WorldWideScience

Sample records for urban arterials part

  1. Safety analysis of urban arterials at the meso level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Xuesong

    2017-11-01

    Urban arterials form the main structure of street networks. They typically have multiple lanes, high traffic volume, and high crash frequency. Classical crash prediction models investigate the relationship between arterial characteristics and traffic safety by treating road segments and intersections as isolated units. This micro-level analysis does not work when examining urban arterial crashes because signal spacing is typically short for urban arterials, and there are interactions between intersections and road segments that classical models do not accommodate. Signal spacing also has safety effects on both intersections and road segments that classical models cannot fully account for because they allocate crashes separately to intersections and road segments. In addition, classical models do not consider the impact on arterial safety of the immediately surrounding street network pattern. This study proposes a new modeling methodology that will offer an integrated treatment of intersections and road segments by combining signalized intersections and their adjacent road segments into a single unit based on road geometric design characteristics and operational conditions. These are called meso-level units because they offer an analytical approach between micro and macro. The safety effects of signal spacing and street network pattern were estimated for this study based on 118 meso-level units obtained from 21 urban arterials in Shanghai, and were examined using CAR (conditional auto regressive) models that corrected for spatial correlation among the units within individual arterials. Results showed shorter arterial signal spacing was associated with higher total and PDO (property damage only) crashes, while arterials with a greater number of parallel roads were associated with lower total, PDO, and injury crashes. The findings from this study can be used in the traffic safety planning, design, and management of urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Speed, speed variation and crash relationships for urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuesong; Zhou, Qingya; Quddus, Mohammed; Fan, Tianxiang; Fang, Shou'en

    2018-04-01

    Speed and speed variation are closely associated with traffic safety. There is, however, a dearth of research on this subject for the case of urban arterials in general, and in the context of developing nations. In downtown Shanghai, the traffic conditions in each direction are very different by time of day, and speed characteristics during peak hours are also greatly different from those during off-peak hours. Considering that traffic demand changes with time and in different directions, arterials in this study were divided into one-way segments by the direction of flow, and time of day was differentiated and controlled for. In terms of data collection, traditional fixed-based methods have been widely used in previous studies, but they fail to capture the spatio-temporal distributions of speed along a road. A new approach is introduced to estimate speed variation by integrating spatio-temporal speed fluctuation of a single vehicle with speed differences between vehicles using taxi-based high frequency GPS data. With this approach, this paper aims to comprehensively establish a relationship between mean speed, speed variation and traffic crashes for the purpose of formulating effective speed management measures, specifically using an urban dataset. From a total of 234 one-way road segments from eight arterials in Shanghai, mean speed, speed variation, geometric design features, traffic volume, and crash data were collected. Because the safety effects of mean speed and speed variation may vary at different segment lengths, arterials with similar signal spacing density were grouped together. To account for potential correlations among these segments, a hierarchical Poisson log-normal model with random effects was developed. Results show that a 1% increase in mean speed on urban arterials was associated with a 0.7% increase in total crashes, and larger speed variation was also associated with increased crash frequency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. SOME EMPIRICAL RELATIONS BETWEEN TRAVEL SPEED, TRAFFIC VOLUME AND TRAFFIC COMPOSITION IN URBAN ARTERIALS

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    Eleni I. VLAHOGIANNI, Ph.D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of traffic mix (the percentage of cars, trucks, buses and so on are of particular interest in the speed-volume relationship in urban signalized arterials under various geometric and control characteristics. The paper presents some empirical observations on the relation between travel speed, traffic volume and traffic composition in urban signalized arterials. A methodology based on emerging self-organizing structures of neural networks to identify regions in the speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition and Bayesian networks to evaluate the effect of different types of motorized vehicles on prevailing traffic conditions is proposed. Results based on data from a large urban network indicate that the variability in traffic conditions can be described by eight regions in speed-volume relationship with respect to traffic composition. Further evaluation of the effect of motorized vehicles in each region separately indicates that the effect of traffic composition decreases with the onset of congestion. Moreover, taxis and motorcycles are the primary affecting parameter of the form of the speed-volume relationship in urban arterials.

  4. Allocation private building in urban city and along the transport arteries for creating a modern energy-efficient living environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasyanov, Vitaliy; Prelovskaya, Yana

    2017-10-01

    This article submits for consideration the structuring elements of the “private sector” development system, the so-called architectural heritage of the Russian province [1]. Three types of development, still present in central parts of settlement systems, i.e. parts of historical value, are revealed. Common features of private plot development for the majority of middle-scale and small towns are characterized. Dependence of the types on various factors: ethnical, natural (geographical), economical, is revealed. It is important to determine which buildings are located along the transport arteries. Does it have historical significance and cultural value, since it forms the image of the city. The outgoing line passes, as a rule, through the entire settlement system and leads to the central part. Basic principles of formation of historically emerged development types, such as blocks, streets and side streets, are shown, and also problems needed to be solved by the means of urban planning are generalized and casted.

