which has been performed to define the process, size up the equipment and demonstrate the process is described, including the laboratory works, the pilot plant tests and the results of tests performed with a full scale prototype which has been built to demonstrate the whole process. The industrial facility, and the results of the first active runs are described briefly

  17. Low-level liquid waste decontamination by organic ion exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.; Campbell, D.O.; Dillow, T.A.

    1990-01-01

    Improved processes are being developed to treat contaminated liquid wastes that have been and continue to be generated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Promising results have been obtained for cesium removal with a new resorcinol-based organic resin developed at the Savannah River Site. In tests of cesium removal, it was superior to other available resins, such as Duolite CS-100, with the distribution coefficient being limited primarily by competition from potassium and nearly independent of the sodium concentration. The optimum pH was approximately 12.5 in high NaNO 3 concentrations (>2 M). A fairly low flow velocity was required to yield sharp breakthrough of the loaded cesium. The resin was much less effective for strontium removal, which was limited by competition from sodium. If both cesium and strontium must be removed, another resin column or a mixed bed with a chelating resin should be used

  18. Molecular characterization of urban organic aerosol in tropical India: contributions of primary emissions and secondary photooxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Q. Fu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic molecular composition of PM10 samples, collected at Chennai in tropical India, was studied using capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Fourteen organic compound classes were detected in the aerosols, including aliphatic lipids, sugar compounds, lignin products, terpenoid biomarkers, sterols, aromatic acids, hydroxy-/polyacids, phthalate esters, hopanes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs, and photooxidation products from biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs. At daytime, phthalate esters were found to be the most abundant compound class; however, at nighttime, fatty acids were the dominant one. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, C16 fatty acid, and levoglucosan were identified as the most abundant single compounds. The nighttime maxima of most organics in the aerosols indicate a land/sea breeze effect in tropical India, although some other factors such as local emissions and long-range transport may also influence the composition of organic aerosols. However, biogenic VOC oxidation products (e.g., 2-methyltetrols, pinic acid, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid and β-caryophyllinic acid showed diurnal patterns with daytime maxima. Interestingly, terephthalic acid was maximized at nighttime, which is different from those of phthalic and isophthalic acids. A positive relation was found between 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (a tracer for plastic burning and terephthalic acid, suggesting that the field burning of municipal solid wastes including plastics is a significant source of terephthalic acid. Organic compounds were further categorized into several groups to clarify their sources. Fossil fuel combustion (24–43% was recognized as the most significant source for the total identified compounds, followed by plastic emission (16–33%, secondary oxidation (8.6–23%, and microbial/marine sources (7.2–17%. In contrast, the contributions of terrestrial plant waxes (5.9–11% and biomass burning (4.2–6.4% were relatively

  19. Modelling a suitable location for Urban Solid Waste Management using AHP method and GIS -A geospatial approach and MCDM Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, M.; Islam, A.; Hossain, A.; Mustaque, S.

    2016-12-01

    Multi-Criteria Decision Making(MCDM) is advanced analytical method to evaluate appropriate result or decision from multiple criterion environment. Present time in advanced research, MCDM technique is progressive analytical process to evaluate a logical decision from various conflict. In addition, Present day Geospatial approach (e.g. Remote sensing and GIS) also another advanced technical approach in a research to collect, process and analyze various spatial data at a time. GIS and Remote sensing together with the MCDM technique could be the best platform to solve a complex decision making process. These two latest process combined very effectively used in site selection for solid waste management in urban policy. The most popular MCDM technique is Weighted Linear Method (WLC) where Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) is another popular and consistent techniques used in worldwide as dependable decision making. Consequently, the main objective of this study is improving a AHP model as MCDM technique with Geographic Information System (GIS) to select a suitable landfill site for urban solid waste management. Here AHP technique used as a MCDM tool to select the best suitable landfill location for urban solid waste management. To protect the urban environment in a sustainable way municipal waste needs an appropriate landfill site considering environmental, geological, social and technical aspect of the region. A MCDM model generate from five class related which related to environmental, geological, social and technical using AHP method and input the result set in GIS for final model location for urban solid waste management. The final suitable location comes out that 12.2% of the area corresponds to 22.89 km2 considering the total study area. In this study, Keraniganj sub-district of Dhaka district in Bangladesh is consider as study area which is densely populated city currently undergoes an unmanaged waste management system especially the suitable landfill sites for

  20. Cultivation of phagotrophic algae with waste activated sludge as a fast approach to reclaim waste organics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cong; Xiao, Suo; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-03-15

    Substantial energy is reserved in waste activated sludge (WAS) organics but much of it is difficult to recover because the solid organics require long time to solubilize. In this work we introduced the new approach of recovering WAS organics into the biomass of phagotrophic algae. Phagotrophic algae have the unique ability to grow by ingesting insoluble organic particles including microbial cells. This phagotrophic ability renders the solubilization of WAS organics unnecessary and makes this approach remarkably fast. The approach consists of two stages: a short anaerobic digestion treatment followed by the algal growth on treated WAS. The short anaerobic digestion was exploited to release discrete bacteria from WAS flocs. Phagotrophic algae could then grow rapidly with the released bacteria as well as the solubilized nutrients in the treated WAS. The results showed that WAS organics could be quickly consumed by phagotrophic algae. Among all studied conditions the highest WAS volatile solids (VS) reduction was achieved with 72 h anaerobic digestion and 24 h algal growth. In this optimal process, 28% of WAS VS was reduced, and 41% and 20% of the reduced VS were converted into algal biomass and lipids, respectively. In comparison, only 18% WAS VS were reduced after the same time of aerobic digestion without algae addition. Through this approach, the amount of WAS organics requiring further treatment for final disposal is significantly reduced. With the production of significant amounts of algal biomass and lipids, WAS treatment is expected to be more economical and sustainable in material recycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of solid-phase and eluate assays to gauge the ecotoxicological risk of organic wastes on soil organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domene, Xavier; Alcaniz, Josep M.; Andres, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Development of methodologies to assess the safety of reusing polluted organic wastes in soil is a priority in Europe. In this study, and coupled with chemical analysis, seven organic wastes were subjected to different aquatic and soil bioassays. Tests were carried out with solid-phase waste and three different waste eluates (water, methanol, and dichloromethane). Solid-phase assays were indicated as the most suitable for waste testing not only in terms of relevance for real situations, but also because toxicity in eluates was generally not representative of the chronic effects in solid-phase. No general correlations were found between toxicity and waste pollutant burden, neither in solid-phase nor in eluate assays, showing the inability of chemical methods to predict the ecotoxicological risks of wastes. On the contrary, several physicochemical parameters reflecting the degree of low organic matter stability in wastes were the main contributors to the acute toxicity seen in collembolans and daphnids. - Comparison of solid-phase and eluate bioassays for organic waste testing

  2. Energy and nutrient recovery from anaerobic treatment of organic wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henrich, Christian-Dominik

    The objective of the research was to develop a complete systems design and predictive model framework of a series of linked processes capable of providing treatment of landfill leachate while simultaneously recovering nutrients and bioenergy from the waste inputs. This proposed process includes an "Ammonia Recovery Process" (ARP) consisting of: (1) ammonia de-sorption requiring leachate pH adjustment with lime or sodium hydroxide addition followed by, (2) ammonia re-absorption into a 6-molar sulfuric acid spray-tower followed by, (3) biological activated sludge treatment of soluble organic residuals (BOD) followed by, (4) high-rate algal post-treatment and finally, (5) an optional anaerobic digestion process for algal and bacterial biomass, and/or supplemental waste fermentation providing the potential for additional nutrient and energy recovery. In addition, the value provided by the waste treatment function of the overall processes, each of the sub-processes would provide valuable co-products offering potential GHG credit through direct fossil-fuel replacement, or replacement of products requiring fossil fuels. These valuable co-products include, (1) ammonium sulfate fertilizer, (2) bacterial biomass, (3) algal biomass providing, high-protein feeds and oils for biodiesel production and, (4) methane bio-fuels. Laboratory and pilot reactors were constructed and operated, providing data supporting the quantification and modeling of the ARP. Growth parameters, and stoichiometric coefficients were determined, allowing for design of the leachate activated sludge treatment sub-component. Laboratory and pilot algal reactors were constructed and operated, and provided data that supported the determination of leachate organic/inorganic-nitrogen ratio, and loading rates, allowing optimum performance of high-rate algal post-treatment. A modular and expandable computer program was developed, which provided a systems model framework capable of predicting individual component

  3. Urban waste landfill planning and karstic groundwater resources in developing countries: the example of Lusaka (Zambia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waele, J.; Nyambe, I. A.; Di Gregorio, A.; Di Gregorio, F.; Simasiku, S.; Follesa, R.; Nkemba, S.

    2004-06-01

    Lusaka, the capital city of Zambia with more than two million inhabitants, derives approximately 70% of its water requirements from groundwater sourced in the underlying karstic Lusaka aquifer. This water resource is, therefore, extremely important for the future of the population. The characteristics of the aquifer and the shallow water table make the resource vulnerable and in need of protection and monitoring. A joint project between the Geology Departments of the University of Cagliari and the School of Mines of the University of Zambia, to investigate the "Anthropogenic and natural processes in the Lusaka area leading to environmental degradation and their possible mitigation" was carried out in July 2001. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the extent of the present environmental degradation, assessing the vulnerability of the carbonatic aquifer and the degree of pollution of the groundwater and to make proposals to mitigate adverse environmental effects. Analyses of water samples collected during project indicate some areas of concern, particularly with respect to the levels of ammonia, nitrates and some heavy metals. As groundwater quality and quantity are prerogatives for a healthy and sustainable society, the study offers guidelines for consideration by the local and national authorities. Uptake of these guidelines should result in a number of initiatives being taken, including: (a) closure or reclamation of existing waste dumps; (b) upgrading of existing waste dumps to controlled landfills; (c) establishing new urban waste landfills and plants in geo-environmentally suitable sites; (d) local waste management projects in all compounds (residential areas) to prevent and reduce haphazard waste dumping; (e) enlarging sewerage drainage systems to all compounds; (f) enforcing control on groundwater abstraction and pollution, and demarcation of zones of control at existing drill holes; (g) providing the city with new water supplies from outside the

  4. Composition of source-sorted municipal organic waste collected in Danish cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Trine Lund; Jansen, Jes La Cour; Spliid, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    Source-sorted municipal organic waste from different dwelling types in five Danish cities was sampled during one year. The samples were from permanent, full-scale systems or temporary, experimental systems for collection of source-sorted municipal organic waste. Pre-treatment of the organic waste...... prior to biological treatment was used in all cities to remove foreign objects and provide size reduction. All sampling was performed after pre-treatment in order to obtain more homogeneous and representative samples. The sampling included both the pre-treated waste and the reject from the pre......-treatment allowing for estimation of the composition of the original waste. A total of 40 waste samples were chemically characterised with respect to 15 parameters. The waste generally consisted of around 88% VS of which an average of 80% was easily degradable. The average content of N, P and K in the dry matter...

  5. A multiobjective modeling approach to locate multi-compartment containers for urban-sorted waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tralhao, Lino; Coutinho-Rodrigues, Joao; Alcada-Almeida, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The location of multi-compartment sorted waste containers for recycling purposes in cities is an important problem in the context of urban waste management. The costs associated with those facilities and the impacts placed on populations are important concerns. This paper introduces a mixed-integer, multiobjective programming approach to identify the locations and capacities of such facilities. The approach incorporates an optimization model in a Geographical Information System (GIS)-based interactive decision support system that includes four objectives. The first objective minimizes the total investment cost; the second one minimizes the average distance from dwellings to the respective multi-compartment container; the last two objectives address the 'pull' and 'push' characteristics of the decision problem, one by minimizing the number of individuals too close to any container, and the other by minimizing the number of dwellings too far from the respective multi-compartment container. The model determines the number of facilities to be opened, the respective container capacities, their locations, their respective shares of the total waste of each type to be collected, and the dwellings assigned to each facility. The approach proposed was tested with a case study for the historical center of Coimbra city, Portugal, where a large urban renovation project, addressing about 800 buildings, is being undertaken. This paper demonstrates that the models and techniques incorporated in the interactive decision support system (IDSS) can be used to assist a decision maker (DM) in analyzing this complex problem in a realistically sized urban application. Ten solutions consisting of different combinations of underground containers for the disposal of four types of sorted waste in 12 candidate sites, were generated. These solutions and tradeoffs among the objectives are presented to the DM via tables, graphs, color-coded maps and other graphics. The DM can then use this

  6. Process and device for liquid organic waste processing by sulfuric mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspart, A.; Gillet, B.; Lours, S.; Guillaume, B.

    1990-01-01

    In a chemical reactor containing sulfuric acid are introduced the liquid waste and nitric acid at a controlled flow rate for carbonization of the waste and oxidation of carbon on sulfur dioxide, formed during carbonization, regenerating simultaneously sulfuric acid. Optical density of the liquid is monitored to stop liquid waste feeding above a set-point. The liquid waste can be an organic solvent such as TBP [fr

  7. Management of waste by-products in medium-scale commercial poultry facilities in peri-urban Ibadan, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    AKINTAYO OLUREMI; QUAINOO JEMIMAH

    2016-01-01

    Due to increasing human population in and around the city, it is important to pay attention to issues related to the environment and human health, especially poultry waste management towards environmental sustainability in peri-urban areas. The three waste by-products of primary concern in poultry production are the litter, the manure and dead birds common to all operations. With the aid of a pre-tested and validated questionnaire, data were obtained from forty poultry farmers whose medium-sc...

  8. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company's (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards

  9. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  10. Potential manure in organic production use: management of municipal organic waste with activators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz Jessica

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Tiquipaya Municipality produces 22 t day-1 of solid, 63% of it is organic and 37% is inorganic. This waste is disposed of in the Municipal Landfill, rendering it into an environmental and health threat. In order to diminish the negative effects of poor management of municipal solid waste in Tiquipaya, we have carried out the present study in the Tiquipaya municipal composting site, the municipal nursery and the facilities of the PROINPA foundation. At the beginning, the waste composting was done using two treatments: one with organic activator and the other without it. Later the same two methods were used in worm composting, this second process in turn yielded other four treatments two of which included organic activator. After 64 days, within the compost, the activator achieved to reduce 60.02% of the initial volume, leaving a remaining 39.99% of thick material. After the compost had been processed by the worms it was evaluated on the 47th day, we found that the organic activator treatment used from the beginning of the composting phase, yielded a 90.67% decrease from the initial volume of fine matter, compared to the other treatments; it left only 9.33% of thick material. Bio-tests were conducted on barley plants to evaluate the phytotoxicity of the worm compost, these studies showed that treatments with a 50% worm compost concentration had lower germination values (40 to 50%. Whereas treatments that contained 100% of worm compost stood out for their higher yield that ranged from 60 to 70% in their germination values.

  11. 42 CFR 136.350 - Contracts with Urban Indian organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 136.350 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Health Care Improvement Act Programs...) of this section; (7) Identify gaps between unmet health needs of urban Indians and the resources...

  12. Urban construction and demolition waste and landfill failure in Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Xia, Junqiang; Thompson, Julian R; Flower, Roger J

    2017-05-01

    On December 20, 2015 at 11:40 am a landslide in one of China's most advanced cities, Shenzhen, killed 73 people and damaged 33 buildings. In the absence of heavy rainfall or earthquakes, the landslide was an unexpected and profound shock to many people. According to China's Ministry of Land and Resources, the landslide was triggered by the collapse of an enormous pile of construction and demolition waste (CDW). With China's rapid urbanization, an increasing amount of CDW is being generated, especially in major cities. In total, China produces some 30% of the world's municipal solid waste and of this about 40% is CDW. To prevent landslides associated with CDW, the volume of waste dumped in landfills should be regulated. More specifically 4-Rs (reduce, reuse, recycle and recover) policies should be implemented more widely and efficiently. Although landfill will continue to be an important disposal option, proper management and careful monitoring of CDW are urgently needed to satisfy pressing safety issues. International collaboration, sharing of knowledge, and use of the latest technologies are needed so that the similar landslides can be prevented in China and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Investigations into encapsulation of intermediate level wastes containing organic components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, J.

