WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban economic growth

  1. Is Urban Economic Growth Inclusive in India?

    OpenAIRE

    Tripathi, Sabyasachi

    2013-01-01

    This paper measures the overall inclusive growth of a city by considering changing trends in the key economic variables based on ‘Borda ranking’ and establishes a relationship between city economic growth and overall city inclusive growth. By using data of 52 large cities in India, this paper finds that higher urban economic growth is associated with an increase in urban inequality, a reduction in urban poverty, and a lower level of overall inclusive growth of a city.

  2. Urban population and economic growth: South Asia perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Sarker

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Previously economic growth was generally discussed in terms of foreign direct investment (FDI, educational growth, savings, investments, inflation as well as trade openness of a nation. Very recently it has been identified that population is one of the major determinants of economic growth of a nation. In the recent years, the study of urbanization has gained a matter of concern in developing countries as it has been recognized as part of a larger process of economic development which is affecting developing countries. South Asian countries are one of the emerging economics and growing at a faster rate over the past few years. At the same time, population of South Asia is growing at a significant rate. Therefore the study has attempted to identify the causal relationship between urban population and economic growth in South Asia using a panel data analysis. The study makes use of the Augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF and Phillips-Perron (PP, Pesaran as well as Fisher methods for panel unit root test. The panel Pedroni cointegration test suggests that there is long run relationship between the variables. The further panel Vector Error Correction Model (VECM suggests that there is long run causality running from urban population growth to economic growth in South Asia. The study concludes that the growth of urban population can have significant impact on economic growth in South Asia in the long run.

  3. Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun

    2012-01-03

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.

  4. Firm dynamic analysis for urban land use and economic growth modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Che'Man, N.; Sabri, S.; Hosni, N.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2013-01-01

    In urban growth processes, urbanisation is highly influenced by economic growth which triggers the dynamics of economic agents and land uses. This is consisted of complex subsystems which need sophisticated methods like agent-based modelling and simulation to understand the pattern, behaviour and

  5. The global pattern of urbanization and economic growth: evidence from the last three decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingxing; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Weidong; Zhang, Wenzhong

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS) methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process.

  6. The global pattern of urbanization and economic growth: evidence from the last three decades.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxing Chen

    Full Text Available The relationship between urbanization and economic growth has been perplexing. In this paper, we identify the pattern of global change and the correlation of urbanization and economic growth, using cross-sectional, panel estimation and geographic information systems (GIS methods. The analysis has been carried out on a global geographical scale, while the timescale of the study spans the last 30 years. The data shows that urbanization levels have changed substantially during these three decades. Empirical findings from cross-sectional data and panel data support the general notion of close links between urbanization levels and GDP per capita. However, we also present significant evidence that there is no correlation between urbanization speed and economic growth rate at the global level. Hence, we conclude that a given country cannot obtain the expected economic benefits from accelerated urbanization, especially if it takes the form of government-led urbanization. In addition, only when all facets are taken into consideration can we fully assess the urbanization process.

  7. Simulating the Impact of Economic and Environmental Strategies on Future Urban Growth Scenarios in Ningbo, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Coastal cities in China are challenged by multiple growth paths and strategies related to demands in the housing market, economic growth and eco-system protection. This paper examines the effects of conflicting strategies between economic growth and environmental protection on future urban scenarios in Ningbo, China, through logistic-regression-based cellular automata (termed LogCA modeling. The LogCA model is calibrated based on the observed urban patterns in 1990 and 2015, and applied to simulate four future scenarios in 2040, including (a the Norm-scenario, a baseline scenario that maintains the 1990–2015 growth rate; (b the GDP-scenario, a GDP-oriented growth scenario emphasizing the development in city centers and along economic corridors; (c the Slow-scenario, a slow-growth scenario considering the potential downward trend of the housing market in China; and (d the Eco-scenario, a slow-growth scenario emphasizing natural conservation and ecosystem protections. The CA parameters of the Norm- and Slow-scenarios are the same as the calibrated parameters, while the parameters of proximities to economic corridors and natural scenery sites were increased by a factor of 3 for the GDP- and Eco-scenarios, respectively. The Norm- and GDP-scenarios predicted 1950 km2 of new growth for the next 25 years, the Slow-scenario predicted 650 km2, and the Eco-scenario predicted less growth than the Slow-scenario. The locations where the newly built-up area will emerge are significantly different under the four scenarios and the Slow- and Eco-scenarios are preferable to achieve long-term sustainability. The scenarios are not only helpful for exploring sustainable urban development options in China, but also serve as a reference for adjusting the urban planning and land policies.

  8. Urban vegetation and thermal patterns following city growth in different socio-economic contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dronova, I.; Clinton, N.; Yang, J.; Radke, J.; Marx, S. S.; Gong, P.

    2015-12-01

    Urban expansion accompanied by losses of vegetated spaces and their ecological services raises significant concerns about the future of humans in metropolitan "habitats". Despite recent growth of urban studies globally, it is still not well understood how environmental effects of urbanization vary with the rate and socioeconomic context of development. Our study hypothesized that with urban development, spatial patterns of surface thermal properties and green plant cover would shift towards higher occurrence of relatively warmer and less vegetated spaces such as built-up areas, followed by losses of greener and cooler areas such as urban forests, and that these shifts would be more pronounced with higher rate of economic and/or population growth. To test these ideas, we compared 1992-2011 changes in remotely sensed patterns of green vegetation and surface temperature in three example cities that experienced peripheral growth under contrasting socio-economic context - Dallas, TX, USA, Beijing, China and Kyiv, Ukraine. To assess their transformation, we proposed a metric of thermal-vegetation angle (TVA) estimated from per-pixel proxies of vegetation greenness and surface temperature from Landsat satellite data and examined changes in TVA distributions within each city's core and two decadal zones of peripheral sprawl delineated from nighttime satellite data. We found that higher economic and population growth were coupled with more pronounced changes in TVA distributions, and more urbanized zones often exhibited higher frequencies of warmer, less green than average TVA values with novel patterns such as "cooler" clusters of building shadows. Although greener and cooler spaces generally diminished with development, they remained relatively prevalent in low-density residential areas of Dallas and peripheral zones of Kyiv with exurban subsistence farming. Overall, results indicate that the effects of modified green space and thermal patterns within growing cities

  9. Modeling urban growth by the use of a multiobjective optimization approach: environmental and economic issues for the Yangtze watershed, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenting; Wang, Haijun; Han, Fengxiang; Gao, Juan; Nguyen, Thuminh; Chen, Yarong; Huang, Bo; Zhan, F Benjamin; Zhou, Lequn; Hong, Song

    2014-11-01

    Urban growth is an unavoidable process caused by economic development and population growth. Traditional urban growth models represent the future urban growth pattern by repeating the historical urban growth regulations, which can lead to a lot of environmental problems. The Yangtze watershed is the largest and the most prosperous economic area in China, and it has been suffering from rapid urban growth from the 1970s. With the built-up area increasing from 23,238 to 31,054 km(2) during the period from 1980 to 2005, the watershed has suffered from serious nonpoint source (NPS) pollution problems, which have been mainly caused by the rapid urban growth. To protect the environment and at the same time maintain the economic development, a multiobjective optimization (MOP) is proposed to tradeoff the multiple objectives during the urban growth process of the Yangtze watershed. In particular, the four objectives of minimization of NPS pollution, maximization of GDP value, minimization of the spatial incompatibility between the land uses, and minimization of the cost of land-use change are considered by the MOP approach. Conventionally, a genetic algorithm (GA) is employed to search the Pareto solution set. In our MOP approach, a two-dimensional GA, rather than the traditional one-dimensional GA, is employed to assist with the search for the spatial optimization solution, where the land-use cells in the two-dimensional space act as genes in the GA. Furthermore, to confirm the superiority of the MOP approach over the traditional prediction approaches, a widely used urban growth prediction model, cellular automata (CA), is also carried out to allow a comparison with the Pareto solution of MOP. The results indicate that the MOP approach can make a tradeoff between the multiple objectives and can achieve an optimal urban growth pattern for Yangtze watershed, while the CA prediction model just represents the historical urban growth pattern as the future growth pattern

  10. Sprawl and mega-events: Economic growth and recent urban expansion in a city losing its competitive edge (Athens, Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the new context of contemporary cities, local competitiveness for financial resources has grown more than ever, resulting in cities characterised by important socioeconomic transformations. Earlier studies addressed the relation between urban expansion, socioeconomic development and mega-events only for specific areas and types of urban growth, often overlooking the role of mega-events in fuelling urban sprawl. As the host of the 2004 Olympic Games, Athens, Greece is a paradigmatic example for emerging cities hosting mega-events due to the close interconnection between the Olympics, infrastructure development and urban sprawl. This article connects the latent relationship between economic expansion driven by the Olympic Games and laissez-faire urbanism to the long-term unregulated urban expansion characterising Athens’s development. By providing room for the original wave of sprawl, the resulting socioeconomic context is interpreted as a signal of the weakness of the “competitive city” framework in poorly planned and long-deregulated urban contexts such as Athens. A comprehensive analysis of recent phases of economic growth and discontinuous urban expansion thus provides further insight into understanding sprawl processes in today’s cities, and helps distinguish the morphological patterns and socioeconomic dynamics that characterise urban expansion during sequential cycles of economic expansion and recession.

  11. Urban economies, urban livelihoods and natural resource-based economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa: the constraints of a liberalized world economy

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, Deborah

    2013-01-01

    There is much speculation today about how rapid economic growth in sub-Saharan Africa is transforming development prospects in the region. However, in terms of a broad, multi-dimensional, understanding of the term ‘development’, into which social justice must be factored, there are real concerns about whether the undoubted improvements in GDP growth in many countries are strongly connected to urban-located investment and job growth. Many African countries remain poorly placed, in terms of glo...

  12. Panel estimation for CO2 emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization of newly industrialized countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif Hossain, Md.

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the dynamic causal relationships between carbon dioxide emissions, energy consumption, economic growth, trade openness and urbanization for the panel of newly industrialized countries (NIC) using the time series data for the period 1971-2007. Using four different panel unit root tests it is found that all panel variables are integrated of order 1. From the Johansen Fisher panel cointegration test it is found that there is a cointegration vector among the variables. The Granger causality test results support that there is no evidence of long-run causal relationship, but there is unidirectional short-run causal relationship from economic growth and trade openness to carbon dioxide emissions, from economic growth to energy consumption, from trade openness to economic growth, from urbanization to economic growth and from trade openness to urbanization. It is found that the long-run elasticity of carbon dioxide emissions with respect to energy consumption (1.2189) is higher than short run elasticity of 0.5984. This indicates that over time higher energy consumption in the newly industrialized countries gives rise to more carbon dioxide emissions as a result our environment will be polluted more. But in respect of economic growth, trade openness and urbanization the environmental quality is found to be normal good in the long-run. - Highlights: → Dynamic causal relationships are conducted for different panel variables of NIC. → Test results support only existence of unidirectional short-run causal relationships. → Environment will be polluted more due to energy consumption in the long-run. → But environmental quality is found to be normally good in respect of other variables. → NIC should use solar energy as the substitute of oil to control CO 2 emissions.

  13. Nitrogen Oxide Emission, Economic Growth and Urbanization in China: a Spatial Econometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhimin; Zhou, Yanli; Ge, Xiangyu

    2018-01-01

    This research studies the nexus of nitrogen oxide emissions and economic development/urbanization. Under the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis, we apply the analysis technique of spatial panel data in the STIRPAT framework, and thus obtain the estimated impacts of income/urbanization on nitrogen oxide emission systematically. The empirical findings suggest that spatial dependence on nitrogen oxide emission distribution exist at provincial level, and the inverse N-shape EKC describes both income-nitrogen oxide and urbanization-nitrogen oxide nexuses. In addition, some well-directed policy advices are made to reduce the nitrogen oxide emission in future.

  14. The Effect of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and Industrialization on Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5) Concentrations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangdong; Fang, Chuanglin; Wang, Shaojian; Sun, Siao

    2016-11-01

    Rapid economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization in China have led to extremely severe air pollution that causes increasing negative effects on human health, visibility, and climate change. However, the influence mechanisms of these anthropogenic factors on fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) concentrations are poorly understood. In this study, we combined panel data and econometric methods to investigate the main anthropogenic factors that contribute to increasing PM 2.5 concentrations in China at the prefecture level from 1999 to 2011. The results showed that PM 2.5 concentrations and three anthropogenic factors were cointegrated. The panel Fully Modified Least Squares and panel Granger causality test results indicated that economic growth, industrialization, and urbanization increased PM 2.5 concentrations in the long run. The results implied that if China persists in its current development pattern, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization will inevitably lead to increased PM 2.5 emissions in the long term. Industrialization was the principal factor that affected PM 2.5 concentrations for the total panel, the industry-oriented panel and the service-oriented panel. PM 2.5 concentrations can be reduced at the cost of short-term economic growth and industrialization. However, reducing the urbanization level is not an efficient way to decrease PM 2.5 pollutions in the short term. The findings also suggest that a rapid reduction of PM 2.5 concentrations relying solely on adjusting these anthropogenic factors is difficult in a short-term for the heavily PM 2.5 -polluted panel. Moreover, the Chinese government will have to seek much broader policies that favor a decoupling of these coupling relationships.

  15. Dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Hamisu Sadi; Law, Siong Hook; Zannah, Talha Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this paper is to examine the dynamic impact of urbanization, economic growth, energy consumption, and trade openness on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria based on autoregressive distributed lags (ARDL) approach for the period of 1971-2011. The result shows that variables were cointegrated as null hypothesis was rejected at 1 % level of significance. The coefficients of long-run result reveal that urbanization does not have any significant impact on CO 2 emissions in Nigeria, economic growth, and energy consumption has a positive and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. However, trade openness has negative and significant impact on CO 2 emissions. Consumption of energy is among the main determinant of CO 2 emissions which is directly linked to the level of income. Despite the high level of urbanization in the country, consumption of energy still remains low due to lower income of the majority populace and this might be among the reasons why urbanization does not influence emissions of CO 2 in the country. Initiating more open economy policies will be welcoming in the Nigerian economy as the openness leads to the reduction of pollutants from the environment particularly CO 2 emissions which is the major gases that deteriorate physical environment.

  16. A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and NOx Emissions in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiangyu; Zhou, Yanli; Liu, Songlin

    2018-01-01

    Is nitrogen oxides emissions spatially correlated in a Chinese context? What is the relationship between nitrogen oxides emission levels and fast-growing economy/urbanization? More importantly, what environmental preservation and economic developing policies should China’s central and local governments take to mitigate the overall nitrogen oxides emissions and prevent severe air pollution at the provincial level in specific locations and their neighboring areas? The present study aims to tackle these issues. This is the first research that simultaneously studies the nexus between nitrogen oxides emissions and economic development/urbanization, with the application of a spatial panel data technique. Our empirical findings suggest that spatial dependence of nitrogen oxides emissions distribution exists at the provincial level. Through the investigation of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) embedded within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, we conclude something interesting: an inverse N-shaped EKC describes both the income-nitrogen oxides nexus and the urbanization-nitrogen oxides nexus. Some well-directed policy advice is provided to reduce nitrogen oxides in the future. Moreover, these results contribute to the literature on development and pollution. PMID:29641500

  17. A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and NOx Emissions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiangyu; Zhou, Zhimin; Zhou, Yanli; Ye, Xinyue; Liu, Songlin

    2018-04-11

    Abstract : Is nitrogen oxides emissions spatially correlated in a Chinese context? What is the relationship between nitrogen oxides emission levels and fast-growing economy/urbanization? More importantly, what environmental preservation and economic developing policies should China's central and local governments take to mitigate the overall nitrogen oxides emissions and prevent severe air pollution at the provincial level in specific locations and their neighboring areas? The present study aims to tackle these issues. This is the first research that simultaneously studies the nexus between nitrogen oxides emissions and economic development/urbanization, with the application of a spatial panel data technique. Our empirical findings suggest that spatial dependence of nitrogen oxides emissions distribution exists at the provincial level. Through the investigation of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) embedded within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT) framework, we conclude something interesting: an inverse N-shaped EKC describes both the income-nitrogen oxides nexus and the urbanization-nitrogen oxides nexus. Some well-directed policy advice is provided to reduce nitrogen oxides in the future. Moreover, these results contribute to the literature on development and pollution.

  18. A Spatial Panel Data Analysis of Economic Growth, Urbanization, and NOx Emissions in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangyu Ge

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Is nitrogen oxides emissions spatially correlated in a Chinese context? What is the relationship between nitrogen oxides emission levels and fast-growing economy/urbanization? More importantly, what environmental preservation and economic developing policies should China’s central and local governments take to mitigate the overall nitrogen oxides emissions and prevent severe air pollution at the provincial level in specific locations and their neighboring areas? The present study aims to tackle these issues. This is the first research that simultaneously studies the nexus between nitrogen oxides emissions and economic development/urbanization, with the application of a spatial panel data technique. Our empirical findings suggest that spatial dependence of nitrogen oxides emissions distribution exists at the provincial level. Through the investigation of the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC embedded within the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology (STIRPAT framework, we conclude something interesting: an inverse N-shaped EKC describes both the income-nitrogen oxides nexus and the urbanization-nitrogen oxides nexus. Some well-directed policy advice is provided to reduce nitrogen oxides in the future. Moreover, these results contribute to the literature on development and pollution.

  19. Economic growth, urbanization, globalization, and the risks of emerging infectious diseases in China: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tong; Perrings, Charles; Kinzig, Ann; Collins, James P; Minteer, Ben A; Daszak, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Three interrelated world trends may be exacerbating emerging zoonotic risks: income growth, urbanization, and globalization. Income growth is associated with rising animal protein consumption in developing countries, which increases the conversion of wild lands to livestock production, and hence the probability of zoonotic emergence. Urbanization implies the greater concentration and connectedness of people, which increases the speed at which new infections are spread. Globalization-the closer integration of the world economy-has facilitated pathogen spread among countries through the growth of trade and travel. High-risk areas for the emergence and spread of infectious disease are where these three trends intersect with predisposing socioecological conditions including the presence of wild disease reservoirs, agricultural practices that increase contact between wildlife and livestock, and cultural practices that increase contact between humans, wildlife, and livestock. Such an intersection occurs in China, which has been a "cradle" of zoonoses from the Black Death to avian influenza and SARS. Disease management in China is thus critical to the mitigation of global zoonotic risks.

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Intra Urban Growth Modeling using socio economic agents by combining cellular automata model with agent based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V. K.; Jha, A. K.; Gupta, K.; Srivastav, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that there is a significant improvement in the urban land use dynamics through modeling at finer spatial resolutions. Geo-computational models such as cellular automata and agent based model have given evident proof regarding the quantification of the urban growth pattern with urban boundary. In recent studies, socio- economic factors such as demography, education rate, household density, parcel price of the current year, distance to road, school, hospital, commercial centers and police station are considered to the major factors influencing the Land Use Land Cover (LULC) pattern of the city. These factors have unidirectional approach to land use pattern which makes it difficult to analyze the spatial aspects of model results both quantitatively and qualitatively. In this study, cellular automata model is combined with generic model known as Agent Based Model to evaluate the impact of socio economic factors on land use pattern. For this purpose, Dehradun an Indian city is selected as a case study. Socio economic factors were collected from field survey, Census of India, Directorate of economic census, Uttarakhand, India. A 3X3 simulating window is used to consider the impact on LULC. Cellular automata model results are examined for the identification of hot spot areas within the urban area and agent based model will be using logistic based regression approach where it will identify the correlation between each factor on LULC and classify the available area into low density, medium density, high density residential or commercial area. In the modeling phase, transition rule, neighborhood effect, cell change factors are used to improve the representation of built-up classes. Significant improvement is observed in the built-up classes from 84 % to 89 %. However after incorporating agent based model with cellular automata model the accuracy improved from 89 % to 94 % in 3 classes of urban i.e. low density, medium density and commercial classes

  1. Impact of economic growth, nonrenewable and renewable energy consumption, and urbanization on carbon emissions in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanif, Imran

    2018-05-01

    The present study explores the impact of economic growth; urban expansion; and consumption of fossil fuels, solid fuels, and renewable energy on environmental degradation in developing economies of Sub-Saharan Africa. To demonstrate its findings in detail, the study adopts a system generalized method of moment (GMM) on a panel of 34 emerging economies for the period from 1995 to 2015. The results describe that the consumption of fossil and solid fuels for cooking and expansion of urban areas are significantly contributing to carbon dioxide emissions, on one end, and stimulating air pollution, on the other. The results also exhibit an inverted U-shape relationship between per capita economic growth and carbon emissions. This relation confirms the existence of an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) in middle- and low-income economies of Sub-Saharan Africa. Furthermore, the findings reveal that the use of renewable energy alternatives improves air quality by controlling carbon emissions and lowering the direct interaction of households with toxic gases. Thus, the use of renewable energy alternatives helps the economies to achieve sustainable development targets.

  2. Urban growth management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Alexander Sick Nielsen, Thomas; Grünfelder, Julien

    2011-01-01

    , and finally urban attractivity policies. Effective regional bodies are needed to deal with urban expansion and peri-urbanisation at a relevant scale; European rural and agricultural policies makes up the main ‘policy complex’ targeting the non-urban area including its land uses; while lastly leverage of urban...... urban growth and curb urban sprawl in a wider sense. Methodology The main methodology of the paper is a desk-research based review of policy options supplemented with field study and interviews in selected cased study regions. This paper consists of two parts. The first part is based on literature...... there are contradictions in the evidence presented in the literature, we believe that it may be safely said that urban growth management policies have an influence on urban growth under certain preconditions including: sufficient time for implementation and continuity of efforts; choice of appropriate policy measures...

  3. Migrant entrepreneurship and new urban economic opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Nijkamp, P.; Sahin, M.; Baycan, T.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, migrants form a significant share of the urban population, and their business is critical for urban economic growth. This paper addresses the key factors determining the position of migrant entrepreneurs in the urban economy in the Netherlands. In order to develop a solid assessment of CSFs for migrant entrepreneurs, and to understand business performance in a competitive urban environment, this study will investigate the entrepreneurial behaviour of migrants in Dutch cities from a ...

  4. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  5. Economic Growth and Expansion of China’s Urban Land Area: Evidence from Administrative Data and Night Lights, 1993–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gibson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between economic growth, expansion of urban land area and the broader issue of cultivated land conversion in China has been closely examined for the late 1980s and 1990s. Much less is known about recent urban expansion and if the effects of economic growth on this expansion have changed over time. This paper updates estimates of urban expansion for China and examines the relationship with city economic growth for 1993–2012. To see if patterns are robust to different types of evidence, administrative data on the area of 225 urban cores are compared to estimates of brightly lit areas from remotely sensed night lights. The trend annual expansion rate in lit area is 8% and was significantly faster in the decade to 2002 than in the most recent decade. Expansion is slower according to administrative data, at just 5% per annum, with no change in unconditional expansion rates between decades, while conditional expansion rates have declined. The elasticity of area with respect to city economic output is about 0.3. Over time, expansion of urban land area is becoming less responsive to the growth of the local non-agricultural population.

  6. Earthquakes and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Fisker, Peter Simonsen

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the economic consequences of earthquakes. In particular, it is investigated how exposure to earthquakes affects economic growth both across and within countries. The key result of the empirical analysis is that while there are no observable effects at the country level, earthquake exposure significantly decreases 5-year economic growth at the local level. Areas at lower stages of economic development suffer harder in terms of economic growth than richer areas. In addition,...

  7. City Population Growth and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freire-Gibb, L. Carlos

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at the relationship between city population growth (intimately related to population proximity), and economic development. The hypothesis is that wherever dynamic and inclusive networks exist, there are more opportunities for economic development in this place. When these types...... of networks choose a tool (project, policy) to implement in the city, success will be more likely. Furthermore, virtuous circles will arise. The author gives an overview of two historical cases in urban growth, in Europe (1200-1800) and the U.S.A. (1800 to today)....

  8. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  9. Environmentally Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Brad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth and sustainable development are important issues for social prosperity. Sustainable development strives for moderate and responsible use within the economic activity of the limited resources of our planet, whereas economic growth does not limit the resource exploitation and energy, being mainly focused on productivity increase. From this perspective, both conceptual and operational contradictions occur between the two pillars of prosperity. This paper looks to these contradictions and proposes some streams of intervention such as economic growth and environmental sustainability to operate in harmony. A structured framework for innovative problem solving is considered in this respect. Results of this research show that it is possible to induce smart measures in the economic system for directing businesses towards new paradigms where economic growth is possible without negative effects on environmental sustainability.

  10. FDI- Economic Growth Nexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bujac, Andreea Ioana; Corado Cretu, Emanuel

    2017-01-01

    Conducting a systematic literature review on the topic of FDI and Economic Growth and investigating this relationship, along with the determinants of an economy that attract FDI and the externalities resulting from Foreign activities, it is found that FDI does have a positive effect on a host...... country’s economic growth but only with the preexistence of certain determinants which facilitate the absorption capacity of the host country on reaping the spillover effects (externalities) of FDI. Lastly, a framework was built to illustrate the interaction between FDI, Determinants and condition...... of the host economy, barriers to growth, economic growth and externalities....

  11. Modeling urban fire growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterman, T.E.; Takata, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The IITRI Urban Fire Spread Model as well as others of similar vintage were constrained by computer size and running costs such that many approximations/generalizations were introduced to reduce program complexity and data storage requirements. Simplifications were introduced both in input data and in fire growth and spread calculations. Modern computational capabilities offer the means to introduce greater detail and to examine its practical significance on urban fire predictions. Selected portions of the model are described as presently configured, and potential modifications are discussed. A single tract model is hypothesized which permits the importance of various model details to be assessed, and, other model applications are identified

  12. Strategies for Urbanization and Economic Competitiveness in Burundi

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    This report argues that urbanization brings significant opportunities for both rural and urban areas and that Burundi needs to prioritize issues of economic growth and job creation. Based on a diagnostic evaluation of the current urbanization and spatial growth, GDP, and job potential, the report highlights the importance of prioritizing policies and investments to address deficiencies in ...

  13. [A longitudinal study of urban-rural growth differences among infants fed with breast milk in six economically better areas in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    To understand the differences between urban and rural breast-fed infants' growth patterns. In economically better regions of six provinces in China, 1147 urban and 1058 rural subjects were recruited by the project respectively, and their longitudinal weight, length, and head circumference were measured from birth to 12 months old. The monitoring frequency was 16 times in total. Analysis was conducted to compare the growth patterns between 497 of urban and 764 of rural subjects meeting the breast-fed babies definition by WHO. During the first year after birth, urban breast-feeding boys' weight, length, head circumference increased by 7.13 kg, 26.9 cm, and 12.4 cm respectively, and 6.60 kg, 26.1 cm, and 11.9 cm for girls. The corresponding values of rural population were 6.70 kg, 25.7 cm and 12.4 cm for boys, and 6.20 kg, 25.0 cm, and 11.8 cm for girls respectively. The gaps existed in the three physical indexes between urban and rural breastfeeding babies were 110 - 480 g, 1.2 - 2.0 cm and 0.1 - 0.6 cm for boys, and 200 - 510 g, 1.3 - 1.7 cm, and 0.4 - 0.6 cm for girls. In about 50% of monitoring age points, monthly increments of urban boy's weight presented higher than rural samples, but only 17% for girl's weight, and boy/girl's length and head circumference. The urban-rural regional gaps in breast-fed infants' physical development were not optimistic and seemed to be wider in boys than in girls. There are still large room for improvement for growth of infants in rural areas.

  14. Armenia's Economic Growth Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Hayakawa, Tatsuji

    2015-01-01

    Armenia enjoyed 15 years of uninterrupted high economic growth prior to the global financial crisis in 2009. Investment, particularly in the mining and metallurgy sectors, played a key role as a driver of economic growth. Remittances,mostly from Russia, had an effect in sustaining consumption and boosting construction. Armenia has shown some weaknesses in the external sector, due to demands for natural gas, mineral products, machinery, and equipment. Armenia's exports and FDI suffer from the ...

  15. Economic growth, ecological economics, and wilderness preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian Czech

    2000-01-01

    Economic growth is a perennial national goal. Perpetual economic growth and wilderness preservation are mutually exclusive. Wilderness scholarship has not addressed this conflict. The economics profession is unlikely to contribute to resolution, because the neoclassical paradigm holds that there is no limit to economic growth. A corollary of the paradigm is that...

  16. Urbanization, Economic Development and Environmental Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the pressure-state-response (PSR model to establish environmental quality indices for 30 administrative regions in China from 2003 to 2011 and employs panel data analysis to study the relationships among the urbanization rate, economic development and environmental change. The results reveal a remarkable inverted-U-shaped relationship between the urbanization rate and changes in regional environmental quality; the “turning point” generally appears near an urbanization rate of 60%. In addition, the degree and mode of economic development have significant, but anisotropic effects on the regional environment. Generally, at a higher degree of economic development, the environment will tend to improve, but an extensive economic growth program that simply aims to increase GDP has a clear negative impact on the environment. Overall, the results of this paper not only further confirm the “environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis”, but also expand it in a manner. The analysis in this paper implies that the inverted-U-shaped evolving relationship between environmental quality and economic growth (urbanization is universally applicable.

  17. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  18. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  19. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Richards

    Full Text Available In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  20. The economics of urban size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, W

    1971-01-01

    An aggregative economic approach to the theory of city size is presented along with some empirical findings which suggest that even the largest cities have not yet reached excessive sizes from the point of view of growth and productivity. Urban magnitude is no simple 1 dimensional phenomenon. Modern urban centers are surrounded by very large, diffuse zonal boundaries, within which there are marked variations in the proportion of firms and people associated with that center, and in the intensity of the association. In sum, population does not constitute a conventional, countable set. In general, population will be considered as the basic magnitude and as a conventionally definable number. Most approaches to city size have emphasized the presumed diseconomy of urban scale and have sought to establish that population at which costs per capita are least, regarding this as optimal. It is argued here that both the logic and the factual basis of this approach are faulty. The argument of minimum costs is insufficient in its own terms. Such an objective is reasonable only if output per capita is constant, but it appears that output per capita is an increasing function of urban size. In that case, a more sensible objective of public policy would deal with the relation of outputs and inputs, rather than only with inputs. In every country for which evidence was found, local product per capita (or some index for it, such as income or wages) rises with urban size, and where comparable figures on cost are available, these rise far more slowly if at all. Although all of the data desirable are not available for any single country, the overall pattern is clear. Possibly the most surprising element in the data is the marked decline with increasing density in Social Overhead Captial Stocks (SOCS) per capita. This runs counter to common belief that the bigger the city the more infrastructure per capita is needed and may be the result of such effects as the greater linear quantities of

  1. Scaling and universality in urban economic diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Hyejin; Bettencourt, Luís M A; Lobo, José; Strumsky, Deborah; Samaniego, Horacio; West, Geoffrey B

    2016-01-01

    Understanding cities is central to addressing major global challenges from climate change to economic resilience. Although increasingly perceived as fundamental socio-economic units, the detailed fabric of urban economic activities is only recently accessible to comprehensive analyses with the availability of large datasets. Here, we study abundances of business categories across US metropolitan statistical areas, and provide a framework for measuring the intrinsic diversity of economic activities that transcends scales of the classification scheme. A universal structure common to all cities is revealed, manifesting self-similarity in internal economic structure as well as aggregated metrics (GDP, patents, crime). We present a simple mathematical derivation of the universality, and provide a model, together with its economic implications of open-ended diversity created by urbanization, for understanding the observed empirical distribution. Given the universal distribution, scaling analyses for individual business categories enable us to determine their relative abundances as a function of city size. These results shed light on the processes of economic differentiation with scale, suggesting a general structure for the growth of national economies as integrated urban systems. © 2016 The Authors.

  2. DETERMINANTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosz Totleben

    2013-01-01

    The article is examines the impact of macroeconomic indicators, in particular: human capital, government spending, innovation, political and social stability, on economic growth. In total 12 different indicators describing the economical, political and social conditions are taken into account. The study considers 102 countries between years 1960 and 2012 and two methods of estimation are performed: generalized method of moments (GMM) and fixed effects (FE). The results show the positive impac...

  3. Economic Growth, Economic Freedom, and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard; Ekstrom, Marcus

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the impact of various forms of economic freedom and various dimensions of governance, as well as a number of economic factors, on economic growth among OECD nations. Empirical estimation finds that the natural log of per capita purchasing-power-parity adjusted real GDP in OECD nations is positively impacted by business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, and property rights security. Economic growth is found to be negatively affected by perceived governme...

  4. Carbon dioxide emissions, economic growth, energy use, and urbanization in Saudi Arabia: evidence from the ARDL approach and impulse saturation break tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggad, Bechir

    2018-05-01

    This study investigates the existence of long-run relationship between CO 2 emissions, economic growth, energy use, and urbanization in Saudi Arabia over the period 1971-2014. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) approach with structural breaks, where structural breaks are identified with the recently impulse saturation break tests, is applied to conduct the analysis. The bounds test result supports the existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The existence of environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) hypothesis has also been tested. The results reveal the non-validity of the EKC hypothesis for Saudi Arabia as the relationship between GDP and pollution is positive in both the short and the long run. Moreover, energy use increases pollution both in short and long run in the country. On the contrary, the results show a negative and significant impact of urbanization on carbon emissions in Saudi Arabia, which means that urban development is not an obstacle to the improvement of environmental quality. Consequently, policy-makers in Saudi Arabia should consider the efficiency enhancement, frugality in energy consumption, and especially increase the share of renewable energies in the total energy mix.

  5. Entrepreneurial Diversity and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Verheul (Ingrid); A.J. van Stel (André)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractMost studies investigating the relationship between entrepreneurship and economic growth treat entrepreneurs as a homogeneous group. This study investigates the impact of entrepreneurial diversity on national economic growth. Using data for 36 countries participating in the Global

  6. Monitoring urban growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Lasse; Kofie, Richard; Yankson, Paul

    2007-01-01

    The extent of the urbanized areas of Accra is assessed from Landsat-TM satellite images for the year 2002 and compared to similar information for the years 1985 and 1991. A texture-based classification method is applied. The results show that the urbanization of the fringe areas of Accra is occur......The extent of the urbanized areas of Accra is assessed from Landsat-TM satellite images for the year 2002 and compared to similar information for the years 1985 and 1991. A texture-based classification method is applied. The results show that the urbanization of the fringe areas of Accra...

  7. Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Economic Dimensions of Urban Agriculture in the Context of Urban Poverty ... price crisis and the threat of climate change to traditional sources of food security. ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.

  8. Economic growth and business cycles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canton, E.J.F.

    1997-01-01

    This thesis contains five essays on economic growth and business cycles. The main focus is on the interaction between economic growth and the cycle: is cyclical variability good or bad for the long-run rate of economic growth? The introduction aims to provide some empirical evidence for an

  9. Urban liveability versus economic efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farné Fratini, Chiara; Jensen, Jens Stissing

    2013-01-01

    development. Against this agenda a national strategy is currently being enforced which addresses water as a context-independent functional sector. This agenda operates with a narrow definition of economic efficiency in service provision through a benchmarking system focusing only on technical performances...... addresses the infrastructure as a discrete system - thus pushing for one-way influence of the infrastructure to the cityscape - the place based innovation agenda has traditionally been more inclusive towards the context specific priorities of urban planners. In this paper we apply the arena of development...

  10. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  11. Economic Growth Models Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coralia Angelescu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The transitional recession in countries of Eastern Europe has been much longer than expected. The legacy and recent policy mistakes have both contributed to the slow progress. As structural reforms and gradual institution building have taken hold, the post-socialist economics have started to recover, with some leading countries building momentum toward faster growth. There is a possibility that in wider context of globalization several of these emerging market economies will be able to catch up with the more advanced industrial economies in a matter of one or two generations. Over the past few years, most candidate countries have made progress in the transition to a competitive market economy, macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. However their income levels have remained far below those in the Member States. Measured by per capita income in purchasing power standards, there has been a very limited amount of catching up over the past fourteen years. Prior, the distinctions between Solow-Swan model and endogenous growth model. The interdependence between transition and integration are stated in this study. Finally, some measures of macroeconomic policy for sustainable growth are proposed in correlation with real macroeconomic situation of the Romanian economy. Our study would be considered the real convergence for the Romanian economy and the recommendations for the adequate policies to achieve a fast real convergence and sustainable growth.

  12. Bayesian methods to estimate urban growth potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jordan W.; Smart, Lindsey S.; Dorning, Monica; Dupéy, Lauren Nicole; Méley, Andréanne; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2017-01-01

    Urban growth often influences the production of ecosystem services. The impacts of urbanization on landscapes can subsequently affect landowners’ perceptions, values and decisions regarding their land. Within land-use and land-change research, very few models of dynamic landscape-scale processes like urbanization incorporate empirically-grounded landowner decision-making processes. Very little attention has focused on the heterogeneous decision-making processes that aggregate to influence broader-scale patterns of urbanization. We examine the land-use tradeoffs faced by individual landowners in one of the United States’ most rapidly urbanizing regions − the urban area surrounding Charlotte, North Carolina. We focus on the land-use decisions of non-industrial private forest owners located across the region’s development gradient. A discrete choice experiment is used to determine the critical factors influencing individual forest owners’ intent to sell their undeveloped properties across a series of experimentally varied scenarios of urban growth. Data are analyzed using a hierarchical Bayesian approach. The estimates derived from the survey data are used to modify a spatially-explicit trend-based urban development potential model, derived from remotely-sensed imagery and observed changes in the region’s socioeconomic and infrastructural characteristics between 2000 and 2011. This modeling approach combines the theoretical underpinnings of behavioral economics with spatiotemporal data describing a region’s historical development patterns. By integrating empirical social preference data into spatially-explicit urban growth models, we begin to more realistically capture processes as well as patterns that drive the location, magnitude and rates of urban growth.

  13. Policy Tools for Addressing Urban Sprawl: Urban Growth Boundaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric J. STRAUSS

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The analysis herein explores the topic of urban growth boundaries and how local governments in Romania could use this growth management tool in order to address unplanned, haphazard growth that is taking place at the fringe of cities and in the villages/ farming communities that surround them. The structure of the paper is threefold. The first section focuses on a brief socio-economic profile of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The aim is to provide a better context and facilitate the reader’s understanding of the nature of urban growth and suburbanization in Romania. Cluj-Napoca is currently in the process of adopting a master plan for the city and specific policy recommendations on how to address urban sprawl may prove useful. The authors hope to stir a debate among scholars, practitioners, and residents with regard to how the city of Cluj will further develop and whether future development should occur in the same manner it occurred during the last 10 years. The second section of the paper is meant to introduce the concepts of growth management and urban growth boundaries. The former is described in terms of a planning philosophy while the latter is portrayed as a specific policy tool that growth management advocates suggest it could be used in order to fight sprawl. A case study on urban growth boundaries is presented in order to underscore specific advantages and disadvantages associated with establishing a growth boundary. The last section comprises several preliminary policy recommendations for the city of Cluj-Napoca. Because of the incomplete data the authors currently have on critical issues some of the recommendations are general in scope and need to be further detailed.

  14. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  15. Electricity regulation and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Costa, M. Teresa (Maria Teresa), 1951-; Garcia-Quevedo, Jose; Trujillo-Baute, Elisa

    2018-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyse the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Although the relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth has been extensively analysed in the empirical literature, this framework has not been used to estimate the effect of electricity regulation on economic growth. Understanding this effect is essential for the assessment of regulatory policy. Specifically, we assess the effects of two major areas of regulation, rene...

  16. Corporate Stability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    He, Kathy S.; Morck, Randall; Yeung, Bernard

    2003-01-01

    Greater instability in a country's list of top corporations is associated with faster economic growth. This faster growth is primarily due to faster growth in total factor productivity in industrialized countries, and faster capital accumulation in developing countries. These findings are consistent with the view that economic growth is more closely tied to the rise of new large firms than to the prosperity of established large firms. Although a stable list of leading corporations is highly c...

  17. Sustainable urban growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud, Pierre-Noel

    2011-01-01

    The principal messages from Energy and urban innovation are presented. This report by the World Energy Council has examined the challenges related to energy in big cities (in particular 'mega-cities'), the policies that are being or could be implemented, and the role of firms in this implementation. Considerable progress can be made by using existing techniques. The main difficulty has to do with diffusing them. There is a need for organizational and institutional innovations that will stimulate players, coordinate their actions and speed up the tempo of change

  18. Technical Education and Economic Growth

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Technical Education and Economic Growth. Technical Education and Economic Growth. Review of the Present Status. Expanding no.s and impairment of quality; Faculty shortage; Grim situation at Masters and PhD levels; Regional imbalance; Absence of International flavour ...