  5. Tracking Restoration of Park and Urban Street Settings in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

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    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The physiological effects of natural and urban environments on the cardiovascular system of coronary artery disease (CAD patients are not fully understood. This controlled field study examines the effects of restorative walking in a park vs. in an urban street environment on CAD patients’ stress parameters and cardiac function. Methods: Twenty stable CAD patients were randomly allocated to 7 days controlled walking in a city park or in an urban street environment group. The relationship between different environmental exposures and health effects was analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank test and exact Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The mean reduction in cortisol levels and negative effects after the walk on the first day was greater in the city park than in the urban street exposed group, while a reduction in negative effects in the urban group were greater after seven days. The reduction in diastolic blood pressure (DBP in the park group was evident on the seventh day before the walk (−4 mm Hg, p = 0.031 and 60 min after the walk (−6.00 mm Hg, p = 0.002. The cortisol slope was negatively associated with the DBP changes (r = −0.514, p < 0.05. Conclusions: Physical activity in a green environment with noise and air pollution levels lower than in an urban environment has a greater positive effect on CAD patients’ stress level and hemodynamic parameters. Mitigating green environmental influences may allow urban residents to maintain health and reduce disability.

  6. Urban conflict: reterritorialization in Northern part of Bekasi

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    Sadono, W.; Herlily

    2018-03-01

    Inter-group conflict is one of the crucial issues affecting urban development in Northern part of Bekasi. It begins with the destruction of monuments until the rejection of worship places (in this case is a church) by mass organizations. These incidents occurred because the native assumed that the migrants took their territory. They concerned about the modern development brought by the migrants that caused the shrinking of local culture. The behavior of these mass organizations constituted the district that made the urban space seemed ‘not inclusive’ indirectly. This paper offered another alternative in urban design to reduce conflicts within the territory. We sought about the district context and reterritorialized the conflicted area. We used Reterritorialization approach to restore ‘border’ in order to sharpen and strengthen the territory. We conducted direct observation method, socio-cultural mapping, in-depth interview, and 3D model. This paper aimed to affirm the territory in urban space that would be able to accommodate the needs of the district user. The result is a design of transitional space that functionates as negotiation space. The transitional space is an intervention using Reterritorialization approach to reduce conflicts that occur in the urban space of the Northern part of Bekasi.

  7. Left subclavian artery revascularization as part of thoracic stent grafting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saouti, N.; Hindori, V.; Morshuis, W.J.; Heijmen, R.H.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Intentional covering of the left subclavian artery (LSA) as part of thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) can cause (posterior) strokes or left arm malperfusion. LSA revascularization can be done as prophylaxis against, or as treatment of, these complications. We report our

  8. Incorporating real-time traffic and weather data to explore road accident likelihood and severity in urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios

    2017-06-01

    The effective treatment of road accidents and thus the enhancement of road safety is a major concern to societies due to the losses in human lives and the economic and social costs. The investigation of road accident likelihood and severity by utilizing real-time traffic and weather data has recently received significant attention by researchers. However, collected data mainly stem from freeways and expressways. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to add to the current knowledge by investigating accident likelihood and severity by exploiting real-time traffic and weather data collected from urban arterials in Athens, Greece. Random Forests (RF) are firstly applied for preliminary analysis purposes. More specifically, it is aimed to rank candidate variables according to their relevant importance and provide a first insight on the potential significant variables. Then, Bayesian logistic regression as well finite mixture and mixed effects logit models are applied to further explore factors associated with accident likelihood and severity respectively. Regarding accident likelihood, the Bayesian logistic regression showed that variations in traffic significantly influence accident occurrence. On the other hand, accident severity analysis revealed a generally mixed influence of traffic variations on accident severity, although international literature states that traffic variations increase severity. Lastly, weather parameters did not find to have a direct influence on accident likelihood or severity. The study added to the current knowledge by incorporating real-time traffic and weather data from urban arterials to investigate accident occurrence and accident severity mechanisms. The identification of risk factors can lead to the development of effective traffic management strategies to reduce accident occurrence and severity of injuries in urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  9. Cardiac nuclear medicine, part II: diagnosis of coronary artery diseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, J.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnosing coronary artery disease is difficult and requires careful consideration of the roles and limitations of the tests used. Standard ECG tests are not reliable indicators of the presence of disease in asymptomatic patients. Thallium stress testing to assess ischemia and exercise ventriculography to assess functional status of the heart are limited in sensitivity and specificity. This is the second of a three-part series on cardiac nuclear medicine. Part I (Med. Instrum., May-June, 1981) focused on the commonly used examinations in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Part III will focus on myocardial infarction and other cardiac diseases

  10. Variant Anatomy of Intracranial Part of Middle Meningeal Artery in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anatomy of the intracranial part of middle meningeal artery is important during ligation or embolization in epidural haematomas, and in surgical approach to the middle cranial fossa. It shows population variations, but reports from African populations are scanty. This study aimed at describing the variant anatomy of ...