    1988-01-01

    A product evaluation programme was set up to investigate the properties of a variety of matrix-waste formulations prior to their encapsulation. The waste/matrix forms were defined and characterised and waste pretreatments studied. Potential encapsulation matrices were investigated for their suitability for individual waste streams. The physical, chemical and thermal properties, radiation stability and leaching behaviour of the formulations were studied. Operational and design limits for the encapsulation plant were defined. (U.K.)

  14. Effect of the waste products storage on the environmental pollution by toxic organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Lewkiewicz-Małysa

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A permanent deposition of industrial wastes is a method of its neutralization. A storage yard for toxic materials must meet specific site and construction conditions. The storage place region of toxic organic waste materials has to be monitored. The environmental impact of this waste on the groundwater quality, especially the migration of persistent organic pollutants, was discussed on the example of a chemical plant.

  15. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, G.B.; Lewis, P.R.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components. 2 figs

  16. Relative contributions of natural and waste-derived organics to the subsurface transport of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toste, A.P.; Myers, R.B.

    1985-06-01

    Our laboratory is studying the role of organic compounds in the subsurface transport of radionuclides at shallow-land burial sites of low-level nuclear waste, including a commercial site at Maxey Flats, Kentucky, and an aqueous waste disposal site. At the Maxey Flats site, several radionuclides, notably Pu and 60 Co, appear to exist as anionic, organic complexes. Waste-derived organics, particularly chelating agents such as EDTA, HEDTA and associated degradation products (e.g., ED3A), are abundant in aqueous waste leachates and appear to account for the complexation. EDTA, and probably other waste-derived chelating agents as well, are chelated to the Pu and 60 Co in the leachates, potentially mobilizing these radionuclides. In contrast, at the low-level aqueous waste disposal site, naturally-occurring organics, ranging from low molecular weight (MW) acids to high MW humic acids, account for the bulk of the groundwater's organic content. Certain radionuclides, notably 60 Co, 103 Ru and 125 Sb, are mobile as anionic complexes. These radionuclides are clearly associated with higher MW organics, presumably humic and fulvic acids with nominal MW's > 1000. It is clear, therefore, that naturally-occurring organics may play an important role in radionuclide transport, particularly at nuclear waste burial sites containing little in the way of waste-derived organics

  17. The land disposal of organic materials in radioactive wastes: international practice and regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooper, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    World-wide practice and regulation with regard to organic materials in radioactive wastes for land disposal have been examined with a view to establishing, where possible, their scientific justification and their relevance to disposal of organic-bearing wastes in the UK. (author)

  18. Vermi composting--organic waste management and disposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, J Sudhir; Subbaiah, K Venkata; Rao, P V V Prasada

    2012-01-01

    Solid waste is an unwanted byproduct of modern civilization. Landfills are the most common means of solid waste disposal. But the increasing amount of solid waste is rapidly filling existing landfills, and new sites are difficult to establish. Alternatives to landfills include the use of source reduction, recycling, composting and incineration, as well as use of landfills. Incineration is most economical if it includes energy recovery from the waste. Energy can be recovered directly from waste by incineration or the waste can be processed to produce storable refuse derived fuel (RDF). Information on the composition of solid wastes is important in evaluating alternative equipment needs, systems, management programs and plans. Pulverization of municipal solid waste is done and the pulverized solid waste is dressed to form a bed and the bed is fed by earthworms which convert the bed into vermi compost. The obtained vermi compost is sent to Ministry of Environment & Forests (MoEF) recognized lab for estimating the major nutrients, i.e. Potassium (K), Phosphorous (P), Nitrogen (N) and Micro-nutrient values. It is estimated that 59 - 65 tons of wet waste can be collected in a town per day and if this wet waste is converted to quality compost, around 12.30 tons of vermi compost can be generated. If a Municipal Corporation manages this wet waste an income of over (see text symbol) for 0.8 9 crore per anum can be earned which is a considerable amount for providing of better services to public.

  19. Transport of organic contaminants in subsoil horizons and effects of dissolved organic matter related to organic waste recycling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabauty, Florian; Pot, Valérie; Bourdat-Deschamps, Marjolaine; Bernet, Nathalie; Labat, Christophe; Benoit, Pierre

    2016-04-01

    Compost amendment on agricultural soil is a current practice to compensate the loss of organic matter. As a consequence, dissolved organic carbon concentration in soil leachates can be increased and potentially modify the transport of other solutes. This study aims to characterize the processes controlling the mobility of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in deep soil layers and their potential impacts on the leaching of organic contaminants (pesticides and pharmaceutical compounds) potentially present in cultivated soils receiving organic waste composts. We sampled undisturbed soil cores in the illuviated horizon (60-90 cm depth) of an Albeluvisol. Percolation experiments were made in presence and absence of DOM with two different pesticides, isoproturon and epoxiconazole, and two pharmaceutical compounds, ibuprofen and sulfamethoxazole. Two types of DOM were extracted from two different soil surface horizons: one sampled in a plot receiving a co-compost of green wastes and sewage sludge applied once every 2 years since 1998 and one sampled in an unamended plot. Results show that DOM behaved as a highly reactive solute, which was continuously generated within the soil columns during flow and increased after flow interruption. DOM significantly increased the mobility of bromide and all pollutants, but the effects differed according the hydrophobic and the ionic character of the molecules. However, no clear effects of the origin of DOM on the mobility of the different contaminants were observed.

  20. Transport and fate of organic wastes in groundwater at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site, southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenheer, J.A.; Hsu, J.; Barber, L.B.

    2001-01-01

    In January 1999, wastewater influent and effluent from the pretreatment plant at the Stringfellow hazardous waste disposal site were sampled along with groundwater at six locations along the groundwater contaminant plume. The objectives of this sampling and study were to identify at the compound class level the unidentified 40-60% of wastewater organic contaminants, and to determine what organic compound classes were being removed by the wastewater pretreatment plant, and what organic compound classes persisted during subsurface waste migration. The unidentified organic wastes are primarily chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids derived from wastes from DDT manufacture. Trace amounts of EDTA and NTA organic complexing agents were discovered along with carboxylate metabolites of the common alkylphenolpolyethoxylate plasticizers and nonionic surfactants. The wastewater pretreatment plant removed most of the aromatic chlorinated sulfonic acids that have hydrophobic neutral properties, but the p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid which is the primary waste constituent passed through the pretreatment plant and was discharged in the treated wastewaters transported to an industrial sewer. During migration in groundwater, p-chlorobenzenesulfonic acid is removed by natural remediation processes. Wastewater organic contaminants have decreased 3- to 45-fold in the groundwater from 1985 to 1999 as a result of site remediation and natural remediation processes. The chlorinated aromatic sulfonic acids with hydrophobic neutral properties persist and have migrated into groundwater that underlies the adjacent residential community. Copyright ?? 2001 .

  1. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T.H.; Scheutz, C.

    2010-01-01

    The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) is a potential environmental disadvantage of home composting. Because of a lack of reliable GHG emission data, a comprehensive experimental home composting system was set up. The system consisted of six composting units, and a static flux chamber method was used to measure and quantify the GHG emissions for one year composting of organic household waste (OHW). The average OHW input in the six composting units was 2.6-3.5 kg week -1 and the temperature inside the composting units was in all cases only a few degrees (2-10 o C) higher than the ambient temperature. The emissions of methane (CH 4 ) and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) were quantified as 0.4-4.2 kg CH 4 Mg -1 input wet waste (ww) and 0.30-0.55 kg N 2 O Mg -1 ww, depending on the mixing frequency. This corresponds to emission factors (EFs) (including only CH 4 and N 2 O emissions) of 100-239 kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww. Composting units exposed to weekly mixing had the highest EFs, whereas the units with no mixing during the entire year had the lowest emissions. In addition to the higher emission from the frequently mixed units, there was also an instant release of CH 4 during mixing which was estimated to 8-12% of the total CH 4 emissions. Experiments with higher loads of OHW (up to 20 kg every fortnight) entailed a higher emission and significantly increased overall EFs (in kg substance per Mg -1 ww). However, the temperature development did not change significantly. The GHG emissions (in kg CO 2 -eq. Mg -1 ww) from home composting of OHW were found to be in the same order of magnitude as for centralised composting plants.

  2. Organic food product purchase behaviour: a pilot study for urban consumers in the South of Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Gracia, A.; de Magistris, T.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explain factors that influence organic food purchases of urban consumers in the South of Italy. To achieve this goal, a multivariate limited dependent variable model has been specified to simultaneously analyse consumers’ organic food purchases, the intention to purchase organic food products and the level of organic knowledge. This study uses survey data gathered from 200 consumers in Naples in 2003. Results indicate that consumers who are more willing to buy orga...

  3. Modeling Organic Contaminant Desorption from Municipal Solid Waste Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knappe, D. R.; Wu, B.; Barlaz, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    Approximately 25% of the sites on the National Priority List (NPL) of Superfund are municipal landfills that accepted hazardous waste. Unlined landfills typically result in groundwater contamination, and priority pollutants such as alkylbenzenes are often present. To select cost-effective risk management alternatives, better information on factors controlling the fate of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) in landfills is required. The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the effects of HOC aging time, anaerobic sorbent decomposition, and leachate composition on HOC desorption rates, and (2) to simulate HOC desorption rates from polymers and biopolymer composites with suitable diffusion models. Experiments were conducted with individual components of municipal solid waste (MSW) including polyvinyl chloride (PVC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), newsprint, office paper, and model food and yard waste (rabbit food). Each of the biopolymer composites (office paper, newsprint, rabbit food) was tested in both fresh and anaerobically decomposed form. To determine the effects of aging on alkylbenzene desorption rates, batch desorption tests were performed after sorbents were exposed to toluene for 30 and 250 days in flame-sealed ampules. Desorption tests showed that alkylbenzene desorption rates varied greatly among MSW components (PVC slowest, fresh rabbit food and newsprint fastest). Furthermore, desorption rates decreased as aging time increased. A single-parameter polymer diffusion model successfully described PVC and HDPE desorption data, but it failed to simulate desorption rate data for biopolymer composites. For biopolymer composites, a three-parameter biphasic polymer diffusion model was employed, which successfully simulated both the initial rapid and the subsequent slow desorption of toluene. Toluene desorption rates from MSW mixtures were predicted for typical MSW compositions in the years 1960 and 1997. For the older MSW mixture, which had a

  4. A Software for soil quality conservation at organic waste disposal areas: The case of olive mill and pistachio wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doula, Maria; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Hliaoutakis, Aggelos; Kydonakis, Aris; Argyriou, Lemonia; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Kolovos, Chronis

    2016-04-01

    For the sustainable reuse of organic wastes at agricultural areas, apart from extensive evaluation of waste properties and characteristics, it is of significant importance, in order to protect soil quality, to evaluate land suitability and estimate the correct application doses prior waste landspreading. In the light of this precondition, a software was developed that integrates GIS maps of land suitability for waste reuse (wastewater and solid waste) and an algorithm for waste doses estimation in relation to soil analysis, and in case of reuse for fertilization with soil analysis, irrigation water quality and plant needs. EU and legislation frameworks of European Member States are also considered for the assessment of waste suitability for landspreading and for the estimation of the correct doses that will not cause adverse effects on soil and also to underground water (e.g. Nitrate Directive). Two examples of software functionality are presented in this study using data collected during two LIFE projects, i.e. Prosodol for landspreading of olive mill wastes and AgroStrat for pistachio wastes.

  5. Methane production as from the mixture of the urban solid waste lixiviate and municipal wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monroy-Hermosillo, Oscar; Ramírez-Vives, Florina; Rodríguez-Pimentel, Reyna I.; Rodríguez-Pérez, Suyén

    2015-01-01

    The generation of solid wastes and wastewater in Mexico , as other countries, has increased considerably of late years, so its treatment is very important to reduce the pollution. In this work are presented the results on the anaerobic digestion of lixiviate generated with the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste recollected in the Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Unidad Iztapalapa coffee shop. Theses lixiviated were diluted with municipal wastewater to different organic loads (2,3-20 gCOD/L.d) and after treated anaerobically in UASB reactor. Biogas's average production in the last load of the UASB reactor was up to 12 L/L.d with an efficiency to remove COD on top of 90 % and a production of methane of 0,38 LCH4. gSSV-1. (author)

  6. New municipal waste management in opinion of inhabitants of urban and rural areas of the Słupsk Powiat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Klein

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article was to determine the satisfaction level and to assess the opinion of urban and rural area inhabitants of new municipal waste management system. The assessment was based on population surveys. The survey group consisted of 119 people. According to the obtained data, more than 70% of Słupsk Powiat inhabitants declare the selective collection of municipal waste. The respondents well asses the educational activities of local government. Furthermore, on the basis of the results obtained, it can be said that the inhabitants of rural areas are more involved in the implementation of sustainable municipal waste management.

  7. Eco-efficiency analysis of techniques for disposal of urban solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrijevas, Cibele

    2010-01-01

    Municipal solid waste is one of the major problems of modern society. In this sense it is necessary to discuss solutions to the fate of waste generated daily, increasingly in larger amounts, being imperative to advance the search for alternatives, not only in search of new technologies and solutions, as well as the improvement of methodologies currently employed to solve this relevant issue, especially in large urban centers. This paper presents the results of a comparative economic-environmental assessment performed by a method developed by BASF, two potential technologies: landfill and incineration with energy recovery. To facilitate the work, the information used were both real data - landfill and incinerator - Essencis Solucoes Ambientais S.A., (assuming some assumptions) and the use of secondary data, using the study of Arena et al., 2003. This ecoefficiency analysis tool covers the methodology of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA), which is a technique to evaluate the inputs and outputs of matter and energy and the potential environmental impacts associated with all stages of resource extraction and their transformations , and the use and final disposal of the product. The data in the environmental assessment are presented according to major categories, using a weighting method developed by BASF and understand the consumption of natural resources, consumption of energy resources, air emissions, water and soil, potential for human toxicity, accidents work, occupational diseases and land use. Economic evaluation in this work took into account the costs involved in operation and maintenance of disposal techniques or treatment of waste. The comparative study found the treatment or disposal of 7.324109 billion kilograms of waste. As a result, the array of eco-efficiency indicates that the incinerator is the alternative that stands out, considering the environmental and economic profile, within the assumptions made in this study and taking into account which is a

  8. A Computer Program for Modeling the Conversion of Organic Waste to Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragasen Pillay

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a tool for the analysis of conversion of organic waste into energy. The tool is a program that uses waste characterization parameters and mass flow rates at each stage of the waste treatment process to predict the given products. The specific waste treatment process analysed in this paper is anaerobic digestion. The different waste treatment stages of the anaerobic digestion process are: conditioning of input waste, secondary treatment, drying of sludge, conditioning of digestate, treatment of digestate, storage of liquid and solid effluent, disposal of liquid and solid effluents, purification, utilization and storage of combustible gas. The program uses mass balance equations to compute the amount of CH4, NH3, CO2 and H2S produced from anaerobic digestion of organic waste, and hence the energy available. Case studies are also presented.

