WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban industrial economy

  1. Disadvantaged Young People Accessing the New Urban Economies of the Post-Industrial City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffo, Carlo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to examine current and evolving supply side transition policy initiatives in the light of (a) particular demand side needs of urban young people classified as those most disadvantaged and potentially marginalized; and (b) the emerging realities of accessing and operating within particular examples of high value-added…

  2. Energy economy in Nordic industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, P H; Finnedal, B H

    1980-01-01

    The employment, economic and energetic situation in various industrial branches and their importance for industry as a whole is mapped for Nordic countries. Future Nordic energy projects can base their attempts to decrease energy costs per unit on this report. In food and stimulants industry, chemical, glass and ceramic industry over 90% energy is used for processing while in steel- and metal-industry the processing consumes only about 25%. Rentability of new investments in energy saving should be considered in these branches against investments in automation, new equipment etc. Common Nordic energy-saving projects can provide much better energy economy. For instance 4% of USA energy which had formerly been used in drying processes is drastically decreased and if the USA result can be transferred to Nordic conditions DKr 160 million can be save. Prospective common projects are process-types like drying, spray-drying, heat treatments of mineral proproducts, and evaporation.

  3. Understanding the peri-urban economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monsson, Christian Kjær

    2013-01-01

    Christian Kjær Monsson suggests that the peri-urban economy should be understood as a metaphor of a mosaic.......Christian Kjær Monsson suggests that the peri-urban economy should be understood as a metaphor of a mosaic....

  4. Cultural political economy and urban heritage tourism

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Rui; Bramwell, Bill; Whalley, Peter A.

    2018-01-01

    The paper explains a cultural political economy “framing” for interpreting heritage tourism in urban contexts. Key ideas behind this research perspective are explained and illustrated through discussion of past research studies of urban heritage tourism. It is underpinned by a relational view of the inter-connectedness of societal relations, and an emphasis on taking seriously both the cultural/semiotic and the economic/political in the co-constitution of urban heritage tourism’s social pract...

  5. Connecting rural-urban economies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Marianne Nylandsted; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Lazaro, Evelyn

    The interlinked relationships between urban settlements and their rural hinterlands in Sub-Saharan Africa are perceived crucial in enhancing possibilities for livelihood diversification and poverty reduction. Urban settlements provide opportunities for investment in more remunerative economic...... activities, job/employment opportunities that retain potential migrants in the area, and access to services for the rural hinterlands. This paper examines the role of emerging urban centres (EUCs) as ‘drivers’ of rural development based on a study of two EUCs and their rural hinterlands in Tanzania. Findings...... and poverty reduction....

  6. The food industry and provincial economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Greg; Li, Duo

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the significance of the food industry for the Zhejiang provincial economy and for provincial economies generally. It is suggested that the strong ties between the food industry and provincial economies in China means that the food industry can be a key influence in the economic development of regional China. Moreover, the geographically diffuse nature of the food industry in China gives the industry a strategic significance in countering regional inequality within and between provinces, a by-product of China's rapid growth over the past 25 years. For these reasons, change in the food industry, whether it has its origins in the introduction of western fast foods, or in environmental, technological or economic trends, not only assumes significance for the health of the Chinese people (as other papers presented to the International Cuisine and Health Workshop at Hangzhou have pointed out), but also for the wealth of the nation and the way that wealth is distributed.

  7. Natural Gas Consumption of Emerging Economies in the Industrialization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Chai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural gas has become more and more important in the world energy market with the change of energy consumption structure and consumption subjects. This paper applies the panel smooth transition regression (PSTR model to study the nonlinear relationship between natural gas consumption and economic variables of emerging economies, and the empirical results show that: (1 There is a non-linear relationship among natural gas consumption, GDP per capita, industrialization and urbanization rate; (2 The optimal PSTR model is a two-regime model by using the lagged industrialization as a transition variable, and the impact of GDP per capita and of industrialization on natural gas consumption shows incomplete symmetry in low and high regime, respectively; (3 The result of time-varying elasticity analysis indicates that natural gas consumption is inelastic to GDP per capita, but elastic to both industrialization and urbanization. The elasticity of GDP per capita generally decrease with fluctuation, the elasticity of industrialization tends to rise, and the elasticity of urbanization is linear at high level; (4 Regional difference shows that there are 10 emerging economies are in first regime (below industrialization of 43.2%, and the remaining 6 are in second regime. This provides reference for countries in different transformation periods to make economic policies adapting to energy saving, energy structure optimization and other sustainable development strategies.

  8. Industrial Foundations in the Danish Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    Industrial Foundations (foundations that own business companies) are found around the world e.g in Northern Europe, Germany, the US and India, but nowhere do they appear to be as economically important as in Denmark. In this paper we review their share of the Danish economy. We find that foundation......-owned companies account for 5-10% of the Danish economy depending on measurement. However, they constitute the bulk of Danish stock market capitalization and R&D expenditure, and they also contribute disproportionally to international business activity. Finally the industrial foundations make charitable donations...

  9. New growth type industries of Japanese Economy <論説>

    OpenAIRE

    Ichihashi, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    This paper's purpose aims to survey and sketch a characteristic of new industrial change of Japanese Economy. The Japanese Economy shifted to export dependence type economy at 1980's because rationalization after an oil crisis at the beginning of 70's had been done. Processing structure industries of export oriented type and new service industries led Japanese Economy from that time to bubble economy period. Firstly, Japanese Economy made a recovery from about 1993 after the collapse ...

  10. Essays on Industrial Organization and Political Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camara, Odilon Roberto VG de a

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents three essays on industrial organization and political economy. In the first essay, I show how the attributes of a managerial workforce affect firms' placement decisions and wage offers, and managers' quit decisions. My OLG model features two division managers and a CEO, where each executive may be at a different point in his…

  11. Industrial energy economy, national and international aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    VDI-report 1061 contains the papers given on the Conference of the same name in Essen on the 22 and 23.6.1993. German industry suffers not only from high wage and on-cost but high, energy costs as well. Waste disposal problems and impending taxes on wages are the cause of these difficulties. The EC believes that competition between energy supplies may help to reduce energy costs. This report deals with cost-efficient energy supply for the German industry and books at the background of this scenario. This industry puts forward its wishes and demands to politicians and energy economy. Representatives of energy suppliers discuss energy supplies, demand, availability, safety of supplies, competitiveness, quality and environmental aspects. The influence of energy costs and environmental taxation on the industrial and economic future of Germany and the situation in the Eastern States of Germany are a further subject of discussion. The views of the EC commission, the industry and the energy suppliers on energy transports across the EC are discussed as well. (orig./UA) [de

  12. Bobos in Paradise: Urban Politics and the New Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Saint-Paul

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides some elements to explain the observed takeover in some urban areas of a new kind of elite associated with new economy jobs, also known as "bourgeois bohème" (bobos). This takeover has been associated with greater investment in urban amenities and "clean" means of transport, with adverse effects on commuting time. The model allows us to explain those developments by productivity is growth in the new economy, and by the differences in production processes between the new and...

  13. Building an industry; building an economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimpton, M.

    2006-01-01

    This presentation provided an outline of oil and gas activity in the province, with a focus on the social and economic benefits provided to the province by the major oil and gas plays of Hibernia, Terra Nova and White Rose. Between 1999 and 2004, oil and gas activity contributed to an 18.4 per cent rise in the gross domestic product (GDP) of Newfoundland. Personal incomes rose by 5.9 per cent, and retail sales achieved an increase of 5.1 per cent. The population of the province has increased by 9000, and the unemployment rate has dropped by 2.3 per cent. Infrastructure additions provided by the oil and gas sector include construction sites; shipyards; a sub-sea fabrication centre; a trans-shipment terminal; a pipeyard, warehouse and operations centre; and a supply base and heliport. The petroleum industry has also contributed significantly to a variety of training and research facilities in the province. Oil revenues continue to accrue to the Newfoundland government, and economic diversification has improved in the region. Despite these contributions, the petroleum industry is often seen as transient and tangential to the economy. The industry is viewed as a revenue source, and its activities are seen as being of short duration. It was suggested that a wider recognition of the range, scope and scale of benefits provided by the industry are needed to address public misperceptions. Efforts must be made by the province to help the industry grow, and a wider recognition of diversification and sustainability must be achieved. refs., tabs., figs

  14. Examples of industrial achievements. [Energy economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-07-01

    Several examples are presented of industrial units concerned by energy economies. The problem, the solution, the energy savings and the financial balance are given for each following case: recuperation of smoke from two glass furnaces with continuous heat and power production; a new type of heating furnace for non-ferrous ingots; heating furnace with smoke recuperation; high-power boiler for very wet barks; smokes to supply heat to buildings and for a dryer; heat pump drying of plaster squares; air-conditioning of a workshop by recuperation on a furnace; dehydration of fodder and beetroot pulp with a straw generator; microprocessor-controlled hot water recuperation in cheese-making; electronic speed regulation for electronic motors.

  15. Editorial: Globalisation of Economies and Industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Rybkowski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At  the  beginning  of  the  21st  century  we  also  experience  some  drawbacks  of globalisation. Yes, it “promotes economic and social advancement”, but the progress is not evenly distributes and not “all peoples” enjoy the benefits of globalisation. Growing interdependency has also brought greater competition,  this time reaching much further that  just  neighbouring  countries. Therefore,  we  decided  to  focus  this  issue  of our  journal  on  exploring  the Globalisation of Economies and Industries. We do hope that the articles presented in this issue  will inspire further research.

  16. The industrial dynamics of the new digital economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frøslev Christensen, Jens; Maskell, Peter

    This work investigates the implications of digital technologies on the industrial and business dynamics of modern economies. In-depth studies analyse how deep-rooted work practices of the Old Economy have been dramatically challenged when confronted with the entrepreneurial wave of the New Economy...... channels of interaction with old partners must be reconfigured and familiar divisions of labour rethought. This book presents novel and detailed data showing how vast and still dominant industries of the Old Economy have responded to the new challenges and exploited the emerging opportunities...... those interested in technology, innovation and the New Economy....

  17. Urban amenities and agglomeration economies? : the locational behaviour and economic success of Dutch fashion design entrepreneurs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenting, R.; Atzema, O.A.L.C.; Frenken, K.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial clustering of industries is traditionally explained by agglomeration economies benefiting co-located firms. The focus on firms rather than people has been challenged by Florida arguing that urban amenities attract creative people to certain cities. On the basis of a questionnaire, an

  18. The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Influence of the Economy on Hospitality Industry in Nigeria. ... Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management ... contributions of the hospitality industry (represented by Hotels and Restaurants) to the Nigerian economy (represented by the Gross Domestic Products – GDP) and the GDP itself from 1980 ...

  19. Energy Efficiency and Urban Renewal in the Economies in Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendow, K.

    1997-01-01

    The Paper notes the importance of energy consumption in agglomerations (65-70% in the economies in transition) and of related emissions. It assesses the technical and cost-effective potential for a 40% and more decrease in urban energy intensities and SO 2 /NO x emissions by 2020, resulting from a systematic approach to urban as well as energy planning. Compared to approaches worldwide, urban energy renewal in the economies in transition appears, as its beginning, characterized by a traditional focus on existing technological supply sub-systems such as district heating and co-generation. The obstacles to a more systematic approach, including demand side management, are slow progress in urban and energy reforms and a lack of acquaintance with modern planning tools. International cooperation is incommensurate with the long-term challenge of s ustainable urban development . (author)

  20. The shadow economy in industrial countries

    OpenAIRE

    Dominik H. Enste

    2015-01-01

    The shadow (underground) economy plays a major role in many countries. People evade taxes and regulations by working in the shadow economy or by employing people illegally. On the one hand, this unregulated economic activity can result in reduced tax revenue and public goods and services, lower tax morale and less tax compliance, higher control costs, and lower economic growth rates. But on the other hand, the shadow economy can be a powerful force for advancing institutional change and can b...

  1. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835–1930

    Science.gov (United States)

    BHATTACHARYA, NANDINI

    2013-01-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy ‘other’ of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the ‘despoiling’ or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout. PMID:24273391

  2. Leisure, economy and colonial urbanism: Darjeeling, 1835-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Nandini

    2013-08-01

    This article posits that the hill station of Darjeeling was a unique form of colonial urbanism. It shifts historiographical interest from major urban centres in colonial India (such as Bombay or Calcutta) and instead attempts a greater understanding of smaller urban centres. In the process, it also interrogates the category of hill stations, which have been understood as exotic and scenic sites rather than as towns that were integral to the colonial economy. In arguing that hill stations, particularly Darjeeling, were not merely the scenic and healthy 'other' of the clamorous, dirty and diseased plains of India, it refutes suggestions that the 'despoiling' or overcrowding of Darjeeling was incremental to the purposes of its establishment. Instead, it suggests that Darjeeling was part of the colonial mainstream; its urbanization and inclusion into the greater colonial economy was effected from the time of its establishment. Therefore, a constant tension between its exotic and its functional elements persisted throughout.

  3. Impact of the Smart City Industry on the Korean National Economy: Input-Output Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunam Kim

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the smart city industry and its effects on the national economy of Korea are investigated using input-output analysis. The definition and industrial classification of a smart city are established using the Delphi technique for experts in various fields, from information and communication technologies (ICT to governmental policies for urban matters. The results of the analysis, including the production, value added and employment induction effects, show that the smart city industry has intermediate characteristics between ICT and urban construction industries, indicating that acquisition of the competitive edge of both the ICT and construction industries is the key to the success of the smart city industry. The crucial industries related to the smart city industry are identified based on an analysis of the forward and backward linkage effects, the results of which suggest the importance of the relevant service industries. The economic effects on the national economy induced by the governmental program for smart city demonstration are estimated using input-output analysis results. Overall, the results of this study indicate that facilitation of the smart city industry plays a key role not only in the sustainable city, but also in the growth of the national economy.

  4. Energy economy and industrial ecology in the Brazilian cement sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tavares, Marina Elisabete Espinho; Schaeffer, Roberto

    1999-01-01

    The article discusses the following issues of the Brazilian cement sector: the Brazilian cement main types specification, cement quantities evolution produced in Brazil from 1987 to 1997, energy conservation in the cement production process with additives, energy economy cost estimates from the utilization of additives, and several technologies energy economy cost used in the industrial sector

  5. The political economy of the nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, J.

    1981-01-01

    The changing international context, in particular declining estimates of nuclear capacity and a depression in the nuclear reactor market will influence prospects for a nuclear industry in Australia. Effects of the opposition by trade unions and community groups to uranium mining are discussed. The relationship between political decisions and the economics of the nuclear power industry is stressed

  6. Impact of electronuclear industry on French economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, J.-P.

    An analysis of the effects of the French nuclear programme on internal production, international trade and employment in France, between 1976 and 1985, is presented. The contribution of the PWR programme to economic activity, the various branches of industry and manpower utilization is evaluated. After an increase in deficit of the balance of trade, the nuclear industry will limit importations for electricity production and yield an economic rentability [fr

  7. Agglomeration economies in manufacturing industries: the case of Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Alonso-Villar; José-María Chamorro-Rivas; Xulia González-Cerdeira

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyses the extent of geographical concentration of Spanish industry between 1993 and 1999, and study the agglomeration economies that could underlie that concentration. The results confirm that there is major geographic concentration in a number of industries with widely varying characteristics, including high-tech businesses and those linked to the provision of natural resources as well as traditional industries. The analysis of the scope of spillovers behind this agglomeration ...

  8. The transition from industrial (traditional to new (information economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Bogdan B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 20th century a new economy and a new information society emerged, as a result of achieving the third and the transition to the fourth scientific and technological revolution. The basis of this new economy lies in the transition from the industrial production to the production based on information and technology. The new economy contributes to changing the character of the factors of production, the structure of the value produced the motives of production, the workers’ position (robots replacing slaves etc. Besides labor, capital, land and entrepreneurship, information appears to be the fifth and the most important factor of production. The Internet is becoming the foundation of the new economy and contributes to changing the way people learn and do research, as well as to reducing the burden of administration, changing the way of competition, reducing operating costs crossing national borders and leading to the process of globalization of the world economy into an integral entity. Some basic characteristics of this new economy are the following: the information basis of production, rapid changes of products, flexible production systems, network organization of production, integration, services backed by products, skills and knowledge generalization, education, knowledge and talent becoming the most important factor of the socio-economic growth and development, etc. The new economy leads to a number of advantages when compared to the traditional one. However, it also has a number of negative consequences: pollution indebtedness of underdeveloped countries, widening the gap between the development level of regions, countries and individuals, growing inflation unemployment etc. But the new economy is objectively conditioned and the task of each national economy is to determine the most favorable way of its incorporation into this new economy (globalization.

  9. Political Economy of Agrarian Crisis and Slow Industrialization in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattacharyya, Sudipta; Abraham, Mathew; D'Costa, Anthony

    This paper uses the structuralist framework of agriculture-industry synergy in an economy to discuss the performance of the agricultural and industrial sectors in India. The industry – agriculture relationship is argued to be integral to economic development as the agriculture sector supplies raw...... development and growth in the two sectors. It concludes that India has not followed the structuralist pattern of sectoral development and poor agricultural growth has not been conducive for demand led industrialization, adversely affecting factor markets for both labour and land....

  10. Queensland's mining industry vital to state and national economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austin, B

    1987-04-01

    Queensland's multi-billion dollar mining industry, and the industries it supports, continues to play a vital role in the economy of the State and the nation. According to Australian Bureau of Statistics figures, Queenland produces nearly half of the black coal mined in Australia, 70% of the copper, 54% of the silver, 42% of the lead, 31% of the zinc, 40% of the tungsten, 25% of the bauxite and tin, 46% of the rutile, and 9% of the gold.

  11. Energy and minerals industries in national, regional, and state economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. J. Shields; S. A. Winter; G. S. Alward; K. L. Hartung

    1996-01-01

    This report presents information on the contribution of the extractive industries to the domestic economy at different geopolitical scales. Areas where resource production is important to gross state or regional product, employment, or income are highlighted. Output, employment, value added, and personal and total income multipliers are reported for the energy and...

  12. Tackling the Urban Informal Economy: Some Lessons from a Study of Europe’s Urban Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin C. WILLIAMS

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate themost effective way of tackling the urban informaleconomy. It has been recently argued that theconventional rational economic actor approach(which increases the costs of participating in theurban informal economy so that they outweighthe benefi ts should be replaced or complementedby a social actor approach which focusesupon improving tax morale. To evaluate the effectivenessof these supposedly alternative approachesto tackling the participation of urbanpopulations in the informal economy, we reportthe results of face-to-face interviews conductedin 2013 with 17,886 urban dwellers across the 28Member States of the EU. Multilevel logistic regressionanalysis reveals that both approachesare effective in signifi cantly reducing the urbanpopulation’s participation in the informal economy.When tax morale is high, however, the rationaleconomic actor approach of increasing thecosts has little impact on reducing the probabilityof engagement in the informal economy. The paperconcludes by calling for greater emphasis onimproving the tax morale of the urban populationso as to tackle the informal economy in the urbanareas of Europe and beyond.

  13. Soils in urban and industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burghardt, W.

    1994-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding rapidly. Therefore the interest in soil science activities on urban and industrial sites grows. The paper gives an overview of the research and mapping activities in Germany. A model of soils in urban ecosystems shows the relationships of development of soils and soil quality to land use. The water regime of soils is influenced by the characteristics of urban landscape and sealing. Of special interest are the typical substrates. Some properties of soils which develop on tipped substrates of natural material are discussed. Of importance are technological substrates as rubble, ash, slag, waste material and sludges in urban environments. Proposals of classification of urban and industrial soils are presented. For proper use by the municipal authorities availability and application of information on urban soils must be a part of research. (orig.) [de

  14. Economies of scale, technology, and intra-industry trade

    OpenAIRE

    Inagawa Nobuo

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test empirically economies of scale, defined by technologyin Intra-Industry Trade(IIT). B.Balassa found first the existence of IIT. Grubeland Lloyd, Linder, Dreze, and others treated IIT as consisting of final goods.But P.Raymentfound that IIT consists mostly of intermediate goods and he tried to explain IIT byeconomies of scale and specialization. However, to test the relationship between economiesof scale and IIT, I will use I.Ozaki's definition on economies ...

  15. Possibilities in concrete industry towards circular economy through industrial symbiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjegović Dubravka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Major challenges of traditional linear concrete industry are utilisation of large amount of non-renewable resources and significant air emissions during production, utilisation and demolition of concrete structures. At the same time, concrete industry has a high potential for a positive shift towards more sustainable production and lower ecological footprint. One of the strategies is to use waste materials and byproducts from other industries as valuable raw materials in concrete industry. This loop can be closed only by taking into account properties of a certain waste material and using them for preparation of special purpose concrete products, in which these properties are favourable. Other strategy is designing concrete tailored for certain environment and service life, making it optimised for that specific purpose. The paper presents some of the available waste and recycled materials in Croatia and research focused on their potential application in civil engineering. The possibilities of utilisation are first explored in laboratory conditions, with the results presented in this paper as an outcome. Based on the obtained results some of the potential areas of application are proposed, in which concrete prepared with these waste materials becomes alternative to classical concrete. Both original scientific research results are presented, but also prototype of products produced based on the scientific research.

  16. Circular economy opportunity in the wind industry. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, Robert

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to identify how the circular economy can be an opportunity for the French wind industry. A broad review of circular economy issues for the wind industry value chain has been conducted in order to be used as a decision making tool for ADEME and the wind industry stakeholders. First of all, a 'flow analysis' (including material, logistic and services related to wind power) has been carried out in order to highlight the specific challenges of circular economy for the wind sector. The strategic opportunities that meet these issues have then been identified. A selection of six opportunities has been further investigated to assess the benefits, to analyze the barriers and to identify actions that ADEME could initiate to foster these opportunities. These investigated opportunities are the following: - To structure a recycling chain for wind blades; - To promote the business model of the extension of wind turbine's lifetime; - To promote skills improvement of local providers for reconditioning and maintenance services; - To adapt the offshore hubs to integrate dismantling activity of onshore equipments; - To increase the manufacturing capacity of wind towers in France to increase local sourcing; - To encourage the creation of a leading French manufacturer to optimize the supply chain. In the light of this analysis, it can be concluded that circular economy represents a strategic opportunity for the French wind energy sector. The opportunities we focused on make up a consistent set of initiatives that improve the environmental, economic and social performance of the wind energy sector by strengthening industrial activities and services throughout all the life cycle: manufacturing stage (optimization of logistics flows and local manufacturing), use phase (maintenance, repair) and end-of-life phase of wind turbine (dismantling, recycling). While the sector has so far been focused on better solving technological challenges and

  17. Blockchain - an Innovation Technology of the Post-Industrial Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Arkhireiska Natalia V.

    2017-01-01

    The article is aimed at studying the innovation technology of the post-industrial economy - blockchain. It has been found that blockchain is a multifunctional and multi-level information technology designed to reliably account for different assets. It has been proved that the most important today is blockchain for Bitcoin. The article explores the opportunities, prospects and risks associated with investment in cryptocurrency. It has been determined that the main advantages of investment in B...

  18. The Economy Goes to College: The Hidden Promise of Higher Education in the Post-Industrial Service Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; Rose, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    This report explores the crucial transformation of the United States from an industrial to a post-industrial economy, with a particular focus on the shifting skill levels and incomes of American workers. It shows the increasing value of postsecondary education in today's economy and examines how workers have fared as the nation's focus has shifted…

  19. Urbanization and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, N. I.; Skripnuk, D. F.; Mirolyubova, O. V.

    2017-06-01

    This article analyses the global environment. The article describes processes that characterize the global environment, specific indicators are suggested, that can be used to measure the change in the global environment. It is said that cities and all urbanized territories have a negative effect on the global environment. Originally, the authors wanted to call the article «City as a source of destruction of the global environment». But taking into account the fact that urbanization contributes to improving the economic efficiency of the state, cities are the centers of the economic, cultural and informational potential that provide a «breakthrough» into the development of the economy. The article assesses the impact of urbanization on the global environment. For the analysis of the impact of urbanization on the natural habitat, the autoregressive distributed lags (ADL-model) are chosen.

  20. Migration, Business Formation, and the Informal Economy in Urban Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Although the informal economy has grown rapidly in several developing nations, and migration and informality may be related to similar types of credit constraints and market failures, previous research has not systematically attempted to identify if migrant households are more likely to start informal and formal businesses alike and if this association varies across local contexts. We examine the relationship between prior U.S. migration and the creation of both formal and informal businesses in urban Mexico using several criteria to indirectly assess sector location. We use data from 56 communities from the Mexican Migration Project to estimate multilevel survival and nonmultilevel competing risk models predicting the likelihood of informal, formal, and no business formation. The recent return migration of the household head is strongly associated with informal business creation, particularly in economically dynamic areas. On the other hand, migrants are only marginally more likely to start formal businesses in highly economically dynamic sending areas. PMID:23721676

  1. CREATIVE ECONOMY: A NEW CADRE FOR MEDIA INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Burtic

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We wonder why the creative economy concept causes so much passion, excitement and so high expectations. Because imagination, creativity, competence, fantasy, individual talent, ingenuity were and still are today catalysts that led to society development. How does creative economy, that seems to promise so much, distinguish from other economic stamps which imprinted the human community in the course of history? These are some of the questions we will try to answer in this paper work, having in mind as objective the study of communication processes and mass-media. Generally, the research over mass-media system considered that the content analysis may provide the means to understand the society we live in. In terms of methodology, starting from the observation of mass-media industry and economy actuality, we propose to make an analysis of content. We will raise issues regarding concept definition and delimitation, historical development and media industry analysis from an economical perspective, analyzing the opinions of some other researchers about these subjects. We will try to present the concepts we support having in light some reference paper works and to illustrate with realities from Romanian and international mass-media economy. We will go through literature and we will try to support with empirical data the subjects discussed in theory. To achieve these things, we will use relevant statistical and official data of other researchers. In the examination of mass-media economy we will study economical models, comparative analysis and analysis of international organizations positions. In the current situation, mass-media is part of a technological and economic transformation, like the whole society is. An economical approach of media industry is important today both from the scientific and practical point of view. Most of the decisions taken by the factors that lead the businesses in media sector are largely influenced by financial resources

  2. Industry - An Urban Developer. Case Study: Iron and Steel Industry in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu SĂGEATĂ

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The profound economic and social changes that took place during the period of transition from a central-based economy to the market system have deeply marked the evolution of industrial towns, particularly those targeted for heavy industry development between 1950 and 1989. The present paper analyses this model of urban evolution affected by the interference of the political-ideological factor. Three towns, Galaţi, Târgovişte and Oţelu Roşu, in which a strong iron-and-steel industry was planted, have been taken into the study. Galaţi – a large town with complex functions, a regional and crossborder polarization center, was singled out for this type of industry by political decision within the context of the industrialization drive of the 1950s; Târgovişte – an old middle urban center, was pushed into the iron-and-steel route in the 1970-1980 decade. Oţelu Roşu – a small town, has a traditional iron-and-steel industry based on local raw material resources. Relying on historical documents, bibliographical sources and field work, the author correlates urban development evolutions with the industrialization policies, highlighting the causes that have led to the present decline of these towns and the challenges facing the local authorities in revitalizing them in a sustainable manner.

  3. The South African Adventure Tourism Economy: An urban phenomenon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKay Tracey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The international adventure tourism literature is remarkably silent on the geographical nature of the industry. This study seeks to provide a geographical analysis of the sector within the context of South Africa. The spatial analysis was undertaken by metropolitan area, secondary towns and small towns, using a dataset of adventure tourism enterprises. It was found that the sector is spatially concentrated and highly urbanised, despite the perception that adventure tourism requires ‘wild’ and outdoor spaces. With many adventure tourism enterprises located in South Africa’s metropolitan areas, it is a hither too unknown sub-sector of the South African urban tourism market. Urban settlements with large populations and a strong general tourism sector form a significant support base for adventure tourism operators. Cape Town is the dominant adventure tourism destination, making it the adventure capital of South Africa. A few small settlements were found to be highly dependent upon the sector for survival.

  4. Urban economies and occupation space: can they get "there" from "here"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachata Muneepeerakul

    Full Text Available Much of the socioeconomic life in the United States occurs in its urban areas. While an urban economy is defined to a large extent by its network of occupational specializations, an examination of this important network is absent from the considerable body of work on the determinants of urban economic performance. Here we develop a structure-based analysis addressing how the network of interdependencies among occupational specializations affects the ease with which urban economies can transform themselves. While most occupational specializations exhibit positive relationships between one another, many exhibit negative ones, and the balance between the two partially explains the productivity of an urban economy. The current set of occupational specializations of an urban economy and its location in the occupation space constrain its future development paths. Important tradeoffs exist between different alternatives for altering an occupational specialization pattern, both at a single occupation and an entire occupational portfolio levels.

  5. Urban economies and occupation space: can they get "there" from "here"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Lobo, José; Shutters, Shade T; Goméz-Liévano, Andrés; Qubbaj, Murad R

    2013-01-01

    Much of the socioeconomic life in the United States occurs in its urban areas. While an urban economy is defined to a large extent by its network of occupational specializations, an examination of this important network is absent from the considerable body of work on the determinants of urban economic performance. Here we develop a structure-based analysis addressing how the network of interdependencies among occupational specializations affects the ease with which urban economies can transform themselves. While most occupational specializations exhibit positive relationships between one another, many exhibit negative ones, and the balance between the two partially explains the productivity of an urban economy. The current set of occupational specializations of an urban economy and its location in the occupation space constrain its future development paths. Important tradeoffs exist between different alternatives for altering an occupational specialization pattern, both at a single occupation and an entire occupational portfolio levels.

  6. Extension of social security coverage for the informal economy in Indonesia : surveys in the urban and rural informal economy

    OpenAIRE

    Angelini, John; Hirose, Kenichi

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the extension of social security coverage to workers in the informal economy. In particular, the paper presents the results of surveys assessing social security needs of workers in the informal economy in both urban and rural areas. The outcome of these surveys provides primary information for the development of effective policy on social security coverage extension to these groups of workers.

  7. Neo-industrialization of Kuzbass economy in innovative development of coal industry and machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balabanova Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of rental-resource model and access restrictions to capital and new technologies, the attempts to encourage import substitution made by the government do not generate innovative type of economic development and reconstruction of economy’s manufacturing industry competitive on the domestic market. In conditions of searching for a new model of Russian economy development the analysis of a number of problems such as industry degradation, reducing the competitiveness of Russian producers, the growth of structural imbalances and overcoming the negative macroeconomic trends becomes strategically important. This raises the value of neo-industrialization as the integrator of resource security, scientific and industrial potential of Russian economy and high capacity of the domestic market in the innovative development system. A special role neo-industrialization plays for the economic development of old industrial regions, which include Kuzbass (Western Siberia, Russia. Neo-industrial development of Kuzbass economy should be initiated by the technological modernization of mining machinery and innovative development of coal industry.

  8. Metal and engineering industry in the Finnish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeenpaeae, I.; Viitanen, M.; Juutinen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The study analyses quantitatively the position, internal structures and environmental aspects of the metal sector (basic metal industry, mechanical engineering, electronics and electrotechnics) in the recent past of the Finnish economy. The changes in the sector by the year 2005 are assessed by means of a macroeconomic simulation model as well. The future development of the metal sector by the year 2005 was assessed by the FMS model system, for which a detailed metal sector sub-model was constructed. The scenario of the general development of the Finnish economy was tuned so that it corresponds as closely as possible to the recent basic projections of the economy made by the government authorities. Three scenarios for the metal sector were constructed: base scenario, rapid and slow growth scenarios. In the base scenario the production volume of the metal sector grows by 6 per cent annually between 1994-2005 while the annual growth rate of the whole industry is 4 per cent and that of the GDP 3 per cent. In the rapid growth scenario, the growth rate of the metal sector goes up to 10 per cent and in the slow growth scenario down to 3 per cent. In the assessment of environmental effects of the metal sector are included energy consumption, emissions into the air, use on natural resources, waste formation and recycling of metals. Although the production volume of the metal sector almost doubles between 1990 - 2000, the consumption of primary energy grows only about one fourth and that of the electricity by 50 per cent

  9. How extractive industries affect health: Political economy underpinnings and pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrecker, Ted; Birn, Anne-Emanuelle; Aguilera, Mariajosé

    2018-06-07

    A systematic and theoretically informed analysis of how extractive industries affect health outcomes and health inequities is overdue. Informed by the work of Saskia Sassen on "logics of extraction," we adopt an expansive definition of extractive industries to include (for example) large-scale foreign acquisitions of agricultural land for export production. To ground our analysis in concrete place-based evidence, we begin with a brief review of four case examples of major extractive activities. We then analyze the political economy of extractivism, focusing on the societal structures, processes, and relationships of power that drive and enable extraction. Next, we examine how this global order shapes and interacts with politics, institutions, and policies at the state/national level contextualizing extractive activity. Having provided necessary context, we posit a set of pathways that link the global political economy and national politics and institutional practices surrounding extraction to health outcomes and their distribution. These pathways involve both direct health effects, such as toxic work and environmental exposures and assassination of activists, and indirect effects, including sustained impoverishment, water insecurity, and stress-related ailments. We conclude with some reflections on the need for future research on the health and health equity implications of the global extractive order. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Does the creative economy provide a sustainable urban form?: Some European experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić-Brković Milica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Three urban redevelopment projects recently undertaken in Europe-Ria 2000 in Bilbao, Spain; Emscher Park in Germany; and Gasometer in Vienna, Austria, are presented and discussed in the paper. All three innovate on three independent levels culture, economy and urban organization, and provide high quality places to assist their cities and regions to cope with a global competitive environment. All three were also designed to represent the best of the sustainable practice in Europe at the time. In the same time, the basic philosophy of all three is deeply rooted in creative economies and elaborate their basis principles. The paper explores their design solution in order to identify the points where creative industries and sustainability meet, and investigates if, and to what extent, they comply with the principles of sustainability. Urban design and physical space are in focus, while other areas are considered as long as they contribute to the design, or reflect a credo that architecture and urban design are among those that play a central role in building cities' reputation and character. The author argues that all three materialized some of the basic principles of sustainability, by elaborating ideas of genius loci and the relationship between identity and locality. Emscher Park has been the most successful in demonstrating how the Brownfield site and devastated area could be transformed into the cultural landscape. Ria 2000 brought in a new interpretation of balance between the man made and natural environments. Gasometer has been least successful, and rather its solutions go after the traditional redevelopment paradigm.

  11. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995–2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies. PMID:27490847

  12. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Habib Hussain; Ahmad, Rubi Binit; Gee, Chan Sok

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership), and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.

  13. Market Structure, Financial Dependence and Industrial Growth: Evidence from the Banking Industry in Emerging Asian Economies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Hussain Khan

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine the role of market structure for growth in financially dependent industries from 10 emerging Asian economies over the period of 1995-2011. Our approach departs from existing studies in that we apply four alternative measures of market structure based on structural and non-structural approaches and compare their outcomes. Results indicate that higher bank concentration may slow down the growth of financially dependent industries. Bank competition on the other hand, allows financially dependent industries to grow faster. These findings are consistent across a number of sensitivity checks such as alternative measures of financial dependence, institutional factors (including property rights, quality of accounting standards and bank ownership, and endogeneity consideration. In sum, our study suggests that financially dependent industries grow more in more competitive/less concentrated banking systems. Therefore, regulatory authorities need to be careful while pursuing a consolidation policy for banking sector in emerging Asian economies.

  14. Rural-urban migration: policy simulations in a dual economy model of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S

    1986-03-01

    The process of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh is analyzed using a dual economy model. The focus is on the period 1976-1985. The main purpose of the paper is to examine alternative policies designed to reduce the level of such migration without adversely affecting the country's economy.

  15. Evaluation of Eco-economy Harmony and Spatial Evolution of the Urban Agglomeration Area in The Great Pearl River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiuming; Xu, Min; Zhang, Yong; Xu, Naizhong; Zhang, Yuhuan

    2018-05-01

    Based on the land use data of the study area during 1990 to 2016, the coordination between ecological environment and economy was estimated according to the ESV (ecosystem services value) and EEH (eco-economy harmony) index. The results showed that large amount of farmland and forests were changed to construction land in the study area, due to the rapid urbanization and industrialization. The ESV showed an overall downward trend, the ESV in per hectare was decreased from 1554,000Yuan to 14513,000Yuan. The economic development speed was decreased from 1990 to 2016, the area with high GDP growth rate is changed from the core area of the pearl river delta to the periphery area. The ecology-economy relation in the study area experienced a transformation of “low grade coordination-low grade conflict -further conflict”. Shenzhen, Dongguan, Huizhou, Jiangmen, the central city of Foshan and Guangzhou became the most high-grade conflict areas.

  16. Environmental regulatory reform in Poland: lessons for industrializing economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, H.S.; Angel, D. [Clark University, Worcester, MA (USA). George Perkins Marsh Institute

    2000-09-01

    This paper examines the environmental regulatory reform in Poland during the 1990s and uses the findings to consider the extent to which elements of successful regulatory systems are transferable across national boundaries. Drawing on five case studies of privatized firms, a mailed questionnaire, and policy and institutional analysis, it investigates how Poland developed an effective system for managing industrial pollution while also achieving considerable socioeconomic progress. The fundamental legitimacy of the regulators and regulatory process, the availability of information about firms and regulatory intents, and the capacity for case-specific decision-making are among the key explanatory factors. The study also shows how in Poland a good 'fit' between regulatory institutions and policies on one hand and their social context on the other hand has evolved, and how it contributes to the effectiveness of the regulatory system. Industrializing economies can indeed simultaneously pursue environmental protection and socioeconomic welfare, but elements of a proven regulatory system cannot be automatically adopted among countries and cultures. Learning from each other's experience must be sensitive to the cultural and institutional context of each regulatory system. 42 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  17. The Spatial Economy in the Urban Informal Settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tunas, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the rapidly urbanizing world, the informal settlement has been forming a significant part of the common urban scene in many cities in the developing countries. It holds a particular role in the city as it houses millions of urban poor who has no access to the public housing. However it does not

  18. EMERGING CITIES ON THE ARABIAN PENINSULA: URBAN SPACE IN THE KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Thierstein

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Networks of the growing knowledge economy significantly influence spatial development on different scales. This paper proposes a framework for analyzing the impact of global knowledge economy networks on the rapidly developing urban space of emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula, and vice versa. Two aspects of the described research are innovative: First, a global relational geography-perspective builds the basis for approaching the analysis of urban space development in emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula. Second, the empirical methodology of the research project is a newly defined method triangulation, setting an example for systematic analysis of local urban development in a global context. The method triangulation combines three different research angles: A knowledge economy firm perspective, an on-site observation perspective and a planner perspective. The method triangulation defines the procedure for the research application in selected case study cities on the Arabian Peninsula. Initial results from applying the research methodology in the city of Dubai give a first indication, that emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula play a significant role in the global and regional knowledge economy networks. Locally developed urban spaces reflect and influence the significance of cities in the global knowledge economy context. Especially the global visibility of urban spaces on a city district scale, which specifically address the needs of knowledge economy players, contributes significantly to the attractiveness of emerging cities on the Arabian Peninsula.

  19. Measuring the economic contribution of the freight industry to the Maryland economy : [research summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    The primary objective was to measure the economic contributions of the freight : industry to the Maryland economy and to develop a freight economic output (FECO) : index that tracks the economic performance of the freight industry over time.

  20. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by this industry, impacts of implementation of various international trade rules on the apparel industry, consequences of Bangladesh's attempts to enter in bilateral and regional free trade agreements...

  1. Bangladesh apparel industry and its workers in a changing world economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis explores and analyses recent changes and challenges faced by the apparel industry of Bangladesh and the consequences of those for the Bangladesh economy. More specifically, it explores and analyses the importance of the apparel industry in the Bangladesh economy, the challenges faced by

  2. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkainen, S.

    2001-04-01

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  3. Industrial peat utilization and its importance to the Irish economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    Over the centuries peat has been used as a valuable source of fuel for domestic heating and cooking. In contrast to earlier times when all peat extraction and harvesting was carried out by hand, peat production in Ireland to-day has become a highly mechanised, large scale commercial industry, making a significant contribution to the Irish economy. Bord na Mona, the state agency assigned the responsibility for peatland development in Ireland, has developed 88,000 hectares of Ireland's 1.2 million hectares of peatlands. Over 5.2 million tonnes of fuel peat are currently sold each year for electricity generation and for the manufacture of peat briquettes for heating installations. With the introduction of a new 120 MW peat fired power station, the overall sales for fuel peat will be increased by 1.0 million tonnes per annum. On the horticultural front, Bord na Mona produces and sells over 1.5 million cubic metres of horticultural peat products to the domestic and international markets. (author)

  4. Blockchain - an Innovation Technology of the Post-Industrial Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkhireiska Natalia V.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at studying the innovation technology of the post-industrial economy - blockchain. It has been found that blockchain is a multifunctional and multi-level information technology designed to reliably account for different assets. It has been proved that the most important today is blockchain for Bitcoin. The article explores the opportunities, prospects and risks associated with investment in cryptocurrency. It has been determined that the main advantages of investment in Bitcoins are: steadily growing rate, confidence in currency, liquidity, anonymity, decentralization. However, there are significant downsides, such as: scaling problem, uncertainty about the status of the cryptocurrency on the part of the State, and excessive processing time for payments (approximately 10 minutes. It has been proved that the main benefits of Blockchain 1.0 and 2.0 are economic efficiency and cost savings through the use of decentralized network models, which do not require trust in a single transactional center, while Blockchain 3.0 is a freedom that will enable blockchain technology to implement solutions that are not related to monetary turnover and market transactions.

  5. Urban value proposition of industrial built heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Geevers

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This dissertation is the reflection of the research study into urban planning structures of historic industrial complexes. The study’s aim has been to promote recognition and acknowledgement of these structures as the carriers of cultural-historical values in spatial transformation. Apart from object value, industrial heritage also has ensemble value. Being “the field of study into the material culture remains of industrial production and technology”, the field of Industrial Archeology offers the opportunity to gain further knowledge of the nature and background of industrial spatial planning. Given the current focus on cultural- historical values in spatial planning and the fact that the strategy of ‘conservation through development’ has found widespread recognition and application, this dissertation has set out to arrive at concrete definitions and instrumentation of reuse and transformation in urban planning. The study is based on existing sources of knowledge which allowed two spheres of human involvement and endeavour to be connected. The first is building archeological research that has been put into operating guidelines and has developed into a considerable volume of knowledge and experience which has shaped the practice of planning as well as the teaching of design. This field of knowledge represents the cultural- historical component of the study. In addition there is the domain of spatial planning discipline. The knowledge acquired in this area has been brought together in a series of four publications under the heading “The Fundamentals of Urbanism in the Perspective of the Twenty-First Century”. This, too, incorporates a considerable volume of knowledge and experience, which has been been laid down in publications classified on the basis of a planning-level approach to distinguish aspects of design, theory, law and programming. This planning-level approach allows for a structured and differentiated way to tackle

  6. Changing rural urban linkages in Africa in a globalizing economy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of rural-urban linkages is critically vital for Africa‟s development in this era of rapid socio-economic transformation. A better understanding of cities and how they relate both to the rural and urban development is needed in view of the continuous changes in development. This paper argues that many of Africa‟s ...

  7. Urban and regional studies in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne; Jeannerat, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    is to deconstruct economic value and innovation in regional studies and elaborate on the role of consumers and stages of consumption. Another is the actor perspective and the question of how localized networks of innovative actors evolve and engage in experiential staging. Finally the experience economy is seen...... as an integrated approach in policy and strategic planning on as well as across different scales. Future research should not only trace the evolution of experience offerings, stages and destinations and its possible dependence on specific economic phases and contexts. It should also develop further the potentials......The paper introduces a special issue on `the experience turn in development and planning’. It is argued that the notion of the experience economy is able to challenge established theories of the culture economy in three ways. First, by placing consumption and consumers as point of departure...

  8. Investing in gas industry in economies in transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, J.

    1996-01-01

    Financing of energy projects in Central and Eastern Europe is meant for markets in transition which induces the financing concepts of the projects and preconditions international funding. The basic conditions to be fulfilled in transition from command economy to market economy are liberalisation and privatisation of energy markets. Preconditions include: prices and tariff at market; regulatory environment supporting independent projects and local capital markets

  9. The urban informal economy in Ethiopia: theory and empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eastern Africa Social Science Research Review ... data to explore the roles and characteristics of the informal sector in urban centers of Ethiopia, ... informal sources, 4) the level of income per person varied sharply among the various sectors.

  10. On the choice of a rational system of water economy of the industrial enterprice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsikhelashvili, Z.; Khatiuri, Kh.; Verulava, G.; Zakutashvili, G.

    2009-01-01

    Rational systems and projects of water economy of the industrial enterprise (allowing for the development of waste-free production processes, industrial water recycling with water treatment or without it, and cooling recycling) are discussed. The analysis of rational systems is of primary importance when designing and/or reconstructing the industrial water economy. Such systems and projects must account for all local conditions determining the advantage of their employment from the sanitary and economic viewpoints. (author)

  11. Sustainable urban development and industrial pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Julka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development of cities is highly connected with the pollution generated from industrial facilities and power plants. Both affect quality of air, weather, health and quality of life. The main goal of this paper is to determine the impact of selected weather parameters on the pollution from mentioned plants. From the research results, it can be concluded that sustainable urban development and welfare of citizens are dependent on causal relationship between pollution and weather. The greatest level of impact was recorded for nitric dioxide. In the case of carbon monoxide, the level of impact is the middle. The lowest level was recorded for particulate matter. The biggest impact on the carbon monoxide emission and particulate matter is that of air pressure, whereas temperature has the biggest impact on nitrogen dioxide emission. The research shows that air humidity and wind speed do not have a significant impact on the emission of pollutants from the plants. Research shows need for further studies in the field of impact of pollution from industry on urban weather and human health.

  12. Electric power economy in industry and commerce II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamede Filho, J.

    1988-01-01

    The acts of electric power economy in Brazil are studied, including the improvement of load factor, maintain a high power-factor and use of monthly consumption method and medium powers method. (author)

  13. The Spatialities of Urban Economic Geographies: New Industrial Spaces in the Outer City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of the outer city plays in the urban economy of Copenhagen. The centre of attention is on the changing industrial structure, the progressively higher complexity of firm location, and the division of labour that have emerged in the past decade of growth as a result of the resurgence of the metropolitan region...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  14. the role of market women in the informal urban economy in kumasi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    Keywords: Informal Sector, Urban Economy, Women, Traders ... banisation intensified, poverty also increased due to the inability of ... from 23 per cent in 1960 to 44 per cent in 2000 .... sacks of 50kg and 30 bags of 100kg respec- ... from 70-120km) covered to haul the foodstuffs ... per cent and 21.5 per cent of the total sales.

  15. Widows and Wenches: Single Women in Eighteenth-Century Urban Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonton, Deborah Leigh

    2013-01-01

    Across Europe, windowed and single women claimed a place for themselves in the urban economy through their work and business roles. Through marriage, most women gained strength, position and status in the patriarchal society of the eighteenth century. Yet, singletons could utilise an array...... of resources not only to navigate but also to derive a good living from this world. The purpose of this chapter is to look at the variety and range of ways single women (interpreted broadly) negotiated these commercial worlds, looking at their approach to business and the strategies they employed. It draws...... on towns in Britain as well as on commercial centres of continental Europe. It will address the issue of how the gendered structure of the growing commercial town influenced singletons’ activities and conversely how the important contributions women made to the urban economy shaped that economy...

  16. The Role of Urban Financial Centers within the Economy of Global Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Mionel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is no doubt that state economy refers to city economy. In other words, the most part of a state‘s GDP is given by the urban environment, especially by capitals, which are often the economic engine of this environment. There are also cities having great economic importance abroad, beyond the state and even continental borders. These are the so-called global cities where the financial activities play an important role. There are a few cities (New York, London, Hong Kong etc. centering financial activities which are influential for large geographic areas. This research highlights the importance of the financial sector within urban economy and, subsequently, how it consolidates the status of global city. These cities are the engine of the international financial system as they host the headquarters of the most important and famous international stock exchange markets, financial supervision institutions, law firms and consulting companies.

  17. Buzz: Face-to-Face Contact and the Urban Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Storper; Anthony J. Venables

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...

  18. Decoupling emissions of greenhouse gas, urbanization, energy and income: analysis from the economy of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianqiong; Riti, Joshua Sunday; Shu, Yang

    2018-05-08

    The adoption and ratification of relevant policies, particularly the household enrolment system metamorphosis in China, led to rising urbanization growth. As the leading developing economy, China has experienced a drastic and rapid increase in the rate of urbanization, energy use, economic growth and greenhouse gas (GHG) pollution for the past 30 years. The knowledge of the dynamic interrelationships among these trends has a plethora of implications ranging from demographic, energy, and environmental and sustainable development policies. This study analyzes the role of urbanization in decoupling GHG emissions, energy, and income in China while considering the critical contribution of energy use. As a contribution to the extant body of literature, the present research introduces a new phenomenon called "the environmental urbanization Kuznets curve" (EUKC), which shows that at the early stage of urbanization, the environment degrades however, after a threshold point the technique effects surface and environmental degradation reduces with rise in urbanization. Applying the autoregressive distributed lag model and the vector error correction model, the paper finds the presence of inverted U-shaped curve between urbanization and GHG emission of CO 2 , while the same hypothesis cannot be found between income and GHG emission of CO 2 . Energy use in all the models contributes to GHG emission of CO 2 . In decoupling greenhouse gas emissions, urbanization, energy, and income, articulated and well-implemented energy and urbanization policies should be considered.

  19. Changes in Global Economy Influencing the Maritime Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grama Izabella Gilda

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The world economic situation has brightened in 2010. However, multiple risks threaten to undermine the prospects of a sustained recovery and a stable world economy – including sovereign debt problems in many developed regions, and fiscal austerity. These risks are further magnified by the extraordinary shocks that have occurred in 2011, which have included natural disasters and political unrest, as well as rising and volatile energy and commodity prices. Given that for shipping, all stands and falls with worldwide macroeconomic conditions, the developments in world seaborne trade mirrored the performance of the wider economy. After contracting in 2009, international shipping experienced an upswing in demand in 2010, and recorded a positive turnaround in seaborne trade volumes especially in the dry bulk and container trade segments. However, the outlook remains fragile, as seaborne trade is subject to the same uncertainties and shocks that face the world economy. This paper highlights some developments that are currently affecting maritime transport and have the potential to deeply reshape the landscape of international shipping and seaborne trade.

  20. The South African Adventure Tourism Economy: An urban phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    McKay Tracey

    2017-01-01

    The international adventure tourism literature is remarkably silent on the geographical nature of the industry. This study seeks to provide a geographical analysis of the sector within the context of South Africa. The spatial analysis was undertaken by metropolitan area, secondary towns and small towns, using a dataset of adventure tourism enterprises. It was found that the sector is spatially concentrated and highly urbanised, despite the perception that adventure tourism requires ‘wild’ and...

  1. KNOWLEDGE ECONOMY AS AN INITIATOR OF SUSTAINABLE URBANISM IN EMERGING METROPOLISES: THE CASE OF DOHA, QATAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf M. Salama

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper is a comprehensive coverage of a research project of the National Priority Research Program of the Qatar National Research Fund, entitled ‘Investigating the Qualities of the Urban Environment in Emerging Regional Metropolises’, and carried out between 2011 and 2014 through the joint collaboration of Qatar University and Technische Universität München. Through the shift of global economic forces Gulf cities, such as Qatar’s capital Doha, are developed as central hubs between developed economies in the West and the rising economies of Asia. In the context of international competition between cities new challenges are emerging where cities need to find ways to sustain and extend their position in a globalizing world. Therefore the research process placed emphasis on the complex interrelationship of knowledge economies and spatial developments in the Gulf region. The work is premised on the assumption that non-physical economic aspects and the qualities of the urban environment are interdependent. It analyses the qualities of the urban environment of Doha as an important regional metropolis through a comprehensive investigation utilizing a set of interdisciplinary research methods that include analysis of historic documents, Delphi interview series, company network analysis, GIS analysis, cognitive mapping, behavioural studies, media surveys, attitude surveys, and space syntax analysis. The outcomes promise important results regarding urban qualities in the city of Doha culminating into various recommendations aimed at potential beneficiaries including public sector organizations, private sector and real estate development companies, and academia.

  2. 78 FR 54677 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Institution of Investigation and Scheduling of Hearing... investigation No. 332-543, Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy... supporting Indian domestic industries, and the effect that those barriers have on the U.S. economy and U.S...

  3. Eco-industrial zones in the context of sustainability development of urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacirovic, Selim; Ketin, Sonja; Vignjevic, Nada

    2018-03-04

    Industry is one of the main activities in the city and in many cities of the world, and the dominant industrial zones are the most significant morphological forms of concentration of industrial facilities in the city and are concentrated industrial and business activity. Industrial parks combine activities related to energy and resource consumption, emissions, waste generation, economic benefits, and regional development. The focus of this work is the path of transformation between the present and the vision of a sustainable city in the future. The problem and the subject of research related to two related objects of research: the city and sustainable development. In this paper, the co-author's industrial symbiosis parks, modern tendencies of the spatial distribution of productive activities, circular economy, to attract leading corporations and open the way for new ventures while preserving the living environment in an urban area.