  19. Quality, Export and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Pedersen, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    in an international context. The paper, therefore, addresses the complicated interactions between economic growth, export performance and quality. The contribution of the paper, compared to other growth accounting research, is the inclusion of quality data, quality being a significant mirror of technological...... development. The countries covered by the research represent a wide variation in terms of economic development, from poor LDC's to the most developed industrial nations. The empirical results reveal a probable strong relationship between quality/price and export growth as well as economic growth. This new...

  20. Human Development and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ranis, Gustav

    2004-01-01

    Recent literature has contrasted Human Development, described as the ultimate goal of the development process, with economic growth, described as an imperfect proxy for more general welfare, or as a means toward enhanced human development. This debate has broadened the definitions and goals of development but still needs to define the important interrelations between human development (HD) and economic growth (EG). To the extent that greater freedom and capabilities improve economic performan...

  1. SECTORAL SHARES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Naveed, Amjad; Naz, Amber

    2013-01-01

    believe that structural change is an unimportant side effect of the economic development. On the contrary, economists associated with the World Bank and some others posit that growth is brought about by the changes in sectoral composition. The objective of this study is to empirically test...... the relationship between sectoral shares and economic growth by using the panel data for 20 developed countries. The results of the granger causality suggest that both services and agriculture sectors do granger cause economic growth, whereas industrial sector does not granger cause growth. Reverse causality does...... not hold for any of the three sectors. The results of Barro and Non-Barro regressions along with the set of control variables have suggested that services sector is negatively affecting growth, whereas both industrial and agriculture shares are positively affect economic growth....

  2. Agglomeration Economies, Economic Growth and the New Economic Geography in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandro Diaz-Bautista

    2005-01-01

    The present study of regional economic growth in Mexico is based on the new economic geography, where distance plays an important role in explaining urban regional economic growth. The results show that distance to the northern border of Mexico and labor migration between states of Mexico, after the passage of NAFTA are important factors that explain the regional state growth and agglomerations in Mexico between 1994 and 2000. The results also indicate that job growth and FDI are not signific...

  3. Urban Growth and Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Duranton; Matthew A. Turner

    2012-01-01

    We estimate the effects of major roads and public transit on the growth of major cities in the US between 1980 and 2000. We find that a 10% increase in a city’s stock of roads causes about a 2% increase in its population and employment and a small decrease in its share of poor households over this 20 year period. We also find that a 10% increase in a city’s stock of large buses causes about a 0.8% population increase and a small increase in the share of poor households over this period. To es...

  4. Economic Growth - Quality of Life Nexus in Ethiopia: Time Series ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optiplex 7010 Pro

    This study investigates the nexus between economic growth and quality of life ..... competitiveness of political participation, the openness and competitiveness ..... women contributes to minimal food expenditure in the urban areas in the LR.

  5. Sociological explanations of economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, R M

    1988-01-01

    Even if questions of how resources are distributed within and between societies are the main concern, it is necessary to continue to grapple with the issue of the causes of economic growth since economic growth and level of development continue to be among the most important causes of inequality, poverty, unemployment, and the quality of life. This paper's dependent variable is the economic growth rate of 55 less developed countries (LDCs) over 2 time periods. 1970-78 and 1965-84. The causal model consists of control variables--level of development and domestic investment in 1965--and a variety of independent variables drawn from major sociological theories of economic growth published during the last 3 decades. Multiple regression analysis shows that, net of the effects of the 2 control variables, the variables which have the strongest effect on economic growth are: 1) direct foreign investment, which has a negative effect, 2) the proportion of the population in military service, and 3) the primary school enrollment ratio, both of which have positive effects on economic growth. On the other hand, variables drawn from some theories receive no empirical support. The mass media of communications, ethnolinguistic heterogeneity, democracy and human rights, income inequality, and state-centric theory's key variable, state strength, all fail to show any significant impact on economic growth rates when the control variables and the significant independent variables are held constant. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  6. Innovation, resources and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, A.Q.; Fortis, M.; Zoboli, R.

    1994-01-01

    The book is concerned with the following items: 1. Technological Creativity and Institutions, 2. Innovation at Work in an Historical-Economic Perspective: Energy and Industrial Materials, 3. Scientific Revolutions and Strategies of Economic Supremacy: Advanced Materials and Biotechnologies, 4. Economic Growth and Agro-Food Policies in Key Problem Regions: Former USSR and LDCs, 5. Economic Growth and Natural Resources at Risk: Climate Change, Forests and Water and in Conclusion: Innovation and Resources in a Global Policy Perspective. Only one chapter have regard to energy problems: Energie efficient technologies: past and future perspectives. (UA)

  7. Do motorways shape urban growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    2005-01-01

    results suggest that the motorway most markedly influences the location of non-residential building activities within the city – in favour of locations near the entrance points to/from the motorway network. The development can be explained in part by municipal planning, which in some instances has opened......The paper is an offspring from the Research project Town, Road and Landscape that aims to assess the effect of the Danish motorway network (specifically the last 20 years) on urban growth and interaction patterns. As one of the main interests of the project is the changing urban form...... and the changing character of the roadscape, the impact of the motorway is in part analysed with micro level data, spatial statistics and GIS – to allowing mapping of changing development trends in motorway corridors. The paper presents analysis of the impact of motorway openings on urban form in two Danish...

  8. Using GIS for Developing Sustainable Urban Growth Case Kyrenia Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, C.; Akçit, N.

    2018-03-01

    It is critical to develop urban layers for analysis sustainable urban development possibilities within planning process. Kyrenia Region has many physical, environmental or economic issues that may danger the growth possibilities in sustainable manner. From this point, this study uses different spatial layers such as slope, distance to roads, distance to central zone, vegetation, soil productivity, environmental protection zones, distance to open/green space, distance to education for supporting sustainable urban growth policies and define suitable areas for urban development within this perspective. The study tries to convert sustainable urban growth policies such as; compact growth, environmental protection, equal accessibility to basic services; into spatial layers and establish proper framework for multi criteria evaluation in Kyrenia Region within using geographical information systems. It shows suitability values for Kyrenia region and constraints zones at final section. It clearly presents the suitable areas for the sustainable urbanization and also unsuitable or risky areas for reducing the possible disasters and may happen in the future.

  9. Blue Growth and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phoebe eKoundouri

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Oceans and seas represent over 70% of the earth's surface. Furthermore, living aquatic resources can provide a significant contribution to food, energy and bio-based products. However, marine ecosystems are subject to increasing pressures and competing usages, resulting from resources over-exploitation and pollution. In order to produce efficient marine management plans, it is essential to consider the total economic value provided by the marine ecosystems. In this review, we are focusing on the Marine Framework Strategy Directive and the European Marine Spatial Planning that are established for the protection and efficient use of the marine area. We present the ecosystem services approach with regards to the marine ecosystem and propose economic methods that capture the marine ecosystem’s total economic value in relation to the opportunity cost of marine space. Values should be used to guide policy makers following the European directives and initiatives.

  10. Traffic fatalities and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-04-01

    As countries develop death rates usually fall, especially for diseases that affect the young and result in substantial life-years lost. Deaths due to traffic accidents are a notable exception: the growth in motor vehicles that accompanies economic gr...

  11. Retail payments and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Iftekhar; De Renzis, Tania; Schmiedel , Heiko

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the fundamental relationship between retail payments and overall economic growth. Using data from across 27 European markets over the period 1995–2009, the results confirm that migration to efficient electronic retail payments stimulates overall economic growth, consumption and trade. Among different payment instruments, this relationship is strongest for card payments, followed by credit transfers and direct debits. Cheque payments are found to have a relatively low macro...

  12. Institutions, Entrepreneurship, and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2016-01-01

    sample limitations, omitted variable biases, causality issues, and response heterogeneity. We argue that theories in management research, such as the resource-based view, transaction cost economics, and strategic entrepreneurship theory, can fill some of the conceptual and theoretical gaps.......We review the literature that links institutions, entrepreneurship, and economic growth outcomes, focusing in particular on empirical research. Most of the literature has an economics orientation, but we also review relevant literature from other social sciences, including management research...

  13. Planning instruments to control urban growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2010-01-01

    It is challenging to plan and control urban development in peri-urban areas. But if no planning is done, the result will often be unsustainable, including widespread, dispersed and uncoordinated urban growth. Spatial planning based on zoning remains the most important planning instrument and its...... success depend on regional coordination. Incentive based instruments may contrbute to growth management, but only few examples are available and their effects on urban growth patterns yet to be seen....

  14. ECONOMIC GROWTH – COSTS AND DEVELOPMENT DISCREPANCES

    OpenAIRE

    Ion Bucur

    2007-01-01

    The economic growth shows an ascending tendency of the economic evolution over a long period of time, having favorable social and economic effects. Each economic growth factor acts simultaneous trough three dimensions.

  15. Linking Ethics and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2012-01-01

    Hunt (2012) builds on his work concerning ethics and resource-advantage theory to link personal ethical standards, societal norms, and economic growth but offers few details concerning the precise mechanisms that link ethics and growth. This comment suggests a number of such mechanisms – for exam...... – for example, the influence of prevailing ethical norms on the aggregate elasticity of substitution and, therefore, total factor productivity and growth....

  16. Political Instability and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Alesina; Sule Ozler; Nouriel Roubini; Phillip Swagel

    1992-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between political instability and per capita GDP growth in a sample of 113 countries for the period 1950-1982. We define ?political instability? as the propensity of a government collapse, and we estimate a model in which political instability and economic growth are jointly determined. The main result of this paper is that in countries and time periods with a high propensity of government collapse, growth is significantly lower than otherwise. This ef...

  17. Modeling urban growth in Kigali city Rwanda

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kagoyire

    industrialization, land consumption and infrastructural development, have impacted ..... urban growth (reference image) and urban development predicted to the ..... neighboring characteristics (regular water and electricity provision) were not ...

  18. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  19. Modeling urban growth in Kigali city Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nduwayezu, G.; Sliuzas, R.V.; Kuffer, M.

    2017-01-01

    The uncontrolled urban growth is the key characteristics in most cities in less developed countries. However, having a good understanding of the key drivers of the city's growth dynamism has proven to be a key instrument to manage urban growth. This paper investigates the main determinants of Kigali

  20. The spaces of urban economic geographies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsø Hansen, Høgni; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  1. Energy, economic growth, and human welfare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurr, S.H.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled: economic growth and human welfare; world-wide economic growth; economic growth and energy consumption; assessing the future; caution advised; energy supply and economic growth; supply as constraint; sound policies needed. (U.K.)

  2. Exhaustible resources and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.F.

    1984-09-01

    This study examines the effect of a booming natural resource sector on regional economic growth, with particular attention to the impact of regional government policy on mineral rent taxation and the allocation of resource revenues. The author's approach is first to document the relevant theory and then apply it to the case of the uranium industry in Saskatchewan

  3. Knowledge Spillovers and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Stel (André); H.R. Nieuwenhuijsen

    2002-01-01

    textabstractThe importance of knowledge spillovers for achieving innovation and economic growth is widely recognized. It is not straightforward which type of spillovers is most effective: intra-sectoral spillovers or inter-sectoral spillovers. We investigate this controversy using a model of

  4. Financial Liberalization and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumann, S.; Hermes, N.; Lensink, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a systematic analysis of the empirical literature on the relationship between financial liberalization and economic growth by conducting a meta-analysis, based on 441 t-statistics reported in 60 empirical studies. We focus on explaining the heterogeneity of results in our sample

  5. Intangible capital and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Modern economic growth stems in good part from investments in knowledge-based intangible assets, such as research and development (R&D), organisational know-how, product design, branding and marketing. By capitalising expenditures on these intangibles as business investments, this thesis

  6. ECONOMIC gROWTH, GLOBALIZATION AND TRADE

    OpenAIRE

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between economic growth, globalization and trade. The manuscript uses the assumptions of the economic growth exogenous and endogenous models. It introduces new proxies for explain the economic growth as in intra-industry trade, foreign direct investment and globalization index. The results indicate that economic growth is a dynamic process. The intra-industry has a positive impact on economic growth. This paper confirms relevan...

  7. Innovative economic structures – support for development of urban systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin Marian Buhociu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Training and development of urban systems (US is a main direction of territorial and regional development which requires multiple studies, including those of economic background. They should aim to highlight, on the one hand, the economic potential of geographical areas making up the urban system and secondly to assess development trends you need to focus their own resources and those that are to be attracted to getting a economic trend upward in that area. It is therefore very important a zonal configuration of the urban system by following the joint capitalization of existing human and material resources, including by building synergy effect to be achieved following the joint evolution of settlements in the US. Along with the development of US is required, from the economical point of view, to implement new forms of economic structures to directly potentate the development of the area through constant cooperation, innovation and transfer of know-how. Romania currently has seven major urban centers that were selected and were assigned the role of growth poles. There were also 13 designated urban growth poles, including Galati and Braila. Urban agglomeration formed by the two municipalities, located at a distance from each other of about 25 km, is the second largest in the country after Bucharest. There is currently underway specialized documentation to achieve an optimal configuration for US Galati-Braila. From the economic point of view in the respective area can be implemented new development structures of cluster (Porter, M.E.,2000 type aimed at achieving the competitiveness poles and which will constitute the true engine of economic development. These two new structures of economic development are characterized by the fact that they allow and provide the necessary conditions to attract the systems and modern technologies to build local innovation systems that can be integrated into similar systems at regional and even national level. It is

  8. Economic growth and gender equality | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    And conversely, does gender equality impact economic growth? ... change and growth in the economy on women's employment opportunities and the type ... sectors and their overall effect on development outcomes, such as economic growth ...

  9. Driving factors of urban land growth in Guangzhou and its implications for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhu; Li, Shaoying; Wang, Xuetong; Xue, Xiaolong

    2018-04-01

    Since 2000, China's urban land has expanded at a dramatic speed because of the country's rapid urbanization. The country has been experiencing unbalanced development between rural and urban areas, causing serious challenges such as agricultural security and land resources waste. Effectively evaluating the driving factors of urban land growth is essential for improving efficient land use management and sustainable urban development. This study established a principal component regression model based on eight indicators to identify their influences on urban land growth in Guangzhou. The results provided a grouping analysis of the driving factors, and found that economic growth, urban population, and transportation development are the driving forces of urban land growth of Guangzhou, while the tertiary industry has an opposite effect. The findings led to further suggestions and recommendations for urban sustainable development. Hence, local governments should design relevant policies for achieving the rational development of urban land use and strategic planning on urban sustainable development.

  10. Why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Md Montasir

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies why higher economic growth cannot always enhance human development. In general, these two dimensions have a strong and positive relationship, but some countries appear unable to balance this relationship. As a consequence, there are some countries with high economic growth but sluggish human development progress. This paper studies how other factors besides GDP – women labor force participation, urbanization, and inequality - are correlated to human development. I construct...

  11. Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, D E; Sachs, J D

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate, topography, and natural ecology on public health, nutrition, demographics, technological diffusion, international trade and other determinants of economic development in Africa. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the need for intensified research on the issues at the intersection of ecology and human society. Geography was given emphasis because of three reasons: the minimal gain from another recitation of the damage caused by statism, protectionism and corruption to African economic performance; negligence of the role of natural forces in shaping economic performance; and tailoring of policies to geographical realities. The paper also discusses the general problems of tropical development and the focus of Africa's problems in worldwide tropical perspectives; demographic trends in Africa; use of standard cross-country growth equations with demographic and geographic variables, to account for the relative roles of geography; and the future growth strategies and the need for urban-based export growth in manufacturing and services. Lastly, the authors provide a summary of conclusions and discuss the agenda for future research.

  12. Population growth and economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbridge, S

    1989-01-01

    The Malthusian and neo-Malthusian approaches to the role of population growth in economic development and resource depletion are briefly outlined. Three arguments are then presented that emphasize demographic determinism, empirical evidence, and cause and effect. The author concludes that non-coercive family planning programs may have a role to play in countries that are unable to reduce inequalities, particularly for the poor and for women.

  13. Poverty, governance and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefi Mohamed Karim

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to study the effect of governance and povrety on economic growth of a set of eight developing countries during the period 2000-2009, using a dynamic and static panel data model and a simultaneous equations model. The key findings generated from these three empirical tests stipulate a negative effect of governance on povrety and a positive effect of political instability and corruption on poverty

  14. Road infrastructure, spatial spillover and county economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhenhua; Luo, Shuang

    2017-09-01

    This paper analyzes the spatial spillover effect of road infrastructure on the economic growth of poverty-stricken counties, based on the spatial Durbin model, by using the panel data of 37 poor counties in Hunan province from 2006 to 2015. The results showed that there is a significant spatial dependence of economic growth in Poor Counties. Road infrastructure has a positive impact on economic growth, and the results will be overestimated without considering spatial factors. Considering the spatial factors, the road infrastructure will promote the economic growth of the surrounding areas through the spillover effect, but the spillover effect is restricted by the distance factor. Capital investment is the biggest factor of economic growth in poor counties, followed by urbanization, labor force and regional openness.

  15. Economic growth in a politically fragmented world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2014), s. 402-416 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : economic integration * economic growth * intergenerational bargain Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2014

  16. Economic growth in a politically fragmented world

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jeong, Byeongju

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 2 (2014), s. 402-416 ISSN 0147-5967 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : economic integration * economic growth * intergenerational bargain Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.170, year: 2014

  17. Relationship Between Education Expenditure And Economic Growth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The empirical part of the result shows that there is unidirectional relationship between education and economic growth with causality running from education expenditure to economic growth. The result therefore suggests that policy makers should boost expenditure on education as it will further improve economic growth in ...

  18. Energy taxation and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seymour, Adam; Mabro, Robert.

    1994-01-01

    These two linked articles look at the relationship between policies aimed at taxing various energy sources and economic growth in the country, raising such taxes in order to decide how such fiscal policy can best serve the needs of developing nations. It is argued that, while many developing nations seek to protect internal energy markets by taxing imported petroleum products, a policy of domestic energy prices being set at the same level as their international equivalent costs is more consistent with the efficient management of long-term structural adjustment programmes. (UK)

  19. Long-Term Urban Market Dynamics Reveal Increased Bushmeat Carcass Volume despite Economic Growth and Proactive Environmental Legislation on Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, Drew T.; Woloszynek, Stephen; Morra, Wayne A.; Honarvar, Shaya; Linder, Joshua M.; Gonder, Mary Katherine; O’Connor, Michael P.; Hearn, Gail W.

    2015-01-01

    Bushmeat hunting is extensive in west and central Africa as both a means for subsistence and for commercial gain. Commercial hunting represents one of the primary threats to wildlife in the region, and confounding factors have made it challenging to examine how external factors influence the commercial bushmeat trade. Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea is a small island with large tracts of intact forest that support sizeable populations of commercially valuable vertebrates, especially endemic primates. The island also has a low human population and has experienced dramatic economic growth and rapid development since the mid-1990’s. From October 1997 – September 2010, we monitored the largest bushmeat market on Bioko in Malabo, recording over 197,000 carcasses for sale. We used these data to analyze the dynamics of the market in relation to political events, environmental legislation, and rapid economic growth. Our findings suggest that bushmeat hunting and availability increased in parallel with the growth of Equatorial Guinea’s GDP and disposable income of its citizens. During this 13-year study, the predominant mode of capture shifted from trapping to shotguns. Consequently, carcass volume and rates of taxa typically captured with shotguns increased significantly, most notably including intensified hunting of Bioko's unique and endangered monkey fauna. Attempts to limit bushmeat sales, including a 2007 ban on primate hunting and trade, were only transiently effective. The hunting ban was not enforced, and was quickly followed by a marked increase in bushmeat hunting compared to hunting rates prior to the ban. Our results emphasize the negative impact that rapid development and unenforced legislation have had on Bioko’s wildlife, and demonstrate the need for strong governmental support if conservation strategies are to be successful at preventing extinctions of tropical wildlife. PMID:26230504

  20. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND EQUALITY IN REDUCING POVERTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Muttaqin

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In some developing countries, the instrument to alleviate the poverty is by using the economic growth. So, the increasing in investment, infrastructure development, and macroeconomics stability always be priority from developing countries. In this article explain that economic growth is not the important factor to alleviate the poverty, because equality sometimes is more important rather than the economic growth. In this context, its measure by inequality growth trade off index (IGTI. This method is to measure the influence of economic growth to reducing the inequality, with this method every country can measure which one is better to reducing the poverty whether the economic growth or equality. With this method, Laos in 2000 show that economic growth is more important than equality, but in the same year in Thailand show that equality is more important than economic growth.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v1i1.2592

  1. The effects of urban growth on dengue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Pereira Horta

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the spatial and temporal dynamics of dengue in Coronel Fabriciano, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, and to associate cases to the growth of urban areas and loss of natural areas in recent years. Methods: This is a descriptive, exploratory study, with a quantitative approach. Dengue cases of 2009 were obtained from the Health Municipal Secretariat, including the suspected and confirmed cases. Shape files were obtained, containing information about the municipal boundary, boundary of the urban area, census tracts, areas with buildings and natural areas. Based on the distribution of dengue cases, the Kernel estimator was used to measure data dispersion. Results: Dengue cases reported were georeferenced in GIS (Geographic Information System environment. The landscape showed changes in the units of urban area and pasture, as an urban growth over the pasture matrix. No changes were observed in the areas of remaining forest and eucalyptus. There are cases spatially spread with a tendency to form clusters. Conclusion: Cases of dengue were observed spatially clustered in the northern region of the city, where new neighborhoods have emerged in recent years, following the population growth without proper structure of urbanization and urban planning. In addition, urban growth have reduced the margin of watercourses providing a bare soil, suitable for accumulation of trash and formation of breeding sites for mosquitoes. Efficient public policies and appropriate urban planning might reduce the impact of dengue in endemic regions. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.5020/18061230.2013.p539

  2. Quantifying urban growth patterns in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes and time series spatial metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Duong H; Lepczyk, Christopher A; Miura, Tomoaki; Fox, Jefferson M

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory. We analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the built-up land in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes, spatial metrics, and a gradient approach. Urbanization was most pronounced in the periods of 2001-2006 and 2006-2010 at a distance of 10 to 35 km around the urban center. Over the 17 year period urban expansion in Hanoi was dominated by infilling and edge expansion growth modes. Our findings support the diffusion-coalescence theory of urbanization. The shift of the urban growth areas over time and the dynamic nature of the spatial metrics revealed important information about our understanding of the urban growth process and cycle. Furthermore, our findings can be used to evaluate urban planning policies and aid in urbanization issues in rapidly urbanizing countries.

  3. Quantifying urban growth patterns in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes and time series spatial metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Miura, Tomoaki; Fox, Jefferson M.

    2018-01-01

    Urbanization has been driven by various social, economic, and political factors around the world for centuries. Because urbanization continues unabated in many places, it is crucial to understand patterns of urbanization and their potential ecological and environmental impacts. Given this need, the objectives of our study were to quantify urban growth rates, growth modes, and resultant changes in the landscape pattern of urbanization in Hanoi, Vietnam from 1993 to 2010 and to evaluate the extent to which the process of urban growth in Hanoi conformed to the diffusion-coalescence theory. We analyzed the spatiotemporal patterns and dynamics of the built-up land in Hanoi using landscape expansion modes, spatial metrics, and a gradient approach. Urbanization was most pronounced in the periods of 2001–2006 and 2006–2010 at a distance of 10 to 35 km around the urban center. Over the 17 year period urban expansion in Hanoi was dominated by infilling and edge expansion growth modes. Our findings support the diffusion-coalescence theory of urbanization. The shift of the urban growth areas over time and the dynamic nature of the spatial metrics revealed important information about our understanding of the urban growth process and cycle. Furthermore, our findings can be used to evaluate urban planning policies and aid in urbanization issues in rapidly urbanizing countries. PMID:29734346

  4. What are the "ingredients" for economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Wolla, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Is there a recipe for economic growth? Perhaps some Miracle-Gro for the economy? If only it were that easy. While the exact recipe is a mystery, economists have identified some of the key ingredients. This month’s newsletter discusses the role that economic institutions play in fostering long-term economic growth.

  5. REFERENCE MODELS OF ENDOGENOUS ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    GEAMĂNU MARINELA

    2012-01-01

    The new endogenous growth theories are a very important research area for shaping the most effective policies and long term sustainable development strategies. Endogenous growth theory has emerged as a reaction to the imperfections of neoclassical theory, by the fact that the economic growth is the endogenous product of an economical system.

  6. Multilevel approaches and the firm-agglomeration ambiguity in economic growth studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oort, F.G.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107712741; Burger, M.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/371741092; Knoben, J.; Raspe, O.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies in spatial economics have shown that agglomeration economies may be a source of the uneven distribution of economic activities and economic growth across cities and regions. Both localization and urbanization economies are hypothesized to foster agglomeration and growth, but recent

  7. Multilevel approaches and the firm-agglomeration ambiguity in economic growth studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, F.G. van; Burger, M.J.; Knoben, J.; Raspe, O.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical studies in spatial economics have shown that agglomeration economies may be a source of the uneven distribution of economic activities and economic growth across cities and regions. Both localization and urbanization economies are hypothesized to foster agglomeration and growth, but

  8. The role of economic clusters in improving urban planning support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Zhenshan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/251865274

    2010-01-01

    Improving the mechanism of integrating economic and spatial developments is an important issue in urban policy analysis and design. As Economic Clusters (ECs) become an important organisation in contemporary urban development in both economic and spatial practices, the research addresses the

  9. Assessing the Effect of Spatial Proximity on Urban Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Gomes

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Land-Use/Cover Change (LUCC reacts to demographic pressures, economic trends, or improved transport networks. Urban growth with implications on LUCC patterns can be measured using a diversity of methods. Our study derives from Tobler’s first law of geography: ‘everything is related to everything else, but near things are more related than distant ones’. We identified and measured the influence of neighbouring distance on urban growth from the edge of existing urban areas. For that, we have developed a method, built using the NetLogo software tool, which we called Land-use chAnge and Neighbouring Distance (LAND. We selected Torres Vedras (Portugal to conduct our case study due to its increasing urban development in the past few years. The periods of analysis were 1995–2010, 1995–2007, and 2007–2010. The results have shown the influence and the effect of strong spatial correlation between the proximity of existing artificial surfaces and the emergence of new ones. The understanding of the patterns of urban growth is helpful to plan forward land developments. This method can be used to write guidelines for decision makers to monitor urban expansion and define spatial planning priorities.

  10. Economics of Sustainable Development. Competitiveness and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorel AILENEI

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Economic growth is one of the most important issues of humanity. Both in national economies and world economy, recession and prosperity periods are regularly succeeding with different amplitudes. But beyond these fluctuations and their effects, the results are important: performance and economic growth. Because of the problematical issue of economic growth, the authors are trying to critically reflect on the economic growth concept and on its implications on the praxis area. Although there is a large literature about economic growth modeling, it is intriguing that there still are some serious obstacles for conceptualization and praxis. Only the simple fact that the economic growth process needs serious thinking on the time dimension is sufficient for understanding the real difficulties of this problematical issue. As for the economic growth praxis, a clear analysis of the interests system within an economy is needed. Without trying to find miraculous solutions for the economic growth issue, the authors suggest a clear and correct analysis of this important subject.

  11. ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ICTs, Economic Growth and Poverty ... new information and communication technologies (ICTs) as a lever for economic and social development. ... Socially equitable climate action is essential to strengthen the resilience of all people, without ...

  12. REMITTANCES AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin KARAMELIKLI

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Savings are one of the important determinants beyond the theories of economic growth. Therefore remittances and foreign direct investment inflows have importance for the countries having insufficient savings. This study examines the relationship between economic growth, remittances, foreign direct investment inflows and gross domestic savings in Turkey during the period 1974-2013 by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag approach. We found that remittances, foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings had positive impact on economic growth.

  13. Urban sprawl, smart growth, and deliberative democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2010-10-01

    Urban sprawl is an increasingly common feature of the built environment in the United States and other industrialized nations. Although there is considerable evidence that urban sprawl has adverse affects on public health and the environment, policy frameworks designed to combat sprawl-such as smart growth-have proven to be controversial, making implementation difficult. Smart growth has generated considerable controversy because stakeholders affected by urban planning policies have conflicting interests and divergent moral and political viewpoints. In some of these situations, deliberative democracy-an approach to resolving controversial public-policy questions that emphasizes open, deliberative debate among the affected parties as an alternative to voting-would be a fair and effective way to resolve urban-planning issues.

  14. On the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haan, Jakob de; Sturm, Jan-Egbert

    1999-01-01

    Often it is maintained that economic freedom may further high levels of economic growth. This paper compares various indicators for economic freedom. It is concluded that although these measures differ somewhat in their coverage, they show similar rankings for the countries covered. Some elements in

  15. Financial Development, Environmental Quality and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shushu Li

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationships between financial development, environmental quality and economic growth are studied based on data from 102 countries over the period 1980–2010 using the generalized method of moments (GMM estimation. The econometric results show the following three basic conclusions: First, both financial development and environmental quality have a significant impact on economic growth and should be included in the production function of the economic growth model as important variables. Second, there is a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between financial development and economic growth; with the improvement of the level of financial development, economic growth would first increase and then decrease, which is consistent with the results of previous studies. Third, there is also a significant and robust “inverted U-shaped” relationship between economic growth and carbon emissions, indicating that there exists a “critical point” at which achieving economic growth comes at the expense of environmental quality, and after passing the critical point, the deterioration of environmental quality will lead to a significant slowdown in economic growth. In addition, the econometric analysis in this paper also shows that there was a mutually promoting and strengthening relationship between financial development and environmental quality. Specifically, the degree of financial development can further strengthen the promoting effect of environmental quality on economic growth; meanwhile, an improvement in environmental quality can also strengthen the promoting effect of financial development on economic growth. Financial development and environmental quality could influence economic growth through strengthening the marginal product effects of capital and labor, which further indicates the that both financial and environmental factors play an important role in modern economic development.

  16. Does FDI influence economic growth in Albania?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Koroci

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI has been viewed as a power affecting economic growth (EG directly and indirectly during the past few decades. Foreign direct investment (FDI in developing countries brings economic development and enhances the international competitiveness of domestic enterprises. It is argued in the existing literature that foreign direct investment (FDI influences economic growth through technology diffusion, human capital formation, etc. FDI accounts for the largest and most important proportion of foreign capital in Albania, which undoubtedly plays an important role in the Albania’s economic development growth. However, as the country’s FDI increases, and in this paper I want to make an empirical research how the FDI has influenced the economic growth of the country. The findings revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between the FDI inflows and the GDP for the studied period which covers 1995 to 2012, thus a positive effect on the economic growth.

  17. Regional Economic Growth; Socio-Economic Disparities among Counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih Özgür SARICA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available State level economy has always been relying on its major metropolitan area’s economic success. So, such metropolitan agglomerations have been considered the only agents that can foster the state’s economic standing as if other economic places do (or may not have significant contribution to the regional economy. In contrast, as some major cities enhance their economic well-being and agglomerate in specialized sector, the rest of the region lose their economic grounds or stay constant by widening the economic gap among cities. Therefore, an institutional approach can help to establish new regional arrangements to substitute all economic places to coordinate each other and succeed the economic growth as part of state government by reducing the disparities. In this sense, this study builds upon the inquiry that seeks the impacts of some economic disparities among economic places (counties on the performances of state level regional economy.

  18. [Economic growth with zero population growth and with declining population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, R

    1982-05-01

    The effects of both zero population growth and a declining population on economic growth are considered. Although the neoclassical theory of economic growth leads to optimistic results in such cases, the author suggests that this theory cannot be used as a basis for political action. The need for further research into the economic effects of a stationary or declining population is stressed. (summary in ENG)

  19. Determinants of economic growth in BRIC countries

    OpenAIRE

    Rajjev K. Goel

    2011-01-01

    We study economic growth in four emerging economies - Brazil, Russia, India, and China (BRIC). Questions addressed are: (a) How do medium term growth determinants differ from short term determinants? (b) What are differences between growth effects of aggregate versus disaggregated exports? And (c) Does lower institutional quality hinder growth? Results show that while BRIC nations have higher growth, there are significant within-group differences. China and Russia mostly showed higher growth,...

  20. ECONOMIC GROWTH THEORIES, CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS, CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina, POPA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The approach of economic growth involves understanding the concept and growth factors, respectively, analysing the growth theories, their trend in the context of the development of economic and social life. The economic growth signifies a process aimed at increasing activities in the national economy, expressed by macroeconomic indicators, respectively, the dynamics of the overall Gross Domestic Product or per inhabitant. It can appreciate that, in the short term, this process signifies phases of economic prosperity and on the long-term, expresses an upward trend, a consequence of the succession of increases and decreases. The study presents some elements which outlines the concept of economic growth, that is, definitions, meanings and the main characteristics of the theories of growth, as well as some of its determinant factors. Also, it gives a brief overview of the main theories of economic growth, as they have evolved over time, in line with the economic reality dynamics and the development of the instruments of economic analysis, starting from the classical theories to the new theories and models of economic growth of the modern age.

  1. Electrification, economic growth and uranium power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1982-01-01

    It is argued that the expanded use of nuclear power is essential to provide a substantial portion of the electricity necessary for world economic growth. However, obstacles to this growth arise not from the technology but rather from the inadequacies of our industrial, political, and economic institutions needed to manage this new energy system effectively, nationally and internationally. (U.K.)

  2. CORRELATION BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND UNEMPLOYMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savu Mihaela

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The mankind progress is built on economic growth.Yet, the high rates of economic growth must be properly used and correlated with other macroeconomic indicators in order to get the aimed effects.At the Romanian economic level, there is an inverse ratio connection between the gross domestic product and the unemployed number, a connection of low intensity.The correlation of these two indicators was established using parametric and nonparametric methods of analyzing the statistic connection using the informatic soft. Setting the recession function allows us to calculate the unemployed number depending on the forecasting of the economic growth in Romania.

  3. TOURIST ARRIVALS AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN SARAWAK

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Evan; Oh, Swee-Ling; Hu, Sing-Sing

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the comovements and the causality relationship between tourist arrivals and economic growth in Sarawak during the period of 1972 to 2004. The empirical evidence clearly shows that the long run causality running from tourist arrivals to economic growth in the estimation period. As one of the income generator for Sarawak, the findings are consistent with economic theory and proffer important policy conclusions.

  4. Bioenergy, Pollution, and Economic Growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ankarhem, Mattias

    2005-01-01

    This thesis consists of four papers: two of them deal with the effects on the forest sector of an increase in the demand for forest fuels, and two of them concern the relation between economic growth and pollution. Paper [I] is a first, preliminary study of the potential effects on the Swedish forest sector of a continuing rise in the use of forest resources as a fuel in energy generation. Sweden has made a commitment that the energy system should be sustainable, i.e., it should be based on renewable resources. However, an increasing use of the forest resources as an energy input could have effects outside the energy sector. We consider this in a static model by estimating a system of demand and supply equations for the four main actors on the Swedish roundwood market; forestry, sawmills, pulpmills and the energy sector. We then calculate the industries' short run supply and demand elasticities. Paper [II], is a development of the former paper. In this paper, we estimate the dynamic effects on the forest sector of an increased demand for forest fuels. This is done by developing a partial adjustment model of the forest sector that enables short, intermediate, and long run price elasticities to be estimated. It is relevant to study the effects of increased demand for forest fuels as the Swedish government has committed to an energy policy that is likely to further increase the use of renewable resources in the Swedish energy system. Four subsectors are included in the model: forestry, sawmills, pulpmills and the energy industry. The results show that the short run elasticities are fairly consistent with earlier studies and that sluggish adjustment in the capital stock is important in determining the intermediate and long run responses. Simulation shows that an increase in the demand for forest fuels has a positive effect on the equilibrium price of all three types of wood, and a negative effect on the equilibrium quantities of sawtimber and pulpwood. In paper [III] a

  5. Bioenergy, Pollution, and Economic Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ankarhem, Mattias

    2005-04-15

    This thesis consists of four papers: two of them deal with the effects on the forest sector of an increase in the demand for forest fuels, and two of them concern the relation between economic growth and pollution. Paper [I] is a first, preliminary study of the potential effects on the Swedish forest sector of a continuing rise in the use of forest resources as a fuel in energy generation. Sweden has made a commitment that the energy system should be sustainable, i.e., it should be based on renewable resources. However, an increasing use of the forest resources as an energy input could have effects outside the energy sector. We consider this in a static model by estimating a system of demand and supply equations for the four main actors on the Swedish roundwood market; forestry, sawmills, pulpmills and the energy sector. We then calculate the industries' short run supply and demand elasticities. Paper [II], is a development of the former paper. In this paper, we estimate the dynamic effects on the forest sector of an increased demand for forest fuels. This is done by developing a partial adjustment model of the forest sector that enables short, intermediate, and long run price elasticities to be estimated. It is relevant to study the effects of increased demand for forest fuels as the Swedish government has committed to an energy policy that is likely to further increase the use of renewable resources in the Swedish energy system. Four subsectors are included in the model: forestry, sawmills, pulpmills and the energy industry. The results show that the short run elasticities are fairly consistent with earlier studies and that sluggish adjustment in the capital stock is important in determining the intermediate and long run responses. Simulation shows that an increase in the demand for forest fuels has a positive effect on the equilibrium price of all three types of wood, and a negative effect on the equilibrium quantities of sawtimber and pulpwood. In paper

  6. Coal consumption and economic growth in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, H.Y.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the causality issue between coal consumption and economic growth for Taiwan. The co-integration and Granger's causality test are applied to investigate the relationship between the two economic series. Results of the co-integration and Granger's causality test based on 1954--1997 Taiwan data show a unidirectional causality from economic growth to coal consumption with no feedback effects. Their major finding supports the neutrality hypothesis of coal consumption with respect to economic growth. Further, the finding has practical policy implications for decision makers in the area of macroeconomic planning, as coal conservation is a feasible policy with no damaging repercussions on economic growth

  7. Three Essays In and Tests of Theoretical Urban Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Weihua

    This dissertation consists of three essays on urban economics. The three essays are related to urban spatial structure change, energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, and housing redevelopment. Chapter 1 answers the question: Does the classic Standard Urban Model still describe the growth of cities? Chapter 2 derives the implications of telework on urban spatial structure, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions. Chapter 3 investigates the long run effects of minimum lot size zoning on neighborhood redevelopment. Chapter 1 identifies a new implication of the classic Standard Urban Model, the "unitary elasticity property (UEP)", which is the sum of the elasticity of central density and the elasticity of land area with respect to population change is approximately equal to unity. When this implication of the SUM is tested, it fits US cities fairly well. Further analysis demonstrates that topographic barriers and age of housing stock are the key factors explaining deviation from the UEP. Chapter 2 develops a numerical urban simulation model with households that are able to telework to investigate the urban form, congestion, energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission implications of telework. Simulation results suggest that by reducing transportation costs, telework causes sprawl, with associated longer commutes and consumption of larger homes, both of which increase energy consumption. Overall effects depend on who captures the gains from telework (workers versus firms), urban land use regulation such as height limits or greenbelts, and the fraction of workers participating in telework. The net effects of telework on energy use and GHG emissions are generally negligible. Chapter 3 applies dynamic programming to investigate the long run effects of minimum lot size zoning on neighborhood redevelopment. With numerical simulation, comparative dynamic results show that minimum lot size zoning can delay initial land conversion and slow down demolition and

  8. Fiscal Policy and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Uchenna Agu

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at determining the impact of various components of fiscal policy on the Nigerian economy. We simply used descriptive statistics to show contribution of government fiscal policy to economic growth, and to ascertain and explain growth rates, and an ordinary least square (OLS in a multiple form to ascertain the relationship between economic growth and government expenditure components after ensuring data stationarity. Findings revealed that total government expenditures have tended to increase with government revenue, with expenditures peaking faster than revenue. Investment expenditures were much lower than recurrent expenditures evidencing the poor growth in the country’s economy. Hence, there is some evidence of positive correlation between government expenditure on economic services and economic growth. Therefore, in public spending, it is important to note that the effectiveness of the private sector depends on the stability and predictability of the public incentive framework, which promotes or crowds out private investment.