  11. Nighttime road-traffic noise and arterial hypertension in an urban population.

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    Belojević, Goran A; Jakovljević, Branko D; Stojanov, Vesna J; Slepcević, Vesna Z; Paunović, Katarina Z

    2008-04-01

    Commonly used daytime measurements in previous investigations on community noise and arterial hypertension (AH) may be a source of exposure bias, as urban residents spend most of their daytime hours out of the home on workdays. For this reason, we focused on the relation of nighttime noise and AH. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 2,503 (995 men and 1,508 women) adult residents of a downtown Belgrade municipality. The inclusion criteria were a period of residence longer than 10 years and a bedroom oriented toward the street. The exclusion criteria were a high level of noise annoyance at work and diseases related to AH. Noise measurements were performed in all 70 streets of the municipality. The streets were grouped into noisy areas (equivalent noise level [Leq]>45 dB(A)) and quiet areas (Leqquiet areas were 23.6% and 17.5%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for AH was 1.58; the 95% confidence interval (CI) ranged from 1.03-2.42; and the probability value was 0.038, when men living in quiet streets were taken as a reference category. This relation was statistically insignificant for women: adjusted OR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.59-1.38; p: 0.644. This cross-sectional study showed that nighttime urban road-traffic noise might be related to occurrence of AH in men.

  12. Double profunda brachii artery

    OpenAIRE

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani; Jyoti V Hadimani; Ishwar B Bagoji; Shardha Bai Rathod; Balappa M Bannur

    2016-01-01

    Brachial artery (BA) is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii...

  13. Diurnal and seasonal variations of NO, NO2 and PM2.5 mass as a function of traffic volumes alongside an urban arterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Christine M.; Koonce, Peter; George, Linda A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban arterial corridors are landscapes that give rise to short and long-term exposures to transportation-related pollution. With high traffic volumes and a wide mix of road users, urban arterial environments are important targets for improved exposure assessment to traffic-related pollution. A common method to estimate exposure is to use traffic volumes as a proxy. The study presented here analyzes a unique yearlong dataset of simultaneous roadside air quality and traffic observations for a U.S. arterial to assess the reliability of using traffic volumes as a proxy for traffic-related exposure. Results show how the relationships of traffic volumes with NO and NO2 vary not only by time of day and season but also by time aggregation. At short-term aggregations (15 min) nitrogen oxides were found to have a significant linear relationship with traffic volumes during morning hours for all seasons although variability was still high (r2 = 0.1-0.45 NO, r2 = 0.14-0.27 NO2), and little to no relationship during evening periods (r2 road users, these results show when traffic volumes alone can be a reliable proxy for exposure and when this approach is not warranted.

  14. Understanding and Improving Arterial Roads to Support Public Health and Transportation Goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAndrews, Carolyn; Pollack, Keshia M; Berrigan, David; Dannenberg, Andrew L; Christopher, Ed J

    2017-08-01

    Arterials are types of roads designed to carry high volumes of motorized traffic. They are an integral part of transportation systems worldwide and exposure to them is ubiquitous, especially in urban areas. Arterials provide access to diverse commercial and cultural resources, which can positively influence community health by supporting social cohesion as well as economic and cultural opportunities. They can negatively influence health via safety issues, noise, air pollution, and lack of economic development. The aims of public health and transportation partially overlap; efforts to improve arterials can meet goals of both professions. Two trends in arterial design show promise. First, transportation professionals increasingly define the performance of arterials via metrics accounting for pedestrians, cyclists, transit riders, and nearby residents in addition to motor vehicle users. Second, applying traffic engineering and design can generate safety, air quality, and livability benefits, but we need evidence to support these interventions. We describe the importance of arterials (including exposures, health behaviors, effects on equity, and resulting health outcomes) and make the case for public health collaborations with the transportation sector.