  9. Revisiting the elemental composition and the calorific value of the organic fraction of municipal solid wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komilis, Dimitrios; Evangelou, Alexandros; Giannakis, Georgios; Lymperis, Constantinos

    2012-03-01

    In this work, the elemental content (C, N, H, S, O), the organic matter content and the calorific value of various organic components that are commonly found in the municipal solid waste stream were measured. The objective of this work was to develop an empirical equation to describe the calorific value of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste as a function of its elemental composition. The MSW components were grouped into paper wastes, food wastes, yard wastes and plastics. Sample sizes ranged from 0.2 to 0.5 kg. In addition to the above individual components, commingled municipal solid wastes were sampled from a bio-drying facility located in Crete (sample sizes ranged from 8 to 15 kg) and were analyzed for the same parameters. Based on the results of this work, an improved empirical model was developed that revealed that carbon, hydrogen and oxygen were the only statistically significant predictors of calorific value. Total organic carbon was statistically similar to total carbon for most materials in this work. The carbon to organic matter ratio of 26 municipal solid waste substrates and of 18 organic composts varied from 0.40 to 0.99. An approximate chemical empirical formula calculated for the organic fraction of commingled municipal solid wastes was C(32)NH(55)O(16). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design of Biochemical Oxidation Process Engineering Unit for Treatment of Organic Radioactive Liquid Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainus Salimin; Endang Nuraeni; Mirawaty; Tarigan, Cerdas

    2010-01-01

    Organic radioactive liquid waste from nuclear industry consist of detergent waste from nuclear laundry, 30% TBP-kerosene solvent waste from purification or recovery of uranium from process failure of nuclear fuel fabrication, and solvent waste containing D 2 EHPA, TOPO, and kerosene from purification of phosphoric acid. The waste is dangerous and toxic matter having low pH, high COD and BOD, and also low radioactivity. Biochemical oxidation process is the effective method for detoxification of organic waste and decontamination of radionuclide by bio sorption. The result process are sludges and non radioactive supernatant. The existing treatment facilities radioactive waste in Serpong can not use for treatment of that’s organics waste. Dio chemical oxidation process engineering unit for continuous treatment of organic radioactive liquid waste on the capacity of 1.6 L/h has been designed and constructed the equipment of process unit consist of storage tank of 100 L capacity for nutrition solution, 2 storage tanks of 100 L capacity per each for liquid waste, reactor oxidation of 120 L, settling tank of 50 L capacity storage tank of 55 L capacity for sludge, storage tank of 50 capacity for supernatant. Solution on the reactor R-01 are added by bacteria, nutrition and aeration using two difference aerators until biochemical oxidation occurs. The sludge from reactor of R-01 are recirculated to the settling tank of R-02 and on the its reverse operation biological sludge will be settled, and supernatant will be overflow. (author)

  11. Metal mobilization from metallurgical wastes by soil organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potysz, Anna; Grybos, Malgorzata; Kierczak, Jakub; Guibaud, Gilles; Fondaneche, Patrice; Lens, Piet N L; van Hullebusch, Eric D

    2017-07-01

    Three types of Cu-slags differing in chemical and mineralogical composition (historical, shaft furnace, and granulated slags) and a matte from a lead recovery process were studied with respect to their susceptibility to release Cu, Zn and Pb upon exposure to organic acids commonly encountered in soil environments. Leaching experiments (24-960 h) were conducted with: i) humic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t 0  = 4.4, ii) fulvic acid (20 mg/L) at pH t 0  = 4.4, iii) an artificial root exudates (ARE) (17.4 g/L) solution at pH t 0  = 4.4, iv) ARE solution at pH t 0  = 2.9 and v) ultrapure water (pH t 0  = 5.6). The results demonstrated that the ARE contribute the most to the mobilization of metals from all the wastes analyzed, regardless of the initial pH of the solution. For example, up to 14%, 30%, 24% and 5% of Cu is released within 960 h from historical, shaft furnace, granulated slags and lead matte, respectively, when exposed to the artificial root exudates solution (pH 2.9). Humic and fulvic acids were found to have a higher impact on granulated and shaft furnace slags as compared to the ultrapure water control and increased the release of metals by a factor up to 37.5 (Pb) and 20.5 (Cu) for granulated and shaft furnace slags, respectively. Humic and fulvic acids amplified the mobilization of metals by a maximal factor of 13.6 (Pb) and 12.1 (Pb) for historical slag and lead matte, respectively. The studied organic compounds contributed to different release rates of metallic contaminants from individual metallurgical wastes under the conditions tested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. a Quadtree Organization Construction and Scheduling Method for Urban 3d Model Based on Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Peng, G.; Song, Y.; Duan, M.

    2017-09-01

    The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  13. A QUADTREE ORGANIZATION CONSTRUCTION AND SCHEDULING METHOD FOR URBAN 3D MODEL BASED ON WEIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Yao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasement of Urban 3D model precision and data quantity puts forward higher requirements for real-time rendering of digital city model. Improving the organization, management and scheduling of 3D model data in 3D digital city can improve the rendering effect and efficiency. This paper takes the complexity of urban models into account, proposes a Quadtree construction and scheduling rendering method for Urban 3D model based on weight. Divide Urban 3D model into different rendering weights according to certain rules, perform Quadtree construction and schedule rendering according to different rendering weights. Also proposed an algorithm for extracting bounding box extraction based on model drawing primitives to generate LOD model automatically. Using the algorithm proposed in this paper, developed a 3D urban planning&management software, the practice has showed the algorithm is efficient and feasible, the render frame rate of big scene and small scene are both stable at around 25 frames.

  14. Organizing urban ecosystem services through environmental stewardship governance in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    How do stewardship groups contribute to the management of urban ecosystem services? In this paper, we integrate the research on environmental stewardship with the social-ecological systems literature to explain how stewardship groups serve as bridge organizations between public agencies and civic organizations, working across scales and sectors to build the flexible...

  15. Relationship between Personality Traits of the Urban Poor Concerning Solid Waste Management and Household Income and Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahid Md. Murad

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the relationship between knowledge, attitude, and behaviour of the urban poor householders concerning solid waste management systems and monthly household income and education. To attain the objective, the study employed statistical techniques such as t-tests of equality of means, one-way ANOVA, chi-squared „likelihood ratio“ test and simple descriptive statistics. The findings show that the urban poor communities with low income and education have been proven to behave in ways matching with and conducive to environment-friendly solid waste management, for instance, by practicing recycling and waste source reduction. This study also proves that the urban low-income communities generally have a very proactive role from a sound environmental management perspective, as they are the main recyclers and source-reducers of solid waste. The study suggests that policies should be formulated to focus on promoting knowledge, education, skills, and empowerment of the urban poor as means of promoting their living conditions.

  16. Precipitate hydrolysis process for the removal of organic compounds from nuclear waste slurries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, J.P.; Marek, J.C.

    1987-02-25

    A process for removing organic compounds from a nuclear waste slurry comprising reacting a mixture of radioactive waste precipitate slurry and an acid in the presence of a catalytically effective amount of a copper(II) catalyst whereby the organic compounds in the precipitate slurry are hydrolyzed to form volatile organic compounds which are separated from the reacting mixture. The resulting waste slurry, containing less than 10 percent of the original organic compounds, is subsequently blended with high level radioactive sludge land transferred to a vitrification facility for processing into borosilicate glass for long-term storage. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Methods of analysis for complex organic aerosol mixtures from urban emission sources of particulate carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazurek, M.A.; Hildemann, L.M.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    1990-10-01

    Organic aerosols comprise approximately 30% by mass of the total fine particulate matter present in urban atmospheres. The chemical composition of such aerosols is complex and reflects input from multiple sources of primary emissions to the atmosphere, as well as from secondary production of carbonaceous aerosol species via photochemical reactions. To identify discrete sources of fine carbonaceous particles in urban atmospheres, analytical methods must reconcile both bulk chemical and molecular properties of the total carbonaceous aerosol fraction. This paper presents an overview of the analytical protocol developed and used in a study of the major sources of fine carbon particles emitted to an urban atmosphere. 23 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs

  18. Composition of Solid Waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a Mountain Region Undergoing Rapid Urbanization in Northern Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah I. Al-Mahrouqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the generation and composition of waste in rural areas worldwide. The present study analyzed the composition of solid waste in Al Jabal Al Akhdar, a rural mountain region in the Sultanate of Oman, which is presently experiencing a rapid rate of urbanization due to tourism development. The solid wastes here are generated by the municipality collecting waste from residential, commercial, institutional and recreational areas, the military from a training camp and a few non-governmental private companies from their camps and hotels. The whole load from each of the three sources was manually segregated each month from June 2013 – May 2014. The results indicated that plastic is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the municipality and accounts for 26.7%, followed by paper (17.9% and then food (14.4%. Food is the dominant category in the wastes collected by the military and private companies and accounts for 36.5% and 45.5% respectively. Management issues associated with solid waste are briefly considered. The study concluded that the municipality should implement an improved system for the collection of plastic waste and initiate a system for recycling it; the military and private companies should reduce the quantities of food waste by improved planning and management of the catering services.

  19. Subcritical hydrothermal conversion of organic wastes and biomass. Reaction pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Amadeus Castro Vega

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrothermal conversion is a procedure which emulates organic matter’s natural conversion into bio-crude having physical and chemical properties analogous to petroleum. The artificial transformation of biomass requi- res previous knowledge of the main reaction routes and product availability. The main component of biomass (depolymerisation by hydrolysis is presented in hydrothermal cellulose conversion, producing oligosaccharides which exhibit dehydration and retro-aldol condensation reactions for transforming into furfurals and carboxylic acids. Other biomass components (such as lignin, proteins, and fat esters present both hydrolysis and pyrolysis reaction routes. As long as biomass mainly contains carbohydrates, subcritical hydrothermal conversion products and their wastes will be fundamentally analogous to those displaying cellulose. These substances have added- value by far surpassing raw material’s acquisition cost. When the main hydrothermal conversion products’ O/C, H/C molar ratios as reported in literature are plotted, an evolutionary tralectory for conversion products appears to be closely or even overlapped with fossil fuels’ geological evolution.

  20. The organic waste treatment in UP3 - La Hague

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, P.; Dalverny, G.; Lebaillif, M.; Moulin, J.P.; Ginisty, C.; Leybros, J.; Maynadier, P.

    1991-01-01

    The management of the solvent in the reprocessing plants has always been a difficult problem. Various process reasons lead to discard some contaminated solvent: this spent solvent is an organic waste the volume of which must be minimized. To solve this problem for the UP3 plant, it has been decided to implement a distillation facility in order to split this spent solvent into three parts: recovered diluent and concentrated TBP, to be recycled in the extraction process, and a residue which contain the radioactivity and most of the impurities. As the TBP is not highly volatile and as it is a thermosensitive compound, this distillation is performed at low pressure and temperature, with thin films evaporators, in order to minimize the residence times in heated zones. The paper describes the selected process and the equipment employed. The R and D work which has been performed to define the process, size up the equipment and demonstrate the process is described, including the laboratory works, the pilot plant tests and the results of tests performed with a full scale prototype which has been built to demonstrate the whole process. The industrial facility is described, and the results of the first active runs are described briefly. (author)

  1. Development of Biofertilizer from Sugar Industry Organic Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, G.; Hussain, A.; Abbas, G.; Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted for development of biofertilizer from soil rhizospheric microorganisms in organic waste as carrier material and its application in agriculture development. The bacteria were isolated from rice rhizosphere from NIBGE field experiments. Some of the isolates of sunflower were collected from BIRCEN culture collection. The morphological characteristics of the isolates were studied. The bacteria were also characterized for their biochemical characteristics regarding nitrogen fixation, phosphate solubilization and indole acetic acid (IAA) production. These isolates were used for Biofertilizer production. Press mud from sugar industry was used as a carrier material to carry these inoculums. The carrier material was ground to a fine powder of 100 mesh size and weighted quantity of mud was packed in polythene bags. Then appropriate amount of approximately 5% the inoculum was injected to the packed polythene bags through injectors. The inoculated polythene bags were mixed by mixer and were sealed through electric sealer. The prepared polythene bags of biofertilizer were stored at cool and dry place away from sunlight, as these inoculum polythene bags may be damaged at higher temperature. (author)

  2. Biogas Engine Waste Heat Recovery Using Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Benato

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Italy is a leading country in the biogas sector. Energy crops and manure are converted into biogas using anaerobic digestion and, then, into electricity using internal combustion engines (ICEs. Therefore, there is an urgent need for improving the efficiency of these engines taking the real operation into account. To this purpose, in the present work, the organic Rankine cycle (ORC technology is used to recover the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases of a 1 MWel biogas engine. The ICE behavior being affected by the biogas characteristics, the ORC unit is designed, firstly, using the ICE nameplate data and, then, with data measured during a one-year monitoring activity. The optimum fluid and the plant configuration are selected in both cases using an “in-house” optimization tool. The optimization goal is the maximization of the net electric power while the working fluid is selected among 115 pure fluids and their mixtures. Results show that a recuperative ORC designed using real data guarantees a 30% higher net electric power than the one designed with ICE nameplate conditions.

  3. Intervention assessments in the control of PM10 emissions from an urban waste transfer station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barratt, B M; Fuller, G W

    2014-05-01

    While vehicle emissions present the most widespread cause of breaches of EU air quality standards in urban areas of the UK, the greatest PM10 concentrations are often recorded close to small industrial sites with significant and long-term public exposure within close proximity. This is particularly the case in London, where monitoring in densely populated locations, adjacent to waste transfer stations (WTS), routinely report the highest PM10 concentrations in the city. This study aims to assess the impact of dust abatement measures taken at a WTS in west London and, in so doing, develop analysis techniques transferrable to other similar industrial situations. The study was performed in a 'blinded fashion', i.e., no details of operating times, activities or remediation measures were provided prior to the analysis. The study established that PM10 concentrations were strongly related to the industrial area's working hours and atmospheric humidity. The primary source of local particulate matter during working hours was found to be from the industrial area itself, not from the adjacent road serving the site. CUSUM analysis revealed a strong, sustained change point coinciding with a number of modifications at the WTS. Analysis suggested that introducing a vehicle washer bay, leading to a less dry and dusty yard, and ceasing stock piling and waste handling activities outside of the open shed had the greatest effect on PM10 concentrations. The techniques developed in this study should empower licensing authorities to more effectively characterise and mitigate particulate matter generated by urban industrial activities, thereby improving the health and quality of life of the local population.

  4. Terrestrial isopods as indicator organisms in urban ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenlinger, M.; Wittmann, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The number of different species of isopods in the various kinds of urban biotopes is seen to be a sensitive indicator of the degree of scaling and urbanisation of the soils, probably due to reactions to different degrees of humidity. In heavily urbanised areas Porcellio scaber is predominant. As a cosmopolite with high accumulation rates it is a suitable candidate for heavy metal indication. There is a distinct correlation between the lead content of isopods and traffic volume. The toxic heavy metals Pb and Cd show strong fluctuations in monthly cycles. Essential heavy metals show no (Zn) or no significant (Cu) temporal fluctuations. (orig.) [de

  5. Knowledge and attitudes toward organ donation: a community-based study comparing rural and urban populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alghanim Saad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was set to determine whether knowledge and attitudes toward organ dona-tion differ according to geographical location. Self-administered questionnaires were employed to collect data such as demographic characteristics, basic knowledge, attitudes and source of information about organ donation from subjects in rural and urban areas. The questionnaires were distributed randomly to 1,000 individuals in both areas during 2008. The data were analyzed in a descriptive fashion. Despite similarities in knowledge and attitudes of respondents in both areas, rural res-pondents were less likely to have information about organ donation, to report willingness to donate organs, and to have knowledge about "brain death" or the "organ donation card" than their counter-parts in urban areas. The study identified that the principle respondents′ source of information about organ donation was the television. More than 90% of respondents in rural and urban areas reported that the contribution of health care providers in providing them with knowledge about organ dona-tion and transplantation was "none" or "little". Respondents identified several reasons, which may influence their decisions to donate organs. In conclusion, the deficit in knowledge and attitudes of rural respondents about organ donation may be justified by the lack of information about this signi-ficant issue. Accordingly, health facilities, local mass media and educational institutions should provide intensive educational programs to encourage the public donate organs.

  6. Organization of low-level waste management within ANDRA, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marque, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Short-lived waste contains relatively small quantities of radioelements with half-lives of no more than 30 years, and only trace amounts of long-lived radioelements, if any. Cobalt-60, produced by the activation of structural steel in nuclear power plants, accounts for approximately half the radioactivity in waste managed by ADNRA, yet it has only a 5-year half-life. For this reason protection from radiation emitted by this type of waste is not difficult; and the waste will become harmless in less than 300 years. In terms of disposal safety, the guiding principle is simply to isolate the radioactive materials from the environment by disposing of only stabilized waste packages and protecting the packages from outside forces, especially water and human intrusion. Some countries, particularly those that have elected not to sort waste into long-lived and short lived categories, like Germany and Switzerland, plan to dispose of all waste in deep underground repositories. This approach is sometimes a matter of convenience, as is the case for countries like Sweden and Finland, which have built repositories in the Scandinavian granite shield at nuclear power plant sites. France, Spain, the United States, Great Britain, Japan, and others dispose of short-lived waste in near-surface disposal facilities. The safety of the disposal system depends on its three fundamental building blocks: the waste package, the disposal facility, and the site

  7. Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, W. Z.; Won, H. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K.