  4. The green economy and the role of industry in the green growth. Report for the Cercle de l'Industrie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crifo, P.; Crassous-Doerfler, R.; Flam, M.

    2010-06-01

    In its first part, this report proposes and comments definition for the green economy and growth, outlines the methodological difficulty in performing an economical assessment, identifies the possible green growth levers, and compares the situation of China, United States and Europe with respect to green growth. The second part addresses the role of industry in the green economy: constraint or opportunity, value creating activities, success and risk factors

  5. The tourist industry: a growth opportunity for Southern economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gattei S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, the international tourist movement has considerably expanded and this has reinforced the idea that such a sector can have a major role on the growth of Mezzogiorno's economy and on reducing the gap with the Centre-North. This paper aims at analysing trends in the South during the decade 1988-2008, compared with those of the Centre-North and the main competitor countries of the Mediterranean area, and at identifying the major obstacles to development of Southern tourism in line...

  6. Simulating the impact of new industries on the economy : The case of biorefining in Australia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malik, Arunima; Lenzen, Manfred; Ely, Romulo Neves; Dietzenbacher, Erik

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the economic and employment consequences of introducing a new sugarcane-based biofuel industry into Australia. We model the new biofuel industry on the production recipe of the existing large-scale gasoalcohol and alcohol sectors in the Brazilian economy. To this end we utilise a

  7. Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanchuk, John M. [LECG, LLC, Wayne, PA (United States)

    2008-02-20

    Despite the challenges to profitability the ethanol industry continues to expand. Total ethanol production for 2007 is estimated at nearly 6.5 billion gallons, 33 percent more than 2006. This study estimates the contribution of the ethanol industry to the American economy in 2007.

  8. Industrial pollutions is an environmental issue of Karachi urban area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhio, M.H.; Abro, M.I.; Essani, A.

    2005-01-01

    The Industrial pollution is one of the serious Environmental issues of the Karachi urban area, categorized as air pollution and water pollution. The localization more the 6000 industries in Karachi urban area at four different sites of Sindh industrial trading estate, Landhi industrial trading estate, Korangi industrial area west Warf industrials, Port Qasim industrial. Area and Hub industrial are near Karachi city. The major iron and steel industries includes Pakistan steel mills and its allied industries at Bin Qasim more than 100 re-rolling industries are located at site area. Karachi ship yard engineering works, Peoples steel Mill, automobile industries and various manufacturing industries which requires metal and its alloy in manufacturing of product mostly located at Bin Qasim, Korangi, and Shershah site areas. None of the industrial sector contain the waster treatment or recycling plant. The ill planted growth of Karachi and its industries caused the environmental degradation of the city and its coastal areas complete with massive mangrove destruction, air water, fishing, and agriculture possessing a potential threat to the lives of more than 10 million citizens. The environmental issues of the metal related industries include the scrap, waste and pollution. Scrapes am waste of the metal industries can be reused in other manufacturing of engineering materials or recycled to produce the new material. However the pollution is the one of the major environmental issue related with the metal industries which need the considerable research and development work in order to over come the serve environmental issues of the urban areas. This article reviews and identifies the level of industrial pollution emphasized on metal related industries of the Karachi urban areas. (author)

  9. Nature-based solutions for urban landscapes under post-industrialization and globalization: Barcelona versus Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peilei; Ouyang, Zutao; Basnou, Corina; Pino, Joan; Park, Hogeun; Chen, Jiquan

    2017-07-01

    Using Barcelona and Shanghai as case studies, we examined the nature-based solutions (NBS) in urban settings-specifically within cities experiencing post-industrialization and globalization. Our specific research questions are: (1) What are the spatiotemporal changes in urban built-up land and green space in Barcelona and Shanghai? (2) What are the relationships between economic development, exemplified by post-industrialization, globalization, and urban green space? Urban land use and green space change were evaluated using data derived from a variety of sources, including satellite images, landscape matrix indicators, and a land conversion matrix. The relationships between economic development, globalization, and environmental quality were analyzed through partial least squares structural equation modeling based on secondary statistical data. Both Barcelona and Shanghai have undergone rapid urbanization, with urban expansion in Barcelona beginning in the 1960s-1970s and in Shanghai in the last decade. While Barcelona's urban green space and green space per capita began declining between the 1950s and 1990s, they increased slightly over the past two decades. Shanghai, however, has consistently and significantly improved urban green space and green space per capita over the past six decades, especially since the economic reform in 1978. Economic development has a direct and significant influence on urban green space for both cities and post-industrialization had served as the main driving force for urban landscape change in Barcelona and Shanghai. Based on secondary statistical and qualitative data from on-site observations and interviews with local experts, we highlighted the institution's role in NBS planning. Furthermore, aspiration to become a global or globalizing city motivated both cities to use NBS planning as a place-making tool to attract global investment, which is reflected in various governing policies and regulations. The cities' effort to achieve a

  10. The role of creative economies in the construction of urban actions in Cordoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Stang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In a social, economic, cultural, postmodern, and current context, cities need to position themselves to be innovative and creative. Through good management they look to create social, economic, and cultural wealth. By exploring urban transformations that have been a result of creativity, this research introduces creative economies, which result from so-called urban action. These concepts and used in Cordoba, Argentina and truly work for the city, and they are the possibilities of change that allow the recovery and appropriation of public space.

  11. Transition of Russian energy industry to a market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makarov, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Russian energy industry by totality of politic, social and economic circumstances has entered into the sharpest crisis. Development of energy industry has practically ceased, it has appeared a decline in electricity , oil and coal production. However it has been accumulated a vast intact potential for energy conservation and the change of energy consuming equipment in USSR by the best models of the world could reduce the present annual consumption by about 500 millions.tonnes of coal equivalent

  12. Mathematical modeling of an industrial firm in transient economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. G. Pospelov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A behavior model of an industrial firm with a possibility of merchandising and purchasing of production on two channels, traditional and commercial, is given. The former is stable, but less profitable due to non-payments. The latter is profitable, but risky. The model describes different modes of firm operation depending on economic parameters. In such a model, firms have incentives to integrate in financial and industrial groups.

  13. Towards preventative eco-industrial development: an industrial and urban symbiosis case in one typical industrial city in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Liang; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Dai, Ming

    2016-01-01

    situation. In order to investigate the eco-benefits of eco-industrial development in China, this study focused on an industrial and urban symbiosis case of Guiyang city in which process synergy, municipal solid wastes recycling and waste energy utilization were incorporated in this typical industrial city...... policy implications to address the barriers of promoting industrial and urban symbiosis were proposed. This study is critical for future industrial and urban planning policy making and shed a light on innovative eco-industrial development in China....

  14. Remotely sensed thermal pollution and its relationship with energy consumption and industry in a rapidly urbanizing Chinese city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Xiaofeng; Jiang, Hui; Wang, Huina; Zhao, Juanjuan; Qiu, Quanyi; Tapper, Nigel; Hua, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    Taking the city of Xiamen, China, as an example, we used thermal infrared remote sensing to detect thermal pollution, and examined its relationship to energy consumption and the industrial economy. Monthly changes in 2002 and dynamics throughout the period of rapid urbanization (1987–2007) are analysed. It is found that seasonal variation led to distinct shapes and sizes of thermal pollution areas, and winter thermal pollution was highly indicative of industrial and energy transformation sources. Industrial enterprises were the dominant sources of winter thermal pollution in Xiamen. The number and ratio of industrial thermal pollution sources increased stably in the earlier years, and dramatically in the later period (2002–2007), attributable to the effects of China entering the World Trade Organization. Linear regression shows that the number of thermal pollution sources was strongly correlated with several factors of the industrial economy and energy consumption, including industrial outputs, industrial enterprise numbers, LPG and electricity. Related mitigation measures are also discussed. This research builds a link between remote sensing-detected thermal pollution information and statistical energy consumption data, as well as industrial economy statistics. It thereby enhances understanding of the relationship between urbanization, industrialization, energy consumption and related environmental effects. - Highlights: ► A method was provided for detecting thermal pollution through remote sensing. ► Seasonal dynamics and dynamics with the process of urbanization were examined. ► Winter thermal pollution is quite indicative of industrial energy consumption. ► Thermal pollution has high correlations with industrial economy and energy factors. ► It builds a link between remotely sensed thermal pollution and energy-economic data

  15. Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Haring, Ben

    2009-01-01

    The economy of ancient Egypt is a difficult area of study due to the lack of preservation of much data (especially quantitative data); it is also a controversial subject on which widely divergent views have been expressed. It is certain, however, that the principal production and revenues of Egyptian society as a whole and of its individual members was agrarian, and as such, dependent on the yearly rising and receding of the Nile. Most agricultural producers were probably self-sufficient tena...

  16. An overview of uranium industries in countries of completed market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Chenglong

    2007-01-01

    Uranium is an important energy mineral and strategic resources, in countries of completed market economy, energy mineral exploration belongs to commercial mineral exploration. Because uranium exploration is higher in investment risk and rebound, the countries of completed market economy regulate uranium exploration by using laws, paying taxes and protecting environment. China will put the exploration of coal, oil and gas, uranium, oil shale, gas in coalbed in the first place in commercial mineral exploration. Therefore, it is quite necessary to understand uranium exploration industries in countries of completed market economy. (authors)

  17. ROLE OF AGRO-INDUSTRY IN BANGLADESH ECONOMY: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF LINKAGES AND MULTIPLIERS

    OpenAIRE

    Quddus, Md. Abdul

    2009-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the contribution of agro-industry in the Bangladesh economy. The latest two input-output tables of the year 1993-94 and 2001-2002 in Bangladesh were used to calculate inter-industry linkage indices and multiplier effects. Agroindustry contributes a significant portion of national income and the prospect of employment generation is increasing at the higher extent for the sectors food processing, tanning and leather finishing, leather industry, saw milling a...

  18. The transformation of urban industrial land use: A quantitative method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongxu Qiu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A large number of cities around the world today owe their land use growth to the rapid development of industrial areas. The spatial structure of industrial distribution in cities shape urban spatial morphology linking with land use, transportation, economic activities, and housing. Meanwhile, growth and expansion of city population and land use reconfigure the spatial structure of industrial distribution. Research into urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process may help urban planners and decision makers understand the land use and population dynamics of a city. Genetic algorithms are believed to be one kind of the promising methods to simulate this dynamic process. In this paper, we propose a novel method to simulate urban industrial spatial distribution and its transformation process in Shanghai, China. The results show that along with increasing urban land price over time, industries are going to move outward from the city center. However, the maximum profit of a firm tends to decrease, which could lead industrial factories to move beyond city boundary. The analysis of the current industrial spatial distribution in Shanghai indicates that, when land price in a city rises above a specific threshold, new government policies and other competitive advantages need to be enacted if the city wants to retain industrial firms within the city boundary.

  19. Food Desertification: Situating Choice and Class Relations within an Urban Political Economy of Declining Food Access

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Bedore

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available While food deserts create whole sets of tangible consequences for people living within them, the problem has yet to be the subject of much normative, in-depth evaluation as an urban political economy of food access. This paper provides a critical analysis of a specific food desert and its responses, drawing on a case study of the low-income, spatially segregated North End of the small city of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. The main thrust of the paper is that the food desert remains a useful yet underexplored phenomenon through which to reveal the complexities and tensions surrounding the treatment of “choice” in a classed society. Understood as an urban political economy of declining food access, the food desert phenomenon reveals capital’s complex role in the promotion or violation of dignity through the urban geographies of acquiring food for oneself, family, or household. Through the data presented here, the article also argues for a collective pause among critical scholars to radicalize, rather than reject, the role of consumer choice in a more just food system, and for further normative engagement with urban landscapes of retail consolidation.

  20. The evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in a developing economy: The South African experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wayde R. Pandy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The timeshare industry is one of most under-researched aspects of tourism accommodation. Within existing scholarship most writings pertain to industry development and challenges in the USA and Europe. This paper provides an examination of the evolution and consolidation of the timeshare industry in South Africa from the 1980s to the present-day. The South African timeshare industry is revealed as one of the most mature in the international timeshare economy. Historically, the industry confronted parallel challenges to those in developed countries in respect of adapting the product to local conditions and confronting a tarnished image from the impact of unscrupulous developers. Currently the South African timeshare sector faces different challenges including service management and consumer dissatisfaction, marginalization within the tourism economy, and the need to address the emerging Black middle class market.

  1. An analysis of the Spanish electrical utility industry. Economies of scale, technological progress and efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcos, Angel; De Toledo, Pablo Alvarez

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we propose a model to explain the behaviour of the Spanish electrical utility industry during the period 1987-1997, under the then existing regulatory system (Marco Legal Estable). The paper will study the presence of economies of scale, the effect of technological progress and the differences in the efficiency of the different companies within the market. The paper concludes that the Spanish electrical utility industry was not, in fact, characterized by economies of scale during this period, but witnessed a great improvement in efficiency within that period. All the critical market factors remind stable. (author)

  2. Demands for energy policy by industry and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thumann, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    'The Use of Nuclear Power for Peaceful Purposes' is a key topic in energy policy which produces a split of opinions in Germany, and which the policy of the Grand Coalition seeks to bypass. The Federation of German Industries (BDI) wants to achieve a sensible way of handling this source of energy because, after all, we are facing the challenge of having to secure economic development and prosperity and, at the same time, reduce global CO 2 emissions. If this is to be achieved, industry and politics together must build a bridge into a future with less CO 2 . That bridge would be supported on 4 pillars: - a global strategy of CO 2 reduction, - energy efficiency, - a broad energy mix, - energy research and development. In these efforts, industry and the BDI consider nuclear power an indispensable part of a viable climate and energy policy. Next to lignite, nuclear power offers electricity generation at the lowest cost, and promotes climate protection through CO 2 -free generation. As far as energy efficiency and a broad energy mix are concerned, the potentials for technical development play an important role. This is an area in which German industry can develop future markets for itself by being a leader in technology. Energy research should advance the development of existing technologies and open up new options. In this way, energy research contributes to high technologies in Germany. For nuclear power, it must be ensured that German scientists are able to participate in promising developments of new reactors in the same way in which this is the case in the development and construction of ITER, the international fusion reactor, in France. (orig.)

  3. The Intelligent Industrial Facility in the New Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    To quote from an article that appeared in the August 9th, 2000edition of the Toronto Globe and Mail, Report on Business:"Productivity soared in the United States at the strongest pace since theearly 1980' s, propelledbythecomputerizationoftheworkingworld and massive investment by business in ever faster high-tech equipment.The billions of dollars being spent on new computer equipment and new electronic commerce systems continued to pay off in the second quarter, allowing the economic output per worker to surpass the already high expectations of financial analysts.The U. S. Department of Labour reported yesterday that productivity in the United States rose at an annualized rate of 5.3 percent in the second quarter from the first quarter... its strongest 12 month increase since the third quarter of 1983 Much ofthe productivity gains in the computerization and on-line presence is in turn, expected to enable Canadian businesses to keep improving the productivity of their workers and match the gains of the United States. "In order to achieve gains of this magnitude, we must move beyond automation at the plant floor level. New opportunities are emerging from the networked e-business environment of the internet, intranets and extranets. Fast and efficient access to these technologies is becomingessential for survival in today' s new economy. E-business lets you create and manage a network of employees, suppliers and partners working toward a common goal. The result is a seamless, integrated system that can sense and respond to customers, competitors and global markets in real time. By enabling collaboration, integration and empowerment, these new technologies increase productivity, reduce cycle times, lower costs, create new business opportunities and achievegreater return on investment.To summarize, we need to take a systems integration approach to automation.

  4. The world economy: Its impact on the gas processing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teleki, A.

    1994-01-01

    Gas processors are in the business of extracting C 2-7 hydrocarbons from natural gas streams and converting them to commercial grade gas liquids, valued at or slightly below oil product prices. If the margin of oil prices over gas prices is higher, the gas processing business is more profitable. An approximate index of profitability is the ratio of the price of a bbl of oil divided by the price of a million Btu of gas (the oil-gas ratio). Since the mid-1980s, by which time both the oil and gas markets had been largely deregulated, the oil-gas ratio fluctuated in the 10-12 range then peaked to over 15 in 1990-91. The recent fall in oil prices has driven the ratio to historically low levels of 6-7, which leads to gas processors curtailing ethane recovery. Various aspects of the world economy and the growth of oil consumption are discussed to forecast their effect on gas processors. It is expected that oil demand should grow at least 4% annually over 1994-98, due to factors including world economic growth and low energy prices. Oil prices are forecast to bottom out in late 1995 and rise thereafter to the mid-20 dollar range by the end of the 1990s. A close supply-demand balance could send short-term prices much higher. Some widening of the gas-oil ratio should occur, providing room for domestic natural gas prices to rise, but with a lag. 8 figs

  5. Analysis of the holistic impact of the Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Shannon Perry

    As gas prices soar and energy demand continues to grow amidst increasingly stringent environmental regulations and an assortment of global pressures, implementing alternative energy sources while considering their linked economic, environmental and societal impacts becomes a more pressing matter. The Hydrogen Economy has been proposed as an answer to meeting the increasing energy demand for electric power generation and transportation in an environmentally benign way. Based on current hydrogen technology development, the most practical feedstock to fuel the Hydrogen Economy may prove to be coal via hydrogen production at FutureGen plants. The planned growth of the currently conceived Hydrogen Economy will cause dramatic impacts, some good and some bad, on the economy, the environment, and society, which are interlinked. The goal of this research is to provide tools to inform public policy makers in sorting out policy options related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy. This study examines the impact of a transition to a Hydrogen Economy on the coal industry by creating FutureGen penetration models, forecasting coal MFA's which clearly provide the impact on coal production and associated environmental impacts, and finally formulating a goal programming model that seeks the maximum benefit to society while analyzing the trade-offs between environmental, social, and economical concerns related to coal and the Hydrogen Economy.

  6. Nuclear power development in Russia. Russia's energy industry preparing for the free market economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    The energy industry in Eastern Europe is preparing for the free market economy. The ambitions goal is to get fit and prepared for joining the free market economy as a competitor, and within the shortest possible time at that, struggling against the sharp wind of change that will blow, and trying to make the best of actually very unfavourable economic and political conditions. Priority has been given to privatisation of power plants and electricity networks, and to a speedy connection to the Western grids. However, all parties concerned are well aware that this task cannot be accomplished out of Russia's own resources alone. Whether the economy in Russia can be put on a stable footing and develop stable structures will depend on the development and efficient use of nuclear power, as the most important resources of Russia's energy industry are concentrated in the eastern part of the country, while 70% of electricity generation and demand is concentrated in the European part. (orig.) [de

  7. Industrialization, urbanization and demographic change in England; Igirisu ni okeru kogyoka toshika to jinko mondai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasumoto, M. [Komazawa University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Economics

    1994-12-15

    In order to study the effects of progress in industrialization and urbanization on societies and economy, analyses were performed on the northern England in the period of the Industrial Revolution. The rapid expansion of the city of Leeds in the 1780`s and on had brought about the increase in employment opportunities in the suburban farming villages, as well as drop in matrimonial age in agricultural and coal mine workers, and the rapid population increase. Housing conditions for those workers who had flown into the city from agricultural villages in a large number were of very poor quality, and their living standard was low. More than half of the patients visiting the charity hospital in Leeds City came from the urban area, with industrial accidents such as injuries in young workers noticed remarkably high. Many women were included in them, from which the progress in mechanization of the textile industry in Leeds and its surrounding areas can well be imagined. The attributes of households, families, and population were divided into diverse structures and hierarchies, according to the residential construction form and work income earner rates in family constituting members were also various. The development urbanization and industrialization had given diversified effects on households, families, population, and life cycles in city dwellers through changes in housing environments. 2 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  8. Economies of scale and trends in the size of southern forest industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    James E. Granskog

    1978-01-01

    In each of the major southern forest industries, the trend has been toward achieving economies of scale, that is, to build larger production units to reduce unit costs. Current minimum efficient plant size estimated by survivor analysis is 1,000 tons per day capacity for sulfate pulping, 100 million square feet (3/8- inch basis) annual capacity for softwood plywood,...

  9. Building green supply chains in eco-industrial parks towards a green economy: Barriers and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jacqueline; Pan, Shu-Yuan; Kim, Hyunook; Linn, Jean H; Chiang, Pen-Chi

    2015-10-01

    As suggested by UNEP, the key to sustainable development is to create a "green economy" which should encapsulate all three sectors: the industry, the people, and the government. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop and implement the green technologies into the existing facilities, especially in the developing countries. In this study, the role of green supply chains in eco-industrial parks (EIPs) towards a green economy was investigated. The strategies and effective evaluation procedures of the green economy were proposed by assessing the barriers from the perspective of institution, regulation, technology, and finance. In addition, three case studies from iron and steel-making, paper mill and pulping, and petrochemical industries were presented and illustrated for building the green supply chains. For example, in the case of Lin-Hai Industrial Park, a total of 15 efficient green supply chains using waste-to-resources technologies were established by 2012, resulting in an economic benefit of USD 100 million per year. It suggests that the green supply chains should be established to achieve both economic growth and environmental protection. With these successful experiences, building a green supply chain within industrial park should be extensively promoted to make traditional industries around the world being environmentally bearable, economic viable, and social equitable. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Integrated Approach to Modelling the Economy-Society-Ecology System in Urbanization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunqiang Liu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization has become a key part of social and economic progress in the 21st Century, but achieving healthy and safe urban development has a long way to go for many developed and developing countries. Urbanization has been recognized as a complex ecosystem which is affected by economic, social, and ecological factors. With this in mind, this paper looks at many factors to first evaluate based on the matter-element (ME method and then model an Economy-Society-Ecology (ESE subsystem using a hybrid method by a fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (FAHP, and then by using the entropy method (EM to determine the relevant index weights. To avoid subjectivity when defining the model’s boundaries, the technique for order preference by similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS is introduced. Then, a coupling coordination degree model focusing on the degree of coordination in the ESE subsystem is established. Panel data collected from 2003 to 2012 for Chengdu, China, is then simulated to analyze the development process. The results show that: (1 The quality of urbanization continues to improve and the phasic features are presented; (2 The sensitivity analysis of subsystem weight shown that it had less effect on the coupling coordinated system; (3 The coordination in the ESE subsystem has also improved. However, the development rate of the economic subsystem is greater than that of the societal and ecological subsystem. The approach used here therefore, is shown to provide a promising basis for policy-making to support healthy urban development.

  11. Rare earth industries; Moving Malaysia's Green Economy Forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-08-01

    There is a famous saying, Where there is risk, there is opportunity. Rare earths present both health and environmental risks as well as potential economic opportunities. However, the risks are manageable thanks to improved technologies and a better understanding of the implications on health and the environment. This explains why there is a rush by many countries to reopen old mines and increase investment in the production of rare earths concentrate and their high value downstream products. Why is there such a scramble to risk money on rare earths? What have ignited global demand? Where are the opportunities? How are the risks associated with rare earths managed? Can Malaysia benefit from this new growth industry? What should be our strategies? This report, produced by the joint Working Group of the Academy of Sciences Malaysia (ASM) and the Majlis Professor Negara (MPN), discusses the science of rare earths and their business prospects; and proposes some strategic directions for Malaysia. The analysis is based on information culled from various secondary sources as well as the groups engagement with experts from the Rare Earths Society of China. (author)

  12. U.S. petroleum industry adjusts to tough economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, A.D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that oil and gas companies in the US are curbing costs and redirecting spending to survive the worst decline of petroleum industry activity on record. Persistently weak US natural gas prices and shaky oil prices worldwide have put pressure on domestic companies to become low cost producers. Efforts to cut exploration and development costs have depressed activity in the US, one of the world's most mature oil and gas provinces. International E and D hot spots include the UK North Sea, Yemen, Thailand, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Latin America. Prospects in the Commonwealth of Independent States also continue to generate considerable enthusiasm. Operators struggling to survive or searching for funds to spend on non-US prospects are trying to shuck noncore US assets. Other favored cost cutting strategies include reducing and restructuring debt, operating and administrative staffs, and internal organizations. Major integrated companies are able to add value by refocusing refining, petrochemical, or marketing operations. But independents must adapt operations close to the wellhead to become low cost producers. Whatever tactics are used to mitigate effects of low US activity, no domestic company --- from the largest integrated major to the smallest independent producer --- has proven to be immune from the downturn

  13. Flexible versus common technology to estimate economies of scale and scope in the water and sewerage industry: an application to England and Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinos-Senante, María; Maziotis, Alexandros

    2018-03-09

    The water industry presents several structures in different countries and also within countries. Hence, several studies have been conducted to evaluate the presence of economies of scope and scale in the water industry leading to inconclusive results. The lack of a common methodology has been identified as an important factor contributing to divergent conclusions. This paper evaluates, for the first time, the presence of economies of scale and scope in the water industry using a flexible technology approach integrating operational and exogenous variables of the water companies in the cost functions. The empirical application carried out for the English and Welsh water industry evidenced that the inclusion of exogenous variables accounts for significant differences in economies of scale and scope. Moreover, completely different results were obtained when the economies of scale and scope were estimated using common and flexible technology methodological approaches. The findings of this study reveal the importance of using an appropriate methodology to support policy decision-making processes to promote sustainable urban water activities.

  14. Circular Economy – A New Direction for the Sustainability of the Hotel Industry in Romania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Pamfilie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with aspects related to the transition to a new model of economy – the circular economy – a more appropriate model for the current tendencies of ensuring the sustainability of economic processes. Tourism, as an economic branch with strong dynamics in recent years, is one of the areas where resource conservation and environmental protection are of significant importance. Circular tourism, derived from the principles of circular economy, aims at recycling tourism resources and favoring the sustainable development of the environment, thus giving tourists a greater sense of responsibility. The authors sought to study the influence of the implementation of integrated quality-environment-security systems on the economic performance of hotel establishments in Romania from the perspective of industry managers, as a starting point for determining the applicability of the principles of circular economy in this sector. In order to study this influence, questionnaires were addressed to tourism operators in order to establish the existing link between the implementation of ISO 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 standards and the economic, social and environmental performance of those operators. From the perspective of the systemic approach and analyzing the obtained data, the authors of the paper argue that the hotel industry in Romania is not yet sufficiently prepared to adopt the principles of the circular economy, the adoption of an integrated management system not having as much influence as believed on the performances of the operators in the field.

  15. Evaluation of total suspended particulate matter in some urban and industrial cities of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qadir, M.A.; Iqbal, M.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental studies are very important as the living beings depend greatly on the conditions of the environment. Air is an important component of the environment, which greatly affects the health of humans, animals and plants. Environmental problems in Pakistan are growing with the rise in total sectorial growth in population, economy and industrialization. In connection with atmospheric pollution, measurement of the total suspended particulate matter (TSP) in the urban atmosphere of Lahore, Faisalabad, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Wah Cantt. and Khanispur (background area) has been carried out and compared to that of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Standards. (author)

  16. 78 FR 77489 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-23

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 332-543] Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy Submission of Questionnaire for OMB Review AGENCY: United..., Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy. The investigation was instituted...

  17. The Great Urban Leap? On the Local Political Economy of Rural Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Meyer-Clement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into the local political economy of China’s current in situ urbanisation as compared to the 1980s and 1990s, focusing on the role played by county and township governments in shaping urbanisation in their localities. Marked differences were observed in the extent to which local cadres are able to steer the urbanisation process and adapt the relevant policies to local conditions and demands of the population. If leading county and township cadres are able to assert a relatively autonomous position vis-à-vis the superior municipality, a rural urbanisation process that considers both urban and rural interests and integrates local economic initiatives seems to become a potential alternative to the prevailing city-centred urban expansionism.

  18. The Great Urban Leap? On the Local Political Economy of Rural Urbanisation in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Meyer-Clement

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides insights into the local political economy of China’s current in situ urbanisation as compared to the 1980s and 1990s, focusing on the role played by county and township governments in shaping urbanisation in their localities. Marked differences were observed in the extent to which local cadres are able to steer the urbanisation process and adapt the relevant policies to local conditions and demands of the population. If leading county and township cadres are able to assert a relatively autonomous position vis-à-vis the superior municipality, a rural urbanisation process that considers both urban and rural interests and integrates local economic initiatives seems to become a potential alternative to the prevailing city-centred urban expansionism.

  19. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Pérez, Javier; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Gómez-Barroso, Diana; Morales-Piga, Antonio; Pardo Romaguera, Elena; Tamayo, Ibon; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  20. Childhood leukemia and residential proximity to industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Pérez, Javier, E-mail: jgarcia@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); López-Abente, Gonzalo, E-mail: glabente@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); Gómez-Barroso, Diana, E-mail: dgomez@externos.isciii.es [CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Morales-Piga, Antonio, E-mail: amorales@isciii.es [Rare Disease Research Institute (IIER), Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Consortium for Biomedical Research in Rare Diseases (CIBERER), Madrid (Spain); Pardo Romaguera, Elena, E-mail: elena.pardo@uv.es [Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors (RETI-SEHOP), University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Tamayo, Ibon, E-mail: ibontama@gmail.com [Public Health Division of Gipuzkoa, BIODonostia Research Institute, Department of Health of the Regional Government of the Basque Country, Donostia (Spain); Fernández-Navarro, Pablo, E-mail: pfernandezn@isciii.es [Cancer and Environmental Epidemiology Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); CIBER Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP) (Spain); and others

    2015-07-15

    Background: Few risk factors for the childhood leukemia are well established. While a small fraction of cases of childhood leukemia might be partially attributable to some diseases or ionizing radiation exposure, the role of industrial and urban pollution also needs to be assessed. Objectives: To ascertain the possible effect of residential proximity to both industrial and urban areas on childhood leukemia, taking into account industrial groups and toxic substances released. Methods: We conducted a population-based case–control study of childhood leukemia in Spain, covering 638 incident cases gathered from the Spanish Registry of Childhood Tumors and for those Autonomous Regions with 100% coverage (period 1990-2011), and 13,188 controls, individually matched by year of birth, sex, and autonomous region of residence. Distances were computed from the respective subject’s residences to the 1068 industries and the 157 urban areas with ≥10,000 inhabitants, located in the study area. Using logistic regression, odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs) for categories of distance to industrial and urban pollution sources were calculated, with adjustment for matching variables. Results: Excess risk of childhood leukemia was observed for children living near (≤2.5 km) industries (OR=1.31; 95%CI=1.03–1.67) – particularly glass and mineral fibers (OR=2.42; 95%CI=1.49–3.92), surface treatment using organic solvents (OR=1.87; 95%CI=1.24–2.83), galvanization (OR=1.86; 95%CI=1.07–3.21), production and processing of metals (OR=1.69; 95%CI=1.22–2.34), and surface treatment of metals (OR=1.62; 95%CI=1.22–2.15) – , and urban areas (OR=1.36; 95%CI=1.02–1.80). Conclusions: Our study furnishes some evidence that living in the proximity of industrial and urban sites may be a risk factor for childhood leukemia. - Highlights: • We studied proximity to both industrial and urban sites on childhood leukemia. • We conducted a case–control study in

  1. TOURISM INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN THE EMERGING ECONOMIES OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE (HUNGARY, BULGARIA, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina-Petronela HALLER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Emerging Economies from Central and Eastern Europe take steps to ensure growth through tourism. Although they do not have the cultural, historical and artistic potential of the most famous tourist destinations, these economies promote forms of tourism for which they have suitable conditions. For example, Hungary is famous for health tourism, Bulgaria has made progress in terms of coastal tourism and Romania tries to make known the rural area although it has all conditions for practicing a wide diversified range of tourism forms. In this paper we present statistics showing how the tourism industry looks for three Central and Eastern European countries and we do a brief comparative analysis.

  2. Green Acquisitions And Lifecycle Management Of Industrial Products In The Circular Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popa, Vasile N.; Popa, Luminita I.

    2016-11-01

    The article addresses the issue of green acquisitions which occur within an industrial company focused on reducing inputs while maintaining output (substitution and efficiency). These processes characterize a circular economy oriented on resource efficiency (costs saved by reducing purchasing inputs). In our article, we focus on the industrial procurement practice which can help businesses save money and materials. Besides the possibility to negotiate prices, buyers can influence suppliers to offer products and services in an efficient manner in terms of green resources. The life cycle of industrial products is used to demonstrate the environmental advantages and disadvantages of various options for acquisitions and initiatives to totally reuse them.

  3. The oil and gas industry and the Canadian economy: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curran, R.

    2000-02-01

    The impact of the oil and natural gas industry on the Canadian economy is explained in terms of employment, balance of trade, products, government revenues, international technology trade and industry support to the community. It is reported that the industry employs almost one half million people in Canada; is the second largest contributor to Canada's balance of trade; generate billions of dollars for the economy and pays hundreds of millions of dollars in taxes and its employees contribute millions of dollars and thousands of hours of time to charitable and community organizations. The industry is also one of the major contributors to Canada's technology export through its leadership in high technology exploration methods, cold climate and offshore operations, enhanced recovery technologies, producing and processing heavy oil; mining and upgrading oil sands bitumen, oil-well firefighting techniques and environmental protection technologies, among others. Citing Canada's cold climate and energy-intensive industries, hence the need for large quantities of energy, the booklet offers a rationale for the industry's need to continue to be profitable in order to develop new sources of oil and gas production and invest in energy-efficient technologies. Assuming continued profitability, combined with more efficient use of oil and gas, the Foundation remains confident that the industry will provide energy security and export revenues for the benefit of all Canadians. 12 refs., photos

  4. [Ecological misunderstanding, integrative approach, and potential industries in circular economy transition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rusong

    2005-12-01

    Based on the Social-Economic-Natural Complex Ecosystem theory, this paper questioned 8 kinds of misunderstandings in current planning, incubation, development, and management of circular economy, which had led to either ultra-right or ultra-left actions in ecological and economic development. Rather than concentrated only on the 3-r micro-principles of "reduce-reuse-recycle", thise paper suggested 3-R macro-principles of "Rethinking-Reform-Refunction" for circular economy development. Nine kinds of eco-integrative strategies in industrial transition were put forward, i.e., food web-based horizontal/parallel coupling, life cycle-oriented vertical/serial coupling, functional service rather than products-oriented production, flexible and adaptive structure, ecosystem-based regional coupling, social integrity, comprehensive capacity building, employment enhancement, and respecting human dignity. Ten promising potential eco-industries in China's near-future circular economy development were proposed, such as the transition of traditional chemical fertilizer and pesticide industry to a new kind of industrial complex for agro-ecosystem management.

  5. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of

  6. Urban planning and industry in Spain: A novel methodology for calculating industrial carbon footprints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubelzu, Sergio; Álvarez, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a methodology for calculating the carbon footprint of the industrial sector during the urban planning stage in order to clearly develop and implement preventive measures. The methodology created focuses on industrial urban planning procedures and takes into account urban infrastructure in the characterization of GHG emissions. It allows for the implementation of preventive measures based on sustainability design criteria. The methodology was derived for specific industrial activity categories and was tested on a group of municipalities in a province south of Madrid, Spain. The results indicate that the average carbon footprint of industrial activities varies between 137.36 kgCO 2eq /m 2 e and 607.25 kgCO 2eq /m 2 e depending on the activity. Gas and electricity are the most important emissions sources for the most polluting industrial activities (chemical and nonmetal mineral products), while transportation is the most important source for every other activity. Municipalities can have a decisive influence on the industrial carbon footprint because, except for waste management and two industrial activities related to electricity, the majority of reductions can be achieved through urban planning decision variables. -- Highlights: •Model to calculate industrial carbon footprint in urban planning stage is proposed. •Specific industrial activities planned have a strong effect on carbon footprint. •Gas and electricity are the most relevant sources for the most pollutant industries. •Transport is relevant source for the less pollutant industries. •Municipalities can decisively influence on industrial carbon footprint

  7. Optimizing the structure of financial resources of industrial enterprises in the market economy mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vlasov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the optimization of the structure of financial resources of industrial enterprises in the market economy mechanism. The slowdown of the Russian economy force companies to promote more accurate system financial planning its activities. In modern economic conditions the company's performance is largely dependent on the ability of management to more accurately predict financial flows, as well as more accurately predict the financial and human resources to ensure solvency of the enterprise, thus more competent to form the strategy of development of the organization.Goal / task. The aim of the article the search for the optimal structure of financial resources of industrial enterprises in the market economy mechanism and to develop proposals for the sustainable development of the enterprise. The task of this article is to investigate the structure of financial resources of the enterprise, in a deteriorating economic situation that must be considered in the sustainable development of industrial enterprises.Methodology. In conducting this study the main sources of the original data were the materials of the state statistics, the works of famous economists. The basis of the methodological developments based on comparative methods of analysis.Results. Given the concept of optimizing the structure of financial resources of the industrial enterprises. It shows the influence of external and internal factors affecting the stability of the industrial enterprises. Highlighted the impact of the economic situation on the role of these factors.Conclusions / significance. In the current economic conditions of the state and the new economic realities, it is necessary to focus to industrial enterprises to conduct an effective economic policy, thereby improving the financial stability of the enterprise.

  8. Do urbanization and industrialization affect energy intensity in developing countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadorsky, Perry

    2013-01-01

    Against a backdrop of concerns about climate change, peak oil, and energy security issues, reducing energy intensity is often advocated as a way to at least partially mitigate these impacts. This study uses recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques like mean group estimators and common correlated effects estimators to model the impact that income, urbanization and industrialization has on energy intensity for a panel of 76 developing countries. In the long-run, a 1% increase in income reduces energy intensity by − 0.45% to − 0.35%. Long-run industrialization elasticities are in the range 0.07 to 0.12. The impact of urbanization on energy intensity is mixed. In specifications where the estimated coefficient on urbanization is statistically significant, it is slightly larger than unity. The implications of these results for energy policy are discussed. - Highlights: ► The impact of urbanization and industrialization on energy intensity is modeled. ► Use recently developed heterogeneous panel regression techniques ► The model is tested on a panel of developing countries. ► Income has a negative impact on energy intensity. ► Industrialization has a positive impact on energy intensity

  9. Energy taxation in a small, open economy: Social efficiency gains versus industrial concerns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjertnaes, Geir H.; Faehn, Taran

    2008-01-01

    Welfare analyses of energy taxes typically show that systems with uniform rates perform better than differentiated systems, especially if revenue can be recycled by cutting taxes that are more distortionary. However, in practical policy, efficiency gains must be traded off against industrial concerns. Presumably, energy-dependent industries of small, open economies will suffer relatively more if taxed. This computable general equilibrium (CGE) study examines the social costs of compensating the energy-intensive export industries in Norway for their profit losses from imposing the same electricity tax on all industries. The costs are surprisingly modest. This is explained by the role of the Nordic electricity market, which is still limited enough to respond to national energy tax reforms. Thus, an electricity price reduction partly neutralizes the direct impact of the tax on profits. In addition, we examine the effects of different compensation schemes and find significantly lower compensation costs when the scheme is designed to release productivity gains. (author)

  10. Role of University-Industry-Government Linkages in the Innovation Processes of a Small Catching-Up Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varblane, Urmas; Mets, Tonis; Ukrainski, Kadri

    2008-01-01

    During the transformation process from a command economy, the extraordinary statist university-industry-government (UIG) linkages model was replaced by an extreme version of laissez-faire relationships. A more modern interaction-based UIG model could be implemented only by changing the whole national innovation system of catching-up economies. The…

  11. [Urban industrial contaminated sites: a new issue in the field of environmental remediation in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-Yong; Chong, Zhong-Yi; Yan, Xiu-Lan; Zhao, Dan

    2011-03-01

    Contamination of urban industrial lands is a new environmental problem in China during the process of upgrade of industrial structure and adjustment of urban layout. It restricts the safe re-use of urban land resources, and threatens the health of surrounding inhabitants. In the paper, the market potential of contaminated-site remediation was known through analysis of spatial distribution of urban industrial sites in China. Remediation technologies in the Occident which were suitable for urban industrial contaminated sites were discussed and compared to evaluate their superiority and inferiority. And then, some advices of remediation technologies for urban industrial contaminated sites in China were proposed.

  12. Factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation in Kuwait's crude oil industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mutairi, Naief; Burney, Nadeem A.

    2002-01-01

    The cost structure of the crude oil industry in Kuwait has been examined, with specific focus on factor substitution, and economies of scale and utilisation. This has been done by estimating translog cost functions, both long-run and short-run, using time-series data covering the period from 1976 to 1996. The results indicate that the implied production structure is non-homothetic, and the pattern of scale effect is labour saving, but capital and material using. The evidence also supports the presence of an induced exogenous technical change, which is non-neutral (labour and capital using, and material saving). The elasticity of substitution between capital and labour is positive, implying that the two inputs are substitute. The results also indicate the existence of diseconomies of scale in the production of crude oil, but no economies or diseconomies of utilisation

  13. Business management practices in the power industry: Decision making in a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, J.H. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, New York, NY (United States); Rosel, V. [Fieldstone Private Capital Group, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Management of a free market power industry, or managing the transition from a planned economy to a free market one, is driven by a fundamental economic premise - it is unrealistic (and economically unsound) to try to shelter end users (manufacturers or otherwise) from the true cost of energy: (i) energy prices are a function of fuel inputs (ii) fuel inputs are world priced (iii) end users must pay prices based on true costs Trying to counter any of these dictates will cause economic inefficiencies and misallocations. Managers of energy production in a free market economy must therefore learn to acquire data, and learn to extrapolate. As information is never complete, or perfect, managers must learn to consider contingencies, alternatives and options. In a free market economy, the decision to build a power facility is not controlled simply by the recognition of a perceived need for more power in an area. Because survival in a free market economy requires making a profit, as part for the decision process managers must: (i) talk to their customers to determine power needs into the future (ii) talk to their input suppliers, and arrange contracts (iii) make sure that there is a spread between cost and revenue As stated this is a simple recipe, but is difficult in practice. To perform any forecasting, managers must acquire control over cost, so as to have a base from which to judge the continued profitability or potential profitability, of any current activity or future ventures. It should be noted that planning for the future is difficult at any time but even more so when moving through an era where in the entire economy is undergoing systemic changes. Historic customer base, and historic supply arrangements, may not mean much. Therefore, managers must keep acquiring information, and updating forecasts.

  14. Market structure and competition in the healthcare industry : Results from a transition economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lábaj, Martin; Silanič, Peter; Weiss, Christoph; Yontcheva, Biliana

    2018-02-14

    The present paper provides first empirical evidence on the relationship between market size and the number of firms in the healthcare industry for a transition economy. We estimate market-size thresholds required to support different numbers of suppliers (firms) for three occupations in the healthcare industry in a large number of distinct geographic markets in Slovakia, taking into account the spatial interaction between local markets. The empirical analysis is carried out for three time periods (1995, 2001 and 2010) which characterise different stages of the transition process. Our results suggest that the relationship between market size and the number of firms differs both across industries and across periods. In particular, we find that pharmacies, as the only completely liberalised market in our dataset, experience the largest change in competitive behaviour during the transition process. Furthermore, we find evidence for correlation in entry decisions across administrative borders, suggesting that future market analysis should aim to capture these regional effects.

  15. The oil and gas industry and the Canadian economy: a backgrounder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-06-01

    The technological and economic significance of the Canadian petroleum industry to the national economy and to Canada's standing in the world are reviewed. The six key ways in which the oil and gas industry affects Canada, namely employment, balance of trade, products, government revenues, international technology trade and community support are stressed within the context of describing present and future oil and gas resources, Canada's petroleum and natural gas trade balance, and capital spending and product sales. Attention is also drawn to the role of the Canadian petroleum and natural gas industry as a producer and exporter of world class technology, especially in the areas of high tech exploration methods, cold-climate and offshore operations, enhanced recovery techniques, heavy oil production and and processing, mining and upgrading of oil sands bitumen, oil well firefighting, and environmental protection technology. maps, figs

  16. The heterogeneous effects of urbanization and income inequality on CO2 emissions in BRICS economies: evidence from panel quantile regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huiming; Xia, Hang; Guo, Yawei; Peng, Cheng

    2018-04-12

    This paper empirically examines the effects of urbanization and income inequality on CO 2 emissions in the BRICS economies (i.e., Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) during the periods 1994-2013. The method we used is the panel quantile regression, which takes into account the unobserved individual heterogeneity and distributional heterogeneity. Our empirical results indicate that urbanization has a significant and negative impact on carbon emissions, except in the 80 th , 90 th , and 95 th quantiles. We also quantitatively investigate the direct and indirect effect of urbanization on carbon emissions, and the results show that we may underestimate urbanization's effect on carbon emissions if we ignore its indirect effect. In addition, in middle- and high-emission countries, income inequality has a significant and positive impact on carbon emissions. The results of our study indicate that in the BRICS economies, there is an inverted U-shaped environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) between the GDP per capita and carbon emissions. The conclusions of this study have important policy implications for policymakers. Policymakers should try to narrow the income gap between the rich and the poor to improve environmental quality; the BRICS economies can speed up urbanization to reduce carbon emissions, but they must improve energy efficiency and use clean energy to the greatest extent in the process.

  17. Postwar Industrial areas as agents for sustainable urban transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boye, Anne Mette

    2017-01-01

    Only 30-40 years old, postwar industrial enclaves in Denmark change character. Vacancies, new investments in high technology and new civic programs are recorded even within the same enclaves. These postwar industrial areas represent a generic typology – a legacy of the functionalistic paradigm sh...... international projects, the paper pinpoints a selection of spatial transformation strategies addressing uncertainty. Through this, the paper contributes to the discussion on how to recycle the postwar urban landscape and planning in uncertain conditions....... are cleared for redevelopment or ignored. However, both reactions dismiss the possible qualities of the existing morphology and activities. This paper argues that this might close an opportunity to consider how recycling these enclaves can be utilized to shape future sustainable urban environments...

  18. Intra-Industry Affiliate Trade of Foreign-Owned Companies in Transition Economies:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad

    2008-01-01

    Using a database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises (MNE) in Poland and the intra-industry trade of their...... become a more important mode of organization for multinational enterprises as Poland has evolved into a relatively stable economic environment where MNEs feel comfortable basing their regional operations.......Using a database containing trade and industry variables of foreign-owned companies in the Polish manufacturing industry for the years 1993-2002, we investigate the relationship between the organizational structure of multinational enterprises (MNE) in Poland and the intra-industry trade...... of their affiliates (IIAT). We find labour intensity; scale economies and absorptive capacity of affiliates are the main explanatory variables for IIAT. Given the overall rise in export and import intensities of foreign affiliates over the period of investigation, our findings suggest that export-platform FDI has...

  19. Impact of Six Sigma in a developing economy: analysis on benefits drawn by Indian industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darshak A. Desai

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  Overall operational excellence is the key requirement of any business to have global competence and sustained growth. Indian industries are not the exception to this. Six Sigma has emerged as one of the most effective business improvement strategies world wide.  Nothing much has been published so far illustrating an overall experience of Indian industries with Six Sigma. This paper presents an analysis of the impact of Six Sigma on developing economy like India.  The paper provides an insight into what kind of benefits Indian industries are gaining from Six Sigma as a whole. The study further highlights similarity and differences of benefit gained by different scales and sectors of Indian industries through Six Sigma. This exhaustive analysis of the benefits drawn by Indian industries through Six Sigma can assist other industries in India as well as those in other developing countries, who have yet not experimented with Six Sigma, to become more focused regarding their expectations from this improvement drive. 

  20. Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis. Phase II final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    Through the Urban Integrated Industrial Cogeneration Systems Analysis (UIICSA), the City of Chicago embarked upon an ambitious effort to identify the measure the overall industrial cogeneration market in the city and to evaluate in detail the most promising market opportunities. This report discusses the background of the work completed during Phase II of the UIICSA and presents the results of economic feasibility studies conducted for three potential cogeneration sites in Chicago. Phase II focused on the feasibility of cogeneration at the three most promising sites: the Stockyards and Calumet industrial areas, and the Ford City commercial/industrial complex. Each feasibility case study considered the energy load requirements of the existing facilities at the site and the potential for attracting and serving new growth in the area. Alternative fuels and technologies, and ownership and financing options were also incorporated into the case studies. Finally, site specific considerations such as development incentives, zoning and building code restrictions and environmental requirements were investigated.

  1. Digital economy, Websites and SMEs of the handicraft industry in Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Duarte Cueva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The companies are operating in complex, dynamic and uncertain environments that it difficult to compete. The e-economy each time has a major presence in business world, then, the small entrepreneurs must design strategies based on Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs, particularly the use of Internet, to improve company performance. Thus, the efficient implementation of websites is a mechanism that should exploit exporting small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs or with export potential, of the handicrafts industry, to communicate desired company image and optimize customer service, this it has implications who require to be analyzed to make an effective use of the ICTs.

  2. Urban BIPV in the new residential construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, D.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the new residential construction industry. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The aim of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The report states that different types of building require different approaches to BIPV due to their associated varying dimensions and geometry. Several solutions are proposed to encourage the adoption and diffusion of BIPV by the new home residential building industry. These are divided into PV industry-based approaches and policy-based solutions. The former include end-customer focused policies, the identification of early adopters, the creation of product solutions that meet the needs of the building industry and standards and that the construction industry must be engaged in the design and planning stage of residential developments. Policy questions discussed include the provision of incentives, a planned approach to the demonstration of BIPV and the development of BIPV-specific policy.

  3. Regional Planning and Development Under the Maximization of Urban Agglomerative Economies%城市集聚经济最大化视角下的区域规划发展研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱英明

    2005-01-01

    Starting from the meaning and types of urban agglomerative economies, with the analysis of the characteristics and causes of urban agglomerative economies, this paper puts forward that the regional planning and development should attach importance to urban agglomerative economies, follow the law of the maximization of regional urban agglomerative economies. It also points out the countermeasures and advices tofacilitate the regional planning and development based on the principle.

  4. The dynamics of industrial organisation in economies in transition: the example of the Russian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Locatelli, C.

    1999-10-01

    The question of the emergence of a new organisational model based on the firm is at the heart of the reform in the Russian energy sector, as it is at the heart of the structural changes that the planned economic systems are undergoing. The reform has given rise to one main observation: the firm, as currently defined in Western economic writings, does not exist because of the essentially non-monetary nature of the planned economic systems. Eight years after the creation of Gazprom, however, one can be asked questions about the organisational model that has actually emerged. It is evident that the reform in ownership rights that was its initial objective has not created a private enterprise, even though the reform arose in a modification of ownership rights. Gazprom, given the essentially non-monetary economic relations amongst which it finds itself, remains in essence an organisation that is not subject to a ''hard budget constraint''. Instead of the private enterprise, we have an original and stable type of organisational model that has still to be fully defined. This specific ''vertical integration'' model is the model that allows the distinctive characteristics of the Russian economic environment to be managed best, whether they be non monetization of exchange and the salaried contract inherited from the planned economy. Some aspects of which have been retained in the post-communist transformation. In the case in point, this model shows that the firm is an organisation but also much an institution, a place where various interests and conflicts are managed. (A.L.B.)

  5. The dynamics of industrial organisation in economies in transition: the example of the Russian gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C

    1999-10-01

    The question of the emergence of a new organisational model based on the firm is at the heart of the reform in the Russian energy sector, as it is at the heart of the structural changes that the planned economic systems are undergoing. The reform has given rise to one main observation: the firm, as currently defined in Western economic writings, does not exist because of the essentially non-monetary nature of the planned economic systems. Eight years after the creation of Gazprom, however, one can be asked questions about the organisational model that has actually emerged. It is evident that the reform in ownership rights that was its initial objective has not created a private enterprise, even though the reform arose in a modification of ownership rights. Gazprom, given the essentially non-monetary economic relations amongst which it finds itself, remains in essence an organisation that is not subject to a ''hard budget constraint''. Instead of the private enterprise, we have an original and stable type of organisational model that has still to be fully defined. This specific ''vertical integration'' model is the model that allows the distinctive characteristics of the Russian economic environment to be managed best, whether they be non monetization of exchange and the salaried contract inherited from the planned economy. Some aspects of which have been retained in the post-communist transformation. In the case in point, this model shows that the firm is an organisation but also much an institution, a place where various interests and conflicts are managed. (A.L.B.)

  6. A Preliminary Review on Economies of Scale (EOS Towards Industrialized Building System (IBS Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tajul Ariffin Syazwana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrialized Building System (IBS is a potential technology to improve productivity of construction industry. Controlled production and minimum generation of construction waste are some of the benefits that can be achieved by replacing conventional construction with IBS. In business, IBS is giving a huge opportunity for manufacturer and supplier to expand their business while contributing to construction development. However, bad strategies will put the company in high risk due to higher initial capital for machines and equipment. Therefore, strategic planning for company’s growth, profit maximization, and enhancement of productivity is undeniable to ensure the success of business in construction industry. This preliminary paper is exploring associated factors that affect Economy of Scale (EOS and their relationships in catalyzing the IBS manufacturer especially precast concrete as the scope of study to continue their business in the construction industry. Thus, a framework of EOS is proposed to assist IBS manufacturers to ensure their company’s growth and stability, competitiveness in term of monopoly or an oligopoly, increasing productivity, leading constant returns to scale, and finally increasing the firm’s efficiency. The refined EOS’s conceptual framework is an important turning point to support the development of decision making tools for IBS manufacturer towards their stability and survival in this highly competitive industry.