  15. Analysis of the population at high risk of stroke detected with carotid artery ultrasonography in Tianjin urban communities

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    Wei YUE

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the features of carotid atherosclerosis in a population at high risk of stroke in urban communities of Tianjin, so as to provide inspiration for carotid ultrasonography to play a greater role in the prevention and control of stroke.  Methods A total of 956 residents at high risk of stroke were selected from 4 urban communities in Tianjin using cluster random sampling method. Doppler ultrasound screening was performed in bilateral common carotid artery (CCA, internal carotid artery (ICA, external carotid artery (ECA, vertebral artery (VA, subclavian artery (SCA and innominate artery of the population. The intima-media thickness (IMT, atherosclerotic plaque formation and its location and size, vascular stenosis or occlusion, and flow spectrum were detected. The results and features of carotid ultrasound screening were analyzed and compared among different gender and age groups.  Results 1 The detection rate of carotid atherosclerosis was 71.55% (684/956, and the detection rate in males was significantly higher than that in females (79.08% vs 65.87%; χ2 = 20.067, P = 0.000. 2 Among the population with carotid atherosclerosis, the most common manifestation was the formation of atherosclerotic plaques (81.58%, 558/684, secondly intima-media thickening (13.01%, 89/684, followed by moderate to severe stenosis or occlusion (5.41%, 37/684. The proportion of intima-media thickening in males was lower than that in females (7.08% vs 18.38%; χ2 = 19.269, P = 0.000. The proportion of carotid atherosclerotic plaque formation in males was higher than that in females (86.46% vs 77.16%; χ2 = 9.824, P = 0.002. The median rating of carotid atherosclerosis was 1.79, with males higher than females [1.98 (0.70, 3.26 vs 1.52 (0.20, 2.84; Z = 2.304, P = 0.042]. The site of plaque formation was most commonly located in carotid bulb (36.61%, secondly SCA (22.18%. Of the type of carotid stenosis, ICA stenosis was detected in 30 cases, VA

  16. Prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease in an urban Indian population

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    Sekhri, T; Kanwar, R S; Wilfred, R; Chugh, P; Chhillar, M; Aggarwal, R; Sharma, Y K; Sethi, J; Sundriyal, J; Bhadra, K; Singh, S; Rautela, N; Chand, Tek; Singh, M; Singh, S K

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) in government employees across India. Methods The study population consisted of government employees in different parts of India ({n=10 642 men and n=1966 women; age 20–60 years}) and comprised various ethnic groups living in different environmental conditions. Recruitment was carried out in 20 cities across 14 states, and in one union territory. All selected individuals were subjected to a detailed questionnaire, medical examinations and anthropometric measurements. Blood samples were collected for blood glucose and serum lipid profile estimation, and resting ECG was recorded. Results were analysed using appropriate statistical tools. Results The study revealed that 4.6% of the study population had a family history of premature CAD. The overall prevalence of diabetes was 16% (5.6% diagnosed during the study and the remaining 10.4% already on medication). Hypertension was present in 21% of subjects. The prevalence of dyslipidemia was significantly high, with 45.6% of study subjects having a high total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein ratio. Overall, 78.6% subjects had two or more risk factors for CAD. Conclusions The present study demonstrates a high prevalence of CAD risk factors in the Indian urban population. Therefore, there is an immediate need to initiate measures to raise awareness of these risk factors so that individuals at high risk for future CAD can be managed. PMID:25488095

  17. Double profunda brachii artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavishiddappa A Hadimani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brachial artery (BA is a continuation of the axillary artery at the lower border of teres major. In the cubital fossa, BA divides into radial artery and ulnar artery as terminal branches. Large branch given from the BA in the upper part is profunda brachii artery. In the present case, we noticed double profunda brachii that arises from the BA. They are profunda brachii artery 1 and profunda brachii artery 2. Profunda brachii artery 1 arises in the proximal part of the BA and profunda brachii artery 2 arises distal to the profunda brachii artery 1. Both the arteries run inferolaterally in the spiral groove along with radial nerve. Variations of profunda brachii artery are important during harvesting of the lateral arm flaps and may lead to inadvertent injury during percutaneous arterial catheterization or injection of drugs.

  18. Food label reading and understanding in parts of rural and urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food label reading and understanding in parts of rural and urban Zimbabwe. ... The reading and understanding of nutrition information on food packages has been shown to improve food choices and instill ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  19. Winter University 2017. Urban rivers as a part of sustainable development

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    Valeria Nuyanzina

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents proposals worked out by the international teams that took part in the 18th session of International Baikal Winter University of Urban Planning. The session focused on small rivers rehabilitation as a part of sustainable development. Through the case study of the Ushakovka River in Irkutsk, the teams proposed new ideas of riverfront development, which can be also applied to other small rivers.