    2007-11-01

    Through the project of 'Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution', the followings were studied. 1. Investigation of decontamination characteristics of chemical decontamination process 2. Analysis of COD, ferrous ion concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration 3. Decomposition tests of hardly decomposable organic compounds 4. Improvement of organic acid decomposition process by ultrasonic wave and UV light 5. Optimization of decomposition process using a surrogate decontamination waste solution

  8. Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Chong Hun; Oh, W. Z.; Won, H. J.; Choi, W. K.; Kim, G. N.; Moon, J. K

    2007-11-15

    Through the project of 'Decomposition Technology Development of Organic Component in a Decontamination Waste Solution', the followings were studied. 1. Investigation of decontamination characteristics of chemical decontamination process 2. Analysis of COD, ferrous ion concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration 3. Decomposition tests of hardly decomposable organic compounds 4. Improvement of organic acid decomposition process by ultrasonic wave and UV light 5. Optimization of decomposition process using a surrogate decontamination waste solution.

  9. Improvement of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Lee, Y. H.

    2009-01-01

    Microbial hydrogen gas production from organic matters stands out as one of the most promising alternatives for sustainable green energy production. Based on the literature review, investigation of anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste using a mixed culture has been very limited. The objective of this study was to assess the anaerobic bio-hydrogen gas production from organic sludge waste under various conditions. (Author)

  10. Site-specific waste management instruction for the field sampling organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryant, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Site-Specific Waste Management Instruction (SSWMI) provides guidance for the management of waste generated from field-sampling activities performed by the Environment Restoration Contractor (ERC) Sampling Organization that are not managed as part of a project SSWMI. Generally, the waste is unused preserved groundwater trip blanks, used and expired calibration solutions, and other similar waste that cannot be returned to an ERC project for disposal. The specific waste streams addressed by this SSWMI are identified in Section 2.0. This SSWMI was prepared in accordance with BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements. Waste generated from field sample collection activities should be returned to the project and managed in accordance with the applicable project-specific SSWMI whenever possible. However, returning all field sample collection and associated waste to a project for disposal may not always be practical or cost effective. Therefore, the ERC field sampling organization must manage and arrange to dispose of the waste using the (Bechtel Hanford, Inc. [BHI]) Field Support Waste Management (FSWM) services. This SSWMI addresses those waste streams that are the responsibility of the field sampling organization to manage and make arrangements for disposal

  11. The role of non-governmental organizations in residential solid waste management: a case study of Puducherry, a coastal city of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanikam, Ramamoorthy; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy; Kumar, Sunil; R, Lekshmi

    2014-09-01

    Poorly planned and uncontrolled urbanization in India has caused a variety of negative, often irreversible, environmental impacts. The impacts appear to be unavoidable and not easily mitigable due to the mounting public health problems caused by non-segregation of solid wastes at source and their subsequent improper management. Recently in India, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations have increasingly started to get involved in improving waste management services. Municipal solid waste management being a governmental function, the contribution of NGOs in this field has not been well documented. This study highlights the activities and services of Shuddham, an NGO functioning in the town of Puducherry within the Union Territory of Puducherry in South India. The NGO program promoted much needed awareness and education, encouraged source separation, enhanced door-to-door collection, utilized wastes as raw materials and generated more job opportunities. Even though source separation prior to door-to-door collection is a relatively new concept, a significant percentage of residents (39%) in the study area participated fully, while a further 48% participated in the collection service. The average amount of municipal solid waste generated by residential units in the Raj Bhavan ward was 8582 kg/month of which 47% was recovered through active recycling and composting practices. The study describes the features and performance of NGO-mediated solid waste management, and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats of this system to see whether this model can sustainably replace the low-performance conventional solid waste management in practice in the town of Puducherry. The experiences from this case study are expected to provide broad guidelines to better understand the role of NGOs and their contributions towards sustainable waste management practices in urban areas. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Recovery of Organic and Amino Acids from Sludge and Fish Waste in Sub Critical Water Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Faisal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of organic and amino acid production from the treatment of sludge and fish waste using water at sub critical conditions was investigated. The results indicated that at sub-critical conditions, where the ion product of water went through a maximum, the formation of organic acids was favorable. The presence of oxidant favored formation of acetic and formic acid. Other organic acids of significant amount were propionic, succinic and lactic acids. Depending on the type of wastes, formation of other organic acids was also possible. Knowing the organic acids obtained by hydrolysis and oxidation in sub-critical water of various wastes are useful in designing of applicable waste treatment process, complete degradation of organic wastes into volatile carbon and water, and also on the viewpoint of resource recovery. The production of lactic acid was discussed as well. The results indicated that temperature of 573 K, with the absence of oxidant, yield of lactic acid from fish waste was higher than sewage sludge. The maximum yield of total amino acids (137 mg/g-dry fish from waste fish entrails was obtained at subcritical condition (T = 523 K, P = 4 MPa at reaction time of 60 min by using the batch reactor. The amino acids obtained in this study were mainly alanine and glycine. Keywords:  organic acids, amino acids, sub-critical water, hydrothermal, resources recovery

  13. The participation of community-based organizations on waste management in the city municipal of Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimurni, Februati; Dayana

    2018-03-01

    Waste is currently main problem experienced by cities all over the world. The waste has brought negative impacts on public health, environment, development and social of the cities. However, there must be solutions to overcome the piles of waste in case the individual citizens or community-based organization wisely deal with the problem. In the municipal area of Medan in the Province of North Sumatra, there is sort of organization established by community-based organization (CBO) so-called Bank Sampah or Waste Bank which is placed as a flatform for the member to do business of waste materials by collecting them from households around, sorting the materials into waste categories and ended up by purchasing and selling them to make some money. The organization is not merely a flatform for doing a business of waste materials yet the media for other social activities and efforts of reaching social and family welfare. The study is conducted in some sites of such organization activities in the city, and there are some observations of how the community run the business and in the same time arranging other social activities. The study tries to portray the activities and analyzes the means and the significancy of the CBO on reducing waste problems in the city.

  14. Comparative evaluation of organic wastes for improving maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potential of three agricultural waste composts, farmyard manure (FYM), banana waste (BW) and pressmud (PM) was tested in a pot experiment growing maize. The results of the experiment showed highly significant increase in plant height, dry matter yields and NPK contents with the application of fertilizers, particularly ...

  15. Treatment of organic waste solutions containing tributyl phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobnik, S.

    The two processes developed in the laboratory for treating waste solutions containing TBP, namely TBP separation with phosphoric acid and saponification were tested on a semi-industrial scale. A waste solution from the first phase of the Karlsruhe reprocessing plant was used

  16. Identification of the sources of primary organic aerosols at urban schools: A molecular marker approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crilley, Leigh R.; Qadir, Raeed M.; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Orasche, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf; Morawska, Lidia

    2014-01-01

    Children are particularly susceptible to air pollution and schools are examples of urban microenvironments that can account for a large portion of children's exposure to airborne particles. Thus this paper aimed to determine the sources of primary airborne particles that children are exposed to at school by analyzing selected organic molecular markers at 11 urban schools in Brisbane, Australia. Positive matrix factorization analysis identified four sources at the schools: vehicle emissions, biomass burning, meat cooking and plant wax emissions accounting for 45%, 29%, 16% and 7%, of the organic carbon respectively. Biomass burning peaked in winter due to prescribed burning of bushland around Brisbane. Overall, the results indicated that both local (traffic) and regional (biomass burning) sources of primary organic aerosols influence the levels of ambient particles that children are exposed at the schools. These results have implications for potential control strategies for mitigating exposure at schools. - Highlights: • Selected organic molecular markers at 11 urban schools were analyzed. • Four sources of primary organic aerosols were identified by PMF at the schools. • Both local and regional sources were found to influence exposure at the schools. • The results have implications for mitigation of children's exposure at schools. - The identification of the most important sources of primary organic aerosols at urban schools has implications for control strategies for mitigating children's exposure at schools

  17. Evaluating non-incinerative treatment of organically contaminated low level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuck, D.L.; Wade, J.F.

    1993-01-01

    This investigation examines the feasibility of using non-incinerator technologies effectively to treat organically contaminated mixed waste. If such a system is feasible now, it would be easier to license because it would avoid the stigma that incineration has in the publics' perception. As other DOE facilities face similar problems, this evaluation is expected to be of interest to both DOE and the attendees of WM'93. This investigation considered treatment to land disposal restriction (LDR) standards of 21 different low level mixed (LLM) waste streams covered by the Rocky Flats Federal Facilities Compliance Agreement (FFCA) agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Typically the hazardous components consists of organic solvent wastes and the radioactive component consists of uranic/transuranic wastes. Limited amounts of cyanide and lead wastes are also involved. The primary objective of this investigation was to identify the minimum number of non-thermal unit processes needed to effectively treat this collection of mixed waste streams

  18. Organic destruction to enhance the separation of strontium in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Orth, R.J.; Jones, E.O.; Zacher, A.H.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Poshusta, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    A low-temperature (300 C to 375 C) hydrothermal organic destruction process is being evaluated to help facilitate the removal of complexed radioactive species from bulk liquid components in hanford tank waste. The work focuses on hydrothermal processing to destroy organic compounds that contribute to waste safety issues and organic complexants that promote the solubility of radioactive constituents such as 90 Sr and 241 Am. For the studies discussed here, testing was conducted using a nonradioactive Hanford tank waste simulant. The relative destruction rates of a variety of organic compounds known to be present in Hanford tank waste were evaluated. In addition, the tendency for these organic compounds to complex strontium and the effect of hydrothermal treatment on strontium removal were investigated

  19. Organic destruction to enhance the separation of strontium in radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Orth, R.J.; Jones, E.O.; Zacher, A.H.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Poshusta, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    A low-temperature (300 C to 375 C) hydrothermal organic destruction process is being evaluated to help facilitate the removal of complexed radioactive species from bulk liquid components in Hanford tank waste. The work focuses on hydrothermal processing to destroy organic compounds that contribute to waste safety issues and organic complexants that promote the solubility of radioactive constituents such as 9O Sr and 241 Am. For the studies discussed here, testing was conducted using a nonradioactive Hanford tank waste simulant. The relative destruction rates of a variety of organic compounds known to be present in Hanford tank waste were evaluated. In addition, the tendency for these organic compounds to complex strontium and the effect of hydrothermal treatment on strontium removal were investigated

  20. A proposal to improve e-waste collection efficiency in urban mining: Container loading and vehicle routing problems - A case study of Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Piotr

    2017-02-01

    Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE), also known as e-waste, is one of the most important waste streams with high recycling potential. Materials used in these products are valuable, but some of them are hazardous. The urban mining approach attempts to recycle as many materials as possible, so efficiency in collection is vital. There are two main methods used to collect WEEE: stationary and mobile, each with different variants. The responsibility of WEEE organizations and waste collection companies is to assure all resources required for these activities - bins, containers, collection vehicles and staff - are available, taking into account cost minimization. Therefore, it is necessary to correctly determine the capacity of containers and number of collection vehicles for an area where WEEE need to be collected. There are two main problems encountered in collection, storage and transportation of WEEE: container loading problems and vehicle routing problems. In this study, an adaptation of these two models for packing and collecting WEEE is proposed, along with a practical implementation plan designed to be useful for collection companies' guidelines for container loading and route optimization. The solutions are presented in the case studies of real-world conditions for WEEE collection companies in Poland. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutrient Status of Vermicompost of Urban Green Waste Processed by Three Earthworm Species—Eisenia fetida, Eudrilus eugeniae, and Perionyx excavatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Pattnaik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Major nutrient status of vermicompost of vegetable market waste (MW and floral waste (FW processed by three species of earthworms namely, Eudrilus eugeniae, Eisenia fetida, and Perionyx excavatus and its simple compost were assessed across different periods in relation to their respective initiative substrates. Their physical parameters—temperature, moisture, pH, and electrical conductivity—were also recorded. The nutrients—nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, and magnesium—increased in the vermicompost and compost while the organic carbon, C/N and C/P ratios decreased as the composting process progressed from 0 to 15, 30, 45, and 60 days. The nutrient statuses of vermicomposts of all earthworm species produced from both the wastes were more than that of the compost and that of their respective substrates. Moreover, the vermicompost produced by E. eugeniae possessed higher nutrient contents than that of E. fetida, P. excavatus, and compost. The MW showed higher nutrient contents than the FW. Thus, vermicomposting is the paramount approach of nutrient recovery of urban green waste.

  2. Attitudes to organ donation among some urban South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    have been employed in an attempt to address this problem. ... as possible to ascertain whether public attitudes to organ donation in ..... Kahn D, McCurdie F, Michaelides A. Socioeconomic factors, as well as race, impact on consent rates.

  3. When Self-Organization intersects with Urban Planning: Two Cases from Helsinki

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horelli, Liisa; Saad-Sulonen, Joanna; Wallin, Sirkku

    2015-01-01

    Participation as self-organization has emerged as a new form of citizen activism, often supported by digital technology. A comparative qualitative analysis of two case studies in Helsinki indicates that the self-organization of citizens expands the practice of urban planning. Together, they enable...... the mobilization of different groups around issues related to urban space. The consequences have become visible in temporary uses of places, event making and community development through bottom-up cultures. However, the lacking links to decision-making constrains new solutions and creative actions....

  4. Treatment of high organic strength waste waters; Tratamiento de aguas residuales de alta carga

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marti Duran, J.; Leyda Escoruela, L. [COMSA, S.A., Madrid (Spain)

    1995-11-01

    A biological treatment process is likely to be the preferred and main stage for the treatment of high strength waste waters. In some instance the wastes will contain a fraction of toxic or non-biodegradable organic constituents which affects the implementation of the central biological process. Two different technologies using tower-shape reactors are described, together with a Low Pressure Chemical Oxidation process technology used in the pretreatment of poorly biodegradable wastes.

  5. Research Progress of Hydrogen Production fromOrganic Wastes in Microbial Electrolysis Cell(MEC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Yin-sheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microbial electrolysis cell(MECtechnology as an emerging technology, has achieved the target of hydrogen production from different substrates such as waste water, forestry wastes, activated sludge by simultaneous enzymolysis and fermentation, which can effectively improve the efficiency of resource utilization. This paper described the working principle of MEC and analyzed these factors influencing the process of hydrogen production from organic waste in MEC.

  6. [Organic waste treatment by earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion: review and perspective].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-jian; Liu, Meng; Zhu, Jun

    2013-05-01

    There is a growing attention on the environmental pollution and loss of potential regeneration of resources due to the poor handling of organic wastes, while earthworm vermicomposting and larvae bioconversion are well-known as two promising biotechnologies for sustainable wastes treatments, where earthworms or housefly larvae are employed to convert the organic wastes into humus like material, together with value-added worm product. Taken earthworm ( Eisenia foetida) and housefly larvae ( Musca domestica) as model species, this work illustrates fundamental definition and principle, operational process, technical mechanism, main factors, and bio-chemical features of organisms of these two technologies. Integrated with the physical and biochemical mechanisms, processes of biomass conversion, intestinal digestion, enzyme degradation and microflora decomposition are comprehensively reviewed on waste treatments with purposes of waste reduction, value-addition, and stabilization.

  7. Generation of organic waste from institutions in Denmark: case study of the Technical University of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Boldrin, Alessio; Scheutz, Charlotte

    at least 60% of organic waste – that cannot be prevented or reduced –generated by service sector, should be source-segregated and collected separately. In order to establish the baseline of the current situation, and to allow for any evaluation of performance against target indicators, data on solid waste...... generation and composition are required. The overall aim of this study was to quantify the potential for source-segregated organic waste as well as mixed waste from institution. This study was carried at the Department of Environmental Engineering at Technical University of Denmark. In the course...... and public holidays, when the offices were officially closed. Furthermore, the composition of source-segregated organic waste was analysed to investigate its purity. During the sampling period, the number of employees coming to work at the department was recorded. These data were used to investigate any...