  9. Projected Impact of Urban Growth on Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Federico; Murgante, Beniamino; Martellozzo, Federico

    2017-04-01

    Human activities on land use such as intensive agricultural techniques and urbanization are generating a number of social and economic benefit for contemporary society. Besides, these phenomena are one of the most significant causes of Land Degradation. Firstly, intensive agriculture is on the one hand creating an advantage in the short-period in terms of food production, while on the other is producing serious long-period problems in terms of loss of ecosystem services, including some important for agriculture itself. Secondly, the rapid growth of urban areas in recent decades is generating deep environmental issues. The World Urbanization Prospect by the United Nations (UN) shows that more than half of the world's population today (54%) lives in urban areas. This figure was only 30% in 1950, and estimates are that it will rise to 66% by 2050. Urban growth is responsible for the increase of air pollution, waste production, energy consumption, and land take. Moreover, the expansion of urban areas is making the problem of urban heat islands more relevant, and studies are proving how land cover changes are among the main factors that affect local microclimates. Consequently, territorial planning will play an important role in the fight to mitigate the effects of climate change, as land cover has a significant impact on the energy exchanges between the earth and the atmosphere. This study couples urban growth simulation models based on cellular automata to multiple linear regression techniques that are used to formulate equations for predicting the effects of simulated urban development on soil surface temperature. The proposed methodology is applied to the case study of the Italian national territory, considering various alternative scenarios of land use changes and of their impact on local surface temperatures. The results show that the areas with the greatest urban pressure might be subject to significant climatic changes due to the increased impact of urban heat

  10. Structural modelling of economic growth: Technological changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukharev Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neoclassical and Keynesian theories of economic growth assume the use of Cobb-Douglas modified functions and other aggregate econometric approaches to growth dynamics modelling. In that case explanations of economic growth are based on the logic of the used mathematical ratios often including the ideas about aggregated values change and factors change a priori. The idea of assessment of factor productivity is the fundamental one among modern theories of economic growth. Nevertheless, structural parameters of economic system, institutions and technological changes are practically not considered within known approaches, though the latter is reflected in the changing parameters of production function. At the same time, on the one hand, the ratio of structural elements determines the future value of the total productivity of the factors and, on the other hand, strongly influences the rate of economic growth and its mode of innovative dynamics. To put structural parameters of economic system into growth models with the possibility of assessment of such modes under conditions of interaction of new and old combinations is an essential step in the development of the theory of economic growth/development. It allows forming stimulation policy of economic growth proceeding from the structural ratios and relations recognized for this economic system. It is most convenient in such models to use logistic functions demonstrating the resource change for old and new combination within the economic system. The result of economy development depends on starting conditions, and on institutional parameters of velocity change of resource borrowing in favour of a new combination and creation of its own resource. Model registration of the resource is carried out through the idea of investments into new and old combinations.

  11. Entrepreneurship Education and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Jonna; Lindquist, Carl Rickard

    . This paper addresses the presumptions behind the project. The presumptions in relation to entrepreneurship demonstrate that the effort should target both growth entrepreneurs and SMEs in a wide sense; there is a need for growth entrepreneurs with ambitions to generate breakthrough innovation as well...

  12. An Accounting Method for Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hongchun Zhao

    2012-01-01

    As Chari et al. (2007) indicate, many growth theories explaining frictions in real economies are equivalent to a competitive economy, with some exogenous taxes. Using this idea, I developed an accounting method for identifying fundamental causes of economic growth. A two-sector neoclassical growth model with taxes is used as a prototype economy, and its equilibrium conditions define wedges. These wedges endogenously determine the long run growth rate, which is exogenous and not correlated wit...

  13. Corruption and economic growth with non constant labor force growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brianzoni, Serena; Campisi, Giovanni; Russo, Alberto

    2018-05-01

    Based on Brianzoni et al. [1] in the present work we propose an economic model regarding the relationship between corruption in public procurement and economic growth. We extend the benchmark model by introducing endogenous labor force growth, described by the logistic equation. The results of previous studies, as Del Monte and Papagni [2] and Mauro [3], show that countries are stuck in one of the two equilibria (high corruption and low economic growth or low corruption and high economic growth). Brianzoni et al. [1] prove the existence of a further steady state characterized by intermediate levels of capital per capita and corruption. Our aim is to investigate the effects of the endogenous growth around such equilibrium. Moreover, due to the high number of parameters of the model, specific attention is given to the numerical simulations which highlight new policy measures that can be adopted by the government to fight corruption.

  14. Investor Protections and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Haidar, Jamal Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    Using objective measures of investor protections in 170 countries, I establish that the level of investor protection matters for cross-country differences in GDP growth: countries with stronger protections tend to grow faster than those with poor investor protections.

  15. Quantifying Urban Fragmentation under Economic Transition in Shanghai City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heyuan You

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban fragmentation affects sustainability through multiple impacts on economic, social, and environmental cost. Characterizing the dynamics of urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition should provide implications for sustainability. However, rather few efforts have been made in this issue. Using the case of Shanghai (China, this paper quantifies urban fragmentation in relation to economic transition. In particular, urban fragmentation is quantified by a time-series of remotely sensed images and a set of landscape metrics; and economic transition is described by a set of indicators from three aspects (globalization, decentralization, and marketization. Results show that urban fragmentation presents an increasing linear trend. Multivariate regression identifies positive linear correlation between urban fragmentation and economic transition. More specifically, the relative influence is different for the three components of economic transition. The relative influence of decentralization is stronger than that of globalization and marketization. The joint influences of decentralization and globalization are the strongest for urban fragmentation. The demonstrated methodology can be applicable to other places after making suitable adjustment of the economic transition indicators and fragmentation metrics.

  16. EVIDENCE ON EMPLOYMENT RATE AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia VĂCEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores a causal relationship between employment rate and economic growth for European Union countries, in general, and produces a structural assessment of employment on the background of labour market dynamics. Economic growth is the key in economic theory and the main source of well-being and quality of life. Since the 2008 financial crisis, most European countries have experienced job shortage and unemployment problem, but today's European economic outlook is strengthening on the bases of a GDP growing momentum. Empirical data shows, regardless the GDP's moderate positive trend, the employment rate did not increase enough. Given this, the present analysis address the question: to what extent the employment rate is affected by economic growth?

  17. The economic growth of oil countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbod, G.

    2007-02-01

    The literature tries to apprehend the weakness of the economic growth of oil culminates by the assumption of ousted growth factors. In the Dutch Disease models the non-oil exporting sector would be ousted whereas in the analyses in terms of economic policies it would be the efficient economic policies. We consider the phenomenon through the growth theories, the oil income being regarded as an additional exogenous income for the economy. In this manner the growth dynamic of oil countries, even the most unfavourable, can be modelled without utilizing any concept of economic inefficiency. The last part of our work is devoted to the Saudi economy. After having developed a macro-econometric model, and using scenarios of oil prices, we lead a forecasted analysis of this economy. (author)

  18. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    GrOW works with research teams around the world to generate evidence on ... Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women ... IDRC “unpacks women's empowerment” at McGill University Conference ... Careers · Contact Us · Site map.

  19. Public Debt, Corruption and Sustainable Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunji Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available There are many studies that look into the relationship between public debt and economic growth. It is hard to find, however, research addressing the role of corruption between these two variables. Noticing this vacancy in current literature, we strive to investigate the effect of corruption on the relationship between public debt and economic growth. For this purpose, the pooled ordinary least squares (OLS, fixed effects models and the dynamic panel generalized method of moments (GMM models (Arellano-Bond, 1991 are estimated with data of 77 countries from 1990 to 2014. The empirical results show that the interaction term between public debt and corruption is statistically significant. This confirms the hypothesis that the effect of public debt on economic growth is a function of corruption. The sign of the marginal effect is negative in corrupt countries, but public debt enhances economic growth within countries that are not corrupt, i.e., highly transparent.

  20. Islam and Economic Growth in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    bin

    2003-01-01

    .... This thesis discusses nation building by fusing Islam, pluralism, democracy, and modernity. It argues that Malaysia's religious tolerance and adherence to western development models fostered economic growth since its independence...

  1. Stages of growth in economic development

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kejak, Michal

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 5 (2003), s. 771-800 ISSN 0165-1889 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7085904 Keywords : growth * human capital * development Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.690, year: 2003

  2. A successful local economic development-urban renewal initiative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the urgent need for local economic development in South Africa, Local Economic Development (LED) as area of professional endeavour/activity has largely failed to live up to this need. In this article, an alternative approach to local economic development, which involved a 'bottom-up' approach to urban renewal is ...

  3. Public Debt and Economic Growth in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Siew-Peng Lee; Yan-Ling Ng

    2015-01-01

    Public debt in the Malaysia increased because of fiscal expansions. This study examines whether public debt contributed to the economic growth in Malaysia over the period 1991 to 2013. It also examines whether other indicators of debt burden, such as budget deficit, budget expenditure, and external debt service and government consumption, have an impact on economic growth. The results of this study are consistent with the existing literature that found a negative association between diet and ...

  4. Essays on industrial structure and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-01-01

    The book is a thesis submitted for the degree of dr. polit. at the University of Bergen. It has chapters on economic development and industrial structure, trade and growth with static and dynamic economies of scale, terms of trade and economic growth in a world of constrained capital mobility, how liberalization of trade in services may conserve natural reserves, some reasons why capital does not flow from rich to poor counties and finally on South African manufacturing industries - catching up or falling behind

  5. FINANCIAL INTERMEDIATION, ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

    OpenAIRE

    Wenli Cheng

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a simple general equilibrium model of financial intermediation, entrepreneurship and economic growth. In this model, the role of financial intermediation is to pool savings and to lend the pooled funds to an entrepreneur, who in turn invests the funds in a new production technology. The adoption of the new production technology improves individual real income. Thus financial intermediation promotes economic growth through affecting individuals’ saving behaviour and enabl...

  6. HEALTH, EDUCATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmah Ismaila and Doris Padmini Selvaratnamb

    1999-01-01

    Human capital is vital for the development of a country. Investment in human capital ranges from basic needs expenditure to education and health provision. Economic growth is often used to measure the progress and development of a country. Today other indicators are used to emphasize physical quality of life, for example, education, health and basic needs provision. Using a simultaneous equation model, this paper estimates the relationship between economic growth and human capital variables i...

  7. Energy consumption and economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookes, L G

    1972-10-01

    A mathematical model relating Gross National Product (GNP) per capita to useful energy consumed per capita is demonstrated to predict the shift in this relationship actually experienced in the U.K. and the U.S. over a period of years. World GNP growths in the recent past are used to forecast GNP growth to the year 2030 and also (via the model) the necessary fuel consumption for such growth; likewise, potential production of fossil fuels (exclusive of tar sands and oil shale) is shown to 2030, based on two different assumptions about total world reserves. Fossil fuel ceases to meet world requirements for energy at some time between 1985 and 1995. The most likely candidate for filling the gap is nuclear power.

  8. Urban climate modifies tree growth in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhausen, Jens; Rötzer, Thomas; Biber, Peter; Uhl, Enno; Pretzsch, Hans

    2018-05-01

    Climate, e.g., air temperature and precipitation, differs strongly between urban and peripheral areas, which causes diverse life conditions for trees. In order to compare tree growth, we sampled in total 252 small-leaved lime trees ( Tilia cordata Mill) in the city of Berlin along a gradient from the city center to the surroundings. By means of increment cores, we are able to trace back their growth for the last 50 to 100 years. A general growth trend can be shown by comparing recent basal area growth with estimates from extrapolating a growth function that had been fitted with growth data from earlier years. Estimating a linear model, we show that air temperature and precipitation significantly influence tree growth within the last 20 years. Under consideration of housing density, the results reveal that higher air temperature and less precipitation led to higher growth rates in high-dense areas, but not in low-dense areas. In addition, our data reveal a significantly higher variance of the ring width index in areas with medium housing density compared to low housing density, but no temporal trend. Transferring the results to forest stands, climate change is expected to lead to higher tree growth rates.

  9. Urban climate modifies tree growth in Berlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhausen, Jens; Rötzer, Thomas; Biber, Peter; Uhl, Enno; Pretzsch, Hans

    2017-12-01

    Climate, e.g., air temperature and precipitation, differs strongly between urban and peripheral areas, which causes diverse life conditions for trees. In order to compare tree growth, we sampled in total 252 small-leaved lime trees (Tilia cordata Mill) in the city of Berlin along a gradient from the city center to the surroundings. By means of increment cores, we are able to trace back their growth for the last 50 to 100 years. A general growth trend can be shown by comparing recent basal area growth with estimates from extrapolating a growth function that had been fitted with growth data from earlier years. Estimating a linear model, we show that air temperature and precipitation significantly influence tree growth within the last 20 years. Under consideration of housing density, the results reveal that higher air temperature and less precipitation led to higher growth rates in high-dense areas, but not in low-dense areas. In addition, our data reveal a significantly higher variance of the ring width index in areas with medium housing density compared to low housing density, but no temporal trend. Transferring the results to forest stands, climate change is expected to lead to higher tree growth rates.

  10. Institutions and economic growth : summary and synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szirmai, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a summary, overview and synthesis of the findings of the second phase of the AFD/Maastricht Graduate School of Governance research project on institutions and economic growth. The point of departure for this research project is that the diversity of longrun patterns of economic

  11. Global warming and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonand, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    The macro-economic impacts of climate change and of policies to reduce carbon content should be moderate on a global basis for the planet - a few hundredths of a % of world GDP on an annual basis, but significant for some regions (Asia-Pacific notably). The probability of extreme climatic events justifies with effect from today the implementation of measures that will carry a cost in order to limit global warming. (author)

  12. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    sources (RES) in the supply sector and energy efficiency in the demand sector. Much less attention has been given to potential changes in life style and to alternative economic and social systems. This chapter will focus on non-technological strategies for mitigation of global warming including...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  13. Cultural diversity and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ager, Philipp; Brückner, Markus

    2013-01-01

    We exploit the large inflow of immigrants to the US during the 1870–1920 period to examine the effects that within-county changes in the cultural composition of the US population had on output growth. We construct measures of fractionalization and polarization to distinguish between the different...

  14. Financial development, uncertainty and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensink, B.W.

    By performing a cross-country growth regression for the 1970-1998 period this paper finds evidence for the fact that the impact of policy uncertainty on economic growth depends on the development of the financial sector. It appears that a higher level of financial development partly mitigates the

  15. Export Specialisation and Local Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naude, Wim; Bosker, Maarten; Matthee, Marianne

    This paper aims to provide empirical evidence on whether export specialization or diversification is better for local economic growth. Using export data from 354 magisterial districts of South Africa for 1996 and 2001 we estimate spatial growth regressions that include measures of the degree of

  16. Conflict Between Economic Growth and Environmental Protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czech, Bryan

    2012-01-09

    The conflict between economic growth and environmental protection may not be reconciled via technological progress. The fundamentality of the conflict ultimately boils down to laws of thermodynamics. Physicists and other scholars from the physical sciences are urgently needed for helping the public and policy makers grasp the conflict between growth and environmental protection.

  17. Economic Growth and Government Spending Nexus: Empirical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results highlight the need for policy makers to shift public outlays towards investment in physical infrastructure which will stimulate growth and consequently improve fiscal sustainability as opposed to recurrent expenditure. Keywords: Economic Growth, Fiscal Policy, Cointegration, Causality, Wagner' Law ...

  18. Education and Economic Growth in Nigeria: A Granger Causality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    expenditures on education, primary school enrolment and economic growth. The tests revealed ..... force possessed a positive and significant impact on economic growth through factor ..... Export and Economic Growth in Namibia: A Granger ...

  19. Money Supply, Interest Rate, and Economic Growth in Cameroon: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Money Supply, Interest Rate, and Economic Growth in Cameroon: A Time Series ... the impacts of money and interest rate on economic growth and development. ... Money Supply, Interest Rates, Economic growth, Co-integration and Inflation.

  20. Clean versus Dirty Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Palokangas, Tapio

    2012-01-01

    This document considers an economy with many regions and two engines of growth: horizontal R&D, which increases the number of polluting product lines; and vertical R&D, which improves productivity in these lines. Pollution in any region decreases welfare in all regions. Any group of regions can form a jurisdiction where a common policy maker controls pollution. Large jurisdictions, which can better internalize externality through pollution, perform vertical R&D. Because jurisdictions face dec...

  1. Green attitude and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ott, Ingrid; Soretz, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    We analyse the interdependence between green attitude and equilibrium development of environmental quality in an endogenous growth model. Individuals take only part of their impact on pollution into account, hence there is a negative externality of capital accumulation on environmental quality. Increasing wealth or increasing pollution enhance green attitude and reduce the externality, because individuals care more about the environment if their income is higher or if pollution is more obviou...

  2. The role of energy in economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, David I

    2011-02-01

    This paper reviews the mainstream, resource economics, and ecological economics models of growth. A possible synthesis of energy-based and mainstream models is presented. This shows that when energy is scarce it imposes a strong constraint on the growth of the economy; however, when energy is abundant, its effect on economic growth is much reduced. The industrial revolution released the constraints on economic growth by the development of new methods of using coal and the discovery of new fossil fuel resources. Time-series analysis shows that energy and GDP cointegrate, and energy use Granger causes GDP when capital and other production inputs are included in the vector autoregression model. However, various mechanisms can weaken the links between energy and growth. Energy used per unit of economic output has declined in developed and some developing countries, owing to both technological change and a shift from poorer quality fuels, such as coal, to the use of higher quality fuels, especially electricity. Substitution of other inputs for energy and sectoral shifts in economic activity play smaller roles. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  3. Local Decentralisation and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammed Adetola Adefeso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The current global drive towards devolution of financial resources and responsibilities has been increasingly justified on the basis that greater transfers of these financial resources and responsibilities to sub-central governments are theoretically expected to deliver greater economic efficiency in the provision of public goods and services and hence greater economic growth. There is a mixed result on these theoretical expectations across earlier empirical literatures. Using the instrumental variables (IV technique of analysis with the recent data from Nigeria for the period 1970-2013, this study found no robust significant effect of the decentralisation of spending or revenue on growth of real GDP per capital in Nigeria. The implication of this to the policy makers is that when it comes to the determinants of improved economic activities, decentralisation either fiscal expenditure or revenue side would not be instrumental to economic growth possibly because of existence of endemic corruption among politicians in Nigeria.

  4. Competitiveness and Economic Growth in Romanian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the fact that Romanian economy competitiveness is not based on innovation and investment in human capital, this study makes an empirical evaluation of the impact of occupation and unemployment in Romanian counties on the economic growth. The approach based on panel vector-autoregressive (panel VAR models indicated a negative impact of occupation and activity rate in 42 Romanian counties on the economic growth during 2006-2014. On the other hand, the real economic growth was achieved at high unemployment rates. These results are contrary to previous studies in literature and are due to a structural economic crisis and to lack of labour productivity and investment in human capital. Further policy measures should focus on structural unemployment decrease, more skilled labour force according to labour market needs, lifelong learning, higher performance and quality of education system, promotion of social inclusion, poverty control.

  5. Determinants of economic growth: will data tell?

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio; Jarociński, Marek

    2008-01-01

    Many factors inhibiting and facilitating economic growth have been suggested. Will international income data tell which matter when all are treated symmetrically a priori? We find that growth determinants emerging from agnostic Bayesian model averaging and classical model selection procedures are sensitive to income differences across datasets. For example, many of the 1975-1996 growth determinants according to World Bank income data turn out to be irrelevant when using Penn World Table data ...

  6. How does political instability affect economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Aisen, Ari; Veiga, Francisco José

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to empirically determine the effects of political instability on economic growth. Using the system-GMM estimator for linear dynamic panel data models on a sample covering up to 169 countries, and 5-year periods from 1960 to 2004, we find that higher degrees of political instability are associated with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. Regarding the channels of transmission, we find that political instability adversely affects growth by lowering the rates of pr...

  7. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alterna...

  8. Value function in economic growth model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagno, Alexander; Tarasyev, Alexandr A.; Tarasyev, Alexander M.

    2017-11-01

    Properties of the value function are examined in an infinite horizon optimal control problem with an unlimited integrand index appearing in the quality functional with a discount factor. Optimal control problems of such type describe solutions in models of economic growth. Necessary and sufficient conditions are derived to ensure that the value function satisfies the infinitesimal stability properties. It is proved that value function coincides with the minimax solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Description of the growth asymptotic behavior for the value function is provided for the logarithmic, power and exponential quality functionals and an example is given to illustrate construction of the value function in economic growth models.

  9. Modeling Urban Spatial Growth in Mountainous Regions of Western China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoping Huang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The scale and speed of urbanization in the mountainous regions of western China have received little attention from researchers. These cities are facing rapid population growth and severe environmental degradation. This study analyzed historical urban growth trends in this mountainous region to better understand the interaction between the spatial growth pattern and the mountainous topography. Three major factors—slope, accessibility, and land use type—were studied in light of their relationships with urban spatial growth. With the analysis of historical data as the basis, a conceptual urban spatial growth model was devised. In this model, slope, accessibility, and land use type together create resistance to urban growth, while accessibility controls the sequence of urban development. The model was tested and evaluated using historical data. It serves as a potential tool for planners to envision and assess future urban growth scenarios and their potential environmental impacts to make informed decisions.

  10. Trade Liberalisation and Economic Growth in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mano-Bakalinov Viktorija

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to explore the effects of trade on Macedonian economic growth. The autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model is applied on yearly data over the period of 1993-2014. Empirical investigation reveals that an increase of population and openness demonstrate a positive and significant effect on Macedonian economic growth. Given other diverging findings, this suggests that the relationship between trade reforms and growth through the productivity function may vary across transition economies. Nevertheless, the findings of this paper indicate that policies focusing on market liberalisation and opening the economy to trade have a positive effect on Macedonian economic growth, both in the short run and the long run.

  11. The Key to Promoting Economic Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The low contribution of consumption to economic growth has become a source of anxiety for Chinese economic officials. With a sharp decline in exports as a result of the international financial crisis, the Chinese Government hopes that consumption will become a new engine of economic growth. The aim of promoting domestic demand is very clear in the 4-trillion-yuan ($586-billion) economic stimulus package the government approved last fall. How should we assess the present situation of consumption in China and its future course? At the Global Think Tank Summit held in Beijing on July 4, Ma Jiantang, Commissioner of the National Bureau of Statistics, Wang Guangqian, President of the Central University of Finance and Economics, and Yuan Yue, Chairman of the Board of Horizon Research Consultancy Group, shared their opinions.

  12. Oil prices and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babusiaux, D.; Lescaroux, F.

    2006-01-01

    There is no limit to the sources of hydrocarbons (whether pumped out of the earth or produced in factories) for the next few decades, but there is and will be a need for increasingly complex and costly techniques as the usual sources of petroleum run out. Does this mean that prices will keep on rising? Probably, since environmental costs must be added onto direct costs. The mining of oil out of 'tar sands', for example, or the production of hydrocarbons by the chemical industry will have a significant impact owing to the emission of greenhouse gases. If prices do rise in the short or middle term, the cause will have to do more with the calendar of investments than with the availability of energy and its costs. In the long run however, price hikes are not all that certain. A few points for analyzing and predicting the macro-and micro-economic effects of fluctuating oil prices are discussed. (author)

  13. Is Demography Destiny? Urban Population Change and Economic Vitality of Future Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Poot

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The growth of cities has attracted considerable scholarly attention during the last decade as it is becoming clear that powerful agglomeration forces are reinforcing the role of cities as the engines of economic growth. Close to 4 billion people live in cities, about 55 per cent of the world's population. While population growth rates are declining and the world's population is likely to level off from the middle of the 21st century, probably ending up around 10 billion, further urbanization is expected to continue. Another 3 billion people will become urban citizens this century. At the same time no corner of the world will be sheltered from sweeping demographic changes due to population ageing and increasing migration. Such changes will be amplified in cities. In this paper we combine UN population projections and migration data with our own assumptions to derive projections of age composition and birthplace composition of urban populations by continent. We also briefly address the consequences of these demographic trends for future urban economic vitality. Particular attention is paid to the impacts of demographic changes on urban creativity and innovation. We conclude that, with the right policies in place, such demographic changes enhance rather than impede the future prosperity of the urban world. KEYWORDS: World population projections, urbanization, ageing, migration, ethnic diversity

  14. Energy Distribution and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Strulik, Holger

    2011-01-01

    This research examines the physical constraints on the growth process. In order to run, maintain and build capital energy is required to be distributed to geographically dispersed sites where investments are deemed profitable. We capture this aspect of physical reality by a network theory....../2 and 3/4, depending on the efficiency of the network. Together with an energy conservation equation, capturing instantaneous aggregate demand for electricity, we are able to provide a metabolic-energetic founded law of motion for capital per capita that is mathematically isomorphic to the one emanating...... of electricity distribution. The model leads to a supply relation according to which feasible electricity consumption per capita rises with the size of the economy, as measured by capital per capita. Specifically, the relation is a simple power law with an exponent assigned to capital that is bounded between 1...

  15. Nigerian population growth and its implications for economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okpala, A O

    1990-12-01

    The population of Nigeria is growing at a rate of 3.75%/year indicating a doubling of the population every 22 years. Demographers estimated the population to be 91,178,000 in 1985. Even though population density is high (288 people/square mile), it is not equally distributed. It is highest in the south and southwest urban areas such as Lagos (1045 people/square mile) and lowest in the northeast (75 people/square mile). Moreover rural-urban migration is growing. A major reason for rural-urban migration is the dual nature of the economy in Nigeria. In urban areas, economic development brings about higher standards of living, but, in rural areas, a subsistence economy predominates. This coupled with rapid population growth results in small or no growth in per capita income. Only if the government were to integrate redistribution policies into complete economic development plans should it consider redistributing the population. It should stress rural development (e.g., incentives for firms to set up in rural areas). Further it should move some government offices to rural areas. The government also needs to adopt population policies encouraging the lowering of fertility levels. If it were to provide education through the secondary and prevocational education level free of charge, educated women will lower their fertility. Sex education should be included in the curriculum. Further the government must play an active role in family planning programs, especially educating rural women about family planning. It should also use the mass media to promote small family size, but it should not dictate family size. It also needs to recognize that population growth puts much pressure on the environment. For example, population growth causes soil erosion, nutrient exhaustion, rapid deforestation, and other problems which render the land unusable for agriculture.

  16. Urbanization, economic development and health: evidence from China's labor-force dynamic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongsheng; Liu, Ye; Li, Zhigang; Xue, Desheng

    2017-11-29

    The frequent outbreak of environmental threats in China has resulted in increased criticism regarding the health effects of China's urbanization. Urbanization is a double-edged sword with regard to health in China. Although great efforts have been made to investigate the mechanisms through which urbanization influences health, the effect of both economic development and urbanization on health in China is still unclear, and how urbanization-health (or development-health) relationships vary among different income groups remain poorly understood. To bridge these gaps, the present study investigates the impact of both urbanization and economic development on individuals' self-rated health and its underlying mechanisms in China. We use data from the national scale of the 2014 China Labor-force Dynamics Survey to analyze the impact of China's urbanization and economic development on health. A total of 14,791 individuals were sampled from 401 neighborhoods within 124 prefecture-level cities. Multilevel ordered logistic models were applied. Model results showed an inverted U-shaped relationship between individuals' self-rated health and urbanization rates (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 42.0%) and a positive linear relationship between their self-rated health and economic development. Model results also suggested that the urbanization-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and middle-income people (with a turning point of urbanization rate at 0.0% and 49.2%, respectively), and the development-health relationship was inverted U-shaped for high- and low-income people (with turning points of GDP per capita at 93,462 yuan and 71,333 yuan, respectively) and linear for middle-income people. The impact of urbanization and economic development on health in China is complicated. Careful assessments are needed to understand the health impact of China's rapid urbanization. Social and environmental problems arising from rapid urbanization and economic growth

  17. Institutions, Technological Change and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Corderí Novoa

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Theories of economic growth try to explain variations in per capita income across countries by differences in capital accumulation and productivity. However, many scholars consider that integrating institutions into economic theory and economic history is an essential step in improving explanations of why some societies are richer than others. This paper develops the empirical and theoretical case that differences in institutions are the fundamental cause of differences in technological change (productivity, hence in economic growth. First, I give a definition of institutions and how they influence economic performance, from a New Institutional Economics point of view. Then, I introduce the theoretical framework based on the economics of ideas and endogenous growth models. Finally, I argue that R&D expenditures -a proxy for technological change- will vary across countries depending on some measures of institutional quality. In the end, this paper finds that stronger institutions (measured by an aggregate of institutional quality encourage greater R&D expenditures. At a disaggregate level, the rule of law is positively correlated and the regulatory burden is negatively correlated with R&D expenditures. Human capital level (measured by the tertiary and primary school enrolment rates has also a significant positive impact in R&D expenditures.

  18. Migration, urban population growth and regional disparity in China

    OpenAIRE

    Renard, Mary-Françoise; Xu, Zelai; Zhu, Nong

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to study the determinants of city population growth in China during the 1990s', as well as the determinants of migrations towards cities, which constitutes the main source of urban population growth in this period. A second objective is to identify regional differences in the urban growth and migrations, that is, whether urban growth and migration patterns are different between coastal and inland provinces. Additionally, we are interested in the differences...

  19. Socio Economic Assessment of Urban Forestry Respondents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    KEY WORDS: Income, urban forest, education, age ... at the various levels of his education, his endeavours ... conservation developmental activities should be ... tourism. Well-maintained trees improve residential. “curb appeal” and increase ...

  20. Energy efficiency, sustainability and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert U.; Turton, Hal; Casten, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper explores two linked theses related to the role energy in economic development, and potential sources of increased energy efficiency for continued growth with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first thesis is that, while reduced GHG emissions are essential for long-term global sustainability, the usual policy recommendation of increasing energy costs by introducing a carbon tax may be relatively ineffective under current market structures and have an unnecessarily adverse impact on economic growth. Our second thesis is that there exists a practical near-term strategy for reducing GHG emissions while simultaneously encouraging continued technology-driven economic growth. Moreover, this strategy does not require radical new technologies, but rather improved regulation or-more precisely-better deregulation of the electric power sector. In respect to the first of our two theses, this paper addresses a deficiency in neoclassical economic growth theory, in which growth is assumed to be automatic, inevitable and cost-free. We challenge both the assumption that growth will continue in the future at essentially the same rate ('the trend') as it has in the past, and the corollary that our children's children will inevitably be richer and better able to afford the cost of repairing the environmental damages caused by current generations [Simon et al., The state of humanity. Cambridge MA: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.; 1995

  1. The Urban Household in the 1980s: A Demographic and Economic Perspective. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Thomas; And Others

    This report focuses on demographic and economic changes affecting urban households during the 1980s. Statistics regarding birth, fertility and mortality rates, marriage and divorce, and household formation are presented. Metropolitan and interregional trends in mobility are examined by racial, income and age groups. Growth rates of the national…

  2. Exploring economic structure and drivers of economic growth in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lindelwa Makoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article set out to analyse the economic structure and main economic drivers in Botswana. Botswana, a country in sub-Saharan Africa, is a relatively small economy, hugely dependent on its diamond mineral wealth. Concerns have arisen in recent years that the diamond deposits will soon be depleted and the country therefore needs to embark on a diversification programme to broaden its economic base. In order to understand the Botswana economy, its economic structure and current domestic sectorial performance were evaluated, as well as its trends in imports and exports. An analysis of the data shows that, regardless of the awareness of the sensitivity to external shocks of commodity prices, as well as the obvious future depletion of diamond reserves, the Botswana economy continues to rely on diamonds, at the expense of attracting international capital flows to enhance and maintain sustainable economic growth, through investments in agriculture, manufacturing and tourism. It is therefore recommended that the Government of Botswana becomes proactive and implements recommended policies to diversify its economy, so that it can sustain or improve its economic growth by becoming a prime destination of international capital and domestic private sector investment, thereby increasing employment and trade opportunities.

  3. Decades of urban growth and development on the Asian megadeltas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Christopher; Sousa, Daniel; Yetman, Gregory; Elvidge, Christopher; MacManus, Kytt

    2018-06-01

    The current and ongoing expansion of urban areas worldwide represents the largest mass migration in human history. It is well known that the world's coastal zones are associated with large and growing concentrations of population, urban development and economic activity. Among coastal environments, deltas have long been recognized for both benefits and hazards. This is particularly true on the Asian megadeltas, where the majority of the world's deltaic populations reside. Current trends in urban migration, combined with demographic momentum suggest that the already large populations on the Asian megadeltas will continue to grow. In this study, we combine recently released gridded population density (circa 2010) with a newly developed night light change product (1992 to 2012) and a digital elevation model to quantify the spatial distribution of population and development on the nine Asian megadeltas. Bivariate distributions of population as functions of elevation and coastal proximity quantify potential exposure of deltaic populations to flood and coastal hazards. Comparison of these distributions for the Asian megadeltas show very different patterns of habitation with peak population elevations ranging from 2 to 11 m above sea level over a wide range of coastal proximities. Over all nine megadeltas, over 174 million people reside below a peak population elevation of 7 m. Changes in the spatial extent of anthropogenic night light from 1992 to 2012 show widely varying extents and changes of lighted urban development. All of the deltas except the Indus show the greatest increases in night light brightness occurring at elevations <10 m. At global and continental scales, growth of settlements of all sizes takes the form of evolving spatial networks of development. Spatial networks of lighted urban development in Asia show power law scaling properties consistent with other continents, but much higher rates of growth. The three largest networks of development in China all

  4. Economic Valuation of Urban Trees: Ribnjak Park Case Study, Zagreb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlo Beljan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Population growth, urbanisation and technological development are creating a growing need for urban forests and parks, which are becoming green oases for recreation and relaxation. Apart from the sociological and economic components, urban forest valuation is presented through tourism, the market value of main and secondary forest products, and the growing value of real estate in the vicinity of green areas. Environmental economics explores the optimal ratio between the costs and the benefits received from the investment in the environment. The aim of this research is monetary valuation of urban trees. Materials and Methods: A Danish model for tree value determination was applied in Ribnjak Park as a case study. The model is based on tree growing costs and the present value. It is limited by the subjective aesthetic tree value estimation, but it is used in Europe because of its practicality. Individual tree value estimation is used because of the tree damage from vehicles or new residential buildings. The method is suitable for individual trees or groups of trees, but it is not appropriate for forest stands. Twenty random selected trees from nine different tree species have been analysed in the park. Diameter at breast height, tree height, expected age, aesthetic value and location were recorded for each tree. Furthermore, ecological, social and health tree values were taken into account separately with the calculation of points. Results: According to the evaluation, the average monetary value of one tree in Ribnjak Park is 542 EUR. The average diameter at breast height is 57.86 cm with the average age of 96.14 years. Plane trees have the highest value in comparison to other sampled species. Conclusions: Tree values vary depending on age, dimension or aesthetic values. The disadvantage of this method is in the estimation of very old tree value and in high involvement of personal estimation, which creates an opportunity

  5. Economic growth - environmental protection - quality of life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumm, J.

    1975-01-01

    This is an investigation into the assumption that uncontrolled economic growth puts a burden on the natural environment and lowers the quality of life. This analysis of the natural, technical, economic, and social environment answers the following questions: 1) which development will production and consumption take up to the year 2000; 2) extent of environmental burden to be expected as a result thereof; 3) influence of needs and valid standard of values thus prevailing; 4) administrative measures for environmental policies; 5) influence of environmental policies on the quality of life; 6) possibility of economic growth while the natural environment is sufficiently protected at the same time. The man-environment model presented elucidates the interrelations between economic development and the natural and social environment; it checks the effectiveness of alternate environmental protection measures. (HP) [de

  6. Budget Deficits Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Risti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.

  7. INNOVATIVE ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC GROWTH (THE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei A. Orekhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Principles of implementation of innovativetechnologies are positioned as a priorityarea for development in the managementof economic processes in the modernRussian economy. Declares that they are the economic growth of the country. This paper discusses the practice of building existing schemes of organization ofthe economy, which is why the definingelement of this process is the businessclass passengers - is the situation quitedependent and extremely nekomfortnomsituation.

  8. Global Marine Fisheries with Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Sugiawan, Yogi; Islam, Moinul; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the state of global marine fisheries and empirically analyzes its relationship to economic factors. We apply the pooled mean group estimator method to examine 70 fishing countries for the period of 1961-2010. We use both catch and the estimated size of stock as proxies for marine ecosystems. Our results confirm that economic growth initially leads to the deterioration of marine ecosystems. However, for a per capita income level of approximately 3,827 USD for the catch mode...

  9. Economic Growth, Climate Change, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minos, Dimitrios; Butzlaff, Iris; Demmler, Kathrin Maria; Rischke, Ramona

    2016-12-01

    Human and planetary health as well as economic growth are firmly interlinked and subject to complex interaction effects. In this paper, we provide an overview of interlinkages between economic growth, climate change, and obesity focusing on recent advances in the literature. In addition to empirical findings, we discuss different theoretical frameworks used to conceptualize these complex links and highlight policy options and challenges. We conclude that policies addressing both climate change and obesity simultaneously are particularly promising and often suitable for ensuring sustainable development.

  10. Employment, energy, and economic growth in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, J

    1979-09-01

    The author examines the complex relationships between energy use, employment opportunities, and economic growth as they apply to the Australian economy and concludes that state and federal governments should collaborate to analyze the employment impacts of the various energy strategies. He sees the need for changes in the political and economic environment as well as in the way energy is used before Australia can return to full employment. While low or zero energy growth policies would not, by themselves, solve the unemployment problem, most new jobs have been created in the labor-intensive service industries. 25 references. (DCK)

  11. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND HUMAN CAPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Tania SANDU

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of infl uence exerted by human capital oneconomic growth of a country, to base decisions regarding the need to invest in such type of capital there are conducted studies and used different models for analysis related to a series of macroeconomic and demographic indicators.We present the main indicators and dynamics of human capital, placedin the economic context of Romania, with reference, in bringing out statistics data, to an average period of time (between 1994-2008 characterized at macroeconomic level, both by recession and economic growth periods. There were also highlighted indicators and dynamics, both at national and individual level.

  12. Role of vaccination in economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quilici, Sibilia; Smith, Richard; Signorelli, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    The health of a population is important from a public health and economic perspective as healthy individuals contribute to economic growth. Vaccination has the potential to contribute substantially to improving population health and thereby economic growth. Childhood vaccination programmes in Europe can offer protection against 15 important infectious diseases, thus preventing child fatalities and any serious temporary and permanent sequelae that can occur. Healthy children are more able to participate in education, thus preparing them to become healthy and productive adults. Vaccination programmes can also prevent infectious diseases in adolescents, thus allowing them to continue their development towards a healthy adulthood. Protecting adults against infectious diseases ensures that they can fully contribute to productivity and economic development by avoiding sick leave and lower productivity. Vaccination in older adults will contribute to the promotion of healthy ageing, enabling them to assist their familiy with, for instance, childcare, and also help them avoid functional decline and the related impacts on health and welfare expenditure. Effective vaccination programmes for all ages in Europe will thus contribute to the European Union's 2020 health and economic strategies. Indeed, beyond their impact on healthcare resources and productivity, reductions in mortality and morbidity also contribute to increased consumption and gross domestic product. Therefore, assessment of the value of vaccines and vaccination needs to consider not just the direct impact on health and healthcare but also the wider impact on economic growth, which requires a macroeconomic analysis of vaccination programmes.

  13. Accounting for household heterogeneity in general equilibrium economic growth models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnikov, N.B.; O'Neill, B.C.; Dalton, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and evaluate a new method of aggregating heterogeneous households that allows for the representation of changing demographic composition in a multi-sector economic growth model. The method is based on a utility and labor supply calibration that takes into account time variations in demographic characteristics of the population. We test the method using the Population-Environment-Technology (PET) model by comparing energy and emissions projections employing the aggregate representation of households to projections representing different household types explicitly. Results show that the difference between the two approaches in terms of total demand for energy and consumption goods is negligible for a wide range of model parameters. Our approach allows the effects of population aging, urbanization, and other forms of compositional change on energy demand and CO 2 emissions to be estimated and compared in a computationally manageable manner using a representative household under assumptions and functional forms that are standard in economic growth models.

  14. Does inequality in health impede economic growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of inequality in health on economic growth in low and middle income countries. The empirical part of the paper uses an original cross-national panel data set covering 62 low and middle income countries over the period 1985 to 2007. I find a substantial and relatively robust negative effect of health inequality on income levels and income growth controlling for life expectancy, country and time fixed-effects and a large number of other effects that have been shown to matter for growth. The effect also holds if health inequality is instrumented to circumvent a potential problem of reverse causality. Hence, reducing inequality in the access to health care and to health-related information can make a substantial contribution to economic growth.

  15. Parameters of Economic Growth in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shkumbin Misini

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analysis the macroeconomic components that influenced macroeconomic growth in a country, more concretely, the focus will be on the measurement of components that affected economic growth under nominal GDP, in Kosovo. We intend to found out which component of nominal GDP has the biggest and the lowest influence on economic growth. Thus, in order to measure it, GDP components must be analysed: consumption measurement, investments measurement, government expenditures measurement and export measurement. These parameters will be measured by analysing their importance in relation to one another, and the major influence on the growth of nominal GDP. The paper includes a graphic analysis of nominal GDP in relation to consumption, investments, governmental expenses and export.

  16. Does the Euro enhance Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer, Johannes Kabderian; A. Schmid, Peter

    2016-01-01

    of economic integration in Europe. The aim of this article is to investigate whether the EU and EZ memberships enhance growth of their members. In order to perform our empirical analysis, we apply an augmented Solow growth model using convergence analysis and the panel Generalized Method of Moments (GMM...... interesting to new potential EZ members, such as some of the Central Eastern European Countries (CEE), who are about or in the process to join the common currency club....