  7. The strategic industrial sectors of the green economy: stakes and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertini, Jean-Paul; Larrieu, Catherine; Griot, Alain

    2013-03-01

    Proposing a transverse analysis and a synthesis, the first part of this voluminous report discusses the evolution of the context since 2009 for the green industry sector, outlines and comments the development stakes for the different sectors, analyses and comments their main evolutions for the last three years, outlines the development potential and perspectives of these activities in France, and proposes an overview of strategic policies implemented in the field of green economy in different countries (USA, Germany, United Kingdom, Japan, China, South Korea). The second part addresses the evolution and perspectives of each sector: energy production from renewable sources (biofuels, biomass, marine energies, wind energy, geothermal energy, solar energy), optimization of natural energy consumption (building with low environmental impact, green chemistry, hydrogen and fuel cells, biomaterials, optimization of industrial processes, smart grids, energy storage, low-carbon vehicles), natural resource life cycle management (CO 2 capture and storage, water, purification and ecologic engineering, metrology and instrumentation, recycling and waste valorization)

  8. Quantitative assessment of urban and industrial symbiosis in Kawasaki, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Berkel, Rene; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Shizuka; Fujii, Minoru

    2009-03-01

    Colocated firms can achieve environmental benefit and competitive advantage from exchanging physical resources (known as industrial symbiosis) with each other or with residential areas (referenced here as urban symbiosis). Past research illustrated that economic and environmental benefits appear self-evident, although detailed quantification has only been attempted of symbioses for energy and water utilities. This article provides a complimentary case studyfor Kawasaki, Japan. The 14 documented symbioses connect steel, cement, chemical, and paperfirms and their spin-off recycling businesses. Seven key material exchanges divert annually at least 565 000 tons of waste from incineration or landfill. Four of these collectively present an estimated economic opportunity of 13.3 billion JPY (approximately 130 million USD) annually. Five symbioses involve utilization of byproduct and two sharing of utilities. The others are traditional or new recycling industries that do not specifically benefit from geographic proximity. The synergistic effect of urban and industrial symbiosis is unique. The legislative framework for a recycling-oriented society has contributed to realization of the symbioses, as has the availability of government subsidies through the Eco-Town program.

  9. Neoliberalism, Urbanism and the Education Economy: Producing Hyderabad as a "Global City"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Sangeeta

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of Hyderabad as a hub of the global information technology economy, and in particular, the role of higher education in Hyderabad's transformation as the labor market for the new economy. The extensive network of professional education institutions that service the global economy illustrates the ways in which…

  10. Managing family businesses in the tourism and hospitality industry: the transitional economy of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallas Brozik

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available This study’s objective is to examine the nature of tourism and hospitality family businesses that operate in the transitional Polish economy and to analyze the environment for development and growth of these entrepreneurial firms in the reformingeconomy. In order to evaluate and compare firms’ development relative to selected external environmental factors affecting entrepreneurial operations, on-site surveys and personal interviews were conducted with Polish entrepreneurs who own and operate family businesses within tourism and hospitality industry. Theenvironmental conditions are grouped into four external nvironmental factors: political and legal environment, financial environment, non-financial environment, and socio-economic environment, and analyzed based on Kazanjian’s (1988 and Gnyawali and Fogel’s models (1994. The paper also analyzes the competencies ofthe owners of the entrepreneurial firms that are important for the firm’s success throughout the firm’s life cycle. Based on this study results, policy implications are made for assisting the tourism and hospitality firms’ growth and development in transitional economy

  11. INCUBATORS AND GOVERNMENT POLICY FOR DEVELOPING IT INDUSTRY AND REGION IN EMERGING ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Atiqah Abdullah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incubation, a concept supported by a variety of economic cluster theories, is a vital element in economic development in developed countries. The entrepreneurial businesses that they house often improve the developed economies in terms of not only jobs but also wealth creation. The question that this article embraces is as follows: "Do incubators play the same vital role in economic development in developing regions of the world?" We use the case study methodology to develop this query in a focus area of regional development in an emerging economy. We examine the implementation of three incubators located in designated cybercities. The cybercity concept is one of the Malaysian government's initiatives to encourage the development of the IT industry within the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC Program. This study takes advantage of the 10-year development of cybercities by performing a longitudinal study. We found that these incubators did well in achieving their initial performance objectives, but they need to catch up with developed countries' continued rapid progress.

  12. GOLD AND LAND PRICES WITH CAPITAL ACCUMULATION IN AN ECONOMY WITH INDUSTRIAL AND AGRICULTURAL SECTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG WEI-BIN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine dynamic interactions among gold value, land price and economic structure in a growth model with capital accumulation. The paper proposes a two-sector general equilibrium model with land and gold prices as endogenous variables. The economy consists of industrial and agricultural sectors with fixed land and gold. Land is used for residential use and agricultural production and gold is used for saving and decorations. The portfolio equilibrium growth model is based on the neoclassical growth theory and Ricardian theory. We simulate the model to demonstrate that the economic system has a unique stable steady state. We show how exogenous changes in preference and technology affect the transitory processes and long-term equilibrium.

  13. The marriage of car sharing and hydrogen economy: A possible solution to the main problems of urban living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriston, Akos; Inzelt, Gyoergy [Department of Physical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eoetvoes Lorand University, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A (Hungary); Szabo, Tamas [Department of Applied Analysis and Computational Mathematics, Institute of Mathematics, Eoetvoes Lorand University, 1117 Budapest, Pazmany Peter setany 1/C (Hungary)

    2010-12-15

    The hydrogen economy is seeking its killer application, which can break down the 'chicken and egg problem', i.e., no hydrogen powered car can be sold if it cannot be refueled, and nobody will invest to a hydrogen refueling station if no one has a hydrogen powered vehicle. The applications like material handling, backup-power, and small stationary combined heat and power (CHP) engines are the most promising candidates, which may show financial return in 3-5 years. The replacement of fossil fuel with hydrogen in the automotive industry offers a substantial reduction of the harmful environmental effects, however, it is still the most challenging because of the absence of the hydrogen infrastructure, the price and the lifetime of the fuel cell (FC) engine and the unsuitable regulations, as well. In this work a new possible market was identified and analyzed in different points of view. This market segment is a car-sharing system operating with small urban vehicles, which not only can solve some environmental problems (e.g., air pollution and CO{sub 2} emission), but also helps to reduce congestion, secure energy supply and ease its distribution. First, a sensitivity analysis was done and the key performance indicators of the system were determined. The financial return of a hydrogen-based car-sharing system was examined carefully as a function of the rated power of the fuel cell power train, the way of hydrogen supply, the cost of the hydrogen and the size of the car fleet. Finally, a possible hydrogen-based car-sharing service was designed and optimized to the downtown of Budapest, Hungary. A sustainable system was proposed, which can satisfy the needs of the business (i.e., profitability) and the environment. (author)

  14. The marriage of car sharing and hydrogen economy: A possible solution to the main problems of urban living

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriston, Akos; Inzelt, Gyoergy; Szabo, Tamas

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen economy is seeking its killer application, which can break down the 'chicken and egg problem', i.e., no hydrogen powered car can be sold if it cannot be refueled, and nobody will invest to a hydrogen refueling station if no one has a hydrogen powered vehicle. The applications like material handling, backup-power, and small stationary combined heat and power (CHP) engines are the most promising candidates, which may show financial return in 3-5 years. The replacement of fossil fuel with hydrogen in the automotive industry offers a substantial reduction of the harmful environmental effects, however, it is still the most challenging because of the absence of the hydrogen infrastructure, the price and the lifetime of the fuel cell (FC) engine and the unsuitable regulations, as well. In this work a new possible market was identified and analyzed in different points of view. This market segment is a car-sharing system operating with small urban vehicles, which not only can solve some environmental problems (e.g., air pollution and CO 2 emission), but also helps to reduce congestion, secure energy supply and ease its distribution. First, a sensitivity analysis was done and the key performance indicators of the system were determined. The financial return of a hydrogen-based car-sharing system was examined carefully as a function of the rated power of the fuel cell power train, the way of hydrogen supply, the cost of the hydrogen and the size of the car fleet. Finally, a possible hydrogen-based car-sharing service was designed and optimized to the downtown of Budapest, Hungary. A sustainable system was proposed, which can satisfy the needs of the business (i.e., profitability) and the environment. (author)

  15. Modeling the Impacts of Urbanization and Industrial Transformation on Water Resources in China: An Integrated Hydro-Economic CGE Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressure on existing water resources in China is expected to increase with undergoing rapid demographic transformation, economic development, and global climate changes. We investigate the economy-wide impacts of projected urban population growth and economic structural change on water use and allocation in China. Using a multi-regional CGE (Computable General Equilibrium model, TERM (The Enormous Regional Model, we explore the implications of selected future water scenarios for China’s nine watershed regions. Our results indicate that urbanization and industrial transformation in China will raise the opportunity cost of water use and increase the competition for water between non-agricultural users and irrigation water users. The growth in water demand for domestic and industrial uses reduces the amount of water allocated to agriculture, particularly lower-value and water-intensive field crops. As a response, farmers have the incentive to shift their agricultural operations from traditional field crop production to higher-value livestock or intensive crop production. In addition, our results suggest that growing water demand due to urbanization and industrial transformation will raise the shadow price of water in all nine river basins. Finally, we find that national economic growth is largely attributable to urbanization and non-agricultural productivity growth.

  16. Migrant labor supply in a booming non-renewable resource economy: Cure and transmission mechanism for de-industrialization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nulle, Grant Mark

    This paper challenges the determinism that booming resource economies suffer from de-industrialization, the "Dutch Disease". For several decades, economists have attempted to explain how a sudden surge in mineral and energy extraction affects an economy's output and employment from an aggregate and sectoral perspective. Economic theory shows that a "boom" in mineral and energy production is welfare enhancing to the economy experiencing it. However, the phenomenon also induces inter-sectoral adjustments among non-renewable resource (NRR), traditional traded, and non-traded industries that tend to crowd out traditional export sectors such as agriculture and manufacturing. In turn, this paper asks two fundamental questions: 1) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments wrought by a boom in NRR production be mitigated in the resource-abundant economy experiencing it; 2) Can the inter-sectoral adjustments be exported to a neighboring non-resource economy by movements in migrant labor supply? The theoretical model and empirical estimation approach presented in this paper introduces an endogenous migrant labor supply response to booms in NRR output to test the extent traditional tradable sectors shrink in the NRR-abundant economy during the boom and if such effects are exported to a neighboring jurisdiction. Using data at the U.S. county level, the empirical results show that booming economies experience positive and statistically significant rates of real income and traded sector job growth during the boom, attributable to the influx of migrant labor. By contrast, little evidence is found that non-booming counties adjacent to the booming counties experience declines in income or job growth because of labor supply outflows. Instead, the results suggest the larger the number of potential "donor" counties that can supply labor to the booming economies, the more likely the transmission of booming economy effects, namely evidence of de-industrialization, is diffused across all of the

  17. Sinos River Hydrographic Basin: urban occupation, industrialization and environmental memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Nunes

    Full Text Available This article presents an analysis of the process of industrialization and urbanization of the Sinos Valley in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, starting from the establishment of leather goods and footwear manufacturing in the region during the 19th century when tanneries and factories producing footwear and/or components for footwear began to appear, and with special attention to aspects related to the environmental impact on the Sinos river hydrographic basin. The article is based on both bibliographic and documentary research and also draws on biographical narratives of workers with links to the leather goods and footwear industry obtained using ethnographic method. It was found that contemporary environmental conflicts emerge from within a memory of work and an environmental memory in which the factories, the unplanned urbanization, and the utilization of water and other natural resources form a chain of significance. Significance that precludes any form of fragmented analysis that isolates any of these aspects from the others: the economic, socio-historic, cultural, political, or the environmental.

  18. Sinos River Hydrographic Basin: urban occupation, industrialization and environmental memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, M F; Figueiredo, J A S; Rocha, A L C

    2015-12-01

    This article presents an analysis of the process of industrialization and urbanization of the Sinos Valley in Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil, starting from the establishment of leather goods and footwear manufacturing in the region during the 19th century when tanneries and factories producing footwear and/or components for footwear began to appear, and with special attention to aspects related to the environmental impact on the Sinos river hydrographic basin. The article is based on both bibliographic and documentary research and also draws on biographical narratives of workers with links to the leather goods and footwear industry obtained using ethnographic method. It was found that contemporary environmental conflicts emerge from within a memory of work and an environmental memory in which the factories, the unplanned urbanization, and the utilization of water and other natural resources form a chain of significance. Significance that precludes any form of fragmented analysis that isolates any of these aspects from the others: the economic, socio-historic, cultural, political, or the environmental.

  19. The role of urban forest to reduce rain acid in urban industrial areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slamet, B.; Agustiarni, Y.; Hidayati; Basyuni, M.

    2018-03-01

    Urban forest has many functions mainly on improving the quality of the urban environment. One of the functions is to increase pH and reduce dangerous chemical content. The aim of the research is to find out the role of vegetation density of urban forest around the industrial area in reducing the acid rain. The condition of land cover was classified into four classes which are dense, medium, sparse and open area. The water of the throughfall and stemflow was taken from each type of land cover except in the open area. Parameters measured in this study are water acidity (pH), anion content (SO4 2- and NO3 -), cation content (Ca2+, Mg2+, and NH4 +) and electrical conductivity (EC). The results indicated that urban forest vegetation was able to increase the pH of rain water from 5.42 which is in an open area without vegetation to be 7.13 and 7.32 in dense and moderate vegetation cover by throughfall mechanism, respectively. Rain water acidity also decreased through stemflow mechanism with a pH ranged from 5.92 - 6.43. Urban forest vegetation decreased sulfate content (SO42-) from 528.67 mg/l in open area to 44 - 118 mg/l by throughfall mechanism and ranged from 90 to 366.67 mg/l through stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation significantly decreased the rainwater nitrate content from 27 mg/l to 0.03 - 0.70 mg/l through the mechanism of throughfall and between 1.53 - 8.82 mg/l through the stemflow mechanism. Urban forest vegetation also increased the concentration of cations (NH4+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+) compared with open areas. Urban forest vegetation showed increased the electrical conductivity (EC) from 208.12 μmhos/cm to 344.67 - 902.17 μmhos/cm through the through fall mechanism and 937.67 - 1058.70 μmhos/cm through the stemflow mechanism. The study suggested that urban forests play a significant role in reducing rainwater acidity and improving the quality of rainwater that reached the soil surface.

  20. Automobile fuel; Economy and CO2 emissions in industrialized countries : troubling trends through 2005/6

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    A review of recently available data on both on-road fuel economy and new car test fuel economy : shows that while US on-road fuel economy has been flat for almost 15 years, major European countries and Japan have shown modest improvements in response...

  1. The Hydrogen Economy Making the Transition to the Third Industrial Revolution and a New Energy Era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeremy Rifkin

    2006-01-01

    Jeremy Rifkin is the author of the international best seller, The Hydrogen Economy, which has been translated into fourteen languages. It is the most widely read book in the world on the future of renewable energy and the hydrogen economy. In his presentation on 'The Hydrogen Economy', Mr. Rifkin takes us on an eye-opening journey into the next great commercial era in history. He envisions the dawn of a new economy powered by hydrogen that will fundamentally change the nature of our market, political and social institutions, just as coal and steam power did at the beginning of the industrial age. Rifkin observes that we are fast approaching a critical watershed for the fossil-fuel era, with potentially dire consequences for industrial civilization. Experts had been saying that we had another forty or so years of cheap available crude oil left. Now, however, some of the world's leading petroleum geologists are suggesting that global oil production could peak and begin a steep decline much sooner, as early as the second decade of the 21. century. Non-OPEC oil producing countries are already nearing their peak production, leaving most of the remaining reserves in the politically unstable Middle East. Increasing tensions between Islam and the West are likely to further threaten our access to affordable oil. In desperation, the U.S. and other nations could turn to dirtier fossil-fuels, coal, tar sand, and heavy oil, which will only worsen global warming and imperil the earth's already beleaguered ecosystems. Looming oil shortages make industrial life vulnerable to massive disruptions and possibly even collapse. While the fossil-fuel era is entering its sunset century, a new energy regime is being born that has the potential to remake civilization along radical new lines, according to Rifkin. Hydrogen is the most basic and ubiquitous element in the universe. It is the stuff of the stars and of our sun and, when properly harnessed, it is the 'forever fuel'. It never runs

  2. The Hydrogen Economy Making the Transition to the Third Industrial Revolution and a New Energy Era

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeremy Rifkin

    2006-07-01

    Jeremy Rifkin is the author of the international best seller, The Hydrogen Economy, which has been translated into fourteen languages. It is the most widely read book in the world on the future of renewable energy and the hydrogen economy. In his presentation on 'The Hydrogen Economy', Mr. Rifkin takes us on an eye-opening journey into the next great commercial era in history. He envisions the dawn of a new economy powered by hydrogen that will fundamentally change the nature of our market, political and social institutions, just as coal and steam power did at the beginning of the industrial age. Rifkin observes that we are fast approaching a critical watershed for the fossil-fuel era, with potentially dire consequences for industrial civilization. Experts had been saying that we had another forty or so years of cheap available crude oil left. Now, however, some of the world's leading petroleum geologists are suggesting that global oil production could peak and begin a steep decline much sooner, as early as the second decade of the 21. century. Non-OPEC oil producing countries are already nearing their peak production, leaving most of the remaining reserves in the politically unstable Middle East. Increasing tensions between Islam and the West are likely to further threaten our access to affordable oil. In desperation, the U.S. and other nations could turn to dirtier fossil-fuels, coal, tar sand, and heavy oil, which will only worsen global warming and imperil the earth's already beleaguered ecosystems. Looming oil shortages make industrial life vulnerable to massive disruptions and possibly even collapse. While the fossil-fuel era is entering its sunset century, a new energy regime is being born that has the potential to remake civilization along radical new lines, according to Rifkin. Hydrogen is the most basic and ubiquitous element in the universe. It is the stuff of the stars and of our sun and, when properly harnessed, it is the &apos

  3. Role of local governments in promoting renewable energy businesses: a contribution to the green urban economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mans, U.; Meerow, S.

    2012-01-01

    Although policy-makers and entrepreneurs across the world are increasingly talking about the green economy, much of this debate still centers on the state of the global economy at the nation-state level. The role of renewable energy sourcing remains limited, while dependence on fossil fuels remains

  4. 78 FR 69128 - Trade, Investment, and Industrial Policies in India: Effects on the U.S. Economy; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-18

    ... documents may also be downloaded from the Commission Web site at http://www.usitc.gov/research_and_analysis...) Description of respondents: Companies in industries particularly affected by Indian trade, investment, or.... trade and investment and estimates the effects these barriers have on the U.S. economy and U.S. jobs...

  5. Niger Republic, mineral planning (part one)-Mining industries in socio-political and national economy framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Julien

    1982-01-01

    This document focus on Niger Republic mineral industries related points that are: socio-political and economical context; specific characters such as administrative, juridical and fiscal environment; citizens employment and training; actual situation and energy projects; transport; existing mining companies, construction materials enterprises and projects presentation; effect of mining sector and construction material on national economy and prior major problems to be solved [fr

  6. Urban economies, urban livelihoods and natural resource-based economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa: the constraints of a liberalized world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    There is much speculation today about how rapid economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa is transforming development prospects in the region. However, in terms of a broad, multi-dimensional, understanding of the term ‘development’, into which social justice must be factored, there are real concerns about whether the undoubted improvements in GDP growth in many countries are strongly connected to urban-located investment and job growth. Many African countries remain poorly placed, in terms of glo...

  7. The role of the upstream oil and gas industry in the Canadian economy and the macroeconomic impacts of increased taxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    The direct, indirect and overall impacts of the upstream oil and gas industry on the Canadian economy and the impact of increased taxation on the industry and the overall economy was assessed. The industry's value of production in 1995 was $25 billion, two-thirds of which were exports that contributed to Canada's trade surplus. In the same year, the industry also spent more than $10 billion in exploration and development. About five per cent of Canadian gross domestic product (GDP) and three per cent of national employment can be traced to the upstream oil and gas industry, therefore, increased taxation on the industry would have significant impacts on overall economic activity. For the purposes of this analysis, three assumptions were made: (1) a one-time $100 million tax increase on the industry, (2) the tax revenue to go toward government debt reduction, and (3) the reduction in industry net revenue to produce an investment impact equal with the average behaviour of the industry in recent years. Given these factors, it was concluded that a one-time $100 million tax increase could reduce national GDP by $250 million and employment by 3000 jobs. The balance of payments impact would be about -$75 million. Once factors related to expectations and capital mobility have been factored in, the negative macroeconomic impacts could be even greater. 6 tabs., 24 figs

  8. The political economy of urban homicide: assessing the relative impact of gender inequality on sex-specific victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWees, Mari A; Parker, Karen F

    2003-02-01

    This research examines the ways in which the changing political economy of urban areas has contributed differently to the homicide victimization rates of females and males across US cities. Recent research, while relatively limited, has presented disparate results regarding the effect of gender inequality on urban sex-specific victimization. Our work further explores this relationship by taking into account relative gender disparities in income, education, labor market opportunities, and politics in an examination of sex-specific homicide victimization in 1990. Key to this current investigation is the evaluation of feminist and lifestyle arguments that suggest that structural gender inequality has a unique effect on female victimization. Overall, our findings reveal gender inequality to be a significant predictor of both male and female urban homicide. While these findings suggest mixed support for theoretical arguments regarding gender inequality, further analyses reveal significant differences in specific types of gender inequality on victimization patterns across genders. These additional results highlight the need for greater attention toward both methodological and theoretical issues when examining the interconnections between gender, political economy, and violence in research.

  9. Development of oil and gas service as organizational form of entrepreneurship in post-industrial economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Н. В. Василенко

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of development of oil and gas service. The transformation of the oil and gas sector with the separation of independent enterprises and organizations providing services in the oil and gas service sector is compared by the author with the trend of rapid development of the service sector in the postindustrial economy. The purpose of the study is to identify the general and specific characteristics of modern oil and gas services and to determine the directions for the transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere under consideration. The growth of quantitative parameters of the oil and gas services market has been analyzed. The classification of this market is proposed depending on the place of services in a single technological cycle in relation to the main oil production process. The positive consequences of the development of oil and gas services for the development of oil and gas production have been systematized. Basic organizational models of entrepreneurship development in oil and gas service are generalized and substantiated. It is shown that the main influence in the market of services is taken by vertically integrated national oil and gas companies, as well as by international companies that provide service support for the work of Russian oil and gas companies. The results of a comparative analysis of advantages and disadvantages of organizational models of entrepreneurship in the field of oil and gas services are presented. It is proved that oil and gas service as an organizational form of entrepreneurship in its development reflects the general trends of the post-industrial economy. Specific features of oil and gas service in Russia are singled out. The revealed directions of transformation of organizational forms of entrepreneurship in the sphere of oil and gas service in current conditions can be used in the formation of state programs in the field of industrial

  10. Coordinated Development between Urban Tourism Economy and Transport in the Pearl River Delta, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuxia Zheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By selecting the panel data from 2005 to 2014 of 9 cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD in China, this paper respectively establishes the evaluation index system of tourism economy and transport. It also applies a synthetic evaluation model and coupling coordination model to estimate comprehensive indices of tourism economy and transport system and their coordinated relationships. The results show that: (1 during 2005–2014, the synthetic indices of tourism economy generally presented constantly upward tendency and the synthetic indices of transport represented wave-like raising trend in the PRD region; (2 during 2005–2014, the 9 cities in the PRD region gradually tended to have coordinated development between tourism economy and transport, and the central area of the PRD region developed faster than the flanks; (3 the correlations between the tourism economy and transport of the cities with abundant tourism resources, developed economy, and advanced transport facilities were more remarkable, and the coordination degrees were higher. Besides, macro-policies, mega-events, and locations also impacted on coordinated development between the tourism economy and transport in the PRD region.

  11. The Desired Image of the Future Economy of the Industrial Region: Development Trends and Evaluation Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Aleksandrovna Romanova

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article, the authors emphasize that industrial regions play an important role in the increasing of technological independence of Russia. We show that the decline in the share of processing industries in the gross regional product can not be treated as a negative de-industrialization of the economy. The article proves that the increase in the speed of changements, instability of socio-economic systems, the diverse risks predetermine the need to develop new methodological approaches to predictive research. The studies aimed at developing a technology for the design of the desired image of the future and the methodology for its evaluation are of high importance. For the initial stage of the research, the authors propose the methodological approach for assessing the desired image of the future of metallurgy as one of the most important industry of the region. We propose the term of «technological image of the regional metallurgy». We show that repositioning the image of the regional metallurgical complex is quite a long process. This have determined the need to define the stages of repositioning. The proposed methodology of the evaluation of desired future includes the methodological provisions to quantify the characteristics of goals achieved at the respective stages of the repositioning of the metallurgy. The methodological approach to the design of the desired image of the future implies the following stages: the identification of the priority areas of the technological development of regional metallurgy on the basis of bibliometric and patent analysis; the evaluation of dynamics of the development of the structure of metal products domestic consumption based on comparative analysis and relevant analytical methods as well as its forecasting; the design of the factor model, allowing to identify the parameters quantifying the technological image of the regional metallurgy based on the principal components method,; systematization of

  12. Urban competitiveness in the knowledge economy: universities as new planning animators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hospers, Gerrit J.; Benneworth, Paul Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary economic activity is increasingly dominated by ‘knowledge-based’ activities. Increasingly internationalisation of competition has increased pressures on firms in all advanced economies to compete primarily in terms of product differentiation (Porter, 1990). This has changed the nature

  13. Process heat applications of HTR-PM600 in Chinese petrochemical industry: Preliminary study of adaptability and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Chao; Min, Qi; Yang, Yanran; Sun, Yuliang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) could work as heat source for petrochemical industry. •The joint of a 600 MW modular HTGR (HTR-PM600) and petrochemical industry is achievable. •The mature technology of turbine in thermal power station could be readily adopted. •The economy of this scheme is also acceptable. -- Abstract: High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) could work as heat source for petrochemical industry. In this article, the preliminary feasibility of a 600 MW modular HTGR (HTR-PM600) working as heat source for a typical hypothetical Chinese petrochemical factory is discussed and it is found that the joint of HTR-PM600 and petrochemical industry is achievable. In detail, the heat and water balance analysis of the petrochemical factory is given. Furthermore, the direct cost of heat supplied by HTR-PM600 is calculated and corresponding economy is estimated. The results show that though there are several challenges, the application of process heat of HTGR to petrochemical industry is practical in sense of both technology and economy.

  14. The industrial division of labor among immigrants and internal migrants to the Los Angeles economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, M; Wright, R

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the industrial division of labor among immigrants and in-migrants in the Los Angeles, California, metropolitan area. It addresses debates about channeling of new arrivals into jobs among similar ethnic groups and human capital views. Data were obtained from the 1990 Census on resident native-born, resident foreign-born, in-migrants, and recent immigrants who arrived during 1985-90. Light and Rosenstein's (1995) concepts of groups and their resources were used to organize ideas about ethnic networks and their effectiveness in channeling migrant workers into 15 industrial sectors. Sectoral differences were revealed with the familiarity index of dissimilarity. Findings reveal that social networks were the strongest for Koreans, who supplied work for recent arrivals in the same sectors as Korean-born residents, regardless of education. Mexican new arrivals were less likely to work in the same sectors as their resident Mexican counterparts. Mexican networks placed new arrivals in durable manufacturing in the 1960s and 1970s when it was a key source of employment. By the 1980s and 1990s, the economy shifted and employment went down in durable manufacturing. Mexicans thus found employment elsewhere. Native White and Black in-migrants had the strongest channeling into same sector jobs. This is attributed to the small streams, the ability of the labor market to absorb these workers, and the availability of job vacancies among native out-migrants. Filipino migrants had similar patterns as Whites and Blacks. Mexican and Central American residents had more inter-ethnic competition over jobs than Whites or Blacks.

  15. Scale Economies and Industry Agglomeration Externalities: A Dynamic Cost Function Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Donald S. Siegel; Catherine J. Morrison Paul

    1999-01-01

    Scale economies and agglomeration externalities are alleged to be important determinants of economic growth. To assess these effects, the authors outline and estimate a microfoundations model based on a dynamic cost function specification. This model provides for the separate identification of the impacts of externalities and cyclical utilization on short- and long-run scale economies and input substitution patterns. The authors find that scale economies are prevalent in U.S manufacturing; co...

  16. Urban Tech on the Rise: Machine Learning Disrupts the Real Estate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Chaillou, Stanislas; Fink, Daniel; Gonçalves, Pamella

    2018-01-01

    The practice of AI-powered Urban Analytics is taking off within the real estate industry. Data science and algorithmic logic are close to the forefront of new urban development practices. How close? is the question — experts predict that digitization will go far beyond intelligent building management systems. New analytical tools with predictive capabilities will dramatically affect the future of urban development, reshaping the real estate industry in the process.

  17. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... and similar phenomena are among these collective innovations in tourism that are shaking the very bedrock of an industrial system that has been traditionally sustained along commercial value chains. To date there has been very little investigation of these trends, which have been inspired by, amongst other...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  18. Industrialization, Urbanization and Moral Decay in Nigeria | Essoh ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... focus on Nigeria by examining the issues of the causes and effects of urbanization, ... It is argued that these twin processes have greatly impacted upon the family ... and urbanization in Nigeria as a way of sustaining social development.

  19. City tourism and the sharing economy – potential effects of online peer-to-peer marketplaces on urban property markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Brauckmann

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the potential effects of the so-called sharing economy on growing city tourism as well as on urban property markets. Design/methodology/approach – Official statistical data and a geo-information system (GIS are used on a small scale in order to identify concentration processes among overnight visitors and the potential concomitant conflicts with other interest groups. Findings – Currently, the effects of the sharing economy on housing markets and city tourism are barely measurable and are limited to a few central locations. However, a growing demand can be discerned in housing-like accommodation concepts which can be operated via booking platforms. As there is likely to be strong future growth in this area, continuous market observation (monitoring is urgently advised. Research limitations/implications – Official statistics only allow an analysis of overnight guests staying with larger accommodation providers. Booking platforms for holiday homes and other temporary accommodation options have such little interest in data transparency that the overall phenomenon of city tourism can be addressed only in part. Practical implications – Associating various data within the GIS enables municipal administrators and urban planners to identify potential sources of conflict within the property markets in good time and effectively counteract these where possible. Social implications – Increases in property prices directly attributable to growing city tourism may lead to the displacement of less financially secure members of the established population as well as businesses. Originality/value – The sharing economy is a relatively new research topic which will become increasingly important in future. The identification of potential sources of conflict due to tourist accommodation has therefore not yet been comprehensively carried out on a small scale.

  20. Role of Creative Industries in the Post-Socialist Urban Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stryjakiewicz Tadeusz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Over the past two decades the cities in Central and Eastern Europe have witnessed a wide-ranging transformation in many aspects. The introduction of a market-oriented economy after half a century of socialism has brought about deep social, economic, cultural and political changes. The first stage of the changes, the 1990s, involved the patching up of structural holes left by the previous system. The post-socialist city had to face challenges of the future while carrying the ballast of the past. Rapid progress in catching up with the West transformed the city a great deal. Later on, the advent of the 21st century brought a new wave of development processes based, among other things, on creativity and innovation. Hence our contribution aims to explore the role of creativity and creative industries in the post-socialist urban transformation. The article consists of three basic parts. In the first we present the concept of a ‘creative post-socialist city’ and define the position of creative industries in it. We also indicate some similarities to and differences from the West European approaches to this issue. In the second part, examples from Central and Eastern Europe are used in an attempt to elucidate the concept of a ‘creative post-socialist city’ by identifying some basic features of creative actions /processes as well as a creative environment, both exogenous and endogenous. The former is embedded in different local networks, both formal (institutionalised and informal, whereas the structure of the latter is strongly path-dependent. In the third part we critically discuss the role of local policies on the development of creative industries, pointing out some of their shortcomings and drawing up recommendations for future policy measures.

  1. Industrial and urban wastes in relation to Cadmium pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varavipour, M.; Akhondi, M.

    2002-01-01

    Disposal of urban, agricultural and industrial wastes is becoming a major problem in recent times. Ocean dumping, land fill applications and incineration are being considered as unsuitable. so application to agricultural lands is being increasingly used for this purpose. Application of wastes to soils can be beneficial in providing plant nutrients and organic matter. But, it also leads to harmful effects like introduction of heavy metals, toxic organics, danger of ground water pollution, etc. Cadmium buildup in soil and absorption into plants and then entering into food chain due to these wastes is of concern because of its higher mobility than most other heavy metals. Although discontinuation of sewage sludge disposal on crop land would stop further soil contamination, potential danger from metal accumulation by crops grown after termination of the practice is still a concern. Trace metals are relatively immobile in soil. Therefore, depending on biological and chemical equilibria established following terminal sludge application, sludge-borne Cd might change in plant availability with time

  2. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    scholar, Walt W. Rostow presented and supported this line of thought in his analysis of ... A Brief Historical Background of Industrialization in Africa ... indicative) The western model allowed for the political economy to be shaped by market.

  3. Waste management under a life cycle approach as a tool for a circular economy in the canned anchovy industry

    OpenAIRE

    Laso Cortabitarte, Jara; Margallo Blanco, María; Celaya, Julia; Fullana i Palmer, Pere; Bala Gala, Alba; Gazulla Santos, Cristina; Irabien Gulías, José Ángel; Aldaco García, Rubén

    2016-01-01

    The anchovy canning industry has high importance in the Cantabria Region (North Spain) from economic, social and touristic points of view. The Cantabrian canned anchovy is world-renowned owing to its handmade and traditional manufacture. The canning process generates huge amounts of several food wastes, whose suitable management can contribute to benefits for both the environment and the economy, closing the loop of the product life cycle. Life cycle assessment methodology was used in this wo...

  4. Governments’ Interventions into the Real Economy under WTO Law Revisited: New Tendencies of Governmental Support of the Automobile Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Rolf H.; Grosz, Mirina

    2009-01-01

    The automobile industry has received unprecedented governmental support during the ongoing economic crisis. Rescue packages have been provided to sustain the significant market branch and asserted key driver of growth, export, innovation, and jobs particularly in the EU and the United States and to avoid further downward spirals, which risk affecting the national economies on a wider scale. Since such tendencies can have trade distorting effects, however, the question arises whether the incre...

  5. New technologies as a factor of development of competitive Russian economy in the context of a post-industrial stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrai Yu.F.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available the article presents ways of development of a technological platform of the Russian economy and a role of new technologies and «human factor» in providing its competitiveness at a post-industrial stage. The author offers: education systems development, use of channels of the international migration of a skilled labor force, forming of the national market of new technologies, enhancement of interaction with the world market of new technologies.

  6. Analysis of Low-Carbon Economy Efficiency of Chinese Industrial Sectors Based on a RAM Model with Undesirable Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Meng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Industrial energy and environment efficiency evaluation become especially crucial as industrial sectors play a key role in CO2 emission reduction and energy consumption. This study adopts the additive range-adjusted measure data envelope analysis (RAM-DEA model to estimate the low-carbon economy efficiency of Chinese industrial sectors in 2001–2013. In addition, the CO2 emission intensity mitigation target for each industrial sector is assigned. Results show that, first, most sectors are not completely efficient, but they have experienced and have improved greatly during the period. These sectors can be divided into four categories, namely, mining, light, heavy, and electricity, gas, and water supply industries. The efficiency is diverse among the four industrial categories. The average efficiency of the light industry is the highest among the industries, followed by those of the mining and the electricity, gas, and water supply industries, and that of the heavy industry is the lowest. Second, the electricity, gas, and water supply industry shows the biggest potential for CO2 emission reduction, thus containing most of the sectors with large CO2 emission intensity mitigation targets (more than 45%, followed by the mining and the light industries. Therefore, the Chinese government should formulate diverse and flexible policy implementations according to the actual situation of the different sectors. Specifically, the sectors with low efficiency should be provided with additional policy support (such as technology and finance aids to improve their industrial efficiency, whereas the electricity, gas, and water supply industry should maximize CO2 emission reduction.

  7. Patent challenges for standard-setting in the global economy : lessons from information and communication industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maskus, K.; Merrill, S.A.; Bekkers, R.N.A.; Sandy Block, Marc; Contreras, Jorge; Gilbert, Richard; Goodman, David; Marasco, Amy; Simcoe, Tim; Smoot, Oliver; Suttmeier, Richard; Updegrove, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Patent Challenges for Standard-Setting in the Global Economy: Lessons from Information and Communication Technology examines how leading national and multinational standard-setting organizations (SSOs) address patent disclosures, licensing terms, transfers of patent ownership, and other issues that

  8. Measuring the economic contribution of the freight industry to the Maryland economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Economic impacts of freight movement to Marylands economy were estimated by input-output analysis : using the 2010 IMPLAN data. A freight economic output (FECO) index was also developed based on the : historical payroll data and gross domestic pro...

  9. Development of Alternative Power Industry Based on Nanotechnologies: Forecast Effects for Russian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inshakova Elena Ivanovna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of countries to achieve sustainable economic growth by reducing the energy dependence of the main suppliers of energy resources and by increasing national energy security induces in the conditions of increasing competition between participants in the global energy market the necessity to intensify the use of internal development resources, including the introduction of energy-saving technologies and development of alternative power industry. The urgency of the problems of international competitiveness achievement based on the energy security strengthening, solution of which largely determines the directions of the energy sector development, is increasingly recognized in many countries, including Russia. Timeliness of preparation to the use of substitute innovative energy resources and energy sources, while the traditional fossil fuels are dwindling, is marked as one of the most important principles of the state policy of Russia. All these factors update the development of domestic alternative energy in accordance with the megatrends of the world energy sector. The prospects for the development of modern energy, especially alternative, are associated by many experts with the use of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials. Nanotechnologies contribute to the new opportunities for the use of renewable energy sources and a significant contribution to the production and conservation of energy. The main directions of the effective use of nanotechnologies in the energy sector are: the use of renewable sources; energy storage; reducing the consumption of materials; the use of alternative materials. On the example of the world and Russian practice of nanotechnologies and nanomaterials use in the sphere of wind and solar energy the basic effects of their application, important for the development of alternative energy and of the Russian national economy as a whole, are identified in the article. The most important effects include strengthening

  10. The Potential of the Bio-economy: From Photosynthesis to Industry, from Innovation to Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Growing awareness of resource exhaustion and of the consequences, particularly for the climate, of our modes of consumption and production has helped remind humanity that we live in a finite world and that to make too many demands on our ecosystem is to run the risk of reaching a point of no return. To change everyone's styles of production and consumption in ail countries by the end of the century is without doubt too ambitious an aim, but it is worth putting it forward and trying to equip ourselves with the tools to achieve it. The bio-economy or 'green carbon' economy is one of those tools, as Claude Roy shows in this article. It consists in exploiting the fruits of plant photosynthesis not merely for foodstuffs, but also for materials, chemical bases, fertilizers, energy etc. Claude Roy outlines the main characteristics of the bio-economy, particularly in France, the economic sectors it covers and their potential, particularly in terms of employment. First and foremost, he shows how it could contribute to meeting the major challenges of our world, whose finite nature we are rediscovering today. Energy conservation, a renewables- based economy and carbon sequestration -three possible 'emergency exits' at the heart of the bio-economy, so long as human beings can commit to developing their agricultural crops and forests. (author)

  11. Predictive management of jobs and abilities in the industry and energy sectors within a green economy context. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Within the frame of the Emission Trading Scheme (ETS), the authors study job evolutions considered globally, not only those concerning sectors which will provide 'green jobs', but also those where job destructions may occur because of the implementation of the Grenelle de l'Environnement. They propose a qualitative rather than quantitative analysis of consequences, and typological approaches of the vulnerability of some worker categories with respect to retraining possibilities. For each sector whether it is submitted to the ETS system (electricity production, gas transport, urban heating, steel metallurgy, refining, paper industry, cement industry, building materials, chemical industry) or not (automotive industry, motorization, phyto-sanitary products, renewable energies, electromechanical industry), they analyse actor strategies, propose a diagnostic and draw some perspectives

  12. The political economy of urban climate adaptation and development planning in Surat, India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chu, E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues for a political economic approach to understanding climate change adaptation and development planning in an urban context. Based on field research conducted in Surat, India, across a period of two years, I illustrate how climate adaptation is rooted in preexisting and contextually

  13. Cities and digitalization : how digitalization changes cities - innovation for the urban economy of tomorrow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Winden, Willem; de Carvalho, Luís

    2017-01-01

    In this short paper, we give an overview on how this major trend is unfolding and, specifically, how it affects cities. We take the following starting points: • Digitalization is a strong force that “happens” everywhere in the (urban) society. It has positive and negative effects – explored later in

  14. The healthcare off-shoring industry in developing economies--institutional and economic foundations: an Indian case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kshetri, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Industrialized world-based healthcare providers are increasingly off-shoring low-end healthcare services such as medical transcription, billing and insurance claims. High-skill medical jobs such as tele-imaging and tele-pathology are also being sub-contracted to developing countries. Despite its importance, little theory or research exists to explain what factors affect industry growth. The article's goals, therefore, are to examine economic processes associated with developing economies' shift from low- to high-value information technology enabled healthcare services, and to investigate how these differ in terms of legitimacy from regulative, normative and cognitive institutions in the sending country and how healthcare services differ from other services. This research is conceptual and theory-building. Broadly, its approach can be described as a positivistic epistemology. Anti off-shoring regulative, normative and cognitive pressures in the sending country are likely to be stronger in healthcare than in most business process outsourcing. Moreover, such pressures are likely to be stronger in high-value rather than in low-value healthcare off-shoring. The findings also indicate that off-shoring low-value healthcare services and emergent healthcare industries in a developing economy help accumulate implicit and tacit knowledge required for off-shoring high-value healthcare services. The approach lacks primary data and empirical documentation. The article helps in understanding industry drivers and its possible future direction. The findings help in understanding the lens through which various institutional actors in a sending country view healthcare service off-shoring. The article's value stems from its analytical context, mechanisms and processes associated with developing economies' shift to high-value healthcare off-shoring services.

  15. Energy price increases, economic rents, and industrial structure in a small regional economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norrie, K.H.; Percy, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The authors model the relationship between natural-resource revenues and regional economic diversification in the context of a general-equilibrium model of a small, open, natural-resource-based regional economy. The model is then used to stimulate the implications of various province-building strategies, and to draw policy implications from this. They find that the efforts to diversify the economy using the fiscal capacity of the region will, in general, impose real welfare losses on the residents of the province, although certain groups, such as land owners, are already better off.

  16. Ireland – industrial competitiveness in a small open economy (NIRSA) Working Paper Series. No. 44

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, John; Barry, Frank; Van Egeraat, Chris

    2009-01-01

    The Irish economy has boomed in recent years based on a strategy of attracting FDI, and has become a model economy particularly for EU accession countries. This chapter sets out to provide a deeper understanding of Ireland’s success in the context of Porter’s Diamond Model of national competitiveness. A number of analyses have been done in Ireland on the relevance of Porter’s Diamond theory to national competitiveness. O’Connell, van Egeraat and Enright (1997) adopted a Porter Diamond analysi...

  17. Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith, 2016, Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ponte, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p.......Book review of Varietals of Capitalism: A Political Economy of the Changing Wine Industry by Xabier Itçaina, Antoine Roger, Andy Smith (2016). Ithaca and London, Cornell University Press, 266 p....

  18. Insights for management among non-gaming industries: Employees´ dissonance in a casino dominant economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus C.H. Kuok

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 290 full-time employees among non-gaming industries at Macau, where the economy was mainly dominated by the revenue from casinos. It clarified that work satisfaction was fairly low for employees in non-gaming industries, and dissonance was generated due to the discrepancy between employees´ work satisfaction and affective commitment. Organizational variables - management ethics and distributive justice -, a socio-emotional variable - family emotional support -, as well as personality variables - conscientiousness and neuroticism - were assessed in relation to work satisfaction and affective commitment. Regressions found distributive justice to be the most powerful and positive predictor that, together with management ethics and family emotional support, were the positive predictors of both work satisfaction and affective commitment. In addition, conscientiousness was a positive predictor, while neuroticism was a negative predictor of work satisfaction. Results were interpreted in relation to management, and implications for human resource management practice in non-gaming industries were discussed.

  19. Urban Expansion and the Loss of Prime Agricultural Lands in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    T. Mitchell Aide Tania del Mar López

    2001-01-01

    In many countries where the economy has shifted from mainly agricultural to industrial, abandoned agricultural lands are lost to urbanization. For more than 4 centuries the Puerto Rican economy depended almost entirely on agriculture, but sociopolitical changes early in the 20th century resulted in a shift to industry. This shift in the economy, and an increase in...

  20. Development of a driving cycle to evaluate the energy economy of electric vehicles in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brady, John; O’Mahony, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a driving cycle to evaluate energy economy of electric vehicles. • Improves on existing driving cycles by using real world data from electric vehicles. • Driving data from different road types and traffic conditions included. - Abstract: Understanding real-world driving conditions in the form of driving cycles is instrumental in the design of efficient powertrains and energy storage systems for electric vehicles. In addition, driving cycles serve as a standardised measurement procedure for the certification of a vehicle’s fuel economy and driving range. They also facilitate the evaluation of the economic and lifecycle costs of emerging vehicular technologies. However, discrepancies between existing driving cycles and real-world driving conditions exist due to a number of factors such as insufficient data, inadequate driving cycle development methodologies and methods to assess the representativeness of developed driving cycles. The novel aspect of the work presented here is the use of real-world data from electric vehicles, over a six month period, to derive a driving cycle appropriate for their assessment. A stochastic and statistical methodology is used to develop and assess the representativeness of the driving cycle against a separate set of real world electric vehicle driving data and the developed cycle performs well in that comparison. Although direct comparisons with internal combustion engine driving cycles are not that informative or relevant due to the marked differences between how they and electric vehicles operate, some discussion around how the developed electric vehicle cycle relates to them is also included.

  1. Exploring the economic impacts of agglomeration economies in urban rail projects

    OpenAIRE

    Gwee, Tat Meng

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the potential to produce economic benefits has become increasingly important to the decision-making process for urban passenger rail investments. Such benefits are seen as a motivation for rail investment either by encouraging jobs to locate in a particular location or by opening up new journey-to-work opportunities for residential areas. However, while a significant portion of the benefits (e.g. travel time savings) are already well captured under the present Cost-Benefit An...

  2. Approaches to Conducting Political Economy Analysis in the Urban Water Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Manghee, Seema; Poole, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Progress in urban water supply and sanitation has been slow over the past few decades. The sector suffers from issues of equity and efficiency. Today, more than 780 million people are still without access to improved sources of water, and 2.5 billion lack improved sanitation. Those average figures mask huge disparities between the rich and the poor, the poor consistently have less access t...

  3. The Economic Value of Korean Nuclear Power Industry in the National Economy: An Input-Output Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M. K.; Kim, S. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, S. H. [Nuclear Policy Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    In 1978, Korea introduced the first nuclear power plant, Kori-1 unit, in parallel with the nation's industrialization policy. Thereafter, Korea has carried out a very ambitious nuclear power program and sustained a strong commitment to nuclear power development. Thus, nuclear is a prime energy source which presently meets about 30 percent of Korea's power demands. Also, Korea won a contract for APR-1400 NPPs to the UAE in 2009 which led to Korea as a significant exporter in the world nuclear market. Recently, the new government of Korea has been launching 'Creative Economy', from this perspective, the quantitative contributions of nuclear sector to the national economic growth are required to be estimated. This paper is to estimate quantitatively the economic values created by nuclear power industry in the framework of national economy. The total economic values created by nuclear power industry are estimated to be 63.6 trillion won for the study period.

  4. The impact of heat waves on surface urban heat island and local economy in Cluj-Napoca city, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, Ioana; Croitoru, Adina-Eliza; Rus, Adina Viorica; Roşca, Cristina Florina; Harpa, Gabriela Victoria; Ciupertea, Antoniu-Flavius; Rus, Ionuţ

    2017-07-01

    The association between heat waves and the urban heat island effect can increase the impact on environment and society inducing biophysical hazards. Heat stress and their associated public health problems are among the most frequent. This paper explores the heat waves impact on surface urban heat island and on the local economy loss during three heat periods in Cluj-Napoca city in the summer of 2015. The heat wave events were identified based on daily maximum temperature, and they were divided into three classes considering the intensity threshold: moderate heat waves (daily maximum temperature exceeding the 90th percentile), severe heat waves (daily maximum temperature over the 95th percentile), and extremely severe heat waves (daily maximum temperature exceeding the 98th percentile). The minimum length of an event was of minimum three consecutive days. The surface urban heat island was detected based on land surface temperature derived from Landsat 8 thermal infrared data, while the economic impact was estimated based on data on work force structure and work productivity in Cluj-Napoca derived from the data released by Eurostat, National Bank of Romania, and National Institute of Statistics. The results indicate that the intensity and spatial extension of surface urban heat island could be governed by the magnitude of the heat wave event, but due to the low number of satellite images available, we should consider this information only as preliminary results. Thermal infrared remote sensing has proven to be a very efficient method to study surface urban heat island, due to the fact that the synoptic conditions associated with heat wave events usually favor cloud free image. The resolution of the OLI_TIRS sensor provided good results for a mid-extension city, but the low revisiting time is still a drawback. The potential economic loss was calculated for the working days during heat waves and the estimated loss reached more than 2.5 mil. EUR for each heat wave day

  5. Alabama's forest products industry: performance and contribution to the State's economy, 1970 to 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur R. Maki; Con H Schallau; Bennett B. Foster; Clair H. Redmond

    1986-01-01

    Employment and earnings in Alabama's forest products industry, like those of most Southern States, grew significantly between 1970 and 1980. The forest products industry accounted for a larger share of the State's economic base. in 1980 than in 1970. Of the 13 Southern States, only 5 had more forest products industry employment than Alabama. Moreover, during...

  6. Integration with the Global Economy: The Case of Turkish Automobile and Consumer Electronics Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Erol Taymaz; Kamil Yılmaz

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an extensive case study of the Turkish automotive and the consumer electronics industries. Despite a macroeconomic environment that inhibits investment and growth, both industries have achieved remarkable output and productivity growth since the early 1990s. Although there are similarities between the performances of the two industries, there are significant differences...

  7. Why is the wage share falling in emerging economies? Industry level evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Guschanski, Alexander; Onaran, Özlem

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an econometric analysis of the wage share in seven emerging economies. We focus on the effect of globalisation, captured by participation in global value chains and financial integration, indicators of bargaining power of labour and technological change on the wage share. We use input-output tables that allow us to obtain detailed measures of global value chain participation, and sectoral data to distinguish the effect on high- and low-skilled workers and within manufact...

  8. Proceedings of the Conference on Industry and Day Care (Urban Research Corporation, Chicago, 1970).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban Research Corp., Chicago, IL.

    This booklet of conference proceedings reflects the efforts of the Urban Research Corporation to continue conversation between industry and day care specialists. A group of 175 industry representatives, early childhood specialists, community agency representatives, and day care operators and franchisers convened to discuss their mutual concerns.…

  9. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism ec...

  10. Derivative Process Model of Development Power in Industry: Empirical Research and Forecast for Chinese Software Industry and US Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Dai; Bao- hua Sun; Jie Sun

    2004-01-01

    Based on concept and theory of Development Power [1], this paper analyzes the transferability and the diffusibility of industrial development power, points out that the chaos is the extreme of DP releasing and order is the highest degree of DP accumulating, puts forward A-C strength, the index of adjusting and controlling strength, and sets up the derivative process model for industrial development power on the Partial Distribution [2]-[4]. By the derivative process model, a kind of time seri...

  11. The emergence of a post-industrial music economy? : Music and ICT synergies in Stockholm, Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Dominic; Jansson, Johan

    2004-01-01

    Research into the music industry has for a long time been almost exclusively dominated by a focus on the production of albums and songs. In recent years, however, cities such as Stockholm have seen the growth of a profitable and varied music services industry producing everything from remixes to music marketing strategies. Standing at the forefront of this growth industry are a large number of firms attempting to combine in innovative ways music and ICT. This can take a variety of forms, for ...

  12. Dilip Subramanian, Telecommunications Industry in India: State, Business and Labour in a Global Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Picherit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1948, Indian Telephone Industries (ITI, a telecommunications equipment manufacturer, became India’s first State-run enterprise. In 2009, the company was privatized. Dilip Subramanian’s book provides a remarkable in-depth history of the journey of this Indian State-owned factory in post-colonial India, from the birth of the Nehruvian model of industrialization to the contemporary deregulation of the telecommunications industry. In a context of global neoliberal policies and discourses agai...