  8. Anaerobic codigestion of municipal, farm, and industrial organic wastes: a survey of recent literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alatriste-Mondragón, Felipe; Samar, Parviz; Cox, Huub H J; Ahring, Birgitte K; Iranpour, Reza

    2006-06-01

    Codigestion of organic wastes is a technology that is increasingly being applied for simultaneous treatment of several solid and liquid organic wastes. The main advantages of this technology are improved methane yield because of the supply of additional nutrients from the codigestates and more efficient use of equipment and cost-sharing by processing multiple waste streams in a single facility. Many municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in industrialized countries currently process wastewater sludge in large digesters. Codigestion of organic wastes with municipal wastewater sludge can increase digester gas production and provide savings in the overall energy costs of plant operations. Methane recovery also helps to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere. The goal of this literature survey was to summarize the research conducted in the last four years on anaerobic codigestion to identify applications of codigestion at WWTPs. Because the solids content in municipal wastewater sludge is low, this survey only focuses on codigestion processes operated at relative low solids content (slurry mode). Semi-solid or solid codigestion processes were not included. Municipal wastewater sludge, the organic fraction of municipal solid waste, and cattle manure (CAM) are the main wastes most often used in codigestion processes. Wastes that are codigested with these main wastes are wood wastes, industrial organic wastes, and farm wastes. These are referred to in this survey as codigestates. The literature provides many laboratory studies (batch assays and bench-scale digesters) that assess the digestibility of codigestates and evaluate the performance and monitoring of codigestion, inhibition of digestion by codigestates, the design of the process (e.g., single-stage or two-stage processes), and the operation temperature (e.g., mesophilic or thermophilic). Only a few reports on pilot- and full-scale studies were found. These evaluate general process

  9. Monitoring Volatile Organic Tank Waste Using Cermet Microsensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward G. Gatliff, Ph.D.; Laura R. Skubal, Ph.D.; Michael C. Vogt, Ph.D.

    2006-03-13

    Presently, very few inexpensive technologies exist in the marketplace that can determine the contents of tank waste or monitor the chemistry of tank constituents in near-real time. The research addressed this problem by developing and assessing ceramic-metallic based microsensors for determining the constituents of a liquid organic storage tank by examining the gases in the headspace of the tank. Overall, the WBO and YSZ sensors responded well to the chemicals in this study. Responses to various concentrations were distinguishable visually. This is a clear indication that pattern recognition tools will be effective in resolving the constituents and concentrations. In tests, such as the test with acetophenone, one sensor, the WBO sensor is not extremely effective. However, the other sensor, the YSZ sensor, is effective in resolving the concentrations. This supports the need to use an array of sensors, as one sensor may be reactive to a compound while another may not. In the course of this research, several interesting phenomena surfaced. New sensors, that were fabricated but not used in a contaminant gas, seemed to function more effectively and predictably if a ?conditioning? step was imposed upon them prior to use in square wave voltammetry. A conditioning step consists of running cyclic voltammetry prior to running square wave voltammetry. This step tends to ?cleanse? the sensor surface by providing a full -1.0 V to +1.0V sweep and both oxidizing and reducing compounds on the sensor surface. [Note: squarewave voltammetry will simply oxidize or reduce compounds ? it will not induce both reactions.] This sweep is essential for recovery between samples.

  10. Differential embryotoxicity of the organic pollutants in rural and urban air particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Sofia R.; Drooge, Barend L. van; Oliveira, Eva; Grimalt, Joan O.; Barata, Carlos; Vieira, Natividade; Guimarães, Laura; Piña, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor for human populations. Here we assessed the toxic potential of the organic constituents from PM collected in urban and rural sites during warm and cold periods of 2012/2013, and fractionated into 6 size fractions. The finest PM fraction (<0.5 μm) showed the highest biological activity (dioxin-like activity and fish embryotoxicity) in all samples, and the maximal activity was observed in rural samples from the cold period. Zebrafish embryo transcriptome analysis showed a strong induction of the AhR signaling pathway correlated to PAH concentrations. Oxidative stress-related genes and pancreatic and eye-lens gene markers appeared de-regulated in embryos exposed to urban extracts, whereas exposure to rural extracts affected genes implicated in basic cellular functions. The observed effects can be directly related to air pollution-related human disorders, suggesting different potential adverse outcomes for human populations exposed to air pollution from specific sources. - Highlights: • Embryotoxicity of airborne organic compounds collected in urban and rural areas. • Ultrafine particles (<0.5 μm) accumulated most of the observed toxicity. • Strong seasonal differences in rural areas, probably linked to wood combustion. • Rural and urban samples showed quantitative and qualitative differences in toxicity. • At least one independent toxic modes of action especially linked to urban emissions. - Quantitative and qualitative differences in embryotoxic effects of airborne particulate matter from urban and rural areas.

  11. A new waste minimization method for the determination of total nonhalogenated volatile organic compounds in TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandoval, W.; Quintana, B.D.; Ortega, L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the technical support CST-12 provides for a wide variety of defense and nondefense programs within Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) complex, new waste minimization technique is under development for radiological volatile organic analysis (Hot VOA). Currently all HOT VOA must be run in a glovebox. Several types of sample contain TRU radiological waste in the form of particulates. By prefiltering the samples through a 1.2 micron syringe and counting the radioactivity, it has been found that many of the samples can be analyzed outside a glovebox. In the present investigation, the types of Hot VOA samples that can take advantage of this new technique, the volume and types of waste reduced and the experimental parameters will be discussed. Overall, the radioactive waste generated is minimized

  12. On The Cusp of the New Spatial Challenges - The Thermal Waste Processing Plant as an Element of Urban Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójtowicz-Wróbel, Agnieszka

    2017-10-01

    spatial structures of cities (a city’s outer zone, central zone, etc.) and their placement in relation to the more important urban units, in addition to specifying what type of urban structure they are located in. On the basis of the research, we can observe that the construction of environmentally friendly thermal waste processing plants is a valid and new problem in Poland, and the potential that lies in the construction of a new environmentally friendly structure and the possibility of using it to improve the quality of an urban space is often left untapped, bringing the construction of such a structure down to nothing but its technological function. The research can serve as a comparative study for similar experiences in other countries, or for studies related to urban structures and their elements.

  13. Quantifying capital goods for biological treatment of organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Line Kai-Sørensen; Petersen, Per H.; Nielsen, Peter D.

    2015-01-01

    for the AD plant. For the composting plants, gravel and concrete slabs for the pavement were used in large amounts. To frame the quantification, environmental impact assessments (EIAs) showed that the steel used for tanks at the AD plant and the concrete slabs at the composting plants made the highest...... on the different sizes for the three different types of waste (garden and park waste, food waste and sludge from wastewater treatment) in amounts of 10,000 or 50,000 tonnes per year. The AD plant was quantified for a capacity of 80,000 tonnes per year. Concrete and steel for the tanks were the main materials...

  14. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1993-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. An Exploration of Healthcare Inventory and Lean Management in Minimizing Medical Supply Waste in Healthcare Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Rodney

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand how lean thinking and inventory management technology minimize expired medical supply waste in healthcare organizations. This study was guided by Toyota's theory of lean and Mintzberg's theory of management development to explain why the problem of medical supply waste exists. Government…

  16. Dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummeler, ten E.

    1993-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion is an attractive technology for solid waste management. This thesis describes the technological potentials of dry anaerobic digestion of the organic fraction of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) using batch systems. In 1985 a research programme was started to develop the so-

  17. Municipal solid waste options : integrating organics management and residual disposal treatment : executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cant, M. (comp.) [Totten Sims Hubicki Associates Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Van der Werf, P. [2cg Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Kelleher, M. [Kelleher Environmental, Toronto, ON (Canada); Merriman, D. [MacViro Consultants, Markham, ON (Canada); Fitcher, K. [Gartner Lee Ltd., Toronto, ON (Canada); MacDonald, N. [CH2M Hill Engineering Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-04-15

    The Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Options Report explored different MSW management options for 3 community sizes: 20,000, 80,000 and 200,0000 people. It was released at a time when many communities were developing waste management plans to cost-effectively reduce environmental impacts and conserve landfill capacity. The purpose of this report was to provide a greater understanding on the environmental, social, economic, energy recovery/utilization and greenhouse gas (GHG) considerations of MSW management. The report also demonstrated the interrelationships between the management of organics and residuals. It was based on information from existing waste diversion and organics management options and emerging residual treatment technology options. The following organics management and residual treatment disposal options were evaluated: composting; anaerobic digestion; sanitary landfills; bioreactor landfills; and thermal treatment. Composting was examined with reference to both source separated organics (SSO) and mixed waste composting. SSO refers to the separation of materials suitable for composting solid waste from households, while mixed waste composting refers to the manual or mechanical removal of recyclable material from the waste, including compost. The composting process was reviewed along with available technologies such as non-reactor windrow; aerated static pile; reactor enclosed channel; and, container tunnel. An evaluation of SSO and mixed waste composting was then presented in terms of environmental, social, financial and GHG impacts. refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Advanced methods for the treatment of organic aqueous wastes: wet air oxidation and wet peroxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Debellefontaine, Hubert; Chakchouk, Mehrez; Foussard, Jean Noel [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), 31 - Toulouse (France). Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels; Tissot, Daniel; Striolo, Phillipe [IDE Environnement S.A., Toulouse (France)

    1994-12-31

    There is a growing concern about the problems of wastes elimination. Various oxidation techniques are suited for elimination of organic aqueous wastes, however, because of the environmental drawbacks of incineration, liquid phase oxidation should be preferred. `Wet Air Oxidation` and `Wet Peroxide Oxidation`are alternative processes which are discussed in this paper. 17 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. The influence of organic materials on the near field of an intermediate level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of organic materials which are present in some intermediate level wastes on the chemistry of the near field of a radioactive waste repository is discussed. Particular attention is given to the possible formation of water soluble complexing agents as a result of the radiation field and chemical conditions. The present state of the research is reviewed. (author)

  20. Climate accounting for waste management, Phase I and II. Summary: Phase 1: Glass Packaging, Metal packaging, paper, cardboard, plastic and wet organic waste. Phase 2: Wood waste and residual waste from households; Klimaregnskap for avfallshaandtering, Fase I og II. Sammendrag: Fase 1: Glassemballasje, metallemballasje, papir, papp, plastemballasje og vaatorganisk avfall. Fase 2: Treavfall og restavfall fra husholdninger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raadal, Hanne Lerche; Modahl, Ingunn Saur; Lyng, Kari-Anne

    2009-09-15

    involves the lowest greenhouse gas load for the types of waste glass packaging, metal packaging and plastic packaging. Biological treatment (biogas production) provides the lowest GHG (greenhouse gas) impact for the treatment of wet organic waste. Energy recovery provides the lowest GHG impact for the treatment of paper, cardboard and wood waste. Disposal provides the greatest greenhouse gas load for all the analyzed types of waste, but plastic and glass containers. For waste composition has a major impact on greenhouse gas emissions for the landfill and the energy efficiency of the waste. The composition varies both with the types of waste disposed and with what kind of source separation schemes offered in the various municipalities. This in turn can vary depending on population density (urban areas / cities versus scattered buildings), and motivation of the individual citizen to source sorting. Energy recovery means the lowest greenhouse gas emissions for an 'average composite' residual waste in Norway. Analysis of residual waste should always be considered in context with the total amounts and handling of sorted out waste types, as well as total amounts and composition of residual waste. This is important to achieve a comprehensive assessment and avoid suboptimalization. Transport related greenhouse gas emissions are generally of relatively little importance in relation to the environmental benefits arising from the material and / or energy utilization. 3. The model is used to calculate the net greenhouse gas emissions resulting from disposal of a total of approximately 4.1 million tons of waste from households, industry, construction and service industries. 4. Analysis of a realistic optimal scenario for disposal of household waste show that this system can be virtually carbon-neutral. 5. The choice of which assumptions to be incorporated in this type of analysis depends on the purpose of analysis, in addition to local and geographical conditions. 6. Relevant

  1. Cascaded organic rankine cycles for waste heat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radcliff, Thomas D [Vernon, CT; Biederman, Bruce P [West Hartford, CT; Brasz, Joost J [Fayetteville, NY

    2011-05-17

    A pair of organic Rankine cycle systems (20, 25) are combined and their respective organic working fluids are chosen such that the organic working fluid of the first organic Rankine cycle is condensed at a condensation temperature that is well above the boiling point of the organic working fluid of the second organic Rankine style system, and a single common heat exchanger (23) is used for both the condenser of the first organic Rankine cycle system and the evaporator of the second organic Rankine cycle system. A preferred organic working fluid of the first system is toluene and that of the second organic working fluid is R245fa.

  2. O processo da compostagem e seu potencial na reciclagem de resíduos orgânicos | The process of composting and its potential in the recycling of organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Rodrigues Santos Costa

    2016-04-01

    Proper treatment of solid waste is an environmental problem today, because when improperly disposed are harmful to ecosystems and human health. Composting is a form of recycling waste, especially organic ones. The objective of this study is to conduct a bibliographical study on the composting technique and identify the advantages of this process in the treatment of the organic fraction of municipal solid waste. Composting is the process of biological decomposition and stabilization of organic substrates through the action of various microorganisms. It has the advantage of producing in the end a fertilizer compound and promotes treatment of the organic fraction, which is the most urban waste, reducing the amount directed to landfills, increasing the useful life of these.

  3. Spatial organization of the gastrointestinal microbiota in urban Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovetski, Sergei V.; O'Mahoney, Michael; Ransome, Emma J.; Matterson, Kenan O.; Lim, Haw Chuan; Chesser, Terry; Graves, Gary R.

    2018-01-01

    Recent reviews identified the reliance on fecal or cloacal samples as a significant limitation hindering our understanding of the avian gastrointestinal (gut) microbiota and its function. We investigated the microbiota of the esophagus, duodenum, cecum, and colon of a wild urban population of Canada goose (Branta canadensis). From a population sample of 30 individuals, we sequenced the V4 region of the 16S SSU rRNA on an Illumina MiSeq and obtained 8,628,751 sequences with a median of 76,529 per sample. These sequences were assigned to 420 bacterial OTUs and a single archaeon. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes accounted for 90% of all sequences. Microbiotas from the four gut regions differed significantly in their richness, composition, and variability among individuals. Microbial communities of the esophagus were the most distinctive whereas those of the colon were the least distinctive, reflecting the physical downstream mixing of regional microbiotas. The downstream mixing of regional microbiotas was also responsible for the majority of observed co-occurrence patterns among microbial families. Our results indicate that fecal and cloacal samples inadequately represent the complex patterns of richness, composition, and variability of the gut microbiota and obscure patterns of co-occurrence of microbial lineages.

  4. Impact of urban waste water treatment on sludge utilization and disposal with special emphasis on thermal treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammeltoft, P.

    1993-01-01

    The acceptance of the European Communities Directive 9/271/CEE concerning urban waste water treatment by all the EC Member States will result in a sewage sludge production increase of 2 to 3 times the actual amounts (for the year 2000 the forecast is about 30 million tonnes per year). All the traditional sewage sludge treatment methods (agricultural, disposal, compost, thermal treatment) entail costs which are always increasing because of the stricter requirements; in addition EC policy is oriented towards the reduction of the quantity of sludge production. In some situations, drying and subseque incineration may thus be the only practicable method of disposal, particularly, in very large urban agglomerations

  5. Micro-organisms and nuclear waste: a neglected problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1989-01-01

    The paper addresses the problem of bacteria in nuclear waste disposal. A description is given of how bacteria colonised the Three Mile Island Nuclear Reactor soon after meltdown, demonstrating the ability of some bacteria to operate under extreme conditions. Work is also described indicating that microbial corrosion of metal canisters can occur. Thus the author recommends that studies of nuclear waste disposal should take into account the interrelations between geology, geochemistry and microbiology. (U.K.)