  17. Borderplex Economic Growth: Chicken, Egg, or Scrambled?

    OpenAIRE

    Fullerton, Thomas; Molina, Angel; Ibarreche, Santiago

    2007-01-01

    Regional debates over which metropoitan economy is the dominant growth pole in multi-city areas can be intense. Such discourse is frequently voiced with regard to economic expansion in the El Paso, Texas, USA - Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico borderplex economy. To date, no empirical analyses have been carried out to address that question. Granger causality tests are applied to various cross-border data to shed light on that question and others regarding the nature of regional growth in t...

  18. Industrial Employment, Investment Equipment and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dellas, Harris

    2000-01-01

    The industrialization of labour is the main engine of growth during the early stages of economic development. In less developed countries, equipment investment has played a less important role than non-equipment investment; and it has only proved growth enhancing when it either encountered a substantial industrial labour force or fostered a large increase in the share of industrial employment. These findings draw attention to the effects of investment on the composition of the labour force; a...

  19. Gender Equality and Economic Growth in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor; Otaviano Canuto

    2013-01-01

    This note studies the long-run impacts of policies aimed at fostering gender equality on economic growth in Brazil. After a brief review of gender issues in Brazil, this note describes a framework for quantifying the growth effects of gender-based policies in developing economies. The analysis is based on a computable overlapping generations (OLG) model that accounts for the impact of acce...

  20. OPEN SOURCE APPROACH TO URBAN GROWTH SIMULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Petrasova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spatial patterns of land use change due to urbanization and its impact on the landscape are the subject of ongoing research. Urban growth scenario simulation is a powerful tool for exploring these impacts and empowering planners to make informed decisions. We present FUTURES (FUTure Urban – Regional Environment Simulation – a patch-based, stochastic, multi-level land change modeling framework as a case showing how what was once a closed and inaccessible model benefited from integration with open source GIS.We will describe our motivation for releasing this project as open source and the advantages of integrating it with GRASS GIS, a free, libre and open source GIS and research platform for the geospatial domain. GRASS GIS provides efficient libraries for FUTURES model development as well as standard GIS tools and graphical user interface for model users. Releasing FUTURES as a GRASS GIS add-on simplifies the distribution of FUTURES across all main operating systems and ensures the maintainability of our project in the future. We will describe FUTURES integration into GRASS GIS and demonstrate its usage on a case study in Asheville, North Carolina. The developed dataset and tutorial for this case study enable researchers to experiment with the model, explore its potential or even modify the model for their applications.

  1. Social and economic growth of developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregersen, H.M.; Laarman, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on social and economic growth of developing nations. Trees and forests are often of immeasurable importance to developing countries of the world. To be of value, however, effective and efficient institutions, programs, and policies must be designed and focused on such resources. Forest economics and policy researchers can contribute much to such activities. To be most effective, forest economics research should be designed to improve understanding of social forestry, watershed management, and nontimber forest outputs; enhance ability to effectively address environmental consequences of forestry development; heighten skill in guiding development of industrial forestry enterprises; and improve effectiveness of international aid for forestry development. Guided by such strategic directions, forest economics research can contribute much to the economic and social well-being of developing nations

  2. Comprehensive evaluation system of intelligent urban growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Yan; Ren, Xiao-Bin

    2017-06-01

    With the rapid urbanization of the world, urban planning has become increasingly important and necessary to ensure people have access to equitable and sustainable homes, resources and jobs.This article is to talk about building an intelligent city evaluation system.First,using System Analysis Model(SAM) which concludes literature data analysis and stepwise regression analysis to describe intelligent growth scientifically and obtain the evaluation index. Then,using the improved entropy method to obtain the weight of the evaluation index.Afterwards, establishing a complete Smart Growth Comprehensive Evaluation Model(SGCEM).Finally,testing the correctness of the model.Choosing Otago(New Zealand )and Yumen(China) as research object by data mining and SGCEM model,then we get Yumen and Otago’s rational degree’s values are 0.3485 and 0.5376 respectively. It’s believed that the Otago’s smart level is higher,and it is found that the estimated value of rationality is consistent with the reality.

  3. Demographics, political power and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz-eakin, D

    1993-01-01

    "Growth theory may be used to predict the response of saving, capital formation, and output growth to large demographic shifts. Such large shifts would also be expected to alter the demand for government services and the desired levels of taxation in the population. This paper extends the overlapping-generations model of economic growth to predict the evolution of government tax and spending policy through the course of a major demographic shift. Simulations suggest that this approach may yield valuable insights into the evolution of policy in the United States and other industrialized economies." excerpt

  4. Human Capital Composition and Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chun-Li; Hung, Ming-Cheng; Harriott, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze the effect of various compositions of human capital on economic growth. We construct alternative measures of human capital composition using five fields of study. In each instance, the measure represents the number of graduates in the respective field as a percentage of all graduates. The measures are as…

  5. Economic growth, sectoral structure and unemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, H.L.F.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis consists of three parts that deal with the relationship between the relative wealth of nations, economic growth, and the sectoral structure of economies. In the first part, the focus is on the relative stagnancy of Europe versus the USA in terms of productivity levels and unemployment.

  6. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  7. Education for Economic Growth: A Critical Investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, James B., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Declaring that a "national emergency" exists in American education, the author outlines "Action for Excellence" recommendations developed by the Task Force on Education for Economic Growth, of which he was chairman, and discusses accomplishments in educational reform in the state of North Carolina, where he is governor. (JBM)

  8. Renewable Resources, Capital Accumulation, and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a dynamic economic model with physical capital and renewable resources. Different from most of the neoclassical growth models with renewable resources which are based on microeconomic foundation and neglect physical capital accumulation, this study proposes a growth model with dynamics of renewable resources and physical capital accumulation. The model is a synthesis of the neoclassical growth theory and the traditional dynamic models of renewable resources with an alternative approach to household behavior. The model describes a dynamic interdependence among physical accumulation, resource change, and division of labor under perfect competition. Because of its refined economic structure, our study enables some interactions among economic variables which are not found in the existing literature on economic growth with renewable resources. We simulate the model to demonstrate the existence of equilibrium points and motion of the dynamic system. Our comparative dynamic analysis shows, for instance, that a rise in the propensity to consume the renewable resource increases the interest rate and reduces the national and production sector’s capital stocks, wage rate and level of the consumption good. Moreover, it initially reduces and then increases the capital stocks of the resource sector and the consumption and price of the renewable resource. The stock of the renewable resource is initially increased and then reduced. Finally, labor is redistributed from the production to the resource sector.

  9. Electricity consumption and economic growth: A cross-country analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Joo-Suk

    2010-01-01

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries.

  10. Electricity consumption and economic growth: A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon, E-mail: shyoo@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Joo-Suk, E-mail: leejoosuk@hoseo.ed [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries.

  11. Electricity consumption and economic growth. A cross-country analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Lee, Joo-Suk [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Electricity has been the foundation of economic growth, and constitutes one of the vital infra-structural inputs in socio-economic development. The world faces a surge in demand for electricity that is driven by such powerful forces as population growth, extensive urbanization, industrialization, and the rise in the standard of living. This paper attempts to ascertain whether there is a systematic relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth. To this end, we use a large set of data that spans 88 countries during the period, 1975-2004. A statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship between per-capita consumption of electricity and per-capita income is detected. Nevertheless, by using a purchasing power parity that is much higher than the per-capita income of all the countries in the world, the level of per-capita income is estimated at the peak point of per-capita electricity consumption to be $61,379 in 2000 constant international dollars. Moreover, we segment the sample into Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries and non-OECD countries, and separately analyze the developed and developing countries. The separate estimation shows that even though the peak income is higher than the average per-capita income, a statistically significant inverted-U-shaped relationship is found in OECD and developed countries but not in non-OECD and developing countries. (author)

  12. Urbanization and environmental change during the economic transition on the Mongolian Plateau: Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Peilei; Chen, Jiquan; John, Ranjeet

    2016-01-01

    Driven by drastic socioeconomic changes in China and Mongolia, urbanization has become one of the most significant driving forces in the transformation of the Mongolian Plateau in the past 30 years. Using Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar as case studies, we developed a holistic approach to examine the socioeconomic and natural driving forces for urbanization and to investigate the impact on the urban environment. We used a multidisciplinary approach and relied on a variety of data sources to assess the changes of the landscape and environment of the two cities. We detected a rapid urbanization in Hohhot and Ulaanbaatar, both in terms of urban population growth and urban land expansion, from 1990 to 2010, with a much faster speed in 2000-2010. The local geo-physical conditions have constrained the spatial direction of expansion. Ulaanbaatar lagged behind Hohhot for about a decade when measured by indicators of urban population and urban land. Both cities have a degraded urban environment and a growing air pollution epidemic. While Hohhot had worse air pollution than Ulaanbaatar in the early 2000s, the gap between the two cities became smaller after 2010. The research presented here highlights the following as key determinants for urbanization and environmental change: (1) the co-evolution of urbanization, economic development, and environmental change; (2) the urbanization of transitional economies driven by the change of the economic structure, i.e., the development by both manufacturing and tertiary sectors and the change in the primary sector; and (3) the recent institutional changes and increased integration with the global economy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three essays on energy and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Nathanael David

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation explores the relationship between energy and economic growth. Chapter Two, Three, and Four examine the interaction of energy-related measures and economic outcomes by applying different methodologies across various spatial dimensions. Chapter Two shows that increases in energy consumption are necessary for increases in state level economic growth to occur. Chapter Three estimates a simultaneous supply and demand energy market at the state level. This system allows for estimates of structural elasticities to be obtained. Findings indicate that energy supply is considerably more elastic than energy demand. Energy demand is found to be determined by responses to short run shocks rather than long run processes. Chapter Four estimates the impact of changes in various elements of governance and institutional quality impact genuine investment within an economy. Increases in democracy are predicted to decrease genuine investment in energy-rich nations. The dissertation concludes with Chapter Five.

  14. Economic institutions and economic growth: Empirical evidence from the Economic Community of West African States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarus Z. Wanjuu

    2017-12-01

    Background: Economic institutions are considered as the fundamental cause of economic growth. Economic institutions affect economic growth through allocation of resources like physical and human capital. Unfortunately, there is dearth of empirical studies showing the impact of economic institutions on growth of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Aim: This study investigates the impact of economic institutions on economic growth of the ECOWAS. Setting and method: The study applied cause and effect relationship. The study used econometric research techniques of unit root and co-integration tests to establish the time series properties of the data; the vector error correction and co-integration regression models to estimate the population parameters. The research data comprised data obtained from the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD, the Transparency International (TI and Heritage Foundation databases. The variables employed were the real gross domestic product (GDP per capita (RGDPPC, corruption perception index (CPI, property rights protection (PROPRGT, private investment per capita (INVESPC, government expenditure per capita (GOEXPPC and trade openness (TRAOPN. Results: The results of the data analysed showed that economic institutions represented by the property rights index engender RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The CPI could not stimulate RGDPPC growth in ECOWAS. The results also show that all the other variables stimulated growth except trade openness. Conclusion: The study concludes that good economic institutions, private investments, and government intervention by providing security, economic and social infrastructural facilities are conducive for economic growth in the ECOWAS region. The study recommended that more efforts be made at curbing corruption in the region

  15. Electrification, economic growth and uranium power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, C.

    1983-01-01

    The worldwide growth of uranium power plant capacity is obviously dependent on both the growth of electrification and the competitive status of uranium power. In this paper the thesis is developed that expanded use of uranium power is essential to provide a substantial portion of the electricity necessary for world economic growth. Further, the case is made that the obstacles to this expansion arise not from the technology, but rather from the inadequacies of our industrial, political, and economic institutions to manage this new energy system effectively, nationally and internationally. Data are presented on the relation between electricity consumption and GNP; percentage of primary energy used for electricity; energy price ratio; relative generation costs of U, coal and oil-fired power plants; generating costs and capacity factors of conventional and uranium power plants. (U.K.)

  16. Exports and economic growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goodly Otto

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is an oil dependent economy, over 90 per cent of its exports receipts in recent years flow from petroleum but this sector is currently affected by local challenges, which include insecurity, oil thefts, sabotage and an unfriendly operational environment. These challenges are generating loses for the major producers and encouraging capital flight but amidst this situation, the economy is said to be having an impressive growth. This paradox informed this research. The study was designed to see the nexus between exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Using data from the Central Bank of Nigeria spanning 1980-2011, the study with the aid of OLS regression analysis found a strong relationship between Exports and economic growth in Nigeria. Nigeria will be better served if it diversifies its export base. It must also create structures that lead to better redistribution of export incomes within the local economy.

  17. Human Capital Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Capital Investment and Economic Growth in Nigeria. ... relationship between investment in education, health and economic growth in Nigeria, ... in order to accelerate growth and liberate Nigerians from the vicious cycle of poverty, the ...

  18. Transport Infrastructure and Economic Growth: Spatial Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artyom Gennadyevich Isaev

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The author specifies an empirical framework of neoclassical growth model in order to examine impact of transport infrastructure on economic growth in Russian regions during period of 2000-2013. Two different effects of infrastructure are considered. First, infrastructure is viewed as part of region’s own production function. Second, infrastructure generates spillover effect on adjacent regions’ economic performance which can be negative or positive. Results imply that road infrastructure has a positive influence on regional growth, but sign of railroad infrastructure coefficient depends on whether or not congestion effect is considered. Negative spillover effect is shown to exist in the case of road infrastructure. This apparently means that rapid road infrastructure development in some regions moves mobile factors of production away from adjacent regions retarding their economic development. The spillover effect of railroad infrastructure is significant and negative again only if congestion effect is considered. The results of estimation for the Far East and Baikal Regions separately demonstrate no significant effect of both types of infrastructure for economic performance and negative spillover effect of road infrastructure

  19. Does Political Ideology Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2005-01-01

    This paper asks the question whether political ideology affects economic growth. Voters may demand inefficient levels of redistribution and government intervention, and they may care too little for aspects that really matter for the economy. Their norms and perceptions of society might, via...... their political ideology, affect economic performance. The paper presents evidence suggesting that rightwing societies have grown faster in the last decades than other democratic societies. Further analysis suggests that these societies develop better legal systems and less government intervention, which in turn...

  20. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...... of literature by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data set is available. The results indicate that trust affects...

  1. Economic analyses of rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsall, N

    1989-01-01

    "Discussion of the macroeconomic consequences of rapid population growth is organized into three schools: pessimists, optimists, and the recent revisionists. For the revisionists, differing views are presented about the pervasiveness and relevance of market failures, such as the negative externalities of childbearing, and about the ability of families and institutions to adjust rapidly to changes brought on by rapid population growth. A welfare economics approach is used to review the merits of various public policies to reduce fertility, including public financing of family planning services and taxes and incentives associated with childbearing." The focus is on developing countries. excerpt

  2. World economic growth pushing LNG use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.L.; Clary, R.

    1997-01-01

    Natural gas, especially liquefied (LNG), is in position to participate in the energy growth now being triggered by strong worldwide economic growth, increasingly open markets, and expanding international trade. Natural gas is abundant, burns cleanly, and is highly efficient in combined-cycle, gas-turbine power plants. Moreover, the comparative remoteness of much of the resource base to established and emerging markets can make LNG a compelling processing and transportation alternative. Discussed here are the resource distribution and emerging market opportunities that can make LNG attractive for monetizing natural-gas reserves

  3. Savings, Investment & FDI Contribution To Malaysian Economic Growth In The Globalization Era

    OpenAIRE

    Kasim Mansur; Markos Mamalakis; Sidah Idris

    2011-01-01

    What are the prospects and future of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Malaysia now? Malaysia is undoubtedly a development success story. Throughout the post-independence period since 1957, Malaysia has enjoyed rapid economic growth with rising per capita income and price stability. Rising living standards, greater urbanization and access to health and education, and an improvement in the distribution of income have accompanied economic growth. Malaysian performance has been particularly rem...

  4. REGIONAL ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH TOURISM. THE CASE OF REGION WEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoi Ionut

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The regional development should aim to correlate and integrate tourism among the other integrative parts of the regional and local development, taking into account the fact that a region’s prosperity as effect of tourism development may be shown clearly in several stages: on the spot (as a result of direct consumption of the tourist product, on short term (through continuous absorption of the work-force and encouraging the welcoming commerce and in the long run (concentrating capital for investment in the general infrastructure and the one of tourism, in structures of reception for tourism and in the development of urban services. The analysis of intra-regional disparities as part of the economic growth at the level of Region West starts off with the idea that each component county has a different landscape, which favored or inhibited their economic growth; in the same time, each component county has its own specific, which can be promoted through tourism, inducing in time a regional income, and respectively, a social-economic and cultural growth of less developed areas.

  5. Exports, capital formation and economic growth in South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In South Africa the export sector is frequently accorded a special role in encouraging faster economic growth. Nonetheless, a question that remains unresolved is whether higher export growth indeed leads to higher economic growth and what particular role exports may play within the overall economic growth process of the ...

  6. Simulating urban growth in the George town conurbation | Samat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences ... Therefore, this paper aims to develop an urban growth simulation model using GIS-based CA-Markov approach, incorporated with driving forces of urban growth in the Malaysian context. ... Keywords: CA-Markov; Geograpghic Information Sciences (GIS); Land use changes;

  7. Bank Liquidity, Market Participation, and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Mattana, Elena; Panetti, Ettore

    2012-01-01

    We report evidence that bank liquidity ratios (liquid assets as a percentage of total assets) decrease during the process of economic development. To reconcile this observation with (i) the increasing importance of financial markets and (ii) the increasing direct participation of individual investors in them, we build a neoclassical growth model with banks and markets. In this environment, banks engage in cross-subsidization of the impatient depositors to keep up with the competitive pressure...

  8. Boosting Economic Growth Through Advanced Machine Vision

    OpenAIRE

    MAAD, Soha; GARBAYA, Samir; AYADI, Nizar; BOUAKAZ, Saida

    2012-01-01

    In this chapter, we overview the potential of machine vision and related technologies in various application domains of critical importance for economic growth and prospect. Considered domains include healthcare, energy and environment, finance, and industrial innovation. Visibility technologies considered encompass augmented and virtual reality, 3D technologies, and media content authoring tools and technologies. We overview the main challenges facing the application domains and discuss the ...

  9. Economic growth, biodiversity loss and conservation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, Simon; Adger, W Neil

    2003-05-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth, biodiversity loss and efforts to conserve biodiversity using a combination of panel and cross section data. If economic growth is a cause of biodiversity loss through habitat transformation and other means, then we would expect an inverse relationship. But if higher levels of income are associated with increasing real demand for biodiversity conservation, then investment to protect remaining diversity should grow and the rate of biodiversity loss should slow with growth. Initially, economic growth and biodiversity loss are examined within the framework of the environmental Kuznets hypothesis. Biodiversity is represented by predicted species richness, generated for tropical terrestrial biodiversity using a species-area relationship. The environmental Kuznets hypothesis is investigated with reference to comparison of fixed and random effects models to allow the relationship to vary for each country. It is concluded that an environmental Kuznets curve between income and rates of loss of habitat and species does not exist in this case. The role of conservation effort in addressing environmental problems is examined through state protection of land and the regulation of trade in endangered species, two important means of biodiversity conservation. This analysis shows that the extent of government environmental policy increases with economic development. We argue that, although the data are problematic, the implications of these models is that conservation effort can only ever result in a partial deceleration of biodiversity decline partly because protected areas serve multiple functions and are not necessarily designated to protect biodiversity. Nevertheless institutional and policy response components of the income biodiversity relationship are important but are not well captured through cross-country regression analysis.

  10. Economic Burden of Diabetes in Urban Indians

    OpenAIRE

    Chandra, Pablo; Gogate, Bageshri; Gogate, Parikshit; Thite, Nilesh; Mutha, Abhay; Walimbe, Amit

    2014-01-01

    Purpose : To find out the average economic burden of medical care on a patient with diabetes in Pune, India Methods : A semi-open ended questionnaire followed by interview was conducted with patients attending diabetes and ophthalmic out-patient departments. They were asked regarding the duration of diabetes, methods undertaken for blood sugar control and the amount they spend on consultations, laboratory tests, medicines and procedures if any within past year. Expenditure was classified as d...

  11. Factor-structure of economic growth in E-commerce

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽; 刘洪久; 栾天行

    2003-01-01

    In order to analyze the factors having effect on economic growth of E-commerce, the economic growthprocess of E-commerce is divided into three stages; growth stage, stabilization stage and re-growth stage. Thesethree different stages are analysed using several economic growth theories, a set of factor-structure is proposedfor each stage of the economic growth process of E-commerce.

  12. Sociopolitical Instability and Economic Growth Empirical Evidence from Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    Changsheng Xu; Santhirasegaram Selvarathinam; Wen X. Li

    2007-01-01

    Sociopolitical instability severely affects economic growth in short and long run. This study analyzes that sociopolitical instability measured by proxy measure; annual growth rate of tourist arrivals in Sri Lanka during 1960-2005 adversely affects economic growth. Our empirical findings based on ordinary lease square econometric estimation, show that sociopolitical instability negatively and significantly affect economic growth. Reduction of economic growth rate (-0.032) due to the sociopoli...

  13. Relationship of Economic Growth with Tourism Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Holik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the impact of  foreign tourists towards the economic growth. It was conducted from 1995 until 2012 on five ASEAN member countrie: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. It used the quantitative method; it is one-way random effect of panel regression. The data, which is functioned as dependent variables, were taken from WDI (World Development Indicator of the World Bank for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Meanwhile, the data of revenue from the foreign tourist visit (Rec, the number of foreign tourist arrival (Arr, and the exchange rate (Xrate are functioned as the independent variables. Based on the research result, there is evidence that international tourism can increase the economic growth in those countries. The three independent variables have a positive and  significant impact to the dependent variables. Based on the findings, the governments of five ASEAN member countries should be able to maintain the sustainability of tourism sector in order to be stronger and to have global market-orientation. In fact, tourism services can support the  economic growth because the potential of those ASEAN countries cannot be taken lightly.

  14. Relationship of Economic Growth with Tourism Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Holik

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to analyze the impact of foreign tourists towards the economic growth. It was conducted from 1995 until 2012 on five ASEAN member countrie: Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Philippines, and Singapore. It used the quantitative method; it is one-way random effect of panel regression. The data, which is functioned as dependent variables, were taken from WDI (World Development Indicator of the World Bank for the Gross Domestic Product (GDP. Meanwhile, the data of revenue from the foreign tourist visit (Rec, the number of foreign tourist arrival (Arr, and the exchange rate (Xrate are functioned as the independent variables. Based on the research result, there is evidence that international tourism can increase the economic growth in those countries. The three independent variables have a positive and significant impact to the dependent variables. Based on the findings, the governments of five ASEAN member countries should be able to maintain the sustainability of tourism sector in order to be stronger and to have global market-orientation. In fact, tourism services can support the economic growth because the potential of those ASEAN countries cannot be taken lightly.

  15. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis in this paper is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the United States. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades are investigated. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce resources during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian Stock Scarcity and Malthusian Flow Scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce resources during the decade of the 1980s than they had been during the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the decade of the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has taken place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. (author)

  16. Economic evaluation of radiation processing in urban solid wastes treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carassiti, F.; Lacquaniti, L.; Liuzzo, G.

    During the last few years, quite a number of studies have been done, or are still in course, on disinfection of urban liquid wastes by means of ionizing radiations. The experience gained by SANDIA pilot plant of irradiation on dried sewage sludge, together with the recently presented conceptual design of another plant handling granular solids, characterized by high efficiency and simple running, have shown the possibility of extending this process to the treatment of urban solid wastes. As a matter of fact, the problems connected to the pathogenic aspects of sludge handling are often similar to those met during the disposal of urban solid wastes. This is even more so in the case of their reuse in agriculture and zootechny. The present paper introduces the results of an analysis carried out in order to evaluate the economical advantage of inserting irradiation treatment in some process scheme for management of urban solid wastes. Taking as an example a comprehensive pattern of urban solid wastes management which has been analysed and estimated economically in previous works, we first evaluated the extra capital and operational costs due to the irradiation and then analysed economical justification, taking into account the increasing commercial value of the by-products.

  17. The Spatialities of Urban Economic Geographies: New Industrial Spaces in the Outer City of Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Høgni Kalsø; Winther, Lars

    2007-01-01

    The paper focuses on the transformation of the industrial structure and the location dynamics on the edge of the metropolitan region of Copenhagen with the aim of explaining the rise of new spaces in the urban economic geography. The main concern of the paper is the role the transformation...... of the outer city plays in the urban economy of Copenhagen. The centre of attention is on the changing industrial structure, the progressively higher complexity of firm location, and the division of labour that have emerged in the past decade of growth as a result of the resurgence of the metropolitan region...... of Copenhagen. The recent changes in the economic geographies of the outer city of Copenhagen are used as a launch pad for discussing the theoretical and analytical challenges in understanding the industrial change in new urban forms....

  18. Economic burden of diabetes in urban indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Pablo; Gogate, Bageshri; Gogate, Parikshit; Thite, Nilesh; Mutha, Abhay; Walimbe, Amit

    2014-01-01

    To find out the average economic burden of medical care on a patient with diabetes in Pune, India. A semi-open ended questionnaire followed by interview was conducted with patients attending diabetes and ophthalmic out-patient departments. They were asked regarding the duration of diabetes, methods undertaken for blood sugar control and the amount they spend on consultations, laboratory tests, medicines and procedures if any within past year. Expenditure was classified as direct cost (cost of medicines, doctor's fees, investigations, lasers and surgery) and indirect cost (travel, diet control, health classes and loss of wages). Data was collected regarding the socioeconomic status according to Kuppaswamy classification. 219 patients participated of whom 129 were males (58.9%). Average annual direct cost of diabetes treatment was Rs 8,822 of which 52.1% was spend on medicines, 3.2% was spend on lasers, 12.6% was spend on surgical procedures, 11.6% spent on investigations and 10.4% was spend on clinician fees. Average annual indirect cost was Rs. 3949 of which 3.4% was spend on travelling purpose, 0.4% was spent on health classes, 4.9% was spent on diet control and 91.3% was loss of wages. Average expenditure done by lower middle class was 23.7% of their income. Average percentage of income for direct and indirect cost was 3.6% and 1.4% respectively. The cost of the treatment formed1.3% of the annual income for those in Socio-economic class I, 1.7% in class II, 3.7% in class III and 23.7% in class IV. The cost of managing diabetes was a significant proportion of the patients' income, especially for those on lower socio-economic scale (class IV).

  19. Essays in Urban and Labor Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Asquith, Brian James

    2017-01-01

    American cities, after decades of decline, are regaining affluent and highly educated residents. This dissertation examines these trends at the neighborhood level and documents that resurgence, in the form of gentrification, is prevalent in cities, specifically in downtown neighborhoods near employment centers. My results indicate a fundamental shift from city center decline to growth around 1990, which motivates my focus on exploring two novel causes of gentrification. In Chapter 1, I demons...

  20. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mangasa Augustinus Sipahutar

    2016-06-01

                  Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and how much they contribute to explaining economic growth.  We also estimate an ECM to document the relationship between banks credit to both unemployment and poverty.  This paper revealed bi-direction causality between banks credit and economic growth.  Banks credit promotes economic growth and economic growth affects credit depth and financial development.  Furthermore, banks credit is a growth accelerating factor on Indonesian economic growth.  Banks credit is an endogenous growth and a good predictor on Indonesian economy. Our estimation model explained that credit allocated by banks increases business escalation to the real sectors then promotes economic growth, decreases unemployment rate through increasing in labor demanded, increases income and then decrease poverty.  This overall transmission mechanism just occurred through presence of banks credit by increasing money supply to the real sectors, promotes growth and social welfare.   Keywords :  banks credit, economic growth, growth accelerating factor, poverty, unemployment   JEL Classification : E51, E52, E58

  1. Urban Growth Dynamics in Perth, Western Australia: Using Applied Remote Sensing for Sustainable Future Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MacLachlan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth observation data can provide valuable assessments for monitoring the spatial extent of (unsustainable urban growth of the world’s cities to better inform planning policy in reducing associated economic, social and environmental costs. Western Australia has witnessed rapid economic expansion since the turn of the century founded upon extensive natural resource extraction. Thus, Perth, the state capital of Western Australia, has encountered significant population and urban growth in response to the booming state economy. However, the recent economic slowdown resulted in the largest decrease in natural resource values that Western Australia has ever experienced. Here, we present multi-temporal urban expansion statistics from 1990 to 2015 for Perth, derived from Landsat imagery. Current urban estimates used for future development plans and progress monitoring of infill and density targets are based upon aggregated census data and metrics unrepresentative of actual land cover change, underestimating overall urban area. Earth observation provides a temporally consistent methodology, identifying areal urban area at higher spatial and temporal resolution than current estimates. Our results indicate that the spatial extent of the Perth Metropolitan Region has increased 45% between 1990 and 2015, over 320 km2. We highlight the applicability of earth observation data in accurately quantifying urban area for sustainable targeted planning practices.

  2. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH AND ECO-EFFICIENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana\tLUPAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The current economic and social contexts have brought forth the issues regarding growth and sustainability. The concept of growth has always been linked to an increase in consumption levels, and this inevitably led to pressures on the environment and on the resources that support human activity. Given these circumstances, the question whether we can avoid an environmental disaster while maintaining economic growth, has become more stringent. We chose to approach this aspect by examining the concept of eco-efficiency, a concept that embodies aspects of both economic efficiency and environmental efficiency. Eco-efficiency can be regarded as the effectiveness with which resources are used in order to create products and services that satisfy human needs. Based on this idea, the last decade has produced an increasing number of studies on eco-efficiency and how it can be measured and implemented in the production of goods and services, but also in the field regarding demand patterns. An analysis regarding the aspects of eco-efficiency at the macro level of the Romanian economy is in line with the current environmental concerns, thus I have chosen to cover these questions, as well as the evolution of the locale economy towards a more sustainable development. The outcome of the examined aspects shows that, in spite of an increase in eco-efficiency levels, energy and material consumption and emissions have increased. This raises the question if measuring economic and environmental efficiency by reporting to the GDP value is becoming obsolete and if there is a need to revaluate eco-efficiency indicators in order to measure the transition to a greener and more sustainable development from different points of view.

  3. Green technologies for the use of urban wastewater: economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio Alfredo Gil

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Urban sewage is one of the biggest polluters of water resources. For treatment, the usual conventional technologies (CT are based on civil and hydraulic engineering; more recently, green technologies (GT based on biology and ecology began to be developed. The aim of this study was to assess the economic aspects of these technologies using cost-benefit analysis. The economic benefits are derived from the sale of forest products and the environmental benefits of water decontamination, valued by the avoided cost method. The results of the study establish that GT have better commercial and economic performance than CT, and that the inclusion of environmental benefit significantly improves the results.

  4. Urbanisation, urban growth and planning in the Copenhagen Metropolitan Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    pressure. Growth management strategies are necessary to secure future balanced and sustainable development throughout the whole urban region. The analysis of urbanisation and urban growth in peri-urban areas is at the core of this study, including socio-demographic and functional dynamics, land use impacts...... and options for spatial planning. The main case was the metropolitan region of Copenhagen, Denmark. Other cases from Europe and the USA were used as reference studies. The methods included quantitative analyses of register and land use data as well as general case study work to investigate options for spatial...... planning. The study shows that, while the most visible impacts of land use changes can be found at the close urban fringe, many other dynamics have a much longer reach into the rural-urban region. In the Copenhagen metropolitan region, we can observe migration to peri-urban areas and to the urban core...

  5. Global warming, energy use, and economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Neha

    The dissertation comprises four papers that explore the interactions between global warming, energy use, and economic growth. While the papers are separate entities, they share the underlying theme of highlighting national differences in the growth experience and their implications for long-term energy use and climate change. The first paper provides an overview of some key economic issues in the climate change literature. In doing so, the paper critically appraises the 1995 draft report of Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. The focus is the choice of a pure rate of time preference in the economic modeling of climate change, abatement costs differentials between developed and developing countries, and contrasting implications of standard discount rates and value of life estimates for these two country groups. The second paper develops a global model that takes account of the depletion of oil resources in the context of a geo-economic model for climate change. It is found that in the presence of non-decreasing carbon and energy intensities and declining petroleum availability, the carbon emissions trajectory is much higher than that typically projected by other models of this genre. Furthermore, by introducing price and income sensitive demand functions for fossil fuels, the model provides a framework to assess the effectiveness of fuel specific carbon taxes in reducing the COsb2 emissions trajectory. Cross-price substitution effects necessitate unrealistically high tax rates in order to lower the projected emissions trajectory to the optimal level. The economic structure of five integrated assessment models for climate change is reviewed in the third paper, with a special focus on the macroeconomic and damage assessment modules. The final paper undertakes an econometric estimation of the changing shares of capital, labour, energy, and technical change in explaining the growth patterns of 38 countries. Production elasticities vary by

  6. Analysis of Urban Growth in Edwardsville Illinois Using Remote Sensing and Population Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuoha, Hilda U.

    Rapid urbanization is one of the many critical, global issues. This very significant social and economic phenomenon has brought about much debate in the past twenty years and has become a very important policy issue. Understanding its dynamics and patterns is important to develop appropriate policies and make more informed planning decisions. Many dimensions to the urban land growth have been identified in related literature including drivers, relationship with other factors like population, impacts, and methods of measurement. In this study, urban growth in the Edwardsville area (composed of Edwardsville and Glen Carbon, Illinois) is analyzed spatio-temporally using remote sensing and population change from 1990 to 2015. The objectives of this study are (a) identifying the major land use changes in the Edwardsville area from 1990 to 2015, (b) analyzing the rate of urban growth and its relationship to population change in the area from 1990 to 2015, (c) identifying the general pattern and direction of urban growth in the study area. Using multi-temporal satellite images to classify and derive changes in land cover classes during the study period, results showed that the land cover classes with major changes are the urban/built-up land and agricultural/grassland, with a steady increase in the former and steady decrease in the later. Results also show the highest rate of increase in urban land was between 2000 and 2010. In comparison to population, the both show increase over the study years but urban land shows a higher rate of increase indicating dispersion. To analyze urban growth pattern in the area, the study area was divided into three zones: NE, SE, and W. The SE zone showed the highest amount of the growth and from the results, the infill type of growth was inferred.

  7. Natural Hazards, Poverty Traps versus Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netti, Dr.

    2012-04-01

    Governments, even in developed countries, devote too scarce resources to coping (ex-ante) with natural hazards; as a consequence of this short-sightedness, (ex-post) direct and indirect effects of catastrophic events deeply compromise the economic growth. Protective measures against natural hazards mean complex choices involving the opinions of multidisciplinary groups of experts in the fields of ecology, civic and geotechnical engineering, geology, meteorology, law and economics. Moreover, tools and choices affect different stakeholders: politicians, producers, consumers, taxpayers and voters. Complementarity between informed rationality and democracy need to be recognized and guaranteed as too often the perceptions of the majority of the stakeholders involved about natural hazards are not consistent with any objective information about the catastrophic event. The interaction between strict budget constraints, extremely high degrees of uncertainty, risk-aversion and credit rationing, trade-off between democracy and rationality, are the main causes of potential 'poverty traps'. First of all we believe that the 'reconstruction output' to be included in GDP as an ex-post effect of a natural hazard is a forced investment much more effective in crowding-out other consumption and investment and less effective for growth than investments aiming at increasing, ex-ante, the resiliency of the economy. Keynes' 'Animal Spirits' are embedded in positive expectation for future gains especially if not concentrated in reconstruction procurement sectors but spread across different sectors of the economy. The increased demand for reconstruction goods and services may act in both directions depending on the phase of the business cycles in which the economy is. Risk premiums for risk-averter investors increase in consequence of a natural hazard event; this restrict budget constraints and strengthen credit rationing. A mere replacement effect of the destroyed capital by a more

  8. Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Book review of: "Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship" by Jin Xue (Routledge, 2014)......Book review of: "Economic Growth and Sustainable Housing: An Uneasy Relationship" by Jin Xue (Routledge, 2014)...

  9. Dynamic analysis of savings and economic growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dynamic analysis of savings and economic growth in Nigeria. ... a trivariate dynamic Granger causality model with savings, economic growth and foreign ... It is recommended that in the short run, policies in Nigeria should be geared towards ...

  10. On climate change and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Tol, Richard S.J.

    2005-01-01

    The economic impact of climate change is usually measured as the extent to which the climate of a given period affects social welfare in that period. This static approach ignores the dynamic effects through which climate change may affect economic growth and hence future welfare. In this paper we take a closer look at these dynamic effects, in particular saving and capital accumulation. With a constant savings rate, a lower output due to climate change will lead to a proportionate reduction in investment which in turn will depress future production (capital accumulation effect) and, in almost all cases, future consumption per capita. If the savings rate is endogenous, forward looking agents would change their savings behavior to accommodate the impact of future climate change. This suppresses growth prospects in absolute and per capita terms (savings effect). In an endogenous growth context, these two effects may be exacerbated through changes in labour productivity and the rate of technical progress. Simulations using a simple climate-economy model suggest that the capital accumulation effect is important, especially if technological change is endogenous, and may be larger than the direct impact of climate change. The savings effect is less pronounced. The dynamic effects are more important, relative to the direct effects, if climate change impacts are moderate overall. This suggests that they are more of a concern in developed countries, which are believed to be less vulnerable to climate change. The magnitude of dynamic effects is not sensitive to the choice of discount rate

  11. Projected Regional Climate in 2025 Due to Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Manyin, Michael; Messen, Dmitry

    2005-01-01

    By 2025, 60 to 80 percent of the world s population will live in urban environments. Additionally, the following facts published by the United Nations further illustrates how cities will evolve in the future. Urban areas in the developing world are growing very rapidly. The urban growth rate will continue to be particularly rapid in the urban areas of less developed regions, averaging 2.4 per cent per year during 2000-2030, consistent with a doubling time of 29 years. The urbanization process will continue worldwide. The concentration of population in cities is expected to continue so that, by 2030, 84 percent of the inhabitants of more developed countries will be urban dwellers. Urbanization impacts the whole hierarchy of human settlements. In 2000,24.8 per cent of the world population lived in urban settlements with fewer than 500,000 inhabitants and by 2015 that proportion will likely rise to 27.1 per cent.

  12. FISCAL POLICY'S INFLUENCE ON ECONOMIC GROWTH IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

    OpenAIRE

    MIHAIU Diana Marieta; OPREANA Alin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of the fiscal policy on the economic growth for European Union, for the period 2000-2009. This subject represents a very debated problem in the economic literature. Our findings shows that, from the analysis of correlation between economic growth rate and total rate of taxation, there is generally an inverse relationship, meaning that an increase in the tax rate adversely affects economic growth. Continuing the analysis of the correlation between economic gro...

  13. Medical Tourism and Its Implication on Malaysia's Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Chor Foon

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers in the developed and developing countries already heading toward medical tourism to stimulate economic growth. Nonetheless, the actual impact of medical tourism on economic growth remains ambiguous. Although medical tourism may spur economic growth via its impact on foreign currency earnings, investments, tax revenue, and employment opportunities, it may also leave numerous negative externalities that either direct or indirectly harmful the process of economic growth. Undeniably,...

  14. Electricity consumption and economic growth: evidence from Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the short- and long-run causality issues between electricity consumption and economic growth in Korea by using the co-integration and error-correction models. It employs annual data covering the period 1970-2002. The overall results show that there exists bi-directional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption

  15. Population, internal migration, and economic growth: an empirical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland, R S

    1982-01-01

    effect of a population's age structure on savings rather than assuming a particular direction as Coale-Hoover and Simon do in their models, it was found that a higher proportion of children compete with savings in agriculture but complement savings in industrial areas. This was consistent with the economic value of children in agricultural and nonagricultural regions of less developed countries. The estimated production functions showed that marginal products of labor were considerably higher in agriculture than in nonagriculture. As with other simulation models, the effect of reducing fertility was to accelerate income growth. Reductions in rural fertility were more equitable and raised the overall level of per capita income more than similar efforts directed to urban areas only.