  20. Individual typological variability of macro-microscopical and biomechanical properties of intracranial part of vertebral artery

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    Fomkina О.A.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available

    The purpose of the study is to reveal the features of individual typological variability of macro-microscopical and biomechanical properties of the wall of intracranial part of vertebral arteries (IPVA in adult people. Materials and methods: The research material of 228 samples of IPVA has been received by autopsy of 115 corpses of people aged 21-84 years. External diameter, thickness of the wall, diameter of lumen of artery have been measured. Biomechanical properties of IPVA have been studied by explosive carTira Test 28005 with a loading cell of 100 H. General strength (H, breaking point (H/mm2, Young»s modulus (H/mm2, absolute (mm and relative deformation (% of samples of arteries have been defined. Results: 3 groups of variants of arteries have been isolated: with average size of a sign (M±y, less than the average size (M+ y. The conclusion: The obtained data about functional anatomy of vascular bed of brain may be useful in blood flow modeling and optimization of extra — and intravascular interventions.

  1. Congenital coronary-pulmonary artery fistula originating from right and left coronary artery

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    Ali Kemal Gür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery fistula (CAF is a rare congenital anomalywith an incidence of 1 in 50 000 live births. The fistula wasobserved at the right coronary artery in 53%, the left coronaryartery in 42% and both coronary artery in 5% of thecases. Echocardiography examination in a 46 year-oldwoman with the symptoms of chest pain, palpitation anddyspnea revealed a severe mitral valve insufficiency anda moderate to severe tricuspid valve insufficiency. A CAForiginating from the proximal part of the left anterior descendingartery (LAD and another fistula originating fromosteal part of the right coronary artery (RCA were detectedby coronary angiography. Both fistulas were draininginto the main pulmonary artery. The coronary artery fistulaclosed under cardiopulmonary by-pass. Mitral insufficiencyoriginated from the posterior leaflet was diagnosedintra-operative exploration, and thereafter it was repairedwith mitral annuloplasty including a quadrangular resectionand use of a 32 No St Jude mitral ring. Tricuspid valvewas repaired with Calangos Ring annuloplasty. Followingsix day hospital stay, the woman was discharged free ofany symptom.Key words: Dyspnea, double arteriovenous fistula, mitral and tricuspid insufficiency

  2. Exploring Urban America: An Introductory Reader.

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    Caves, Roger W.

    This introductory text presents a collection of articles from urban-studies journals to introduce undergraduate students to the interdisciplinary field of urban studies. The book is divided into 9 parts as follows: Part 1: Cities and Urbanism; part 2: Urban History; part 3: Urban Policy; part 4: Economic Development; part 5: Community Services and…

  3. Antihypertensive effect of rhizome part of Acorus calamus on renal artery occlusion induced hypertension in rats

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    Pinal Patel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The rhizomes part of Acorus calamus (AC having the calcium inhibitory effect and diuretic activity which may potentiate Na+ excretion in hypertension induced by occlusion of renal artery. Therefore this study was aimed to investigate the effect of AC on experimentally induced hypertension. Methods: Hypertension in rats was induced by clamping the left renal artery for 4h by arterial clamp (2K1C. At the end of experiment animal were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg. Carotid artery was cannulated which was connected to pressure transducer for estimation of blood pressure. Results: Ethyl acetate extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes (EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension, demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure when compared with 2K1C rats indicated blood pressure lowering activity. Plasma renin activity was significantly (P < 0.05 decreased in EAAC treated rats compared to 2K1C rats. EAAC treated rats that underwent hypertension demonstrated significant (P < 0.01 lower mean blood urea nitrogen and creatinine when compared with 2K1C rats. Lipid peroxidation was significantly (P < 0.001 decreased, where as nitric oxide level in tissue was significantly elevated in EAAC treated rats. Antioxidant enzymes like glutathione, superoxide dismutase and catalase were significantly (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 increased in EAAC treated rats when compared to 2K1C rats. Conclusions: In conclusions, EAAC treatment attenuated renal artery occlusion induced hypertension via nitric oxide generation and decreases the plasma renin activity.

  4. Comparing Outcomes of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Among Large Teaching and Urban Hospitals in China and the United States.

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    Zheng, Zhe; Zhang, Heng; Yuan, Xin; Rao, Chenfei; Zhao, Yan; Wang, Yun; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Krumholz, Harlan M; Hu, Shengshou