  6. Study into an organization for collecting, processing and removing of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-09-01

    This report presents the results of a study into a new organization for the collection, processing and removal of radioactive waste. At present these activities are carried out by the Dutch Energy Research Foundation (ECN). The new organization has to offer guarantees for a qualititatively responsible retrieval and processing of radioactive waste. It also has to be certain that the waste offered will not be send back, or even refused, if stagnation occurs in the removal. Finally the tariffs have to be not so prohibitive that they hinder a responsible handling with radioactive waste by the producers. An organization is advised which is self-employed with regard to management, directorate and materials. It is recommended to submit this organization in a limited liability company. This form of government may be supplemented optionally with a slight form of a cooperative association. (author). 10 refs.; 3 figs.; 11 tabs

  7. Compost feedstock characteristics and ratio modelling for organic waste materials co-composting in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, E W; H'ng, P S; Peng, S H; Wan-Azha, W M; Chin, K L; Chow, M J; Wong, W Z

    2013-01-01

    In Malaysia, large amounts of organic materials, which lead to disposal problems, are generated from agricultural residues especially from palm oil industries. Increasing landfill costs and regulations, which limit many types of waste accepted at landfills, have increased the interest in composting as a component of waste management. The objectives of this study were to characterize compost feedstock properties of common organic waste materials available in Malaysia. Thus, a ratio modelling of matching ingredients for empty fruit bunches (EFBs) co-composting using different organic materials in Malaysia was done. Organic waste materials with a C/N ratio of composting. The outcome of this study suggested that the percentage of EFB ranged between 50% and 60%, which is considered as the ideal mixing ratio in EFB co-composting. Conclusively, EFB can be utilized in composting if appropriate feedstock in term of physical and chemical characteristics is coordinated in the co-composting process.

  8. Exploring the patterns and evolution of self-organized urban street networks through modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Yikang; Ban, Yifang; Wang, Jiechen; Haas, Jan

    2013-03-01

    As one of the most important subsystems in cities, urban street networks have recently been well studied by using the approach of complex networks. This paper proposes a growing model for self-organized urban street networks. The model involves a competition among new centers with different values of attraction radius and a local optimal principle of both geometrical and topological factors. We find that with the model growth, the local optimization in the connection process and appropriate probability for the loop construction well reflect the evolution strategy in real-world cities. Moreover, different values of attraction radius in centers competition process lead to morphological change in patterns including urban network, polycentric and monocentric structures. The model succeeds in reproducing a large diversity of road network patterns by varying parameters. The similarity between the properties of our model and empirical results implies that a simple universal growth mechanism exists in self-organized cities.

  9. Assessing the impacts of changes in treatment technology on energy and greenhouse gas balances for organic waste and wastewater treatment using historical data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Poulsen, Tjalfe

    2009-01-01

    , plastic, etc.). Data were collected from Aalborg, a municipality located in Northern Denmark. During the period from 1970ĝ€"2005, Aalborg Municipality has changed its waste treatment strategy from landfilling of all wastes toward composting of yard waste and incineration with combined heat and power...... in treatment technology have resulted in the waste and wastewater treatment systems in Aalborg progressing from being net consumers of energy and net emitters of GHG, to becoming net producers of energy and net savers of GHG emissions (due to substitution of fossil fuels elsewhere). If it is assumed...... that the organic waste quantity and composition is the same in 1970 and 2005, the technology change over this time period has resulted in a progression from a net annual GHG emission of 200 kg CO2-eq. capita ĝ€"1 in 1970 to a net saving of 170 kg CO 2-eq. capitaĝ€"1 in 2005 for management of urban organic wastes....

  10. Pro-environmental Behavior Regarding Solid Waste Management in Householders of Kalutara Urban Council Area- A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SR Amarasinghe

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems generated by solid waste have become a major national issue in Sri Lanka due to high levels of economic growth and consumption. Inappropriate management of solid waste may generate many problems such as environmental pollution, public health, social and economic problems as well as aesthetic issues. Therefore, this problem needs immediate attention not only for the management of waste, but also for the study of individual behavior related to solid waste production and use. This research was carried out as a case study in Kalutara urban council area, where behavior that is related to the production and management of waste is analyzed. To achieve this, a questionnaire survey was done for the households of Kalutara North, Kalutara South and Katukurunda. The households’ descriptive, inferential and informative believes were identified where they express agreement or disagreement regarding the final disposal of waste. In total 100 households completed the questionnaire. This work approached the behavioral aspect of the problem by considering the attitudes towards the environment and the beliefs about the environment. In addition, knowledge of environment and the problems raised have been considered for prediction of environmentally protective behavior. In this investigation, the classification of believes were considered in terms of austerity or limitation of consumption, conservation and material beliefs or material squandering. Further, the environmental attitudes were considered as emotional, cognitive (know and behavioral. Based on the preliminary results of this study, it can be concluded that believes and attitudes show a certain level of relation with the behavior of the households. The questionnaire survey was useful to highlight the solid waste problem that exists in the area and to indicate the trends of attitudes and behavior among the solid waste management. Further, by considering the findings of this study, an environmental

  11. Types of organic materials present in BNFL intermediate level waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlow, P.

    1988-01-01

    This presentation lists the constituents present in BNFL intermediate-level radioactive wastes. The inorganic and organic components are listed and there is a detailed analysis of the plutonium contaminated materials in terms of proportion of combustible and non-combustible content, up to the year 2000. A description of the Waste Treatment Complex at Sellafield is presented. The research programme for leach testing, sorption and solubility testing and decomposition of organic matter was outlined. (U.K.)

  12. TREATMENT OF URBAN STORMWATER FOR DISSOLVED POLLUTANTS: A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THREE NATURAL ORGANIC MEDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using hard and soft wood tree mulch and processed jute fiber, as filter media, for treating mixtures of dissolved pollutants (toxic organic compounds and heavy metals) in urban stormwater (SW) runoff was evaluated. Copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr+6), l...

  13. Education Management Organizations' Collaborative Leadership Practices for Low-Performing Urban Charter Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cupidore, Calvin C., Jr.

    2017-01-01

    Educators have regarded building leader-member relationships using collaboration as a fundamental component to successfully improve students' academic achievement. Ineffective collaborative leadership practices may lead to achievement deficits particularly for many urban charter schools operated by educational management organizations. The purpose…

  14. Occurrence and ecological risk assessment of emerging organic chemicals in urban rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peng, Feng Jiao; Pan, Chang Gui; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Nai Sheng; Windfeld, Ronja; Salvito, Daniel; Selck, Henriette; Brink, Van den Paul J.; Ying, Guang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Urban rivers may receive contamination from various sources including point sources like domestic sewage and nonpoint sources (e.g., runoff), resulting in contamination with various chemicals. This study investigated the occurrence of emerging organic contaminants (3 endocrine disrupting

  15. Landfill gas generation and emission at danish waste disposal sites receiving waste with a low organic waste content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, Zishen; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    and street cleansing waste) and temporarily stored combustible waste were sampled and characterized in terms of TS, VS, TC, TOC, and biochemical methane potential (BMP). Decay rates (k values), were determined by conducting anaerobic degradation experiments and applying FOD equations to the experimental...

  16. Untreated urban waste contaminates Indian river sediments with resistance genes to last resort antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marathe, Nachiket P; Pal, Chandan; Gaikwad, Swapnil S; Jonsson, Viktor; Kristiansson, Erik; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2017-11-01

    Efficient sewage treatment is critical for limiting environmental transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In many low and middle income countries, however, large proportions of sewage are still released untreated into receiving water bodies. In-depth knowledge of how such discharges of untreated urban waste influences the environmental resistome is largely lacking. Here, we highlight the impact of uncontrolled discharge of partially treated and/or untreated wastewater on the structure of bacterial communities and resistome of sediments collected from Mutha river flowing through Pune city in India. Using shotgun metagenomics, we found a wide array (n = 175) of horizontally transferable antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) including carbapenemases such as NDM, VIM, KPC, OXA-48 and IMP types. The relative abundance of total ARGs was 30-fold higher in river sediments within the city compared to upstream sites. Forty four ARGs, including the tet(X) gene conferring resistance to tigecycline, OXA-58 and GES type carbapenemases, were significantly more abundant in city sediments, while two ARGs were more common at upstream sites. The recently identified mobile colistin resistance gene mcr-1 was detected only in one of the upstream samples, but not in city samples. In addition to ARGs, higher abundances of various mobile genetic elements were found in city samples, including integron-associated integrases and ISCR transposases, as well as some biocide/metal resistance genes. Virulence toxin genes as well as bacterial genera comprising many pathogens were more abundant here; the genus Acinetobacter, which is often associated with multidrug resistance and nosocomial infections, comprised up to 29% of the 16S rRNA reads, which to our best knowledge is unmatched in any other deeply sequenced metagenome. There was a strong correlation between the abundance of Acinetobacter and the OXA-58 carbapenemase gene. Our study shows that uncontrolled discharge of untreated urban

  17. The effect of urban waste compost applied in a vineyard, olive grove and orange grove on soil proprieties in Mediterranean environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Bono, Giuseppe; Guaitoli, Fabio; Pasciuta, Giuseppe; Santoro, Antonino

    2013-04-01

    The application to soil of compost produced from urban wastes not only could improve the soil properties but also could be a solution for disposal of large quantities of different refuses. Knowledge on compost characteristic, soil properties as well as on mineral crop nutrition are important to proper management of fertilization with compost and to understanding the impact on C and N dynamics in field. We present the results of soil physical and chemical changes after the application of urban waste compost in three different orchards (vineyard, olive grove, and orange grove) in Mediterranean environment (Sicily). The compost was applied on November 2010 and samples were collected 1 month after application for two years. Soil pH, carbon content, weight of soil aggregate fractions, nitrate content were examined during the trial, comparing with adjacent no fertilized plot. The application of compost caused a decrease in soil organic carbon stock of 14% and 28% after two years in vineyard and orange grove, respectively, while a significant increase under olive grove was registered. Nitrate monitoring showed for all crops high content of Nitrate for most of the year that involved SOC stock depletion. This was not observed in olive grove, where soil received further C input thanks to soil management with cover crop. In two years of observations there were no significant change in soil physic properties.

  18. Capacity for management of combustible and organic wastes; Kapacitet foer att ta hand on braennbart och organiskt avfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundberg, Johan [Profu AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-10-01

    A ban on deposition of combustible wastes will be introduced in 2002. A similar ban concerning organic wastes will be introduced in 2005. Because landfilling is the most common treatment today, we need new forms of waste treatment within a couple of years.The aim of this investigation is to map and analyse supply and demand for wastes covered by the new bans.

  19. EXPECTED IMPACT OF HANFORD PROCESSING ORGANICS OF PLUTONIUM DURING TANK WASTE SLUDGE RETRIEVAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.; WINTERS, W.I.

    2004-01-01

    This document evaluates the potential for extracting plutonium from Hanford waste tanks into residual organic solvents and how this process may have an impact on criticality specifications during the retrieval of wastes. The two controlling factors for concentrating plutonium are the solubility of the plutonium in the wastes and the extraction efficiency of the potential organic extractants that may be found in these wastes. Residual Hanford tank sludges contain plutonium in solid forms that are expected to be primarily insoluble Pu(IV) hydroxides. Evaluation of thermodynamic Pourbaix diagrams, documentation on solubility studies of various components in waste tank matrices, and actual analysis of plutonium in tank supernates all indicate that the solubility of Pu in the alkaline waste is on the order of 10 -6 M. Based on an upper limit plutonium solubility of 10 -5 M in high pH and a conservative distribution coefficient for organic extractants of a 0 for plutonium in 30% TBP at 0.07 M HNO 3 ), the estimated concentration for plutonium in the organic phase would be -7 M. This is well below the process control criteria. A significant increase in plutonium solubility or the E a o would have to occur to raise this concentration to the 0.01 M concern level for organics. Measured tank chemical component values, expected operating conditions, and the characteristics of the expected chemistry and extraction mechanisms indicate that concentration of plutonium from Hanford tank residual sludges to associated process organic extractants is significantly below levels of concern

  20. Co-fermentation of sewage sludge and organic waste; CO-Vergaerung von Klaerschlamm und Bioabfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, K.G. [Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband, Essen (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The processes taking place in sewage sludge digestion and organic waste fermentation are identical. It therefore seems obvious to treat organic waste and sewage sludge jointly. In contrast to organic waste fermentation plants to be newly erected, co-fermentation permits making use of anaerobic treatment systems that are already installed at sewage treatment plants. At these plants, in principle only the sections responsible for acceptance and conditioning of organic waste need to be retrofitted. Apart from the possibility to treat organic waste very inexpensively, the co-fermentation process offers a number of other advantages. For this reason, the Emschergenossenschaft and Lippeverband carried out extensive semi-technical scale tests in co-fermentation of organic waste and sewage sludge. (orig.) [German] Die ablaufenden biologischen Prozesse sind bei der Klaerschlammfaulung und der Bioabfallvergaerung gleich. Es liegt daher nahe, Bioabfaelle und Klaerschlaemme gemeinsam zu behandeln. Gegenueber neu zu errichtenden Bioabfall-Vergaerungsanlagen kann bei der Co-Vergaerung auf die bereits installierte Anaerobtechnik auf den Klaeranlagen zurueckgegriffen werden. Dort muss im wesentlichen nur der Annahme- und Aufbereitungsbereich fuer die Bioabfaelle nachgeruestet werden. Das Verfahren der Co-Vergaerung bietet ausser einer sehr kostenguenstigen Behandlungsmoeglichkeit fuer Bioabfaelle eine Reihe weiterer Vorteile. Aus diesem Grund wurden bei Emschergenossenschaft und Lippeverband umfangreiche halbtechnische Versuche zur Co-Vergaerung von Bioabfaellen und Klaerschlamm durchgefuehrt. (orig.)

  1. The recycling plant of solid urban wastes in La Ribera (Spain); Planta de reciclaje y embalaje de la mancomunidad de residuos solidos de La Ribera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corella Ainaga, F.; Ortega Rojas, A.

    1999-11-01

    The present article describes the technical characteristics and the effects that gave origin to the creation of the new Plant of Treatment of Solid Urban Waste in the Mancomunidad de RSU de la Ribera (Navarra). (Author)

  2. Organic tanks safety program, FY97 waste aging studies. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Samuels, W.D.; Linehan, J.C.; Sharma, A.K.; Hogan, M.O.; Lilga, M.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Wahl, K.L.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    To model tank waste aging and interpret tank waste speciation results, the authors began measuring the reactivity of organic complexants and related compounds towards radiation-induced oxidation reactions. Because of the high efficiency of scavenging of the primary radicals of water radiolysis by nitrate and nitrite ion, the major radiolytically-generated radicals in these solutions, and in Hanford tank wastes, are NO 2 , NO and O - . Prior to this effort, little quantitative information existed for the reactions of these radicals with organic compounds such as those that were used in Hanford processes. Therefore, modeling of actual waste aging, or even simulated waste aging, was not feasible without measuring reactivities and determining reaction paths. The authors have made the first rate measurements of complexant aging and determined some of their degradation products

  3. Direct conversion of radioactive and chemical waste containing metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics to glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.W.; Beahm, E.C.; Parker, G.W.

    1994-01-01

    The Glass Material Oxidation and Dissolution System (CMODS) is a new process for direct conversion of radioactive, mixed, and chemical wastes to glass. The wastes can be in the chemical forms of metals, ceramics, amorphous solids, and organics. GMODS destroys organics and it incorporates heavy metals and radionuclides into a glass. Processable wastes may include miscellaneous spent fuels (SF), SF hulls and hardware, plutonium wastes in different forms, high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, ion-exchange resins, failed equipment, and laboratory wastes. Thermodynamic calculations indicate theoretical feasibility. Small-scale laboratory experiments (< 100 g per test) have demonstrated chemical laboratory feasibility for several metals. Additional work is needed to demonstrate engineering feasibility

  4. nterstate articulation for the nanagement of urban solid waste. The case of local governments in Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Bach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to investigate the design, formulation and implementation of the "Provincial Plan for the Integral Management of Urban Waste in Entre Ríos" in the local governments of Entre Ríos. To do this, the objectives and hypotheses to be tested are defined firstly. Secondly, the state-of- the-art in the selected topic, the bibliographic material, interviews with key informants and the documentation related to the object of study of this research are reviewed. Subsequently, the design and implementation of the policy of integral management of urban waste are described and analyzed in an attempt to verify the hypotheses stated. Finally, some conclusions are outlined.