  13. Waste management under a life cycle approach as a tool for a circular economy in the canned anchovy industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laso, J; Margallo, M; Celaya, J; Fullana, P; Bala, A; Gazulla, C; Irabien, A; Aldaco, R

    2016-08-01

    The anchovy canning industry has high importance in the Cantabria Region (North Spain) from economic, social and touristic points of view. The Cantabrian canned anchovy is world-renowned owing to its handmade and traditional manufacture. The canning process generates huge amounts of several food wastes, whose suitable management can contribute to benefits for both the environment and the economy, closing the loop of the product life cycle. Life cycle assessment methodology was used in this work to assess the environmental performance of two waste management alternatives: Head and spine valorisation to produce fishmeal and fish oil; and anchovy meat valorisation to produce anchovy paste. Fuel oil production has been a hotspot of the valorisation of heads and spines, so several improvements should be applied. With respect to anchovy meat valorisation, the production of polypropylene and glass for packaging was the least environmentally friendly aspect of the process. Furthermore, the environmental characterisation of anchovy waste valorisation was compared with incineration and landfilling alternatives. In both cases, the valorisation management options were the best owing to the avoided burdens associated with the processes. Therefore, it is possible to contribute to the circular economy in the Cantabrian canned anchovy industry. © The Author(s) 2016.

  14. Creative Industries and Regional Productivity Growth in the Developing Economy : Evidence from Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fahmi, Fikri Zul; Koster, Sierdjan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the degree to which creative industries stimulate regional productivity growth in a developing country, Indonesia. The Indonesian government promotes long-established traditional craft businesses as creative industries, but they pay less attention to new knowledge creation and

  15. The political economy of the fisheries sector in Uganda: ruling elites, implementation costs and industry interests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Anne Mette; Muhumuza, Fred; Mwebaze, Tom

    This paper sets out to explain policies, implementation arrangements and results (PIRs) in Uganda’s fisheries sector. Industry actors wanted to be able to keep up with European standards in order to survive in the chilled and frozen fillet export industry. They put pressure on ruling elites...

  16. Market-opening rules and potentialities of destabilization of hierarchical power industries in an open economy: institutional scenarios on the French power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finon, D.

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyse the reform of the French power industry, the extreme integration of the industrial organisation of which is deeply rooted in the French institutional particularisms. After the presentation of the main features of the 1999 reform, different elements of instability of the new structure are pointed out: the over-dominant position of the incumbent company which dissuades entries, institutional isomorphism between economies integrated to a regional space (heterogeneity of structures between European Community countries generates problems of reciprocity and fairness), and the end of the traditional capture of the regulator by the incumbent company because of the autonomy of the function of regulation. Two institutional scenarios are defined, which give a different weight to two competition paradigms in conflicts: the traditional ''industrial economics'' which inclines to preserve hierarchy in the national area to gain competitive advantages in the European field, and the neo-classical paradigm. In the first one, in the name of strategic efficiency, the integration of the industrial organisation could be preserved in spite of the asymmetry of structures between countries, and the playing field is the continental Europe on which national champions compete. In the second one the French industrial organisation has to conform to the competitive model, with vertical and horizontal disintegration and creation of a power exchange market. This scenario necessitates to test the force of the institutional determinism of the nuclear legacy. (author)

  17. Tiger, tiger, burning bright? industrial policy lessons from Ireland and East Asia for small African economies

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David; Lenihan, Helena; Singh, Ajit

    2008-01-01

    The African economies, particularly those in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) stand today at an important crossroads. During the 1980s, for the average African country, GDP per capita fell at a rate of 0.5 percent per annum; in the 1990s it rose slightly at a rate of 0.3 percent per annum. However, in the last four years, the average growth rate of this variable has been a respectable 3 percent per annum. In 2007, GDP growth rate in Africa was estimated to be 6 percent per annum, one of the highest r...

  18. The Fuel Economy of Hybrid Buses: The Role of Ancillaries in Real Urban Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bottiglione

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of the global economic crisis and environmental emergency, transport science is asked to find innovative solutions to turn traditional vehicles into fuel-saving and eco-friendly devices. In the last few years, hybrid vehicles have been shown to have potential benefits in this sense. In this paper, the fuel economy of series hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses is simulated in two real driving situations: cold and hot weather driving in the city of Taranto, in Southern Italy. The numerical analysis is carried out by an inverse dynamic approach, where the bus speed is given as a velocity pattern measured in the field tests performed on one of the city bus routes. The city of Taranto drive schedule is simulated in a typical tempered climate condition and with a hot temperature, when the air conditioning system must be switched on for passenger comfort. The fuel consumptions of hybrid-electric and hybrid-mechanical buses are compared to each other and with a traditional bus powered by a diesel engine. It is shown that the series hybrid-electric vehicle outperforms both the traditional and the mechanical hybrid vehicles in the cold weather driving simulation, reducing the fuel consumption by about 35% with respect to the traditional diesel bus. However, it is also shown that the performance of the hybrid-electric bus gets dramatically worse when the air-cooling system is continuously turned on. In this situation, the fuel consumption of the three different technologies for city buses under investigation is comparable.

  19. A study of dynamic econometric relationship between urbanization and service industries growth in china

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Congjun Cheng

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The paper is going to analyze that there are dynamic quantitative relationships between Chinese urbanization and service industry.Design/methodology/approach: According to the index number of value-added of service industry and town population/ total population ratio during the year of 1978 to 2012 in China, the paper is designed with models which are analyzed by ADF test, co-integration test, error correction model and Granger causality test, finally get the conclusion.Findings: The paper achieves the two conclusions, one is that urbanization is the important power of service industry’s growth; the other is that the level of urbanization improves the level of service industry recently.Originality/value: Chinese urbanization and service industry have close relationship, and they also have dynamic changes. The paper studies their dynamic changes through collecting a lot of data from the year 1978 to 2010 and developing models to make quantitative analysis, for example, tables and quotations in the paper are the best proof. At last, the paper also puts forward some suggestions after get the conclusion that Chinese urbanization is the motive power to the growth of service industry.

  20. Evaluation of the Policy of the Creative Industry for Urban Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Yun Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Culture, an intellectual capital of a city, is accumulated through the intellect and wisdom of the government, citizens, businesses and other organizations. Cities regardless of their size are seeking their own distinguishing features and positions. By combining culture and creativity to improve international visibility, cities can develop new potentials, create job opportunities and boost economic growth. Therefore, cultural and creative industries have become the core industries that cities worldwide actively seek to develop; furthermore, various city governments have unanimously agreed that the creative industry will effectively improve urban economic competitiveness. This study investigated how the creative industry improved urban competitiveness, developed relevant assessment indexes and formulated policies for developing the creative industry. First, the fuzzy Delphi method was adopted to determine the indexes for assessing the creative industry’s positive influence on urban competitiveness. Subsequently, the analytic hierarchy process and the analytic network process were integrated to establish a model for assessing city-based creative industry development policies. City governments seeking to promote such policies can refer to this model. Finally, an importance-performance analysis was performed to investigate the satisfaction for policies related to creative industries, providing a reference for governments to promote pertinent policies. The results of this study indicated that the indexes of innovation capability, industrial cooperation, innovation incubation and industry-government-academia integration are crucial bases for cities to develop the creative industry. In addition, the policies of industrial R&D and clustering, talent training and industrial consulting and expanding industrial and marketing channels and networks can be adopted to enhance creative industry development.

  1. From Closed to Open Innovation in Emerging Economies: Evidence from the Chemical Industry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we examine how firms in an emerging economy perform research and development (R&D activities in regards to the concept of open innovation. Most literature on open innovation shows multinational knowledge-intensive firms with well-established R&D processes mainly in developed countries. Searching for management contributions for firms in emerging economies, we qualitatively analyzed two chemical firms in Southern Brazil that have different profiles and are representative samples of typical firms in the region. Our results show that firms did not fully exploit the potential benefits brought by open innovation, even when complete opening was not the main goal. The firms were similar concerning interactions with partners and stages where relationships occur. The generation of ideas was an open activity performed both by firms and by clients, and interactions with universities were getting stronger. On the other hand, intellectual property has not been used as means of profiting from innovation activities. Our main finding refers to the internal mediation of relationships with partners. R&D teams rarely contact external organizations directly; instead, they leave such interactions to other departments within their firms. Relationships with clients are mediated through technical and commercial departments, and interactions with suppliers are intermediated by the supply staff.

  2. Capital Ruptures: Economies of Crisis and Urban Space in Javier Moreno's 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Michelle Murray

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay asserts that the aftermath of the 2008 global economic crisis has re-focused scholarship onto capitalism’s tendency towards what David Harvey calls “creative destruction,” where space is continually destroyed and reproduced to serve the interests of capital. Following Harvey, my essay investigates the representation of space in relation to economic crisis in Javier Moreno’s novel 2020. I contend that in 2020, excess non-“places”—specifically, taxis, supermarkets, and airports—intrinsic to late capitalist society transform into sites of solidarity and social transformation as capital relentlessly degrades proper “places” of the urban landscape. Thus, the essay critically examines depictions of spaces, places, and non-places in 2020 to argue that Moreno "capitalizes" upon the political economy’s contradictions to represent the city’s supposedly unhistorical, asocial, excess “non-places” as sites that subvert neoliberal principles in a futuristic Madrid plagued by unfathomable crisis. This line of inquiry ultimately leads me to envision the novel in crisis as a virtual commons that encourages dialogue and cultural critique.

  3. Urbanization as Socioenvironmental Succession: The Case of Hazardous Industrial Site Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James R; Frickel, Scott

    2015-05-01

    This study rehabilitates concepts from classical human ecology and synthesizes them with contemporary urban and environmental sociology to advance a theory of urbanization as socioenvironmental succession. The theory illuminates how social and biophysical phenomena interact endogenously at the local level to situate urban land use patterns recursively and reciprocally in place. To demonstrate this theory we conduct a historical-comparative analysis of hazardous industrial site accumulation in four U.S. cities, using a relational database that was assembled for more than 11,000 facilities that operated during the past half century--most of which remain unacknowledged in government reports. Results show how three iterative processes--hazardous industrial churning, residential churning, and risk containment--intersect to produce successive socioenvironmental changes that are highly relevant to but often missed by research on urban growth machines, environmental inequality, and systemic risk.

  4. The pressure cold wind system on the impact of industrial boiler economy and security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Henan; Qian, Hongli; Jiang, Lei; Yu, Dekai; Li, Guannan; Yuan, Hong

    2017-05-01

    Industrial boiler is one of the most energy-consuming equipment in china, the annual consumption of energy accounts for about one-third of the national energy consumption.Industrial boiler in service at present have several severe problems such as small capacity, low efficiency, high energy consumption and causing severe pollution on environment, the average industrial boiler operation efficiency is only 65%. If the efficiency increased by 15% ∼ 20%, which meet the international advanced level, each year 70 million tons of coal saving and reduce environmental pollution[1]. As energy conservation and emissions reduction becomes the basic national policy of our country, improving the efficiency of industrial boiler energy is facing opportunities and challenges, optimizing the operation mode of the existing units, it is necessary to increase the flexibility of the boiler control.

  5. Redealing the cards: How an eco-industry modifies the political economy of environmental taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canton, Joan

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a combined economic-political model of environmental taxation setting. The model introduces a third lobby group - the lobby of an eco-industry - in addition to the traditional lobbies of polluting firms and environmentalists. Pressure groups interact to influence the environmental tax chosen by a regulator maximizing its chances of being reelected. The eco-industry lobby adds a new political contribution toward a higher environmental tax. The imperfectly competitive structure of the eco-industry also modifies the incentives of the usual lobbies. When the foreign environmental policy is constant, environmentalists can be in favor of a decrease in the local tax in order to reduce foreign pollution. We also discuss the formation of alliances between the eco-industry and one of the other lobbies and their potential impact. In general, the impact of lobbying activities on the politically optimal tax is ambiguous and depends on the relative concentration of each pressure group. (author)

  6. Rethinking Economics, the Role of Insurance: Adam Smith Upside Down—The Central Role of Insurance in the New Post-Industrial (Service Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orio Giarini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the first page of The Wealth of Nations, Adam Smith described an apparently trivial issue, the making of a pin. In his search for ways to effectively fight poverty, he formulated the basis for a new view of economy based on the Industrial Revolution. Two centuries later, the perspective he developed remains intact and is largely outdated. It does not reflect the radical shift from an industrial to a service economy, which occurred during the later half of the 20th century and prevails today. Insurance, a very important component of the modern service economy, was and has been ignored or dismissed by past and contemporary economists. Founded on the principle of uncertainty, insurance now provides the basis for valuable insights into the unique characteristics of the service economy. A rethinking of economics is needed from this perspective.

  7. The emerging "fans economy" marketing mode in digital consuming products industry in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Chao

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis was to identify the new marketing mode in the consuming products industry and to discuss its feasibility to apply the emerging marketing mode into other industries or countries. The new marketing mode is called the “Fans economy” marketing mode. The objectives of the thesis are comparing the new marketing mode with the traditional one rather than challenging it, so that the thesis can make the analysis about the advantages and the disadvantages of the new marketing ...

  8. Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship among energy consumption, financial development, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia from 1971 to 2008. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests is employed for the analysis. The result confirms the existence of long-run relationship among energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia. Long-run bidirectional causalities are found between financial development and energy consumption, financial development and industrialization, and industrialization and energy consumption. Hence, sound and developed financial system that can attract investors, boost the stock market and improve the efficiency of economic activities should be encouraged in the country. Nevertheless, promoting industrialization and urbanization can never be left out from the process of development. We add light to policy makers with the role of financial development, industrialization and urbanization in the process of economic development. - Highlights: ► We find the existence of long-run relationship among variables. ► Financial development is positively related to energy consumption. ► Bidirectional causal relationship between financial development and energy consumption. ► Sound and developed financial system should be encouraged.

  9. Demands for energy policy by industry and the economy; Anforderungen von Industrie und Wirtschaft an die Energiepolitik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thumann, J.R. [Bundesverband der Deutschen Industrie e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    'The Use of Nuclear Power for Peaceful Purposes' is a key topic in energy policy which produces a split of opinions in Germany, and which the policy of the Grand Coalition seeks to bypass. The Federation of German Industries (BDI) wants to achieve a sensible way of handling this source of energy because, after all, we are facing the challenge of having to secure economic development and prosperity and, at the same time, reduce global CO{sub 2} emissions. If this is to be achieved, industry and politics together must build a bridge into a future with less CO{sub 2}. That bridge would be supported on 4 pillars: - a global strategy of CO{sub 2} reduction, - energy efficiency, - a broad energy mix, - energy research and development. In these efforts, industry and the BDI consider nuclear power an indispensable part of a viable climate and energy policy. Next to lignite, nuclear power offers electricity generation at the lowest cost, and promotes climate protection through CO{sub 2}-free generation. As far as energy efficiency and a broad energy mix are concerned, the potentials for technical development play an important role. This is an area in which German industry can develop future markets for itself by being a leader in technology. Energy research should advance the development of existing technologies and open up new options. In this way, energy research contributes to high technologies in Germany. For nuclear power, it must be ensured that German scientists are able to participate in promising developments of new reactors in the same way in which this is the case in the development and construction of ITER, the international fusion reactor, in France. (orig.)

  10. Soil contamination from urban and industrial activity: example of the mining district of Linares (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J.; Llamas, J. F.; de Miguel, E.; Rey, J.; Hidalgo, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    The Linares region (southern Spain) has been subjected to two important sources of pollution: the intensive mining works and the urban-industrial activity. To obtain a geochemical characterisation of the soil, 31 trace elements were analysed and 669 soil samples were collected. By means of clustering analysis, we identified groups of elements and grid squares in which relations could be established concerning soil lithology, urban and industrial activities and the degree of pollution impact; in addition, we were able to characterise the geochemical background of the study area. The multivariate study led us to identify four factors. Particularly important was factor 2, which represented the elements associated with mineral paragenesis (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Mn, Zn, Sn, Ba). This factor also contains elements related with an urban-industrial activity, such as Pb, Cu, Zn, As and Ba. Furthermore, we identified factor 4, associating Ni, V and Cr, and which is related to the use of fuels.

  11. Society, materiality, resilience and sustainability: inquiries from the fields of industrial waste management, urban climate science and eco-urbanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKillop, Fionn

    2018-06-01

    This paper aims to investigate the links between materiality and society at a conceptual level, using examples from the author's decade of research in several fields relevant to the issue. With current talk of the need for `sustainability' and `resilience' reaching fever pitch in industry, politics and other arenas, there is a regrettable tendency to muddle the meaning of these words. Drawing on original research carried out in the UK, China, Germany, and Australia, and using the conceptual approaches of actor-network theory (ANT) and urban political ecology (UPE), the author invites us to re-engage with the materiality of society and how we, as businesses, consumers and thinkers, can advance sustainability and resilience through this re-engagement. We will ask what sustainability and resilience mean, for whom and in what context. We will also look at how we can shift thinking and reinvigorate these words, by contributing to the dialogue between the social sciences and business and industry. Specific examples will be taken from the UK and Chinese steel industries; climate-sensitive urban design in Manchester and Stuttgart; and housing construction and affordability in Scotland and Australia, thus covering a wide range of issues related to urban sustainability and resilience in relation to materiality.

  12. Occurrence of halogenated flame retardants in sediment off an urbanized coastal zone: association with urbanization and industrialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Hui; Hu, Yuan-Jie; Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Qiu, Jian-Wen; Leung, Kenneth M Y; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2014-01-01

    To examine the impacts of urbanization and industrialization on the coastal environment, sediment samples were collected from an urbanized coastal zone (i.e., Daya Bay and Hong Kong waters of South China) and analyzed for 20 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 10 alternative halogenated flame retardants (AHFRs). The sum concentration of PBDEs was in the range of 1.7-55 (mean: 17) ng g(-1), suggesting a moderate pollution level compared to the global range. The higher fractions of AHFRs (i.e., TBB+TBPH, BTBPE and DBDPE) than those of legacy PBDEs (i.e., penta-BDE, octa-BDE and deca-BDE) corresponded with the phasing out of PBDEs and increasing demand for AHFRs. Heavy contamination occurred at the estuary of Dan'ao River flowing through the Daya Bay Economic Zone, home to a variety of petrochemicals and electronics manufacturing facilities. The concentrations of HFRs in surface sediments of Hong Kong were the highest in Victoria Harbor, which receives around 1.4 million tons of primarily treated sewage daily, and a good relationship (r(2) = 0.80; p 0.73; p < 0.05) with the production volume of electronic devices, production value of electronic industries and population size, demonstrating the importance of industrializing and urbanizing processes in dictating the historical input patterns of AHFRs.

  13. Economies of scale and vertical integration in the investor-owed electric utility industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, H.G.; Islam, M.; Rose, K.

    1996-01-01

    This report analyzes the nature of costs in a vertically integrated electric utility. Findings provide new insights into the operations of the vertically integrated electric utility and supports earlier research on economics of scale and density; results also provide insights for policy makers dealing with electric industry restructuring issues such as competitive structure and mergers. Overall, results indicate that for most firms in the industry, average costs would not be reduced through expansion of generation, numbers of customers, or the delivery system. Evidently, the combination of benefits from large-scale technologies, managerial experience, coordination, or load diversity have been exhausted by the larger firms in the industry; however many firms would benefit from reducing their generation-to-sales ratio and by increasing sales to their existing customer base. Three cost models were used in the analysis

  14. Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country’s re-entry into the global tourism economy after its democratic transition. Historically, the South African hotel industry became dominated by one- and two-star budget accommodation as a result of the country’s liquor legislation. With the reconfiguration of the hotel industry after 1990 to target the growing international tourism market, the role of budget hotels changed. This analysis examines the diminished role of budget hotels in South Africa’s hotel economy, the shifting nature of the budget hotel and location patterns of budget hotels from 1990 to the present. It shows that post-1990 budget hotels are mainly concentrated in large cities and secondary centres of South Africa, and that in small towns the former liquor-focused budget hotel has been replaced by other forms of accommodation.

  15. Technology and industrialization in Spanish economy from 1950 to 1960: the patents as technological activity indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo Nuchera, A.; Molero Zayas, J.; Granda Gayo, I.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this research is to study the innovative activity developed in the fifties by the Spanish industry focussing on the foreign technology incorporated in the activity of several industrial sectors. The structure of innovation in each sector has been characterized by using patents as technological activity indicators. The data of patents registered in Spain belonging to the 1950-1960 period have been obtained taking into account the research developed by the Department of Business Administration of the Universidad Politecnica de Madrid through a subsidy granted by the Spanish Patent Office. (Author)

  16. Isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane levels in urban and industrial areas and possible emission-related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, E.; Roca, F. X.; Perales, F.; Ribes, A.; Carrera, G.; Guardino, X.; Berenguer, M. J.

    Isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane are becoming relevant compounds in urban and industrial air, as they are used in important amounts in automobile industry and building insulation, as well as in the manufacture of foams, rubber, paints and varnishes. Glass multi-sorbent tubes (Carbotrap, Carbopack, Carboxen) were connected to LCMA-UPC pump samplers for the retention of iso- and isothiocyanatocyclohexanes. The analysis was performed by automatic thermal desorption (ATD) coupled with capillary gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry detector (MSD). TD-GC/MS was chosen as analytical method due to its versatility and the possibility of analysis of a wide range of volatility and polarity VOC in air samples. The method was satisfactory sensitive, selective and reproducible for the studied compounds. The concentrations of iso- and isothioisocyanatocyclohexanes were evaluated in different urban, residential and industrial locations from extensive VOC air quality and odour episode studies in several cities in the Northeastern edge of Spain. Around 200-300 VOC were determined qualitatively in each sample. Higher values of iso- and isothiocyanatocyclohexane were found in industrial areas than in urban or residential locations. The concentrations ranged between n.d.-246 and n.d.-29 μg m -3 for isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane, respectively, for industrial areas. On the other hand, urban and residential locations showed concentrations ranging between n.d.-164 and n.d.-29 μg m -3 for isocyanatocyclohexane and isothiocyanatocyclohexane, respectively. The site location (urban or industrial), the kind and nearness of possible iso- and isothiocyanatocyclohexane emission activities (industrial or building construction) and the changes of wind regimes throughout the year have been found the most important factors influencing the concentrations of these compounds in the different places.

  17. The Triple Helix Model as an Effective Instrument for the Innovation Development of Industrial Enterprises within the National Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Dudin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the transformation of the economies of developed countries towards a new type – knowledge economics – there has emerged the need for the creation and development of effective mechanisms for producing and commercializing knowledge based on the coordination of state, corporate, and academic interests. The subject of the article is topical, since innovation infrastructure is a fundamental factor in innovation development, and its development is a priority focus area in the state’s economic policy. In an era of transformations in the practice of production and knowledge transfer, it is important to analyze the links between theoretical knowledge and industrial information. The article provides a rationale for the fact that the model for the innovation development of industry (the Triple Helix Model, thanks to the multitude of entities engaged in innovation activity and the building of an extensive horizontally structured network, into which the elements of the “triple helix” are integrated, is capable of ensuring a synergistic effect and, consequently, is an effective instrument for boosting the innovation development of industry.

  18. China's energy demand and its characteristics in the industrialization and urbanization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhujun; Lin Boqiang

    2012-01-01

    China is currently in the process of industrialization and urbanization, which is the key stage of transition from a low-income country to a middle-income country and requires large amount of energy. The process will not end until 2020, so China's primary energy demand will keep high growth in the mid-term. Although each country is unique considering its particular history and background, all countries are sharing some common rules in energy demand for economic development. Based on the comparison with developed countries, here, we report some rules in the process of industrialization and urbanization as follows: (1) urbanization always goes along with industrialization; (2) the higher economic growth is, the higher energy demand is; (3) economic globalization makes it possible to shorten the time of industrialization, but the shorter the transition phase is, the faster energy demand grows; (4) the change of energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve, but whose shape can be changed for different energy policy. The above rules are very important for the Chinese government in framing its energy policy. - Highlights: ► China's energy demand will maintain high growth in mid-term. ► Urbanization always goes along with industrialization. ► Higher economic growth needs more energy. ► The energy intensity presents as an “inverted U” curve.

  19. Addressing Workers' Rights in the Textile and Apparel Industries: Consequences for the Bangladesh Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, N.; Peerlings, J.H.M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies a CGE model to analyze the effects of better addressing worker¿s rights in Bangladesh¿s textile and apparel industries. Results show that an increased minimum wage for unskilled, low-, and medium-skilled workers has negative impacts for these workers in aggregate and also for the

  20. The Political Economy of Social Data : A Historical Analysis of Platform–Industry Partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmond, A.; Nieborg, D.; van der Vlist, F.

    2017-01-01

    Social media platform–industry partnerships are essential to understanding the politics and economics of social data circulating among platforms and third parties. Using Facebook as a case study, this paper develops a novel methodology for empirically surveying the historical dynamics of social

  1. The Political Economy of Alternative Trade: Social and Environmental Certification in the South African Wine Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Cheryl; Bek, David

    2009-01-01

    Despite recent critical analyses of the nature and impacts of social and environmental certification, the increasingly complex landscape of voluntary, industry and third-party codes and certification processes that have emerged in specific sectors is poorly understood. In particular, little is known about the potential threats posed by an…

  2. Qualifizierung für "Industrie 4.0". Facharbeit in Deutschland und deutschen Auslandsniederlassungen in Emerging Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Martina; Pilz, Matthias; Wiemann, Judith; Wiemann, Kristina

    2017-06-01

    Frey and Osbourne's (2013) notion of the end of professional technical skills caused by Industry 4.0 (smart manufacturing), also known as increasing polarisation into "lousy and lovely jobs", is a topical issue. This contribution is a critical review of this idea in the context of German multinational companies, many of which are intensifying their efforts to introduce international customer-oriented quality production, digital high-tech and new human-machine-interfaces. Such high-tech production requires that the companies further internationalise practices of the German technical vocational education and training to emerging economies as Mexico, India and China. For German multinational companies this rather suggests an increase in professional technical skills (also on an international level) and less so rationalisation potentials in this particular segment of production work.

  3. Impacts of Urban Economic Factors on Private Tutoring Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Min; Park, Daekwon

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates both supply (the number of employees in the PT industry and the number of PT institutions) and demand (the number of middle and high school students, grade 7-12). Panel data are used for this research, making it possible to analyze market growth over time since it contains both cross-sectional and time-series information.…

  4. Development of Phanan Pandanus Handicraft Design for the Furniture Industry in Promotion of Creative-Based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payomrat Ruangrit

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This research study is a qualitative research which aims to (1 study the background of Phanan pandanus weaving handicraft, (2 study the problems encountered in development of Phanan pandanus weaving handicraft for the furniture industry, and (3 determine appropriate ways to develop suitable pandanus handicraft designs to promote the creative economy. The target area of this research was composed of three Thai provinces; Trang, Krabi and Satun. The research methods were study of books and printed matters, observation, interviews, group discussions and a workshop. The research findings revealed that the background and current status of Phanan pandanus weaving in each target group was similarly initiated as an ancestral legacy. Learning skill was acquired through observation without any particular textbooks. The learning activity was first started with small groups, which were extended into large groups with 20-30 members. The average age of group members is 40 years and older, with educational levels between Prathom 6 (upper primary to Mathayom 6 (upper secondary. The products made by each group are similar. In terms of the marketplace, each group aims at the domestic market. Each member earns approximately 2,500-6,000 baht per month. In terms of the problems of Phanan pandanus weaving, handicraft production mainly suffers from a lack of designers, lack of support from the government sector, unaffordable costs of hiring designers, lack of creativity in producing new products and inability to produce large quantities of products due to time consumption. According to the research findings, there are 3 guideline areas for development of Phanan pandanus handicraft design for the furniture industry in promotion of creative-based economy: (1 Guidelines for development of pandanus handicraft design; (2 Guidelines for management; (3 Guidelines for the incorporation of other equipment and materials.

  5. Conveyor belt of flesh: urban space and proliferation of the industrial labor practices

    OpenAIRE

    BALABAN, Utku Barış

    2011-01-01

    The second half of the twentieth century witnessed the worldwide (re)emergence of the
    non-factory forms of industrial labor. Academic studies predominantly emphasize the
    economic and political globalization to explain this phenomenon. This thesis investigates
    the local urban dynamics of this „proliferation of the industrial labor practices‟ with a
    field research in Istanbul, Turkey. 
    The field research focused on the organiza...

  6. NSERC's research and industrial community: a growing force of discovery, people and innovation shaping tomorrow's hydrogen economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Therrien, R.

    2009-01-01

    'Full text': As Canada's largest university research-funding agency, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) supports the training of some 26,500 university students and postdoctoral fellows, funds the research efforts of more than 11,800 university and college professors and stimulates academic-industry research and development (R and D) partnerships involving over 1,400 companies each year. In the hydrogen and fuel cell arena, NSERC has sponsored cutting edge research for over two decades. During that time, the level of activity has intensified significantly - from a mere handful of projects in the early 1980s and 1990s, to more than 150 grants and scholarships in 2008. Since 2002, NSERC's annual support has tripled from about $2.9 million to over $9 million. More than half of that investment is earmarked for university-industry projects involving over 40 fuel cell and hydrogen business interests. NSERC supports hydrogen advances through its Discovery Grants for basic research, Research Partnerships Programs' grants for research and knowledge transfer involving companies, and scholarships and fellowships for skills development. All of these initiatives provide advanced training for students at the post-graduate level, resulting in job-ready professionals who will help shape tomorrow's hydrogen economy. In 2007, NSERC doubled its funding for strategic research partnerships in the area of sustainable energy systems, including hydrogen-related R and D. These public-private partnerships permit companies to capitalize, at minimal cost, on university innovations and training. In addition to supporting project-specific partnerships, the new funds enabled the creation of several national networks that unite industrial and research interests engaged in fuel cell advancement on the one hand, and in hydrogen technologies on the other. The partnership opportunities that exist at NSERC will be briefly described and examples of successful

  7. Why rapid urbanization process cannot improve employment absorption capacity of service industry in China – also on the interactive mode innovation between service industry development with urbanization under the background of transformation and upgrading

    OpenAIRE

    Zeng, Shi-hong; Xia, Jie-chang

    2016-01-01

    Background: China is experiencing rapid urbanization and service industrial developement. Methods: In this paper, the relationship between urbanization and service employment is studied by using mathematical model and econometric test method. Results: This paper documents that there is a significant positive correlation between rapid urbanization process and services absorbing employment ability by the regression result using time-series data since China's reform and opening up. China's urban...

  8. Urban Decline or Disinvestment: Uneven Development, Redlining and the Role of the Insurance Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squires, Gregory D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Redlining of many urban communities and discrimination against the poor and minorities are common in the insurance industry, and these practices contribute to the deterioration of those communities. The utilization of a structural/disinvestment approach by social scientists should provide additional information about the uneven development of…

  9. FY2000 survey report research and development internationalization in industrial sector among APEC economies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    A survey is conducted and a database is constructed on internationalization of research and development activities in the industrial sectors of APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Conference) countries, namely, on research and development support systems, research and development appropriations, research and development personnel, research VISA granting procedures and control over foreign funds, trends of research and development among private sector businesses, main research and development organizations, evaluation by private sector businesses of the research and development environments of their countries, and the like. Incorporated into the database are Australia, Brunei, Canada, Chile, China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Russia, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, United States, and Vietnam. The database, compiled for Internet web pages, CD-ROMs, and publications, covers the industrial technology related policies of all the countries and helps understand the research and development systems, and enables access to main research organizations. The database comprises a general section dealing with the background, system constitution, and internationalization trend and a countries section collecting information on the respective countries. (NEDO)

  10. Using the BSC Model to Evaluate the Financial Performance of the Urban Water and Wastewater Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Goli Aysek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Among the different models so far proposed for the guiding and evaluation of organizational performance, the balanced scorecard (BSC model is the only one that has been found capable of guiding an organization towards its goals from the lowest to the topmost levels in an integrated, sustained, efficient, and effective manner. The model in question is based on the goals and strategies adopted by an organization and it is, thus, a holistic approach that envisions the organization in all its aspects, leading to sysnergy among all the organization’s divisions. Moreover, the model has been found capable of lifting the inadequacies in performance evaluation systems in firms which strive to comply with financial milestones that draw heavily on reducing the unit price through practicing scales of economy and mass production. The present study initially investigates the effects of employing the criteria inherent to the BSC model on the financial performance evaluation of the urban water and wastewater industry. The required data are collected from 35 companies forming the statistical population over a four-year period from 2007 to 2010. The (four independent variables belong to the SCR model and performance evaluation (i.e., sales efficiency rate accounts for the independent one. Due to the insignificance of the coefficients of independent variables and the lack of correlation among the dependent ones, the step-by-step method is employed to enter the values for the variables into the model when testing the research hypotheses. The new model is found to confirm all the hypotheses. Moreover, a direct relationship is established between the SCR criteria, on the one hand, and the firm’s performance, on the other, such that any improvements in SCR evaluation criteria directly lead to improvements in performance. Finally, a value equal to unity obtained for hypothesis selection indicates the strong linear relationship holding between the financial SCR

  11. An environmental assessment of electricity production from slaughterhouse residues. Linking urban, industrial and waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santagata, R.; Ripa, M.; Ulgiati, S.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Animal by-products use for electricity generation is investigated as a case-study. • Different methodological approaches to deal with by-products are explored in LCA. • Adopting a holistic perspective is crucial to achieve a circular economy framework. - Abstract: The food processing industry continues to grow, generating large amount of organically rich waste flows per year: these processors face significant economic and environmental pressures for appropriate conversion and disposal of these waste flows. Solid waste disposal problems, mostly in highly urbanized environments, energy shortages (primarily oil) and/or high petroleum prices, as well as environmental issues such as the shrinking landfill capacity, can all be addressed by converting waste material into useful and saleable products. This paper brings to the attention a possible strategy in order to meet the general EU directives concerning the residues utilization and percentage contribution for the total energy consumption by 2020, by evaluating the use of animal by-products (category 3, as defined in the directive 2002/1774/EC) for energy purposes. Slaughterhouse waste represents an important potential source of renewable energy: on average, 40–50% of a live animal is waste, with a potential energy content close to diesel fuel. Treatment of animal waste from slaughterhouse and the subsequent conversion to electricity is investigated as a case study in the Campania Region (Italy): the animal waste undergoes a rendering process, to separate a protein-rich fraction useful for animal meal production and a fat-rich fraction, to be combusted in a diesel engine for power and heat generation (CHP). An environmental assessment of the entire process is performed by means of LCA, providing a quantitative understanding of the plant processing. The study aims to understand to what extent electricity production from animal fat is environmentally sound and if there are steps and/or components

  12. Monitoring urban expansion and land use/land cover changes of Shanghai metropolitan area during the transitional economy (1979-2009) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jie; Yin, Zhane; Zhong, Haidong; Xu, Shiyuan; Hu, Xiaomeng; Wang, Jun; Wu, Jianping

    2011-06-01

    This study explored the spatio-temporal dynamics and evolution of land use/cover changes and urban expansion in Shanghai metropolitan area, China, during the transitional economy period (1979-2009) using multi-temporal satellite images and geographic information systems (GIS). A maximum likelihood supervised classification algorithm was employed to extract information from four landsat images, with the post-classification change detection technique and GIS-based spatial analysis methods used to detect land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes. The overall Kappa indices of land use/cover change maps ranged from 0.79 to 0.89. Results indicated that urbanization has accelerated at an unprecedented scale and rate during the study period, leading to a considerable reduction in the area of farmland and green land. Findings further revealed that water bodies and bare land increased, obviously due to large-scale coastal development after 2000. The direction of urban expansion was along a north-south axis from 1979 to 2000, but after 2000 this growth changed to spread from both the existing urban area and along transport routes in all directions. Urban expansion and subsequent LULC changes in Shanghai have largely been driven by policy reform, population growth, and economic development. Rapid urban expansion through clearing of vegetation has led to a wide range of eco-environmental degradation.

  13. Development of the copper and molybdenum industries and the Armenian economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A.R.; Levine, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Production of copper and molybdenum in Armenia is examined, with special emphasis on the location of major deposits, former and proposed future centers of processing, and contribution of metals exports to the country's foreign trade revenues. Particular emphasis is placed on the impacts on these industries of the disruption of economic ties resulting from the dissolution of the USSR and an economic crisis precipitated by a major earthquake, Armenia's tension with Azerbaijan over armed conflict in Nagorno-Karabakh and surrounding areas in Azerbaijan, an economic blockade imposed by Turkey and Azerbaijan, and a consequent severe energy crisis. The paper highlights developments in the mid-1990s in copper and molybdenum and in the recent expansion of trade relations with Iran.

  14. Impact of urbanization and industrial development on holiday effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P.-H.; Chen, P.-Y.

    2012-04-01

    Our study is to examine the "holiday effect", defined as the difference in air pollutant concentrations between holiday and non-holiday periods, and associated factors controlling the strength of holiday effect in Taiwan. This holiday effect can be applied to other countries with similar national or cultural holidays. Daily surface measurements of six major air pollutants from fifty-four air quality monitoring stations of the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) during the Chinese New Year (CNY) and non-Chinese New Year (NCNY) periods of 1994-2008 are used. The air pollutant concentrations are significantly different between the CNY and NCNY periods, in almost all the Taiwan area, except CO in the eastern part which is a relatively less-developed area. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO, NMHC and O3 are larger in the north than in the south, and those of SO2 and PM10 are larger in the south than in the north. Factors controlling the strength of holiday effect such as the degree of urbanization and anthropogenic sources are examined. The population number and motor vehicle number rather than the population number density and motor vehicle number density have a significantly positive relationship with the strengths of holiday effects of NOx, CO and NMHC. The strengths of holiday effects of NOx and CO are mainly contributed from mobile sources and those of SO2 and PM10 are from stationary sources and that of NMHC is from both mobile and stationary sources. As the dominant anthropogenic sources in the air quality division have larger emissions, holiday effect strengths of associated air pollutants are found to be stronger.

  15. Industrial Energy Use and Interventions in Urban Form : Heavy Manufacturing versus New Service and Creative Industries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romein, A.

    2016-01-01

    Now that it becomes obvious that disregarding the seriousness of climate change and the exhaustibility of fossil fuels would have severe and unpredictable impacts, improvement of the efficiency of urban energy consumption is of utmost importance. Hence, a rather diverse spectrum of policies to

  16. The evolution of the offshore outsourcing industry: Brazil versus other BRIC economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Kshetri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil has expressed an intention to compete with India in offshoring. This paper examines the outsourcing industry in Brazil. First, we analyze how Brazil’s well-developed domestic IT market, its manufacturing prowess and export orientation have generated interorganizational as well as intraorganizational externalities or spillovers for the offshoring sector. Such externalities take va­rious forms such as knowledge spillovers, learning curves, brand loyalty, availability of tools and resources, knowledge about quality and value perceptions of consumers as well as production externalities. The entry of foreign IT firms in Brazil has also generated externalities in the forms of indirect economic impacts on local organizations. Second, we investigate how factors related to offs­horing skills, cultural compatibility and physical proximity to major markets are related to closeness to the needs of clients in terms of experience, expertise, culture and geographic reach. Finally, as making a contract complete represents a high degree of complexity and costs for parties involved in an offshoring agreement; we explore the importance of regulation and regulatory institutions.

  17. Economy of conservation options in industry and developed environment. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    To determine the optimal situation for the energy supply in the working area of the IJsselmij and Sep the study on the title subject was carried out. To influence the energy demand demand-side management (DSM) as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) is applied. Several scenarios to determine whether new production capacity must be installed or conservation options and activities should be realized are elaborated and calculated by means of the COMPASS model. E3T compiled input data for the demand-side of the model: energy consumption and energy conservation, investment cost and operational cost per user, number of installations and the development of the penetration of the conservation options between 1990 and 2010, and required subsidies and promotional costs of the IJsselmij to introduce such options. Six of the options were selected and elaborated in detail. The results are presented in this report for the options: coverage of cooling and freezing equipment at night, frequency control of electric motors, decentralized heat production by means of advanced burners, indoor climate control in the built environment, reflectors for TL-lighting systems in the built environment, and behavioral change in industrial companies. In part 1 an overview is given of the economics, the selection and elaboration of the energy conservation options. 9 figs., 53 tabs., 71 refs., 1 appendix

  18. Economy of conservation options in the industry and the built environment. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    To determine the optimal situation for the energy supply in the working area of the IJsselmij and Sep the study on the title subject was carried out. To influence the energy demand demand-side management (DSM) as part of integrated resource planning (IRP) is applied. Several scenarios to determine whether new production capacity must be installed or conservation options and activities should be realized are elaborated and calculated by means of the COMPASS model. E3T compiled input data for the demand-side of the model: energy consumption and energy conservation, investment cost and operational cost per user, number of installations and the development of the penetration of the conservation options between 1990 and 2010, and required subsidies and promotional costs of the IJsselmij to introduce such options. The economics of the energy conservation options are given in chapter 2. Six of the options were selected and elaborated in detail in a separate publication (part 2): coverage of cooling and freezing equipment at night, frequency control of electric motors, decentralized heat production by means of advanced burners, indoor climate control in the built environment, reflectors for TL-lighting systems in the built environment, and behavioral change in industrial companies. 2 figs., 7 tabs., 7 refs., 4 appendices

  19. FILTERED VIOLENCE: PROPAGANDA MODEL AND POLITICAL ECONOMY OF THE INDIAN FILM INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmat Rasul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production, distribution, and consumption of cinematic violence raises several questions of academic import. Despite a plethora of research studies exploring the nature of screen violence and its effects on viewers, a serious debate on the influence of state machinery on the production of sanitized violence in movies is still wanting. Likewise, Bollywood’s role in advancing the Indian government’s agenda in war and peace times has been paid petite attention in academic discourses dealing with media-state interconnection. This article explores the relevance of Herman and Chomsky’s propaganda model as a framework for analysis and analyzes Bollywood’s movies based on stories of violence in war and peace times. The article discusses the connections with the Indian state apparatus that influences production processes in the Indian film industry by providing financial assistance and applying multifarious political, social, economic, and ideological pressures (filters. The findings suggest that the Bollywood movies support diplomatic initiatives of the Indian government through cinematic narratives of sanitized violence.

  20. QUALITY OF FINANCIAL CONGLOMERATES’ PERFORMANCE IN EMERGING ECONOMY: THE INDUSTRIAL ORGANIZATION THEORY PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwiek Rabiatul Adawiyah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Financial conglomerates are financial institutions that provide all forms of financial services on the top of ordinary banking service. The quality of financial conglomerates’ performance depends on number of factors namely ownership structure, internal capital market and resources sharing. Research on the performance of financial conglomerates are still lacking in Indonesia. This study, therefore, is among the first attempt to assess the influence of ownership structure, internal capital market and resources sharing on the performance financial conglomerate firms in Indonesia, from the industrial organizational theory perspectives. The methodology employed is the ex-post facto research design, using secondary data. The population of the study is all the conglomerates firms listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange between 2010 until 2015 persistently. The study used regression as a tool of analysis. Findings supported three out of the five hypotheses proposed. Efficient subsidy and managerial ownership had no significant influence on firms’ performance. Efficient transfer segment had positive influence on firms’ performance. Similarly, result supported the proposition that intangible and tangible resources had positive effect on firms’ performance.

  1. Industrial Restructuring and Urban Change in the Pittsburgh Region: Developmental, Ecological, and Socioeconomic Trade-offs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Haller

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the steel industry's restructuring during the 1980s and its consequences for older industrial regions tied historically to steel production. These regions contained large working-class communities that declined because of deindustrialization and restructuring. This article first examines the transition of the steel industry from its roots in extractive and primary manufacturing to a scrap-recycling industry that minimizes labor and raw material inputs. This transition parallels the structural changes in other industries addressed by political economic perspectives, such as the new international division of labor and globalization of production. The article then focuses on the socioeconomic and structural changes, using the Pittsburgh region as an example, including the employment and land-use consequences of deindustrialization and the relationship between losses in manufacturing employment and increases in persistent joblessness and poverty associated with growth of the urban underclass.

  2. Sheila Jeffreys: The Industrial Vagina. The Political Economy of the Global Sex Trade. London: Routledge 2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Hofmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Jeffreys analysiert die Prozesse, die zu einer Industrialisierung und Globalisierung von Prostitution im späten 20. und 21. Jahrhundert geführt haben. Hauptverantwortlich für die gegenwärtige Diskursverschiebung um Prostitution ist für Jeffreys zum einen die sexuelle Revolution der 1970er Jahre und zum anderen die massive Finanzierung von Unterstützer/-innen der Sexarbeiterinnen zur HIV-Prävention in den 1980ern. Jeffreys legt wie in früheren Arbeiten ihre radikal-feministische Position dar und fordert eine Abschaffung der Prostitution. In ihrer Abrechnung mit dem liberalen feministischen Diskurs, für den eine Unterstützung von Sexarbeiterinnen prioritär ist, ignoriert sie die Widersprüchlichkeiten und Komplexitäten der gelebten Realitäten. An vielen Stellen ihres Buches bekräftigt Jeffreys stereotypische Männlichkeitsvorstellungen, was durch einen Blick über den Tellerrand des ihr vertrauten wissenschaftlichen Bezugsrahmens hätte vermieden werden können.Sheila Jeffreys analyzes the processes that led to the industrialization and globalization of prostitution in the late 20th and 21th centuries. Jeffreys considers those primary factors responsible for the current shift in discourse on prostitution, which can be attributed to the sexual revolution of the 1970s on the one hand, and to massive financing of HIV prevention in the 1980s by sex worker supporters on the other. As in earlier studies, Jeffreys presents readers with her radical-feminist position and demands prostitution be abolished. In her confrontation with liberal-feminist discourse, in which the support of sex workers takes priority, she ignores the inconsistencies and complexities of real lived experience. At many points throughout her book, Jeffreys affirms stereotypical male conceptions, which could have been avoided had she looked beyond the theoretical frame of reference that makes up her comfort zone.

  3. Patterns of energy use in the Brazilian economy: Can the profile of Brazilian exports determine the future energy efficiency of its industry?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, G.V.; Schaeffer, R.

    1997-01-01

    This study examines the integration of the Brazilian economy in the global economy as a determining factor for the energy efficiency of its industry. Depending upon the profile of a country's exports (i.e., depending upon the share of energy-intensive exports out of total exports), different quantities of energy are required to produce the country's exported goods, which may counterbalance efforts made elsewhere to improve the overall energy efficiency of the country's industry. Different scenarios for the energy embodied in the industrial exports of Brazil are considered for the period 1995--2015. These scenarios are a combination of different shares of energy-intensive goods in the total exports of the country with different assumptions for gains obtained in industrial energy efficiency over time. For all scenarios the same fundamental hypothesis of liberalization of commerce and economic growth are assumed. Results for the year 2015 show that the total energy embodied in industrial exports varies from 1,413 PJ to 2,491 PJ, and the total industrial use of energy varies from 3,858 PJ to 6,153 PJ, depending upon the assumptions made. This is equivalent to an average industrial energy intensity variation ranging from 13.8 MJ to 22.0 MJ per US$-1985. The authors conclude that any policy aimed at improving Brazil's overall industrial energy efficiency should concentrate not only on the reduction of the energy intensity of particular industrial sectors, but also (and, perhaps, more importantly) on rethinking the very strategy for the integration of the country's economy in the global market in the future, with respect to the share of energy-intensive goods out of total exports. The focus is not incidental, for the ongoing structural changes in Brazilian exports alone may come to offset any efficiency improvements achieved by the national industry as a whole

  4. Market-opening rules and potentialities of destabilization of hierarchical power industries in an open economy: institutional scenarios on the French power industry; Cahier de recherche no.17. Regles d'ouverture de marche et potentialites de destabilisation d'une industrie electrique integree en economie ouverte. Scenarios institutionnels d'evolution de l'industrie electrique francaise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finon, D

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of the paper is to analyse the reform of the French power industry, the extreme integration of the industrial organisation of which is deeply rooted in the French institutional particularisms. After the presentation of the main features of the 1999 reform, different elements of instability of the new structure are pointed out: the over-dominant position of the incumbent company which dissuades entries, institutional isomorphism between economies integrated to a regional space (heterogeneity of structures between European Community countries generates problems of reciprocity and fairness), and the end of the traditional capture of the regulator by the incumbent company because of the autonomy of the function of regulation. Two institutional scenarios are defined, which give a different weight to two competition paradigms in conflicts: the traditional ''industrial economics'' which inclines to preserve hierarchy in the national area to gain competitive advantages in the European field, and the neo-classical paradigm. In the first one, in the name of strategic efficiency, the integration of the industrial organisation could be preserved in spite of the asymmetry of structures between countries, and the playing field is the continental Europe on which national champions compete. In the second one the French industrial organisation has to conform to the competitive model, with vertical and horizontal disintegration and creation of a power exchange market. This scenario necessitates to test the force of the institutional determinism of the nuclear legacy. (author)

  5. THWARTING THE "MERCHANTS OF DEATH" ACCUSATION: THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF MILITARY PROCUREMENT IN INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACIES DURING THE INTERWAR PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jari Eloranta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article charts the interwar military procurement practices of several democratic states, concentrating on the United States, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Finland. In addition to comparing some of the foundations of the Allies' successful industrial mobilization in World War II, this article concludes that interwar procurement practices in some of the most liberal democracies were surprisingly resistant to capture by business interests. This finding suggests that in describing this era, we should be cautious about ascribing causal power to trans-historical economic behaviors such as rent-seeking and collusion, without taking into account the institutional setting in which such activities took place. The record of the interwar period suggests that democracies can use bureaucratic administration and public enterprise to establish robust barriers to rent-seeking and corruption in the military economy. During the interwar period, these administrative barriers were erected in conjunction with intense public concern about military profiteering. Whether they would be less effective in different ideological environments deserves further investigation.

  6. Talk of Thierry Breton, minister of economy, finances and industry. Talk to the association of economy and finance journalists about national and international energy questions on May 22, 2006; Intervention de Thierry Breton ministre de l'Economie, des finances et de l'industrie. Intervention devant l'Ajef sur les questions energetiques nationales et internationales, le 22 mai 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The French minister of economy, finances and industry explains the reasons of the rise of oil prices (tensions on the supply and demand balance, late recovery of investments in producing countries, geopolitical factors) and the measures that the government wishes to implement in order to bear up this situation: project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez energy groups, change of oil companies behaviour with consumers (automotive fuels price transparency), energy saving information on all energy suppliers advertisements, reinforcement of energy independence (development of renewable energy sources and of alternate automotive fuels). (J.S.)

  7. Geochemical study of urban soils in public areas of an industrialized town (Ajka, western Hungary)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacháry, D.; Jordán, Gy.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    Soil is one of the most essential parts of urban ecosystem contributing to the biogeochemical cycles along the rock-soil-plant-animal and human pathway. Soil plays a fundamental role in plant nutrient uptake and groundwater filtration, too. Urban soils differ from non-urban soils in many aspects, including their origin, and they may also concentrate contaminants in large quantities due to intensive human activities. The pollution sources are industry, traffic, fertilizer, tailing and waste. In addition to the increasing rate of urban areas, urban soils are under growing interest and their pollution have received significant attention in the past few decades. This work focuses on the toxic element (As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni) content of soils and their spatial distribution in order to find a link between contamination sources and the receiving urban soils at sensitive receptor locations such as children's playgrounds and parks. Ajka town is located in western Hungary. It has an old-established industrial history with multiple contamination sources of heavy alumina industry and coal-based power plants supplied by the nearby bauxite and coal mines. At 44 locations 46 soil samples have been collected at a depth of 0-10 cm along a 1x1 km grid. The whole grid covers an area of 48 km2. In each grid cell a sampling site was selected at public areas. Sample preparation included drying at 40 C°, thorough homogenization and sieving to 2 mm fine earth before chemical analysis. Grain size distribution and soil pH were also determined. Samples were analyzed with ICP-OES and SEM methods. The As, Hg, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd and Ni concentrations range from 2.07 ppm to 9.48 ppm, 0.02 ppm to 2.84 ppm, 5.08 ppm to 35.74 ppm, 2.55 ppm to 47.78 ppm, 17.00 ppm to 91.00 ppm, 0.07 ppm to 0.61 ppm and 5.57 ppm to 32.09 ppm, respectively. The results revealed the contaminated areas associated with past industrial sites. This study also identified locations with considerable contamination at

  8. Achieving carbon emission reduction through industrial and urban symbiosis: A case of Kawasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Huijuan; Ohnishi, Satoshi; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Geng, Yong; Fujii, Minoru; Dong, Liang

    2014-01-01

    Industry and fossil fuel combustion are the main sources for urban carbon emissions. Most studies focus on energy consumption emission reduction and energy efficiency improvement. Material saving is also important for carbon emission reduction from a lifecycle perspective. IS (Industrial symbiosis) and U r S (urban symbiosis) have been effective since both of them encourage byproduct exchange. However, quantitative carbon emission reduction evaluation on applying them is still lacking. Consequently, the purpose of this paper is to fill such a gap through a case study in Kawasaki Eco-town, Japan. A hybrid LCA model was employed to evaluate to the lifecycle carbon footprint. The results show that lifecycle carbon footprints with and without IS and U r S were 26.66 Mt CO 2 e and 30.92 Mt CO 2 e, respectively. The carbon emission efficiency was improved by 13.77% with the implementation of IS and U r S. The carbon emission reduction was mainly from “iron and steel” industry, cement industry and “paper making” industry, with figures of 2.76 Mt CO 2 e, 1.16 Mt CO 2 e and 0.34 Mt CO 2 e, respectively. Reuse of scrape steel, blast furnace slag and waste paper are all effective measures for promoting carbon emission reductions. Finally, policy implications on how to further promote IS and U r S are presented. - Highlights: • We evaluate carbon emission reduction of industrial and urban symbiosis (IS/U r S). • Hybrid LCA model was used to evaluate lifecycle carbon footprint. • Carbon emission efficiency was improved by 13.77% after applying IS/U r S. • The importance of U r S in responding carbon reduction was addressed in the paper

  9. Socio demographic and clinical predictors of absenteeism A cross sectional study of urban industrial employees

    OpenAIRE

    Suhash Chakraborty; Anantha H. C. Subramanya

    2013-01-01

    Context: Public sector undertakings are facing a threat of privatization due to unsatisfactory performance putting pressure on management and in turn to employees. There is an increasing trend of absenteeism observed amongst employees citing job stress. Aim: To find an association between job stress and absenteeism in relation to socio-demographic and clinical profile. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in an urban aeronautical industry with 68 employees who mentioned stress at wo...