    2017-06-01

    Coronary artery disease is prevalent in China, with concomitant increases in the volume of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). The present study aims to compare CABG-related outcomes between China and the United States among large teaching and urban hospitals. Observational analysis of patients aged ≥18 years, discharged from acute-care, large teaching and urban hospitals in China and the United States after hospitalization for an isolated CABG surgery. Data were obtained from the Chinese Cardiac Surgery Registry in China and the National Inpatient Sample in the United States. Analysis was stratified by 2 periods: 2007, 2008, and 2010; and 2011 to 2013 periods. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality, and the secondary outcome was length of stay. The sample included 51 408 patients: 32 040 from 77 hospitals in the China-CABG group and 19 368 from 303 hospitals in the US-CABG group. In the 2007 to 2008, 2010 period and for all-age and aged ≥65 years, the China-CABG group had higher mortality than the US-CABG group (1.91% versus 1.58%, P =0.059; and 3.12% versus 2.20%, P =0.004) and significantly higher age-, sex-, and comorbidity-adjusted odds of death (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% confidential interval, 1.22-2.04; and odds ratio, 1.73; 95% confidential interval, 1.24-2.40). There were no significant mortality differences in the 2011 to 2013 period. For preoperative, postoperative, and total hospital stay, respectively, the median (interquartile range) length of stay across the entire study period between China-CABG and US-CABG groups were 9 (8) versus 1 (3), 9 (6) versus 6 (3), and 20 (12) versus 7 (5) days (all P China and the United States. The longer length of stay in China may represent an opportunity for improvement. © 2017 The Authors.

  5. Impact of On-street Parking on Urban Arterial Performance: A Quantitative Study on Travel Speed and Capacity Deterioration

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    Sugiarto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Traffic congestion has been a serious social and technical problem since the early year’s rapid motorization in Banda Aceh, Aceh Province of Indonesia. Urban arterial performance becomes the crucial concerns of many traffic engineers. Arterial performances were analyzed using oblique cumulative plots and breakdown method. The approaches are time series treatment between cumulative vehicles arrival versus time contracted from data recorded by video cameras. Investigations were conducted during both morning and evening peak hours on three regular weekdays for observing saturation condition in order to observe the maximum capacity under prevailing conditions. This study examined the impact of presence on-street parking on deterioration both travel speed and capacity. It found that capacity diminished slightly 10-13% (275-368vph compared to the pre-breakdown condition. Likewise, during the breakdown, speed dropped about 13-19% (3-5kph controlled by pre-breakdown as well. The simulation software so called VISSIM 5.30 was governed to estimate the measurement of effectiveness (MOEs by removing on-street parking from a site of study. The MOEs reveal that removing on-street parking able to reduce average delay approximately 12 sec/veh (32% and increase speed about 5kph (24%.

  6. Impacts of Realistic Urban Heating. Part II: Air Quality and City Breathability

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    Nazarian, Negin; Martilli, Alberto; Norford, Leslie; Kleissl, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Urban morphology and inter-building shadowing result in a non-uniform distribution of surface heating in urban areas, which can significantly modify the urban flow and thermal field. In Part I, we found that in an idealized three-dimensional urban array, the spatial distribution of the thermal field is correlated with the orientation of surface heating with respect to the wind direction (i.e. leeward or windward heating), while the dispersion field changes more strongly with the vertical temperature gradient in the street canyon. Here, we evaluate these results more closely and translate them into metrics of "city breathability," with large-eddy simulations coupled with an urban energy-balance model employed for this purpose. First, we quantify breathability by, (i) calculating the pollutant concentration at the pedestrian level (horizontal plane at z≈ 1.5 -2 m) and averaged over the canopy, and (ii) examining the air exchange rate at the horizontal and vertical ventilating faces of the canyon, such that the in-canopy pollutant advection is distinguished from the vertical removal of pollution. Next, we quantify the change in breathability metrics as a function of previously defined buoyancy parameters, horizontal and vertical Richardson numbers (Ri_h and Ri_v , respectively), which characterize realistic surface heating. We find that, unlike the analysis of airflow and thermal fields, consideration of the realistic heating distribution is not crucial in the analysis of city breathability, as the pollutant concentration is mainly correlated with the vertical temperature gradient (Ri_v ) as opposed to the horizontal (Ri_h ) or bulk (Ri_b ) thermal forcing. Additionally, we observe that, due to the formation of the primary vortex, the air exchange rate at the roof level (the horizontal ventilating faces of the building canyon) is dominated by the mean flow. Lastly, since Ri_h and Ri_v depend on the meteorological factors (ambient air temperature, wind speed, and

  7. Practical value of urban geography in urban planning - case study of the south-eastern part of Trbovlje

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    Naja Marot

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Two centuries of mining have significantly changed the town of Trbovlje in economic, social and spatial terms. This is especially evident in the south-eastern part of the town. On the basis of general geographical analysis of spatial, demographic and economic development, a query of public opinion and a survey of experts' ideas, with description of successful English urban renewal project we try to find out the most effective model and context of the future development in the area in question.

  8. Quantifying the influence of land-use and surface characteristics on spatial variability in the urban heat island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Melissa A.; Sailor, David J.