  5. Remotely operated organic liquid waste incinerator for the fuels and materials examination facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sales, W.L.; Barker, R.E.; Hershey, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The search for a practical method for the disposal of small quantities of oraganic liquid waste, a waste product of metallographic sample preparation at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility has led to the design of an incinerator/off-gas system to burn organic liquid wastes and selected organic solids. The incinerator is to be installed in a shielded inert-atmosphere cell, and will be remotely operated and maintained. The off-gas system is a wet-scrubber and filter system designed to release particulate-free off-gas to the FMEF Building Exhaust System

  6. Evaluation of Quality of Output Product in the Technology Group for Pyrolisis of Organic Waste Substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav HONUS

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The issue of ecological removal of organic polymer materials and wastes polluting the environment is very much alive and it is clear that it will take on ever greater importance. a promising and innovative technology for environmentally friendly disposal of waste organic matter is pyrolysis. This method of thermal processing of waste for its degradation as well as a source of valuable energy products using the new system Pyromatic. This paper presents its technical description and evaluation of the quality of output product from the pyrolysis of tires, plastics and coal.

  7. Waste Tank Organic Safety Program: Analytical methods development. Progress report, FY 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, J.A.; Clauss, S.A.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-09-01

    The objectives of this task are to develop and document extraction and analysis methods for organics in waste tanks, and to extend these methods to the analysis of actual core samples to support the Waste Tank organic Safety Program. This report documents progress at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (a) during FY 1994 on methods development, the analysis of waste from Tank 241-C-103 (Tank C-103) and T-111, and the transfer of documented, developed analytical methods to personnel in the Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) and 222-S laboratory. This report is intended as an annual report, not a completed work

  8. Life Cycle Assessment of pretreatment technologies for anaerobic digestion of source-separated organic household waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naroznova, Irina; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The environmental performance of two pretreatment technologies for source-separated organic waste was compared using life cycle assessment (LCA). An innovative pulping process where source-separated organic waste is pulped with cold water forming a volatile solid rich biopulp was compared to a more...... including a number of non-toxic and toxic impact categories were assessed. No big difference in the overall performance of the two technologies was observed. The difference for the separate life cycle steps was, however, more pronounced. More efficient material transfer in the scenario with waste pulping...

  9. Design and Construction of Deinococcus Radiodurans for Biodegradation of Organic Toxins at Radioactive DOE Waste Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, Michael J.; Wackett, Lawrence P.; Fredrickson, James K.

    2001-01-01

    Seventy million cubic meters of ground and three trillion liters of groundwater have been contaminated by leaking radioactive waste generated in the United States during the Cold War. A cleanup technology is being developed based on the extremely radiation resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans that is being engineered to express bioremediating functions. Research aimed at developing D. radiodurans for organic toxin degradation in highly radioactive waste sites containing radionuclides, heavy metals, and toxic organic compounds was started by this group.Work funded by the existing grant has already contributed to eleven papers on the fundamental biology of D. radiodurans and its design for bioremediation of highly radioactive waste environments

  10. Simulation of the organic-waste processing in plasma with allowance for kinetics of thermochemical transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2017-07-01

    Kinetic calculations of the plasma processing/utilization process of organic waste in air and steam ambient were carried out. It is shown that, during the time of waste residence in the plasma reactor, 0.7 and 1.2 s, at the exit from the reactor there forms a high-calorific fuel gas with a combustion heat of 3540 and 5070 kcal/kg, respectively. In this process, 1 kg of waste yields 1.16 kg of fuel gas at air gasification of waste and 0.87 kg of pure synthesis gas at steam gasification. The energy efficiency of the waste gasification process, defined by the ratio between the calorific value of the resultant fuel gas and the initial calorific value of the waste amounts to 91 % in air plasma and 98 % in steam plasma. A comparison between the results of kinetic and thermodynamic calculations has revealed their good agreement.

  11. Application of PistachioWaste as Organic Manure in Sustainable Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahin Daneshmandi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant residuals and waste products of agricultural crops form organic fertilizer sources that are traditionally used as organic manure. From 230000 t of dry pistachios produced in 2014, more than 766000 t waste was generated and a large part was to pistachio orchards in fertile regions to be used as organic manure. This study investigated the positive and negative effects of the used of pistachio waste as organic fertilizer over two consecutive years in the form of statistical designs for compound decomposition (overtime. The results indicate that if pistachio waste accumulates without being disinfected, it is a suitable environment for the growth and activity of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. The presence of aflatoxin G2 was confirmed in the pistachio waste (0.028 μg, but this contamination did not exist in the soil of the orchard to which the pistachio waste was added. The addition of waste to soil significantly reduced the EC and pH and increased the levels of Zn, P, and K by 270%, 195%, and 89.5%, respectively, in comparison with the control. The level of B did not differ significantly at between treatments. The results suggest that adding pistachio waste to soil enriches it with elements that are directly absorbable by pistachio trees, but it is necessary for the waste to be disinfected with proper fungicides to prevent development of toxin contamination. Furthermore, to recover the decomposability of soil, application of waste to orchards with intervals of twice or three times a year is recommended.

  12. Circular processes for a new urban metabolysm: the role of municipal solid waste in the sustainable requalification

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Mamì

    2014-01-01

    Through this paper we present the first results of a research combining the management problem of Municipal Solid Waste to the requalification of built environment. The goal of this research is to mitigate the vulnerability of territory and urban heritage and to transform a problem into opportunities. Above all, we have paid attention to several exemplifying cases of Italian territory: suburbs of large towns, historical centres, small centres (and, in particular, those with a strong historica...

  13. No 2906. Proposal of law with the aim of organizing the durable management of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-02-01

    This proposal of law is the result of a long thinking enriched by 15 years of reports preparation, workshops and exchange with foreign organizations in charge of radioactive waste management, mainly carried out in the framework of the December 30, 1991 law. This proposal of law deals with the following points: general conditions of the management of radioactive wastes, rules relative to the reprocessing of foreign wastes, national plan for the management of radioactive wastes, creation of a national commission of evaluation of the research work on the management of high-activity and long-lived radioactive wastes, creation of a funds for the financing of the research and the industrial management of radioactive wastes, the three complementary methods of waste management for the high-activity and long-lived wastes, date lines for the implementation of a first experimental reactor for transmutation, for a long duration surface or sub-surface storage facility and for a reversible disposal center, concerting obligation with people's representatives and creation of a public interest group, financial contribution allocated to territory authorities, radioactive wastes proprietorship, creation of a local information and follow-up committee for radioactive waste facilities, and eventual charge compensations relative to the implementation of this law. (J.S.)

  14. Volatile Organic Compounds: Characteristics, distribution and sources in urban schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Nitika; Bartsch, Jennifer; Ayoko, Godwin A.; Salthammer, Tunga; Morawska, Lidia

    2015-04-01

    Long term exposure to organic pollutants, both inside and outside school buildings may affect children's health and influence their learning performance. Since children spend significant amount of time in school, air quality, especially in classrooms plays a key role in determining the health risks associated with exposure at schools. Within this context, the present study investigated the ambient concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in 25 primary schools in Brisbane with the aim to quantify the indoor and outdoor VOCs concentrations, identify VOCs sources and their contribution, and based on these; propose mitigation measures to reduce VOCs exposure in schools. One of the most important findings is the occurrence of indoor sources, indicated by the I/O ratio >1 in 19 schools. Principal Component Analysis with Varimax rotation was used to identify common sources of VOCs and source contribution was calculated using an Absolute Principal Component Scores technique. The result showed that outdoor 47% of VOCs were contributed by petrol vehicle exhaust but the overall cleaning products had the highest contribution of 41% indoors followed by air fresheners and art and craft activities. These findings point to the need for a range of basic precautions during the selection, use and storage of cleaning products and materials to reduce the risk from these sources.

  15. Low-level radioactive waste disposal operations worldwide, with special reference to organic compounds in leachates and gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rushbrook, P.E.; McGahan, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Low- and intermediate-level radioactive wastes are defined and ground disposal practices worldwide are discussed. The organic content of low-level wastes is tabulated and the organic composition of leachates and gaseous emissions from low-level wastes in the U.K. and U.S.A. are discussed. The radionuclide content of these leachates is tabulated. (U.K.)

  16. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in the urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousins, Anna Palm

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical-chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logK(OA) and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Batch tests of a microbial fuel cell for electricity generation from spent organic extracts from hydrogenogenic fermentation of organic solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona-Martinez, A.; Solorza-Feria, O.; Poggi-Varaldo, H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenogenic fermentative processes of organic solid wastes produce spent solids that contain substantial concentrations of low molecular weight organic acids and solvents. The spent solids can be extracted with wastewater to give a stream containing concentrated, degradable organic compounds. (Author)

  18. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in the urban landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Anna Palm, E-mail: anna.cousins@ivl.se

    2012-11-01

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical-chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logK{sub OA} and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A novel indoor-inclusive multimedia urban fate model is developed and applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Emissions indoors may increase the urban chemical residence time. Black

  19. The effect of the indoor environment on the fate of organic chemicals in the urban landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousins, Anna Palm

    2012-01-01

    To assess the effect of the indoor environment on the urban fate of organic chemicals, an 8-compartment indoor-inclusive steady state multimedia chemical fate model was developed. The model includes typical urban compartments (air, soil, water, sediment, and urban film) and a novel module representing a generic indoor environment. The model was parameterized to the municipality of Stockholm, Sweden and applied to four organic chemicals with different physical–chemical characteristics and use patterns: formaldehyde, 2,4,6-tribromophenol, di-ethylhexylphthalate and decabromodiphenyl ether. The results show that emissions to indoor air may increase the steady state mass and residence time in the urban environment by a factor of 1.1 to 22 for the four chemicals, compared to if emissions are assigned to outdoor air. This is due to the nested nature of the indoor environment, which creates a physical barrier that prevents chemicals from leaving the urban system with outflowing air. For DEHP and BDE 209, the additional partitioning to indoor surfaces results in a greater importance of the indoor removal pathways from surfaces. The outdoor environmental concentrations of these chemicals are predicted to be lower if emitted to indoor air than if emitted to outdoor air because of the additional indoor removal pathways of dust and indoor film, leading to loss of chemical from the system. For formaldehyde and 2,4,6-TBP outdoor environmental concentrations are not affected by whether the release occurs indoors or outdoors because of the limited partitioning to indoor surfaces. A sensitivity analysis revealed that there appears to be a relationship between logK OA and the impact of the ventilation rate on the urban fate of organic chemicals. -- Highlights: ► A novel indoor-inclusive multimedia urban fate model is developed and applied. ► Emissions indoors may increase the urban chemical residence time. ► Indoor removal from surfaces constitutes an additional loss process

  20. Self-Organization, Urban Transformation, and Spatial Planning in Greater Jakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yovi Dzulhijjah Rahmawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi peran sistem perencanaan tata ruang dalam menghadapi proses perorganisasian diri, sebagaimana dibuktikan oleh transformasi perkotaan yang kompleks di wilayah Jakarta. Wilayah Jakarta adalah salah satu wilayah megapolitan di Asia Tenggara yang mengalami proses transformasi yang cepat. Sangat disayangkan bahwa sistem perencanaan tata ruang yang ada sekarang di wilayah Jakarta belum mampu merespon transformasi kota secara non-linier. Kekurangan ini terbukti dari ketidaksinkronan antara dokumen-dokumen perencanaan tata ruang dan perubahan tata guna lahan perkotaan yang diperkuat dengan proses pengorganisasian diri. Perbedaan antara situasi empiris dan dokumen-dokumen perencanaan tata ruang yang ada telah menghasilkan ketidakcocokan antara sistem perencanaan tata ruang dengan sistem tata ruang di wilayah Jakarta. Ketidakcocokan ini terjadi karena sistem perencanaan tata ruang saat ini tidak mempertimbangkan ketidakpastian di masa depan. Situasi ini mengindikasikan adanya ‘fuzziness’ dalam implementasi sistem dan proses perencanaan tata ruang, sementara transformasi perkotaan telah berkembang sedemikian kompleksnya dan membutuhkan respon yang cepat dan tepat. Untuk dapat merespon ketidakcocokan ini, sistem perencanaan tata ruang di wilayah Jakarta harus lebih memperhatikan sistem perkotaan yang berkembang dalam proses yang tidak linear.Kata kunci. Pengorganisasian diri, transformasi perkotaan, ketidaklinieran, sistem perencanaan, Megapolitan Jakarta. This study aimed to identify the role of spatial planning in facing self-organizing processes as evidenced by a complex urban transformation in Greater Jakarta. Greater Jakarta is one of the mega urban-regions in Southeast Asia that are undergoing a rapid urban transformation process. This urban transformation has been developing through a non-linear transition. Unfortunately, the current spatial planning system in Greater Jakarta is not yet adequately

  1. Alternatives for the treatment of the organic fraction of the urban solid residuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Fonseca, Mabelin; Fernandez Mena, Dalia; Abalos Rodriguez, Arelis; Rodriguez Perez, Suyen

    2011-01-01

    The decomposition of municipal solid waste outdoors, or in some cases burning under the same conditions, is action now and final disposition of these wastes without measuring their consequences. In the student's residence 'Antonio Maceo' Orient University is hosting up to 2250 students belonging to a total of 22 university, generating at full capacity, 3375 kg / day of MSW. This research aims to analyze the solid waste generated in the student's residence, where improperly evaluated the final disposition thereof. It was found that discharges are not separated at the source observed at the landfill, food waste, sweeping waste, paper and cardboard, plastics, glass, metal, textile waste, wood, etc. Samplings were carried out directly in 12 rooms of the residence for a total of 48 people, along with students, as part of the educational activities implemented within this work. The average weight of degradable waste generated was 2.5 kg / day during the sampling, revealing the presence of traces of cooked food (cereals, legumes, carbohydrates), fruit and vegetable remains, remains of shells of different origins ( meats, eggs), remnants of tea, etc. The average content of total solids in the waste sampled was 36.3 ± 5.4% and volatile solids content on dry weight was 81.3 ± 2.5% to an average density of 0.68 g / cm3. This residue is characterized to be treated in an anaerobic batch reactor where it is recirculated leachate and studied the competing microorganisms in the anaerobic degradation of organic fraction of municipal solid waste. (author)

  2. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households—Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Linder

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals.

  3. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households-Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Noah; Lindahl, Therese; Borgström, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals.

  4. Using Behavioural Insights to Promote Food Waste Recycling in Urban Households—Evidence From a Longitudinal Field Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Noah; Lindahl, Therese; Borgström, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Promoting pro-environmental behaviour amongst urban dwellers is one of today's greatest sustainability challenges. The aim of this study is to test whether an information intervention, designed based on theories from environmental psychology and behavioural economics, can be effective in promoting recycling of food waste in an urban area. To this end we developed and evaluated an information leaflet, mainly guided by insights from nudging and community-based social marketing. The effect of the intervention was estimated through a natural field experiment in Hökarängen, a suburb of Stockholm city, Sweden, and was evaluated using a difference-in-difference analysis. The results indicate a statistically significant increase in food waste recycled compared to a control group in the research area. The data analysed was on the weight of food waste collected from sorting stations in the research area, and the collection period stretched for almost 2 years, allowing us to study the short- and long term effects of the intervention. Although the immediate positive effect of the leaflet seems to have attenuated over time, results show that there was a significant difference between the control and the treatment group, even 8 months after the leaflet was distributed. Insights from this study can be used to guide development of similar pro-environmental behaviour interventions for other urban areas in Sweden and abroad, improving chances of reaching environmental policy goals. PMID:29623056

  5. Reduction of Fecal Streptococcus and Salmonella by selected treatment methods for sludge and organic waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Svend Erik; Krause, Michael; Grüttner, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    The increasing utilization of waste water sludge and source-separated organic household waste in agriculture has brought the quality aspects into focus, among others the hygienic aspects. In this study, the reducting effect on Fecal Streptococcus (FS) and Salmonella of different methods...... for stabilization and methods for further treatment of sludge and organic waste has been investigated. The most common methods for stabilization, i.e. aerobic and anaerobic stabilization, only reduce the indicator organisms by approximately 1 logarithmic decade. Methods for further treatment of sludge and organic......) significant reductions of Salmonella were found, while the die out at low temperatures (below 10°C) was limited. FS was not reduced systematically during storage, and therefore, FS is not usable as indicator organism for the hygienic properties of sludge during storage....