  10. Does Internal Immigration Always Lead to Urban Unemployment in Emerging Economies? : A Structural Approach Based on Data from China

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, YANG

    2012-01-01

    Immigration restrictions usually arise from the idea that immigrants compete with original residents for jobs. Their effects on urban job creation are often ignored. In this study, we develop an inner-city dual labor market model that incorporates both of those effects, and apply it to empirical studies on China. We find that rural-urban immigration does not contribute to urban unemployment in China. Migrants take away some jobs from residents, but at the same time, they lower equilibrium wag...

  11. Urban Land Development for Industrial and Commercial Use: A Case Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanzhun Sun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the 20th century, urbanization has been the main characteristic of global land development. If we can reveal and understand the characteristics and underlying mechanisms of urban development, we can then identify a sustainable development pattern for cities. In this paper, we primarily focus on the determinants of two main types of land use in urban development, industrial and commercial, in an empirical study of Beijing. We use a spatial data analysis method to seek and model major determinants of industrial and commercial land growth in the period of 2000–2010 in Beijing. A spatial logistic regression model is used to explore the impact of spatial independent variables on these two types of land use. The study shows that: (1 newly-added industrial land during 2000–2010 received significant contributions from the number of local enterprises engaged in services in 2010, the use of land for agriculture and construction in the neighborhood in 2000 and planning orders; (2 factors contributing to land transferred for commercial use included the number of enterprises, construction land in the neighborhood and accessibility improvement.

  12. Specification of Scientific Tasks in Collaboration between Science, Industry and State, and Impact of Political Factors on Managerial Levers and Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondarenko Tetiana M.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The issue of collaboration between science, industry and state is of relevance in domestic and international practice. In leading countries of the world and in Ukraine compatible production and scientific complexes are created; collaboration between research institutions and state is established, in particular the theory and practice of collaboration between science, industry and state on the basis of Triple Helix Model is widespread in the world; in scientific papers objects of research of economic processes, subjects of research of the economic theory are considered. However, there are no works where the objects and tasks of economic researches are studied on the basis of macroeconomic environment, and a distinct principle to distinguish research objects relating to different economies and types of production is laid out; scientific and practical problems of economy in the field of collaboration between state, science and industry are clearly defined. According to the purpose of the article (to specify scientific and practical tasks to rationalize scientific research, the experience gained is systematized and a scheme-matrix of scientific and practical problems is proposed. In scientific practice there are works highlighting principles of scientific research work, research tasks in the field of economy, scientific problems of economy but there are no works considering both principles and tasks of collaboration of academic economists with state and industry in order to provide scientists with recommendations on optimization of economic processes to improve the economic efficiency. Taking into account the experience gained, principles of collaboration of academic economists with the state and industry are identified. On the basis of the developed matrix of scientific and practical tasks, the principle of impact of political factors on managerial levers, the level of Gross Domestic Product and Gross Social Product is demonstrated.

  13. The New Political Economy of Urban Education: Neoliberalism, Race, and the Right to the City. Critical Social Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Pauline

    2011-01-01

    Urban education and its contexts have changed in powerful ways. Old paradigms are being eclipsed by global forces of privatization and markets and new articulations of race, class, and urban space. These factors and more set the stage for Pauline Lipman's insightful analysis of the relationship between education policy and the neoliberal economic,…

  14. Urban industry of the Samara province in the second half of the nineteenth century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia V. Korneeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The second half of the XIX century in Russian history is a period of modernization of almost all aspects of national life, including industry. By the modernization processes of the second half of the XIX century belong urbanization, industrialization, bureaucratization et al. Samara province during the period belongs to the vast provinces of European Russia and at the end of the XIX century has an economically developed province of the Middle Volga. Agriculture ranks first place in the economic development of the Samara province, therefore industrial production is subject to the processing of agricultural and livestock products. In the second half of the twentieth century on the territory of the Samara province were industrial company, which were at different stages of economic development in the form of property and on the organization of manufacture. By the end of the XIX century, the level of industrial production is much higher than the pre-reform figures, but still inferior to agriculture. During the study period in the Samara province formed the main directions of the region's industry, such as of animal products (skinner, plants furnace animal fat, plant products (churn factory, and conversing minerals (brickyard. The growth and size of cities has determined the pace and scope of development of the industry.

  15. Steps towards an integrated eco-economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Christensen, Bo Allesøe

    Twenty years ago, the Danish city Randers still suffered from the effects of an economic restructuring process, which had closed many of the traditional industries of the city. In many ways, the challenge for the city of Randers was to reinvent itself. Today, an overall renaissance of the city is...... in Randers constitutes a case of an integrated rural and urban eco-economy, which transcends established borders between public and private organisations, private and community enterprise and between rural and urban spatial development....

  16. Problems of protection of urban ambient air pollution from industrial dust emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azarov Valeriy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of large cities accompanied by the development of the industry hashistorically led to the fact that now residential areas are located side by side with the industrial production. For instance, exactly this situation has developed in the city of Volgograd, as well as in other Russian cities, where sometimes the distance from large enterprises to a living area is 100 m or less. In addition, small-scale entrepreneurs usually place their production directly in their past places of residence. As a result, the content of harmful substances in the air of city blocks is much higher than the standards of hygiene require. It is obvious that the current situation can be improved through the use of modern, more advanced technologies. However, increasing the efficiency of air systems to protect the city from pollution and industrial emissions is an urgent task. The authors propose a version of the system layout, designed to reduce dust emissions in urban air.

  17. Talk of Thierry Breton, minister of economy, finances and industry. Talk to the association of economy and finance journalists about national and international energy questions on May 22, 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The French minister of economy, finances and industry explains the reasons of the rise of oil prices (tensions on the supply and demand balance, late recovery of investments in producing countries, geopolitical factors) and the measures that the government wishes to implement in order to bear up this situation: project of merger between Gaz de France and Suez energy groups, change of oil companies behaviour with consumers (automotive fuels price transparency), energy saving information on all energy suppliers advertisements, reinforcement of energy independence (development of renewable energy sources and of alternate automotive fuels). (J.S.)

  18. ANALYSIS OF THE STATE OF THE LEADING SECTORS OF THE ECONOMY IN DONBAS FOR THE OLD INDUSTRIAL REGION – SUMMER-AUTUMN OF 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Кlymenko

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the article is to study the state of the regional industrial complex of the old industrial region of the East of Ukraine, which suffered as a result of the military-political conflict that began in 2014. One of the objectives of the study is to analyse the process of destroying the foundations of the regional economy, as well as to assess the significance of the loss of Donbas industries for the stable socio-economic development of all regions of Ukraine. Methodology. The method of analysis made it possible to study the process of destruction of industrial enterprises in the basic sectors of the regional economy of Donbas since the beginning of the military-political conflict. The author defined the schemes of the operation of a part of enterprises operating in the temporarily occupied territory of the East of Ukraine, who, becoming hostages to the situation, were forced to cooperate with representatives of the illegal authorities of the unrecognized republics to preserve production. Result. The statistical method is used to analyse the financial and economic performance of industrial enterprises, with the purpose of assessing their role in the state economy of the country as a whole. The method of system analysis allowed the author to estimate the damage caused by the loss in the state economy of coal supplies, which was previously mined in the mines of Donbas. Thus, the fact of a decrease in industrial production in the east of the country was argued, which led to a significant drop in Ukraine’s exports in general in such areas as supplies of ferrous metals, engineering products, and non-ferrous metallurgy. Practical implication. The author analysed the facts of loss, as a result of dismantling and export of equipment, strategically important enterprises of the militaryindustrial complex of the country. The article reflects the problem of the growing ecological danger that has arisen as a result of the lack of control over the

  19. The French industry in front of the green economy: the example of seven sectors. Report for the Cercle de l'Industrie

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crifo, P.; Flam, M.; Glachant, M.

    2011-06-01

    This study aims at giving a detailed overview of the reality of the green economy in some big French companies, and thus at answering some questions: does the emergence of green economy transform these companies, their products, and their markets? Is this transformation occurring now or will it occur in the future? What is the role of public authorities? Seven green sectors have been analyzed: biofuels, carbon capture and storage, energy efficiency in buildings, smart grids, green chemistry, energy storage, and the economy of functionality. For each of them, the sector is presented and the strategic posture of the surveyed companies is described

  20. Exchange rate pass-through inflation and wage differentials in late-industrializing economies: the Mexican case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa S. López

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates exchange rate pass-through inflation, and the wage bargaining process, in a developing economy in which firms' market power is largely dependent on technical progress embodied in imported intermediates and capital goods. It develops a heterodox model of income distribution, based on theoretical contributions from Latin American structuralists, labor market segmentationists and post-Keynesian writers, and it presents supportive empirical evidence from the Mexican economy.

  1. Structural alteration of industry of region as pre-condition of steady development of national economy (on the example of the Dnepropetrovsk area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Vlasiuk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available An economic analysis is conducted in the production sphere of the Dnepropetrovsk area in a period development and in the process of transformation production to the sector of the national economic system. In particular, an analysis of the actual state of socio ­economic development of the Dnipropetrovsk region in the late XX century and its current state in order to find trends change attributes of manifestation and impact on living standards . The analysis of individual industries Dnipropetrovsk region. It is shown that the basis of the regional industry ­ metallurgy. Comparative analysis of the sectoral structure of industrial production Dnipropetrovsk Oblast major types of products that characterize its economy in 1997 and 2012. This analysis revealed the changes in the structural transformation of the regional industry . The basic indicators of socio­ economic development of the Dnipropetrovsk region. In particular , it was found that the dynamics of socio ­economic development of the region by major figures exceeded the average values in Ukraine , and the main results of 2011 was a steady growth in key sectors of the Dnipropetrovsk region. Were clarified problems of the region’s economy and its future prospects . The factors of forming of regional economic policy and principles of structural alteration of industry are considered.

  2. Impact of urban and industrial effluents on the coastal marine environment in Oran, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, A; Chellali, M R; Hamou, A; Debbah, S

    2015-09-15

    In Algeria most of the urban waste water is dumped without treatment into the Sea. It is tremendously important to assess the consequences of organic matter rich sewage on marine ecosystem. In this study we investigated the effects of industrial and urban sewage on the dissolved oxygen (O2), chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demands (BOD5), pH, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), Metal element (Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Cr, Cd), petroleum hydrocarbons (HC), oil and grease (OG) in Bay of Oran, Algeria. A ten-year follow-up research showed that the concentrations of oil and grease released into the bionetwork are of higher ecological impact and this needs to be given the desired consideration. Information on bathing water quality revealed that the most beaches in Oran are under the national environmental standard limit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impacts of urban and industrial development on Arctic land surface temperature in Lower Yenisei River Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Z.; Shiklomanov, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    Urbanization and industrial development have significant impacts on arctic climate that in turn controls settlement patterns and socio-economic processes. In this study we have analyzed the anthropogenic influences on regional land surface temperature of Lower Yenisei River Region of the Russia Arctic. The study area covers two consecutive Landsat scenes and includes three major cities: Norilsk, Igarka and Dudingka. Norilsk industrial region is the largest producer of nickel and palladium in the world, and Igarka and Dudingka are important ports for shipping. We constructed a spatio-temporal interpolated temperature model by including 1km MODIS LST, field-measured climate, Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), DEM, Landsat NDVI and Landsat Land Cover. Those fore-mentioned spatial data have various resolution and coverage in both time and space. We analyzed their relationships and created a monthly spatio-temporal interpolated surface temperature model at 1km resolution from 1980 to 2010. The temperature model then was used to examine the characteristic seasonal LST signatures, related to several representative assemblages of Arctic urban and industrial infrastructure in order to quantify anthropogenic influence on regional surface temperature.

  4. Analysis of chosen urban bioclimatic conditions in Upper Silesian Industrial Region, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnol, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Due to the increasing urbanization, people spend more and more time in cities. Because of that fact during the last century the human bioclimatological approach had an important influence on the applied urban bioclimatology. The aim of the study was to analyze chosen thermal bioclimatic conditions in urban area of Upper Silesian Industrial Region in connection with the atmospheric circulation and air masses. The study was focused on the thermal conditions that are important for the bioclimatological research on human thermal comfort. They were the basis for making study on how to show the influence of the air masses and circulations types on frequency and variability of the chosen bioclimate indexes. That research was based on data (2004 - 2008) acquired by the Silesian University (Faculty of Earth Sciences) meteorological station located in the city of Sosnowiec (50°17'N, 19°08'E, h=263 m a.s.l.). The temperature measurements were made automatically every 10 minutes on the 2 meters above the ground level. Previous research showed that the station is a good representation of the local urban climate conditions in Upper Silesian Industrial Region. In the study the following air temperatures were taken into consideration: average day temperature, maximum day temperature, minimum day temperature and the average air temperature at 12 UTC. They were associated with atmospheric circulation types and masses typical for the region. Using the data mentioned above I conducted a classification to divide days into following objective categories: cool, cold, comfortable, hot, warm and very hot in the seasonal depiction. The final stage of the work was to find the answer to the following question: "When and how do the strong air masses and air circulations types modify bioclimatic conditions in the study area?" Answer to that question together with further results of the research will be presented on my poster.

  5. Source origin of trace elements in PM from regional background, urban and industrial sites of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Viana, M.; Alastuey, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Castillo, S.; Pey, J.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández-Patier, R.; Moreno-Grau, S.; Negral, L.; Minguillón, M. C.; Monfort, E.; Gil, J. I.; Inza, A.; Ortega, L. A.; Santamaría, J. M.; Zabalza, J.

    Despite their significant role in source apportionment analysis, studies dedicated to the identification of tracer elements of emission sources of atmospheric particulate matter based on air quality data are relatively scarce. The studies describing tracer elements of specific sources currently available in the literature mostly focus on emissions from traffic or large-scale combustion processes (e.g. power plants), but not on specific industrial processes. Furthermore, marker elements are not usually determined at receptor sites, but during emission. In our study, trace element concentrations in PM 10 and PM 2.5 were determined at 33 monitoring stations in Spain throughout the period 1995-2006. Industrial emissions from different forms of metallurgy (steel, stainless steel, copper, zinc), ceramic and petrochemical industries were evaluated. Results obtained at sites with no significant industrial development allowed us to define usual concentration ranges for a number of trace elements in rural and urban background environments. At industrial and traffic hotspots, average trace metal concentrations were highest, exceeding rural background levels by even one order of magnitude in the cases of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Sn, W, V, Ni, Cs and Pb. Steel production emissions were linked to high levels of Cr, Mn, Ni, Zn, Mo, Cd, Se and Sn (and probably Pb). Copper metallurgy areas showed high levels of As, Bi, Ga and Cu. Zinc metallurgy was characterised by high levels of Zn and Cd. Glazed ceramic production areas were linked to high levels of Zn, As, Se, Zr, Cs, Tl, Li, Co and Pb. High levels of Ni and V (in association) were tracers of petrochemical plants and/or fuel-oil combustion. At one site under the influence of heavy vessel traffic these elements could be considered tracers (although not exclusively) of shipping emissions. Levels of Zn-Ba and Cu-Sb were relatively high in urban areas when compared with industrialised regions due to tyre and brake abrasion, respectively.

  6. Sustainable living in a Chinese city. Analysis and support for market-conscious urban planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, H.

    2014-01-01

    In the transition from a state-led industrial to a market-driven post-industrial urban economy, China’s planners are facing challenges in building sustainable living environment for the rapidly increasing and wealthier urban population.Citizens are the end-users of the sustainable city. Their

  7. A WSN-based tool for urban and industrial fire-fighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De San Bernabe Clemente, Alberto; Martínez-de Dios, José Ramiro; Ollero Baturone, Aníbal

    2012-11-06

    This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

  8. Assessment of the Chernobyl NPP radionuclide distribution at the territory of Kiev industrial-urban agglomeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    Results were presented of the complex of geological-ecological studies conducted in 1991-1992 with the aim of establishment of radionuclide distribution character in the upper part of geologic medium of the Kiev industrial-urban agglomeration (IUA). Soil, vegetative biomass, surface and underground water, atmospheric precipitations, atmospheric moisture were sampled for study. Distributions of 134,137 Cs, 144 Ce, 106 Ru, 238,239,240 Pu, 90 Sr, 3 H were investigated. Environmental contamination levels were compared with the preaccidental values. Anomaly fields of contamination density with radioisotopes of the Kiev IUA were revealed. 3 figs.; 3 tabs

  9. MERCURY IN ATMOSPHERE OVER RURAL, URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL PARTS OF ZAGREB CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Zagreb city encounters severe pollution problems in aquatic, terrrestrial and atmospheric environment. A random or permanent monitoring of some inorganic gaseous pollutants in atmosphere has already been organized and published alsewhere. By means of a sophisticated mercury vapor analyser with a Zeeman effect background corrector, however, continuous registration along two traverses (monitoring routes over rural, urban and industrial parts of Zagreb has been elaborated for the first lime. Data show strong anthropogenic influence in the Žitnjak industrial area. The anomaly high 105 ngm Hg, on the 22 October moved slightly to downtown by change of wind direction on the 31 October. Intensity raised as much as 155 ngm Hg, 13 times augmented in comparison to a background value on the Medvednica mountain. Explanation should be sought in denser public traffic, change of wind direction and lowering of atmospheric pressure.

  10. Adiposity and hypertension associated risk factors in young (<40 yr urban industrial men from Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Prakash Mankar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of hypertension is not only on the rise in urban population, but its precedence is of concern. Aims & Objective: To identify risk factors associated with hypertension among urban young Indian males. (<40yr.  Material & Methods: Young males (<40yr working in Hinjewadi industrial area of Pune, Maharashtra were studied (n=254 for anthropometry, blood pressure and diet, lifestyle, and stress at work. Results: Prevalence of overweight was 72.5% and 48.4 % were obese while 38.2% were centrally obese (WC90. Prevalence of hypertension (HTN was high (25.6% and showed significant association only with BMI.  Non vegetarian diet was a risk factor (OR-1.94;p<0.05 for overweight while lifestyle factors increased risk for obesity (OR-2.1;p<0.05 as also central obesity (OR-1.91;p<0.05.  Among subjects with high BMI, these factors became non-significant and stress alone showed independent influence on HTN (OR-4.43; p<0.05 indicating that their influence was mediated through adiposity. Conclusion: Promoting good dietary practices, healthy lifestyle and better work environment for reducing obesity and consequent risk of NCDs among young urban males is essential in India.

  11. Adiposity and hypertension associated risk factors in young (<40 yr urban industrial men from Pune, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol Prakash Mankar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prevalence of hypertension is not only on the rise in urban population, but its precedence is of concern. Aims & Objective: To identify risk factors associated with hypertension among urban young Indian males. (<40yr.  Material & Methods: Young males (<40yr working in Hinjewadi industrial area of Pune, Maharashtra were studied (n=254 for anthropometry, blood pressure and diet, lifestyle, and stress at work. Results: Prevalence of overweight was 72.5% and 48.4 % were obese while 38.2% were centrally obese (WC90. Prevalence of hypertension (HTN was high (25.6% and showed significant association only with BMI.  Non vegetarian diet was a risk factor (OR-1.94;p<0.05 for overweight while lifestyle factors increased risk for obesity (OR-2.1;p<0.05 as also central obesity (OR-1.91;p<0.05.  Among subjects with high BMI, these factors became non-significant and stress alone showed independent influence on HTN (OR-4.43; p<0.05 indicating that their influence was mediated through adiposity. Conclusion: Promoting good dietary practices, healthy lifestyle and better work environment for reducing obesity and consequent risk of NCDs among young urban males is essential in India.

  12. Annual and seasonal variability of metals and metalloids in urban and industrial soils in Alcalá de Henares (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; Lobo-Bedmar, M C; González-Muñoz, M J

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of urban and industrial soils with trace metals has been recognized as a major concern at local, regional and global levels due to their implication on human health. In this study, concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were determined in soil samples collected in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain) in order to evaluate the annual and seasonal variation in their levels. The results show that the soils of the industrial area have higher metals concentrations than the urban area. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the two principal sources of trace metal contamination, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the urban soils of Alcalá can be attributed to traffic emissions, while As, Ni and Be primarily originated from industrial discharges. The seasonal variation analysis has revealed that the emission sources in the industrial area remain constant with time. However, in urban areas, both emissions and emission pathways significantly increase over time due to ongoing development. Currently, there is no hypothesis that explains the small seasonal fluctuations of trace metals in soils, since there are many factors affecting this. Owing to the fact that urban environments are becoming the human habitat, it would therefore be advisable to monitor metals and metalloids in urban soils because of the potential risks to human health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Complex organic pollutant mixtures originating from industrial and municipal emissions in surface waters of the megacity Jakarta-an example of a water pollution problem in emerging economies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dsikowitzky, Larissa; Hagemann, Lukas; Dwiyitno; Ariyani, Farida; Irianto, Hari Eko; Schwarzbauer, Jan

    2017-12-01

    During the last decades, the global industrial production partly shifted from industrialized nations to emerging and developing countries. In these upcoming economies, the newly developed industrial centers are generally located in densely populated areas, resulting in the discharge of often only partially treated industrial and municipal wastewaters into the surface waters. There is a huge gap of knowledge about the composition of the complex organic pollutant mixtures occurring in such heavily impacted areas. Therefore, we applied a non-target screening to comprehensively assess river pollution in a large industrial area located in the megacity Jakarta. More than 100 structurally diverse organic contaminants were identified, some of which were reported here for the first time as environmental contaminants. The concentrations of paper manufacturing chemicals in river water-for example, of the endocrine-disrupting compound bisphenol A (50-8000 ng L -1 )-were as high as in pure untreated paper industry wastewaters. The non-target screening approach is the adequate tool for the identification of water contaminants in the new global centers of industrial manufacturing-as the first crucial step towards the evaluation of as yet unrecognized environmental risks.

  14. Assessment of Urban Renenewal Studies in the Context of Florence's Old Industrial Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Özlem Aydın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the periphery of the historic city center of Florence, which is a settlement in Middle Italy, considered the symbol of Renaissance period train stations, small scale industrial structures were built under the influence of spread of industrialization in Continental Europe in the 19th century. Industrial buildings whose original functions are being lost nowadays are restricted to examples which started being built in the 18 th century, however, shaped in the 19 th century and were being able to brought until today with the increased industrialization activities in the first half of the 20 th century. The necessity of developing new thoughts aiming to revitalize areas around the city center and to reshape Florence, which witnessed a segmented growth due to increased industrialization in the first half of 20 th century, according to urban planning principles from 1990's onwards has been realized. Within the scope of integrated planning developed in the recent years, old industrial areas located in the historical city center peripheries whose functions have been lost are determined as urban renovation sites. In this study, Old Leopolda Train Station, Fiat Belfiore and Fiat Novoli factory sites as well as renovation/transformation work executed in old slaughter house sites, located in the west border of historical city center of Florence, have been studied with the help of technical surveys, personal interviews or published projects. Two approaches have been encountered when urban renovation projects executed in these areas where mixed-use strategies are adopted are examined. These are:  Preservation of some of the historical structures in the area, and demolition of some to create areas for new uses,  Demolition of all structures in the site to create areas for new uses. Not encountered in Florence, but there also exist renovation examples where almost all structures in the area are preserved. The results of research and observations have

  15. Antioxidant response of three Tillandsia species transplanted to urban, agricultural, and industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Gonzalo M A; Pignata, María Luisa

    2011-10-01

    To evaluate the physiological response of Tillandsia capillaris Ruiz & Pav. f. capillaris, T. recurvata L., and T. tricholepis Baker to different air pollution sources, epiphyte samples were collected from a noncontaminated area in the province of Córdoba (Argentina) and transplanted to a control site as well as three areas categorized according to the presence of agricultural, urban, and industrial (metallurgical and metal-mechanical) emission sources. A foliar damage index (FDI) was calculated with the physiological parameters chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydroperoxyconjugated dienes, sulfur (S) content, and dry weight-to-fresh weight ratio. In addition, electrical conductivity (E-cond), relative water content (RWC), dehydration kinetics (Kin-H(2)O), total phenols (T-phen), soluble proteins (S-prot), and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase were determined. The parameters E-cond, FDI, SOD, RWC, and Kin-H(2)O can serve as suitable indicators of agricultural air pollution for T. tricholepis and T. capillaris, and CAT, Kin-H(2)O, and SOD can do the same for T. recurvata. In addition, MDA, T-phen, and S-prot proved to be appropriate indicators of urban pollution for T. recurvata. Moreover, FDI, E-cond, and SOD for T. recurvata and MDA for T. tricholepis, respectively, could be used to detect deleterious effects of industrial air pollution. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

  16. The power of perception: Health risk attributed to air pollution in an urban industrial neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, S.J.; Cole, D.C.; Krueger, P.; Voorberg, N.; Wakefield, S.

    1999-08-01

    This paper describes a multi-stakeholder process designed to assess the potential health risks associated with adverse air quality in an urban industrial neighborhood. The paper briefly describes the quantitative health risk assessment conducted by scientific experts, with input by a grassroots community group concerned about the impacts of adverse air quality on their health and quality of life. In this case, rather than accept the views of the scientific experts, the community used their powers of perception to advantage by successfully advocating for a professionally conducted community health survey. This survey was designed to document, systematically and rigorously, the health risk perceptions community members associated with exposure to adverse air quality in their neighborhood. This paper describes the instructional and community contexts within which the research is situated as well as the design, administration, analysis, and results of the community health survey administered to 402 households living in an urban industrial neighborhood in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. These survey results served to legitimate the community's concerns about air quality and to help broaden operational definitions of health. In addition, the results of both health risk assessment exercises served to keep issues of air quality on the local political agenda. Implications of these findings for their understanding of the environmental justice process as well as the ability of communities to influence environmental health policy are discussed.

  17. Aerosol pollution in urban and industrialized area under marine influence: physical-chemistry of particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimetz, J.

    2007-12-01

    Harbors for trade are known as highly urbanized and industrialized areas with important maritime, railway and road traffic. Industries are mainly represented by steel, cement works, and oil refineries. The maritime sector is becoming an even larger source of air pollution. Atmospheric NO x , SO 2 , O 3 levels and chemical analysis of airborne particulate matter were monitored in Dunkerque conurbation in 2005 and 2006. This study was included in the IRENI program. In low-pressure conditions, local pollutants are spread out far away the agglomeration, whereas, in high-pressure regimes, the atmospheric stability and sea-breezes allow an accumulation of pollutants over the urban zone. Size-resolved chemical analyses of particulate matter collected as function of the aerodynamic diameter (D a ) were performed. Ions (Na + , NH 4 + , Cl - , NO 3 - , SO 4 2- ), metals (Fe, Zn, Pb, Cd,...) and organic fraction (EC, OC) are associated with sub- or/and super-micron particles. The size, morphology and chemical species of individual particles collected selectively in the 12O 3 , Fe 3 O 4 , PbO,... containing particles emitted in the Dunkerque harbour area and aged sea-salt aerosol particles (NaCl, NaNO 3 ,...) from long range transport of air masses. Thin organic coatings from natural and anthropogenic origin are observed on the particles by ToF-SIMS imaging. (author)

  18. The impact of the energy cost on the competitiveness of the manufacturing industry. A review of the contributions of research in economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordigoni, Mathieu

    2013-01-01

    After a large introduction on the variations of energy prices (in relationship with energy sources, with end users, with competitiveness), on what can be found in the literature on competitiveness in the industry in relationship with energy, and on the current debates on energy prices and energy transition, this report discusses the variations of energy prices among countries and among industrial sectors, outlines that high oil prices threaten more economic growth than competitiveness, notices that countries possessing abundant energy resources tend to be specialised in intensive industries, that energy prices tends to have an important impact on competitiveness in some specific sectors, outlines that shale gases boost the demand of the whole American economy but that the associated competitiveness improvement rather concerns energy intensive sectors, and finally discusses the energy issue at a European level

  19. Industrial activity, gas emissions and environmental urban management. Operative condition's diagnostic of smelting activities in Tandil, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soledad Sosa, Beatriz; Guerrero, Elsa Marcela; Banda Noriega, Roxana

    2013-01-01

    Amongst urban environmental problems, those associated to industry are of particular interest in environmental management. Tandil, a city in Argentina, owes its economic and urban growth to metalworking activity, especially to smelting. Despite the crisis in the sector, activity continues to be the axis of local economic and urban growth. The present research characterizes, in production, operative and environmental terms, local smelting industries and assesses operative conditions of gas emissions management during 2010. There were analyzed 25 industries over 30. The sample was representative of five productive processes: aluminum (Al), aluminum/iron (Al Fe), aluminum/bronze (Al Cu+Sn), aluminum/iron/bronze (Al Fe Cu+Sn), and iron (Fe). The variables analyzed were: primary fusion mater, oven used and industry size. To obtain production data we applied structured interviews, and for industry sizes we used surveys. It was possible to describe the productive prospect of the sector at a local level: for most industries the destination of their production is automotive sector. Taking into account the relation between the size and the type of industry, the aluminum smelting companies are small. Regarding iron industries, all three company sizes are present in the sample and exists a medium size industry that occupies between 51 and 230 employees. The operative conditions and their compliance with current legislation regarding control of gas emissions require to identify monitoring indicators for the melting stage that allow knowing precisely the resulting contaminants and their environmental effects.

  20. Quantifying the Contribution of Urban-Industrial Efficiency and Symbiosis to Deep Decarbonization: Impact of 637 Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswami, A.; Tong, K.; Fang, A.; Lal, R.; Nagpure, A.; Li, Y.; Yu, H.; Jiang, D.; Russell, A. G.; Shi, L.; Chertow, M.; Wang, Y.; Wang, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban activities in China contribute significantly to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to local air pollution-related health risks. Co-location analysis can help inform the potential for energy- and material-exchanges across homes, businesses, infrastructure and industries co-located in cities. Such co-location dependent urban-industrial symbiosis strategies offer a new pathway toward urban energy efficiency and health that have not previously been quantified. Key examples includes the use of waste industrial heat in other co-located industries, and in residential-commercial district heating-cooling systems of cities. To quantify the impact of these strategies: (1) We develop a new data-set of 637 Chinese cities to assess the potential for efficiency and symbiosis across co-located homes, businesses, industries and the energy and construction sectors in the different cities. (2) A multi-scalar urban systems model quantifies trans-boundary CO2 impacts as well as local health benefits of these uniquely urban, co-location-dependent strategies. (3) CO2 impacts are aggregated across the 637 Chinese cities (home to 701 million people) to quantify national CO2 mitigation potential. (4) The local health benefits are modeled specific to each city and mapped geospatially to identify areas where co-benefits between GHG mitigation and health are maximized. Results: A first order conservative analysis of co-location dependent urban symbiosis indicates potential for reducing 6% of China's national total CO2 emissions in a relatively short time period, yielding a new pathway not previously considered in China's energy futures models. The magnitude of these reductions (6%) was similar in magnitude to sector specific industrial, power sector and buildings efficiency strategeies that together contributed 9% CO2 reduction aggregated across the nation. CO2 reductions mapped to the 637 cities ranged from 40,000 premature deaths (avoided) across all cities. These results

  1. Source apportionment of settleable particles in an impacted urban and industrialized region in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Jane Meri; Reis, Neyval Costa; Galvão, Elson Silva; Silveira, Alexsander; Goulart, Elisa Valentim; Lima, Ana Teresa

    2017-09-01

    Settleable particulate matter (SPM), especially coarser particles with diameters greater than 10 μm, has been found culprit of high deposition rates in cities affected by hinterland industrial activities. This is the case of Metropolitan Region of Vitoria (MRV), Espirito Santo, Brazil where industrial facilities are located within the urban sprawl and building constructions are intense. Frequent population complaints to the environmental protection agency (IEMA) throughout the years have triggered monitoring campaigns to determine SPM deposition rates and source apportionment. Eight different locations were monitored throughout the MRV, and SPM was quantified and chemically characterized. Sources profiles were defined either by using US EPA SPECIATE data or by experimental analysis. Atmospheric fallout in the MRV ranged between 2 and 20g/(m 2 30-day), with only one monitoring station ranging from 6-10 g/(m 2 30-day). EC, OC, Fe, Al, and Si were found the main constituents of dry deposition in the region. Source apportionment by the chemical mass balance (CMB) model determined that steel and iron ore pelletizing industries were the main contributor to one of the eight locations whereas resuspension, civil construction, and vehicular sources were also very important contributors to the other stations. Quarries and soil were also considered expressive SPM sources, but at the city periphery. CMB model could differentiate contributions from six industrial source groups: thermoelectric; iron ore, pellet, and pellet furnaces; coal coke and coke oven; sintering, blast furnace, and basic oxygen furnace; and soil, resuspension, and vehicles. However, the CMB model was unable to differentiate between iron ore and pellet stockpiles which are present in both steel and iron ore pelletizing industries. Further characterization of source and SPM might be necessary to aid local authorities in decision-making regarding these two industrial sources.

  2. Transnational Skills Development in Post-Industrial Knowledge Economies: The Case of Luxembourg and The Greater Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Lukas; Gardin, Matias

    2018-01-01

    Luxembourg exhibits strong transnational traits within its skills regime, defying any neat fit with existing educational typologies. It is characterised by its high-skill economy, cross-cultural characteristics, and central location within the European Union. As such, Luxembourg has developed a hybrid strategy of responding to labour market…

  3. Renewing Oregon's Economy: Growing Jobs and Industries through Innovation. A Report from the Oregon Council for Knowledge and Economic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The Oregon Council for Knowledge and Economic Development (OCKED), a collaborative effort among Oregon's higher education institutions, economic development department, and the private sector, is charged with developing strategies to enhance Oregon's economic competitiveness in a knowledge-based, global economy. This report describes the council's…

  4. Dynamic assessment of urban economy-environment-energy system using system dynamics model: A case study in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Desheng; Ning, Shuang

    2018-07-01

    Economic development, accompanying with environmental damage and energy depletion, becomes essential nowadays. There is a complicated and comprehensive interaction between economics, environment and energy. Understanding the operating mechanism of Energy-Environment-Economy model (3E) and its key factors is the inherent part in dealing with the issue. In this paper, we combine System Dynamics model and Geographic Information System to analyze the energy-environment-economy (3E) system both temporally and spatially, which explicitly explore the interaction of economics, energy, and environment and effects of the key influencing factors. Beijing is selected as a case study to verify our SD-GIS model. Alternative scenarios, e.g., current, technology, energy and environment scenarios are explored and compared. Simulation results shows that, current scenario is not sustainable; technology scenario is applicable to economic growth; environment scenario maintains a balanced path of development for long term stability. Policy-making insights are given based on our results and analysis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The Political Economy of Capabilities Accumulation: the Past and Future of Policies for Industrial Development. A Preface

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Cimoli; Giovanni Dosi; Joseph E. Stiglitz

    2008-01-01

    This book is about industrial policies seen as intrinsic fundamental ingredients of all development processes: witness to that, every experience of successful industrialization, ranging from Germany and the USA, almost two centuries ago, all the way to Korea, Taiwan, Brazil, China and India nowadays. The notion of 'industrial policy' is understood here in a quite expansive manner. It comprises policies affecting 'infant industry' support of various kinds, but also trade policies, science and ...

  6. Contribution of the automotive industry to the U.S. economy in 1998 : the nation and its fifty states

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-12-01

    The automotive industry is the largest manufacturing industry in the United States. No other single industry is linked to as much of the U.S. manufacturing or generates as much retail business and employment. The study describes the economic and soci...

  7. Annual and seasonal variability of metals and metalloids in urban and industrial soils in Alcalá de Henares (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peña-Fernández, A.; Lobo-Bedmar, M.C.; González-Muñoz, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of urban and industrial soils with trace metals has been recognized as a major concern at local, regional and global levels due to their implication on human health. In this study, concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were determined in soil samples collected in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain) in order to evaluate the annual and seasonal variation in their levels. The results show that the soils of the industrial area have higher metals concentrations than the urban area. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the two principal sources of trace metal contamination, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the urban soils of Alcalá can be attributed to traffic emissions, while As, Ni and Be primarily originated from industrial discharges. The seasonal variation analysis has revealed that the emission sources in the industrial area remain constant with time. However, in urban areas, both emissions and emission pathways significantly increase over time due to ongoing development. Currently, there is no hypothesis that explains the small seasonal fluctuations of trace metals in soils, since there are many factors affecting this. Owing to the fact that urban environments are becoming the human habitat, it would therefore be advisable to monitor metals and metalloids in urban soils because of the potential risks to human health. - Highlights: • Anthropogenic activities may affect the seasonal metal variation in Alcalá's soils. • Weather characteristics may also influence the seasonal metal variation in soils. • Alcalá's continual urban growth may have increased the levels of metals in its soils. • Metal variability in Alcalá's industrial soils might be dependent on their sources. • High soil metal content might make it difficult to identify temporal variation

  8. Annual and seasonal variability of metals and metalloids in urban and industrial soils in Alcalá de Henares (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peña-Fernández, A. [Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Unidad de Toxicología, Universidad de Alcalá, Crta. Madrid-Barcelona Km, 33.6, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Lobo-Bedmar, M.C. [Instituto Madrileño de Investigación y Desarrollo Rural Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDRA), Finca el Encín, Crta. Madrid-Barcelona Km, 38.2, 28800 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); González-Muñoz, M.J., E-mail: mariajose.gonzalez@uah.es [Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas, Unidad de Toxicología, Universidad de Alcalá, Crta. Madrid-Barcelona Km, 33.6, 28871 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Contamination of urban and industrial soils with trace metals has been recognized as a major concern at local, regional and global levels due to their implication on human health. In this study, concentrations of aluminum (Al), arsenic (As), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), tin (Sn), thallium (Tl), vanadium (V) and zinc (Zn) were determined in soil samples collected in Alcalá de Henares (Madrid, Spain) in order to evaluate the annual and seasonal variation in their levels. The results show that the soils of the industrial area have higher metals concentrations than the urban area. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed that the two principal sources of trace metal contamination, especially Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in the urban soils of Alcalá can be attributed to traffic emissions, while As, Ni and Be primarily originated from industrial discharges. The seasonal variation analysis has revealed that the emission sources in the industrial area remain constant with time. However, in urban areas, both emissions and emission pathways significantly increase over time due to ongoing development. Currently, there is no hypothesis that explains the small seasonal fluctuations of trace metals in soils, since there are many factors affecting this. Owing to the fact that urban environments are becoming the human habitat, it would therefore be advisable to monitor metals and metalloids in urban soils because of the potential risks to human health. - Highlights: • Anthropogenic activities may affect the seasonal metal variation in Alcalá's soils. • Weather characteristics may also influence the seasonal metal variation in soils. • Alcalá's continual urban growth may have increased the levels of metals in its soils. • Metal variability in Alcalá's industrial soils might be dependent on their sources. • High soil metal content might make it difficult to identify temporal variation.

  9. To the fusion of age - economy and ecology of the ring industry revolution; Kankyo kakumei no jidai {approx}ekonomi to ekoroji no yugo he

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akaike, Manabu

    1999-05-31

    What has suddenly been noticed as a keyword of the durable industry creation in which the ecology is made to be compatible with the economy is a philosophy of {sup t}he bio region (the life regionalism){sup .} As the concepts of region management desired at present, the philosophy of bio region which is the thought of the next generation development which I notice at present most roots in the place where selves live, and it aims at uniting with the region. In the reason, it is required that natural resources such as climate, land form, basin, soil, microorganism, flora and fauna, resources that the region has are utilized maximally. (NEDO)

  10. Problems of innovative development of an entrepreneurship in the industry in the conditions of upgrade of Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubetskaya, Natalya; Kosheleva, Tatyana; Kunin, Vladimir

    2017-10-01

    Innovative development of economy is a necessary condition for increase of competitiveness of Russia. Organization change should pass consistently taking into account a strategic target of development of the Russian economy as a whole. The analysis of work of the large innovatively focused corporations has shown that an important direction of formation of system of innovative activity in Russia is development of interaction, integration of large and small enterprise structures, entrepreneurs in the sphere of transportation, transportation or energy companies and educational institutions in this sphere. Stopping development threatens the organization with the stagnation, therefore each organization the plans for development directed on formation of competitive advantages of the transportation or energy company - strategy are developed. The work offers guidelines for managing the modernization of the educational process. Formulates the stages of organizational changes in the educational business organizations. Recommendations for formation in the educational enterprise structures matrix management innovation are given.

  11. Industrial related contamination of peri-urban fresh vegetables. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bansa, D.

    2003-01-01

    Major industries as pollution sources include aluminium smelting and processing, petroleum refining and processing, steel works, manufacturing of dry cell batteries, cement. Vegetables considered are cabbage, carrot, lettuce, onion and Sweet pepper . Areas used for cultivation are backyard gardens, along drains, walkways, and streets. Urban markets Vegetables are liable to contamination from pollutants emitted into the environment. MAIN OBJECTIVES: Determine the extent to which toxic element levels in foods are affected by surrounding industrial activities, Assess the human exposure to such contaminated foodstuffs. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES: Monitor As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Se, Sn and Mo in vegetables grown in the Tema Municipal District, due to pollution from industrial activity, Assess human exposure to such contaminated foods through monitoring of the distribution and marketing channels. METHODS: Identify sampling areas within the Tema municipality including (a) Identification of the growers and their marketing outlets and (b) Identifying the sources of water used for cultivation by means of a questionnaire; Quantify the level of toxic elements in the soil and water bodies used for the cultivation of vegetables, using nuclear and related analytical techniques; Analyse foods from the farms at the selected sampling areas using neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis

  12. Experimenting with alternative economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longhurst, Noel; Avelino, Flor; Wittmayer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Neoliberalism is a powerful narrative that has shaped processes of urban economic development across the globe. This paper reports on four nascent ‘new economic’ narratives which represent fundamentally different imaginaries of the urban economy. Experiments informed by these narratives challenge...... the dominant neoliberal logic in four key dimensions: What is the purpose of economic development? What are the preferred distributive mechanisms? Who governs the economy? What is the preferred form of economic organisation? The emergence of these experiments illustrates that cities are spaces where counter...

  13. Source and chemical species characterization of PM10 and human health risk assessment of semi-urban, urban and industrial areas of West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Suraj; Rabha, Rumi; Chowdhury, Mallika; Padhy, Pratap Kumar

    2018-09-01

    Levels of particulate matter of size ten micron (PM 10 ) in outdoor air, potential PM 10 -bound seven metals - manganese, zinc, cadmium, lead, copper, nickel and cobalt - and twelve water-soluble organic and inorganic ionic components - fluoride, acetate, chloride, nitrite, bromide, nitrate, phosphate, sulfate, oxalate, sodium, potassium and calcium - were investigated during two different season. Atmospheric PM 10 samples were collected concurrently from three different sites, i.e., Durgapur (Industrial), Berhampore (Urban) and Bolpur (Semi-urban), West Bengal, India, during summer (April-June 2014) and winter (December 2014-February 2015). Average PM 10 levels were found to be in the range of 189.58-219.96 μg/m 3 at the semi-urban site, 293.41-324.27 μg/m 3 at the urban site and 316.93-344.69 μg/m 3 at the industrial site during summer and winter season respectively. Data on metals and water soluble ions were analyzed statistically (Principal Component Analysis and Factor Analysis) for their source identification and apportionment in the study areas. Principle component analysis models, from three different sites, identified four different factors which share common sources, viz., soil & road re-suspension, motor vehicle and traffic, waste dumping, biomass aerosols, and construction. The pollution load and health risk assessments of selected metals were undertaken in three different sites, within children and adults of the study areas, and were found to be within the safe range. Furthermore, an attempt has also been made to provide basic information on pollution, their sources and exposure pathways for humans in the vicinity of semi-urban, urban and industrial regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Sustainable Development of China’s Industrial Economy: An Empirical Study of the Period 2001–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijun Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the implications of continued industrial economic growth on environmental pollution in China in order to inform strategic policies to achieve sustainable development of the industrial sector. We calculate green total factor productivity (TFP for each industrial sector by estimating the Global Malmquist-Luenberger (GML index using a Slacks-based Measure Directional Distance Function (SBM-DDF. We find that the green TFP increased at an average annual rate of approximately 6% over the 11-year period. A slightly greater portion of this growth is attributable to technological progress (57% rather than technical efficiency (43%. To investigate the relationship between industrial economic growth and pollutant levels, we first adopt a hierarchical clustering procedure to group all industrial sectors into green-intensive, intermediate and extensive clusters based on the contribution of green TFP to industrial economic growth within respective industries. Based on an econometric estimation of the relationship between pollutant levels and industrial GDP per capita, we find clear evidence in favor of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC theory only with wastewater as the primary pollutant of interest and only with industrial sectors that are already relatively pollution intensive. We find no evidence in support of the EKC theory when sulfur dioxide or solid waste is the pollutant of major concern. In general, blindly accelerating industrial economic growth will likely worsen environmental quality, unless reasonable environmental policy interventions are implemented.

  15. The Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avital, Michel; Carroll, John M.; Hjalmarsson, Anders

    2015-01-01

    The sharing economy is spreading rapidly worldwide in a number of industries and markets. The disruptive nature of this phenomenon has drawn mixed responses ranging from active conflict to adoption and assimilation. Yet, in spite of the growing attention to the sharing economy, we still do not know...... much about it. With the abundant enthusiasm about the benefits that the sharing economy can unleash and the weekly reminders about its dark side, further examination is required to determine the potential of the sharing economy while mitigating its undesirable side effects. The panel will join...... the ongoing debate about the sharing economy and contribute to the discourse with insights about how digital technologies are critical in shaping this turbulent ecosystem. Furthermore, we will define an agenda for future research on the sharing economy as it becomes part of the mainstream society as well...

  16. Fundamentals of the power economy law. The liberalization of the power industry and gas industry. 3. ed.; Grundzuege des Energiewirtschaftsrechts. Die Liberalisierung der Strom- und Gaswirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theobald, Christian [Sozietaet Becker Buettner Held, Berlin (Germany); Deutsche Univ. fuer Verwaltungswissenschaften, Speyer (Germany); Nill-Theobald, Christiane [TheobaldConsulting, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-11-01

    The authors show how the legal reform leading to the deregulation of the electricity and gas supply grids has created true freedom of choice for customers as well as a practicable means of managing grid access for energy suppliers. They address recent developments following from the energy turnaround as well CO{sub 2} emission regulations and trading. Ultimately all private and governmental players of the energy economy are affected. The present fully revised, richly illustrated third edition of this fundamental publication gives an introduction into the large body of already known as well as into new issues of energy economy law, including: fundamentals of the energy sector; key points of the energy turnaround; purchase and sale of electricity and gas; regulatory regime; unbundling; terms of governmental regulation; surveillance of the energy sector; anti-trust and competition law; issues of environmental protection and energy efficiency; renewable energies; cogeneration law; ecotax legislation; consumer protection; and emission trade.

  17. SFW-Funk process for gasification of solid urban and industrial waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummelsiep, H; Heinrich, F

    1982-01-01

    It was the purpose of the R+D-project, to develop the SFW-Funk process for gasification of solid urban and industrial waste for commercial plants. On the base of a literature study and some experiments on a laboratory plant, a demonstration plant was designed and built. The test runs can be divided into two sections. During the first, problems of the enlarging of the plant were examined and solved. In the second section, gasification tests where run under several conditions. During the period of run, different input-materials (domestic waste of different composition, grain size and closeners of grain, rubber and wood) were gasified at varying operating conditions (composition, quantity and constitution of the oxidant) with good results. The experiments showed, that, unless the reactor was optimized during the period of run, it is possible to optimize some further elements of the gasification plant.

  18. A WSN-Based Tool for Urban and Industrial Fire-Fighting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Ollero Baturone

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a WSN tool to increase safety in urban and industrial fire-fighting activities. Unlike most approaches, we assume that there is no preexisting WSN in the building, which involves interesting advantages but imposes some constraints. The system integrates the following functionalities: fire monitoring, firefighter monitoring and dynamic escape path guiding. It also includes a robust localization method that employs RSSI-range models dynamically trained to cope with the peculiarities of the environment. The training and application stages of the method are applied simultaneously, resulting in significant adaptability. Besides simulations and laboratory tests, a prototype of the proposed system has been validated in close-to-operational conditions.

  19. Trace elements of concern affecting urban agriculture in industrialized areas: A multivariate approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boente, C; Matanzas, N; García-González, N; Rodríguez-Valdés, E; Gallego, J R

    2017-09-01

    The urban and peri-urban soils used for agriculture could be contaminated by atmospheric deposition or industrial releases, thus raising concerns about the potential risk to public health. Here we propose a method to evaluate potential soil pollution based on multivariate statistics, geostatistics (kriging), a novel soil pollution index, and bioavailability assessments. This approach was tested in two districts of a highly populated and industrialized city (Gijón, Spain). The soils showed anomalous content of several trace elements, such as As and Pb (up to 80 and 585 mg kg -1 respectively). In addition, factor analyses associated these elements with anthropogenic activity, whereas other elements were attributed to natural sources. Subsequent clustering also facilitated the differentiation between the northern area studied (only limited Pb pollution found) and the southern area (pattern of coal combustion, including simultaneous anomalies of trace elements and benzo(a)pyrene). A normalized soil pollution index (SPI) was calculated by kriging, using only the elements falling above threshold levels; therefore point-source polluted zones in the northern area and diffuse contamination in the south were identified. In addition, in the six mapping units with the highest SPIs of the fifty studied, we observed low bioavailability for most of the elements that surpassed the threshold levels. However, some anomalies of Pb contents and the pollution fingerprint in the central area of the southern grid call for further site-specific studies. On the whole, the combination of a multivariate (geo) statistic approach and a bioavailability assessment allowed us to efficiently identify sources of contamination and potential risks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Temporal Variation of Ambient PM10 Concentration within an Urban-Industrial Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yoon-Keaw; Noor, Norazian Mohamed; Izzah Mohamad Hashim, Nur

    2018-03-01

    PM10 concentration in the ambient air has been reported to be the main pollutant affecting human health, particularly in the urban areas. This research is conducted to study the variation of PM10 concentration at the three urban-industrial areas in Malaysia, namely Shah Alam, Kuala Terengganu and Melaka. In addition, the association and correlation between PM10 concentration and other air pollutants will be distinguished. Five years interval dataset (2008-2012) consisting of PM10, SOX, NOX and O3 concentrations and other weather parameters such as wind speed, humidity and temperature were obtained from Department of Environment, Malaysia. Shah Alam shows the highest average of PM10 concentration with the value of 62.76 μg/m3 in June, whereas for Kuala Terengganu was 59.29 μg/m3 in February and 46.61 μg/m3 in August for Melaka. Two peaks were observed from the time series plot using the averaged monthly PM10 concentration. First peak occurs when PM10 concentration rises from January to February and the second peak is reached in June and remain high for the next two consecutive months for Shah Alam and Kuala Terengganu. Meanwhile the second peak for Melaka is only achieved in August as a result of the transboundary of smoke from forest fires in the Sumatra region during dry season from May to September. Both of the pollutants can be sourced from rapid industrial activities at Shah Alam. PM10 concentration is strongly correlated with carbon monoxide concentration in Kuala Terengganu and Melaka with value of r2 = 0.1725 and 0.2744 respectively. High carbon monoxide and PM10 concentration are associated with burning of fossil fuel from increased number of vehicles at these areas.