  16. India's refining prospects linked to economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.

    1996-01-01

    International investors assess refining ventures in India the same way they do comparable projects elsewhere in the world: according to their expectations about investment returns. By that standard, India's appeal is mixed, although its need for some measure of additional refining capacity seems certain. The success of future refinery investments will depend heavily on the government's commitment to policies allowing the economy to grow faster than the population. Unless accompanied by economic growth, expected increases in the population will not automatically raise demand for petroleum products. Decisions about investments in India's refining sector, therefore, must carefully weigh market fundamentals, the business environment, and likely investment performance. This paper reviews the market for the various products and predicts new economic trends

  17. Electricity consumption and economic growth: Exploring panel-specific differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the long- and short-run dynamics between electricity consumption and economic activities, using panel data of per capita electricity consumption and per capita GDP of 160 countries for the period of 1980–2010, accounting for the degree of electricity dependence and the level of urbanization. Furthermore, in order to capture the differences in this relationship, the full sample is divided into various subsamples based on countries' income levels, regional locations and OECD memberships. This framework is argued and found to be appropriate since the causal links and inferences arising therefrom differ considerably among the subsamples, which led us to conclude that the electricity-growth nexus is highly sensitive to regional differences, countries' income levels, urbanization rates and supply risks. -- Highlights: •The causal relationship between electricity consumption and GDP is investigated. •Cointegration techniques are used for 160 countries and 13 subsamples. •Urbanization and electricity trade are accounted for as additional covariates. •Causal inferences are found to be associated with panel-specific differences. •Policy issues are discussed based on the study results

  18. Political regime change, economic liberalization and growth accelerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong-A-Pin, Richard; De Haan, Jakob

    We examine whether the type of political regime, regime changes, and economic liberalization are related to economic growth accelerations. Our results show that growth accelerations are preceded by economic liberalizations. We also find that growth accelerations are less likely to happen the longer

  19. Urban Growth and Land-Use Structure in Two Mediterranean Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Salvati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study develops an Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis (ESDA with the aim to assess changes over time in the distribution of selected uses of land in two Mediterranean urban regions (Rome and Athens with different morphology and economic functions. The study uses global and local Moran’s indexes of spatial autocorrelation to describe the land-use structure observed in the two cities in mid-1970s and late-2000s, and debates on the divergent contribution of compact growth and scattered urban expansion to changes in land use. The analysis identifies fringe landscapes as a key target for urban containment policies in sprawling cities.

  20. Directed Technical Change and Economic Growth Effects of Environmental Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse-Andersen, Peter Kjær

    2016-01-01

    A Schumpeterian growth model is developed to investigate how environmental policy affects economic growth when environmental policy also affects the direction of technical change. In contrast to previous models, production and pollution abatement technologies are embodied in separate intermediate...... unambiguously directs research efforts toward pollution abatement technologies and away from production technologies. This directed technical change reduces economic growth and pollution emission growth. Simulation results indicate that even large environmental policy reforms have small economic growth effects....... However, these economic growth effects have relatively large welfare effects which suggest that static models and exogenous growth models leave out an important welfare effect of environmental policy....

  1. Development of Technology Transfer Economic Growth Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastrangelo, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to determine the feasibility of producing technology transfer metrics that answer the question: Do NASA/MSFC technical assistance activities impact economic growth? The data for this project resides in a 7800-record database maintained by Tec-Masters, Incorporated. The technology assistance data results from survey responses from companies and individuals who have interacted with NASA via a Technology Transfer Agreement, or TTA. The goal of this project was to determine if the existing data could provide indications of increased wealth. This work demonstrates that there is evidence that companies that used NASA technology transfer have a higher job growth rate than the rest of the economy. It also shows that the jobs being supported are jobs in higher wage SIC codes, and this indicates improvements in personal wealth. Finally, this work suggests that with correct data, the wealth issue may be addressed.

  2. ANALYSIS OF ECONOMIC GAPS BETWEEN URBAN AND RURAL ROMANIAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toader Valentin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors will perform a comparative analysis of the impact that the population residential areas have on the economic and social activity from Romania. Our analysis will be carried out for a time span of 10 years, between 2000 and 2009. The main purposes are to emphasize the economic gaps between the residential areas (urban and rural and to identify the factors that determine these gaps. The economic differences between rural and urban areas and their impact on the peoples standard of living represent an important issue for international institutions like IFRC, UNICEF or OECD. Also, this topic represents a frequent subject in the economic literature from poor and developing countries. Studies conducted by Huong and Booth (2010, Alister, Alana and Ayele (2007, Chao, Zhidong and Mingxing (2008, Mateoc-Srb, Mateoc, Darva?i and Manescu (2008 or Sahn and Stifel (2002 are representative examples. Most of these papers focus on the living standards differences generated by the differences between income and expenditures between urban and rural areas. To achieve our goals, we will use the statistical methods to analyze the data released by the National Institute of Statistics. We will try to find some correlations between the economic indicators household incomes, value and structure of household expenditures, structure of household expenditures the social indicators residential area, education level, age and occupation. The highlight of the gaps between the rural and urban areas will be the main objective during this analysis. We conclude that in Romania there are substantial differences between rural and urban areas. The income differences are determining different consumption patterns between rural and urban persons. In rural areas, the population is spending less in all goods and services aspect that reduce their standard of living. Anyway, the results obtained are the subject of at least two possible limits. The fact that the data

  3. City and Energy Infrastructures between Economic Processes and Urban Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Mazzeo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the issues related to the relationship between city, energy, economic factors and city planning. These issues are analyzed from a theoretical point of view and are placed in a logical path based on three assumptions. The first considers the city as an intelligent system constantly evolving. The second considers the city as a system where economic processes come out at their highest level affecting other aspects of social and urban structure. The third considers the planning as the weak link in the process of urban development, one of the most exposed to economic and social pressures.Energy production has experienced a great progress since steam and electricity were discovered. Each stage of this evolution has affected city and territory introducing significant physical signs, changing the ways of carrying out functions and creating new needs and new activities. The energy revolution, based on sustainable sources and on skillful management of the networks, will strongly affect the city and the way of organizing the activities, their location, dimension, and the shape of the spaces.The paper explores some of the issues related to the relationship between urban system and energy.The first section analyzes the meaning of the intelligent city as an entity that is constantly changing and constantly adapting. The second section analyzes the role of the energy systems in the evolution of the activities and of the city’s image. The last section investigates the role of the economic factors in the evolution of the shape and meaning of city, pointing out that the way towards smart and green urban systems will largely depend on their economic advantage. 

  4. Learning from urban growth management in the Pacific Northwest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian

    2010-01-01

    The development of contemporary urban growth management in the Northwest United States began in the 1970s. The major tool is the implementation of urban containment boundaries, fostering growth within and limiting it outside the boundary. Additionally a set of policies reaching from densification...... Washington and Oregon as e.g. the municipalities in Denmark have strong control options in planning. However, especially the metropolitan co-operation and co-ordination instruments can certainly contribute to the discussion on urban growth management in Denmark and elsewhere....

  5. Economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansuategi, Alberto [Environment Department, University of York, York (United Kingdom); Escapa, Marta [Foundations of Economic Analysis Department, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao (Spain)

    2002-01-01

    Recent empirical research has examined the relationship between certain indicators of environmental degradation and income, concluding that in some cases an inverted U-shaped relationship, which has been called an environmental Kuznets curve (EKC), exists between these variables. Unfortunately, this inverted U-shaped relationship does not hold for greenhouse gas emissions. One explanation of the absence of EKC-like behavior in greenhouse gas emissions is that greenhouse gases are special pollutants that create global, not local, disutility. But the international nature of global warming is not the only reason that prevents de-linking greenhouse gas emissions from economic growth. The intergenerational nature of the negative impact of greenhouse gas emissions may have also been an important factor preventing the implementation of greenhouse gas abatement measures in the past. In this paper we explore the effect that the presence of intergenerational spillovers has on the emissions-income relationship. We use a numerically calibrated overlapping generations model of climate-economy interactions. We conclude that: (1) the intertemporal responsibility of the regulatory agency, (2) the institutional capacity to make intergenerational transfers and (3) the presence of intergenerationally lagged impact of emissions constitute important determinants of the relationship between economic growth and greenhouse gas emissions.

  6. Urban Ecology: Patterns of Population Growth and Ecological Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne C. Zipperer; Steward T.A. Pickett

    2012-01-01

    Currently, over 50% of the world’s population lives in urban areas. By 2050, this estimate is expected to be 70%. This urban growth, however, is not uniformly distributed around the world. The majority of it will occur in developing nations and create megacities whose populations exceed at least 10 million people. Not all urban areas, however, are growing. Some are...

  7. The Real Estate and Economic Crisis: An Opportunity for Urban Return and Rehabilitation Policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús M. González Pérez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the early 1980s, suburbanization and periurbanization processes became widespread in major cities within Spain. An interesting stage of returning to city centers commenced that materialized in the start of rehabilitation policies within historic centers. These processes coincided with weak population growth, an acute industrial economic crisis, and new democratic policies in municipal councils. Three decades later, we may be witnessing similar processes, although with different origins. The consequences of a construction-based economic model have been disastrous in Spain, from both an economic as well as an environmental point of view. The artificial land boom was significant throughout the country, but was especially prominent within the Mediterranean areas that specialize in tourism and real estate (second homes. The burst of the real estate bubble has shown the irrationality of the economic model and the serious social and environmental consequences that the model has entailed. Within this context, some of the territorial transformation processes that occurred in Spain during the real estate boom period are being studied for the first time. Additionally, changes in land policies (urban renewal of centers and urban renewal in general within the current economic and real estate crisis are analyzed. An urban rehabilitation that gradually includes new spaces for intervention and for introducing new sustainable methods for recovering degraded spaces, such as the Master Plan for Platja de Palma, a mature tourism destination that seeks a final ‘0 CO2 balance’ scenario, among other objectives.

  8. Green economic growth premise for sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lenuţa TRICĂ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Accelerating the global issues such as natural resource depletion, damage to the natural environment, economic and financial crises and consumption growth led to the shift of the development paradigm from consumption to sustainable development and recognition of the new path, namely green economy.At the European level a number of international organizations discussed issues of transition to green economy (EC, UNEP, OECD. In 2008, UNEP launched “Green Economy Initiative to Get the Global Markets Back to Work”, aiming to mobilize and re-focuse the global economy towards.This is the twin challenge of moving towards a green economy: radically reducing the footprint of developed countries, while simultaneously raising levels of social and material well being in developing countries.Without public intervention, the related market failures (i.e. market prices that do not fully reflect the environmental degradation generated by economic activity may delay or even prevent the development of environmentally-friendly technologies.Furthermore, in sectors such as electricity, network effects arising from existing infrastructures create additional barriers to the adoption of alternative sources of power, further hampering incentives to invest in new technologies.Given that the transition to a green economy requires increasing of investment in economic sectors that contribute to enhancing of natural capital and reduce environmental risks, we intend to analyze the main measures taken by Romania to ensure transition to green economy.

  9. Sustainable Economic Growth: a Perspective for Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil Rexhepi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Retrospective analysis shows that since 1990’s, ex-socialist economies were in transition. This process was multidimensional and had deep roots. In most transition economies, output (GDP is determined by the availability of labour, capital and their productivity (TFP. Hence, these indicators are not generating the business cycles, which is typical for market economies in the long-term. At this point, it is vital to understand the reasons of low-level of capital accumulation in transition economies in order to find opportunities to make better use of physical, human and social capital. Furthermore, it is observed that in these economies, institutions needed to be re-established or the rules of the game needed to be changed to regulate incentive structures that will lead to growth. The main objective of this research is to identify the peculiarity of economic growth in Macedonia and to examine if achieving smart growth in long-term is possible; which is supported by fundamental notions of sustainable development.

  10. Economic growth factors system: theoretical and methodological aspect

    OpenAIRE

    H.Ya. Hlukha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article. The main objective of the article is to create theoretical grounds to build the system of economic growth factors, to modernize their classification, to define exogenous and endogenous factors, to analyze them within the state economic policy structure. The results of the analysis. The article focuses on economic growth factors theoretical studies: - economic growth factors classification characteristics have been highlighted; - various approaches to determine...

  11. Urban growth patterns in major Southeast Asian cities: Toward exposure mapping and vulnerability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandapaka, Pradeep; Kamarajugedda, Shankar A.; Lo, Edmond Y. M.

    2017-04-01

    Southeast Asia (SEA) is undergoing rapid urbanization, with urban population percentage increasing from 32% in 1990 to 48% in 2015. It is projected that by the year 2040, urban regions in SEA account for 60% of its total population. The region is home to 600 million people, with many densely populated cities, including megacities such as Jakarta, Bangkok, and Manila. The region has more than 20,000 islands, and many cities lie on coastal low-lands and floodplains. These geographical characteristics together with the increasing population, infrastructure growth, and changing climate makes the region highly vulnerable to natural hazards. This study assessed urban growth dynamics in major (defined as population exceeding 1 million) SEA cities using remotely sensed night-time lights (NTL) data. A recently proposed brightness gradient approach was applied on 21 years (1992-2012) of NTL annual composites to derive core-urban (CU) and peri-urban (PU) regions within each city. The study also assessed the sensitivity of above extracted urban categories to different NTL thresholds. The temporal trends in CU and PU regions were quantified, and compared with trends in socio-economic indicators. The spatial expansion of CU and PU regions were found to depend on geographical constraints and socio-economic factors. Quantification of urban growth spatial-temporal patterns, as conducted here contributes towards the understanding of exposure and vulnerability of people and infrastructures to natural hazards, as well as the evolving trends for assessment under projected urbanization conditions. This will underpin better risk assessment efforts for present and future planning.

  12. How robust is the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sturm, JE; De Haan, J

    Using various indicators for economic freedom, it is shown that increases in economic freedom are robustly related to economic growth. This conclusion holds even if the impact of outlying observations is taken into account. The level of economic freedom is not related to growth.

  13. Financial Management and Economic Growth: The European Countries Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Carlos LEITÃO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to investigate the impact of financial development on economic growth applied to European Countries. The initial GDP per capita is negatively correlated with growth of real GDP per capita. Our study shows that there is convergence within European Countries for the period 1990-2009. This paper confirms relevant theoretical hypothesis as international trade and saving encourage the economic growth. The inflation has a negative impact on economic growth as previous studies.

  14. The Relationship Among Poverty, Economic Growth, and Inequality Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Lonnie K. Stevans; David N. Sessions

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown in prior research that increased economic growth reduces poverty. Authors have also found that the effect of growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) on poverty growth has either diminished or remained unchanged over time, and economic expansion in the 1980s in the United States had no affect on poverty. Using a formal error-correction model, we find that increases in economic growth are significantly related to reductions in the poverty rate for all families. Specifically, GD...

  15. Strong economic growth driving increased electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiusanen, P.

    2000-01-01

    The Finnish economy is growing faster today than anyone dared hope only a few years ago. Growth estimates for 2000 have already had to be raised. This strong level of economic growth has been reflected in electricity consumption, which has continued to increase, despite the exceptionally warm winter. A major part of this increased electricity usage has so far been met through imports. The continued growth in electricity imports has largely been a result of the fact that the good water level situation in Sweden and Norway, together with the mild winter, has kept electricity prices exceptionally low on the Nordic electricity exchange. The short period of low temperatures seen at the end of January showed, however, that this type of temperature fluctuation, combined with the restrictions that exist in regard to transfer capacity, can serve to push Nordic exchange electricity prices to record levels. This increase in price also highlights the fact that we are approaching a situation in which capacity will be insufficient to meet demand. A truly tough winter has not been seen since the Nordic region's electricity markets were deregulated. The lesson that needs to be learnt is that Finland needs sufficient capacity of her own to meet demand even during particularly cold winters. Finland used 77.9 billion kWh of electricity last year, up 1.6% or 1.3 billion kWh on 1998. This growth was relatively evenly distributed among different user groups. This year, electricity consumption is forecast to grow by 2-3%

  16. Teaching the Economics of Urban Sprawl in the Principles of Economics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckenrod, Sarah B.; Holahan, William L.

    2004-01-01

    The authors provide an explanation of urban sprawl using topics commonly taught in the principles of economics course. Specifically, employing the concepts of congestible public goods, they explain that underpriced road usage leads to an inefficiently large proportion of the population moving farther from the cities. Increased demand for highway…

  17. Urban Growth Modelling with Artificial Neural Network and Logistic Regression. Case Study: Sanandaj City, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASSAN MOHAMMADY

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cities have shown remarkable growth due to attraction, economic, social and facilities centralization in the past few decades. Population and urban expansion especially in developing countries, led to lack of resources, land use change from appropriate agricultural land to urban land use and marginalization. Under these circumstances, land use activity is a major issue and challenge for town and country planners. Different approaches have been attempted in urban expansion modelling. Artificial Neural network (ANN models are among knowledge-based models which have been used for urban growth modelling. ANNs are powerful tools that use a machine learning approach to quantify and model complex behaviour and patterns. In this research, ANN and logistic regression have been employed for interpreting urban growth modelling. Our case study is Sanandaj city and we used Landsat TM and ETM+ imageries acquired at 2000 and 2006. The dataset used includes distance to main roads, distance to the residence region, elevation, slope, and distance to green space. Percent Area Match (PAM obtained from modelling of these changes with ANN is equal to 90.47% and the accuracy achieved for urban growth modelling with Logistic Regression (LR is equal to 88.91%. Percent Correct Match (PCM and Figure of Merit for ANN method were 91.33% and 59.07% and then for LR were 90.84% and 57.07%, respectively.

  18. Social Capital, Economic Growth and Transition Economies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1998-01-01

    transactions to take place without third-party enforcement. Theory and lessons from empirical evidence lead to three general recommendations for building social capital in the future: First, the state must withdraw and minimize its role in the economy so to leave room for voluntary organization and free......Summary: What does social capital mean and how can it be built? Social capital is considered as a new production factor which must be added to the conventional concepts of human and physical capital. Social capital is productive because it increases the level of trust in a society and allows more......-trade. Second, state withdrawal should be combined with efforts to increase economic growth and gain popular support for the implementation of reforms. Third, voluntary groups, beneficial to the economy, should not be institutionalized to prevent them from turning into harmful rent-seeking groups....

  19. Energy and economic growth in industrializing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samouilidis, J E; Mitropoulos, C S

    1984-07-01

    This paper investigates some aspects of the interrelated paths of economic growth and energy demand, in the case of an industrializing economy, through the use of numerous econometric models. Translog functions have helped establish that income and price elasticities of energy, two critical parameters in the energy-economy interaction, exhibit falling trends with time. The value share of the industrial sector is strongly associated with both energy demand and energy intensity. Any increase in the former will lead to amplified increases in the latter, rendering the continuation of past trends in industrial expansion questionable under conditions of high energy costs. Substitution among capital, labor and energy does take place, though to a limited extent, as indicated by the aggregate measure of energy/non-energy substitution elasticity. All findings appear to suggest that energy policymaking, in an industrializing country like Greece, will be of low effectiveness until certain structural changes in the economy are realized.

  20. Correlations between Labor Employment and Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sfichi Elena Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of macroeconomic policy for most governments are: a high level of labouremployment, price stability and high rate of economic growth. As far as I walk in life, I learnsomething new, everywhere I go, I find something that fascinates me. This is why this subject hasan influence over me, I wonder every day why people find a job to maintain with such difficulty andwhy they are so lazy when they hear about work. This type of behaviour leads to a huge increase ofunemployment, because people leave their courage under an invisible line and create a fakepersonality where they hide saying that they can’t do what society wants. In case that increasinginflation is obvious, unemployment is decreasing and people are trying to find something to do, towork, because inflation also leads to some actions which affect directly the unemployed ones.

  1. SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH EXTERNAL TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Vasile

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A country’s economic growth is directly influenced by the external trade activity, which is considered by the majority of economists as one of the main engines of a country. How international trade can contributes to a sustainable development of a country depends broadly on the economic policies as well as on global and regional strategies to support the actions for this objective. The high level political meeting of United Nations Organization’s Member States in September 2015 has as aim the adoption of 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, which includes global economic, social and environmental goals. Any strategy or global policy influences, of course, in a direct way the international trade activities, by how these measures affect or determine relations between states to achieve the sustainable development objectives. Being involved in all sectors of economic and social life to achieve these noble goals, foreign trade is of course on the list of key areas as well as on the list of the domains being influenced by the global strategy adopted in the framework of the largest summit of its kind in the history of the United Nations. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of external trade activity of Romania, taking into account the characteristics of companies involved in exports and imports of goods in Romania as well as to identify the key areas to be further developed for a sustainable development of national economy based on export activity. Romania's sustainable development can be achieved in the medium and long term by complementary and converging actions such as increased expenditure on research and development field, attracting as a priority the Greenfield investments, increasing productivity of national capital (human, natural, technological or ensure the efficiency at microeconomic and macroeconomic level. Increasing the share of products and activities using a small amount of energy and material resources but which

  2. Prevalent vegetation growth enhancement in urban environment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shuqing; Liu, Shuguang; Zhou, Decheng

    2016-01-01

    Cities experiencing elevated temperature (i.e., urban “heat island” warming), CO2, and nitrogen deposition decades ahead of the projected average global change are regarded as the “harbingers” of the future global change. It is for this reason that cities have been regarded as ideal natural laboratories for global change studies and particularly valuable to elucidate the potential responses of other nonurban ecosystems to future climate and environmental changes. However, the impacts of urban...

  3. Predicting economic growth with stock networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiberger, Raphael H.

    2018-01-01

    Networks derived from stock prices are often used to model developments on financial markets and are tightly intertwined with crises. Yet, the influence of changing market topologies on the broader economy (i.e. GDP) is unclear. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian approach that utilizes individual-level network measures of companies as lagged probabilistic features to predict national economic growth. We use a comprehensive data set consisting of Standard and Poor's 500 corporations from January 1988 until October 2016. The final model forecasts correctly all major recession and prosperity phases of the U.S. economy up to one year ahead. By employing different network measures on the level of corporations, we can also identify which companies' stocks possess a key role in a changing economic environment and may be used as indication of critical (and prosperous) developments. More generally, the proposed approach allows to predict probabilities for different overall states of social entities by using local network positions and could be applied on various phenomena.

  4. Forecasting urban growth across the United States-Mexico border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, L.M.; Feller, M.; Phillip, Guertin D.

    2009-01-01

    The sister-city area of Nogales, Arizona, and Nogales, Sonora, Mexico, is known collectively as Ambos (both) Nogales. This area was historically one city and was administratively divided by the Gadsden Purchase in 1853. These arid-lands have limited and sensitive natural resources. Environmental planning can support sustainable development to accommodate the predicted influx of population. The objective of this research is to quantify the amount of predicted urban growth for the Ambos Nogales watershed to support future planning for sustainable development. Two modeling regimes are explored. Our goal is to identify possible growth patterns associated with the twin-city area as a whole and with the two cities modeled as separate entities. We analyzed the cross-border watershed using regression analysis from satellite images from 1975, 1983, 1996, and 2002 and created urban area classifications. We used these classifications as input to the urban growth model, SLEUTH, to simulate likely patterns of development and define projected conversion probabilities. Model results indicate that the two cities are undergoing very different patterns of change and identify locations of expected growth based on historical development. Growth in Nogales, Arizona is stagnant while the urban area in Nogales, Sonora is exploding. This paper demonstrates an application that portrays how future binational urban growth could develop and affect the environment. This research also provides locations of potential growth for use in city planning.

  5. Electricity consumption and economic growth in seven South American countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Seung-Hoon; Kwak, So-Yoon

    2010-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate the causal relationship between electricity consumption and economic growth among seven South American countries, namely Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuela using widely accepted time-series techniques for the period 1975-2006. The results indicate that the causal nexus between electricity consumption and economic growth varies across countries. There is a unidirectional, short-run causality from electricity consumption to real GDP for Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Columbia, and Ecuador. This means that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth in those countries. In Venezuela, there is a bidirectional causality between electricity consumption and economic growth. This implies that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic growth and that economic growth also stimulates further electricity consumption in that country. However, no causal relationships exist in Peru. The documented evidence from seven South American countries can provide useful information for each government with regard to energy and growth policy.

  6. Management of business economic growth as function of resource rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prljić, Stefan; Nikitović, Zorana; Stojanović, Aleksandra Golubović; Cogoljević, Dušan; Pešić, Gordana; Alizamir, Meysam

    2018-02-01

    Economic profit could be influenced by economic rents. However natural resource rents provided different impact on the economic growth or economic profit. The main focus of the study was to evaluate the economic growth as function of natural resource rents. For such a purpose machine learning approach, artificial neural network, was used. The used natural resource rents were coal rents, forest rents, mineral rents, natural gas rents and oil rents. Based on the results it is concluded that the machine learning approach could be used as the tool for the economic growth evaluation as function of natural resource rents. Moreover the more advanced approaches should be incorporated to improve more the forecasting accuracy.

  7. Justifying the Ivory Tower: Higher Education and State Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, J. Norman; McCracken, William A., III

    2013-01-01

    As the U.S. continues to embrace a comprehensive plan for economic recovery, this article investigates the validity of the claim that investing in higher education will help restore state economic growth and prosperity. It presents the findings from a study that indicates that the most consistent predictors of state economic growth related to…

  8. Shocks in economic growth=shocking effects for food security?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavallari, A.; Fellmann, T.; Hubertus Gay, H.

    2014-01-01

    The recent economic and financial turmoil raises the question on how global economic growth affects agricultural commodity markets and, hence, food security. To address this question, this paper assesses the potential impacts of faster economic growth in developed and emerging economies on the one

  9. Effects of Credit on Economic Growth, Unemployment and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Sipahutar, Mangasa Augustinus

    2016-01-01

    Abstract               Effect of credit on economic growth, unemployment and poverty provides evidence from Indonesia on the role of banks credit for promoting economic growth and reducing both unemployment and poverty.  To document the link between banks credit and economic growth, we estimate a VAR model and variance decompositions of annual GDP per capita growth rates to examine what proxy measures of banks credit are most important in accounting for economic growth over time and ho...

  10. Impacts of urban growth and heat waves events on the urban heat island in Bucharest city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the influences of urban growth and heat waves events on Urban Heat Island in relationship with several biophysical variables in Bucharest metropolitan area of Romania through satellite and in-situ monitoring data. Remote sensing data from Landsat TM/ETM+ and time series MODIS Terra/Aqua sensors have been used to assess urban land cover- temperature interactions over period between 2000 and 2016 years. Vegetation abundances and percent impervious surfaces were derived by means of linear spectral mixture model, and a method for effectively enhancing impervious surface has been developed to accurately examine the urban growth. The land surface temperature (Ts), a key parameter for urban thermal characteristics analysis, was also analyzed in relation with the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) at city level. Based on these parameters, the urban growth, urban heat island effect (UHI) and the relationships of Ts to other biophysical parameters (surface albedo, precipitations, wind intensity and direction) have been analyzed. Results show that in the metropolitan area ratio of impervious surface in Bucharest increased significantly during investigated period, the intensity of urban heat island and heat wave events being most significant. The correlation analyses revealed that, at the pixel-scale, Ts possessed a strong positive correlation with percent impervious surfaces and negative correlation with vegetation abundances at the regional scale, respectively. This analysis provided an integrated research scheme and the findings can be very useful for urban ecosystem modeling.

  11. Prediction of future urban growth using CA-Markov for urban sustainability planning of Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achmad, A.; Irwansyah, M.; Ramli, I.

    2018-03-01

    Banda Aceh experienced rapid growth, both physically, socially, and economically, after the Tsunami that devastated it the end of December in 2004. Hence policy controls are needed to direct the pattern of urban growth to achieve sustainable development for the future. The purpose of this paper is to generate a growth model for Banda Aceh using the CA-Markov process. By knowing the changes in land use between 2005 and 2009 from the results of previous research, simulations for 2013, 2019 and 2029 using the application of Idrisi@Selva. CA-Markov models were prepared to determine the quantity of changes. The simulation results showed that, after the Tsunami, the City of Banda Aceh tended to grow towards the coast. For the control of the LUC, the Banda Aceh City government needs to prepare comprehensive and detailed maps and inventory of LUC for the city to provide basic data and information needed for monitoring and evaluation that can be done effectively and efficiently. An institution for monitoring and evaluation of the urban landscape and the LUC should be formed immediately. This institution could consist of representatives from government, academia, community leaders, the private sector and other experts. The findings from this study can be used to start the monitoring and evaluation of future urban growth. Especially for the coastal areas, the local government should immediately prepare special spatial coastal area plans to control growth in those areas and to ensure that the economic benefits from disaster mitigation and coastal protection are preserved. For the development of the city in the future, it is necessary to achieve a balance between economic development, and social welfare with environmental protection and disaster mitigation. iIt will become a big challenge to achieve sustainable development for the future.

  12. Remarks on economic growth and energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, W.

    1979-01-01

    An energy policy according to the principles of decoupling is impossible without an increase in reasonable and profitable power application. It is also impossible without increased nuclear energy. Energy policy according to the principles of decoupling connects the natural growth tendency of a liberally arranged industry with the natural limits of the production factor 'nature'. Energy policy is the very sphere where tomorrow's necessities must be planned today. If in long range, a constant level of energy production struturised different from today's can be assumed, then this is future-bound. For it takes into consideration today tomorrow's necessities. This is the only guarantee we have for our industry to be able to grow tomorrow. On the basis of historical experience, an economic system will believe in the goal of a constant energy supply just as it was believing in abounding in energy up to day. The structure of the growth might change in long term. But accepting the thoughts of decoupling, progress will come. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Economic Burden for Lung Cancer Survivors in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Liu, Shuai; Liu, Yang; Du, Jian; Fu, Wenqi; Zhao, Xiaowen; Huang, Weidong; Zhao, Xianming; Liu, Guoxiang; Mao, Zhengzhong; Hu, Teh-Wei

    2017-03-15

    With the rapid increase in the incidence and mortality of lung cancer, a growing number of lung cancer patients and their families are faced with a tremendous economic burden because of the high cost of treatment in China. This study was conducted to estimate the economic burden and patient responsibility of lung cancer patients and the impact of this burden on family income. This study uses data from a retrospective questionnaire survey conducted in 10 communities in urban China and includes 195 surviving lung cancer patients diagnosed over the previous five years. The calculation of direct economic burden included both direct medical and direct nonmedical costs. Indirect costs were calculated using the human capital approach, which measures the productivity lost for both patients and family caregivers. The price index was applied for the cost calculation. The average economic burden from lung cancer was $43,336 per patient, of which the direct cost per capita was $42,540 (98.16%) and the indirect cost per capita was $795 (1.84%). Of the total direct medical costs, 35.66% was paid by the insurer and 9.84% was not covered by insurance. The economic burden for diagnosed lung cancer patients in the first year following diagnosis was $30,277 per capita, which accounted for 171% of the household annual income, a percentage that fell to 107% after subtracting the compensation from medical insurance. The economic burden for lung cancer patients is substantial in the urban areas of China, and an effective control strategy to lower the cost is urgently needed.

  14. Analysis of domestic debt: implication for economic growth in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper principally analysed the importance of domestic debt on economic growth of Nigeria. The objective of the study is to investigate the relationship between government domestic debt and economic growth and policy that is likely to improve private sector investment and break growth resistance problem.

  15. Monitoring urban growth around Rustenburg, South Africa, using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nale Mudau

    spatial growth of Rustenburg city in South Africa from 2007 to 2012 using ... Many studies point out that population growth in urban areas is a result of ... maximum likelihood, minimum distance, spectral unmixing and neutral networks. ..... Bands (Case Study: Arid Region of Iran)', American-Eurasian Journal of Agricultural.

  16. Foreign direct investment and economic growth: A theoretical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmore Mahembe

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between FDI and economic growth has attracted considerable attention over the years. Despite the important role played by FDI in economic growth, a number of policy-makers have not fully understood the theoretical linkage between FDI and economic growth. The aim of this paper, therefore, is to review the theoretical literature on the relationship between FDI and economic growth in a stylized fashion. The theoretical literature reviewed in this study show that FDI is a key contributor to the economic growth of the host country. FDI affects economic growth through two broad channels: (i FDI can encourage the adoption of new technologies in the production process through technological spillovers; and (ii FDI may stimulate knowledge transfers, both in terms of labour training and skill acquisition, and also by introducing alternative management practices and better organisational arrangements.

  17. Gender Factors and Inclusive Economic Growth: The Silent Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Cabeza-García

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The gender factors that trigger economic growth in both high- and low-income countries were investigated in this study. To address these gender factors, four characteristic dimensions of gender inclusion were considered: education, access to the labor market, fertility, and democracy. The relationship between economic growth and gender factors was analyzed in a sample of 127 countries. Value and robustness were added to the results using dynamic models applied to panel data while accounting for endogeneity. We conclude that high fertility in women has negative effects on economic growth. However, when women have greater access to secondary education and the labor market in conditions of equality, the effects are positive. Similarly, the access of women to active political participation has significant effects on economic growth. Overall, this study helps identify which gender factors may promote inclusive economic growth, which is economic growth achieved when both men and women are incorporated in equal conditions.

  18. Macroeconomic Determinants of Economic Growth: A Review of International Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirwa Themba G.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper conducts a qualitative narrative appraisal of the existing empirical literature on the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth in developing and developed countries. Much as other empirical studies have investigated the determinants of economic growth using various econometric methods, the majority of these studies have not distinguished what drives or hinders economic growth in developing or developed countries. The study finds that the determinants of economic growth are different when this distinction is used. It reveals that in developing countries the key macroeconomic determinants of economic growth include foreign aid, foreign direct investment, fiscal policy, investment, trade, human capital development, demographics, monetary policy, natural resources, reforms and geographic, regional, political and financial factors. In developed countries, the study reveals that the key macroeconomic determinants that are associated with economic growth include physical capital, fiscal policy, human capital, trade, demographics, monetary policy and financial and technological factors.

  19. The Services Sector and Economic Growth in Mauritius. A Bounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nafiisah

    stability of the relationship between services sector development and economic ... sector on the economic growth of the small island economy of Mauritius. ...... significant structural instability (The figures are presented in the Appendix). 6.

  20. Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post-Crisis Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    Mankiw , Principles of Economics (Ft. Worth, Dryden Press, 1998), p556, and Robert J. Barro, “Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?” Journal of Political...CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members and Committees of Congress Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Economic Recovery: Sustaining U.S. Economic Growth in a Post

  1. The Philippines: integrated planning for balanced urban growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-12-01

    During the past 80 years, the proportion of the Philippine population living in urban areas has nearly tripled, from 13% at the beginning of the 20th century to 36% in 1980. The number of people living in urban areas multipled 17-fold over this period. Currently, an estimated 17 million people live in urban areas, and this number is expected to reach 30 million by the year 2000. Migration from rural areas has been an important component of urban growth, but it has not been the principal one. Natural increase accounted for 54% of total urban growth in the 1960s and 1970s. A combination of reclassification and migration accounted for the rest. Big cities did not grow as rapidly as small cities, since their growth was generated largely by urban inmigration. Small cities tended to grow faster due to more natural increase than to inmigration. Philippine urbanization has been marked by increasing primacy. Metropolitan Manila, the largest city, has more than quadrupled in size since 1950. The phenomenon of primacy has been the cumulative consequence of historical, demographic, political, and socioeconomic factors. It may also have resulted from growth policies which unintentionally and indirectly favored the premier city. For national planners, the issue of urbanization in the Philippines is closely intertwined with the country's development objectives, particularly those of reducing poverty and attaining a more equitable distribution of income and wealth. The integration of population growth and distribution trends into the planning process is very important. Efforts to actively advocate this approach at various planning levels have been initiated. More must be learned about population and development dynamics, and planning capabilities at all levels must be improved.

  2. Understanding the Drivers of Economic Growth: Grounding Endogenous Economic Growth Models in Resource-Advantage Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Shelby D.

    2012-01-01

    Foss (2012) provides an informed and informative comment on my article “Trust, Personal Moral Codes, and the Resource-Advantage Theory of Competition: Explaining Productivity, Economic Growth, and Wealth Creation” (Hunt, 2012). In general, his comment is highly supportive of both the theory and the arguments developed in my article. He does, however, raise certain issues that need to be addressed. These issues relate to the concept of total factor productivity, the role of institutions in pro...

  3. Does education engender cultural values that matter for economic growth?

    OpenAIRE

    Prosper F. Bangwayo-Skeete; Afaf H. Rahim; Precious Zikhali

    2009-01-01

    Empirical research has shown that cultural values matter for economic growth and has specifically identified the achievement motivation as an aspect of culture that engenders economic growth. If specific cultural values engender economic growth, how then can societies promote them? This paper attempts to answer this question using the 2005 wave of the World Values Survey data for 43 countries. We test the contention that education significantly impacts the relative importance an individual pl...

  4. The South African tax mix and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    AH de Wet; NJ Schoeman; SF Koch

    2014-01-01

    The research reported in this paper suggests that government fiscal policy can influence economic growth through alterations in the tax mix and the overall size of government spending.   The authors estimate the impact on economic growth of changes in fiscal policy via government expenditure, direct taxation and indirect taxation.  The results show that economic growth is negatively affected by increases in the size of government, as reflected in its expenditures and direct tax revenues, alth...

  5. Social Capital and Economic Integration of Migrants in Urban China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yao; Ruan, Danching; Lai, Gina

    2013-07-01

    Based on data from a 2005 survey conducted in Shanghai, China, this research examines the role of social capital in income inequality between rural migrants and urbanites. We find strong income return on social capital, in particular on social capital from strong ties. We also observe a great disparity in social capital possession between rural migrants and urban local residents. Although social capital from strong ties seems to be more important for rural migrants than for urbanites, local ties and high-status ties do not seem to benefit rural migrants. Hence, migrants not only suffer severe social capital deficits but also capital return deficits. Given the strong income returns on social capital and the substantial differences in access to and return on social capital between migrants and urban residents, social capital is consequently found to explain a large part of the income inequality between the two groups. Overall, our findings reveal macro-structural effects on the role of social capital in labor market stratification. In China, the lack of formal labor market mechanisms continues to create both a strong need for and opportunities for economic actions to be organized around informal channels via social relations. Yet, the long-standing institutional exclusion of migrants caused by the household registration system has resulted in pervasive social exclusion and discrimination which have substantially limited rural migrants' accumulation and mobilization of social capital. Under these conditions, social capital reinforces the economic inequality between migrants and urban residents in China. Such empirical evidence adds to our understanding of the role of social capital in the economic integration of migrants and in shaping intergroup inequality in general.

  6. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  7. Coping with Migration-Induced Urban Growth: Addressing the Blind Spot of UN Habitat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Aerni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The demography of cities in the 21st century will be shaped, to a large extent, by migration. This paper argues that the rights-based approach to urban policy advocated in the preparatory work of Habitat III, the UN Conference on Housing and Sustainable Urban Development to be held in October 2016 in Quito, Ecuador, may not be conducive to this goal. The approach lacks a contextual and dynamic understanding of urbanization. It implicitly assumes that a growing and expansive urban economy would primarily benefit the rich and harm the poor. The resulting containment policies to stop “urban sprawl” and defend “the right to the city” can, however, be counterproductive if adopted in cities in less developed countries (LDCs that grow fast due to internal migration. Attempts to limit urban growth may merely lead to more informal settlements, less affordable housing, and increasing costs of doing business. In other words, it may benefit the rich and harm the poor. LDCs should, therefore, refrain from adopting defensive urban policies mostly advocated by more developed countries (MDCs and, instead, plan for sustainable urban expansion designed to improve access to essential urban services and to create a level playing field for newcomers in business. In this context, urban policies may build upon the basic insights of the late urbanist Jane Jacobs. She recognized that the vital function of cities is to provide affordable infrastructure and an institutional environment that enable migrants and other marginal urban communities to contribute to urban prosperity and problem-solving with their skills, networks, and entrepreneurial minds. The resulting social and economic empowerment increases access to essential human rights and ensures that cities become more inclusive, resilient, and sustainable.

  8. Investment in Education and Economic Growth in Nigeria: 1981 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. O. E. OSUAGWU

    2013-12-01

    Dec 1, 2013 ... Keywords: Education, Government Investments, Economic growth, Health, Government ..... poor countries, using agricultural output as .... expectancy takes into account mortality, but .... (Akaike Information Criterion) and SBC.