    2009-03-01

    The urban thermal environment varies not only from its rural surroundings but also within the urban area due to intra-urban differences in land-use and surface characteristics. Understanding the causes of this intra-urban variability is a first step in improving urban planning and development. Toward this end, a method for quantifying causes of spatial variability in the urban heat island has been developed. This paper presents the method as applied to a specific test case of Portland, Oregon. Vehicle temperature traverses were used to determine spatial differences in summertime ~2 m air temperature across the metropolitan area in the afternoon. A tree-structured regression model was used to quantify the land-use and surface characteristics that have the greatest influence on daytime UHI intensity. The most important urban characteristic separating warmer from cooler regions of the Portland metropolitan area was canopy cover. Roadway area density was also an important determinant of local UHI magnitudes. Specifically, the air above major arterial roads was found to be warmer on weekdays than weekends, possibly due to increased anthropogenic activity from the vehicle sector on weekdays. In general, warmer regions of the city were associated with industrial and commercial land-use. The downtown core, whilst warmer than the rural surroundings, was not the warmest part of the Portland metropolitan area. This is thought to be due in large part to local shading effects in the urban canyons.

  9. Urban Greening as part ofDistrict Energy Services

    OpenAIRE

    MELIN, Sébastien

    2017-01-01

    Work carried out during this master’s thesis is about urban greening and its close integration with district energy systems. Urban greening is the fact to develop green infrastructures (parks, street trees, ...) instead of grey infrastructures (buildings, roads, ...) in cities. Despite that the actual economic value of green infrastructure is less appreciated at first glance and very difficult to valorize, urban greening has many undeniable advantages such as reducing pollution and heat islan...

  10. [Efferent innervation of the arteries of human leptomeninx in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, V M; Kotsiuba, A E; Babich, E V

    2009-01-01

    Structure of the efferent nerve plexuses (adrenergic, acetylcholinestherase- and cholinacetyltranspherase-positive, NO-dependent), was studied in the arteries of human leptomeninx with different diameters. Material was obtained from the corpses of the healthy people and of the patients with initial stages of arterial hypertension (AH). It was shown that the concentrations of cholinergic and adrenergic nerve fibers and varicosities in axon terminal part, innervating the arteries with the diameters ranging from 450 till 100 microm, were not significantly different. In these arteries, NO-ergic plexuses were also detected. In patients with AH, regardless the arterial diameters, the significant increase (up to 15-20%) of adrenergic nerve fiber and varicosity concentrations was found. The changes in cholinergic nerve fiber concentration were found to depend on the vessel diameter: the significant decrease of these parameter was observed only in arteries with the diameter of 100-200 microm. No significant changes in nerve plexus concentration was noticed in the arteries with greater or smaller diameter. In NO-ergic neural conductors, the enzyme activity decreased only in the large arteries, and remained almost unchanged in the small vascular branches. The changes in the vasomotor innervation described in AH, are interpreted as a vasomotor innervation dysfunction of the leptomeninx arteries that may result in the hemodynamic disturbances.

  11. Prevalence of self-reported systemic arterial hypertension in urban and rural environments in Brazil: a population-based study Prevalencia de hipertensión arterial sistémica autorreferida en los ambientes urbano y rural de Brasil: un estudio de base poblacional Prevalência de hipertensão arterial sistêmica autorreferida nos ambientes urbano e rural do Brasil: um estudo de base populacional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Pronestino de Lima Moreira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper were to estimate the prevalence rates of self-reported high blood pressure among adults in urban and rural environments in Brazil and identify possible associations stratified according to household location. Data from the Brazilian National Household Sample Survey (PNAD was used, incorporating information from the sampling plan. Logistic regression was used to obtain the odds ratio (OR as a measure of association between variables and the outcome. The prevalence of self-reported high blood pressure in Brazil was 20.9%: 21% in urban areas and 20.1% in rural areas (OR = 1.06. In both areas, the likelihood of reporting high blood pressure increased with age and women, former smokers, migrants and individuals with morbidities, non-white individuals and individuals with health insurance were more likely to report this disease. Also, in both rural and urban areas, prevalence of high blood pressure was lower among workers and decreased with increasing levels of schooling. All variables showed an association with self-reported high blood pressure in both rural and urban areas, but differences in magnitude were observed in relation to sex and age group. These differences could help justify the promotion of better access and intervention methods at prevention clinics for different population groups.Este artículo tiene por objetivo estimar las prevalencias de la hipertensión arterial sistémica autorreferida de adultos, en los ambientes urbano y rural de Brasil, e identificar posibles asociaciones, estratificadas por situación del domicilio. Se utilizó el Estudio Nacional por Muestra de Domicilios (PNAD, incorporando la información del mismo. Se utilizaron regresiones logísticas para obtener las medidas de asociación odds ratio (OR. La prevalencia de hipertensión arterial sistémica autorreferida en Brasil fue de un 20,9%, siendo un 21% (urbana y un 20,1% (rural (OR = 1,06. En ambas áreas, la oportunidad de informar sobre