  1. Removal of metals from industrial wastewater and urban runoff by mineral and bio-based sorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Harshita; Leiviskä, Tiina; Heiderscheidt, Elisangela; Postila, Heini; Tanskanen, Juha

    2018-03-01

    The study was performed to evaluate chemically modified biosorbents, hydrochloric acid treated peat (HCl-P) and citric acid treated sawdust (Citric acid-SD) for their metal removal capacity from dilute industrial wastewater and urban runoff and compare their efficiency with that of commercially available mineral sorbents (AQM PalPower M10 and AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite). Batch and column experiments were conducted using real water samples to assess the sorbents' metal sorption capacity. AQM PalPower M10 (consisting mainly of magnesium, iron and silicon oxides) exhibited excellent Zn removal from both industrial wastewater and spiked runoff water samples even at low dosages (0.1 g/L and 0.05 g/L, respectively). The high degree of Zn removal was associated with the release of hydroxyl ions from the sorbent and subsequent precipitation of zinc hydroxide. The biosorbents removed Ni and Cr better than AQM PalPower M10 from industrial wastewater and performed well in removing Cr and Cu from spiked runoff water, although at higher dosages (0.3-0.75 g/L). The main mechanism of sorption by biosorbents was ion exchange. The sorbents required a short contact time to reach equilibrium (15-30 min) in both tested water samples. AQM PalPower T5M5 magnetite was the worst performing sorbent, leaching Zn into both industrial and runoff water and Ni into runoff water. Column tests revealed that both HCl-P and AQM PalPower M10 were able to remove metals, although some leaching was witnessed, especially As from AQM PalPower M10. The low hydraulic conductivity observed for HCl-P may restrict the possibilities of using such small particle size peat material in a filter-type passive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Implementation of new legislative measures on industrial risks prevention and control in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahen, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Incompatible at first sight, but vital to each other, the industry and the city have been developing a complex relationship for decades. From 1810 on in France, risk prevention and control in and around major industrial sites evolves step-by-step, learning from accidents. Land-use planning in the vicinity of SEVESO establishments becomes one of the key policies in the prevention of major industrial accident hazard on European level in 1996, focussing on historical situation of concern [M.D. Christou, S. Porter, Guidance on Land-use Planning as required by the Council Directive 96/82/EC. Joint Research Centre, European Commission, 1999]. The Toulouse (F) accidents, on 21 September 2001 evidenced the need for new tools to reinforce protective action and ease the situation of clusters of factories engulfed in the urban setting. In France, new legislative measures adopted on 30 July 2003 deeply modified the approach to land-use planning around the main dangerous facilities (622 establishments). The implementation of technological risk prevention plans [Fr. 'PPRT'] will limit the exposition of the population to the consequences of accidents. These plans, derived from the risk assessment (safety reports) produced by the operators of the hazardous facilities, will delineate areas within which requirements can be imposed on existing and future buildings and within which future building rights may be restricted. On the grounds of extremely serious danger that threatens human life, pre-existing constructions may be progressively expropriated. The financing of the corresponding measures, estimated a rough -bar 2-4 billions, will be defined by agreements among the Central Government, the industrial company and the local and regional bodies

  3. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiu; Yu, Jian; Li, Li; Li, Linlin; Li, Long; Zhou, Jie; Chen, Quan

    2018-01-01

    Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI). The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011–2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules. PMID:29677160

  4. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiu Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI. The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011–2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules.

  5. Simulation Analysis of China’s Energy and Industrial Structure Adjustment Potential to Achieve a Low-carbon Economy by 2020

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Xiang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve a low-carbon economy, China has committed to reducing its carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions per unit of gross domestic product (GDP by 40%–45% by 2020 from 2005 levels and increasing the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to approximately 15%. It is necessary to investigate whether this plan is suitable and how this target may be reached. This paper verifies the feasibility of achieving the CO2 emission targets by energy and industrial structure adjustments, and proposes applicable measures for further sustainable development by 2020 through comprehensive simulation. The simulation model comprises three sub-models: an energy flow balance model, a CO2 emission model, and a socio-economic model. The model is constructed based on input-output table and three balances (material, value, and energy flow balance, and it is written in LINGO, a linear dynamic programming language. The simulation results suggest that China’s carbon intensity reduction promise can be realized and even surpassed to 50% and that economic development (annual 10% GDP growth rate can be achieved if energy and industrial structure are adjusted properly by 2020. However, the total amount of CO2 emission will reach a relatively high level—13.68 billion tons—which calls for further sound approaches to realize a low carbon economy, such as energy utilization efficiency improvement, technology innovation, and non-fossil energy’s utilization.

  6. An Empirical Study of the Impact of the Air Transportation Industry Energy Conservation and Emission Reduction Projects on the Local Economy in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuxiu; Yu, Jian; Li, Li; Li, Linlin; Li, Long; Zhou, Jie; Tsai, Sang-Bing; Chen, Quan

    2018-04-20

    Green development has been of particular interest to a range of industries worldwide, one of which being the air transportation industry (ATI). The energy conservation and emission reduction (ECER) projects of the ATI have a huge impact on the local economy. In this study, the input-output method was used to analyze the indirect economic impact of the implementation of the ECER projects of the ATI on the local economy of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) region. We examined the direct benefits, backward spread effects, forward spread effects, and consumption multiplier effects. The final results showed that the comprehensive economic income from 2011⁻2013 in the BTH region reached RMB 4.74 billion. The results revealed that the ECER projects commissioned by the ATI were worth investing from both the economic and social benefits perspectives. To increase the green development effects and promote the sustainable development of the ATI, the special funds provided by the Civil Aviation Administration of China should be invested intensively in basic green technology research and setting green regulating and governance rules.

  7. Economia criativa e trabalho imaterial: a indústria da moda sob uma perspectiva informacional | Creative economy and immaterial labour: the fashion industry under an informational perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Sibylla Pires

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Resumo Este artigo visa refletir sobre a construção de identidades de marca na economia criativa a partir das dinâmicas informacionais de seus atores. Propõe um modelo de análise baseado em uma nova metáfora organizacional e na opção por uma abordagem em diferentes níveis daquela dinâmica. Demonstra sua aplicabilidade a partir do exemplo de uma empresa atuante na indústria da moda. Palavras-chave: economia criativa; trabalho imaterial; indústria da moda; centrais de criatividade; dinâmicas informacionais. Abstract This article aims to reflect on the development of brand identities in the creative economy from the point of view of its actors’ informational dynamics. It proposes a model of analysis based on a new organizational metaphor and on a multi-level approach to that dynamic. It also demonstrates its applicability using the example of an active company in the fashion industry. Keywords: creative economy; immaterial labour; fashion industry; creativity centrals; informational dynamics.

  8. Economy wide emission impacts of carbon and energy tax in electricity supply industry: A case study on Sri Lanka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siriwardena, K.; Wijayatunga, P.D.C.; Fernando, W.J.L.S.; Shrestha, R.M.; Attalage, R.A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results and analysis of a study conducted with the objective of investigating the impact on economy wide emissions due to carbon and energy taxes levied within the electricity generation sector of Sri Lanka. This exercise is mainly based on the input-output table developed by the national planning department. An input-output decomposition technique is used to analyze four types of effects that contribute to the overall reduction in equivalent carbon, NO x and SO 2 emissions. These four effects are: fuel mix effect (i.e. the change in emissions due to variation I fuel mix), structural effect (i.e. change in emissions due to changes in technological coefficients with taxes compared to that without taxes), final demand effect (i.e. the change in emissions associated with changes in final demand) and joint effect (i.e. the interactive effect between or among the fuel mix, structural and final demand effects). The polluting fuel sources and low energy efficiency generation technologies are less preferred under these tax regimes. Of the four effects, a change in fuel mix in thermal electricity generation and a change final demand for electricity were found to be the main contributors in achieving economy wide emission reductions. It was found in the analysis that a minimum of US$ 50/tC tax or US$ 1.0/MBtu of energy tax is required to have a significant impact on economy wide emissions in the Sri Lankan context. This translates into an overall increase in electricity generation cost of approximately USCts 0.9 kW -1 h -1 and USCts 0.6 kW -1 h -1 under the carbon and energy tax regimes, respectively. The reduction in emissions is also strongly coupled with the value of the price elasticity of electricity

  9. The effect of sewage urban and industrial sludge on the development of wheat and colza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasoued, Najla; Bilal, Essaid; Rejeb, Saloua; Guénole-Bilal, Issam; Rejeb, Nejib

    2013-04-01

    The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of two types of sludge from sewage treatment urban and industrial plants on the wheat and colza. These sludge is made at different doses (5, 25, 50 and 100 t / ha). We are therefore interested in the growth and absorption of heavy metals by plants and follow the fate of the latter in the ground to prevent pollution events and toxicity. The soil is characterized by an alkaline pH; conductivity ranging from 1.06 to 1.52mmho/cm resulting low salinity and soil saturation is between 30.4 and 31.8ml/100g. The sand is the most representative size fraction in this soil which is a sandy loam soil texture. The percentages of limestone in the different horizons are less than 5% so it is a non-calcareous soil, with organic matter content very low. Contents of total nitrogen are relatively low. The C/N ratio is about 7 at the first horizon (0-10cm) indicates that organic matter will be quickly mineralized. The mean levels of heavy metals found in the soil are organized in the following order: Fe >> Mn> Zn> Pb> Cu> Ni> Co> Cd mean concentrations of heavy metals introduced by the sludge. With the addition of sludge, there is a parallel increase in the number of ears and an increased number of grains per m². The ears and grains also increases with increasing dose of sludge, whatever the type of sludge made. The increase in the number of grains with the addition of sludge has the consequence of decrease in PMG this can be explained by the decrease in weight and grain quality response to stress. The numbers of feet of wheat increases dice the contribution of 5t/ha sludge, this increase is more pronounced with the addition of urban sludge. The leaf area increases with the contribution of sludge as well as for urban or industrial sludge's. The leaf surface of this crop varies between 15.77cm2 of the oldest leaf to 3.78cm2 for the youngest leaf in the control soil. The leaf surface increases by 10cm² for 5BI and 11cm² 5BU

  10. Review of urban and industrial air quality. Assessments at the Finnish meteorological institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, V.; Pesonen, R.; Karstastenpaeae, R.; Rantakrans, E.; Kukkonen, J.; Jokinen, J.; Maekinen, E.; Saari, H.; Hiltunen, V. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Air quality in urban and industrial environments has been investigated at the Finnish Meteorological Institute since the early 1970`s. The studies have included emission surveys, air quality measurements, dispersion model computations and bioindicator surveys A substantial fraction of these studies has been done as commissioned work for communities, public institutions, industrial establishments and private enterprises Major resources have also been committed to the development of methods and expertise. The studies in the 1970` s were mainly dispersion model computations and air pollution measurements In the 1980`s research activities increased rapidly due to the national Clean Air Act (coming into force in 1982) and the adoption of national ambient air quality standards (1984). Since the year 1980. About 90 separate air pollution assessments have been conducted; and model computations have been made for most Finnish cities and major communities In many of the surveys in the 1980` s and the 1990`s. Integrated studies of local air quality, which contain the results obtained with emission surveys, dispersion model computations, air quality measurements and bioindicator methods have been conducted. This integrated approach provides more versatile and reliable results on the state of the environment. For instance, the reliability and accuracy of computations can be directly analysed using simultaneous air quality measurements. An overview of the experimental and computational methods used in the air quality surveys is presented here. To illustrate the application of the methods, some selected results from an air quality investigation conducted in a major city in central Finland are discussed. (author)

  11. Risk assessment of hazardous impacts on urbanization and industrialization activities based upon toxic substances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Salem

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A risk assessment study was conducted to predict the expected hazardous influence on the ecosystem resulted from urbanization and industrialization activities at Helwan area, Egypt. To achieve these goals, soils, plants and water samples were collected from Helwan area, and their total concentrations of inorganic contaminants (Cd, Cr, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn and organic pollutants; such as Phenol and hydrocarbons were measured. The obtained results showed that, the concentrations of organic contaminants in water streams and surrounding soils recorded high concentration values than the permissible limits, while inorganic elements were within the safe limits for irrigation. In addition, soils irrigated with the effluents of industrial units recorded high values of inorganic and organic contaminants. Consequently, the levels of these contaminants were high in plant tissues grown thereon; especially the edible parts. Risk assessment based on available Predicted No Effect Concentration values for the aquatic and terrestrial environment was performed. Inorganic elements were expected to cause serious hazard problems for both aquatic organisms and soil microorganisms. The impact of these pollutants on human health was calculated using daily metals intake of inorganic metals via consumption of edible plants. Hazard index values proved that concentrations of Cr may cause serious hazard problems for humans in this area; especially, children.

  12. Review of urban and industrial air quality. Assessments at the Finnish meteorological institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohjola, V; Pesonen, R; Karstastenpaeae, R; Rantakrans, E; Kukkonen, J; Jokinen, J; Maekinen, E; Saari, H; Hiltunen, V [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-12-31

    Air quality in urban and industrial environments has been investigated at the Finnish Meteorological Institute since the early 1970`s. The studies have included emission surveys, air quality measurements, dispersion model computations and bioindicator surveys A substantial fraction of these studies has been done as commissioned work for communities, public institutions, industrial establishments and private enterprises Major resources have also been committed to the development of methods and expertise. The studies in the 1970` s were mainly dispersion model computations and air pollution measurements In the 1980`s research activities increased rapidly due to the national Clean Air Act (coming into force in 1982) and the adoption of national ambient air quality standards (1984). Since the year 1980. About 90 separate air pollution assessments have been conducted; and model computations have been made for most Finnish cities and major communities In many of the surveys in the 1980` s and the 1990`s. Integrated studies of local air quality, which contain the results obtained with emission surveys, dispersion model computations, air quality measurements and bioindicator methods have been conducted. This integrated approach provides more versatile and reliable results on the state of the environment. For instance, the reliability and accuracy of computations can be directly analysed using simultaneous air quality measurements. An overview of the experimental and computational methods used in the air quality surveys is presented here. To illustrate the application of the methods, some selected results from an air quality investigation conducted in a major city in central Finland are discussed. (author)

  13. The Digital Games Industry and its Direct and Indirect Impact on the Economy. Case study: Supercell and Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Santasärkkä, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    The games industry was established in the 1970s when Atari introduced arcade video games. The mobile gaming segment was born in 2007 after Apple released the first iPhone. Even though the digital games industry is relatively new, it has established a permanent role in the entertainment industry, growing faster than the TV, music, movies, and book publishing business. The global games market was valued 99,6 billion US dollars in 2016 and it is projected to continue growing in the future, drive...

  14. The effect of urbanization and industrialization on carbon emissions in Turkey: evidence from ARDL bounds testing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pata, Ugur Korkut

    2018-03-01

    This paper examines the dynamic short- and long-term relationship between per capita GDP, per capita energy consumption, financial development, urbanization, industrialization, and per capita carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions within the framework of the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis for Turkey covering the period from 1974 to 2013. According to the results of the autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach, an increase in per capita GDP, per capita energy consumption, financial development, urbanization, and industrialization has a positive effect on per capita CO 2 emissions in the long term, and also the variables other than urbanization increase per capita CO 2 emissions in the short term. In addition, the findings support the validity of the EKC hypothesis for Turkey in the short and long term. However, the turning points obtained from long-term regressions lie outside the sample period. Therefore, as the per capita GDP increases in Turkey, per capita CO 2 emissions continue to increase.

  15. THE ROLE AND IMPORTANCE OF THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY IN THE NATIONAL ECONOMY OF THE REPUBLIC OF MACEDONIA: SHARE OF GDP, EXPORTS AND EMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Veselinova

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is the analysis of the role of the textile industry in the national economy of the Republic of Macedonia. The main objective is to consider what determines the actual structure in this particular industry and how it affects the national economic categories, such as: the gross domestic product, exports and the level of employment. The research resultspresent that more than one third of the total exports, as well as more than one third of the employed population in the manufacturing sector accounted for the textile industry, but this industry creates only 3% of the national GDP. Conclusions reveal that the above mentioned statistics is due to the very low level of additional value among all the products that consist this industry’s exports. It is expected that the developed countrieswould tend to keep the creative activities of the manufacturing process in their own terms and transfer the basic production activities in other less developed countries. But the textile companies from the countries in the South-East Europe (among which is the Republic of Macedonia could play the role of a bridge between the modern textile brands and the niche producers in MiddleandFar East.

  16. Introduction Of Techno-Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Woo Hui

    2001-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of science, technology and techno-economy, invention and science and technology in the Twenty-First century, theory and model of technological innovation, technology and economy technology and industry, technology and business, spread and transfer of technique, technology and international economy, science, technique and culture, science, technology and government, development of technology in Korea and developing countries, and conclusion on the past and the future of techno-economy.

  17. Heavy Metal Contamination in Urban Soils II Comparison of Urban Park Soils Between Two Cities with Different City and Industrial Activities

    OpenAIRE

    KOMAI, Yutaka

    1981-01-01

    A comparative investigation on the state of heavy metal contamination in park soils of two cities with different city and industrial activities was carried out. Sakai and Kishiwada, both situated in southern Osaka Prefecture, were chosen as the investigated cities which had similar natural conditions but different human activities. Park soils were regarded as suitable sites for the investigation of heavy metal problem in urban environments. Samples were taken at 34 parks distributed widely in...

  18. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...... localities of tourism Greg Richards 11.Collaborative economy and destination marketing organizations: A systems approach Jonathan Day 12.Working within the Collaborative Tourist Economy: The complex crafting of work and meaning Jane Widtfeldt Meged and Mathilde Dissing Christensen PART - III Encounters...

  19. Preferential treatment in transition economy the case of state-owned enterprises in the textile and garment industry in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Knutsen, Hege Merete; Nguyen, Cuong Manh

    2004-01-01

    The article examines the role and contribution of preferential treatment of state enterprises to growth in the textile and garment industry. State enterprises are still the largest single sector in the textile and garment industry in Vietnam, but are losing market shares to private Vietnamese enterprises and foreign-owned enterprises despite the benefits that they enjoy. However, in the present context of economic transition and keen competition in the global market, well-managed state enterp...

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with particles in ambient air from urban and industrial areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehwagen, Martina; Mueller, Andrea; Herbarth, Olf [UFZ-Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Department of Human Exposure Research and Epidemiology, Permoserstr. 15, D 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Massolo, Laura; Ronco, Alicia [CIMA Centro de Investigaciones del Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 8 Calle 47 y 115, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2005-09-15

    This study takes into consideration an analysis of the chemical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) profile and its distribution in inhalable and respirable particulate matter in urban and industrial areas in La Plata, Argentina, and Leipzig, Germany. Representative samples from three locations in La Plata (industrial, traffic influenced and control area) and two locations in Leipzig (traffic influenced and control area) were obtained in summer and winter. The sampling of particulate matter was carried out with high volume collectors using cascade impactors to separate six size fractions. PAHs were extracted with hexane through a solid-liquid equilibrium extraction and analysed by HPLC/UV/fluorescence detection. The results showed a PAH seasonal behaviour in both regions, with lower contents in summer and higher ones in winter. Highest concentrations of total PAHs were found in the industrial area in La Plata. The size distribution of particles demonstrates the greater relevance of smaller particles. More than 50% of PAHs were associated with particles of less than 0.49 {mu}m. Moreover, this particle size fraction was associated with traffic, whereas other sources of combustion were related also to particles between 0.49 and 0.95 {mu}m. Considering the ratio of benzo(ghi)perylene (BgP)/benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) as an indicator for traffic influence, it was observed that La Plata City was more affected than Leipzig by the same proportion in summer and in winter. The BgP/InP (indeno(123-cd)pyrene) ratio was lower in winter than in summer in both places and indicates the presence of domestic combustion sources. It is important to point out the significance of using fingerprint compound ratios to identify possible sources of pollution with PAHs bound to particles.

  1. What role does the real estate–construction sector play in China's regional economy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Honghao; Folmer, Henk; van der Vlist, Arno J.

    2014-01-01

    Urbanization, industrialization and real estate reform have led to a vast growth of the real estate–construction sector in China. Using the 2002 and 2007 provincial input–output tables, this paper examines the importance of the real estate–construction sector in the Chinese economy by applying the

  2. Comparative study of the growth and carbon sequestration potential of Bermuda grass in industrial and urban areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usman Ali

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is a global phenomenon occurring throughout the world. Greenhouse gases (GHGs especially carbon dioxide (CO2 considered to be the major culprit to bring these changes. So, carbon (C sequestration by any mean could be useful to reduce the CO2 level in atmosphere. Turf grasses have the ability to sequester C and minimize the effects of GHGs on the environment. In order to study that how turf grasses can help in C sequestration, Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon was grown both at industrial and urban location and its effect on C storage were assessed by soil and plant analysis. Dry deposition of ammonium and nitrate was maximum at both locations through the year. However wet deposition was highest during the months of high rainfall. It was examined through soil analysis that soil organic matter, soil C and nitrogen in both locations increased after second mowing of grass. However, soil pH 6.68 in urban and 7.00 in industrial area and EC 1.86 dS/m in urban and 1.90 dS/m in industrial area decreased as the grass growth continue. Soil fresh weight (27.6 g in urban and (27.28 g industrial area also decreased after first and second mowing of grass. The C levels in plant dry biomass also increased which showed improved ability of plant to uptake C from the soil and store it. Similarly, chlorophyll contents were more in industrial area compared to urban area indicates the positive impact of high C concentration. Whereas stomatal conductance was reduced in high C environment to slow down respiration process. Hence, from present study it can be concluded that the Bermuda grass could be grown in areas with high C concentration in atmosphere for sequestrating C in soil.

  3. A study about the prevalence and the related factors of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver comparing the urban area to tbe industrial area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hyo Eun; Cho, Pyong Kon [Dept. of of Radiological Science, Catholic University of Daegu. Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    As the tertiary industry is being developed, many problems are introduced in an industrial area in Korea. This study aims to investigate the residents' health conditions, such as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography, comparing the urban with the industrial areas. The subjects were 378 adults in the urban area and 376 adults in the industrial area. Subject variables accounted for were gender, age, drinking habits, smoking habits, physical activities, waist circumferences and BMI. In blood tests, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL, blood pressures, total cholesterol, AST, ALT and GGT were examined. Also, the presence and absence of fatty liver, diagnosed using ultrasonography, was investigated. As a result, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome were 43.7% in the urban area and 51.6% in the industrial area, hence it was significantly higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and waist circumference in the distribution of the individual components were 47.4, 53.7, and 16.1% in the urban area and 54.5, 61.5, and 22.9% in the industrial area respectively, so it was substantially higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. On the other hand, HDL, diastolic blood pressure, and fatty liver were 25.7, 43.4, and 44.7% in the urban area and 21.3, 19.9, and 36.7% in the industrial area respectively and thus it was much higher in the urban area than in the industrial area. In conclusion, this study shows that there were significant differences between the residents' health condition, comparing the urban area to the industrial area. Therefore, the precaution and aggressive management of metabolic syndrome may be necessary, in accordance with the characteristics of the industrial zone.

  4. A study about the prevalence and the related factors of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver comparing the urban area to tbe industrial area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hyo Eun; Cho, Pyong Kon

    2016-01-01

    As the tertiary industry is being developed, many problems are introduced in an industrial area in Korea. This study aims to investigate the residents' health conditions, such as the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and fatty liver diagnosed by ultrasonography, comparing the urban with the industrial areas. The subjects were 378 adults in the urban area and 376 adults in the industrial area. Subject variables accounted for were gender, age, drinking habits, smoking habits, physical activities, waist circumferences and BMI. In blood tests, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, HDL, blood pressures, total cholesterol, AST, ALT and GGT were examined. Also, the presence and absence of fatty liver, diagnosed using ultrasonography, was investigated. As a result, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome were 43.7% in the urban area and 51.6% in the industrial area, hence it was significantly higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and waist circumference in the distribution of the individual components were 47.4, 53.7, and 16.1% in the urban area and 54.5, 61.5, and 22.9% in the industrial area respectively, so it was substantially higher in the industrial area than in the urban area. On the other hand, HDL, diastolic blood pressure, and fatty liver were 25.7, 43.4, and 44.7% in the urban area and 21.3, 19.9, and 36.7% in the industrial area respectively and thus it was much higher in the urban area than in the industrial area. In conclusion, this study shows that there were significant differences between the residents' health condition, comparing the urban area to the industrial area. Therefore, the precaution and aggressive management of metabolic syndrome may be necessary, in accordance with the characteristics of the industrial zone

  5. Production of biofuels and biomolecules in the framework of circular economy: A regional case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquet, Nicolas; Haubruge, Eric; Richel, Aurore

    2015-12-01

    Faced to the economic and energetic context of our society, it is widely recognised that an alternative to fossil fuels and oil-based products will be needed in the nearest future. In this way, development of urban biorefinery could bring many solutions to this problem. Study of the implementation of urban biorefinery highlights two sustainable configurations that provide solutions to the Walloon context by promoting niche markets, developing circular economy and reducing transport of supply feedstock. First, autonomous urban biorefineries are proposed, which use biological waste for the production of added value molecules and/or finished products and are energetically self-sufficient. Second, integrated urban biorefineries, which benefit from an energy supply from a nearby industrial activity. In the Walloon economic context, these types of urban biorefineries could provide solutions by promoting niche markets, developing a circular economy model, optimise the transport of supply feedstock and contribute to the sustainable development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Radical Circular Economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, M.; Mohammadi, S.; Slob, N.

    2015-01-01

    Recently the Circular Economy (CE) concept has gained momentum in the Netherlands, propounding that environmental impact reduction can provide a significant positive economical impulse. The government, larger parts of the industry as a whole, as well as the construction industry, has warmly received

  7. The emerging role of natural gas on the African economy : the case study of the Nigerian gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndubuisi, E.N.; Amanetu, M.C.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a general overview of the African gas market, gas development, distribution, and utilization in Africa with particular emphasis on investment opportunities in Nigeria. Africa's non-renewable energy sources include fossil fuel such as coal, oil and natural gas. These fuels can be used to generate electricity. Their abundance is required for economic development and their efficient exploitation results in expansion of markets and industrialization, both of which are essential for Africa's social and economic progress. Natural gas is a premium fuel in the industrial, commercial and domestic sectors because of its unique characteristics. In Nigeria, the gas market is relatively untapped in the domestic sector, but much progress has been made in the past decade to develop and use natural gas as an energy feedstock for the cement and fertilizer industries. Some major gas transmission systems have been developed along with export oriented projects. 5 refs., 3 figs

  8. The Effect of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and Industrialization on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangdong; Fang, Chuanglin; Wang, Shaojian; Sun, Siao

    2016-11-01

    Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in China have led to extremely severe air pollution that causes increasing negative effects on human health, visibility, and climate change. However, the influence mechanisms of these anthropogenic factors on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations are poorly understood. In this study, we combined panel data and econometric methods to investigate the main anthropogenic factors that contribute to increasing PM 2.5 concentrations in China at the prefecture level from 1999 to 2011. The results showed that PM 2.5 concentrations and three anthropogenic factors were cointegrated. The panel Fully Modified Least Squares and panel Granger causality test results indicated that economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization increased PM 2.5 concentrations in the long run. The results implied that if China persists in its current development pattern, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization will inevitably lead to increased PM 2.5 emissions in the long term. Industrialization was the principal factor that affected PM 2.5 concentrations for the total panel, the industry-oriented panel and the service-oriented panel. PM 2.5 concentrations can be reduced at the cost of short-term economic growth and industrialization. However, reducing the urbanization level is not an efficient way to decrease PM 2.5 pollutions in the short term. The findings also suggest that a rapid reduction of PM 2.5 concentrations relying solely on adjusting these anthropogenic factors is difficult in a short-term for the heavily PM 2.5 -polluted panel. Moreover, the Chinese government will have to seek much broader policies that favor a decoupling of these coupling relationships.

  9. Gas industry development in Algeria and his impact on the national economy; Le developpement de l'industrie du gaz en Algerie et son impact sur l'economie nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otmane, N.; Hamada, D.; Choual, A. [Sonelgaz (Algeria)

    2000-07-01

    The development strategy implemented in Algeria gives to natural gas a fundamental role to play in the energetic national policy. The availability of resources allied to it's weak cost, has devolved to this energy an increasing role for the satisfaction of energetic needs for the whole sectors. Starting 1968, the deliveries to the public distribution networks represented 10 % of the global consumption and 15 industrial units were operating with natural gas. Moreover, a huge penetration of natural gas was registered in the electricity generation. The contribution of this energy in the national development will be characterized by three factors: the penetration rate for meeting the domestic needs; the diversity of industrial sectors using it and it's share as primary energy for the constitution of the GDP. (authors)

  10. Learning and technological capability building in emerging economies: The case of the biomass power equipment industry in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ulrich Elmer; Ockwell, David

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that the transfer of foreign technology to developing countries should be considered in light of broader processes of learning, technological capability, formation and industrial development. Previous studies that have looked at this in the context of cleantech...... capabilities. This is explored via an examination of eight firms in the biomass power equipment industry in Malaysia during the period 1970–2011. The paper finds that firms relying on a combination of learning from foreign technology partners and internal learning by planned experimentation make most progress...

  11. Aspects regarding the efficiency of technology transfer from the national research institutes towards the industry in order to accelerate the development of Romanian economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Felicia Nicoara

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Currently, Romania is faced with problems regarding closing the deep economic gap between it and the rest of the EU members. In addition, Romania is concerned with overcoming the difficulties generated by the current economic crisis. The technology transfer of the research results from the scientific field towards the industry is one of the main leverages for the economic development, the innovation development and the competitiveness of the companies. At this point, Romania marks a very low transfer rate of technology between the research institutions and the economy. This is why, increasing and accelerating this rate becomes a vital element for the Romanian economy. The national research institutes are one of the most representative institutions of the national research and development system. With a high capacity of generating scientific results specific to certain national areas of expertise, their potential of transfering technology should be exploited and made more efficient. This paper presents a synthesis of the written works regarding the technology transfer, its role in the economic growth and the factors influencing its efficiency. The paper performs an analysis the current state of the national research institutes and formulates hypotheses regarding the causes leading to the low technology transfer rate, making suggestions on further research studies on how to turn this important process into a more efficient one

  12. Rising economy of China and its effects on the industrial technology of Japan and other Asian countries. Chugoku no hatten to henbosuru Asia no sangyo gijutsu chizu (henkaku wo semarareru seisan gijutsu taikoku Nippon)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, H [JGC Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-03-05

    Due to the rapid economy growth and industry development in China, the map of industry and economy in Asian countries has been greatly changing. The technology, which has supported Japan's industrial development, is characterized by the improvements of original technologies introduced from Europe and the United States. On the other hand, Korea has problems of creating the original and individual production technology and its basis. The industrial technology in China at present has problems which are accompanied with the conversion from the planned economy system to the market economy system. However, Chinese people having a tradition of 'link of three parts' seem to understand the Japanese style management policy well. Japan has played a role as 'world's center of manufacturing' by using its excellent production technology. In the future, China is considered to play a role as the 'world's center of manufacturing,' due to its huge domestic market, cheap and rich manpower, and excellent potential capacity of industrial technology. In Japan, it is emphasized that an industrial society system should be reconstructed, in which excellent individuality and talent can be made good use of. 6 refs., 1 fig.

  13. The Role of Diaspora in University-Industry Relationships in Globalised Knowledge Economy: The Case of Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharabati-Shahin, Mervat H. N.; Thiruchelvam, K.

    2013-01-01

    University-industry (U-I) linkage is not a new concept. Although there are models for such linkage that have been tested or used, they may remain unsuitable in certain countries and communities. With the unique situation of the Palestinians, the existing models may fall short of meeting the specific needs and targets of establishing such a…

  14. Redefining University Roles in Regional Economies: A Case Study of University-Industry Relations and Academic Organization in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sa, Creso M.

    2011-01-01

    The emerging field of nanotechnology has created a new frontier for the convergence of university and industrial research. In the United States, major federal investments provided a massive boom for this field over the decade. This paper reports on a case study of how the University at Albany came to establish the first college of nanotechnology…

  15. Internet Usage and Competitive Advantage: The Impact of the Internet on an Old Economy Industry in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Aguila Obra, Ana Rosa; Bruque Camara, Sebastian; Padilla Melendez, Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Considers whether Internet technologies have led to competitive advantage for companies operating in traditional industries. Highlights include a literature review; using the resource-based view (RBV) of firms as a theoretical framework for an empirical investigation; and a survey that investigated Internet technologies and competitive advantage…

  16. Investment strategy for sustainable society by development of regional economies and prevention of industrial pollutions in Japanese manufacturing sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki; Goto, Mika

    2014-01-01

    A balance between industrial pollution prevention and economic growth becomes a world-wide issue to develop a sustainable society in many industrial nations. To discuss the issue, this study proposes a new use of DEA environmental assessment to determine how to effectively allocate capital for developing regional industries. The amount of capital is used to invest for technology innovation for both local economic growth and environmental protection. In this study, the proposed approach separates outputs into desirable and undesirable categories. Inputs are also separated into two categories, one of which indicates an amount of investment on capital assets. The other category is used for production activities. The proposed approach unifies them by two disposability concepts. This study has evaluated the performance of manufacturing industries in 47 prefectures (local government units in Japan) by Unified Efficiency under Natural disposability (UEN), Unified Efficiency under Managerial disposability (UEM) and Unified Efficiency under Natural and Managerial disposability (UENM). The UENM is further separated into its two cases: with and without a possible occurrence on desirable congestion, or technology innovation, on undesirable outputs. This study has empirically confirmed that Japanese manufacturing industries need to make their efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution substances by investing in technology innovation. Furthermore, most of economic activities are currently located at metropolitan regions (e.g., Tokyo) in Japan. To develop a sustainable society, Japan needs to allocate capital into regions with a high level of investment effectiveness by shifting the manufacturing industries from the metropolitan regions to much promising local areas identified in this study. Such a shift, along with technology innovation, makes it possible to reduce air pollutions in the entire Japan by balancing economic growth and pollution prevention. This

  17. Economic and Physical Linkages of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Service Industry to Key Industries of the Economy: An Ad Hoc Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, David M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hoffman, Michael G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Niemeyer, Jackie M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Samuel, Todd J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-04

    This report examines the information and communications technology (ICT) services industry in response to an inquiry by the Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis. The report answers several key questions: •How has the reliance on ICT services evolved in recent years for key infrastructure services such as air travel, freight transport, electricity and natural gas distribution, financial services, and critical health care, and for the household sector? •What ICT industry trends explain continued strong linkage to and reliance upon ICT? •What is the ICT industry’s reliance on grid-supplied power, uninterruptible power supplies, emergency generators and back-up energy storage technologies? •What are the observed direct effects of ICT disruptions induced by electrical system failures in recent history and how resilient are the components of the ICT industry?

  18. Development of the construction industry in the trend of attention to the formation of the urban environment promotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximova, Ekaterina

    2017-10-01

    Creation of the new image of cities becomes an important modern tendency. Foreign experience creation of the comfortable living conditions for the urban population could show the improvement of many social indicators of the society development. Existence of the positive result from the renovation of city territories performance in Russia can be indicated on the example of the city of Moscow. This article shows the tasks which state plans to create for the comfortable urban environment. In this regard, the directions of the development of the construction industry, which allow to increase the level of business activity are shown.

  19. The Placenta Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kroløkke, Charlotte; Dickinson, Elizabeth; Foss, Karen A.

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the human placenta not only as a scientific, medical and biological entity but as a consumer bio-product. In the emergent placenta economy, the human placenta is exchanged and gains potentiality as food, medicine and cosmetics. Drawing on empirical research from the United......, in the emergent bio-economy, the dichotomy between the inner and the outer body is deconstructed, while the placenta gains clinical and industrial as well as affective value....

  20. Expansion Strategy of Agricultural Industrial Chain of Suburban Villages and Towns in the Process of Urbanization - A Case Study of Yongle Town in Nanming District of Guiyano City

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Li; Zhu, Jing

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of introducing the connotation of agricultural industrial chain, taking Yongle Town in Nanming District of Guiyang City as an example, this paper analyzes me advantages and constraint factors of the suburban villages and towns in the process of expanding agricultural industrial chain in the context of urbanization. Corresponding strategies of expanding the agricultural industrial chain of Yongle Town in the process of urbanization as follows, vigorously develop the leading enterp...

  1. A multi-model approach to monitor emissions of CO2 and CO from an urban-industrial complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, Ingrid; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; van der Molen, Michiel K.; Sterk, Hendrika A. M.; Hensen, Arjan; Peters, Wouter

    2017-11-01

    Monitoring urban-industrial emissions is often challenging because observations are scarce and regional atmospheric transport models are too coarse to represent the high spatiotemporal variability in the resulting concentrations. In this paper we apply a new combination of an Eulerian model (Weather Research and Forecast, WRF, with chemistry) and a Gaussian plume model (Operational Priority Substances - OPS). The modelled mixing ratios are compared to observed CO2 and CO mole fractions at four sites along a transect from an urban-industrial complex (Rotterdam, the Netherlands) towards rural conditions for October-December 2014. Urban plumes are well-mixed at our semi-urban location, making this location suited for an integrated emission estimate over the whole study area. The signals at our urban measurement site (with average enhancements of 11 ppm CO2 and 40 ppb CO over the baseline) are highly variable due to the presence of distinct source areas dominated by road traffic/residential heating emissions or industrial activities. This causes different emission signatures that are translated into a large variability in observed ΔCO : ΔCO2 ratios, which can be used to identify dominant source types. We find that WRF-Chem is able to represent synoptic variability in CO2 and CO (e.g. the median CO2 mixing ratio is 9.7 ppm, observed, against 8.8 ppm, modelled), but it fails to reproduce the hourly variability of daytime urban plumes at the urban site (R2 up to 0.05). For the urban site, adding a plume model to the model framework is beneficial to adequately represent plume transport especially from stack emissions. The explained variance in hourly, daytime CO2 enhancements from point source emissions increases from 30 % with WRF-Chem to 52 % with WRF-Chem in combination with the most detailed OPS simulation. The simulated variability in ΔCO :  ΔCO2 ratios decreases drastically from 1.5 to 0.6 ppb ppm-1, which agrees better with the observed standard

  2. The key role of the meat industry in transformation to a low-carbon, climate resilient, sustainable economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijsberman, Frank

    2017-10-01

    Climate change, air pollution and refugees have become key global challenges threatening sustainability of lifestyles, economies and ecosystems. Agri-food systems are the number one driver of environmental change. Livestock production is the world's largest land user, responsible for half of greenhouse gas emissions from agri-food systems, and the source of repeated health crises. Poor diets have become the number one cause of ill health. Recommendations for a healthy diet emphasize plant-based food. Rapidly falling costs in information technology, biotechnology, renewable energy and battery technology will disrupt current energy and transportation systems and offer opportunities for responsible meat production. Growing consumer interest in healthy food, combined with innovative information systems, offer opportunities to create value through quality control and consumer information in integrated value chains. Meat scientists have a major role to play in the necessary transformation of global agri-food systems towards a new model of green economic growth that is climate resilient, sustainable and provides green jobs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of urban and industrial contamination levels in the bay of Cádiz, SW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M; López-Ramírez, J A; Benavente, J; López-Aguayo, F; Sales, D

    2003-03-01

    Measuring the amount of pollution is of particular importance in assessing the quality and general condition of an ecosystem. In this paper, some of the results obtained as a consequence of the specific agreement between the Environmental Agency (Consejería de Medio Ambiente, Junta de Andalucía) and the University of Cadiz to assess the environmental condition of the marine bottom and waters are showed. Physical and chemical analyses in water and sediments were undertaken at various sampling sites close to urban and industrial locations. Later on, these results were studied under statistical analysis to reveal any possible relationships between the parameters employed, and to identify any analogous behaviour between the sampling sites. Physical-chemical data revealed that sediments and waters analysed were moderately contaminated and, in addition, no great differences were found between in rising and ebbing tide conditions. Finally, considering only the pollution level, from the cluster analysis of sediments two major groups appear, one of which corresponded to those sites located in the outer bay, and the other to those situated in the inner bay. However, number 6 and 14 sampling sites cannot be associated to those groups due to be related to points with important local discharges.

  4. Determination of metallic elements in soils and plants in industrial and urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delearte, E; Nangniot, P; Impens, R

    1973-01-01

    The first phase of a program to study metals in soils and plants in industrial and urban sites is reported. The metals analyzed were copper, cobalt, nickel, zinc, lead, and cadmium. The soil samples were taken at increasing distances from potential emission sources with respect to dominant wind directions. Ubiquitous plants, such as Tussilago farfara L., Plantago major L., Mercurialis annua L., and Agrostis velgaris With. were used as samples for differential oscillopolarographic analyses. Soil samples taken around a zinc ore roasting plant showed very high zinc contents, and irregular distribution of cadmium and copper. Plant samples taken at different distances from the plant revealed rapid reduction of the copper, zinc, and cadmium levels with increasing distance. Very high concentrations of copper were found in plants around a petroleum refinery. Leaves of Aeer platanoides variety Schwedlerii in a town contained an average of 14.1 ppM copper, 0.7 ppM cobalt, 5.4 ppM nickel, 160 ppM zinc, 145 ppM lead, and 0.08 ppM cadmium, relative to the dry weight. The findings indicate that samples should be obtained over a period of sufficient length.

  5. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The...... collaborative economy and tourism Dianne Dredge and Szilvia Gyimóthy PART I - Theoretical explorations 2.Definitions and mapping the landscape in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy and Dianne Dredge 3.Business models of the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 4.Responsibility and care...... in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge 5.Networked cultures in the collaborative economy Szilvia Gyimóthy 6.Policy and regulatory perspectives in the collaborative economy Dianne Dredge PART II - Disruptions, innovations and transformations 7.Regulating innovation in the collaborative economy: An examination...

  6. The collaborative Economy and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dredge, Dianne; Gyimóthy, Szilvia

    2015-01-01

    House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range of soc...... for a balanced assessment of such claims. Highlighting these claims allows us to pursue a more reflective research agenda and leads to a more informed, evidence-based assessment of the collaborative economy and tourism.......House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting and similar innovations epitomize the collaborative economy. The rise of the collaborative economy, also known as collaborative consumption, the sharing economy and peer-to-peer consumption, has been fuelled by a range...... experiences; and higher levels of consumer risk-taking balanced against mechanisms such as peer-to-peer feedback designed to engender trust between producers and consumers. This paper explores and critically assesses the collaborative economy and its implications for tourism industrial systems. It achieves...

  7. THE HIDDEN ECONOMY OF SLAVERY: COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL HIRING IN PENNSYLVANIA, NEW JERSEY AND DELAWARE, 1728-1800

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael V. Kennedy

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and commercial businesses in the Mid-Atlantic region depended on a controllable workforce of slaves during the eighteenth century. A significant percentage of these slaves were hired from private citizens who regularly profited from the exchange. Because of the almost continuous movement of slaves across township, county and colony borders due to hiring-out practices, slaves in tax and census lists were routinely under-reported. The use of business accounts listing hires and labor done by slaves reveals the extent and importance of slave hiring and additional numbers of slaves owned in the region that were otherwise invisible.

  8. Influence of new environmental state policy on gas industry activities in countries of economy in transition. Case of Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steczko, K.; Rachwalski, J.; Fronski, A.

    1997-01-01

    Political and economical changes in Poland are accompanied by substantial transition of ecological policy of the state. A first sign of that policy is new law defining responsibilities of companies in minimising the environmental impacts of new investments and duties concerning waste management and disposal as well as pollutant emission reduction. These more stringent environmental rules influence force the Polish gas industry to fulfill new ecological requirements and, because of high ecological value of gas, they give it promising prospects of development. Since environmental condition improvement in Poland can not be achieved without the change in primary energy consumption structure the Gas Development Programme has been established. It assumes more than double increase in gas consumption up to 2010. Gas industry duties connected with environmental requirements have been presented and activities taken in order to meet ecological law rules have been specified for all stages of gas fuel chain from exploration to gas usage. Some measures taken to prevent environment damages have been discussed like ecological evaluation of drilling materials and wastes, elaborated strategy for water protection and Environmental Impact Assessment procedure. The problem of methane emissions from Polish gas system has also been discussed. (au)

  9. Monitoring for Pb and Cd pollution using feral pigeons in rural, urban, and industrial environments of Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Dong-Ha; Lee, Doo-Pyo

    2006-01-01

    This study was aimed at evaluating the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination status using resident pigeons from rural (island), central urban (Seoul), and four industrial complex areas in Korea with varying traffic density as well as atmospheric metal pollution records. We also discussed the results with respect to metal exposure trends in urban area after introduction of lead-free gasoline in Korea. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in bone and kidney of pigeons from Seoul were comparable to those from industrial complex areas and were about 15-20 times those at the reference site. This suggests that exposure to metals in the urban environment is as high as in the industrial areas. Lead and Cd concentrations in lungs of pigeons from Seoul were significantly higher by more than three times in 2000 than in 1991 (p < 0.01), whereas the residues in liver, kidney, and bone remained at a similar level, despite the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1993. The Pb and Cd concentrations in tissues of pigeons did not decrease as atmospheric metal levels decreased. Ingestion may be more important than inhalation in exposing pigeons to Pb and Cd in this study

  10. Monitoring for Pb and Cd pollution using feral pigeons in rural, urban, and industrial environments of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Dong-Ha [Laboratory for Animal Ecology, School of Environment and Applied Chemistry, Kyunghee University (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Doo-Pyo [Science of Biology, Department of Biological Science, Honam University (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: dplee@honam.ac.kr

    2006-03-15

    This study was aimed at evaluating the lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) contamination status using resident pigeons from rural (island), central urban (Seoul), and four industrial complex areas in Korea with varying traffic density as well as atmospheric metal pollution records. We also discussed the results with respect to metal exposure trends in urban area after introduction of lead-free gasoline in Korea. Mean concentrations of Pb and Cd in bone and kidney of pigeons from Seoul were comparable to those from industrial complex areas and were about 15-20 times those at the reference site. This suggests that exposure to metals in the urban environment is as high as in the industrial areas. Lead and Cd concentrations in lungs of pigeons from Seoul were significantly higher by more than three times in 2000 than in 1991 (p < 0.01), whereas the residues in liver, kidney, and bone remained at a similar level, despite the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1993. The Pb and Cd concentrations in tissues of pigeons did not decrease as atmospheric metal levels decreased. Ingestion may be more important than inhalation in exposing pigeons to Pb and Cd in this study.

  11. Rational power utilization and generation without nuclear energy: Potentials and assessment of effects on the power industry, ecology, and economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuhr, K.P.; Eckerle, K.; Hofer, P.; Meckel, H.; Wolff, H.; Frey, B.; Schilling, K.; Brand, M.; Jochem, E.

    1987-10-01

    The unabridged version of the investigation gives the reader interested in details the relevant information on the individual analyses. The development of the investigation describes the analysis of the demographical and economical framework data, the long-term development of the energy price and the long-term energy demand development in a reference scenario. As most important status-quo condition it is defined that the development lines to be expected of the expected fuel and power demand and the supply of the power demand are indicated under the condition of further development of the nuclear power generation being borne by a political consensus. A contrast scenario examines if replacement of the nuclear energy would be possible by power cuts, development of the local heat supply and long-distance heat supply by cogeneration systems and development of the industrial cogeneration systems. (DG) [de

  12. An industry in the making: the emergence of institutional elder care in urban china.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhanlian; Zhan, Heying Jenny; Feng, Xiaotian; Liu, Chang; Sun, Mingyue; Mor, Vincent

    2011-04-01

    Demographic shifts in China pose unprecedented challenges in the care of a rapidly growing older population. Sporadic reports suggest the recent emergence of institutional elder care in China, but little is currently known about this phenomenon. This study documents the growth, ownership, financing, staffing, and resident characteristics of elder care institutions using survey data collected in 2009 from Nanjing, China, supplemented with government registry data from seven additional major Chinese cities. Between one-half and two-thirds of facilities operating in these cities were founded in the last decade, primarily in the non-government sector. In Nanjing, government ownership dominated homes built before 1990 (96%) but was increasingly rare in the 1990s (60%) and in the 2000s (23%), a pattern observed in the other seven cities as well. In Nanjing, the average home now draws more than 80% of its daily operating revenues from private-pay or other non-government sources, and this share increases sharply with the recency of facility establishment. The majority (85%) of non-government-owned homes are receiving ongoing per-bed subsidies from the government. The lack of clinical staff characterizes the majority of study facilities; most care staff are rural migratory workers. There is considerable variability across facilities in the case-mix of residents in terms of functional dependence and acuity levels. These findings portray the emergence and rapid growth of a nascent industry of institutional long-term care in urban China and a fundamental shift in institutional ownership, financing, and clientele. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  13. Socio demographic and clinical predictors of absenteeism A cross sectional study of urban industrial employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhash Chakraborty

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Public sector undertakings are facing a threat of privatization due to unsatisfactory performance putting pressure on management and in turn to employees. There is an increasing trend of absenteeism observed amongst employees citing job stress. Aim: To find an association between job stress and absenteeism in relation to socio-demographic and clinical profile. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in an urban aeronautical industry with 68 employees who mentioned stress at workplace during evaluation. Job stress was assessed using Professional Life Stress Scale (David Fontana. Those who scored more than 30 (n = 43 were taken up for the study after an informed consent. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to find socio-demographic and clinical profile. Employees who reported taking leave in last six months just to avoid work or workplace constitute the "absenteeism" group. The absenteeism group was compared to non-absenteeism group using Fisher exact/Chi-square test or independent t-test depending on type of variables. Results: Out of 43 subjects, 18 had absenteeism while 25 did not have absenteeism. Comparing the two groups, interstate migration, having more than one previous job, commuting time more than an hour, co-morbid anxiety/depression, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with absenteeism (P 0.05. Conclusion: In absenteeism research, one of the widely accepted models is Steer and Rhode′s "Process model of absenteeism." The model postulates job stress as one of the barriers for attendance. Thus, knowing the factors for absenteeism would help in preventing absenteeism.

  14. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  15. Temporal characteristics of black carbon concentrations and its potential emission sources in a southern Taiwan industrial urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu-Hsiang; Lin, Chi-Chi; Liu, Jyh-Jian; Hsieh, Cheng-Ju

    2014-03-01

    This study investigates the temporal characteristics of black carbon and its potential emission sources, as well as the fractions of BC in PM2.5 levels in Kaohsiung urban area, which is an industrial city in southern Taiwan. Concentrations of BC and PM2.5 are monitored continuously from March 2006 to February 2010, using an aethalometer and a tapered element oscillating microbalance monitor. Additionally, the presence of organic compounds (or UV enhanced species) in particles at the sampling site is determined using the Delta-C (UVBC-BC) value. According to long-term measurement results, BC and PM2.5 concentrations are 3.33 and 34.0 μg m(-3), respectively, in the Kaohsiung urban area. The ratio of BC/PM2.5 is approximately 11 %. Low concentration of BC and PM2.5 in the summer of this study period is mostly likely owing to meteorological conditions that favored dispersion of local air pollutants. Nevertheless, BC concentrations peaked markedly during morning hours (7:00-11:00), likely owing to local traffic congestion. Measurement results suggest that BC is released from local traffic activities and emitted from industrial activities at this sampling site. Additionally, Delta-C values are significantly higher than zero during January-March and November-December periods in this industrial urban area, implying that UV enhanced species can be observed. At this sampling site, these UV enhanced species do not only originate from household activity and solid waste burning but also release from industrial activities. The elevated Delta-C values during nighttime (18:00-6:00) in the autumn and winter seasons are likely related to those UV enhanced species in the atmosphere, which can be condensed on particle surface under low temperature conditions. According to long-term measurement results, significantly positive Delta-C values can be observed under temperatures industrial parks and a coal-fired power plant.

  16. Seeds of hope, seeds of despair: towards a political economy of the seed industry in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, N

    2001-01-01

    The seed industry in Southern Africa has been radically transformed by a policy of liberalisation and privatisation started under structural adjustment. Traditionally under the domain of parastatals, seed research, production and distribution has been criticised for failing to provide modern variety seed to smallholder farmers. However, the private companies which have stepped in to replace seed parastatals in southern Africa have proven no more effective in meeting the demands of smallholders. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPs) Agreement, concluded in 1994 as part of the Uruguay Rounds of GATT negotiations, as well as certain biotechnological innovations such as Terminator or Traitor technologies, threaten to further undermine local seed production and consumption by destroying the informal seed sector so central to agricultural production in the region. What alternatives exist? The success of Zimbabwe's maize seed network offers some insight. Resting on a unique relationship between government and nationally based producer co-operatives, Zimbabwe's maize programme was able to provide nearly every farmer in the country with hybrid maize suited for local growing conditions.

  17. Increasing Geothermal Energy Demand: The Need for Urbanization of the Drilling Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodoriu, Catalin; Falcone, Gioia

    2008-01-01

    Drilling wells in urban spaces requires special types of rigs that do not conflict with the surrounding environment. For this, a mutation of the current drilling equipment is necessary into what can be defined as an "urbanized drilling rig." Noise reduction, small footprint, and "good looking" rigs all help persuade the general public to accept…

  18. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: → Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. → Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. → The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to 11 fold. → Anthropogenic Ti input lowered by within-river retention. → Up to 79% of Ti colloidal/NP for rural, down to 28% for urban/industrial rivers.

  19. Industrial opportunities related to energy transition. Report to Mister the Minister of Economy and Finances, Mister the Secretary of State of Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Mireille; Sorro, Jean-Francois; Peries-Joly, Quentin

    2017-02-01

    This report examines opportunities created by energy transition for the French industry, and aims at identifying the most promising niches in order to help French enterprises to be competitive and thus to improve the French trade balance by five to ten years. The study focuses on three main sectors: equipment and installations of renewable energy production (ground-based and offshore grounded wind energy, floating wind energy, hydroelectric energy, solar photovoltaic, methanization), management of electric systems of any size (more particularly smart grids) and issue of energy storage in relationship with production source decentralisation, and building efficiency (energy renovation, heat pumps, active consumption steering and connected housing). A first part describes, for each of these sectors, the situation of the world market and the French situation in terms of market and actors (strengths and weaknesses), as well as objectives which could be envisaged to improve actor competitiveness. The second part discusses existing tools which could be means to reach these objectives: R and D financing tools, other financing types, sector dynamics. The third part proposes a set of measures and recommendations to develop the French offer in sustainable technologies, to ease a better demand structuring, and to steer demand towards a sustainable (and notably French) content

  20. Industrialization Impact on Worker Mobility and Land Use in Peri Urban Area (Case study of Semarang District, Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijaya, H. B.; Kurniawati, H.; Hutama, S. T. E. W.