  9. Six decades of urban growth using remote sensing and GIS in the city of Bandar Abbas, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dadras, Mohsen; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Ahmad, Noordin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Safarpour, Sahabeh

    2014-01-01

    Bandar Abbas is the capital city of Hormozgan province, is the south of Iran. The city has witnessed rapid growth in the last three decades, mostly because of its economic, commercial and social attractions. However, forms and operations of urban sprawl may vary in important manners according to determine geographical and historical characteristics, and these difference need to be reviewed with creation geodatabase of spatial and attribute data during past periods until now of urban formation and expansion. We implemented this research to understand Bandar Abbas city growth dynamic during last six decades using aerial photo, Remote Sensing (RS) data and Geographical Information System (GIS), to investigate its sprawl for the during six decades and to prepare a basis for urban planning and management. We calibrated it with geospatial data derived from a time series of aerial photos and satellite images. Treated remote sensing data covering the six decades were used to calculate land use/cover and urban growth. The application of classification techniques to the remote sensing data enabled the extraction of eight main types of land use: agricultural, barren, coastal, hole, river, rocky hill, urban, and built-up. Growth was calculated through Shannon's entropy model. The urbanized area increased from 403.77 ha to 4959.59 ha from 1956 to 2012, a rate almost five times that of the population growth observed in the same period. Such findings make the case of Bandar Abbas important for several reasons. First, Bandar Abbas has undergone a rapid increase in urban sprawl according to urban growth indicators. Second, the urban sprawl quickly grew from medium-sized to large a process considered inappropriate according to physical and structural limitations on urban growth. Lastly, the excessive extension of the built-up boundary in the city resulted in the loss of coastal land and open space, two main sources of tourist attraction and economic sustainable development

  10. Strategies for Low-Carbon Green Growth and Urban Management in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jichung Yang

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: National policies and strategies for low-carbon green growth in Korea are reviewed in this study. Providing standards and guidelines for urban comprehensive planning and management plans is necessary so that the series of plans can deal with possible effects from climate changes. Urban planning guidelines for management and improvements to achieve low carbon green growth were set up and implemented, focusing on institutional and regulatory foundations. These deal with climate change influences on urban planning, reduction of green house gas emissions and elevation of energy efficiency based on plans of land use units. In the case of Seoul city, transit-oriented compact development, public transportation-oriented structure, green space expansion, and pleasant living spaces are implemented in relation to urban structure and land use. We should suggest systematic and comprehensive countermeasures against greenhouse gas emissions and climate changes in terms of spatial structure, transportation systems, natural resource conservation, environment management, energy and open spaces. For the Seoul mega-city, plans show the capabilities of the policy department including many policy tools. Reflecting smart city, ubiquitous city, and U-Eco city concepts and human behavior, we should move towards increasing efficiency and maintaining sustainable economic growth. KEYWORDS: Low-carbon green growth, urban management, Korea, Seoul

  11. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women: Strengthening ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Asian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity. There is no doubt that Canada is tying its future growth prospects to Asia. View moreAsian outlook: New growth dependent on new productivity ...

  12. Coal consumption and economic growth in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Raymond; Leung, Guy C.K.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to re-examine the relationship between coal consumption and real GDP of China with the use of panel data. This paper applies modern panel data techniques to help shed light on the importance of the heterogeneity among different regions within China. Empirical analyses are conducted for the full panel as well as three subgroups of the panel. The empirical results show that coal consumption and GDP are both I(1) and cointegrated in all regional groupings. Heterogeneity is found in the GDP equation of the full panel. The regional causality tests reveal that the coal consumption–GDP relationship is bidirectional in the Coastal and Central regions whereas causality is unidirectional from GDP to coal consumption in the Western region. Thus, energy conservation measures will not adversely affect the economic growth of the Western region but such measures will likely encumber the economy of the Coastal and Central regions, where most of the coal intensive industries are concentrated. - Highlights: ► We investigate the relationship between coal consumption and GDP in China. ► Panel data are used to account for the potential heterogeneity across different regions. ► Bidirectional causality is found in the Eastern and Central regions. ► Unidirectional causality from GDP to coal consumption is found in the Western region.

  13. Exchange-rate regimes and economic growth: An empirical evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Simón Sosvilla-Rivero; María del Carmen Ramos-Herrera

    2014-01-01

    Based on a dataset of 123 economies, this paper empirically investigates the relation between exchange-rate regimes and economic growth. We find that growth performance is best under intermediate exchange rate regimes, while the smallest growth rates are associated with flexible exchange rates. Nevertheless, this conclusion is tempered when we analyze the countries by income level: even though countries that adopt intermediate exchange-rate regimes are characterized by higher economic growth,...

  14. BANKING SECTOR DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH INPALESTINE; 1995-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaber H. Abugamea

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study uses both OLS regression estimation and Granger Causality test toinvestigate the relationship between the banking sector development andeconomic growth in Palestine over the period 1995-2014.OLS results show asignificant impact of banking size with a negative sign, insignificant impact ofcredit lending with a marginal one for lag credit andinsignificant impact ofefficiency on economic growth, respectively.Granger Causality testresultsshowone way causality runningfrom banking size to(GDPeconomic growthandfrom banking efficiency to(GDP per capitaeconomic growth one. Overall resultsreveals a weak nexus between banking sector development and economic growth.In specific, it recommends more improving in banking lending policy to beeffective in promoting economic growth.

  15. Factors influencing to earthquake caused economical losses on urban territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurtaev, B.; Khakimov, S.

    2005-12-01

    Questions of assessment of earthquake economical losses on urban territories of Uzbekistan, taking into account damage forming factors, which are increqasing or reducing economical losses were discussed in the paper. Buildings and facilities vulnerability factors were classified. From total value (equal to 50) were selected most important ones. Factors ranging by level of impact and weight function in loss assessment were ranged. One group of damage forming factors includs seismic hazard assessment, design, construction and maintenance of building and facilities. Other one is formed by city planning characteristics and includes : density of constructions and population, area of soft soils, existence of liquefaction susceptible soils and etc. To all these factors has been given weight functions and interval values by groups. Methodical recomendations for loss asessment taking into account above mentioned factors were developed. It gives possibility to carry out preventive measures for protection of vulnerable territories, to differentiate cost assessment of each region in relation with territory peculiarity and damage value. Using developed method we have ranged cities by risk level. It has allowed to establish ratings of the general vulnerability of urban territories of cities and on their basis to make optimum decisions, oriented to loss mitigation and increase of safety of population. Besides the technique can be used by insurance companies for estimated zoning of territory, development of effective utilization schema of land resources, rational town-planning, an economic estimation of used territory for supply with information of the various works connected to an estimation of seismic hazard. Further improvement of technique of establishment of rating of cities by level of damage from earthquakes will allow to increase quality of construction, rationality of accommodation of buildings, will be an economic stimulator for increasing of seismic resistance of

  16. GROWTH ECONOMICS AND DEVELOPMENT ECONOMICS: WHAT SHOULD DEVELOPMENT ECONOMISTS LEARN (IF ANYTHING) FROM THE NEW GROWTH THEORY?

    OpenAIRE

    Ruttan, Vernon W.

    1998-01-01

    Since their emergence as a distinct fields of inquiry in the early post World War II period there has been an uneasy relationship between growth economics and development economics. The emergence of a richer new growth economics' has opened up the possibilities of a more fruitful dialogue between the two subdisciplines. In spite of recent advances, particularly with respect to the human capital, and understanding of differences in growth rates and income levels across countries remains elusiv...

  17. A Study on China's Income Inequality and the Relationship with Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Xi, Xiaochuan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study China’s income inequality under rapid economic growth.Does the relationship between economic growth and income inequality in China follow theKuznets hypothesis? What is the main cause and trend of China’s income inequality? We usedata which covers the period 1980-2005 to analyze the overall inequality, and data coveringthe period 1980-2002 to analyze the inequality inside rural and urban areas. The derivedresults doubt the validity of Kuznets hypothesis o...

  18. Does globalization contribute to economic growth in developing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines empirically whether or not globalization contributes to economic growth in developing countries, drawing empirical lessons from Nigeria. The globalization – growth link, is anchored on Husain Schematic representation, Solow model, and the new growth (endogenous growth) theory. The paper adopts ...

  19. Economic growth of the United States: perspective and prospective. [Monograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fabricant, S

    1979-01-01

    A post-World War II analysis of the potential for US economic expansion projects a continuation of the basic social and economic expectations and international relations and of the upward trend of labor input, labor productivity, and national output. How economic growth of the future will differ as a result of global changes in population and resources is examined in the context of other national objectives. The rapid increase in labor productivity during the postwar period was taken in the form of income rather than leisure. This led to a growth of goods and real per capita income as well as higher standards of living, education, and economic stability. The implications for future growth indicate the need to slow the growth of the national product in line with the rate of population growth. The improved welfare of the people should be the overall goal of which economic growth is one component. 23 tables. (DCK)

  20. Islam and Economic Growth in Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    bin

    2003-01-01

    .... The teachings of Islam, however, prescribe democratic governance and free-market economics. While Muslims, as a whole, have tremendous economics potential, many Muslims are among the world's poorest and least educated...

  1. When economic growth is less than exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...

  2. When Economic Growth is Less than Exponential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Christian; Koch, Karl-Josef; Steger, Thomas M.

    This paper argues that growth theory needs a more general notion of "regularity" than that of exponential growth. We suggest that paths along which the rate of decline of the growth rate is proportional to the growth rate itself deserve attention. This opens up for considering a richer set...

  3. Tracking urban activity growth globally with big location data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggitt, Matthew L; Noulas, Anastasios; Shaw, Blake; Mascolo, Cecilia

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades, the world has experienced rates of urban growth unparalleled in any other period of history and this growth is shaping the environment in which an increasing proportion of us live. In this paper, we use a longitudinal dataset from Foursquare, a location-based social network, to analyse urban growth across 100 major cities worldwide. Initially, we explore how urban growth differs in cities across the world. We show that there exists a strong spatial correlation, with nearby pairs of cities more likely to share similar growth profiles than remote pairs of cities. Subsequently, we investigate how growth varies inside cities and demonstrate that, given the existing local density of places, higher-than-expected growth is highly localized while lower-than-expected growth is more diffuse. Finally, we attempt to use the dataset to characterize competition between new and existing venues. By defining a measure based on the change in throughput of a venue before and after the opening of a new nearby venue, we demonstrate which venue types have a positive effect on venues of the same type and which have a negative effect. For example, our analysis confirms the hypothesis that there is large degree of competition between bookstores, in the sense that existing bookstores normally experience a notable drop in footfall after a new bookstore opens nearby. Other place types, such as museums, are shown to have a cooperative effect and their presence fosters higher traffic volumes to nearby places of the same type.

  4. Modeling the Impacts of Urbanization and Industrial Transformation on Water Resources in China: An Integrated Hydro-Economic CGE Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Pressure on existing water resources in China is expected to increase with undergoing rapid demographic transformation, economic development, and global climate changes. We investigate the economy-wide impacts of projected urban population growth and economic structural change on water use and allocation in China. Using a multi-regional CGE (Computable General Equilibrium model, TERM (The Enormous Regional Model, we explore the implications of selected future water scenarios for China’s nine watershed regions. Our results indicate that urbanization and industrial transformation in China will raise the opportunity cost of water use and increase the competition for water between non-agricultural users and irrigation water users. The growth in water demand for domestic and industrial uses reduces the amount of water allocated to agriculture, particularly lower-value and water-intensive field crops. As a response, farmers have the incentive to shift their agricultural operations from traditional field crop production to higher-value livestock or intensive crop production. In addition, our results suggest that growing water demand due to urbanization and industrial transformation will raise the shadow price of water in all nine river basins. Finally, we find that national economic growth is largely attributable to urbanization and non-agricultural productivity growth.

  5. Urban sprawl and growth management - drivers, impacts and responses in selected European and US cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Jørgensen, Gertrud; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2016-01-01

    Urban growth management has become a common term to circumscribe strategies and tools to regulate urban land use in metropolitan areas. It is particularly used to counteract negative impacts of urban sprawl but also to frame future urban development. We discuss recent challenges of urban growth...... in 6 European and 2 US American city-regions. The paper compares the urban development focusing on a quantification of drivers and effects of urban growth and a qualitative analysis of the applied urban growth management tools. We build our analysis on findings from the EU-FP6 project PLUREL...

  6. Business regulation and economic growth in the Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engjell PERE

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Actually economic policies in many countries aimed to stimulate their economic growth, particularly after negative impact of the global economic crisis. In this regards, fiscal regulation are an important aspect of those policies, that can promote or obstacle the economic growth in general. In this point of view this paper aims to analyze the system of administration rules in different Western Balkans Countries, (which includes Albania, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Croatia, Kosovo, Macedonia (FYROM, Montenegro and Serbia. Moreover, a special attention is given investigation of the regulation and administrative facilitation aspects of doing business in the above-mentioned countries, whether this system stimulates, or not, the development of private business and economic growth.The paper is divided into three main sections. The first part provides a retrospective of economic growth in the Western Balkan countries and the dependence of this growth on global economic development. The second part proceeds with the investigations of the impact of administrative regulation on economic growth. The third part, based on an econometric model, will analyze the correlation between economic growth and elaborated indicators which present the level of business administrative regulation system. Furthermore, this last section discusses the results and concludes. In this analysis, the paper is based substantially on the data base of "Doing Business 2013" (World Bank.

  7. Problems of social and economic growth in the Kyrgyz Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the article author explores the indirect influence of non-economic factors on the growth dynamics of the volume of GDP, including shows the effect of social problems on economic growth. It is proved that the existence of social problems have a negative impact on the pace of the economic dynamics of the country, due to the mutual dependence of key economic and non-economic factors of growth. On the one hand, the level of income of the population affects the purchasing power, which leads to the increase of the acceleration in economic growth. On the other hand, high levels of poverty and a deepening income inequality dictate political and social instability in society, which negatively affects the dynamics of economic growth. It was revealed that the feature of economic growth in the transitional economy is the negative impact of inflation and unemployment rates of economic dynamics, despite the fact that in most Western models, they are not considered as limiting growth factors.

  8. The Impact of Education Investment on Sri Lankan Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganegodage, K. Renuka; Rambaldi, Alicia N.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the contribution of investment on education to Sri Lanka's economic growth during the period 1959-2008. Physical capital, economic policy changes and the ethnic war are also evaluated due to their substantial importance. This study uses a framework encompassing both the neoclassical and endogenous growth model. The impact of education…

  9. Using Wmatrix to Explore Discourse of Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Growth is a concept of particular interest for economic discourse. This paper sets out to explore a small corpus of economic growth, which consists of articles from "The Economist". The corpus software used in this study is a web-based tool Wmatrix, an automatic tagging software able to assign semantic field (domain) tags, and to permit…

  10. Nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in nine developed countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolde-Rufael, Yemane; Menyah, Kojo

    2010-01-01

    This article attempts to test the causal relationship between nuclear energy consumption and real GDP for nine developed countries for the period 1971-2005 by including capital and labour as additional variables. Using a modified version of the Granger causality test developed by Toda and Yamamoto (1995), we found a unidirectional causality running from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland; the opposite uni-directional causality running from economic growth to nuclear energy consumption in Canada and Sweden; and a bi-directional causality running between economic growth and nuclear energy consumption in France, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. In Spain, the United Kingdom and the USA, increases in nuclear energy consumption caused increases in economic growth implying that conservation measures taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may negatively affect economic growth. In France, Japan, Netherlands and Switzerland increases in nuclear energy consumption caused decreases in economic growth, suggesting that energy conservation measure taken that reduce nuclear energy consumption may help to mitigate the adverse effects of nuclear energy consumption on economic growth. In Canada and Sweden energy conservation measures affecting nuclear energy consumption may not harm economic growth.

  11. Promoting Debates on Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Promoting Debates on Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Eastern Africa through Strengthening the Links between Research and the Media. Policy researchers have a key role to play in insuring that economic growth and poverty reduction plans are responsive to the needs and interests of poor people. They can ...

  12. From entrepreneurship to economic growth: a three stage approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, P.P.

    2008-01-01

    Over time, different economic theories have supported the idea that entrepreneurship and innovation are essential for spurring economic growth. One question, however, remains unanswered, namely, why some regions in different parts of the world manage to enter into a cycle of growth and development

  13. From entrepreneurship to economic growth, a three stage approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hemert, P.P.

    2007-01-01

    Over time, different economic theories have supported the idea that entrepreneurship and innovation are essential for spurring economic growth. One question, however, remains unanswered, namely, why some regions in different parts of the world manage to enter into a cycle of growth and development

  14. Funding of pensions and economic growth : are they really related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandberg, Eelco; Spierdijk, Laura

    We examine whether changes in the degree of pension funding affect economic growth. Our sample consists of 54 countries, Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) as well as non-OECD, during 2001-10. We do not find any effect of changes in the degree of funding on growth in the

  15. The Republic of Yemen - Economic Growth : Sources, Constraints and Potentials

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2002-01-01

    High and sustained rate of economic growth in Yemen is a necesary, though not sufficient, condition for reduction of the high incidence of poverty and for raising the living standards of Yemeni citizens. Evidence in this report suggests that the main obstacle to rapid and sustained economic growth is the weak governance that characterizes Yemen in addition to the weaknesses in domestic sec...

  16. Impact of Currency Devaluation on Economic Growth of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The primary aim of the study is to estimate the long run relationship between economic growth (RGDP) and currency devaluation. This study investigated the impact of currency devaluation on economic growth of Nigeria. This was achieved through a review of literature and a test of hypothesis. In order to generate the ...

  17. The Services Sector and Economic Growth in Mauritius. A Bounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the long run and short run impact of the services sector on economic growth in Mauritius. Using an augmented aggregate production function growth model, we apply the bounds testing approach to cointegration to assess the impact of different activities in the services sector on economic performance ...

  18. Crisis in the habitat of the economic growth monster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urhammer, Emil

    2014-01-01

    This article is inspired by empirical philosophy and provides an analysis of economic growth as a monster that circulates within collectives. Using this approach, I illustrate how economic growth has participated in shaping institutions and language, thus having necessitated its own circulation...... to such an extent that it has become the most prioritised economic policy objective, whereas urgent issues regarding living conditions on Earth are either ignored or treated as secondary priorities. Further, I argue that noble attempts to contest economic growth contribute to the circulation of the monster...

  19. Models of the Economic Growth and their Relevance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae MOROIANU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Until few years ago, the economic growth was something perfect normal, part of an era marked by the transformation speed. Normality itself has been transformed and we currently are influenced by other rules, unknown yet, which should answer the question: “How do we return to the economic growth?” The economic growth and the models aiming to solve this problem concern the economic history even since its beginnings. In this paper we would like to find out what is the relevance that the well-known macroeconomic models still have and which might be their applicability level in a framework created by a black swan event type.

  20. NIGERIA’S ECONOMIC GROWTH THROUGH TOURISM PROMOTION/SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor N. ITUMO

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria is currently facing economic growth and development challenge. The economic challenge is occasioned by mono-cultural economic reliance on the single resource of crude oil export revenue as well as other internal and international effects that affect her economic drive for heightened growth and development. The Nigerian government had over the years searched for ways of diversifying its economy for greater growth and development especially given the various challenges in the economy, mainly the steep reduction in crude oil revenue arising from volatility of global oil price. This paper therefore uses the research methodology of case study to do a holistic assessment of the possibility of Nigeria diversifying into her tourism potentials for economic growth and development. This would be done equally by drawing relevant comparative analysis of other countries bringing economic benefits in Africa and across the globe.

  1. Economic Growth as a Factor of Political Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Олеговна Ярославцева

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes actual problems of the impact of economic growth on the political stability of different state. The author shows that despite the undoubted correlation of the level of economic development and political stability, economic growth by itself is not a panacea for destabilization risks because of the effects of inflated expectations and transformations of social consciousness. The author argues that the impact of economic growth on political stability is largely ambivalent. On the basis of “Tocqueville's law” and the range of theories of “relative deprivation”, the author makes a conclusion about the principal limitations of predictive and interpretive capabilities of economic indicators (primarily economic growth for the analysis of political stability.

  2. Economic Growth and the Environment. An empirical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Bruyn, S.M.

    1999-12-21

    A number of economists have claimed that economic growth benefits environmental quality as it raises political support and financial means for environmental policy measures. Since the early 1990s this view has increasingly been supported by empirical evidence that has challenged the traditional belief held by environmentalists that economic growth degrades the environment. This study investigates the relationship between economic growth and environmental quality and elaborates the question whether economic growth can be combined with a reduced demand for natural resources. Various hypotheses on this relationship are described and empirically tested for a number of indicators of environmental pressure. The outcome of the tests advocates the use of alternative models for estimation that alter conclusions about the relationship between economic growth and the environment and give insight into the driving forces of emission reduction in developed economies. refs.

  3. What Drives Economic Growth in Some CEE Countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Considering the potential factors that might generate economic growth, a target for any economy, this paper identified some determinants of economic growth in the countries from Central and Eastern Europe (CEE countries that are member states of the European Union. The foreign direct investment was the most important determinant of economic growth in most of the countries (Bulgaria, Slovenia, Estonia, Hungary, Romania, Poland, Latvia, Lithuania in the period 2003-2016, according to Bayesian bridge regressions. The indicators related to the level and the quality of labour resources proved to be insignificant in explaining the economic growth in these countries. Moreover, in Croatia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland, the government expenditure on education had a negative effect on economic growth.

  4. Fractal dimension evolution and spatial replacement dynamics of urban growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yanguang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The fractal dimension growth can be modeled by Boltzmann’s equation. ► Boltzmann’s model suggests urban spatial replacement dynamics. ► If the rate of urban growth is too high, periodic oscillations or chaos will arise. ► Chaos is associated with fractals by the fractal dimension evolution model. ► The fractal dimension of urban form implies the space-filling ratio of a city. - Abstract: This paper presents a new perspective of looking at the relation between fractals and chaos by means of cities. Especially, a principle of space filling and spatial replacement is proposed to interpret the fractal dimension of urban form. The fractal dimension evolution of urban growth can be empirically modeled with Boltzmann’s equation. For the normalized data, Boltzmann’s equation is just equivalent to the logistic function. The logistic equation can be transformed into the well-known 1-dimensional logistic map, which is based on a 2-dimensional map suggesting spatial replacement dynamics of city development. The 2-dimensional recurrence relations can be employed to generate the nonlinear dynamical behaviors such as bifurcation and chaos. A discovery is thus made in this article that, for the fractal dimension growth following the logistic curve, the normalized dimension value is the ratio of space filling. If the rate of spatial replacement (urban growth) is too high, the periodic oscillations and chaos will arise. The spatial replacement dynamics can be extended to general replacement dynamics, and bifurcation and chaos mirror a process of complex replacement.

  5. Economic Growth and Development in the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acemoglu, Daron

    2013-01-01

    A central theme of this article is that economics instructors should spend more time teaching about economic growth and development at the undergraduate level because the topic is of interest to students, is less abstract than other macroeconomic topics, and is the focus of exciting research in economics. Facts and data can be presented to…

  6. Economic growth and technological change : an evolutionary interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verspagen, B.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply insights from evolutionary economic theory to the question of what can explain recent trends in economic growth, with emphasis on the role of technological change. Obviously, a basic question that precedes this question is "what is evolutionary economic theory"? The

  7. Financial development and economic growth nexus in Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeki Ono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the finance-growth nexus in Russia with the vector autoregression model, taking oil prices and foreign exchange rates into account. The analyzed period is from 1999 through 2008 (Subperiod 1 and from 2009 through 2014 (Subperiod 2. The results for Subperiod 1 suggest that there is causality from economic growth to money supply and bank lending, which implies demand-following responses. The results for Subperiod 2 show that economic growth Granger causes bank lending while there is no causality from money supply to economic growth, which could be related to the dramatic decrease in the amount of intervention in foreign exchange markets.

  8. ANALYSIS OF FACTORS WHICH AFFECTING THE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suparna Wijaya

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available High economic growth and sustainable process are main conditions for sustainability of economic country development. They are also become measures of the success of the country's economy. Factors which tested in this study are economic and non-economic factors which impacting economic development. This study has a goal to explain the factors that influence on macroeconomic Indonesia. It used linear regression modeling approach. The analysis result showed that Tax Amnesty, Exchange Rate, Inflation, and interest rate, they jointly can bring effect which amounted to 77.6% on economic growth whereas the remaining 22.4% is the influenced by other variables which not observed in this study. Keywords: tax amnesty, exchange rates, inflation, SBI and economic growth

  9. Nation Building as a Determinent of Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-18

    Consortium for Political and Social Reserch (2007). Mankiw , N. Gregory, David Romer, and David N. Weil. “A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth...Determinent of Economic Growth 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6 . AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Creasey. Ellyn Ann 5e. TASK NUMBER 51...J ss istance and econom ic aid impact the development process. The primary resu lts suggest a 1% increase in spending on nation building result s

  10. The Political Economy of Recent Economic Growth in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha

    2004-01-01

    The political economy of India’s economic growth is an issue of abiding interest. Higher and sustained economic growth has, all over the world, been the surest and most time tested means of raising living standards and reducing poverty. Further, given that it is a functioning democracy, economic policy in India can often be dictated by political expediency as political parties indulge in competitive populism in the face of improvements in social indicators such as literacy, infant mortality a...

  11. Human Capital, Population Growth and Economic Development: Beyond Correlations

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenzweig, Mark R.

    1987-01-01

    Empirical evidence on three assertions commonly-made by population policy advocates about the relationships among population growth, human capital formation and economic development is discussed and evaluated in the light of economic-biological models of household behavior and of its relevance to population policy. The three assertions are that (a) population growth and human capital investments jointly reflect and respond to changes in the economic environment, (b) larger families directly i...

  12. Law, Economic Growth and Human Development: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Asongu Simplice

    2011-01-01

    This paper cuts adrift the mainstream approach to the legal-origins debate on the law-growth nexus by integrating both overall economic and human components in our understanding of how regulation quality and the rule of law lie at the heart of economic and inequality adjusted human developments. Findings summarily reveal that legal-origin does not explain economic growth and human development beyond the mechanisms of law. Our results support the current consensus that, English common-law coun...

  13. Does the internet generate economic growth, international trade, or both?

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, Huub

    2012-01-01

    Recent cross country panel data studies find a positive impact of internet use on economic growth and a positive impact of internet use on trade. The present study challenges the first finding by showing that internet use does not explain economic growth directly in a fully specified growth model. In particular openness to international trade variables seems to be highly correlated with internet use and the findings in the literature that internet use causes trade is confirmed here, suggestin...

  14. Malaysia Economic Monitor, December 2016 : The Quest for Productivity Growth

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Malaysia’s economic growth has slowed down but remains resilient to external headwinds. The economic growth rate slowed from 5 percent in 2015 to 4.2 percent, year on year, in the first three quarters of 2016. Private consumption growth slowed down due to a softening labor market and households’ ongoing adjustment to a context of fiscal consolidation. Public investment in infrastructure is...

  15. The Role and Importance of Local Economic Development in Urban Development: A Case of Harare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladys Mandisvika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the role and importance of Local Economic Development as a means of enhancing urban development paying particular attention to the regulators of Local Economic Development in Harare. Local Economic Development is a process which encourages partners from the community, public sector, private sector and non-governmental sectors to work collectively to create better conditions for economic growth and employment generation with the aim of improving the locality economic future and the quality of life for all citizens. The study was premised on the theory of competitive advantage which puts up that prosperity and wealth creation is determined by microeconomic factors and that prosperity means increasing the standards of living for the local people and ultimately their quality of life. Primary data for the research was gathered through observation and key informant interviews. Data on key stakeholders understanding on the concept of Local Economic Development, how it is being practised and how the current regulatory framework enhance or impinge on local people’s participation in Local Economic Development was collected. Secondary data was also collected from Harare’s 2014 budget, census and existing forward plans. The study revealed that the practice of Local Economic Development in Harare is biased towards the setting aside of land zoned for industrial and commercial uses and implementation of development control parameters. Small to Medium Enterprises and the informal sector have also been identified as the major forms of Local Economic Development that citizens are involved in. However, the study revealed that proper policy frameworks which guide practice of Local Economic Development initiatives were missing

  16. Economic growth and change in southeast Alaska.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza

    2004-01-01

    This report focuses on economic trends since the 1970s in rural southeast Alaska. These trends are compared with those in the Nation and in nonmetropolitan areas of the country to determine the extent to which the economy in rural southeast Alaska is affected by regional activity and by larger market forces. Many of the economic changes occurring in rural southeast...

  17. Study for urbanization corresponding to socio-economic activities in Savannaket, Laos using satellite remote sensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimijiama, S; Nagai, M

    2014-01-01

    In Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS), economic liberalization and deregulation facilitated by GMS Regional Economic Corporation Program (GMS-ECP) has triggered urbanization in the region. However, the urbanization rate and its linkage to socio-economic activities are ambiguous. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) determine the changes in urban area from 1972 to 2013 using remote sensing data, and (b) analyse the relationships between urbanization with respect to socio-economic activities in central Laos. The study employed supervised classification and human visible interpretation to determine changes in urbanization rate. Regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between the urbanization rate and socio-economic variables. The result shows that the urban area increased significantly from 1972 to 2013. The socio-economic variables such as school enrollment, labour force, mortality rate, water source and sanitation highly correlated with the rate of urbanization during the period. The study concluded that identifying the highly correlated socio-economic variables with urbanization rate could enable us to conduct a further urbanization simulation. The simulation helps in designing policies for sustainable development

  18. Rethinking Economics and Education: Exponential Growth and Post-Growth Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Education is increasingly vocational and structured to serve the ongoing exponential increase in economic growth. Climate change is an outcome of these same economic values and praxes. Attempts to shift these values and our approach to technology are continually absorbed and overcome by the pressing motif of economic growth. In this article, Ruth…

  19. Overview of urban Growth Simulation: With examples from different cities

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Waldeck, L

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This presentation provides an overview of Urban Growth Simulation as a risk free means of assessing the future outcome of major policy and investment decisions with some examples of scenarios that were simulated in different South African cities....

  20. Population growth and rural-urban migration, with special reference to Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Graft-johnson, K T

    1974-01-01

    but that once people decide to migrate, they base their choice of destination primarily on economic opportunities available at that end. Distance bears little relationship to choice of destination. To stem this tide efforts need to be made to increase rural income, provide employment opportunities for those displaced as agriculture becomes more efficient, and to provide for greater amenities in rural areas. Urban unemployment is an ever-increasing problem, accentuated by population growth and migration. Intensive rural development is needed to reverse this trend.

  1. Economic Activity of Children in Peru: Labor Force Behavior in Rural and Urban Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tienda, Marta

    1979-01-01

    Rural children are more economically valuable than urban children to parents and are twice as likely to be economically active, although social, familial, and individual differences (such as age, sex, and education) can significantly influence labor force activity. (SB)

  2. Centralised, decentralised or hybrid sanitation systems? Economic evaluation under urban development uncertainty and phased expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roefs, Ivar; Meulman, Brendo; Vreeburg, Jan H G; Spiller, Marc

    2017-02-01

    Sanitation systems are built to be robust, that is, they are dimensioned to cope with population growth and other variability that occurs throughout their lifetime. It was recently shown that building sanitation systems in phases is more cost effective than one robust design. This phasing can take place by building small autonomous decentralised units that operate closer to the actual demand. Research has shown that variability and uncertainty in urban development does affect the cost effectiveness of this approach. Previous studies do not, however, consider the entire sanitation system from collection to treatment. The aim of this study is to assess the economic performance of three sanitation systems with different scales and systems characteristics under a variety of urban development pathways. Three systems are studied: (I) a centralised conventional activated sludge treatment, (II) a community on site source separation grey water and black water treatment and (III) a hybrid with grey water treatment at neighbourhood scale and black water treatment off site. A modelling approach is taken that combines a simulation of greenfield urban growth, a model of the wastewater collection and treatment infrastructure design properties and a model that translates design parameters into discounted asset lifetime costs. Monte Carlo simulations are used to evaluate the economic performance under uncertain development trends. Results show that the conventional system outperforms both of the other systems when total discounted lifetime costs are assessed, because it benefits from economies of scale. However, when population growth is lower than expected, the source-separated system is more cost effective, because of reduced idle capacity. The hybrid system is not competitive under any circumstance due to the costly double piping and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. MEASURING ECONOMIC GROWTH FROM OUTER SPACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, J. Vernon; Storeygard, Adam; Weil, David N.

    2013-01-01

    GDP growth is often measured poorly for countries and rarely measured at all for cities or subnational regions. We propose a readily available proxy: satellite data on lights at night. We develop a statistical framework that uses lights growth to augment existing income growth measures, under the assumption that measurement error in using observed light as an indicator of income is uncorrelated with measurement error in national income accounts. For countries with good national income accounts data, information on growth of lights is of marginal value in estimating the true growth rate of income, while for countries with the worst national income accounts, the optimal estimate of true income growth is a composite with roughly equal weights. Among poor-data countries, our new estimate of average annual growth differs by as much as 3 percentage points from official data. Lights data also allow for measurement of income growth in sub- and supranational regions. As an application, we examine growth in Sub Saharan African regions over the last 17 years. We find that real incomes in non-coastal areas have grown faster by 1/3 of an annual percentage point than coastal areas; non-malarial areas have grown faster than malarial ones by 1/3 to 2/3 annual percent points; and primate city regions have grown no faster than hinterland areas. Such applications point toward a research program in which “empirical growth” need no longer be synonymous with “national income accounts.” PMID:25067841

  4. Measuring Economic Growth in New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Mawson

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines New Zealand’s ranking in the OECD based on real GDP per capita. The fall in ranking experienced by New Zealand implies that real GDP per capita growth in New Zealand has been relatively poor in comparison to other OECD countries. The paper examines the history of New Zealand’s growth rate and explores the differences between various techniques for measuring average growth rates. The approaches are all shown to be variants of the average annual growth rate but differ in ter...

  5. Dynamic linkages between road transport energy consumption, economic growth, and environmental quality: evidence from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danish; Baloch, Muhammad Awais

    2018-03-01

    The focus of the present research work is to investigate the dynamic relationship between economic growth, road transport energy consumption, and environmental quality. To this end, we rely on time series data for the period 1971 to 2014 in the context of Pakistan. To use sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emission from transport sector as a new proxy for measuring environmental quality, the present work employs time series technique ARDL which allows energy consumption from the transport sector, urbanization, and road infrastructure to be knotted by symmetric relationships with SO 2 emissions and economic growth. From the statistical results, we confirm that road infrastructure boosts economic growth. Simultaneously, road infrastructure and urbanization hampers environmental quality and causes to accelerate emission of SO 2 in the atmosphere. Furthermore, economic growth has a diminishing negative impact on total SO 2 emission. Moreover, we did not find any proof of the expected role of transport energy consumption in SO 2 emission. The acquired results directed that care should be taken in the expansion of road infrastructure and green city policies and planning are required in the country.

  6. Life Insurance Contribution, Insurance Development and Economic Growth in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ying

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Under L-type economy, remodelling the growth power in the medium and long term is essential. The insurance industry during the 13th Five-year Plan period has been given a heavy expectation on promoting economic quality and upgrading economic efficiency, so it will try to accelerate its innovation and development process which serves national needs, market demand and people's requirements. Referring to the previous researches of Solow and Zhang and measuring Capital Stock and Total Factor Productivity independently, the paper analyses the inherent correlation between insurance (including life insurance and non-life insurance and economic growth, reveals the contribution law of the insurance development in economic growth in the short and long term from both economic scale and quality respectively. It also shows enlightenments on policy decision for insurance industry, thus helps economic stability under the downturn periods.

  7. Financial Development Following Economic Growth: The Chinese Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan il Park

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial development and economic growth based on Chinese experiences during the period of 1979~2000. This study places more emphasis on the causality running from economic growth to financThe purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between financial development and economic growth based on Chinese experiences during the period of 1979~2000. This study places more emphasis on the causality running from economic growth to financial development contrary to the mainstream view, which asserts that the well-functioning financial systems exert a large positive impact on economic growth via two channels- capital accumulation and technological innovations. The reverse causality is postulated by considering two factors in developments of the country's financial system. Firstly, this paper argues that the rapid accumulation of financial assets and the remarkable expansion of the financial system during the examined period are due primarily to income rises and changes in industrial structures rather than inefficient financial reforms. Secondly, it is recognized in this study that various financial reform measures undertaken by the state since 1994 are emerged endogenously in response to Chinese financial disorders and macroeconomic imbalances built up during the 1979~93 period. This line of thinking is not following the mainstream view in which financial reforms are regarded as policy variables (or exogenous variables in promoting economic growth. These two factors imply that the causality may run from economic growth to financial development at least in China.

  8. Women's economic empowerment and inclusive growth: labour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deyanira Carvajal

    IDRC commissioned Professor Naila Kabeer to review existing research on women's economic ..... common theme but there are also some important differences. ...... women's entry into the labour market, qualitative research suggests that part ...

  9. Four Centuries of British Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob B.; Ang, James B.; Banerjee, Rajabrata

    2010-01-01

    Using long historical data for Britain over the period 1620–2006, this paper seeks to explain the importance of innovative activity, population growth and other factors in inducing the transition from the Malthusian trap to the post-Malthusian growth regime. Furthermore, the paper tests the ability...

  10. The Biology and Economics of Coral Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osinga, R.; Schutter, M.; Griffioen, B.; Wijffels, R.H.; Verreth, J.A.J.; Shafit, S.; Henard, S.; Taruffi, M.; Gili, C.; Lavorano, S.

    2011-01-01

    To protect natural coral reefs, it is of utmost importance to understand how the growth of the main reef-building organisms-the zooxanthellate scleractinian corals-is controlled. Understanding coral growth is also relevant for coral aquaculture, which is a rapidly developing business. This review

  11. Impact of vegetation growth on urban surface temperature distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buyadi, S N A; Mohd, W M N W; Misni, A

    2014-01-01

    Earlier studies have indicated that, the temperature distribution in the urban area is significantly warmer than its surrounding suburban areas. The process of urbanization has created urban heat island (UHI). As a city expands, trees are cut down to accommodate commercial development, industrial areas, roads, and suburban growth. Trees or green areas normally play a vital role in mitigating the UHI effects especially in regulating high temperature in saturated urban areas. This study attempts to assess the effects of vegetation growth on land surface temperature (LST) distribution in urban areas. An area within the City of Shah Alam, Selangor has been selected as the study area. Land use/land cover and LST maps of two different dates are generated from Landsat 5 TM images of the year 1991 and 2009. Only five major land cover classes are considered in this study. Mono-window algorithm is used to generate the LST maps. Landsat 5 TM images are also used to generate the NDVI maps. Results from this study have shown that there are significant land use changes within the study area. Although the conversion of green areas into residential and commercial areas significantly increase the LST, matured trees will help to mitigate the effects of UHI

  12. The South African tax mix and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AH de Wet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research reported in this paper suggests that government fiscal policy can influence economic growth through alterations in the tax mix and the overall size of government spending.   The authors estimate the impact on economic growth of changes in fiscal policy via government expenditure, direct taxation and indirect taxation.  The results show that economic growth is negatively affected by increases in the size of government, as reflected in its expenditures and direct tax revenues, although significant indirect tax effects are not found.

  13. Review of capital investment in economic growth cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffie, Siti Salihah; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Mohamad, Daud

    2016-11-01

    The study of linkages of macroeconomics factors is prominent in order to understand how the economic cycle affects one another. These factors include interest rate, growth rate, saving and capital investment which are mutually correlated to stabilize the GDP. Part of this study, it will look upon the impact of investment which emphasize the efficiency of capital investment to the economic growth. Capital investment is one investment appraisal that gives impact to the economic growth. It is a long term investment and involve with large amount of capital to incorporate the development of private and public capital investment.

  14. Energy consumption and economic growth. Assessing the evidence from Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hondroyiannis, George; Lolos, Sarantis; Papapetrou, Evangelia

    2002-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light into the empirical relationship between energy consumption and economic growth, for Greece (1960-1996) employing the vector error-correction model estimation. The vector specification includes energy consumption, real GDP and price developments, the latter taken to represent a measure of economic efficiency. The empirical evidence suggests that there is a long-run relationship between the three variables, supporting the endogeneity of energy consumption and real output. These findings have important policy implications, since the adoption of suitable structural policies aiming at improving economic efficiency can induce energy conservation without impeding economic growth

  15. Further evidence on the relationship between economic freedom and economic growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Haan, J; Siermann, CLJ

    Often it is maintained that economic freedom may further high levels of economic growth. Using various measures of economic freedom constructed by Scully and Slottje, the robustness of this relationship is examined. Both direct and indirect effects of lack of liberties are analysed. Our main

  16. The Dynamic Relationship between Crime and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adekoya Adenuga Fabian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Crime is a major impediment to economic growth and development in Nigeria despite measures taken to reduce it. There is, however, currently no major statistical analysis of how crime affects economic growth in that country. This study examines the link between crime and growth based on the theory of rational choice and empirical data. Exogenous and endogenous growth models are employed, and include deterrence variables. The period examined is 1970–2013 and estimation is done using the autoregressive distributed lag model. The results of our study show that crime affects economic growth at a 1% and 10% level of significance. In other words, crime imposes the costs of prosecution and punishment on the citizens and country, which influences the growth of the economy. Given our results, we suggest that police and the system of justice should be strengthened. Indeed, this may be necessary if the development target stated in Nigeria vision 20: 2020 is to be reached.

  17. Economic growth and poverty alleviation in Africa - linking hard and soft economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    soft and hard economics, arguing that economic growth must be converted into social change that benefits poor for it to be described as development-oriented. It provides a direction for future research into issues of economic growth and poverty alleviation in Sub-Sahara Africa......This paper provides a quick glance at the dominant issues that have characterized the development economics debate during the past five decades. It is based on a review of a selection of literature that highlights the dominant perspectives in development economics. It draws a distinction between...