  6. Experimental determination of the empirical formula and energy content of unknown organics in waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizas, I. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Kosmatos, A. [Ontario Power Generation, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bagley, D.M. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2002-06-15

    Two experimental methods are described in this paper: one for determining the empirical formula, and one for determining the energy content of unknown organics in waste streams. The empirical formula method requires volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) to be measured for the waste; the formula can then be calculated from these values. To determine the energy content of the organic waste, bomb calorimetry was used with benzoic acid as a combustion aid. The results for standard compounds (glucose, propionic acid, L-arginine, and benzoic acid) were relatively good. The energy content measurement for wastewater and sludges had good reproducibility (i.e. 1.0 to 3.2% relative standard deviation for triplicate samples). Trouble encountered in the measurement of the empirical formulae of the waste samples was possibly due to difficulties with the TOC test; further analysis of this is required. (author)

  7. Experimental determination of the empirical formula and energy content of unknown organics in waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shizas, I.; Kosmatos, A.; Bagley, D.M.

    2002-01-01

    Two experimental methods are described in this paper: one for determining the empirical formula, and one for determining the energy content of unknown organics in waste streams. The empirical formula method requires volatile solids (VS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total organic carbon (TOC), and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) to be measured for the waste; the formula can then be calculated from these values. To determine the energy content of the organic waste, bomb calorimetry was used with benzoic acid as a combustion aid. The results for standard compounds (glucose, propionic acid, L-arginine, and benzoic acid) were relatively good. The energy content measurement for wastewater and sludges had good reproducibility (i.e. 1.0 to 3.2% relative standard deviation for triplicate samples). Trouble encountered in the measurement of the empirical formulae of the waste samples was possibly due to difficulties with the TOC test; further analysis of this is required. (author)

  8. Radiation induced chemical changes in and disinfection of organic wastes suitable for supplemental feed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groneman, A.F.

    1980-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been found to disinfect organic wastes and simultaneously ease the separation of suspended solids from water. Because these effects can have important favourable impacts on the technology of upgrading organic wastes to animal feed or fertilizers, experimental studies are reported on the rationale of effects of gamma irradiation or disinfection and separation of the solid and the liquid phase of organic waste systems. The radiation inactivation of microorganisms occurs by direct and indirect action. Mechanisms of inactivation are discussed and measures are proposed how the indirect action of the radiation inactivation of microorganisms can be increased. Effects of gamma irradiation on dewatering properties of organic wastes were indirectly caused by the oxidizing OH radicals produced by the irradiation of water. OH radicals react with organic components of the solid phase which leads to their solubilisation resulting in an increase of the total organic carbon concentration in the liquid phase. Results of a mutagenicity test indicate that the solvated compounds exhibited no mutagenic activity. Microbiological case studies on the disinfection and upgrading of liquid and solid organic wastes to animal feed are discussed and the acceptance of radiation processing is evaluated. (Auth.)

  9. Effect of Different Organic Wastes on Soil Propertie s and Plant Growth and Yield: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain M. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of organic wastes in agriculture plays a great role in recycling essential plant nutrients, sustaining soil security as well as protecting the environment from unwanted hazards. This review article deals with the effect of different kinds of organic wastes on soil properties and plant growth and yield. Municipal solid waste is mainly used as a source of nitrogen and organic matter, improving soil properties and microbial activity that are closely related to soil fertility. Biowaste and food waste increase pH, nitrogen content, cation exchange capacity, water holding capacity, and microbial biomass in soil. Sewage sludge contains various amounts of organic matter and huge amounts of plant nutrients. Manure is a common waste which improves soil properties by adding nutrients and increases microbial and enzyme activity in soil. It also reduces toxicity of some heavy metals. These organic wastes have a great positive impact on soil physical, chemical, and biological properties as well as stimulate plant growth and thus increase the yield of crops.

  10. EFFECTS OF EXCESS URBAN RUNOFF ON WASTE WATER FLOW IN PÉCS, HUNGARY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. RONCZYK

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global warming has been leading to climate change that is predicted to cause an increase in the frequency and intensity of rainfall. Urban areas must be designed to cope with the undesired effect and risks associated with stormwater runoff. Stormwater, entering into the sewerage of Pécs, SW Hungary, exerts an extra load on wastewater and sewage transfer in the underground pipeline system. Based on precipitation and pumping station flow data, we identified a strong correspondence between rainfall and flow behavior in Pécs. We also determined the types of foreign waters entering the sewerage according to their source and origin. Our study also indicates that 32% of the entire land area has a low-degree infrastructure for cutting-edge stormwater drainage and management. The results of the current research aid to evaluate the adequate methodology for risk analysis of each sewage catchment. The spatial analysis of waste water system and its physical and human geographical environment became an effective tool to help the local waterworks (Tettye Forrásház Ltd. to estimate potential hazard level in each sewage catchment and allocate and distribute pumping costs and efforts among the pumping stations during spatiallyheterogeneous torrential rainfall events.

  11. Topological patterns in street networks of self-organized urban settlements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, J.; Gautrais, J.; Reeves, N.; Solé, R. V.; Valverde, S.; Kuntz, P.; Theraulaz, G.

    2006-02-01

    Many urban settlements result from a spatially distributed, decentralized building process. Here we analyze the topological patterns of organization of a large collection of such settlements using the approach of complex networks. The global efficiency (based on the inverse of shortest-path lengths), robustness to disconnections and cost (in terms of length) of these graphs is studied and their possible origins analyzed. A wide range of patterns is found, from tree-like settlements (highly vulnerable to random failures) to meshed urban patterns. The latter are shown to be more robust and efficient.

  12. Environmental risk assessment of the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga, Paula; Palma, Patrícia; Mourinha, Clarisse; Farto, Márcia; Cunha-Queda, Ana Cristina; Natal-da-Luz, Tiago; Sousa, José Paulo

    2013-04-01

    The use of organic wastes in agriculture is considered a way of maintaining or restoring the quality of soils, enlarging the slow cycling soil organic carbon pool. However, a wide variety of undesired substances, such as potentially trace elements and organic contaminants, can have adverse effects on the environment. That fact was highlighted by the Proposal for a Soil Framework Directive, which recognized that "soil degradation or soil improvements have a major impact on other areas, (…) such as surface waters and groundwater, human health, climate change, protection of nature and biodiversity, and food safety". Taking that into account, the research project "ResOrgRisk" aims to assess the environmental risk involved in the use of different organic wastes as soil amendments, evidencing their benefits and constraints, and defining the most suitable tests to reach such assessment. The organic wastes selected for this purpose were: sewage sludge, limed, not limed, and co-composted with agricultural wastes, agro-industrial sludge, mixed municipal solid waste compost, compost produced from organic farming residues, and pig slurry digestate. Whereas threshold values for heavy metals in sludge used for agriculture have been set by the European Commission, actually there is no definitive European legislation for organic contaminants. Guide values for some organic contaminants (e.g. polychlorinated biphenyls - PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - PAHs) have been adopted at national level by many European countries, such as Portugal. These values should be taken into account when assessing the risk involved in the use of organic wastes as soil amendments. However, chemical analysis of organic waste often gives scarce information because it does not include possible interactions between chemicals. Furthermore, an exhaustive identification and quantification of all substances is impractical. In this study, ecotoxicological tests (comprising solid and aquatic phases

  13. Thermal alterations of organic matter in coal wastes from Upper Silesia, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misz-Kennan, Magdalena

    2010-01-01

    Self-heating and self-combustion are currently taking place in some coal waste dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland, e.g. the dumps at Rymer Cones, Starzykowiec, and the Marcel Coal Mine, all in the Rybnik area. These dumps are of similar age and self-heating and combustion have been occurring in all three for many years. The tools of organic petrography (maceral composition, rank, etc.), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and proximate and ultimate analysis are used to investigate the wastes. Organic matter occurs in quantities up to 85 vol.%, typically a few to several vol.%, in the wastes. All three maceral groups (vitrinite, liptinite, and inertinite) are present as unaltered and variously-altered constituents associated with newly-formed petrographic components (bitumen expulsions, pyrolytic carbon). The predominant maceral group is vitrinite with alterations reflected in the presence of irregular cracks, oxidation rims and, rarely, devolatilisation pores. In altered wastes, paler grey-vitrinite and/or coke dominates. The lack of plasticity, the presence of paler-coloured particles, isotropic massive coke, dispersed coked organic matter, and expulsions of bitumens all indicate that heating was slow and extended over a long time. Macerals belonging to other groups are present in unaltered form or with colours paler than the colours of the parent macerals. Based on the relative contents of organic compounds, the most important groups of these identified in the wastes are n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, hopanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their derivatives, phenol and its derivatives. These compounds occur in all wastes except those most highly altered where they were probably destroyed by high temperatures. These compounds were generated mainly from liptinite-group macerals. Driven by evaporation and leaching, they migrated within and out of the dump. Their presence in some wastes in which microscopically visible organic matter is

  14. From Heroes to Organizers: Principals and Education Organizing in Urban School Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishimaru, Ann

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Educational leadership is key to addressing the persistent inequities in low-income urban schools, but most principals struggle to work with parents and communities around those schools to create socially just learning environments. This article describes the conditions and experiences that enabled principals to share leadership with…

  15. The comparison of fossil carbon fraction and greenhouse gas emissions through an analysis of exhaust gases from urban solid waste incineration facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungjin; Kang, Seongmin; Lee, Jeongwoo; Lee, Seehyung; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jeon, Eui-Chan

    2016-10-01

    In this study, in order to understand accurate calculation of greenhouse gas emissions of urban solid waste incineration facilities, which are major waste incineration facilities, and problems likely to occur at this time, emissions were calculated by classifying calculation methods into 3 types. For the comparison of calculation methods, the waste characteristics ratio, dry substance content by waste characteristics, carbon content in dry substance, and (12)C content were analyzed; and in particular, CO2 concentration in incineration gases and (12)C content were analyzed together. In this study, 3 types of calculation methods were made through the assay value, and by using each calculation method, emissions of urban solid waste incineration facilities were calculated then compared. As a result of comparison, with Calculation Method A, which used the default value as presented in the IPCC guidelines, greenhouse gas emissions were calculated for the urban solid waste incineration facilities A and B at 244.43 ton CO2/day and 322.09 ton CO2/day, respectively. Hence, it showed a lot of difference from Calculation Methods B and C, which used the assay value of this study. It is determined that this was because the default value as presented in IPCC, as the world average value, could not reflect the characteristics of urban solid waste incineration facilities. Calculation Method B indicated 163.31 ton CO2/day and 230.34 ton CO2/day respectively for the urban solid waste incineration facilities A and B; also, Calculation Method C indicated 151.79 ton CO2/day and 218.99 ton CO2/day, respectively. This study intends to compare greenhouse gas emissions calculated using (12)C content default value provided by the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) with greenhouse gas emissions calculated using (12)C content and waste assay value that can reflect the characteristics of the target urban solid waste incineration facilities. Also, the concentration and (12)C content

  16. RSW-MCFP: A Resource-Oriented Solid Waste Management System for a Mixed Rural-Urban Area through Monte Carlo Simulation-Based Fuzzy Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of global population and economy continually increases the waste volumes and consequently creates challenges to handle and dispose solid wastes. It becomes more challenging in mixed rural-urban areas (i.e., areas of mixed land use for rural and urban purposes where both agricultural waste (e.g., manure and municipal solid waste are generated. The efficiency and confidence of decisions in current management practices significantly rely on the accurate information and subjective judgments, which are usually compromised by uncertainties. This study proposed a resource-oriented solid waste management system for mixed rural-urban areas. The system is featured by a novel Monte Carlo simulation-based fuzzy programming approach. The developed system was tested by a real-world case with consideration of various resource-oriented treatment technologies and the associated uncertainties. The modeling results indicated that the community-based bio-coal and household-based CH4 facilities were necessary and would become predominant in the waste management system. The 95% confidence intervals of waste loadings to the CH4 and bio-coal facilities were 387, 450 and 178, 215 tonne/day (mixed flow, respectively. In general, the developed system has high capability in supporting solid waste management for mixed rural-urban areas in a cost-efficient and sustainable manner under uncertainty.

  17. Methods of chemical analysis for organic waste constituents in radioactive materials: A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, S.A.; Bean, R.M.

    1993-02-01

    Most of the waste generated during the production of defense materials at Hanford is presently stored in 177 underground tanks. Because of the many waste treatment processes used at Hanford, the operations conducted to move and consolidate the waste, and the long-term storage conditions at elevated temperatures and radiolytic conditions, little is known about most of the organic constituents in the tanks. Organics are a factor in the production of hydrogen from storage tank 101-SY and represent an unresolved safety question in the case of tanks containing high organic carbon content. In preparation for activities that will lead to the characterization of organic components in Hanford waste storage tanks, a thorough search of the literature has been conducted to identify those procedures that have been found useful for identifying and quantifying organic components in radioactive matrices. The information is to be used in the planning of method development activities needed to characterize the organics in tank wastes and will prevent duplication of effort in the development of needed methods

  18. Status of test results of electrochemical organic oxidation of a tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colby, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    This report presents scoping test results of an electrochemical waste pretreatment process to oxidize organic compounds contained in the Hanford Site's radioactive waste storage tanks. Electrochemical oxidation was tested on laboratory scale to destroy organics that are thought to pose safety concerns, using a nonradioactive, simulated tank waste. Minimal development work has been applied to alkaline electrochemical organic destruction. Most electrochemical work has been directed towards acidic electrolysis, as in the metal purification industry, and silver catalyzed oxidation. Alkaline electrochemistry has traditionally been associated with the following: (1) inefficient power use, (2) electrode fouling, and (3) solids handling problems. Tests using a laboratory scale electrochemical cell oxidized surrogate organics by applying a DC electrical current to the simulated tank waste via anode and cathode electrodes. The analytical data suggest that alkaline electrolysis oxidizes the organics into inorganic carbonate and smaller carbon chain refractory organics. Electrolysis treats the waste without adding chemical reagents and at ambient conditions of temperature and pressure. Cell performance was not affected by varying operating conditions and supplemental electrolyte additions

  19. Model of sustainable utilization of organic solids waste in Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solanyi Castañeda Torres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This article considers a proposal of a model of use of organic solids waste for the department of Cundinamarca, which responds to the need for a tool to support decision-making for the planning and management of organic solids waste. Objective: To perform an approximation of a conceptual technical and mathematician optimization model to support decision-making in order to minimize environmental impacts. Materials and methods: A descriptive study was applied due to the fact that some fundamental characteristics of the studied homogeneous phenomenon are presented and it is also considered to be quasi experimental. The calculation of the model for plants of the department is based on three axes (environmental, economic and social, that are present in the general equation of optimization. Results: A model of harnessing organic solids waste in the techniques of biological treatment of composting aerobic and worm cultivation is obtained, optimizing the system with the emissions savings of greenhouse gases spread into the atmosphere, and in the reduction of the overall cost of final disposal of organic solids waste in sanitary landfill. Based on the economic principle of utility that determines the environmental feasibility and sustainability in the plants of harnessing organic solids waste to the department, organic fertilizers such as compost and humus capture carbon and nitrogen that reduce the tons of CO2.

  20. The Problem of Urban Solid Waste in the City of Prishtina (Kosovo) and its Management

    OpenAIRE

    , Ramadani I.; , Bulliqi S.; , Gashi G.; , Isufi F.; , Ejupi A.; , Bytyqi V.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper is treated the problem of solid wastes in Prishtina, their origin, treatment and solutions for better management. The problem of wastes is one of the most serious issues facing people in Prishtina and Kosova, especially in last decade. There is a bad management of solid waste in Prishtina city because of the lack of investments in waste treatment, insufficient capacities of existing landfills and poor legal framework. The problem of waste in Prishtina should be approached in man...