    2018-02-01

    In many cases, industrialization has stimulated the urbanization process massively. It tends to attract substantial number of labor migrants from nearby region to fulfill the demand of workers. The paper reports the research result of industrialization phenomena in Semarang district, Indonesia. It carried out the survey by taking 250 samples of migrant workers. The result shows that the presence of labor-intensive industries becomes the most influence factor for many migrants, rather than the driving factors from the place of origin. The attraction factor could cover regional and across the province force, as indicated that all migrant respondents come from both inside and outside of Central Java Province. Furthermore, based on the land-use distribution of the migrant settlement area, it indicates a growing land-use change, both of land cover and land functions.

  1. Nuclides Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, Evgeny; Subbotin, Stanislav

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally the subject of discussion about the nuclear technology development is focused on the conditions that facilitate the nuclear power deployment. The main objective of this work is seeking of methodological basis for analysis of the coupling consequences of nuclear development. Nuclide economy is the term, which defines a new kind of society relations, dependent on nuclear technology development. It is rather closed to the setting of problems then to the solving of them. Last year Dr. Jonathan Tennenbaum published in Executive Intelligence Review Vol. 33 no 40 the article entitled as 'The Isotope Economy' where main interconnections for nuclear energy technologies and their infrastructure had been explained on the popular level. There he has given several answers and, therefore, just here we will try to expand this concept. We were interested by this publication because of similarity of our vision of resource base of technologies development. The main paradigm of 'Isotope economy' was expresses by Lyndon H. LaRouche: 'Instead of viewing the relevant resources of the planet as if they were a fixed totality, we must now assume responsibility of man's creating the new resources which will be more than adequate to sustain a growing world population at a constantly improved standard of physical per-capita output, and personal consumption'. We also consider the needed resources as a dynamic category. Nuclide economy and nuclide logistics both are needed for identifying of the future development of nuclear power as far we follow the holistic analysis approach 'from cave to grave'. Thus here we try to reasoning of decision making procedures and factors required for it in frame of innovative proposals development and deployment. The nuclear power development is needed in humanitarian scientific support with maximally deep consideration of all inter-disciplinary aspects of the nuclear power and nuclear technologies implementation. The main objectives for such

  2. PEMBIAYAAN RESTRUKTURISASI INDUSTRI BUS PERKOTAAN SESUAI DENGAN KERANGKA KERJA PROTOKOL KYOTO (Funding for Industrial Restructuring Urban Bus Industry following Kyoto Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danang Parikesit

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Sektor transportasi, khususnya sektor angkutan umum telah lama disadari sebagai kontributor utama emisi gas rumah kaca (Green House Gases Emissions. Investasi pada angkutan umum perkotaan sangat dibutuhkan walaupun pembiayaan yang konvensional sering sulit dilakukan karena tingginya tingkat investasi dan prioritas pemerintah saat ini. Angkutan perkotaan juga dilihat sebagai daerah kekuasaan sektor swasta yang membuat pemerintah sulit untuk mengeluarkan uang publik. Ratifikasi Kyoto Protocol telah memberi jalan untuk mengembangkan alternatif pembiayaan untuk pembangunan yang berkelanjutan. Clean Development Mechanism pada Kyoto Protocol telah membuka kesempatan bagi otoritas angkutan umum perkotaan dengan menggunakan prinsip carbon trading. Sumber daya untuk menerapkan proyek angkutan umum perkotaan dengan CDM sangat esensial. Pekerjaan di masa datang harus diarahkan untuk mempelajari metodologi dalam mengkombinasi soft measures dan melaksanakan proyek secara optimal. Pembiayaan dengan sistem CDM ini telah dimulai di Yogyakarta dengan judul The Green House Gases Emission Reduction Program for Urban Buses in Yogyakarta atau Program Penurunan Emisi Gas Rumah Kaca untuk Bus Perkotaan di Yogyakarta. Sebuah aliansi dengan nama YUPTA (Yogyakarta Urban Public Transport Alliance telah dibentuk yang terdiri dari 3 lembaga yaitu Dinas Perhubungan Propinsi DIY, Pusat Studi Transportasi dan Logistik (PUSTRAL UGM dan Koperasi Pengusaha Angkutan Kota Yogyakarta (KOPATA.   ABSTRACT Transportation sector, especially public transportation, has been known as the main contributor to the green house hases emission. Investment to urban public transportation is needed but conventional funding is often difficult to be obtained because of the high investment level and the present government priority. Urban transportation is also seen as a private sector domain making the government difficult to use public fund. Kyoto protocol ratification has opened the way to

  3. EU-Korea FTA and Its Impact on V4 Economies. A Comparative Analysis of Trade Sophistication and Intra-Industry Trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Bartosz

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates selected short- and mid-term effects in trade in goods between the Visegrad countries (V4: the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic and the Republic of Korea under the framework of the Free Trade Agreement between the European Union and the Republic of Korea. This Agreement is described in the “Trade for All” (2015: 9 strategy as the most ambitious trade deal ever implemented by the EU. The primary purpose of our analysis is to identify, compare, and evaluate the evolution of the technological sophistication of bilateral exports and imports. Another dimension of the paper concentrates on the developments within intra-industry trade. Moreover, these objectives are approached taking into account the context of the South Korean direct investment inflow to the V4. The evaluation of technological sophistication is based on UNCTAD’s methodology, while the intensity of intra-industry trade is measured by the GL-index and identification of its subcategories (horizontal and vertical trade. The analysis covers the timespan 2001–2015. The novelty of the paper lies in the fact that the study of South Korean-V4 trade relations has not so far been carried out from this perspective. Thus this paper investigates interesting phenomena identified in the trade between the Republic of Korea (ROK and V4 economies. The main findings imply an impact of South Korean direct investments on trade. This is represented by the trade deficit of the V4 with ROK and the structure of bilateral trade in terms of its technological sophistication. South Korean investments might also have had positive consequences for the evolution of IIT, particularly in the machinery sector. The political interpretation indicates that they may strengthen common threats associated with the middle-income trap, particularly the technological gap and the emphasis placed on lower costs of production.

  4. Introduction: population migration and urbanization in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, R

    1996-12-01

    This introductory article discusses the correlation between migration and rapid urbanization and growth in the largest cities of the developing world. The topics include the characteristics of urbanization, government policies toward population migration, the change in absolute size of the rural population, and the problems of maintaining megacities. Other articles in this special issue are devoted to urbanization patterns in China, South Africa, Iran, Korea and Taiwan as newly industrialized economies (NIEs), informal sectors in the Philippines and Thailand, and low-income settlements in Bogota, Colombia, and India. It is argued that increased urbanization is produced by natural population growth, the expansion of the urban administrative area, and the in-migration from rural areas. A comparison of urbanization rates of countries by per capita gross national product (GNP) reveals that countries with per capita GNP of under US$2000 have urbanization rates of 10-60%. Rates are under 30% in Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, China, and Indonesia. Rapid urbanization appears to follow the economic growth curve. The rate of urbanization in Latin America is high enough to be comparable to urbanization in Europe and the US. Taiwan and Korea have high rates of urbanization that surpass the rate of industrialization. Thailand and Malaysia have low rates of urbanization compared to the size of their per capita GNP. Urbanization rates under 20% occur in countries without economic development. Rates between 20% and 50% occur in countries with or without industrialization. East Asian urbanization is progressing along with industrialization. Africa and the Middle East have urbanization without industrialization. In 1990 there were 20 developing countries and 5 developed countries with populations over 5 million. In 10 of 87 developing countries rural population declined in absolute size. The author identifies and discusses four patterns of urban growth.

  5. Population Health Management and the Second Golden Age of Arab Medicine: Promoting Health, Localizing Knowledge Industries, and Diversifying Economies in the GCC Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattke, Soeren; Hunter, Lauren E; Magnuson, Madeline; Arifkhanova, Aziza

    2015-07-15

    Over the past half-century, the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries-Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates-have experienced rapid economic growth and, with it, dramatic lifestyle changes. Low levels of physical activity and calorie-dense diets have led to an increase in the prevalence of chronic disease, most prominently diabetes. After having successfully controlled communicable diseases and made advanced acute care accessible locally, the GCC countries now face the challenge of orienting their health care systems toward prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. In this study, Dr. Mattke and his colleagues argue that this challenge presents GCC countries with a historic opportunity to reestablish the thought leadership role that Arab medicine had in the Islamic Golden Age. They propose that GCC countries could apply their considerable wealth to design and implement innovative health care systems based on population health management principles and sophisticated health information technology. Taking this path would not only improve prevention and management of chronic disease in the GCC countries but also contribute to the diversification of their economies and localization of knowledge industries.

  6. Moneyless Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Subhendu

    2012-01-01

    Moneyless economy (MLE) does not have any money in the economy. All products and services are free for all people. This means everybody must work, work for free, and get everything they want for free also. Any work that a society needs is considered legitimate. MLE is not socialism. MLE has the ability to provide a lifestyle that anyone wants. We show that it is possible to run the exact same economy that we have now, in the exact same way, and without money. Any government of any country can...

  7. Iraq's Economy: Past, Present, Future

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sanford, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    .... Iraq's industrial sector was created, in large part, as a result of government efforts to diversify the economy through economic development projects using the proceeds from Iraq's oil wealth and borrowed funds...

  8. The Dimensions of Customer Preference in the Foodservice Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, Firdaus; Abang Abdurahman, Abang Zainoren; Hamali, Jamil

    2013-01-01

    Today's foodservice industry management must place a high priority on understanding the growing markets resulting from rapid urbanization and rising numbers of tourists. This industry has a huge impact on the global economy but it is affected by customers' ever-changing preferences. Managers need to gain and sustain strategic advantage in this highly competitive industry, thus a local customer preference assessment is crucial. This paper presents the dimensions of customer preference in the f...

  9. Panel estimation for CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization of newly industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif Hossain, Md.

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the dynamic causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for the panel of newly industrialized countries (NIC) using the time series data for the period 1971-2007. Using four different panel unit root tests it is found that all panel variables are integrated of order 1. From the Johansen Fisher panel cointegration test it is found that there is a cointegration vector among the variables. The Granger causality test results support that there is no evidence of long-run causal relationship, but there is unidirectional short-run causal relationship from economic growth and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions, from economic growth to energy consumption, from trade openness to economic growth, from urbanization to economic growth and from trade openness to urbanization. It is found that the long-run elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions with respect to energy consumption (1.2189) is higher than short run elasticity of 0.5984. This indicates that over time higher energy consumption in the newly industrialized countries gives rise to more carbon dioxide emissions as a result our environment will be polluted more. But in respect of economic growth, trade openness and urbanization the environmental quality is found to be normal good in the long-run. - Highlights: → Dynamic causal relationships are conducted for different panel variables of NIC. → Test results support only existence of unidirectional short-run causal relationships. → Environment will be polluted more due to energy consumption in the long-run. → But environmental quality is found to be normally good in respect of other variables. → NIC should use solar energy as the substitute of oil to control CO 2 emissions.

  10. Assessment of heavy metal pollution and human health risk in urban soils of steel industrial city (Anshan), Liaoning, Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qing, Xiao; Yutong, Zong; Shenggao, Lu

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations and health risk of heavy metals in urban soils from a steel industrial district in China. A total of 115 topsoil samples from Anshan city, Liaoning, Northeast China were collected and analyzed for Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni. The geoaccumulation index (Igeo), pollution index (PI), and potential ecological risk index (PER) were calculated to assess the pollution level in soils. The hazard index (HI) and carcinogenic risk (RI) were used to assess human health risk of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cr, Cd, Pb, Zn, Cu, and Ni were 69.9, 0.86, 45.1, 213, 52.3, and 33.5mg/kg, respectively. The Igeo and PI values of heavy metals were in the descending order of Cd>Zn>Cu>Pb>Ni>Cr. Higher Igeo value for Cd in soil indicated that Cd pollution was moderate. Pollution index indicated that urban soils were moderate to highly polluted by Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb. The spatial distribution maps of heavy metals revealed that steel industrial district was the contamination hotspots. Principal component analysis (PCA) and matrix cluster analysis classified heavy metals into two groups, indicating common industrial sources for Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd. Matrix cluster analysis classified the sampling sites into four groups. Sampling sites within steel industrial district showed much higher concentrations of heavy metals compared to the rest of sampling sites, indicating significant contamination introduced by steel industry on soils. The health risk assessment indicated that non-carcinogenic values were below the threshold values. The hazard index (HI) for children and adult has a descending order of Cr>Pb>Cd>Cu>Ni>Zn. Carcinogenic risks due to Cr, Cd, and Ni in urban soils were within acceptable range for adult. Carcinogenic risk value of Cr for children is slightly higher than the threshold value, indicating that children are facing slight threat of Cr. These results provide basic information of heavy metal pollution control

  11. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran ssssssss economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  12. Iran's Economy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ilias, Shayerah

    2008-01-01

    .... To the extent that U.S. sanctions and other efforts to change Iranian state policy target aspects of Iran's economy as a means of influence, it is important to evaluate Iran's economic structure, strengths, and vulnerabilities...

  13. Cambodia's economy

    OpenAIRE

    Ear, Sophal

    2008-01-01

    "This presentation is adapted from a Harvard KSG workshop held earlier this year on the Political Economy of "Binding Constraints to Growth" Cambodia Pilot for which I served as an External Panelist/Resource Person."

  14. Mobile economy

    OpenAIRE

    Turowski, Klaus

    2004-01-01

    Mobile economy : Transaktionen, Prozesse, Anwendungen und Dienste ; 4. Workshop Mobile Commerce, 02.-03. Februar 2004, Univ. Augsburg / K. Turowski ... (Hrsg.). - Bonn : Ges. für Informatik, 2004. - 189 S. : Ill., graph. Darst. - (GI-Edition : Proceedings ; 42)

  15. Estimation of PAHs dry deposition and BaP toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) study at Urban, Industry Park and rural sampling sites in central Taiwan, Taichung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Kuan-Foo; Lu, Chungsying; Bai, Hsunling

    2004-05-01

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in gas phase and particle bound were measured simultaneously at industrial (INDUSTRY), urban (URBAN), and rural areas (RURAL) in Taichung, Taiwan. And the PAH concentrations, size distributions, estimated PAHs dry deposition fluxes and health risk study of PAHs in the ambient air of central Taiwan were discussed in this study. Total PAH concentrations at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL sampling sites were found to be 1650 +/- 1240, 1220 +/- 520, and 831 +/- 427 ng/m3, respectively. The results indicated that PAH concentrations were higher at INDUSTRY and URBAN sampling sites than the RURAL sampling sites because of the more industrial processes, traffic exhausts and human activities. The estimation dry deposition and size distribution of PAHs were also studied. The results indicated that the estimated dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs were 58.5, 48.8, and 38.6 microg/m2/day at INDUSTRY, URBAN, and RURAL, respectively. The BaP equivalency results indicated that the health risk of gas phase PAHs were higher than the particle phase at three sampling sites of central Taiwan. However, compared with the BaP equivalency results to other studies conducted in factory, this study indicated the health risk of PAHs was acceptable in the ambient air of central Taiwan.

  16. Race, Immigration and Economic Restructuring in New Urbanism: New Orleans as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Hetzler

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Scholars tend to discuss gentrification in a colorblind fashion which suggests that gentrification is solely a classed process. It is not. In this article, we move our attention away from a discussion on the colorblind features of New Urbanism to focus on how the shift from an industrial economy to a post-industrial service economy in New Urban "World Cities" creates a push that drives local minorities away from the city and a pull that draws new stakeholders into the city.

  17. Petroleum and the economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohi, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    In re-examining the effect of energy price shocks on the economy, this article applies several tests to show that the apparent coincidence between price shocks and poor economic performance may be misleading. For example, whereas macroeconomic analysis graphs of employment and GNP clearly indicate an apparent correlation between the 1979 petroleum price hike and economic downturn in the USA, Great Britain and Germany, Japan's performance stayed fairly constant during that period. Additional sectoral analyses of the performances of the western economies show that the impacts of the '74 and '79 oil price shocks were not equally distributed across the different industrial sectors of the various nations. The paper argues that a deeper understanding of the energy-economy relationship is required to reduce these ambiguities

  18. Cloud residues and interstitial aerosols from non-precipitating clouds over an industrial and urban area in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weijun; Li, Peiren; Sun, Guode; Zhou, Shengzhen; Yuan, Qi; Wang, Wenxing

    2011-05-01

    Most studies of aerosol-cloud interactions have been conducted in remote locations; few have investigated the characterization of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) over highly polluted urban and industrial areas. The present work, based on samples collected at Mt. Tai, a site in northern China affected by nearby urban and industrial air pollutant emissions, illuminates CCN properties in a polluted atmosphere. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to obtain the size, composition, and mixing state of individual cloud residues and interstitial aerosols. Most of the cloud residues displayed distinct rims which were found to consist of soluble organic matter (OM). Nearly all (91.7%) cloud residues were attributed to sulfate-related salts (the remainder was mostly coarse crustal dust particles with nitrate coatings). Half the salt particles were internally mixed with two or more refractory particles (e.g., soot, fly ash, crustal dust, CaSO 4, and OM). A comparison between cloud residues and interstitial particles shows that the former contained more salts and were of larger particle size than the latter. In addition, a somewhat high number scavenging ratio of 0.54 was observed during cloud formation. Therefore, the mixtures of salts with OMs account for most of the cloud-nucleating ability of the entire aerosol population in the polluted air of northern China. We advocate that both size and composition - the two influential, controlling factors for aerosol activation - should be built into all regional climate models of China.

  19. Finding Urban Identity through Culture-led Urban Regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyu Hong Hwang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A city experiencing a cycle from growth to decline cannot maintain sustainable development without the type of urban identity that could be consolidated by culture-led urban regeneration. A plan for urban regeneration in a declining urban area should be practiced partially or on the whole according to the characteristics of the community. By transforming a low-value and deteriorated area into a highly valued district, the local community can simultaneously restore its social pride, revive the local economy, and realize an urban identity.Firstly, this paper examines urban decline in order to better understand urban regeneration and the need for multidisciplinary management, and also, by considering the necessity for and universal types of urban regeneration, investigates the characteristics of culture-led urban regeneration as a tool for realizing socio-economic revival and urban identity. In particular, this study suggests the action techniques and benchmarking points for urban regeneration by analyzing cases of culture-led urban regeneration in Korea. Three subjects were considered as case studies in this paper: 1 Hanok village in Jeonju city, which changed from a twilight zone to a tourist attraction; 2 Changdong district in Changwon city, which recovered from an area of declining and dark alleyways that had been the hub for arts and culture in the 1970s to become a new artist village; and 3 Cheongju city, which is being transformed from an idle industrial facility into a cultural space. This thesis suggests the implementation process of culture-led urban regeneration to find an urban identity through analysis of the causes of urban decline, the methods of regeneration, and the results of urban regeneration in the three aforementioned cases. In the conclusion section of this paper, the implementation process for culture-led urban regeneration is summarized as consisting of 5 phases: Phase 1, the diagnosis of decline; Phase 2

  20. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkáč Štefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual “energy circles”. This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  1. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkáč, Štefan

    2015-11-01

    To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual "energy circles". This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  2. Social life factors affecting the mortality, longevity, and birth rate of total Japanese population: effects of rapid industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araki, S; Uchida, E; Murata, K

    1990-12-01

    To expand upon the findings that lower mortality was found in Japanese urban areas in contrast to the Western model where in the US and Britain the risk of death was higher in metropolitan areas and conurbations, 22 social life indicators are examined among 46 prefectures in Japan in terms of their effect on age specific mortality, life expectancy, and age adjusted marriage, divorce, and birth rates. The effects of these factors on age adjusted mortality for 8 major working and nonworking male populations, where also analyzed. The 22 social life factors were selected from among 227 indicators in the system of Statistical Indicators on Life. Factor analysis was used to classify the indicators into 8 groups of factors for 1970 and 7 for 1975. Factors 1-3 for both years were rural or urban residence, low income and unemployment, and prefectural age distribution. The 4th for 1970 was home help for the elderly and for 1975, social mobility. The social life indicators were classified form 1 to 8 as rural residence in 1970 and 1975, urban residence, low income, high employment, old age, young age, social mobility, and home help for the elderly which moved from 8th place in 1970 to 1st in 1975. Between 1960-75, rapid urbanization took place with the proportion of farmers, fishermen, and workers declining from 43% in 1960 to 19% in 1975. The results of stepwise regression analysis indicate a positive relationship of urban residence with mortality of men and women except school-aged and middle-aged women, and the working populations, as well as life expectancy at birth for males and females and ages 20 and 40 years for males. Rural residence was positively associated with the male marriage rate, whereas the marriage rate for females was affected by industrialization and urbanization. High employment and social mobility were positively related to the female marriage rate. Low income was positively related to the divorce rate for males and females. Rural residence and high

  3. Hydrogen economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pahwa, P.K.; Pahwa, Gulshan Kumar

    2013-10-01

    In the future, our energy systems will need to be renewable and sustainable, efficient and cost-effective, convenient and safe. Hydrogen has been proposed as the perfect fuel for this future energy system. The availability of a reliable and cost-effective supply, safe and efficient storage, and convenient end use of hydrogen will be essential for a transition to a hydrogen economy. Research is being conducted throughout the world for the development of safe, cost-effective hydrogen production, storage, and end-use technologies that support and foster this transition. This book discusses hydrogen economy vis-a-vis sustainable development. It examines the link between development and energy, prospects of sustainable development, significance of hydrogen energy economy, and provides an authoritative and up-to-date scientific account of hydrogen generation, storage, transportation, and safety.

  4. Heating and cogenerative systems in urban settlements and industry. Symposium proceedings - Book 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the symposium is to present cogeneration systems for energy production and the district heating systems normally connected to them. Nowadays, it is the most exploited topic with the most potential in the field of energy in general. The reason for this is the expansion of the implementation of natural gas, ecological limitations imposed upon the local and global polluters and the need for such energy sources in the power systems. Divided into topical wholes it is analysed potential sources of heat, transport system, distribution and regulation of the delivered energy to the consumers, manners of rational use of heat in the urban settlements and manners of ownership transformation of heat supplying systems of the urban settlements. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  5. Heating and co-generative systems in urban settlements and industry. Symposium proceedings - Book 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the symposium is to present cogeneration systems for energy production and the district heating systems normally connected to them. Nowadays, it is the most exploited topic with the most potential in the field of energy in general. The reason for this is the expansion of the implementation of natural gas, ecological limitations imposed upon the local and global polluters and the need for such energy sources in the power systems. Divided into topical wholes it is analysed potential sources of heat, transport system, distribution and regulation of the delivered energy to the consumers, manners of rational use of heat in the urban settlements and manners of ownership transformation of heat supplying systems of the urban settlements. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  6. Mass balance of emerging contaminants in the water cycle of a highly urbanized and industrialized area of Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castiglioni, Sara; Davoli, Enrico; Riva, Francesco; Palmiotto, Marinella; Camporini, Paolo; Manenti, Angela; Zuccato, Ettore

    2017-12-22

    The occurrence of several classes of emerging contaminants (ECs) was assessed in the River Lambro basin, one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas of Italy. The study aims were to identify the main sources of ECs, quantify their amounts circulating in the water cycle, and study their fate in the aquatic environment. More than 80 ECs were selected among pharmaceuticals (PHARM), personal care products (PCPs), disinfectants (DIS), illicit drugs (IDs), perfluorinated compounds (PERF), alkylphenols and bisphenol A (Alk-BPA), and anthropogenic markers (AM). Specific analytical methods were developed for quantitative analysis based on solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. ECs were measured in rivers upstream and downstream of the main city (Milan), and in untreated and treated wastewater from Milan to assess the contribution to river contamination, and in superficial and deep groundwater in the city area to study the relationship between river and groundwater contamination. Samples were collected in a two-year monitoring campaign. Almost all ECs were ubiquitous in untreated wastewater, at concentrations up to the μg/L range, and the most abundant classes were PHARM and AM. Removals during different wastewater treatment processes were studied and the most stable substances were PHARM, PCPs and PERF. The mass loads increased for all the classes of ECs along the River Lambro basin. A mass balance was done in the river basin and allowed to identify the main sources of contamination, which were domestic, from treated or untreated wastewater, for PHARM, PCPs and IDs, mainly industrial for PERF, and both industrial and domestic for Alk-BPA. The study of AM helped to identify direct discharges of untreated wastewater. A substantial contribution of surface water to groundwater contamination was observed. This study improves the knowledge on occurrence, sources and fate of multiple classes of ECs in a highly urbanized area providing

  7. Prospects for sustainable development of the nickel industry of Russia in conditions of transition in the world economy to the new technological mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolbov A. G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The essence of new technological mode in the world economy, some features of innovative development of the mineral complex and the nickel industry, dynamics of world production and consumption of nickel have been considered. The organization and economic structure of the nickel industry in Russia has been characterized. The prospects for sustainable development of the nickel industry in conditions of the sixth technological mode have been justified. Рассмотрены сущность нового технологического уклада в мировой экономике, особенности инновационного развития минерально-сырьевого комплекса и никелевой промышленности, динамика мирового производства и потребления никеля. Дана характеристика организационно-экономической структуры никелевой промышленности России. Обоснованы перспективы устойчивого развития никелевой промышленности в условиях шестого технологического уклада

  8. Human economy and natural economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masullo Andrea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The decline of economy is due to its dependency from a virtual value, the currency, the coin, that in the recent phase of consumerism is so far from real value: human capital and natural capital. If human economy wants to continue to produce wellbeing, it must accept to be a subset of natural economy, intercept flux of matter produced by its circular mechanisms, put constraints in it, i.e. machines and structures, to direct it temporarily for our advantage, and finally release it to the same original flux, in an still usable state. In this way it will assume a function no more parasitic but symbiotic. It will be connected to natural cycles without destroying it, recovering the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, building an economic web suited to the ecological web; thus we will have a mosaic characterised by biodiversity, technological diversity, and cultural diversity, able to produce a durable prosperity.

  9. The Industrial and Logistics Port Complex of Açu and its impacts on the drainage system and the urban structure of the Northern- Fluminense Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Carneiro Rangel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the Industrial and Logistics Port Complex of Açu will result in an accelerated process of urbanization directly related to population growth. When it no longer supports agricultural and livestock activities to meet the port activities, the region will have its urban, hydrological and economic dynamics changed. Given the fragility of the Quaternary Coastal, geomorphology of the region, these areas have occupation problems, and are subject to constant flooding. Therefore, it is necessary to make geomorphology studies of the area study so that development is can be planned, avoiding future environmental and territorial and urban problems.

  10. Urban Organization and Planning in the Post-Industrial City: An Editorial and Introduction to the Spring 2006 Issue of Sociation Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George H. Conklin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available 2006 is the year that the world as a whole becomes over half urban, yet no longer is the city the home of the industrial factory in the Western world. What shape should the new city take in the information age? Are we following an obsolete model when we plan in the Western world for a "new urbanism?" Does suburbanization have to fade away to promote racial justice? Why has urbanization concentrated poverty in the rural areas? We must re-examine these areas as sociologists and question past assumptions.

  11. A Research to Village Combination and the Analysis of the Influences of Which Having on Social Economy During the Urbanization Process of Yantai City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the rapid development of urbanization of our country, serious conflicts on land using appear. Village combination in rural areas is an important way to increase cultivated land, promote the development of urbanization and effectively solve conflicts on land using, which plays an significant role in solving agriculture problems, countryside problems and peasant problems, assuring foods safety and constructing social new countryside. Taking Yantai City as example, the paper firstly makes analyses on the necessaries and the feasibility of village combination. And then based on the mode GM (1,1) of grey theory, the paper forecasts the urbanization ratio, the proportion of urban and rural areas to the whole population and finally programs the rational scale of central villages and towns of Yantai City. At last, the paper conducts a detailed analysis on the social economic influence of village combination of Yantai City, pointing out that village combination affords carriers to farmers citizenization and it is beneficial to explore the new mode of rural urbanization, which is the engine of economic development in China.

  12. Entropy and the City. GHG Emissions Inventory: a Common Baseline for the Design of Urban and Industrial Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Pezzagno

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available From a thermodynamic point of view, the attribution of the adjective sustainable to an open system like the city is, at least, very problematic. The biosphere is a closed system, kept far from the thermodynamic equilibrium by the flow of energy coming from the sun. The biosphere maintains and increases its internal order dispersing entropy, generated by all the internal processes, as thermal infrared radiation. But then, the elegant picture of sustainability given by thermodynamics can not be applied to open systems, and notably to the city, without raising both theoretical and practical problems. The city is almost by definition a place of consumption and of degradation of potentials, kept in local equilibrium by external flows of matter and energy, but at the same time plays a key role in shaping and maintaining the global flows of matter, energy, and information, and this role must be taken into account when interpreting thermodynamic-based descriptions. The urban capital probably represents the greatest investment made by mankind. Materials have been harvested from the earth crust and from the natural systems, and have been concentrated and ordered in the city. But the "city" is not the infrastructure: it's concept of a different logical type. The city is a further level of organization that produces services of higher level. The urban infrastructure is necessary, but not sufficient to produce the city services. The city is the most important social and health "device". A proper accounting must consider the city-performance of the urban infrastructure, beyond the mere, local energy and carbon efficiency. In this context, local GHG accounting is proposed as a rather simple and useful basis to ground process-wise studies and projects, including the creation of effective local industrial ecologies, in a continuous city-making effort toward higher sustainability.

  13. Fish consumption risk perception among anglers in an industrial urban area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Lynne M. Westphal; Mario Longoni

    2010-01-01

    Over two summers, we conducted field interviews with anglers in the industrial Calumet Region of northwest Indiana and southeast Chicago. The data collected provide insight into how anglers assess the risks of eating the fish they catch. Some anglers practiced catch and release because of concerns about water pollution while others just did not eat fish. Those who ate...

  14. Testing applicability of black poplar (Populus nigra L.) bark to heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlizov, A.N.; Blum, O.B.; Filby, R.H.; Malyuk, I.A.; Tryshyn, V.V.

    2007-01-01

    A comparative study of the capabilities of black poplar-tree (Populus nigra L.) bark as a biomonitor of atmospheric heavy-metal pollution is reported. Performance indicators (concentrations and enrichment factors) of heavy metal bioaccumulation of bark were compared to the corresponding indicators of epiphytic lichens Xanthoria parietina (L.) Th. Fr. and Physcia adscendens (Fr.) H. Oliver, collected simultaneously with bark samples within the Kiev urban-industrial conurbation. The concentrations of 40 minor and trace elements in the samples were measured by a combination of epithermal and instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) using a 10 MW nuclear research reactor WWR-M as the neutron source. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out using non-parametric tests. It was shown that for the majority of the elements determined a good correlation exists between their concentrations in bark and in the lichen species. The accumulation capability of the bark was found to be as effective as, and in some cases better, for both types of lichens. Based on the background levels and variations of the elemental concentration in black poplar-tree bark, threshold values for the enrichment factors were established. For a number of elements (As, Au, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Sm, Ti, Th, U, V, W) an interspecies calibration was performed. An optimized pre-irradiation treatment of the bark sample was employed which efficiently separated the most informative external layer from the deeper layers of the bark and thus minimized variations of the element concentrations. Results of this study support black poplar-tree bark as an alternative to epiphytic lichens for heavy metal air pollution monitoring in urban and industrial regions, where severe environmental conditions may result in scarcity or even lack of the indicator species

  15. Constant volume balloons measurements in the urban Marseille and Fos-Berre industrial ozone plumes during ESCOMPTE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénech, Bruno; Ezcurra, Agustin; Lothon, Marie; Saïd, Frédérique; Campistron, Bernard; Lohou, Fabienne; Durand, Pierre

    ESCOMPTE programme aims at studying the emissions of primary pollutants in industrial and urban areas, their transport, diffusion and transformation in the atmosphere. This experiment, carried out in southeast France, can be used to validate and to improve meteorological and chemical mesoscale models. One major goal of this experiment was to follow the pollutant plumes, and to investigate its thermodynamic and physico-chemical time evolution. This was realized by means of constant volume balloons, located by global position satellite (GPS) and equipped with thermodynamic and ozone sensors, flying at constant density levels. During the two ESCOMPTE campaigns that took place in June and July 2000 and 2001, 40 balloons were launched, 17 of them equipped with ozone sensors during the day from 0800 to 1800 UTC. Balloons' altitudes flight levels ranged between 400 and 1200 m altitude with Mistral (northerly synoptic flow) and Sea Breeze (southerly breeze) conditions. The atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) topography of the experimental domain is complex and varies strongly from day to day. Its depth presents a large gradient from the sea coast to the north part of the ESCOMPTE domain, and also more complex variability within the domain. The balloons' trajectories describe the evolution of the pollutant plume emitted from the industrial area of Fos-Berre or from the Marseille urban area. Constant volume balloons give a good description of the trajectories of these two plumes. The balloons, which fly at an isopicnic level, cross different atmospheric layers chiefly depending on the ABL height in relation with the constant volume balloons flight level. Thus, each balloon flight is decomposed into different segments that correspond to the same atmospheric layer. In each segment, the ozone content variation is analyzed in relation to other thermodynamical parameters measured by the balloon and mainly to the vapor mixing ratio content. During ESCOMPTE campaign, the mean linear

  16. Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schindler, I.; Wiesenberger, H.

    2001-01-01

    This chapter of the environmental control report deals with the environmental impact of the industry in Austria. It gives a review of the structure and types of the industry, the legal framework and environmental policy of industrial relevance. The environmental situation of the industry in Austria is analyzed in detail, concerning air pollution (SO 2 , NO x , CO 2 , CO, CH 4 , N 2 O, NH 3 , Pb, Cd, Hg, dioxin, furans), waste water, waste management and deposit, energy and water consumption. The state of the art in respect of the IPPC-directives (European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Bureau) concerning the best available techniques of the different industry sectors is outlined. The application of European laws and regulations in the Austrian industry is described. (a.n.)

  17. Intervention of Mr Nicolas Sarkozy, Government minister, minister of economy, finances and industry. Energy debate - Thursday April 15, 2004 - French house of commons; Intervention de M. Nicolas Sarkozy, ministre d'Etat, ministre de l'economie, des finances et de l'industrie. Debat sur l'energie - jeudi 15 avril 2004 - assemblee nationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkozy, N.

    2004-04-01

    In this talk, the French minister of economy, finances and industry recalls, first, some important key dates of the French energy history (creation of the French electric and gas utilities (EdF and GdF) in 1946, first petroleum shock in 1973 and the start-up of the French nuclear program) and then, presents the present day energy policy and the constraints that control the French energy choices: the lack of oil and gas resources in the French territory, and the problem of the global warming. According to these constraints, the French government has defined 4 main axes: energy mastery (thermal insulation of buildings, abatement of road speed limits, development of railway and river transport, financial incentives), development of renewable energy sources, renewal of the nuclear park with the launching of the European Pressurized reactor (EPR), and development of research programs in the domain of energy. The last part presents the new European framework of the French energy policy with the change of EdF and GdF juridical statuses and the progressive convergence of the different European energy policies towards a common model. (J.S.)

  18. Industrial symbiosis as a countermeasure for resource dependent city: a case study of Guiyang, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hong; Dong, Liang; Ren, Jingzheng

    2015-01-01

    Solutions towards sustainable cities are of vital importance for China's stakeholders due to the rapid urbanizations, serious resources depletion and environmental contaminations in China. China as the second largest economy is suffering from the dilemma of rapid industrialization and urbanization......, and sustainable development. One of the most severe problems affecting China's sustainable urban development is the resource dependent city, in which resource mining and process industries dominate the local economy. With the depletion of natural resources and the degradation of environment, the concept...... of sustainability and economy transition solutions become more and more important. Under this condition, this study aims to conduct a comprehensive review on the major projects for a more sustainable future in China's national resource dependent cities and propose a countermeasure for the sustainability transition...

  19. Metal-containing residues from industry and in the environment: geobiotechnological urban mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glombitza, Franz; Reichel, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This chapter explains the manifold geobiotechnological possibilities to separate industrial valuable metals from various industrial residues and stored waste products of the past. In addition to an overview of the different microbially catalyzed chemical reactions applicable for a separation of metals and details of published studies, results of many individual investigations from various research projects are described. These concern the separation of rare earth elements from phosphorous production slags, the attempts of tin leaching from mining flotation residues, the separation of metals from spent catalysts, or the treatment of ashes as valuable metal-containing material. The residues of environmental technologies are integrated into this overview as well. The description of the different known microbial processes offers starting points for suitable and new technologies. In addition to the application of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms the use of heterotrophic microorganisms is explained.

  20. Variability of carbonaceous aerosols in remote, rural, urban and industrial environments in Spain: implications for air quality policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Viana, M.; Moreno, T.; Reche, C.; Minguillón, M. C.; Ripoll, A.; Pandolfi, M.; Amato, F.; Karanasiou, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Cusack, M.; Vázquez, R.; Plana, F.; Dall'Osto, M.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A.; Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; Pio, C.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Titos, G.; Artíñano, B.; Salvador, P.; García Dos Santos, S.; Fernández Patier, R.

    2013-07-01

    We interpret here the variability of levels of carbonaceous aerosols based on a 12 yr database from 78 monitoring stations across Spain specially compiled for this article. Data did not evidence any spatial trends of carbonaceous aerosols across the country. Conversely, results show marked differences in average concentrations from the cleanest, most remote sites (around 1 μg m-3 of non-mineral carbon (nmC), mostly made of organic carbon (OC) with very little elemental carbon (EC), around 0.1 μg m-3; OC / EC = 12-15), to the highly polluted major cities (8-10 μg m-3 of nmC; 3-4 μg m-3 of EC; 4-5 μg m-3 of OC; OC / EC = 1-2). Thus, urban (and very specific industrial) pollution was found to markedly increase levels of carbonaceous aerosols in Spain, with much lower impact of biomass burning and of biogenic emissions. Correlations between yearly averaged OC / EC and EC concentrations adjust very well to a potential equation (OC = 3.37 EC0.326, R2 = 0.8). A similar equation is obtained when including average concentrations obtained at other European sites (OC = 3.60EC0.491, R2 = 0.7). A clear seasonal variability in OC and EC concentrations was detected. Both OC and EC concentrations were higher during winter at the traffic and urban sites, but OC increased during the warmer months at the rural sites. Hourly equivalent black carbon (EBC) concentrations at urban sites accurately depict road traffic contributions, varying with distance from road, traffic volume and density, mixing-layer height and wind speed. Weekday urban rush-hour EBC peaks are mimicked by concentrations of primary gaseous emissions from road traffic, whereas a single midday peak is characteristic of remote and rural sites. Decreasing annual trends for carbonaceous aerosols were observed between 1999 and 2011 at a large number of stations, probably reflecting the impact of the EURO4 and EURO5 standards in reducing the diesel PM emissions. This has resulted in some cases in an increasing trend for

  1. Death of distance and agglomeration forces of firms in the urban e-economy : an artificial intelligence approach using rough set analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijkamp, Peter; Geenhuizen, van Marina

    2005-01-01

    The present study addresses the relevance of geographic proximity for companies in our age of advanced ICT. Many visions of, and speculations on, an increased footlooseness of companies and a concomitant dispersal of urban economic activity have been published in recent years. To identify whether

  2. An Emerging Knowledge-Based Economy in China? Indicators from OECD Databases. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2004/4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criscuolo, Chiara; Martin, Ralf

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this Working Paper is to show a set of indicators on the knowledge-based economy for China, mainly compiled from databases within EAS, although data from databases maintained by other parts of the OECD are included as well. These indicators are put in context by comparison with data for the United States, Japan and the EU (or…

  3. Steps towards an integrated eco‐economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, Chris; Christensen, Bo Allesøe

    2014-01-01

    as an attempt to develop an integrated eco-economy, which transcends established borders between public and private organizations, private and community enterprise and between rural and urban spatial development. The specific aim of the paper is to demonstrate how modernization has decoupled urban and rural...

  4. Agglomeration economies, competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance

    OpenAIRE

    Páger, Balázs; Komlósi, Éva

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to elaborate the role of agglomeration effects on countries' competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance. Our research contributes to the understanding of the relationship that exists between a country's urban system characterized by spatial agglomeration (concentration) or deglomeration (deconcentration) processes, and its competitiveness and entrepreneurial performance, respectively. Urbanization economies refer to considerable cost savings generated through the locating...

  5. Concentration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in PM10 of urban, industrial and semi-urban areas in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamhari, Anas Ahmad; Sahani, Mazrura; Latif, Mohd Talib; Chan, Kok Meng; Tan, Hock Seng; Khan, Md Firoz; Mohd Tahir, Norhayati

    2014-04-01

    Particulate matter (PM10) associated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air were determined at two sites within the Klang Valley, Kuala Lumpur (urban, KL) and Petaling Jaya (industrial, PJ), and one site outside the Klang Valley, Bangi (semi-urban, BG). This study aimed to determine the concentration and distribution of PAHs in PM10 and the source of origin through principal component analysis (PCA) and diagnostic ratio analysis. This study also assessed the health risk from exposure to airborne BaPeq. PM10 samples were collected on glass fiber filter paper using a High Volume Sampler (HVS) for 24 h between September 2010 and April 2011. The filter papers with PM10 were extracted using dichloromethane-methanol (3:1), and analysis of 16 USEPA priority PAHs was determined using gas chromatography with mass spectra (GC-MS). Health risk assessment was estimated using toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) and incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) which quantitatively estimate the exposure risk for age specific group. The results showed that the total PAHs concentrations throughout seasonal monsoons for KL, PJ and BG ranged from 1.33 ng m-3 to 2.97 ng m-3, 2.24 ng m-3 to 4.84 ng m-3 and 1.64 ng m-3 to 3.45 ng m-3 respectively. More than 80% of total PAHs consisted of 5-ring and 6-ring PAHs such as benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene (IcP), benzo[b]fluoranthene (BbF), benzo[k]fluoranthene (BkF) and benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP). The presence of benzo[g,h,i]perylene (BgP) with high concentration at all locations suggested a source indicator for traffic emission. PCA and diagnostic ratio analysis also suggested substantial contributions from traffic emission with minimal influence from coal combustion and natural gas emissions. The use of total BaPeq concentration provide a better estimation of carcinogenicity activities, where they contributed to more than 50% of the potential health risk. Health risk assessment showed that the estimated incremental

  6. A candidate framework for PM2.5 source identification in highly industrialized urban-coastal areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, Vinícius Lionel; Gioda, Adriana

    2017-09-01

    The variability of PM sources and composition impose tremendous challenges for police makers in order to establish guidelines. In urban PM, sources associated with industrial processes are among the most important ones. In this study, a 5-year monitoring of PM2.5 samples was carried out in an industrial district. Their chemical composition was strategically determined in two campaigns in order to check the effectiveness of mitigation policies. Gaseous pollutants (NO2, SO2, and O3) were also monitored along with meteorological variables. The new method called Conditional Bivariate Probability Function (CBPF) was successfully applied to allocate the observed concentration of criteria pollutants (gaseous pollutants and PM2.5) in cells defined by wind direction-speed which provided insights about ground-level and elevated pollution plumes. CBPF findings were confirmed by the Theil-Sen long trend estimations for criteria pollutants. By means of CBPF, elevated pollution plumes were detected in the range of 0.54-5.8 μg m-3 coming from a direction associated to stacks. With high interpretability, the use of Conditional Inference Trees (CIT) provided both classification and regression of the speciated PM2.5 in the two campaigns. The combination of CIT and Random Forests (RF) point out NO3- and Ca+2 as important predictors for PM2.5. The latter predictor mostly associated to non-sea-salt sources, given a nss-Ca2+ contribution equal to 96%.

  7. Characterisation of volatile organic compounds in an urban atmosphere influenced by industrial emissions: from identification to contribution of sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badol, C.

    2005-04-01

    Continuous hourly measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from C 2 to C 10 were performed in Dunkerque, northern France from August 2002 to September 2003. The receptor site was chosen to be influenced by both urban and industrial VOC emissions. First the analysis of concentrations according to the wind direction has allowed to prove this double influence for benzene and octane whereas seasonal and daily time series have only permitted to formulate hypotheses. Secondly the scatter plots of compounds versus acetylene, a traffic exhaust tracer, have confirmed this double origin for the two compounds. Then a simple regression analysis has allowed to reach the hydrocarbon/acetylene ratio characterizing the traffic exhaust source. Finally this traffic exhaust ratio has been used to achieve the traffic exhaust contribution to individual hydrocarbon levels. The industrial contribution in benzene and octane ambient levels could reach 80% for some wind directions, showing the role of meteorological conditions. This observation must be taken cautiously because of the weak frequency of the concerned wind directions. (author)

  8. URBAN POLITICS: KEY APPROACHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ledyaeva Ol'ga Mikhaylovna

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several approaches that underlie urban politics are discussed in the paper. They include neo-liberalism, political economy discourse, elitist/pluralist debates, and postmodernism. The neoliberal approach focuses on the limited role of the state and individual responsibility. The legal framework protects both the rights and responsibilities of individuals and regulates the operation of the market. It is the market that fosters individual choices and provides goods and services by virtue of the processes which are flexible, efficient and transparent. The political economy approaches (regulation theory, public choice theory, neo-Marxism explain urban politics via the analysis of national and international economic processes and changes in contemporary capitalism. Changes in national and international economies determine what solutions are possible. The discourse has been influenced by the debate on globalization of capital and labour markets. Modern elitism and neopluralism are represented by theories of "growth machines" and "urban regimes". The former focuses on bargaining alliances between political and business leaders in order to manage the urban system and to promote its growth. The latter develops neopluralist explanations of power within local communities with an emphasis on the fragmented nature of the government where local authorities lack comprehensive governing powers. Postmodernism views the city as the site of the crisis of late capitalism which leads to segregation of neighbourhoods onto prosperous areas and ghettoes. In contrast to the modern city, the postmodern city is not defined by its industrial base; rather, it is determined by its consumerist environment of malls and museums, characterized by revivalist architecture. At the same time, the suburban shopping mall and a motorway network make nonsense of the idea of the city as a unique and well-defined space. These and other approaches encompass a wide spectrum of possibilities

  9. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford, OXON, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Rowland, Philip, E-mail: apr@ceh.ac.uk [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom); Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-15

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the < 0.45 {mu}m filtered fraction) in rivers draining rural, agricultural, urban and industrial land-use types in the UK averaged 2.1 {mu}g/l with a range in average of 0.55 to 6.48 {mu}g/l. The lowest averages occurred for the upland areas of mid-Wales the highest just downstream of major sewage treatment works (STWs). [Ti] in rainfall and cloud water in mid-Wales averaged 0.2 and 0.7 {mu}g/l, respectively. Average, baseflow and stormflow [Ti] were compared with two markers of sewage effluent and thus human population: soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and boron (B). While B reflects chemically conservative mixing, SRP declined downstream of STW inputs due to in-stream physico-chemical and biological uptake. The results are related to colloidal and sub-colloidal Ti inputs from urban/industrial conurbations coupled with diffuse background (geological) sources and within-river removal/retention under low flows as a result of processes of aggregation and sedimentation. The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to eleven fold, but the total anthropogenic Ti input might well have been underestimated owing to within-river retention. A baseline survey using cross-flow ultrafiltration revealed that up to 79% of the [Ti] was colloidal/nanoparticulate (> 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: {yields} Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. {yields} Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. {yields} The urban/industrial

  10. FDI from Emerging Economies in EU27

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jindra, Björn

    This paper scrutinizes FDI from a wide range of emerging economies (including newly industrializing Asian countries, Latin American countries and East European transition economies) that adopted different growth models in the past. The overarching research question of this paper is to which...... the integration of firms from different emerging economies via FDI into the global economy is linked to technological upgrading. We assume that technology seeking in advanced economies should be reflected in the relevance of particular location factors such as knowledge spillover. We analyses a large firm level...

  11. Business models of sharing economy companies : exploring features responsible for sharing economy companies’ internationalization

    OpenAIRE

    Kosintceva, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    This paper is dedicated to the sharing economy business models and their features responsible for internationalization. The study proposes derived definitions for the concepts of “sharing economy” and “business model” and first generic sharing economy business models typology. The typology was created through the qualitative analysis of secondary data on twenty sharing economy companies from nine different industries. The outlined categories of sharing economy business models a...

  12. Agricultural land for urban development : The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuc, Nguyen Quang; Westen, A. C M van; Zoomers, Annelies

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam's progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  13. Agricultural land for urban development: The process of land conversion in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, C.P.; Westen, A.C.M. van; Zoomers, A.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1990s, Vietnam’s progressive integration into the global market economy has triggered major economic and social transformations. In spatial terms, these are marked by a massive conversion of agricultural land for industrial and urban development. While this process has attracted

  14. Industrialization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lucy

    . African states as ... regarded as the most important ingredients that went to add value to land and labour in order for countries ... B. Sutcliffe Industry and Underdevelopment (Massachusetts Addison – Wesley Publishing Company. 1971), pp.

  15. Plutonium economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1984-01-01

    The author expresses his opinion on the situation, describes the energy-economic setting, indicates the alternatives: fuel reprocessing or immediate long-term storage, and investigates the prospects for economic utilization of the breeder reactors. All the facts suggest that the breeder reactor will never be able to stand economic competition with light-water reactors. However, there is no way to prove the future. It is naive to think that every doubt could and must be removed before stopping the development of breeder reactors - and thus also the reprocessing of the fuel of light-water reactors. On the basis of the current state of knowledge an unbiased cost-benefit-analysis can only lead to the recommendation to stop construction immediately. But can 'experts', who for years or even decades have called for and supported the development of breeder reactors be expected to make an unbiased analysis. Klaus Traube strikes the balance of the state Germany's nuclear economy is in: although there is no chance of definitively abandoning that energy-political cul-de-sac, no new adventures must be embarked upon. Responsible handling of currently used nuclear technology means to give up breeder technology and waive plutonium economy. It is no supreme technology with the aid of which structural unemployment or any other economic problem could be solved. (orig.) [de

  16. Metal distribution in urban soil around steel industry beside Queen Alia Airport, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khashman, Omar A; Shawabkeh, Reyad A

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the extent and severity of metal contamination in urban soil around Queen Alia Airport, Jordan. Thirty-two soil samples were collected around steel manufacturing plants located in the Al-Jiza area, south Jordan, around the Queen Alia Airport. The samples were obtained at two depths, 0-10 and 10-20 cm, and were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry for lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), cadmium (Cd), iron (Fe), copper (Cu) and chromium (Cr) levels. The physicochemical factors believed to affect the mobility of metals in the soil of the study area were also examined, including pH, electrical conductivity, total organic matter, calcium carbonate (CaCO(3)) content and cation exchange capacity. The high concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd in the soil samples were found to be related to anthropogenic sources, such as the steel manufacturing plants, agriculture and traffic emissions, with the highest concentrations of these metals close to the site of the steel plants; in contrast the concentration of Cr was low in the soil sampled close to the steel plants. The metals were concentrated in the surface soil, and concentrations decreased with increasing depth, reflecting the physical properties of the soil and its alkaline pH. The mineralogical composition of the topsoil, identified by X-ray diffraction, was predominantly quartz, calcite, dolomite and minor minerals, such as gypsum and clay minerals. Metal concentrations were compared using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compute the statistical significance of the mean. The results of the ANOVA showed significant differences between sites for Pb, Cd and Cu, but no significant differences for the remaining metals tested. Factor analysis revealed that polluted soil occurs predominantly at sites around the steel plants and that there is no significant variation in the characteristics of the unpolluted soil, which are uniform in the study area.

  17. Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, Lenny; Roy, Joyashree; Delhotal, K. Casey; Harnisch, Jochen; Matsuhashi, Ryuji; Price, Lynn; Tanaka, Kanako; Worrell, Ernst; Yamba, Francis; Fengqi, Zhou; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Gielen, Dolf; Joosen, Suzanne; Konar, Manaswita; Matysek, Anna; Miner, Reid; Okazaki, Teruo; Sanders, Johan; Sheinbaum Parado, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    This chapter addresses past, ongoing, and short (to 2010) and medium-term (to 2030) future actions that can be taken to mitigate GHG emissions from the manufacturing and process industries. Globally, and in most countries, CO{sub 2} accounts for more than 90% of CO{sub 2}-eq GHG emissions from the industrial sector (Price et al., 2006; US EPA, 2006b). These CO{sub 2} emissions arise from three sources: (1) the use of fossil fuels for energy, either directly by industry for heat and power generation or indirectly in the generation of purchased electricity and steam; (2) non-energy uses of fossil fuels in chemical processing and metal smelting; and (3) non-fossil fuel sources, for example cement and lime manufacture. Industrial processes also emit other GHGs, e.g.: (1) Nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) is emitted as a byproduct of adipic acid, nitric acid and caprolactam production; (2) HFC-23 is emitted as a byproduct of HCFC-22 production, a refrigerant, and also used in fluoroplastics manufacture; (3) Perfluorocarbons (PFCs) are emitted as byproducts of aluminium smelting and in semiconductor manufacture; (4) Sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) is emitted in the manufacture, use and, decommissioning of gas insulated electrical switchgear, during the production of flat screen panels and semiconductors, from magnesium die casting and other industrial applications; (5) Methane (CH{sub 4}) is emitted as a byproduct of some chemical processes; and (6) CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O can be emitted by food industry waste streams. Many GHG emission mitigation options have been developed for the industrial sector. They fall into three categories: operating procedures, sector-wide technologies and process-specific technologies. A sampling of these options is discussed in Sections 7.2-7.4. The short- and medium-term potential for and cost of all classes of options are discussed in Section 7.5, barriers to the application of these options are addressed in Section 7.6 and the implication of

  18. The real new economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Diana

    2003-10-01

    During the soar-and-swoon days of the late 1990s, many people believed that information technology, and the Internet in particular, were "changing everything" in business. A fundamental change did happen in the 1990s, but it was less about technology than about competition. Under director Diana Farrell, the McKinsey Global Institute has conducted an extensive study of productivity and its connection to corporate IT spending and use during that period. The study revealed that information technology is important--but not central--to the fate of industries and individual companies. So if information technology was not the primary factor in the productivity surge, what was? The study points to competition and innovation. In those industries that saw increases in competitive intensity, managers were forced to innovate aggressively to protect their revenues and profits. Those innovations--in products, business practices, and technology--led to the gains in productivity. In fact, a critical dynamic of the new economy--the real new economy--is the virtuous cycle of competition, innovation, and productivity growth. Managers can innovate in many ways, but during the 1990s, information technology was a particularly powerful tool, for three reasons: First, IT enabled the development of attractive new products and efficient new business processes. Second, it facilitated the rapid industrywide diffusion of innovations. And third, it exhibited strong scale economies--its benefits multiplied rapidly as its use expanded. This article reveals surprising data on how various industries in the United States and Europe were affected by competition, innovation, and information technology in the 1990s and offers insights about how managers can get more from their IT investments.