  18. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  19. Economic Growth and the Rise of Political Extremism

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Bruckner; Hans Peter Gruner

    2011-01-01

    In many western democracies, political parties with extreme platforms challenge more moderate incumbents. This paper analyses the impact of economic growth on the support for extreme political platforms. We provide a theoretical argument in favor of growth effects (as opposed to level effects) on the support for extreme political parties and we empirically investigate the relationship between growth and extremist votes. Lower growth rates benefit right-wing and nationalist parties, but do not...

  20. Causality analysis of diesel consumption and economic growth in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamba, Jean Gaston; Njomo, Donatien; Limanond, Thirayoot; Ntsafack, Borel

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the causal relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth in Cameroon by using a three-step modern time-series technique. Tests for unit roots, cointegration, and Granger-causality based on error correction model are employed on annual data covering the period 1975–2008. Empirical results of the study confirm the presence of a long-run equilibrium relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth. The error correction model shows that an estimated 1% increase in economic growth causes a rise in diesel consumption of 1.30% in the long-run. The overall results show that there exists bidirectional causality in the long-run relationship and no causality in the short-run relationship between diesel consumption and economic growth at the 5% level of significance. Thus, the energy policies in Cameroon should place priority on the discovery of new oil field and building capacity additions of the refinery to increase production of petroleum products, as this would propel the economic growth of the country. - Highlights: ► We examine the causal relationship between diesel consumption and GDP in Cameroon. ► we analyze the petroleum products sector in Cameroon. ► 1% increase in economic growth causes a rise in diesel consumption of 1.30%. ► The policy aimed at improving diesel supply have a positive impact on economics.

  1. Economic Returns to Speaking "Standard Mandarin" among Migrants in China's Urban Labour Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenshu; Smyth, Russell

    2011-01-01

    This article uses data from the China Urban Labour Survey administered across 12 cities in 2005 to estimate the economic returns to speaking standard Mandarin among internal migrants in China's urban labour market. The article builds on studies that estimate the economic returns to international immigrants of being fluent in the major language of…

  2. THE CONNECTION BETWEEN ECONOMIC GROWTH AND STOCK MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreea Maria PECE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the connection between economic growth and stock market performance in the case of an emerging economy, namely Romania, by using quarterly financial data, during the period 2000-2013. This topic is widely studied in the financial literature and seeks to provide an answer for the following questions: does economic growth influences the capital market, does capital market influences economic growth, or there is no connection between these variables. I have analyzed the long term relationship between economic growth and stock market for Romania, by applying Johansen cointegration test, Granger causality and Gregory Hansen cointegration test, which allows the presence of the structural breaks in the time series. The empirical results obtained highlighted that portfolio investments have a positive impact on economic growth and the GDP growth engages in turn, a long term positive capital markets return. The main conclusion of this study is that in the case of Romanian economy, is a bi-directional link between the economic growth and the capital market performance.

  3. Unemployment and long-run economic growth: The role of income inequality and urbanisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Castells-Quintana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Two of the most dramatic aspects of the current economic crisis are with no doubt the experience of high and persistent rates of unemployment and the accelerated pace at which inequalities increase. But high and persistent levels of unemployment and increasing inequality are more than a consequence of scarcer opportunities related to the crisis; they can also be negative determinants for subsequent long-run economic growth. In this work, we consider unemployment and income inequality, and interactions between both, as possible determinants of longrun growth by using cross-sectional international data. Our results suggest that: 1 while initial high unemployment rates do not seem to be statistically significant to explain long-run growth, they do have a negative and significant effect when interacting with increases in inequality. 2 When we differentiate based on levels of urbanization, increasing inequality harms growth in countries with high levels of urbanization, as well as in countries with low levels of urbanization in which there is high and persistent unemployment.

  4. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND REGIONAL INEQUALITY IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinela ISTRATE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of communism, Romania, just like other Central and East European countries, has experienced profound social and economic mutations, reflected in all activity sectors (from the transition to a market economy and democratic freedom-based society to the decreasing number of active and working population, increasing unemployment, workforce’s growing risk of poverty, rising vulnerability of certain socio-professional groups. Starting from these findings and using an appropriate methodology to identify regional convergences and disparities, the present paper is meant to perform a statistical and territorial analysis of the economic gaps recorded at the level of the Romanian counties (NUTS 3 level during the last two decades and a half. The conclusions converge towards the existence of an adjustment of the economic structures, both from the territorial and temporal perspective, while the issue of reducing regional gaps remains one of the main challenges of the future.

  5. Investigating Causality Between Agricultural and Economic Growth in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Falsafian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although rate of economic growth is not the only way to measure economic development, it is relatively more important than the other indices. Agriculture sector plays the main role on economic growth and sustainable development. In addition, it has significant impact on most social, political and economic issues by producing strategic food products for ever-increasing population. Therefore, the present study investigated causal relationship between agricultural and economic growth in Iran. To this end, the Granjer’s causality test was used after employing the Augmented Dicky-Fuller test to see if the variables under consideration are stationary. The result showed that there is a long learn feedback relationship between these variables and agricultural developments.

  6. Framework for Creating a Smart Growth Economic Development Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This step-by-step guide can help small and mid-sized cities, particularly those that have limited population growth, areas of disinvestment, and/or a struggling economy, build a place-based economic development strategy.

  7. Informal sector, business environment and economic growth: A ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-12-01

    Informal sector, business environment and economic growth: A comparative analysis of West and Central Africa ... taxes, which undermines fair competition and puts formal enterprises at a disadvantage. ... Start Date. December 1, 2012 ...

  8. Fuelling Economic Growth: The Role of Public–Private Sector ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-04-26

    Apr 26, 2009 ... At the same time, however, traditional sources of research funding – from ... Fuelling Economic Growth: The Role of Public–Private Sector ... IDRC congratulates first cohort of Women in Climate Change Science Fellows.

  9. Inclusive growth and development: An IDRC-World Economic Forum ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Advancing economic growth while achieving broad-based progress in living ... It will develop regional and global platforms whereby the private sector, local ... cooperation agreement to support joint research projects in December 2017.

  10. Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public procurement, governance and economic growth: some policy ... Employing the Keynesian income-expenditure approach to measuring the Gross Domestic ... reduce wastage, enhance the effectiveness of government spending, ensure ...

  11. Export and Economic Growth in the West Balkan Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina Xhelili Krasniqi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to explore the effects of exports and other variables (foreign direct investment, remittances, capital formation, and labour force on economic growth in West Balkan countries (Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia. This study utilizes a strongly balanced panel data over the 2005-2015 period for Western Balkan countries using the ordinary least squares method (OLS, ie Pooled regression model to evaluate the parameters. The relationship between export and economic growth has turned to be statistically significant and positively related for the countries under the study. Results also indicate the statistically significant positive relationship between economic growth and other variables included in the model such is remittances, capital formation, and labor. The relationship between economic growth and foreign direct investment has turned out to be statistically insignificant and negatively related.

  12. Redefining prosperity : resource productivity, economic growth and sustainable development

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission

    2003-01-01

    This report seeks to stimulate debate on how we define prosperity and addresses the inadequacies of standard definitions of Gross Domestic Product and economic growth as yardsticks for well-being. Publisher PDF

  13. A panel study of nuclear energy consumption and economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apergis, Nicholas; Payne, James E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth for sixteen countries within a multivariate panel framework over the period 1980-2005. Pedroni's (1999, 2004) heterogeneous panel cointegration test reveals there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between real GDP, nuclear energy consumption, real gross fixed capital formation, and the labor force with the respective coefficients positive and statistically significant. The results of the panel vector error correction model finds bidirectional causality between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth in the short-run while unidirectional causality from nuclear energy consumption to economic growth in the long-run. Thus, the results provide support for the feedback hypothesis associated with the relationship between nuclear energy consumption and economic growth.

  14. ARDL Approach to Trade Libralisation and Economic Growth in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    the long and short run impact of trade liberalization to economic growth suggested that ..... To ensure the goodness of fit of the model, diagnostic and stability tests are conducted. .... The results indicate the absence of any instability of the.

  15. The impact of the British model on economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon György Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is searching for an answer to the question how the British model affected economic development in its mother country, the United Kingdom. The statistical analysis, models of mathematical economics and econometric investigation make it probable to conclude that there was a substantial difference in success between the Thatcherite and the Blairite economic policies; the latter proved more effective. It is particularly remarkable that the Blairite model, connecting privatization with a successful employment policy, reduced unemployment and social sensitivity, has not only speeded up economic growth but also improved economic equilibrium, curtailing, among others, the budget deficit.

  16. Internationalisation and Economic Growth: The Portuguese Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Renato J. Lopes; António, Nélson J. Santos; Miguel, Maria Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Historically, a policy of enforcement in internationalisation processes is still seen by many as an approach to solve certain economic crises. However, Portugal's solution for this problem is part of a greater problem, namely trying to solve a European problem that has recently worsened and is largely uncontrolled. This paper aims to contribute,…

  17. Teaching Economic Growth Theory with Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmslie, Bruce T.; Tebaldi, Edinaldo

    2010-01-01

    Many instructors in subjects such as economics are frequently concerned with how to teach technical material to undergraduate students with limited mathematical backgrounds. One method that has proven successful for the authors is to connect theoretically sophisticated material with actual data. This enables students to see how the theory relates…

  18. Building Regional Economic Growth and Innovation Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafn, H. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Like many states at the turn of the century, Wisconsin was faced with a multibillion-dollar deficit due to a sagging economy brought on by the dotcom bubble burst and the economic impact of the 9/11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. As the state legislature grappled with the budget crisis, blame was freely assigned. The state was at…

  19. public procurement, governance and economic growth

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    (2003: 2), ―strong procurement management in the public sector is a tool for achieving political, economic and social goals‖. Thus .... professionalism in the public sector procurement system (Section 4, PPA, 2007). The functions and powers of the ..... K., Bose, N. and Haque, M.E. (2004). Public Expenditures, Bureaucratic.

  20. Growth and Women's Economic Empowerment: Can Political ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This research project will generate evidence on how women's political ... Kingdom's Department for International Development, The William and Flora Hewlett ... support 11 projects addressing barriers to women's economic empowerment and ... Call for new OWSD Fellowships for Early Career Women Scientists now open.

  1. SOCIAL LIMITS OF THE ROMANIAN ECONOMICAL GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena and processes from the economical life have evolved with intensity and different results, determining the necessity of knowing the way in which the national economy evolves, as well as its dynamic approach. The existence and the dynamics of

  2. Financial Market Liberalization and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. Garita (Gus)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe literature has shown that it is hard to …find unambiguous evidence that financial openness yields an improvement in economic performance, particularly at the macro level. One of the major problems in empirical work is the bundling of …financial openness with a potential host of other

  3. Land Cover Change and Remote Sensing in the Classroom: An Exercise to Study Urban Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahunty, Tina; Lewis-Gonzales, Sarah; Phelps, Jack; Sawicki, Ben; Roberts, Charles; Carpenter, Penny

    2012-01-01

    The processes and implications of urban growth are studied in a variety of disciplines as urban growth affects both the physical and human landscape. Remote sensing methods provide ways to visualize and mathematically represent urban growth; and resultant land cover change data enable both quantitative and qualitative analysis. This article helps…

  4. Determinants of Economic Growth in Malaysia 1970-2010

    OpenAIRE

    Fauzi HUSSIN; Norazrul Mat ROS; Mohd Saifoul Zamzuri NOOR

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of economic growth in Malaysia. Trade openness, foreign direct investment, government development expenditure and gross fixed capital formation are used as indicators of economic growth. The study used time series data for the period 1970 to 2010. The Johansen and Juselius cointegration approach was applied to determine the long-run relationship between the variables. The study found that trade openness and foreign direct investment have significant bu...

  5. Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari; Roshaiza Taha; Muhammad Imran Farooq

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does tax revenue cau...

  6. 136 Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari; Roshaiza Taha; Muhammad Imran Farooq

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does ...

  7. Joint determinants of fiscal policy, income inequality and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Leonel Muinelo-Gallo; Oriol Roca-Sagalés

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between income inequality and economic growth through fiscal policy. To this end, we present and estimate two systems of structural equiation with error components through which gross income inequality determines different fiscal policy outcomes, which subsequently affects the evolution of economic growth and net income inequality. The empirical results, obtained using an unbalanced panel data of 21 high-income OCDE countries during the period 1972-2006, s...

  8. The Impact of Social Media on Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Dell'Anno, Roberto; Rayna, Thierry; Solomon, O. Helen

    2015-01-01

    The file attached to this record is the author's final peer reviewed version. The Publisher's final version can be found by following the DOI link. This article attempts to investigate the impact of social media (SM) on economic growth. Using information obtained from memberships to social networks, we find that SM has a negative and significant impact on economic growth. This provides evidence in favour of our hypothesis that SM increases the search costs for information and also increase...

  9. Determinants of Economic Growth in V4 Countries and Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The middle and long-term slowdown in growth dynamics could bring serious social and political problems for V4 countries (Czech Republic, Slovak Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania. It would threaten reaching benefits from potential of convergence process with the developed countries of the European Union. As a result, the V4 economies and Romania should find solutions to achieving a sustainable growth that is associated with an improvement of their international competitiveness. This paper provides an empirical analysis of factors that might determine a stable economic growth in the five mentioned countries. The empirical analysis conducted for the period of 2003-2016 employed Bayesian generalized ridge regression. The main results indicated that the FDI promoted economic growth in all countries, except the Slovak Republic. Only in the Czech Republic, the expenditure on education generated economic growth, while the expenditure on R&D had positive effects in Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic.

  10. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Maryam; Ismail, Rahmah; Fooladi, Masood

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT) has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants). We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

  11. Income taxes, public fiscal policy and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Wołowiec

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to find the relationship between public fiscal policy and economic growth. The article consist of a few parts. The first is an introduction, which creates the background for the analysis in the following sections. It shows the main point of view on public fiscal policy especially in the case of personal income tax and creates a framework for the analysis of the relationship between taxation and economic growth. The second part focuses on the relations between central government decisions on taxation and its influence on savings, investments and economic growth. In this part we will find selected analyses of the impact of taxes on economic growth based on the examples of OECD countries. Finally, the last part of the work is a study on fiscal level and tax system structures and economic growth. In this part the authors checks two points of view on taxation. The first is that a low level tax burden is conducive to economic growth, and the second emphasizes negative consequences of decreasing budget tax revenues. The article shows both theoretical and empirical points of view on taxation and influence of government taxation decisions on the economy.

  12. The dynamics of oil consumption and economic growth in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun-Young; Yoo, Seung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    This study attemps to investiagte the causal relationship between oil consumption and economic growth in Malaysia where oil consumption and real gross domestic product have been rapidly increased in recent years. To this end, the study employs annual data covering the period 1965–2011. Tests for unit roots, co-integration, and Granger-causality based on the error-correction models are presented. The overall results support the existence of bi-directional causality between oil consumption and economic growth in Malaysia. This means that an increase in oil consumption directly affect economic growth. Thus, in order not to make an adverse effect on economic growth, Malaysia should endeavor to overcome the constraints on oil consumption. Moreover, it appears that economic growth induces oil consumption. - Highlights: • We examine the causality between oil consumption and economic growth in Malaysia. • We employed the annual data covering the period 1965–2011. • We estimated error-correction models to test for the direction of causality. • We found that there is bi-directional causality between the two

  13. Information and communication technology use and economic growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Farhadi

    Full Text Available In recent years, progress in information and communication technology (ICT has caused many structural changes such as reorganizing of economics, globalization, and trade extension, which leads to capital flows and enhancing information availability. Moreover, ICT plays a significant role in development of each economic sector, especially during liberalization process. Growth economists predict that economic growth is driven by investments in ICT. However, empirical studies on this issue have produced mixed results, regarding to different research methodology and geographical configuration of the study. This paper examines the impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT use on economic growth using the Generalized Method of Moments (GMM estimator within the framework of a dynamic panel data approach and applies it to 159 countries over the period 2000 to 2009. The results indicate that there is a positive relationship between growth rate of real GDP per capita and ICT use index (as measured by the number of internet users, fixed broadband internet subscribers and the number of mobile subscription per 100 inhabitants. We also find that the effect of ICT use on economic growth is higher in high income group rather than other groups. This implies that if these countries seek to enhance their economic growth, they need to implement specific policies that facilitate ICT use.

  14. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    This paper connects two strands of the literature on social trust by estimating the effects of trust on growth through a set of potential transmission mechanisms directly. It does so by modelling the process using a three-stage least squares estimator on a sample of countries for which a full data...... set is available. The results indicate that trust affects schooling and the rule of law directly. These variables in turn affect the investment rate (schooling) and provide a direct effect (rule of law) on the growth rate. The paper closes with a short discussion of the relevance of the findings....

  15. State Investment in Universities: Rethinking the Impact on Economic Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Does investing taxpayer money in higher education lead to major payoffs in economic growth? State legislators and policy makers say yes. They routinely advocate massive appropriations for university education and research, even in poor economic times, on the grounds that taxpayers will be rewarded many times over. The investment of federal funds…

  16. Balance of Payments Constrained Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume V, Issue II, July 2017 ... between economic growth and current account balance equilibrium. .... With these precedents, there is a need to analyze the degree to which balance of payments .... With this result, we can now investigate the long run relationship between our variables.

  17. ECONOMIC GROWTH - AN ILLUSION? STUDY CASE:ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia MORARU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has devoted considerable attention to economic growth because it creates the premises for achieving major goals such as route out of poverty of underdeveloped countries or contribute to raising the standard of living in developed countries. Economic growth has become an “order of the day” term, propagated by various "players" of economic and social life, in this way gaining various interpretations and meanings. This paper presents the results of the measures adopatate in order to recover Romanian economic situation. The austerity measures adopted until recently not allowed, however, to create a favorable environment for growth, taking into consideration that it is almost impossible for an economy to grow when conditions are limiting. Fiscal policies have focused on reducing the budget deficit, which led on slaughtering economic growth. Given the uncertain economic context, FDI was hardly drew into our country, their value last year has been insignificant. We can even say that the previous ended year was one economically, because our country did not recognize the road to the economic recovery.

  18. The impact of microfinance institution in economic growth of a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings of the study show that microfinance loans have a significant positive impact on the short run economic performance in Nigeria. Microfinance loans enhanced consumption per capita in short run with an impressive coefficient, although these banks' loans do not have a significant impact on economic growth in ...

  19. Economic Growth, Structural Change and Productive Employment Linkages in India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aggarwal, Aradhna

    2018-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative analysis of growth, structural change and employment linkages at the aggregate level and by sector under the state- and market-led regimes in India. The underlying objectives are: (a) to understand how economic liberalization has affected the economic and labour...... intervention to broad base structural change for generating productive employment, which is at the core of poverty reduction....

  20. Health and economic growth in South East, Nigeria | Umezinwa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Research Review ... In the South eastern states of Nigeria, health cannot be said to be making any significant impact in economic growth. ... There will be a meaningful economic improvement if ever there is a combined proactive engagement in healthcare delivery by the state governments and the citizens.

  1. How Strategic Entrepreneurship and the Institutional Context Drive Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    2013-01-01

    The economics of growth has shown that countries grow by better allocating whatever resources are at their disposal and by introducing productivity-enhancing innovations. Strategic entrepreneurship plays a key role in this process by searching for, combining, trying out, etc., new resource......, and the Fraser Institute's economic freedom data. Copyright © 2013 Strategic Management Society....

  2. Business Planning and the Economic Growth of Small and Medium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relevance of business planning the economic growth of Small and Medium Scale Enterprises (SMEs) and their ability to attract investors and loans, in the face of dwindling economic returns in Nigeria. A five point likert-type questionnaire was utilized in gathering data from 450 ...

  3. Economic openness and economic growth: A cointegration analysis for ASEAN-5 countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klimis Vogiatzoglou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers three channels of economic openness, namely FDI, imports, and exports, and examines their short-run and long-run effects on the economic growth in the five founding member countries of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN over the period from 1980 to 2014. Besides the impact on the economic growth, the authors analyze all possible causal interrelationships to discern patterns and directions of causality among FDI, imports, exports, and GDP. The quantitative analysis, which is based on the vector error correction co-integration framework, is conducted separately for each country in order to assess their individual experiences and allow for a comparative view. Although the precise details differ across countries, the findings indicate that there is a long-run equilibrium relationship between economic openness and GDP in all ASEAN-5 economies. FDI, imports and exports have a significantly positive short-run and long-run impact on the economic growth. Our results also show that export-led growth is the most important economic growth factor in most countries, followed by FDI-led growth. Another crucial finding is the bi-directional causality between exports and FDI across the ASEAN-5 countries. This indicates the presence of direct and indirect effects on GDP and a self-reinforcing process of causality between those two variables, which strengthens their impact on the economic growth.

  4. Foreign Direct Investment, Host Country Factors and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Edna Maeyen Solomon

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses how the levels of economic development, human capital, financial development and the qualities of the economic and political environments in host countries simultaneously affects the impact of aggregate inflows of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) on economic growth. Multiple interaction terms are employed between inward FDI and each of the host country factors mentioned above. The System GMM estimator is applied to a panel of 111 countries from 1981 to 2005. The results sho...

  5. Financial Intermediation and Economic Growth of Jordan 1964-1988

    OpenAIRE

    Magableh, Ali H.

    1995-01-01

    Until recently, the economics and financial literature placed little attention on the role that financial intermediation can play in accelerating the rate of economic development in less Developed Countries (LDCs). This has been changed now, however, where some instrumental role has been emphasised for financial intermediation in the process of economic development and growth. It is argued that an expansion of the financial system, size and intermediation in LDCs tends to increase the level o...

  6. Financial Sector Structure and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Marc Steffen

    Economists consider a well-functioning financial sector to be of first order importance for a modern (capitalist) economy. However, in the aftermath of the financial crisis a debate about the future role of the financial sector emerged and many commentators have called into question whether...... the financial sector actually creates value for the wider society. This research, which is part of a broad research project “Nordic Finance and the Good Society”, aims to contribute to this debate by studying the role of the financial sector structure for economic development of an economy. Therefore......, it proceeds in five steps. First, it provides some reflections on the financial sector and the existing literature studying financial sector structure and its association with economic development. Second, it presents stylized firm-level evidence on capital structure choice and firm behavior. It is argued...

  7. Size of government and economic growth: A nonlinear analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herath Shanaka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The new growth theory establishes, among other things, that government expenditure can manipulate the economic growth of a country. This study attempts to explain whether government expenditure increases or decreases economic growth in the context of Sri Lanka. Results obtained employing a productive output series and applying an analytical framework based on second degree polynomial regression are generally consistent with previous findings: government expenditure and economic growth are positively correlated; excessive government expenditure is negatively correlated with economic growth; and investment promotes growth. In a separate section, the article examines Armey’s idea of a quadratic curve that explains the level of government expenditure in an economy and the corresponding level of economic growth [Armey, D. (1995. The Freedom Revolution. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing Co.]. The findings confirm the possibility of constructing the Armey curve for Sri Lanka, and it estimates the optimal level of government expenditure to be approximately 27%. This article adds to the literature indicating that the Armey curve is a reality not only for developed economies, but also for developing economies.

  8. Economic analysis of crystal growth in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, D. R.; Chung, A. M.; Yan, C. S.; Mccreight, L. R.

    1972-01-01

    Many advanced electronic technologies and devices for the 1980's are based on sophisticated compound single crystals, i.e. ceramic oxides and compound semiconductors. Space processing of these electronic crystals with maximum perfection, purity, and size is suggested. No ecomonic or technical justification was found for the growth of silicon single crystals for solid state electronic devices in space.

  9. Self-Serving Dictators and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haile, D.; Sadrieh, A.; Verbon, H.A.A.

    2003-01-01

    A new line of theoretical and empirical literature emphasizes the pivotal role of fair institutions for growth.We present a model, a laboratory experiment, and a simple cross-country regression supporting this view.We model an economy with an unequal distribution of property rights, in which

  10. Outward foreign direct investments and home country's economic growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciesielska, Dorota; Kołtuniak, Marcin

    2017-09-01

    The study examines the time stability of the causality direction and cross-correlations between the home country's economic growth and pace of growth of its outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) stocks within the complex system of the Polish national economy. The research has been performed in order to verify, using both the time and frequency domains time series analyses, if economic agents' long term decisions on outward foreign direct investments, leading to cross-border value chains and production fragmentation processes, are of adaptive or predictive character. Consequently, the aim was to check if the home country's economic growth leads the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises, which stays in line with Dunning's Investment Development Path (IDP) paradigm, or if these complex processes, thanks to entrepreneurs' ability to formulate relevant rational expectations, precede the home country's economic growth, which would be supported with the introduction of the policy on reinforcing the internationalization processes of domestic enterprises. The presence of the unidirectional economic growth-led internationalization, consistent with the IDP concept's base assumptions, has been ascertained by the results of the short term Granger causality tests. Nevertheless, the results of the wavelet analyses, supported with the results of the econometric block exogeneity long term causality Wald tests, have revealed that in the long term the OFDI stocks' growth permanently precedes the home country's economic growth, which stays in the unequivocal contrast with the IDP paradigm's premises, as well as with the indicated above short term Granger causality tests' outcomes and indicates that economic agents' choices are not strictly of adaptive but also of predictive character, which influences the current state of knowledge on economic complex systems' characteristics. Such a result is of a great importance in the light of the existence of the significant

  11. Subtle mechanisms of growth: technology and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glauco Arbix

    Full Text Available The article deals with obstacles faced by developing countries to reach economic development. Passivity in technological learning, low productivity in relation to developed economies, adoption of spurious competitive advantages and reproduction of technological delay are presented as challenges to overcome. It states that breaking the passive strategy is the only way for these countries to build a better future.

  12. Population growth, economic security, and cultural change in wilderness counties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul A. Lorah

    2000-01-01

    A familiar version of the “jobs versus the environment” argument asserts that wilderness areas limit economic growth by locking up potentially productive natural resources. Analysis of the development paths of rural Western counties shows that this is unlikely: the presence of Wilderness is correlated with income, employment and population growth. Similarly, Wilderness...

  13. Balance of Payments Constrained Economic Growth in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    modified by Thirwall and Hussain (1982) on Nigeria's economic growth to ... Results signify cointegration between our variables, lending support to ... the fact that the factor inputs have inconclusive roles in the growth process in developing ... towards public sector expansion at the expense of the private sector as well as a ...

  14. 150 Years of Italian CO2 Emissions and Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Annicchiarico, Barbara; Bennato, Anna Rita; Chini, Emilio Zanetti

    This paper examines the relationship between economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions in Italy considering the developments in a 150-year time span. Using several statistical techniques, we find that GDP growth and carbon dioxide emissions are strongly interrelated, with a dramatic change...

  15. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE ROLE OF FINANCIAL MARKETS IN ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen ALBU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Generally accepted in economic literature, the financial market has a positive impact on growth in a modern economy. Nevertheless, due to the global crises starting in 2008, a number of authors are questioning today about this assertion. Among them, there are authors which are attributing as initial impulse to the crisis an exaggerated expansion of financial market (and non-covered on the real side of economy. In this study, based on economic literature and empirical evidences, we are presentig few considerations regarding the development of financial market during last decades and its role on economic growth.

  16. Economic Limits to Corporate Growth in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    data ranges. Such simple models are certainly open to criticism , particularly that they do not incorporate factors likely to drive the growth...involved. This relationship stipulates higher expected returns for riskier endeavors. In the capital asset pricing model ( CAPM ), the relationship...premium associated with taking on risk levels different than that of the market. A model like the CAPM predicts that the only risk rewarded in the

  17. PRIORITIZING ECONOMIC GROWTH: ENHANCING MACROECONOMIC POLICY CHOICE

    OpenAIRE

    Colin I. BRADFORD, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    This paper spells out a logic for increasing macroeconomic policy space in order to prioritize the goals of growth, employment creation and poverty reduction. First, there is the need to create additional policy instruments so that a greater number of policy goals can be addressed. Frequently, real economy goals get partly crowded out by financial objectives because there are too few instruments for too many goals. Second, the calibrated use of policy tools by degrees of commitment, deploymen...

  18. South Africa: poised for economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuma, J. (African National Congress (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    South Africa is now emerging from the period of Apartheid. Elections will be held soon, but the economic damage caused by Apartheid has to be rectified. Partly this will be through an industrial strategy, and the minerals industry will play its part. The coal mining industry provides a large proportion of South Africa's exports and 90% of electricity. It is also the basis of a synfuels industry. The coal industry will continue to be an important source of exports, either directly, or as the provider of power to energy intensive industries such as aluminium production.

  19. CLUSTERS- SOURCES OF ECONOMIC GROWTH IN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin BORDEI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Global competition has evolved from the competition between companies to the competition between regions. In this context, clusters play an important role as competences’ concentration poles. The cluster initiatives represent concentrated efforts to increase the wealth and competitiveness in a certain region including companies, local administration, research and training institutions. This paper proposes the analysis of the European clusters’ role in ensuring the regional development. Resulted conclusions emphasize both the positive results of clusters’ existence, as well as the fields where improvements can be made in order to increase the clusters’ impact on the economic development.

  20. Economics of Future Growth in Photovoltaics Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basore, Paul A.; Chung, Donald; Buonassisi, Tonio

    2015-06-14

    The past decade's record of growth in the photovoltaics manufacturing industry indicates that global investment in manufacturing capacity for photovoltaic modules tends to increase in proportion to the size of the industry. The slope of this proportionality determines how fast the industry will grow in the future. Two key parameters determine this slope. One is the annual global investment in manufacturing capacity normalized to the manufacturing capacity for the previous year (capacity-normalized capital investment rate, CapIR, units $/W). The other is how much capital investment is required for each watt of annual manufacturing capacity, normalized to the service life of the assets (capacity-normalized capital demand rate, CapDR, units $/W). If these two parameters remain unchanged from the values they have held for the past few years, global manufacturing capacity will peak in the next few years and then decline. However, it only takes a small improvement in CapIR to ensure future growth in photovoltaics. Any accompanying improvement in CapDR will accelerate that growth.

  1. The Economics of Groundwater Replenishment for Reliable Urban Water Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Gao

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the potential economic benefits of water banking in aquifers to meet drought and emergency supplies for cities where the population is growing and changing climate has reduced the availability of water. A simplified case study based on the city of Perth, Australia was used to estimate the savings that could be achieved by water banking. Scenarios for investment in seawater desalination plants and groundwater replenishment were considered over a 20 year period of growing demand, using a Monte Carlo analysis that embedded the Markov model. An optimisation algorithm identified the minimum cost solutions that met specified criteria for supply reliability. The impact of depreciation of recharge credits was explored. The results revealed savings of more than A$1B (~US$1B or 37% to 33% of supply augmentation costs by including water banking in aquifers for 95% and 99.5% reliability of supply respectively. When the hypothetically assumed recharge credit depreciation rate was increased from 1% p.a. to 10% p.a. savings were still 33% to 31% for the same reliabilities. These preliminary results show that water banking in aquifers has potential to offer a highly attractive solution for efficiently increasing the security of urban water supplies where aquifers are suitable.

  2. Impact of urban environmental pollution on growth, leaf damage, and chemical constituents of Warsaw urban trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldemar Chmielewski; Wojciech Dmuchowski; Stanislaw Suplat

    1998-01-01

    In the last 10 years, 3.5 percent of the tree population died annually in PolandÕs largest and most polluted cities, which is a problem of economic importance. Dieback of streetside trees in Warsaw is a long term process. It is an effect of biological reactions of trees to unfavorable conditions in the urban environment, particularly air and soil pollution and water...

  3. Why is electricity consumption inconsistent with economic growth in China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Boqiang; Liu, Chang

    2016-01-01

    Studies have indicated that there exists a relatively stable and positive correlation between electricity consumption and economic growth and there should not be a large deviation between them. However, the deviation between electricity consumption and economic growth in China during the Asian Financial Crisis and Global Economic Crisis sparks intense debates. We attempt to explain the deviation from the perspective of inventory investment adjustment in the business cycle using the SVAR model in this paper. The results show that the effects of inventory investment adjustment shock and electricity consumption structure shock on the deviation are positive but tend to be negative for electricity efficiency shock. The results of historical decomposition of these shocks also show that the inventory investment adjustment shock is the main factor that influences the deviation during the Global Economic Crisis. Economic fluctuation in the short term can not change the economic development pattern and the characteristics of electricity demand. Once the economy returns to stable growth, the deviation between electricity consumption and economic growth will shrink and disappear soon. - Highlights: • We analyze the deviation between GDP and electricity consumption in business cycle. • The inventory investment adjustment mainly impacts the deviation in China. • Concentrated electricity consumption of heavy industry magnifies the deviation.

  4. Towards a solidarity economy zakat Decrease poverty vs economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mébarek BOUBLAL

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Historically, inequalities in the distribution of goods between men existed. Different economic policies have been developed in order to solve not only the problem of inequality, but also that of unemployment. The statistics speak for themselves; despite efforts provided, no solution has been able to solve this twofold problem. Indeed, we must understand that today's economy is primarily responsible for capital growth; support social policy is the responsibility of the welfare state. Policies such as the single tax , or flat tax and the social economy, or non profit sector, have emerged but not able to reconcile the dilemma posed by the management of the social side with economic growth and to help grow the capital. Consideration of zakat as a social economic system, or zakat solidarity economy, provides an opening to a third way. This pathway is ale to support the reduction of inequalities in redistribution and unemployment, without jeopardizing economic growth.

  5. Stock Market and Sustainable Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erasmus L Owusu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between stock market evolution and sustainable economic growth in Nigeria. The study employs Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag (ARDL-bounds testing approach and a combined stock market indicators index to examine the relationship. The paper finds that, in the long run, stock markets have no positive and at best mixed effect on economic growth in Nigeria. This finding supports the numerous past studies, which have reported negative/mixed or inconclusive results on the effects of stock markets on economic growth. The paper, therefore, concludes that, there is the need for increasing financial deepening and the removal of bottlenecks in the financial sectors of the economy by providing further public and institutional education on the value of stock markets for economic development.

  6. Some Peculiarities of the Economic Growth in ECOWAS Countries

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    Babacar NDIAYE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to determine some of the peculiarities of the economic growth in the countries from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS. Thus, the study is based on the country approach and uses econometric regression tests. In fact, in the context of the determination of the real GDP per capita growth rate of the countries in this region during the period 1987-2014, the results obtained show that it is still weak and unstable. Moreover, the weak convergence that has only been observed beginning with 2008 feeds the hope that ECOWAS can truly improve its level of development despite the heterogeneous nature of the countries. In order to overcome these difficulties, improving the socio-economic performance through the growth rate of real GDP per capita represents, among others, a necessity in relation to economic policy decisions.

  7. The Role of Agriculture on the Recent Brazilian Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Spolador, Humberto Francisco Silva; Roe, Terry L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the contribution of the Brazilian agriculture to economic growth of the Brazilian economy. It draws upon the Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) data base, and other time series data to construct a multi-sector Ramsey model that shows the transition growth of the Brazilian agricultural sector and its effects on growth of the Brazilian economy, with particular emphasis given to the years 1994–2010.

  8. The impact of remittances on economic growth: An econometric model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Meyer

    2017-05-01

    In other words, the econometric analysis will be based on those six remittance receiving countries. The paper is then to review the empirical literature devoted to the impact of remittances on economic growth, in order, to identify empirically if there are significant relationships between remittances and growth in these countries. The results suggest that remittances have a positive impact on growth and that this impact increases at higher levels of remittances relative to GDP.

  9. Capital Market Development: A Spur to Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail O. Fasanya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between capital market development and Nigeria’s economic growth using data covering the range of 1981 to 2010 using a Johansen Cointegration technique to test for long run relationship among the variables under study. The empirical findings from the research work suggest that the capital market is an essential catalyst for economic growth and is on the average and beneficial to the economy. However, the high costs of raising capital and structural imbalances in the market as well as inconsistent government policies may distorts the speedy growth of the market and thus, limit its positive impact on the economy.

  10. Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Revisited evidences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahamad, Mazbahul Golam, E-mail: mg.ahamad@gmail.com [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh); Islam, A.K.M. Nazrul, E-mail: nazrul2002@yahoo.com [Research Division, Centre for Policy Dialogue (CPD), House: 40C, Road: 11, Dhanmondi, Dhaka 1209 (Bangladesh)

    2011-10-15

    In this paper, an attempt is being made to examine the causal relationship between per capita electricity consumption and per capita GDP of Bangladesh using the vector error correction specified Granger causality test to search their short-run, long-run and joint causal relationships for the period of 1971-2008. Empirical findings reveal that there is a short-run unidirectional causal flow running from per capita electricity consumption to per capita GDP without feedback. The presence of a positive short-run causality explains that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic activity in Bangladesh. Likewise, results from joint causality exhibit the same as in short-run. By contrast, long-run results show a bi-directional causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. These findings can provide essential policy insights to design immediate and long-term growth prospect for Bangladesh keeping in mind its present planned growth strategy and dismal power and energy sector. - Highlights: > Short-run causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth. > Positive SR causality explains electricity generation directly affects economic growth. > For long run, causality runs from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. > Joint causality implies the same as in short-run.

  11. Electricity consumption and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh: Revisited evidences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahamad, Mazbahul Golam; Islam, A.K.M. Nazrul

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, an attempt is being made to examine the causal relationship between per capita electricity consumption and per capita GDP of Bangladesh using the vector error correction specified Granger causality test to search their short-run, long-run and joint causal relationships for the period of 1971-2008. Empirical findings reveal that there is a short-run unidirectional causal flow running from per capita electricity consumption to per capita GDP without feedback. The presence of a positive short-run causality explains that an increase in electricity consumption directly affects economic activity in Bangladesh. Likewise, results from joint causality exhibit the same as in short-run. By contrast, long-run results show a bi-directional causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. These findings can provide essential policy insights to design immediate and long-term growth prospect for Bangladesh keeping in mind its present planned growth strategy and dismal power and energy sector. - Highlights: → Short-run causality running from electricity consumption to economic growth. → Positive SR causality explains electricity generation directly affects economic growth. → For long run, causality runs from electricity consumption to economic growth with feedback. → Joint causality implies the same as in short-run.

  12. Economic growth and military expenditure linkages: a panel data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Shahid

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper has made an attempt to examine relationship between military expenditure and economic growth using 56 country panel data spanning over 1995—2011. Panel fixed effect model has been estimated for all 56 countries and sub-groups classified on the basis of World Bank income criteria. The results of this study indicate a positive effect of military expenditure on economic growth but this positive effect is negligible compared to the alternative uses of scare resources on non-military expenditure. Thus, the effect of military expenditure on economic growth is very low compared to the effect of expenditure on capital formation, hence military expenditure as a sub-optimal means of increasing economic growth compared to alternative uses of government spending on formation of fixed capital. This study raises an important argument of huge opportunity cost of military expenditure. The present study concludes that the boosting of economic growth through higher military expenditure is neither effective nor efficient way of achieving higher growth in the economy.

  13. An Attempt to Assess the Quantitative Impact of Institutions on Economic Growth and Economic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Próchniak Mariusz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at assessing to what extent institutional environment is responsible for worldwide differences in economic growth and economic development. To answer this question, we use an innovative approach based on a new concept of the institutions-augmented Solow model which is then estimated empirically using regression equations. The analysis covers 180 countries during the 1993-2012 period. The empirical analysis confirms a large positive impact of the quality of institutional environment on the level of economic development. The positive link has been evidenced for all five institutional indicators: two indices of economic freedom (Heritage Foundation and Fraser Institute, the governance indicator (World Bank, the democracy index (Freedom House, and the EBRD transition indicator for post-socialist countries. Differences in physical capital, human capital, and institutional environment explain about 70-75% of the worldwide differences in economic development. The institutions-augmented Solow model, however, performs slightly poorer in explaining differences in the rates of economic growth: only one institutional variable (index of economic freedom has a statistically significant impact on economic growth. In terms of originality, this paper extends the theoretical analysis of the Solow model by including institutions, on the one hand, and shows a comprehensive empirical analysis of the impact of various institutional indicators on both the level of development and the pace of economic growth, on the other. The results bring important policy implications.