  19. Spatial and Supply/Demand Agglomeration Economies: An Evaluation of State- and Industry-Linkages in the U.S. Food System

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Jeffrey P.; Morrison Paul, Catherine J.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we postulate, measure, and evaluate the importance of cost-impacts from spatial and industrial spillovers for analysis of economic performance. To accomplish this, we incorporate measures of "activity levels" of related states and industries in a cost function model, and estimate their associated thick market and agglomeration effects in terms of shadow values and elasticities. We focus on the food processing sector, the proximity of own-industry activity in neighboring states...

  20. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  1. An approach to detecting delayed effects of radioactive contamination on industrial-urban-area dwellers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Privalova, L.I.; Katsnelson, B.A.; Polzik, E.V.; Kazantsev, V.S.; Lipatov, G.Ya.; Beikin, Y.B.

    1994-01-01

    Detecting changes in humans that result from radioactive contamination of the area of residence many years after an incident (i.e., when the radiation has substantially decayed) presents a difficult epidemiological problem. Problems of this kind are even more complicated in areas where the population is continually exposed to other harmful man-made factors. The city of Kamensk-Uralsky (Sverdlovsk region, Russia) is a good case in point. In 1957, part of Kamensk-Uralsky was contaminated as the result of an accident at the Kyshtym nuclear plant. In addition, the population of the contaminated area is being exposed to atmospheric emissions from several industrial enterprises. Two comparable groups of residents were formed: one in the contaminated area and another in a control area within the same city characterized by similar levels of chemical pollution but substantially lower radioactive contamination. The groups were composed of only those people who had been living in these areas continually since time of the accident and who were under 15 years of age at the time of the accident. The groups were matched by sex, age, and socio-occupational characteristics. For each subject, data were gathered on more than 50 parameters including hematological, immunological, and biochemical indices of the health status. All these data were obtained from blood tests taken in the fall of 1992. Data processing was carried out with the help of a computerized mathematical pattern recognition methodology, which ensured reliable discrimination between the generalized health status in the areas under study. We found that the health status of inhabitants of the area more contaminated with radioactive fallouts were adversely affected by radiation

  2. Air pollution monitoring in urban areas due to heavy transportation and industries: a case of rawalpindi and islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, M.; Malik, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The present study deals with the air pollution caused by Industry and transportation in urban areas of Pakistan. Rawalpindi and Islamabad, the twin cities of Pakistan were considered for this purpose. The concentrations of major air pollutants were taken from different location according their standard time period using Air Quality Monitoring Station. Five major air pollutants were considered i.e., NO/sub 2/, SO/sub 2/, CO, O/sub 3/ and PM/sub 2.5/. The average mean values for all pollutants were taken on monthly and four monthly bases. The concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 were exceeding the permissible limits as define by Environmental Protection Agency of Pakistan. Other pollutants concentrations were within the standard limits. Geographic Information System was used as a tool for the representation and analysis of Environmental Impacts of air pollution. Passquill and Smith dispersion model was used to calculate the buffer zones. Some mitigation measures were also recommended to assess the environmental and health Impacts because of PM/sub 2.5/ and NO/sub 2/. (author)

  3. Holistic countermeasures evaluation and the sustainable restoration and long-term management of contaminated rural, urban and industrial ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Wright, S.M.; Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.; Cox, G.; Crout, N.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    Emergency planning as conducted by most national authorities is often focussed upon short-term response (few days - weeks) and addresses issues such as the need for evacuation, problems associated with 1 31I and immediate requirements for restrictions on food and water. There is limited systematic consideration of the long-term management of contaminated areas to ensure their sustainability. Experience following the Chernobyl accident, most especially within the countries of the former Soviet Union (fSU) but also in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom, have demonstrated that countermeasures may have to be employed for a number of decades. The evaluation criteria for the many countermeasures which have been developed needs to be extended from simply effectiveness and radiological protection criteria to a more integrated, holistic approach. Specifically, there needs to be an assessment as to whether countermeasures: can be practically applied; incur considerable direct or side-effect costs; have significant environmental side-effects; and are acceptable to society. In addition, suitable approaches for successfully communicating with a wide range of stake holders must be explored. This is an essential step in developing a decision framework and avoiding problems previously experienced in emergency management. This paper presents results from an ongoing project (see www.strategy-ec.org.uk) to develop a framework for the identification of strategies for the sustainable management of contaminated urban, rural and industrial areas

  4. Unleashing the Power of the Circular Economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, L.; Wurpel, G.; Ten Wolde, A. [IMSA Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-04-15

    The concept of circular economy is an economic and industrial system that focuses on the reusability of products and raw materials, reduces value destruction in the overall system and aims at value creation within each tier of the system. This report for Circle Economy (CE) outlines the general direction and concrete steps that must be taken to accomplish a breakthrough to a circular economy. It also provides a knowledge base behind the concept, connecting it to sustainability.

  5. Monitoring of fogwater chemistry in the gulf coast urban industrial corridor: Baton Rouge (louisiana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, S; Ravikrishna, R; Kommalapati, R R; Valsaraj, K T

    2005-11-01

    Seventeen fog events were sampled in Baton Rouge, Louisiana during 2002-2004 as part of characterizing wet deposition by fogwater in the heavily industrialized corridor along the Louisiana Gulf Coast in the United States. These samples were analyzed for chemical characteristics such as pH, conductivity, total organic and inorganic carbon, total metals and the principal ion concentrations. The dominant ionic species in all samples were NH4+, NO3-, Cl- and SO4(2-). The pH of the fogwater sampled had a mean value of 6.7 with two cases of acidic pH of 4.7. Rainwater and fogwater pH were similar in this region. The acidity of fogwater was a result of NO3- but partly offset by high NH4+. The measured gaseous SO2 accounted for a small percentage of the observed sulfate concentration, indicating additional gas-to-particle conversion of SO2 to sulfate in fogwater. The gaseous NOx accounted for most of the dissolved nitrate and nitrite concentration in fogwater. The high chloride concentration was attributable to the degradation of chlorinated organics in the atmosphere. The metal composition was traced directly to soil-derived aerosol precursors in the air. The major metals observed in fogwater were Na, K, Ca, Fe, Al, Mg and Zn. Of these Na, K, Ca and Mg were predominant with mean concentrations > 100 microM. Al, Fe and Zn were present in the samples, at mean concentrations fogwaters, and these were shown to result from particulates (PM2.5) in the atmosphere. The contribution to both ions and metals from the marine sources in the Louisiana Gulf Coast was minimal. The concentrations of all principal ionic species and metals in fogwater were 1-2 orders of magnitude larger than in rainwater. Several linear alkane organic compounds were observed in the fogwater, representing the contributions from petroleum products at concentrations far exceeding their aqueous solubility. A pesticide (atrazine) was also observed in fogwater, representing the contribution from the agricultural

  6. [Has the urban transition ended in sub-Saharan Africa?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocquier, P

    1999-01-01

    In 1950, 28% of the world¿s population lived in cities. At that point, localities larger than 10,000 inhabitants were home to 0.7 billion people, of whom 36% were in developing countries. However, according to UN projections, the rate of urbanization will reach 47.4% in 2000, with cities housing 2.9 billion people, of whom 68.7% will be in developing countries. Africa, like other continents, is urbanizing. Although Africa is among the world¿s least urbanized regions, it is nonetheless the continent with the highest rate of urbanization. Urban population growth reached its height during the 1950s, then the urban population in the region multiplied by a factor of 10 during 1950-90, far outpacing the rate of overall population growth on the continent. However, during the 1980s and 1990s, urban growth in Africa declined sharply. The author discusses urbanization in Africa devoid of industrialization, declining rates of urban population growth in the region, the uncertain future of urbanization in Africa, and how future urbanization in Africa depends upon the role the continent will play in the global economy.

  7. To Whom Is Contact Use Beneficial? The Impacts of Self-Selected Contact Use on Gender Income Differentials in the Transitional Economy of Urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effect of contact use on the gender earnings gap in urban China, by taking into account the existence of self-selection effect. We theorised two sources of individuals’ self-selected job obtainment behaviour; namely, the structuralised gender-segregated employment environment and one’s internalisation of the structural constraints. Based on data collected from the highly marketized Chinese city Xiamen, our estimations from the Endogenous Switching Regression model show that there is indeed a significant tendency, in which women with marketable qualifications use social contacts to find jobs, even though their obtained income would have increased significantly had they chosen not to rely on contacts to find jobs. Men enjoyed premiums from their job search strategies, whether they relied on contact use or not.

  8. The metal industry in Norway: Economy, employment and emission of climate gases; Metallindustrien i Norge: Oekonomi, sysselsetting og utslipp av klimagasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godal, Odd

    1998-11-01

    This document presents various types of data on the metal industry in Norway as a basis for further analysis and discussion. Being energy intensive, the Norwegian metal industry has profited from the availability of hydroelectric power. The factories are often located in sparsely populated areas. In the production of aluminium, carbon dioxide is emitted to the atmosphere. A table lists all the Norwegian smelteries and their emissions of the greenhouse gases. Some of these emissions are fluoride gases with heating potentials up to 9200 times that of carbon dioxide. The emissions of SF6 are small in mass, but large in heating effect, 23900 times that of carbon dioxide. The total emission of climate gases from Norway is 59 million ton CO2 equivalents and 11% of this is due to the part of the metal industry described in this document. The total consumption of electricity of the factories included in this analysis is 25 TWh, which is 2/3 of the consumption by private households. The metal industry is not work intensive; the last twenty years the numbers of employees have decreased by 50%. But these factories are very important for the local communities. The metal industry is exposed to competition; the large fluctuation in prices on metals leads to fluctuation in the profit of the companies. Finally the report discusses the metal industry in a global context. Norway is committed to the Kyoto Protocol and the impact of this commitment on the metal industry is not clear. 2 refs., 8 figs., 9 tabs.

  9. Hydrogen economy: a little bit more effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauron, M.

    2008-01-01

    In few years, the use of hydrogen in economy has become a credible possibility. Today, billions of euros are invested in the hydrogen industry which is strengthened by technological advances in fuel cells development and by an increasing optimism. However, additional research efforts and more financing will be necessary to make the dream of an hydrogen-based economy a reality

  10. ‘But the Dutch would call it exploitation’. : Crimmigration and the moral economy of the Chinese catering industry in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Hiah (Jing); R.H.J.M. Staring (Richard)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstractBased on qualitative research into the Chinese catering industry in the Netherlands, this article describes labour relations between Chinese employers and their (undocumented) employees against the background of a society in which criminal, administrative, and immigration law

  11. Precarious City: Marginal Workers, The State, And Working-Class Activism In Post-Industrial San Francisco, 1964-1979

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Laura Renata

    2014-01-01

    This project investigates the effects of San Francisco's transition from an industrial to a post-industrial economy on the city's social movements between 1964 and 1979. I re-contextualize the city's Black freedom, feminist, and gay and transgender liberation movements as struggles over the changing nature of urban working-class life and labor in the postwar period. I argue that as San Francisco was increasingly emptied of its white ethnic industrial work force, working-class life became more...

  12. Does the New Economy Create Higher Productivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dilling-Hansen, Mogens; Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar

    2002-01-01

    The rapid and continuous growth in the US in the 1990s and the simultaneous boom in the IT industry created the concept "The New Economy". What connects the two phenomena is that the IT industry alone is considered productive, and increased productivity in other industries, as a result of increased...

  13. Location of slaughterhouses under economies of scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, J.J.J.; Schütz, P.; Stougie, L.; Tomasgard, A.

    2006-01-01

    The facility location problem described in this paper comes from an industrial application in the slaughterhouse industry of Norway. Investigations show that the slaughterhouse industry experiences economies of scale in the production facilities. We examine a location-allocation problem focusing on

  14. Environmental research programme. Ecological research. Annual report 1994. Urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In the annual report 1994 of the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology, the points of emphasis of the ecological research programme and their financing are discussed. The individual projects in the following subject areas are described in detail: urban-industrial landscapes, forests, agricultural landscapes, river and lake landscapes, other ecosystems and landscapes, terrestrial ecosystem research, environmental pollution and human health and cross-sectional activities in ecological research. (vhe) [de

  15. Antimatter Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Norm

    2004-05-01

    The Antimatter Economy will bring every country into the 21st century without destroying our environment and turn the Star Trek dream into reality by using antimatter from comets. At the April 2002 joint meeting of the American Physical Society and American Astronomical Society, I announced that comets were composed of antimatter, there were 109 antimatter elements, and the Periodic Table of Elements had been updated to include the antimatter elements. When matter and antimatter come together, energy is produce according to Einstein's equation of mass times the speed of light squared or E = mc2. Antimatter energy creates incredible opportunities for humanity. People in spacecraft will travel to the moon in hours, planets in days, and stars in weeks. Antimatter power will replace fossil plants and produce hydrogen from off-peak electrical power. Hydrogen will supplant gas in cars, trucks, and other vehicles. The billions of ton of coal, billions of barrels of oil, and trillions of cubic feet of natural gas will be used to make trillions of dollars of products to bring countries into the 21st century. Within this millennium, the Worlds Gross National Product will increase from 30 trillion to 3,000 trillion plus 1,500 trillion from space commercialization bringing the Total Gross National Product to 4,500 trillion. Millions of businesses and billions of jobs will be created. However, the real benefits will come from taking billions of people out of poverty and empowering them to pursue their dreams of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. Please visit www.AntimatterEnergy.com.

  16. Energy and economy; Energia y Economia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Fernandez, J. L.

    2010-07-01

    This article, which reflects the authors presentation at the opening of the Congress of the Spanish Nuclear Society, examines the relationship between the Spanish economy and energy consumption in our country compared with major industrialized countries. (Author)

  17. Comparative Political Economy and International Migration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Afonso, A.; Devitt, C.

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the literature connecting comparative political economy and international migration in advanced industrialized countries with a focus on the relationship between labour migration, labour markets and welfare institutions. Immigration flows and policies are

  18. Mexico's four economies reflect regional differences, challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Canas, Jesus; Gutierrez, Emily

    2015-01-01

    The economic potential of Mexico’s four regions is defined by their industrial makeup, income per capita and how much of the labor force operates outside the formal economy. Recent government reforms could promote growth and reduce regional inequality.

  19. Effect of thermal pretreatment on the biogas production and microbial communities balance during anaerobic digestion of urban and industrial waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Hajer; Miladi, Baligh; Diaz, Soraya Zahedi; Güelfo, Luis Alberto Fernández; Solera, Rosario; Hamdi, Moktar; Bouallagui, Hassib

    2016-08-01

    The effect of thermal pre-treatment on the microbial populations balance and biogas production was studied during anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) coming from urban (US: urban sludge) and industrial (IS: industrial sludge) wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). The highest biogas yields of 0.42l/gvolatile solid (VS) removed and 0.37l/gVS removed were obtained with urban and industrial sludge pre-treated at 120°C, respectively. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was used to quantify the major Bacteria and Archaea groups. Compared to control trails without pretreatment, Archaea content increased from 34% to 86% and from 46% to 83% for pretreated IS and US, respectively. In fact, the thermal pre-treatment of WAS enhanced the growth of hydrogen-using methanogens (HUMs), which consume rapidly the H2 generated to allow the acetogenesis. Therefore, the stable and better performance of digesters was observed involving the balance and syntrophic associations between the different microbial populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Relationship between meteorological phenomena and air pollution in an urbanized and industrialized coastal area in northern France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gengembre, Cyril; Zhang, Shouwen; Dieudonné, Elsa; Sokolov, Anton; Augustin, Patrick; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2016-04-01

    Impacts of global climate evolution are quite uncertain at regional and local scales, especially on air pollution. Air quality is associated with local atmospheric dynamics at a time scale shorter than a few weeks, while the climate change time scale is on the order of fifty years. To infer consequences of climate evolution on air pollution, it is necessary to fill the gap between these different scales. Another challenge is to understand the effect of global warming on the frequency of meteorological phenomena that influence air pollution. In this work, we classified meteorological events related to air pollution during a one-year long field campaign in Dunkirk (northern France). Owing to its coastal location under urban and industrial exposures, the Dunkirk agglomeration is an interesting area for studying gaseous and aerosols pollutants and their relationship with weather events such as sea breezes, fogs, storms and fronts. The air quality in the northern region of France is also greatly influenced by highly populated and industrialized cities along the coast of the North Sea, and by London and Paris agglomerations. During a field campaign, we used simultaneously a three-dimensional sonic anemometer and a weather station network, along with a scanning Doppler Lidar system to analyse the vertical structure of the atmosphere. An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor enabled investigating the PM1 behaviour during the studied events. Air contaminants such as NOx (NO and NO2) were also measured by the regional pollution monitoring network ATMO Nord Pas-de-Calais. The events were identified by finding specific criteria from meteorological and turbulent parameters. Over a hundred cases of sea breezes, fog periods, stormy days and atmospheric front passages were investigated. Variations of turbulent parameters (vertical sensible heat flux and momentum flux) give estimations on the transport and the dispersal of pollutants. As the fluxes are weak during fogs, an increase

  1. Socio-demographic and clinical predictors of absenteeism - A cross-sectional study of urban industrial employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Suhash; Subramanya, Anantha H C

    2013-01-01

    Public sector undertakings are facing a threat of privatization due to unsatisfactory performance putting pressure on management and in turn to employees. There is an increasing trend of absenteeism observed amongst employees citing job stress. To find an association between job stress and absenteeism in relation to socio-demographic and clinical profile. The study was conducted in an urban aeronautical industry with 68 employees who mentioned stress at workplace during evaluation. Job stress was assessed using Professional Life Stress Scale (David Fontana). Those who scored more than 30 (n = 43) were taken up for the study after an informed consent. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to find socio-demographic and clinical profile. Employees who reported taking leave in last six months just to avoid work or workplace constitute the "absenteeism" group. The absenteeism group was compared to non-absenteeism group using Fisher exact/Chi-square test or independent t-test depending on type of variables. Out of 43 subjects, 18 had absenteeism while 25 did not have absenteeism. Comparing the two groups, interstate migration, having more than one previous job, commuting time more than an hour, co-morbid anxiety/depression, and alcohol abuse were significantly associated with absenteeism (P Absentees complained more about fatigue and relationship problem with colleagues than non-absentees (P absenteeism (P > 0.05). In absenteeism research, one of the widely accepted models is Steer and Rhode's "Process model of absenteeism." The model postulates job stress as one of the barriers for attendance. Thus, knowing the factors for absenteeism would help in preventing absenteeism.

  2. Different immunomodulatory effects associated with sub-micrometer particles in ambient air from rural, urban and industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wichmann, Gunnar; Franck, Ulrich; Herbarth, Olf; Rehwagen, Martina; Dietz, Andreas; Massolo, Laura; Ronco, Alicia; Mueller, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Immunomodulatory effects of chemicals adsorbed to particles with aerodynamic diameter below 0.49 μm (PM 0.5 ) collected in winter 2001 at three sampling points (industrial area [LPIn], traffic-influenced urban area [LPCi], and control area [LPCo]) of La Plata, Argentina, were investigated. The sampling of particulate matter was carried out with high-volume collectors using cascade impactors. PM 0.5 -adsorbed compounds were hexane-extracted by accelerated solvent extraction. For immunological investigations, human peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated by phytohemagglutinin and exposed to dimethyl-sulfoxide dilutions of PM 0.5 -extracts for 24 h. Vitality/proliferation was quantified using MTT, released interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin-4 (IL-4) by ELISA. Cytokine production but not vitality/proliferation was significantly suppressed by all of the highest extract concentrations. Generally, suppression of IFN-γ by PM 0.5 -extracts was stronger than those of IL-4. Based on administered mass of PM 0.5 , all extracts suppressed IFN-γ production nearly uniform. Contrary, LPCi-extracts exerted maximum IFN-γ suppression based either on air volume or regarding PM 0.5 -adsorbed PAH. Also the ranking of PM 0.5 -associated effects on IL-4 production differs in dependence of the chosen reference points, either mass or [μg/ml] or air volume [m 3 /ml] related dust quantities in cell culture. Based on the corresponding air volume, LPCi-extracts inhibited IL-4 production to the maximum extend, whereas suppression of IL-4 was comparable based on concentrations. This indicates that not only the disparate PM 0.5 -masses in air cause varying impacts, but also that disparities in PM 0.5 -adsorbed chemicals provoke different effects on immune responses and shifts in the regulatory balance that might have implications for allergy and cancer development

  3. Opportunities for a bio-based economy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, J.; Hoeven, D. van der

    2008-01-01

    The shift to a bio-based economy for the Netherlands is not only required because of climate change, but also for industrial strategy reasons. Traditional strongholds of the Dutch economy like the Rotterdam harbour, the agricultural sector (including the greenhouse sector, and food and feed industries) and the petrochemical industry will be affected by the new economic realities, and it is precisely to these sectors that a bio-based economy will offer new opportunities. (author)

  4. Interdisciplinary Student/Teacher Materials in Energy, the Environment, and the Economy: 3, Energy, Engines, and the Industrial Revolution, Grades 8, 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Barbara; And Others

    This instructional unit for grades 8-9 combines science and social studies in a look at the broad social and economic upheavals that took place during the industrial revolution, giving special emphasis to the role of energy. The invention and development of the steam engine is highlighted in one lesson. Other lessons show how the industrial…

  5. Agricultural Communities: The Interrelationship of Agriculture, Business, Industry, and Government in the Rural Economy. A Symposium (Washington, DC. May 19-20, 1983).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    Experts from government, academia, and interest groups met to discuss and explore the impact of changes in agriculture, industry, and government in shaping events in rural agricultural communities. Texts of 15 of the 18 papers are reproduced in the proceedings, along with the letter of submittal, overview, an agenda, and a list of presenters and…

  6. Collaborative Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    things, de-industrialization processes and post-capitalist forms of production and consumption, postmaterialism, the rise of the third sector and collaborative governance. Addressing that gap, this book explores the character, depth and breadth of these disruptions, the creative opportunities for tourism...... that are emerging from them, and how governments are responding to these new challenges. In doing so, the book provides both theoretical and practical insights into the future of tourism in a world that is, paradoxically, becoming both increasingly collaborative and individualized. Table of Contents Preface 1.The......This book employs an interdisciplinary, cross-sectoral lens to explore the collaborative dynamics that are currently disrupting, re-creating and transforming the production and consumption of tourism. House swapping, ridesharing, voluntourism, couchsurfing, dinner hosting, social enterprise...

  7. The regional dimension of sectoral innovativeness: An empirical investigation of two specialized suppliers and two science-based industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buerger, M.; Cantner, U.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to test the way in which geographical proximity and technological relatedness relate to an industry's innovative output. Two mechanisms are therefore tested, namely, urbanization economies and the regional exploitation of technological relatedness. A new dataset is applied......, which includes German patent applications from within the period 1995 to 2006. Four industries are considered, two of which are science-based, whereas the remaining two are specialized supplier industries. While diversity is associated with high innovative output in the specialized supplier industries......, the same does not hold for science-based industries. However, both kinds of industries seem to benefit from recombinant innovation....

  8. The development of nuclear fusion, its demands on the economy: a rough draft concerning the changeover, as fast as possible, of the US industry to fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper is the Fusion Energy Foundation (FEF) antithesis to Carter's energy programme which aims at a zero growth rate for energy in the USA. According to this antithesis, fusion energy alone meets the two fundamental requirements, i.e. sufficient energy flux density and availability of energy, which are to be demanded from an energy source for the future. The paper states that the changeover to fusion energy cannot be attained by a decrease in consumption but only by a strong increase in energy consumption; an annual growth rate of 20% (on a world average) for 15 to 20 years is deemed necessary to reach a fusion economy. Two criteria for such a growth rate, according to the paper, are an increase in the capital formation rate of about 17% per year by a doubled production of capital goods and a full utilisation of the potential labour force. Finally, the present discrepancies of opinion between the White House and the US public are mentioned. The FEF thinks that humanity has reached a historical turning point and that only fast and consequent realisation of fusion technology may open an era of nearly unlimited technological innovation and help to show mankind the way into the 21st century. (GG) [de

  9. Cells, Agents, and Support Vectors in Interaction - Modeling Urban Sprawl based on Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence Techniques in a Post-Industrial Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rienow, A.; Menz, G.

    2015-12-01

    Since the beginning of the millennium, artificial intelligence techniques as cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) have been incorporated into land-system simulations to address the complex challenges of transitions in urban areas as open, dynamic systems. The study presents a hybrid modeling approach for modeling the two antagonistic processes of urban sprawl and urban decline at once. The simulation power of support vector machines (SVM), cellular automata (CA) and multi-agent systems (MAS) are integrated into one modeling framework and applied to the largest agglomeration of Central Europe: the Ruhr. A modified version of SLEUTH (short for Slope, Land-use, Exclusion, Urban, Transport, and Hillshade) functions as the CA component. SLEUTH makes use of historic urban land-use data sets and growth coefficients for the purpose of modeling physical urban expansion. The machine learning algorithm of SVM is applied in order to enhance SLEUTH. Thus, the stochastic variability of the CA is reduced and information about the human and ecological forces driving the local suitability of urban sprawl is incorporated. Subsequently, the supported CA is coupled with the MAS ReHoSh (Residential Mobility and the Housing Market of Shrinking City Systems). The MAS models population patterns, housing prices, and housing demand in shrinking regions based on interactions between household and city agents. Semi-explicit urban weights are introduced as a possibility of modeling from and to the pixel simultaneously. Three scenarios of changing housing preferences reveal the urban development of the region in terms of quantity and location. They reflect the dissemination of sustainable thinking among stakeholders versus the steady dream of owning a house in sub- and exurban areas. Additionally, the outcomes are transferred into a digital petri dish reflecting a synthetic environment with perfect conditions of growth. Hence, the generic growth elements affecting the future

  10. A guide to the sources of energy use statistics for the industrial, commercial, agricultural and institutional sectors of the Canadian economy. Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The intent of this report is to provide a detailed and comprehensive description of the current data available on energy consumption in selected sectors in Canada. These sectors are the industrial sector--mainly fishing/trapping, logging/forestry, mining, manufacturing, and construction--agriculture (including all types of farm operations and agricultural service industries) and the commerical/institutional sector (excluding government or public administration). Summaries of the sources of energy use information are presented according to source agency and individual energy commodity. Data bases are assessed according to the kinds of data collected, collection methods, availability, quality, coverage, format of presentation and units used, timeliness, and usefulness for analysis and forecasting. A separate section of the report discusses some of the problems with the data available, such as standardization of data codes, data gaps, lack of detail, and reconciliation of different data sources. 36 tabs.

  11. Towards a transformed defence industry that contributes to the growth of the South African economy. Based on research performed by Johan Strydom

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pienaar, Erlank

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available IfM Education and Consultancy Services 13 Why public investment in RTOs is justified MARKET FAILURES ADDRESSED BY RTOs Source: Introduction to Technology & Innovation Management Strategy and Policy University of Cambridge... vision for the RSA defence industry • A proposed strategy for realising the vision • Exciting opportunites and initiatives • The way forward 3 Defence budget Source: Briefing on Draft Def Ind Strategy Helmoed Römer Heitman...

  12. What affects the main engine of growth in the European economy? Industrial interconnectedness and differences in performance of business services across the EU25

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolewski, Maciej; Poniatowski, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to determine what are the main factors which stand behind the diversity in performance of business services measured by their contribution to growth in the EU Member States. We show that in addition to typical growth factors which enhance labour productivity, also the extent of interconnectedness of business services with upstream industries is important to explain service-based economic growth. The analysis yields two interesting results. Firstly, the author...

  13. Leadership and the Nigerian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E. Dike

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Nigerian economy is largely oil-based. Some people would rather say it is a mono-product economy. The economy has been in dire straits over the years, because of a combination of the neglect of education, especially technical and vocational education and science-based technology education, poor leadership and governance, corruption, as well as poor monetary and fiscal policies. All these have made a review of the poor investment in human capital development and infrastructure and institutions that drive the Nigerian economy and national development rather compelling. The political leaders have always raised the people’s hope by painting glowing pictures of their development plans and how they would stimulate the economy and improve the people’s living conditions. Thus, they swore that they would give priority attention to human capital development and national development, and empower the citizens, particularly the poorly educated, unskilled, and unemployed youths, with relevant human skills capital and entrepreneurial skills to enable them to contribute profoundly to national development. Yet the political leaders have, over the years, failed to adequately fund education and strengthen the infrastructure and institutions that would drive the economy and create employment for the teeming population. Both the new-breed politicians, like the old politicians before them, are promising to transform the nation into an industrialized society and the people cannot hold their expectations. The reality though is that Nigeria cannot become an industrialized society without investing abundantly in human capital development (education and health, leadership, and technological capabilities, which means investing in the future development of the nation.

  14. The energy economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritet, Sophie; Vaujour, Jean-Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    This introduction to the economy of energy applies the main economic concepts to the energy sector (nature of the good, supply, demand), proposes an overview of existing actors, and analyses challenges and tools of economic policy like network regulation, competition policy, independence and energy transition. By using recent examples, statistics and international comparisons, it gives elements to highlight issues like the relationship between shale gas exploitation and economic recovery in the USA, the choice between monopole and competition for electricity or gas supply, reaching greenhouse gas emissions of the energy sector by incentives or taxes, secure energy supplies in a changing international environment, ways to supply energy to everyone at prices guaranteeing economy competitiveness, or ways to evolve towards energy systems which would be more environment- and climate-friendly. The successive chapters address fundamentals issues (nature of the good, historical and technical overview), the State intervention (definition of an energy policy, steering the energy mix, ensuring secure supply), the reorganisation of industries and the protection of consumers, the relationship between energy and climate (worrying perspectives, progressive emergence of solutions). The last chapter addresses the future challenges like innovation, and disruptive innovations (smart grids, big data, batteries, CO 2 capture and storage, nuclear waste processing and management, development of nuclear fusion), and the issue of energy poverty

  15. DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. TRANSITION ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumitru FILIPEANU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern theories of economic development – the take-off, backwardness, convergence and balanced growth hypothesis - the new industrialized states from Asia seem to have noticed the advantages of backwardness from which low income countries benefited, namely the possibility to take advantage of the latest technological discoveries of advanced countries, thus achieving a faster growth than the latter which operated closer to the technological border. The assimilation of appropriate technologies, however, required the efficient mobilization and allocation of resources and the improvement of human and physical capital. While the Western countries were confronted with crises generated by inflationary shocks and movements of speculative capital, the relative isolation of countries whose economy was planned by the world economy sheltered them until 1990, unemployment being practically non-existent. Asia's exceptional economic success is not only due to borrowing Western practices, but also to the fact that Asian societies maintained certain traditional features of their own culture - such as a strong work ethic - and integrated them in the modern business environment.

  16. ICT INEQUALITIES IN THE SPANISH URBAN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Armas QUINTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current Information Society cities enjoy a privileged position when it comes to transport and communication infrastructures. The post-industrial society has brought with it a notable change, changing from an economy based on the production of merchandise to another based on the production of services. The metropolitan areas act as key areas and markets for predominant sectors, such as finance and specialised services for business. In another way, big cities fulfil new roles in the global economy of the Information society, operating as command points in the world economy. They bring equipment together highly-qualified workers, they are big information and knowledge consumers and have been able to reinvent themselves, changing from industrial to cultural cities. They are, as well, ideal areas for big telecommunication companies and they are, for this reason, those who most benefit from information and communication technology. An important social area difference has then been introduced, with respect to other urban areas of lesser importance, or rather, with respect to rural areas that stay on the margin of the new technology revolution. In this context, it is right to ask what is happening in Spain. Why are ICT inequalities happening in Spain? Are there urban system differences before the arrival of the Information Society? Can it be said that Spanish urban areas are consolidated in the Information Society? In this article we try to outline the reality of the immersion the Information Society in the Spanish urban system, and, in the same way, bring to light a new idea of „Digital Divide‟, amongst those sectors of the population that make the most of all or a great part of the potential new technology offers and those that limit themselves to using the most basic functions, such as looking up information and using communication.

  17. Fuel economy handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, W [ed.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the UK's energy situation from 1950 to 2020 is presented. Problems are discussed and recommendations are made. A strong argument is presented for energy conservation, greater use of nuclear energy, and restrained production of North Sea oil. Specific recommendations are made for financial and operational considerations of (1) new or replacement boiler plants; (2) space heating of factories, offices and similar buildings; and (3) possible use of various fuels including duel-fuel economics and use of wastes. Tariffs and charges are discussed as well as services (e.g. compressed air, cooling water, sources of waste, etc.). Standby considerations (peak load lopping, turbines-engines, parallel or sectioned operation, etc.) and heat distribution (steam, condensate return and uses) are discussed. Throughout, the emphasis is on fuel economy. Savings in process such as recovering waste heat and the storage of heat are considered. For small industrial furnaces, intermittent heating, heat recovery, and the importance of furnace loading are discussed. (MJJ)

  18. Endogenous innovation, the economy and the environment : impacts of a technology-based modelling approach for energy-intensive industries in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, C.; Meyer, B.; Nathani, C.; Schleich, J.

    2007-01-01

    Policy simulations in environmental-economic models are influenced by the modelling of technological change. However, environmental-economic models have generally treated technological change as exogenous. This paper presented simulations with a new modelling approach in which technological change was portrayed and linked to actual production processes in 3 industry sectors in Germany, namely iron and steel; cement; and, pulp and paper. Technological choice was modelled via investments in new production process lines. The generic modelling procedure for all 3 industry sectors was presented along with an overview of the relevant sector-specific modelling results and the integration into the macro-economic model PANTA RHEI. The new modelling approach endogenizes technological change. As such, it considers that policy interventions may affect the rate and direction of technological progress. Carbon tax simulations were also performed to investigate the influence of a tax in both the new and conventional modelling approach. For the energy- and capital-intensive industries considered in this study, the conventional top-down approach overestimated the short-term possibilities to adapt to higher carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) prices in the early years. Since the new approach includes policy-induced technological change and process shifts, it also captures the long-term effects on CO 2 emissions far beyond the initial price impulse. It was concluded that the new modelling approach results in significantly higher emission reductions than the conventional approach. Therefore, the estimated costs of the climate policy are lower using the new modelling approach. 37 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs., 1 appendix

  19. Seasonal variability of PM2.5 composition and sources in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amil, Norhaniza; Talib Latif, Mohd; Firoz Khan, Md; Mohamad, Maznorizan

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) variability in the Klang Valley urban-industrial environment. In total, 94 daily PM2.5 samples were collected during a 1-year campaign from August 2011 to July 2012. This is the first paper on PM2.5 mass, chemical composition and sources in the tropical environment of Southeast Asia, covering all four seasons (distinguished by the wind flow patterns) including haze events. The samples were analysed for various inorganic components and black carbon (BC). The chemical compositions were statistically analysed and the temporal aerosol pattern (seasonal) was characterised using descriptive analysis, correlation matrices, enrichment factor (EF), stoichiometric analysis and chemical mass closure (CMC). For source apportionment purposes, a combination of positive matrix factorisation (PMF) and multi-linear regression (MLR) was employed. Further, meteorological-gaseous parameters were incorporated into each analysis for improved assessment. In addition, secondary data of total suspended particulate (TSP) and coarse particulate matter (PM10) sampled at the same location and time with this study (collected by Malaysian Meteorological Department) were used for PM ratio assessment. The results showed that PM2.5 mass averaged at 28 ± 18 µg m-3, 2.8-fold higher than the World Health Organisation (WHO) annual guideline. On a daily basis, the PM2.5 mass ranged between 6 and 118 µg m-3 with the daily WHO guideline exceeded 43 % of the time. The north-east (NE) monsoon was the only season with less than 50 % sample exceedance of the daily WHO guideline. On an annual scale, PM2.5 mass correlated positively with temperature (T) and wind speed (WS) but negatively with relative humidity (RH). With the exception of NOx, the gases analysed (CO, NO2, NO and SO2) were found to significantly influence the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variability unexpectedly showed that rainfall, WS and wind direction (WD) did not significantly correlate

  20. Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals Contamination in Soils and Selected Crops in Zanjan Urban and Industrial Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Afshari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metals are types of elements naturally present in soil or enter into soil as a result of human activities. The most important route of exposure to heavy metals is daily intake of food. Crops grown in contaminated soil (due to mining activities, industrial operations and agriculture may contain high concentrations of heavy metals. Also closeness to cities and industrial centers can have a great influence on the accumulation of heavy metals to agricultural products grown in the region. The study aimed to determine the concentration of heavy metals in soil and agricultural products around urban and industrial areas of Zanjan province (North West of Iran and consumption hazard probability. Materials and Methods: Soil (75 samples of soil from a depth of 0 to 10 cm and plant (101 samples samples, in the summer 2011, were randomly taken from industrial areas as follow: tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum M, wheat seed (Triticum vulgare, barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare, alfalfa shoots (Medicago sativa L., potato tubers (Solanumtuberosum L., apple fruit, vegetables and fruits such as Dill (Aniethum graveolens L., leek (Allium porrum L., Gardencress (Barbara verna L. and basil (Ocimum basilicum L.. Plant samples were then washed with distilled water, oven dried for48 hours at a temperature of 70 ´C until constant weight was attained and then they digested using 2 M hydrochloric acid (HCl and nitric acid digestion in 5 M. Concentrations of heavy metals in the soil and crops were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. DTPA extraction of metals by Lindsay and Norvell (1978 method and sequential extraction method by Tessier et al. (1979 were performed. Statistical analysis was accomplished using the software SPSS 16.0 and the comparison of mean values was done using the Duncan test at the 5% level of significance. Results and Discussion: The magnitude of variations for total copper was from 11.5 to 352.5 (average 52.4, zinc was from 96

  1. Circular economy and nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    This article first recalls what circular economy is, and its main principles (sustainable supply, eco-design, industrial and territorial ecology, economy of function rather than of possession, extension of product lifetime, recycling). It outlines its different benefits: improved resilience, inclusion of all actors of the territory, creation of local jobs, a global vision. In the next part, the nuclear industry is presented as a pioneer in this respect through various trends and developments: closure of the fuel cycle and saving of uranium and energy in the upstream part, reduction of wastes in the downstream part, exploitation of plants on a longer term, management of the production of conventional wastes, reduction of energy consumption, evolution of the doctrine in terms of management of very low level radioactive wastes

  2. The phenomenology of the movement economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    2015-01-01

    The theory of cities as movement economies constitutes a the¬oretical cornerstone of the space syntax paradigm, and the urban morphology literature offers considerable empirical evidence to support the theory’s key proposition that spatial accessibility correlates with economic land use values...

  3. Shale gas, let us exploit our reserves. Let us reduce the energy cost in France, let us revitalise industry, economy and employment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-09-01

    This report first recalls what shale gas is, and then comments its recent development in the USA and in the world while noticing the different attitudes of European countries with respect to this issue. It proposes an overview of resources and of existing extraction techniques, and discusses issues related to environmental risks (additives, water, sound and visual pollution, seismicity) and how risk can be prevented. It discusses to which extent shale gas can be considered as a resource for the future, and discusses the French potential related to shale gas exploitation (overview of the French energy situation, possible economic boom due to this exploitation, an energy independence asset, a possible asset for the environment). The French stand-off situation (recall of the law vote situation, a not valorised industrial sector) is discussed in terms of permit delivery practices, of poor support by elected representatives, and of influence of the ecologist lobby. The authors finally call for a new debate on this issue

  4. Assessing heavy metal pollution in the surface soils of a region that had undergone three decades of intense industrialization and urbanization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanan; Liu, Xueping; Bai, Jinmei; Shih, Kaimin; Zeng, Eddy Y; Cheng, Hefa

    2013-09-01

    Heavy metals in the surface soils from lands of six different use types in one of the world's most densely populated regions, which is also a major global manufacturing base, were analyzed to assess the impact of urbanization and industrialization on soil pollution. A total of 227 surface soil samples were collected and analyzed for major heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) by using microwave-assisted acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Multivariate analysis combined with enrichment factors showed that surface soils from the region (>7.2 × 10(4) km(2)) had mean Cd, Cu, Zn, and As concentrations that were over two times higher than the background values, with Cd, Cu, and Zn clearly contributed by anthropogenic sources. Soil pollution by Pb was more widespread than the other heavy metals, which was contributed mostly by anthropogenic sources. The results also indicate that Mn, Co, Fe, Cr, and Ni in the surface soils were primarily derived from lithogenic sources, while Hg and As contents in the surface soils were controlled by both natural and anthropogenic sources. The pollution level and potential ecological risk of the surface soils both decreased in the order of: urban areas > waste disposal/treatment sites ∼ industrial areas > agricultural lands ∼ forest lands > water source protection areas. These results indicate the significant need for the development of pollution prevention and reduction strategies to reduce heavy metal pollution for regions undergoing fast industrialization and urbanization.

  5. Monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as anthropogenic and socio-economic indicators of urban and industrial impact on surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vystavna, Yuliya

    2014-05-01

    The research focuses on the monitoring of trace metals and pharmaceuticals as potential anthropogenic indicators of industrial and urban influences on surface water in poorly gauged transboundary Ukraine/Russia region. This study includes analysis of tracers use for the indication of water pollution events, including controlled and emerging discharges, and discussion of the detection method of these chemicals. The following criteria were proposed for the evaluation of indicators: specificity (physical chemical properties), variability (spatial and temporal) and practicality (capacity of the sampling and analytical techniques). The combination of grab and passive water sampling (i.e. DGT and POCIS) procedure was applied for the determination of dissolved and labile trace metals (Ag, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, diazepam, paracetamol, caffeine, diclofenac and ketoprofen). Samples were analysed using ICP - MS (trace metals) and LC-MS/MS ESI +/- (pharmaceuticals). Our results demonstrate the distinctive spatial and temporal patterns of trace elements distribution along an urban watercourse. Accordingly, two general groups of trace metals have been discriminated: 'stable' (Cd and Cr) and 'time-varying' (Cu, Zn, Ni and Pb). The relationship Cd >> Cu > Ag > Cr ≥ Zn was proposed as an anthropogenic signature of the industrial and urban activities pressuring the environment from point sources (municipal wastewaters) and the group Pb - Ni was discussed as a relevant fingerprint of the economic activity (industry and transport) mainly from non-point sources (run-off, atmospheric depositions, etc.). Pharmaceuticals with contrasting hydro-chemical properties of molecules (water solubility, bioaccumulation, persistence during wastewater treatment processes) were discriminated on conservative, labile and with combined properties in order to provide information on wastewater treatment plant efficiency, punctual events (e.g. accidents on sewage

  6. Assessment of Industry-Induced Urban Human Health Risks Related to Benzo[a]pyrene based on a Multimedia Fugacity Model: Case Study of Nanjing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linyu Xu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Large amounts of organic pollutants emitted from industries have accumulated and caused serious human health risks, especially in urban areas with rapid industrialization. This paper focused on the carcinogen benzo[a]pyrene (BaP from industrial effluent and gaseous emissions, and established a multi-pathway exposure model based on a Level IV multimedia fugacity model to analyze the human health risks in a city that has undergone rapid industrialization. In this study, GIS tools combined with land-use data was introduced to analyze smaller spatial scales so as to enhance the spatial resolution of the results. An uncertainty analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation was also conducted to illustrate the rationale of the probabilistic assessment mode rather than deterministic assessment. Finally, the results of the case study in Nanjing, China indicated the annual average human cancer risk induced by local industrial emissions during 2002–2008 (lowest at 1.99´10–6 in 2008 and highest at 3.34´10–6 in 2004, which was lower than the USEPA prescriptive level (1´10–6–1´10–4 but cannot be neglected in the long term. The study results could not only instruct the BaP health risk management but also help future health risk prediction and control.

  7. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali

    2007-04-02

    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP.

  8. UNDERGROUND ECONOMY, INFLUENCES ON NATIONAL ECONOMIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEAUȘESCU IONUT

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of research is to improve the understanding of nature underground economy by rational justification of the right to be enshrined a reality that, at least statistically, can no longer be neglected. So, we propose to find the answer to the question: has underground economy to stand-alone?

  9. Free water surface constructed wetlands for urban-industrial wastewater treatment; Utilizacion de humedales construidos de flujo superficial en el tratamiento de aguas residuales de origen urbano-industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Garcia, M.; Cabezas Beaumont, A.; Comin Sebastian, F.

    2009-07-01

    In order to assay superficial flow wetlands efficiency in the urban-industrial mixed wastewater quality improve and their effect in its re valorization for potential reuse in irrigation, three Free Water Surface Flow Wetlands were studied. the system presents a high capacity to reduce TSS, nitrate, nitrite and NT concentrations and this efficiency was growing up as the system mature. Denitrification processes in sediment is the main cause of nitrogen elimination. On the other hand reeds biomass development during this period could be contributing to treatment efficiency by means of reeds nutrients assimilation. (Author) 25 refs.

  10. 10. International energy forum: dynamics on the energy markets - chances for economy and industry. Proceedings; 10. Internationales Energie-Forum: Dynamik im Energiemarkt - Chancen fuer Wirtschaft und Industrie. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    The three sessions of the international meeting of experts from relevant branches of industry, politics and science were devoted to the subjects: 1. Trends in energy policy and the energy industry. 2. Building-blocs of innovative market development. 3. Demand-centered market development. Special attention was given to assessing the progress that can be expected in the near future in further development of emerging technologies and enhanced, energy-efficient application of existing technologies. (orig./CB) [German] Die Thematik der drei Sitzungsgruppen der internationalen Konferenz von Experten aus relevanten Zweigen der Industrie, Politik und Wissenschaft zeigt, dass es bei dieser Konferenz um einen Blick in die Zukunft ging und um eine Abschaetzung der in naher Zukunft realisierbaren Fortschritte bei Entwicklung, Anwendung und Ausbau alternativer oder fortschrittlicher Technologien zur Energieerzeugung oder Verbesserung der Energieeffizienz. Die drei Hauptthemen lauten: 1. Trends der Energiepolitik und Energiewirtschaft. 2. Bausteine innovativer Marktentwicklung. 3. Nachfrageorientierte Marktentwicklung. (orig./CB)

  11. Challenges in Building a Sustainable Biobased Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussatto, Solange I.

    2017-01-01

    for the production of fuels, chemicals, energy and materials is therefore recognized as a need by numerous industries and policy makers in countries around the world. In addition, a biobased economy has the potential to generate new jobs and even new industries, creating new opportunities for entrepreneurship...

  12. Segmentacija trga in spremembe na področju nizkocenovnih hotelov na mestnih območjih Južnoafriške republike: Market segmentation and the changing budget hotel industry in urban South Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Rogerson, Jayne M.

    2013-01-01

    Market segmentation is a critical driver of change in the hotel industry, resulting in the appearance of differentiated forms of hotel property developments, including budget hotels. International research on budget hotels is mainly limited to North America and Europe, with some more recent studies on emerging economies. This article examines the role of budget hotels within the wider restructuring of the South African hotel industry following the country's re-entry into the global tourism ec...

  13. Sharing Economy in Travel and Tourism: Finland vs. Hong Kong

    OpenAIRE

    Shoaib Ullah, Syed

    2017-01-01

    The key aim of this thesis is to determine how the sharing economy companies, especially sharing accommodation services like Airbnb, are affecting travel and tourism industry in Fin-land and in Hong Kong. The thesis also looks into the future of sharing economy in travel and tourism industry and any possibilities of cooperation between traditional service providers and sharing economy companies. The thesis is commissioned by the Association of Finnish Travel Agents (AFTA/SMAL). In the the...

  14. A Sustainable Industry-Environment Model for the Identification of Urban Environmental Risk to Confront Air Pollution in Beijing, China

    OpenAIRE

    Guilin Gao; Xueting Zeng; Chunjiang An; Lei Yu

    2018-01-01

    In this study, an optimized industry-environment model is proposed for identifying environmental risk under uncertainties. The strategy associated with an emission-permit trading mechanism has been introduced into the industrial-environment regulation (model) for remitting the pressures of frequent/severe haze events in Beijing City. A dual stochastic mixed fuzzy risk analysis method with Laplace’s criterion (DSFRL) can be embedded into industry-environment issues with a trading emission-perm...

  15. Understanding the New Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrell, Louis R.

    2001-01-01

    Asserts that while the Nasdaq bubble did burst, the new economy is real and that failure to understand the rules of the digital economy can lead to substandard investment portfolio performance. Offers guidelines for higher education institutional investors. (EV)

  16. Urban Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    . Kracauer’s essay may even provide a conceptual basis for critical studies of modern urbanity. Yet one has to establish a clear distinction between culture industry (e.g. the Tiller Girls) and urban culture. In everyday life as well as in Kracauer’s writings about it, the sphere of city culture may...... transcend capitalist Ratio and enter the domain of utopian fantasy. Far from automatically reproducing the logic of capital, the ornaments of the city provide occasions for cultural and social change. This is what Kracauer is hinting at when he makes improvisation the prime criterion of urban quality....

  17. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the project of 2003 financial law (no. 230), tome 6, economy, finances and industry, industry-energy; Avis presente au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2003 (no. 230), tome 6, economie, finances et industrie, industrie-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masdeu-Arus, J.

    2002-10-01

    This report presents in a detailed way the evolution of the French industry and energy financial supplies for 2003: 1 - general evolution of supplies; 2 - measures devoted to the improvement of the environment of industrial companies: quality policy, technical centers, financing of engineers schools; 3 - research and innovation supplies: main industrial research programs, small- and medium-size companies, innovation and technologies diffusion; 4 - budgetary sustain of the energy sector: budgetary sustain of nuclear energy and the French atomic energy commission (CEA) supplies, the commission of electric power regulation (CRE), the research network on oil and gas technologies, the agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe), and the French institute of petroleum (IFP); 5 - the follow up of industrial mutations: mechanical decay of the supplies to the sectors in crisis: Charbonnages de France situation, naval construction, reconversion of coal mining and steelmaking industries (funds and conversion companies); 6 - economic and financial situation of Electricite de France (EdF): continuous deterioration of results, low profitability of daughter companies, consequences for the future. (J.S.)

  18. Knowledge Based Economy Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Madalina Cristina Tocan

    2012-01-01

    The importance of knowledge-based economy (KBE) in the XXI century is evident. In the article the reflection of knowledge on economy is analyzed. The main point is targeted to the analysis of characteristics of knowledge expression in economy and to the construction of structure of KBE expression. This allows understanding the mechanism of functioning of knowledge economy. The authors highlight the possibility to assess the penetration level of KBE which could manifest itself trough the exist...

  19. FROM CIRCULAR ECONOMY TO BLUE ECONOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iustin-Emanuel, ALEXANDRU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Addressing the subject of this essay is based on the background ideas generated by a new branch of science - Biomimicry. According to European Commissioner for the Environment, "Nature is the perfect model of circular economy". Therefore, by imitating nature, we are witnessing a process of cycle redesign: production-consumption-recycling. The authors present some reflections on the European Commission's decision to adopt after July 1, 2014 new measures concerning the development of more circular economies. Starting from the principles of Ecolonomy, which is based on the whole living paradigm, this paper argues for the development within each economy of entrepreneurial policies related to the Blue economy. In its turn, Blue economy is based on scientific analyses that identify the best solutions in a business. Thus, formation of social capital will lead to healthier and cheaper products, which will stimulate entrepreneurship. Blue economy is another way of thinking economic practice and is a new model of business design. It is a healthy, sustainable business, designed for people. In fact, it is the core of the whole living paradigm through which, towards 2020, circular economy will grow more and more.

  20. The Sharing Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Dolnicar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer accommodation networks in general, and Airbnb in specific, are frequently referred to as part of the sharing economy. This chapter provides an overview of key characteristics of the sharing economy, discusses how these characteristics relate to peer-to-peer accommodation, and positions peer-to-peer accommodation networks within the sharing economy.