  14. Urbanization and economic development: a bias toward large cities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, R L; Shatter, A M

    1996-01-01

    "We find that a nation's urban population percentage increases with GDP per capita; industrialization; export orientation; and possibly, foreign assistance. It decreases with the importance of agriculture. Industrialization and agricultural importance have the same implications for the concentration of urban population in cities with 100,000+ population as for the urban percentage. Greater export orientation reduces such concentration. Finally, GDP per capita, population, and export orientation reduce primacy. Political factors, such as whether a country's largest city is also its capital, affect primacy. Our results do not seem to imply that developing-country urbanization today differs fundamentally from urbanization in the past." excerpt

  15. Impacts of Seaport Investment on the Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar Ammar Jouili

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to estimate the impact of seaports investment on the economic growth. Seaports are seen by many governments as an important factor in the strengthening of the economies. During the last two decades, the Tunisian succeeding governments have been allocating a great amount of money to develop seaport infrastructures. However, the Tunisian economy witnessed fluctuations in the economic growth rates and decrease in the rate of employment during the same period of time. This study used an econometric model by employing the Cobb-Douglas production function. The sample was composed of Tunisia's economic sectors (manufacturing, services and agriculture over the period 1983-2011. The results of the study show that the public investment in seaport infrastructures has apositive influence on Tunisian economic growth. The study also revealed that the biggest beneficiary from the seaport investment infrastructure is the service sector.This paper aims to estimate the impact of seaports investment on the economic growth. The seaports are seen by many governments as an important factor in the strengthening of the economies. During the last two decades, the Tunisian succeeding governments were allocating a great amount of money to develop seaports' infrastructures. However, the Tunisian economy witnessed fluctuating in the economic growth rates and decreased in the rate of employment during the same period of time. This study used an econometric model by employing the Cobb-Douglas production function. The sample composed of Tunisia's economic sectors (manufacturing, services and agriculture over the period 1983-2011. The results of the study show that the public investment in seaports' infrastructures has a positive influence on Tunisian economic growth. The study also revealed that the biggest beneficiary from the seaports investment infrastructure is the services sector.

  16. Energy, Economic Growth and Environmental Sustainability: Five Propositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Sorrell

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper advances five linked and controversial propositions that have both deep historical roots and urgent contemporary relevance. These are: (a the rebound effects from energy efficiency improvements are significant and limit the potential for decoupling energy consumption from economic growth; (b the contribution of energy to productivity improvements and economic growth has been greatly underestimated; (c the pursuit of improved efficiency needs to be complemented by an ethic of sufficiency; (d sustainability is incompatible with continued economic growth in rich countries; and (e a zero-growth economy is incompatible with a fractional reserve banking system. These propositions run counter to conventional wisdom and each highlights either a "blind spot" or "taboo subject" that deserves closer scrutiny. While accepting one proposition reinforces the case for accepting the next, the former is neither necessary nor sufficient for the latter.

  17. Insurance Market Activity and Economic Growth: Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Chimobi Omoke

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this study is to empirically assess insurance market activities in Nigeria withthe view to determining its impact on economic growth. The period of study was 1970- 2008, thestudy made use of insurance density measures (premium per capita as a measure for insurancemarket activity and real GDP for economic growth. It also employed control variables such asinflation and savings rate as other determinants ofgrowth. The Johansen cointegration and vectorerror correction approach was used to estimate therelationship between the variables. All thevariables used were stationary at first differenceand the result showed a long term relationshipexisting among the variables. The hallmark findingof this study is that the insurance sector did notreveal any positively and significant affect on economic growth in Nigeria within the period of study.The result shows a low insurance market activity inNigeria and that Nigerians have not fully embracethe insurance industry despite its importance to the growth of theeconomy.

  18. Back to oil: Indonesia economic growth after Asian financial crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heru Iswahyudi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the growth experience of Indonesia in the years before and after the Asian financial crisis. Particular attention is paid to the relationship between economic growth and petroleum sector’s total factor productivity (TFP. It finds the possibility that post-crisis Indonesian economic growth has ‘recoupled’ with petroleum sector’s TFP – fluctuations in petroleum TFP is directly correlated with fluctuations in economic growth. Further, although keeping Indonesia’s petroleum sector open to fair competition should be the prime policy, the fact regarding resource nationalism might need to be taken into account in designing the policy to develop the productivity of Indonesia’s petroleum sector.

  19. Growth Versus Government Management Improvement During Economic Downturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podobnik, Boris; Baaquie, Belal E.; Bishop, Steven; Njavro, Djuro; Li, Baowen

    2013-04-01

    In estimating how economic growth depends on various inputs, economists commonly use long periods of data encompassing both main extremes to fluctuations in the economy: recession and expansion. Here we focus on recession years because during expansion even countries with bad economic policies may experience large growth. Specifically, we study how growth depends on the proportion of public-sector workforce, p and competitiveness, quantified by the Global Competitiveness Index, GCI. For the 2008-2011 economic downturn and for 57 countries, we find that the growth rate of GDP per capita, g, decreases with p, and increases with ΔGCI. Further, more competitive countries attract more foreign direct investments per capita, I, than less competitive countries, where I ~ GCIα. We propose a production function, divided into the private and public sectors, where GDP depends on market capitalization, the public (private)-sector workforce, and competitiveness level, used to quantify the public sector efficiency.

  20. CURRENT ACCOUNT DEFICIT AND ECONOMIC GROWTH IN ARMENIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arus Tunian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of the problem of economic growth in Armenia. It is identified the nature of the balance of payments of the country, indicating a net debtor position, which leads to inherent deterioration of the international investment position. A small open economy of Armenia moves to a new phase of development, in the frame of the integration processes within the Customs Union and the Eurasian Economic Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan. One of the main characteristics of the Armenian economy vulnerability remains a negative balance in foreign trade, which continues to grow, despite the export growth. Economic growth is provided, as before, mostly due to the sale of raw materials - non-ferrous metals and metal ores, both in the primary as well as in the previous preprocessing. Estimating the econometric VAR models revealed that the negative current account impacts on GDP growth negatively.

  1. Do Corruption and Social Trust affect Economic Growth? A Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlew, Søren; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    Two separate literatures suggest that corruption and social trust, respectively, are related to economic growth, although the strengths of the relationships, and the direction of causality, are still debated. In this paper, we review these literatures and evaluate the evidence for causal effects...... of corruption and trust on economic growth, and discuss how corruption and trust are interrelated. The reviews show that absence of corruption and high levels of social trust foster economic growth. The literatures also indicate that corruption has a causal effect on social trust, while the opposite effect...... is more uncertain. In the conclusion, we offer the suggestion that fighting corruption may yield a “double dividend”, as reduced corruption is likely to have both direct and indirect effects on growth....

  2. Unstable periodic orbits and chaotic economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiyama, K.; Saiki, Y.

    2005-01-01

    We numerically find many unstable periodic solutions embedded in a chaotic attractor in a macroeconomic growth cycle model of two countries with different fiscal policies, and we focus on a special type of the unstable periodic solutions. It is confirmed that chaotic behavior represented by the model is qualitatively and quantitatively related to the unstable periodic solutions. We point out that the structure of a chaotic solution is dissolved into a class of finite unstable periodic solutions picked out among a large number of periodic solutions. In this context it is essential for the unstable periodic solutions to be embedded in the chaotic attractor

  3. Human Capital and Economic Growth - How Strong is the Nexus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinko Škare

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The link between human capital and economic growth still remains unexplained because of the measurement issues connected to the human capital stock. This study investigates the link between human capital stock and economic growth using inclusive wealth index and ratio of engaged to actively disengaged employees as proxy for human capital stock. Data from the global workplace and inclusive wealth reports are used in order to provide an international comparison of the link between human capital and inclusive wealth. Cross country comparison show human capital largerly contribute to the inclusive wealth formation. Formal education is important but also motivating working environment is needed to achieve sustainable economic growth. The finding further indicates that standard human capital growth model should be revised taking into the account variables addressing sustainable growth (not just growth and environmental variables (work conditions affecting human capital stock. Countries encouraging investments in the development of individuals both through formal education and inspiring work environments achieve higher sustainable economic growth

  4. Remittances, financial development and economic growth: Empirical evidence from Lesotho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athenia Bongani Sibindi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly remittances now constitute a great source of foreign currency inflows for many developing countries. In some instances remittances have outpaced the growth of foreign direct investment (FDI. Amongst others, remittances can be used as a vehicle of savings mobilisation as well as fostering the supply of credit by providing liquidity to the market. In this article we investigate the causal relationship between the remittances, financial development and economic growth in Lesotho for the period 1975 to 2010. We make use of per capita remittances, real per capita broad money supply and real per capita growth domestic product as the proxies for remittances, financial development and economic growth respectively. We then test for cointegration amongst the variables by applying the Johansen procedure and then test for Granger causality based on the vector error correction model (VECM. Our results confirm the existence of at least one cointegrating relationship and also indicate that the direction of causality runs from remittances to the economy without feedback. The results also suggest that financial development Granger causes economic growth without feedback which is consistent with ‘supply-leading’ growth hypothesis. The results also confirm a causal relationship running from financial development to remittances without feedback. The results also lend credence to the “complementarity’ hypothesis in that, remittances complement rather than substitute financial development in bringing about economic growth.

  5. Electricity Consumption, Carbon Emissions and Economic Growth in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godwin Effiong Akpan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies a Multivariate Vector Error Correction (VECM framework to examine the long run and causal relationship between electricity consumption, carbon emissions and economic growth in Nigeria. Using annual time series data for 1970 to 2008, findings show that in the long run, economic growth is associated with increase carbon emissions, while an increase in electricity consumption leads to an increase in carbon emissions. These imply that Nigeria’s growth process is pollution intensive, while the negative relationship between electricity consumption (or positive relationship between electricity consumption and emissions in Nigeria is a clear indication that electricity consumption in the country has intensified carbon emissions. No support was obtained for the hypothesized environmental Kuznets curve (EKC. Granger-causality results confirm a unidirectional causality running from economic growth to carbon emissions, indicating that carbon emissions reduction policies could be pursued without reducing economic growth in Nigeria. No causality was found between electricity and growth, in either way, which further lends credence to the crisis in the Nigerian electricity sector. Overall, the paper submits that efficient planning and increased investment in electricity infrastructure development may be the crucial missing variable in the obtained neutrality hypothesis between electricity and growth.

  6. A critical realist perspective on decoupling negative environmental impacts from housing sector growth and economic growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xue, Jin

    2012-01-01

    The question that motivates this article has been a matter of dispute: Is it possible to combine perpetual economic growth and longterm environmental sustainability based on the premise that economic growth can be fully decoupled from negative environmental impacts? The article addresses...... this question from the position of critical realism. An empirical study focusing on the housing sector is conducted, indicating that housing stock growth and economic growth have been, at best, weakly decoupled from environmental impacts. In the long run, it seems implausible that the degree of decoupling can...... be increased at a rate sufficient to compensate for continual growth in the volume of housing stock. A further elaboration of the topic at an ontological level leads to the conclusion that continual economic growth and long-term environmental sustainability can hardly be combined....

  7. The interiorization of Brazilian violence, policing, and economic growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Steeves

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazilian homicide rates are among the highest in the world, inclusive of actual war zones. However, the character of Brazil's violence is changing. Recent analyses highlight a trend of dispersion of violence such that homicide rates in urban areas, traditionally the most violent places, have stagnated and declined while smaller cities and rural areas experienced a marked increase. An incipient explanation is that this trend is related to greater economic dynamism in the smaller cities, unaccompanied by increased policing. This article's empirical analysis uses locational Hoover indexes to express the dispersions of violence and economic activity, and also generates a proxy to measure the geographic concentration of police forces. Using panel data across all 26 states from 1995 to 2011, we find evidence of a correlation between dispersion of violence and GDP to less urban areas, and ambiguous results regarding police concentration.

  8. Rapid Urban Growth and Land Use Patterns in Doha, Qatar: Opportunities for Sustainability?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek Shandas

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Amidst chaotic growth of Asian cities, the expansion of urban infrastructure in the Middle East's Gulf region is arguably outpacing any other region on the planet. Yet we have a limited understanding of the types of urban form or the extent to which this rapid urbanization is giving rise to sustainable patterns of growth. We ask, what is the pace and character of urban growth in one Middle East city, Doha, Qatar. By using remotely sensed imagery from 1987 to 2013, we examined the pace, quality, and characteristics of urban growth. We further use the results to create a typology of urban growth that integrates historical and spatial dimensions for describing the qualitative aspects of growth and its implications on regional landscapes. Our results suggest that Doha is creating development patterns similar to many Western cities, and that planners may need to consider whether the emerging urban form offers opportunities for more sustainable growth in the future.

  9. Accessing on the sustainability of urban ecological-economic systems by means of a coupled emergy and system dynamics model: A case study of Beijing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Wei; An, Haizhong; Li, Huajiao; Gao, Xiangyun; Sun, Xiaoqi; Zhong, Weiqiong

    2017-01-01

    Due to high population densities and rapid economic development, great number of cities worldwide rely heavily on external resources, and many are experiencing serious environmental pollution. Municipal governments are facing the issue of balancing the relationship between economic growth and environmental preservation. An urban system is an open, complex, dynamic ecological-economic system with different types of materials and resources. This paper combines emergy theory and System Dynamics (SD) and establishes an emergy-flow SD model of an urban eco-economic system that includes economic, population, waste and emergy sub-models. Three scenarios with different economic growth rates and investments in environmental preservation are designed to analyze the sustainable development capacity of Beijing under different scenarios. The results of the analysis show that current economic development in Beijing highly depends on resources consumption, especially the consumption of imported resources. Based on the current growth rate, development in Beijing will heavily depend on external resources that may make the system being more fragile in the future. A lower economic growth rate and a small increase in environmental preservation investment are more suitable for in Beijing than area higher economic growth rate and a large increase in environmental preservation investment. - Highlights: • A Systems Dynamics model simulating urban emergy flows is set up. • Current economic development of Beijing depends on high consumption of resources. • Beijing has extreme and increasing dependence on external resources. • Beijing relies heavily on nonrenewable resources and its development is unsustainable. • Low GDP growth is better than high GDP growth with increased environmental investment.

  10. Tax Evasion and Economic Growth in an Endogenous Growth Model

    OpenAIRE

    加藤, 秀弥; KATO, Hideya

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an endogenous growth model with tax evasion where government expenditures affect production. An individual evades a tax so as to maximize his or her utility, the tax authority controls the detection probability to maximize net tax revenue, and the government chooses the income tax rate to maximize individuals’ utility. The main conclusions are as follows. First, the optical income tax rate with tax evasion is higher than that without tax evasion. Second, the rise in a ...

  11. Health, "illth," and economic growth: medicine, environment, and economics at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Garry

    2009-07-01

    Economic growth has been the single biggest contributor to population health since the Industrial Revolution. The growth paradigm, by definition, is dynamic, implying similar diminishing returns on investment at both the macro- and the micro-economic levels. Changes in patterns of health in developing countries, from predominantly microbial-related infectious diseases to lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes) beyond a point of economic growth described as the epidemiologic transition, suggest the start of certain declining benefits from further investment in the growth model. These changes are reflected in slowing improvements in some health indices (e.g., mortality, infant mortality) and deterioration in others (e.g., disability-associated life years, obesity, chronic diseases). Adverse environmental consequences, such as climate change from economic development, are also related to disease outcomes through the development of inflammatory processes due to an immune reaction to new environmental and lifestyle-related inducers. Both increases in chronic disease and climate change can be seen as growth problems with a similar economic cause and potential economic and public health-rather than personal health-solutions. Some common approaches for dealing with both are discussed, with a plea for greater involvement by health scientists in the economic and environmental debates in order to deal effectively with issues like obesity and chronic disease.

  12. WHEN GROWTH IS NO LONGER THE NORM: TEACHING URBAN DESIGN IN A TIME OF TRANSFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Shetty

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, there has been increasing interest in cities that are rapidly losing population, so-called shrinking cities. This is becoming a global phenomenon, with shrinking cities found on every continent. The decline has been attributed variously to changing demographics, suburbanization, postsocialist transformation and deindustrialization. We are just beginning to develop approaches to dealing with shrinkage and its consequences – vacancy, abandonment, and limited public and private resources. However, there is currently little faith in the ability of design-related disciplines to deal with shrinking cities. Some authors argue that disciplines such as architecture, urban design and urban planning have always planned for growth and have reached their limits when dealing with shrinking cities (Oswalt, 2006. Still others suggest that restructuring should be seen as an opportunity (Vey, 2007. This paper challenges the first view and responds to the second by suggesting that design education can and must respond to these new realities. It critically examines a collaborative urban design studio that was part of an attempt to transform a part of a shrinking city in the American ‘rustbelt.’ The city, once a flourishing manufacturing center, is now facing steep economic decline along with the decline of the auto industry. It is also home to a university that is beginning efforts to revitalize neighborhoods adjacent to the campus. The studio, which brought together architecture and urban planning students from two different universities to work on a section of the city including the campus area, suggests possibilities for preparing students to work in an environment where economic growth is no longer the norm. The following lessons emerged: 1 In a shrinking city, urban designers may need to focus less on designing the solids and more on meeting the challenges of the voids. 2 In spite of urban design’s historical bias towards

  13. Energy consumption, pollutant emissions and economic growth in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menyah, Kojo [London Metropolitan Business School, London Metropolitan University (United Kingdom); Wolde-Rufael, Yemane [Independent Researcher (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    This paper examines the long-run and the causal relationship between economic growth, pollutant emissions and energy consumption for South Africa for the period 1965-2006 in a multivariate framework which includes labour and capital as additional variables. Using the bound test approach to cointegration, we found a short-run as well as a long-run relationship among the variables with a positive and a statistically significant relationship between pollutant emissions and economic growth. Further, applying a modified version of the Granger causality test we also found a unidirectional causality running from pollutant emissions to economic growth; from energy consumption to economic growth and from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions all without a feedback. The econometric evidence suggests that South Africa has to sacrifice economic growth or reduce its energy consumption per unit of output or both in order to reduce pollutant emissions. In the long-run however, it is possible to meet the energy needs of the country and at the same time reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by developing energy alternatives to coal, the main source of CO{sub 2} emissions. However, the econometric results upon which the policy suggestions are made should be interpreted with care, as they may not be sufficiently robust enough to categorically warrant the choice of an unpalatable policy option by South Africa. (author)

  14. The economic growth enigma: Capital, labour and useful energy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayres, Robert; Voudouris, Vlasios

    2014-01-01

    We show that the application of flexible semi-parametric statistical techniques enables significant improvements in model fitting of macroeconomic models. As applied to the explanation of the past economic growth (since 1900) in US, UK and Japan, the new results demonstrate quite conclusively the non-linear relationships between capital, labour and useful energy with economic growth. They also indicate that output elasticities of capital, labour and useful energy are extremely variable over time. We suggest that these results confirm the economic intuition that growth since the industrial revolution has been driven largely by declining energy costs due to the discovery and exploitation of relatively inexpensive fossil fuel resources. Implications for the 21st century, which are also discussed briefly by exploring the implications of an ACEGES-based scenario of oil production, are as follows: (a) the provision of adequate and affordable quantities of useful energy as a pre-condition for economic growth and (b) the design of energy systems as ‘technology incubators’ for a prosperous 21st century. - Highlights: • Economic growth needs three factors of production. • We propose a semi-parametric generalised production function. • Exploitation of inexpensive fossil fuel resources has profound policy implications

  15. FDI in Tourism Sector and Economic Growth in Sumatra Utara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parhimpunan Simatupang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and neo liberal policies such as liberalization and privatization have generated a significant growth for FDI and considered an important source for capital and foreign currency, capable of spurring economic growth in developing countries. One sector that received particular attention, due to its significant contributions towards economic development, especially in Indonesia, is tourism. Tourism investments in Indonesia are mainly focused on the development of fully-integrated resort sites that help boost the construction of tourist facilities such as hotels and the development of the surrounding environment through social and cultural aspects. The total contribution of travel and tourism to GDP was IDR736.3 billion or 8.9% of GDP in 2012. Foreign direct tourism investments grew by 210% between 2011 and 2012, or at an annual compound average growth rate of 38% between 2006 and 2012. While the implications are at national level, not much could be gathered on the local perspectives. This paper intends to explore the implication of FDI in tourism sector towards economic growth in one of tourism attraction provinces in Indonesia—Sumatra Utara. Specifically, which economic factors contributed towards FDI inflows and their impacts on economic growth in Sumatra Utara.

  16. 136 Tax Revenue, Stock Market and Economic Growth of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Irfan Javaid Attari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of capital market and fiscal policy influences in determining the nexus of economic growth in Pakistan from July 2003 to July 2012. The authors utilize ADF unit root test, Johansen Cointegration test, VECM test, Granger causality test and variance decomposition analysis to test the relationship among tax revenue, stock market and economic growth in Pakistan. Granger causality analysis is used to answer questions whether “Does tax revenue cause the economic growth?” or “Does tax revenue cause the capital market?”. The results demonstrate that there is a bidirectional casualty between tax revenue and economic growth; and a unidirectional causality from capital market to tax revenue. The estimated result shows that growth of Pakistan economy is strongly contributed from the high collection of direct tax revenue and the development of financial market activity. The findings of this paper have important implications to current and potential investors in Pakistan economy to understand the economic condition of Pakistan and to assist them in making their investment decision.

  17. THE TERTIARY CIVILIZATION – CONCEPT OF THE ECONOMIC GROWTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Liliana CIOBAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Providing services has become the most important sector of the economy and the main dynamic factor of the economic competition, within the developed countries economies. In such economies, the sector of economies has assimilated the workforce issued in the other sector, when this over plus of labor force represented simultaneously the cause of its expansion. The services have had a double part: they contribute on both the material entertainment of the labor force, as well as on maintaining the reestablishment of people’s health, to their physical and intellectual recovery, to the development of the individual, as regards the cultural and scientific points of view, and implicitly, to the growth of the living standards. For the time being, one can characterize the economies of the developed countries, as well as of many other countries in progress of development, as services oriented economies; the development and diversification of services has been determined by the need of satisfying diversified social needs. In this way, the part of services aims on becoming proportional to their contribution within the process of economic growth. One can definitely say that between services and the economic growth, a double conditioning takes place, meaning: on one hand, the development of services appears as a consequence of the economic growth, and on the other hand, it grows up the economic growth, thus contributing on diversifying the production and on improving the level of training or qualification of the labor force.

  18. Poverty and Economic Growth in Swaziland: An Empirical Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelique G. Nindi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the causal relationship between poverty reduction and economic growth in Swaziland during the period 1980–2011. Unlike some of the previous studies, the current study uses the newly developed ARDL-bounds testing approach to co-integration, and the ECM-based Granger causality method to examine this linkage. The study also incorporates financial development as a third variable affecting both poverty reduction and economic growth – thereby leading to a trivariate model. The results of this study show that economic growth does not Granger cause poverty reduction in Swaziland – either in the short run or in the long run. Instead, the study finds a causal flow from poverty reduction to economic growth in the short run. These findings, however, are not surprising, given the high level of income inequality in Swaziland. Studies have shown that when the level of income inequality is too high, economic growth alone may not necessarily lead to poverty reduction.

  19. Does Economic Growth Reduce Childhood Undernutrition in Ethiopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadgilign, Sibhatu; Shumetie, Arega; Yesigat, Habtamu

    2016-01-01

    Policy discussions and debates in the last couple of decades emphasized efficiency of development policies for translating economic growth to development. One of the key aspects in this regard in the developing world is achieving improved nutrition through economic development. Nonetheless, there is a dearth of literature that empirically verifies the association between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in low- and middle-income countries. Thus, the aim of the study is to assess the interplay between economic growth and reduction of childhood undernutrition in Ethiopia. The study used pooled data of three rounds (2000, 2005 and 2010) from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) of Ethiopia. A multilevel mixed logistic regression model with robust standard errors was utilized in order to account for the hierarchical nature of the data. The dependent variables were stunting, underweight, and wasting in children in the household. The main independent variable was real per capita income (PCI) that was adjusted for purchasing power parity. This information was obtained from World Bank. A total of 32,610 children were included in the pooled analysis. Overall, 11,296 (46.7%) [46.0%-47.3%], 8,197(33.8%) [33.2%-34.4%] and 3,175(13.1%) [12.7%-13.5%] were stunted, underweight, and wasted, respectively. We found a strong correlation between prevalence of early childhood undernutrition outcomes and real per capita income (PCI). The proportions of stunting (r = -0.1207, peconomic growth substantially reduced stunting [β = -0.0016, SE = 0.00013, pEconomic growth reduces child undernutrition in Ethiopia. This verifies the fact that the economic growth of the country accompanied with socio-economic development and improvement of the livelihood of the poor. Direct nutrition specific and nutrition sensitive interventions could also be recommended in order to have an impact on the massive reduction of childhood undernutrition in the country.

  20. Spatiotemporal Effects of Climate Variability and Urban Growth on the "Valle de Toluca" Aquifer (Mexico)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Diaz-Delgado, C.; Esteller, M. V.; Gomez-Albores, M. A.; Becerril, R.; Ruiz-Gomez, M. D.

    2013-05-01

    Toluca city is located in the "Valle de Toluca" at the upper course of the Lerma river basin, is an important economic center which contributes with 1.2% of Gross National Product (GNP) since it is an industrial city, The city has grown due to the economic development sustained by the "Valle de Toluca" aquifer which provides water for human consumption, industrial facilities and crop irrigation. Recent studies have shown that in the last 50 years the annual precipitation rate in Toluca has increased 122 mm, whereas the daily minimum temperature has increased 1.1 °C and the daily maximum temperature has also increased 0.8 °C. These results show a general overview of the change in the climate conditions of the city; however they do not show the spatial distribution of the change. For this reason, the aim of this work was to evaluate the spatiotemporal change of precipitation rates and urban growth in order to determine their effects over the "Valle de Toluca" aquifer. In order to detect the urban growth, a supervised classification technique has been used taking into account Landsat TM satellite images between 1973, 1986, 2000 and 2005. A yearly spatiotemporal raster set of rainfall rates from 1980 to 2010 were obtained interpolating data from 812 climatologic stations. To evaluate the effect in annual precipitation rates and urban growth over the aquifer, we interpolate data from 38 piezometers from 1980 to 2010 to obtain a spatiotemporal raster set. The piezometric values correspond to the aquifer's upper level. The spatiotemporal raster sets were analyzed with the non-parametric Theil-Sen test to determine trends in piezometric levels and precipitation rates. Finally the urban growth, spatial-temporal trends of precipitation rates and piezometric levels were displayed in a GIS and then subjectively analyzed to figure out coincidences. An increase in annual precipitation rates (+87 mm) over Toluca's Valley during the last three decades was observed specially

  1. Urban growth in American cities : glimpses of U.S. urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auch, Roger; Taylor, Janis; Acevedo, William

    2004-01-01

    The Earth's surface is changing rapidly. Changes are local, regional, national, and even global in scope. Some changes have natural causes, such as earthquakes or drought. Other changes, such as urban expansion, agricultural intensification, resource extraction, and water resources development, are examples of human-induced change that have significant impact upon people, the economy, and resources. The consequences that result from these changes are often dramatic and widespread (Buchanan, Acevedo, and Zirbes, 2002)It is the role of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to provide useful and relevant scientific information both to the agencies within the Department of the Interior and to the Nation in general. In an effort to comply with this task, USGS scientists are assessing the status of, and the trends in, the Nation's land surface. This assessment provides useful information for regional and national land use decisionmaking. This knowledge can be used to deal with issues of significance to the Nation, such as quality-of-life, ecology of urban environments, ecosystem health, ecological integrity, water quality and quantity concerns, resource availability, vulnerability to natural hazards, safeguards to human health, air and land quality, and accessibility to scientific information. Results of these assessments can also be analyzed to reveal rates and trends in land use change. Results from urban growth studies provide a firm foundation for continuing research that explores the consequences of human modification of the landscape.The USGS seeks to illustrate and explain the spatial history of urban growth and corresponding land use change. Scientists are studying urban environments from a regional perspective and a time scale of decades to measure the changes that have occurred in order to help understand the impact of anticipated changes in the future.Within this booklet are pairs of images of selected urbanized regions from across the Nation. These image pairs

  2. Convergence and economic growth in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Bautista-Díaz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente, se ha puesto mucha atención en lo escrito sobre crecimiento económico, el fenómeno de convergencia condicional o la tendencia de las economías regionales con niveles bajos de ingreso a un crecimiento rápido, como condicional en su tasa de acumulación de factores. El estudio utiliza teorías neoclásicas de crecimiento estandarizadas, para obtener la aproximación empírica de la hipótesis de convergencia sobre el capital humano entre los 31 estados y el Distrito Federal en México, utilizando índices de educación. El estudio encuentra que la tasa anual de convergencia de capital humano per cápita en México oscila del 3.55 al 4.58 por ciento. También estima la convergencia de ingreso per cápita condicional en variables de capital humano.

  3. China and India: Openness, Trade and Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marelli, Enrico

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the economic growth of China and India in terms of their integration in the global economy. We begin with a discussion of some stylized facts concerning their recent economic growth, the most significant institutional reforms, with particular reference to trade relations, and their impact on their economic development. We then propose a descriptive analysis of economic growth, opening up of the economies and trade specialisation, by comparing the features and trends of the two countries (by considering trade and foreign direct investment data. We have also estimated some econometric relations between economic growth and trade/openness, with the addition of control variables (such as the gross fixed capital formation. We initially used a panel data model for the two countries, to be estimated with fixed effects; to test for reverse causality, we re-estimated the fixed effects model by 2SLS (with the inclusion of specific instrumental variables. The effect on economic growth (in terms of GDP per capita of our variables of interest - Openness and FDI - remains positive and statistically significant in all specifications, which confirms our findings even if we treat these variables as endogenous variables. The results prove the positive growth effects, for the two countries, of opening up and integrating in the world economy. Note that the robust growth of these two "giants" has contained the initial impact of the recent global crisis and is now sustaining the recovery of the entire world economy. Other policy relevant implications are discussed in the concluding section.

  4. Modeling the dynamics of urban growth using multinomial logistic regression: a case study of Jiayu County, Hubei Province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nong, Yu; Du, Qingyun; Wang, Kun; Miao, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei

    2008-10-01

    Urban growth modeling, one of the most important aspects of land use and land cover change study, has attracted substantial attention because it helps to comprehend the mechanisms of land use change thus helps relevant policies made. This study applied multinomial logistic regression to model urban growth in the Jiayu county of Hubei province, China to discover the relationship between urban growth and the driving forces of which biophysical and social-economic factors are selected as independent variables. This type of regression is similar to binary logistic regression, but it is more general because the dependent variable is not restricted to two categories, as those previous studies did. The multinomial one can simulate the process of multiple land use competition between urban land, bare land, cultivated land and orchard land. Taking the land use type of Urban as reference category, parameters could be estimated with odds ratio. A probability map is generated from the model to predict where urban growth will occur as a result of the computation.

  5. India in the urban revolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijman, J.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade, India’s development has featured rapid economic growth and unprecedented urbanization. Using preliminary results from the 2011 Census and recent macro-economic data, this paper analyses the relationship between urbanization and economic development in India. While urbanization is

  6. The Impact of Regional Disparities on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk Gurgul

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigated how economic growth affects the disparity in the distribution of regional income in Poland and vice versa. The research was based on annual data covering the period 2000-2009. In general, the research was divided into two main parts. First, the authors examined the evolution of the level of spatial inequalities in income in Poland over the last decade using the concepts of sigma and beta convergence. Next the nature of causal dependences was investigated between this inequality and economic growth. It was found that Polish regions did not converge with respect to the distribution of income as total GDP grew. The second part of the research provided evidence to claim that this inequality caused growth. Moreover, the evidence was also found that growth affected regional inequality. Finally, the authors noticed that the effects of both these factors were positive. The results suggest that as a consequence of rapid economic growth, some regions in Poland seized new opportunities, while less developed regions were unable to keep up with the challenging requirements of a decade of fast economic growth. (original abstract

  7. Variability in urban soils influences the health and growth of native tree seedlings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara C. Pregitzer; Nancy F. Sonti; Richard A. Hallett

    2016-01-01

    Reforesting degraded urban landscapes is important due to the many benefits urban forests provide. Urban soils are highly variable, yet little is known about how this variability in urban soils influences tree seedling performance and survival. We conducted a greenhouse study to assess health, growth, and survival of four native tree species growing in native glacial...

  8. Determinants of Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Russian Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Ledyaeva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A modification of Barro and Sala-i-Martin empirical framework of growth model is specified to examine determinants of per capita growth in 74 Russian regions during period of 1996-2005. We utilize both panel and cross-sectional data. Results imply that in general regional growth in 1996-2005 is explained by the initial level of region's economic development, the 1998 financial crisis, domestic investments, and exports. Growth convergence between poor and rich regions in Russia was not found for the period studied.

  9. The Dynamic Effects of Entrepreneurship on Regional Economic Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matejovsky, Lukas; Mohapatra, Sandeep; Steiner, Bodo

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the temporal pattern of income disparity for Canadian provinces in two estimation steps. First, an econometric growth regression model is applied to identify the impact of entrepreneurship on regional economic growth. The estimation results suggest that entrepreneurship......, measured in terms of the selfemployment rate, plays a pivotal role in determining regional development in Canada. Second, a dynamic vector autoregression (VAR) model is employed to predict the long-run regional growth effects that result from policy shocks affecting entrepreneurship. Compared to other...... growth drivers, entrepreneurship is found to have more pronounced and long-term stimulative effects on regional development for the period of 1987 to 2007...

  10. [Doctoral thesis: Demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabo, K

    1999-12-01

    A doctoral thesis is described analyzing the relationships between demographic growth and economic and social development in Mali. The hypothesis is stated that demographic growth impedes economic development and any improvement in populations¿ standards of living. The hypothesis was verified using data for the period from 1960 to the present. Over that period, Mali conducted two general population censuses in 1976 and 1987, as well as several demographic research studies. The thesis is comprised of 4 parts, of which the first generally describes Mali. The second part analyzes the relationship between population growth and economic and social development in Mali. Study results are presented, followed by an analysis of the effects of economic and social development upon population growth in Mali through factors such as urbanization, education level, literacy, income, employment, occupation, gross domestic or gross national product by inhabitant, infant mortality rate, life expectancy at birth, contraceptive practice, fertility opinions and desires, women¿s status, and migration in Mali. Analysis indicates that Mali has not completely begun its demographic transition, but that traditional pronatalist behaviors are changing. Population policies and programs are explored in the third part of the thesis, followed by the fourth part which focuses upon methodological questions.

  11. Energy and economic growth: Grounding our understanding in physical reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ockwell, David G.

    2008-01-01

    This article attempts to summarise the complex, wide ranging and unresolved debate within the economics literature on the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use. It explores the difference between neo-classical and ecological economic worldviews and highlights how the ecological economic approach attempts to ground its analysis within the physical limits implied by the laws of thermodynamics. Once these laws are accounted for, the possibility of decoupling economic growth from energy use seems more limited than neo-classical economics implies. Analysis of empirical evidence also demonstrates that observed improvements in GDP/energy use ratios in the USA are better explained by shifts towards higher quality fuels than by improvements in the energy efficiency of technologies. This implies a need to focus on decarbonising energy supply. Furthermore, where energy-efficiency improvements are attempted, they must be considered within the context of a possible rebound effect, which implies that net economy-wide energy savings from energy-efficiency improvements may not be as large as the energy saved directly from the efficiency improvement itself. Both decarbonising energy supply and improving energy efficiency require the rapid development and deployment of new and existing low-carbon technologies. This review therefore concludes by briefly outlining areas of economic thought that have emerged as a result of engagement between economists and experts from other disciplines. They include ecological, evolutionary and institutional economics, all of which can make policy-relevant contributions to achieving a transition to a low-carbon economy

  12. Modeling Urban Collaborative Growth Dynamics Using a Multiscale Simulation Model for the Wuhan Urban Agglomeration Area, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Yu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban agglomeration has become the predominant form of urbanization in China. In this process, spatial interaction evidently played a significant role in promoting the collaborative development of these correlated cities. The traditional urban model’s focus on individual cities should be transformed to an urban system model. In this study, a multi-scale simulation model has been proposed to simulate the agglomeration development process of the Wuhan urban agglomeration area by embedding the multi-scale spatial interaction into the transition rule system of cellular automata (CA. A system dynamic model was used to predict the demand for new urban land at an aggregated urban agglomeration area scale. A data field approach was adopted to measuring the interaction of intercity at city scale. Neighborhood interaction was interpreted with a logistic regression method at the land parcel scale. Land use data from 1995, 2005, and 2015 were used to calibrate and evaluate the model. The simulation results show that there has been continuing urban growth in the Wuhan urban agglomeration area from 1995 to 2020. Although extension-sprawl was the predominant pattern of urban spatial expansion, the trend of extensive growth to intensive growth is clear during the entire period. The spatial interaction among these cities has been reinforced, which guided the collaborative development and formed the regional urban system network.

  13. Technical conditions for sustainable growth in economic theory. An analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granda C, Catalina

    2008-01-01

    Economic theory and its models point out returns to scale, substitution among productive factors and technological progress as conditions for sustainable growth. This work aims at a critical appraisal of these conditions, particularly the ones related to substitution between natural resources and manmade capital and technical change, by recognizing the inevitable physical scarcity of resources concomitant to the human actions in a world governed by hemodynamic restrictions. To do so, the role that the mentioned conditions play in the theories of economic growth with resources is analyzed, and its limitations and objections from a biophysical perspective are indicated as well. Finally, a brief consideration as to how inappropriate the theoretical representations of economic activities are to take account of growth in spite of resource exhaustion or degradation is carried out

  14. FDI and Economic Growth in Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe H. Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the major trends in scholarship about the role of FDI and exports on economic growth, the effect of tax policies on FDI, the formation of the economic catch up of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region and the determinants of FDI inflows in CEE nations. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated the influence of FDI on host country economic growth, the inward FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, the features and restrictions of fiscal schemes in CEE economies and the institutional soundness displayed in policies towards FDI. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on FDI as a mechanism in the transition to the market, the dissimilarities in the FDI-assisted development methods among the CEE nations, the impact of FDI inflows for productivity convergence in CEE and the current slowing of growth in emerging Europe.

  15. The Rapid Urban Growth Triad: A New Conceptual Framework for Examining the Urban Transition in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Farrell

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the urban transition is a universal event that unfolds in all countries, the determinants, patterns, and outcomes do not necessarily follow a uniform process. With the urban transition being basically completed in developed countries around the turn of the 21st century, the growth of cities today is almost entirely confined to developing countries. Still, much of our conceptual understanding of this process is derived from earlier accounts, with definitions rooted in a historical context. This has resulted in common misconceptions such as a tendency to view the growth of cities primarily as an outcome of rural to urban migration, neglecting the growing contributions of urban natural population increase and reclassification of rural areas. A tendency to treat the components of urban growth in isolation has created a rift within the urban studies discourse, preventing any real theorization of their combined impacts and the interplay among them. Applying a systems thinking approach, this paper introduces a multidisciplinary framework for conceptualizing rapid urban growth in developing countries. The framework offers explanatory power to previously neglected components of urban growth and serves as a diagnostic for examining the urban transition—ultimately revealing new policy levers for managing it in a sustainable way.

  16. One interpretation of the low economic growth in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac, Sánchez Juárez

    2011-01-01

    Since 1982 the Mexican economy was characterized by the presence of low economic growth rates, this situation has caused a severe reduction in employment and thus the welfare of the Mexican population. Following a kaldorian’s framework of development we assume that the process of stagnation suffered by México, especially in recent years is explained by the lack of dynamism in the domestic manufacturing sector. The latter is attributed mainly to the current economic model, implemented in the l...

  17. A theory of organized crime, corruption and economic growth

    OpenAIRE

    Rana, MP; Blackbourn, K; Neanidis, KC

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined effects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative effect ...

  18. A Theory of Organized Crime, Corruption and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Blackburn, Keith; Neanidis, Kyriakos; Rana, Maria Paola

    2017-01-01

    We develop a framework for studying the interactions between organized crime and corruption, together with the individual and combined e¤ects of these phenomena on economic growth. Criminal organizations co-exist with law-abiding productive agents and potentially corrupt law enforcers. The crime syndicate obstructs the economic activities of agents through extortion, and may pay bribes to law enforcers in return for their compliance in this. We show how organized crime has a negative e¤ect on...

  19. ECONOMIC GROWTH AND TAXATION IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina BOROVINA (COJOCARU

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the economic crisis that started in the United States in 2007, economic growth has become of great importance for the countries affected by the crisis further to their confrontation with lower growth rates of GDP per capita. At national level, governments are searching for that mix of optimal economic policies that would revive economies on the upward and also sustainable trend. One of the key policies in this regard, especially for the countries in Central and Eastern Europe which intend to adopt the euro currency, is the tax policy. Its main instruments are taxes. In this paper, we pay special attention to these instruments and to the connection that they have with the economic growth. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part presents a few ideas related to the importance of taxes at national level, the second part is an analysis in terms of taxation of the Central and Eastern Europe countries, while the third part consists of a panel-type assessment of the relation between economic growth and taxation level.

  20. Towards socially and economically sustainable urban developments : impacts of toll pricing on residential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of road pricing on residential land use choices and to : help select pricing policies that foster socially and economically sustainable residential development in : urbanized residential areas. ...