  12. Occlusion of Heubner's artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Manabu; Kidooka, Minoru

    1982-01-01

    A case of occlusion of the left Heubner's artery in a right-handed, 51-year-old man is reported. Cardinal clinical features were transient right hemiparesis and mental disturbance, especially intellectual defect. Low density areas were found at CT in the globus pallidus, putamen, anterior limb of the internal capsule and a part of the caudate nucleus. It is well known that the occlusion of the Heubner's artery causes transient motor paresis of upper extremity on the contralaterl side. However, in the case where the Heubner's artery is remarkably well developed when compared with the medial striate arteries as was the case in this patient, it should be noted that the occlusion of the Heubner's artery may well causes grave mental disturbance, in addition. (author)

  13. Arterial blood supply to the thalamus and midbrain on CT sections, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Gen; Ottomo, Michinori; Satoh, Nobuko; Yokoyama, Yoshiaki.

    1984-01-01

    The selective injection of a dyestuff into thalamoperforating arteries from the posterior part of the circle of Willis, using five postmortem brains, was performed. After fixation, sections parallel to the orbito-meatal line were obtained. In cases which showed a standard development of the posterior communicating arteries, the usual patterns were as follows: the area supplied by perforators of the posterior communicating artery (anterior thalamoperforating artery) was visualized in the hypothalamus and the antero-lateral part of the thalamus; the area supplied by perforators of the proximal segment of the posterior cerebral artery (interpeduncular thalamoperforating artery) was visualized in the midbrain and the medial part of thalamus; the area supplied by perforators of the ambient segment of the posterior cerebral artery (thalamogeniculate artery) was visualized in the medial part of the geniculate body and the posterior part of the thalamus. According to the development of the posterior communicating artery, the area supplied by each perforator was quite variable. Three CT sections were obtained containing three different patterns of the posterior communicating artery: 1) well-developed; 2) moderately developed; and 3) poorly developed. The identification of the area supplied by thalamoperforating arteries on CT sections was quite useful in the CT diagnosis of cerebrovascular disorders which involved the thalamus and the midbrain. (author)

  14. Urban Park: an Integral Part of Welfare for Citizens — A Case Study of Shangzhi and Qinbin Parks in Harbin Metropolis, China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Binzhang; Zhao, Chunli

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: As a key part of the urban green spaces, urban park plays important role in city citizens’ life. The significances of park treating as a green lung in urban area demonstrate its unique contribution to people’s life not only in physical and tangible aspects such as environment, ecology a...... management and service have been contributed by this study. Specifically, the awareness for treating the urban park as an integral part of citizens’ welfare should be arose and educated in entire society. Key words: Harbin Metropolis, urban park, activity, public life...... in their daily life, second one tries to learn what problems they meet during their visit and using, third one focuses on what problems and challenges of urban park need to be resolved by administrative officers and park managers. The research samples, Shanzhi Park and Qingbin Park, were selected in two...... spaces in both numbers and sizes as the form of park. It also showed some problems and challenges faced in park design and management had to be enhanced. Finally, some suggestions aimed to improve the situation of urban spaces included constructing new urban parks and promoting the quality of park...

  15. Fenestration of axillary vein by a variant axillary artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadimani, S; Desai, S D; Bagoji, I B; Patil, B S

    2013-01-01

    Variations of venous pattern in the arm are common. In this case report, we present a variation of axillary artery and vein. During routine educational dissections of axillary region, it was observed that a fenestrated axillary vein was perforated by a variant axillary artery in right arm of an old male cadaver. The axillary artery which was fenestrated through axillary vein had only two branches arising from its second part and no branches from its remaining distal parts. The branches are thoraco-acromial (usual) and another large collateral (unusual) branch. This collateral branch is the origin of several important arteries as the subscapular, circumflex scapular, posterior circumflex humeral and lateral thoracic arteries. We propose to name this artery as collateral axillary arterial trunk. The course of this collateral axillary arterial trunk and its branches and also clinical significance of this variation are discussed in the paper.

  16. Urban growth management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Gertrud; Alexander Sick Nielsen, Thomas; Grünfelder, Julien

    2011-01-01

    , and finally urban attractivity policies. Effective regional bodies are needed to deal with urban expansion and peri-urbanisation at a relevant scale; European rural and agricultural policies makes up the main ‘policy complex’ targeting the non-urban area including its land uses; while lastly leverage of urban...... urban growth and curb urban sprawl in a wider sense. Methodology The main methodology of the paper is a desk-research based review of policy options supplemented with field study and interviews in selected cased study regions. This paper consists of two parts. The first part is based on literature...... there are contradictions in the evidence presented in the literature, we believe that it may be safely said that urban growth management policies have an influence on urban growth under certain preconditions including: sufficient time for implementation and continuity of efforts; choice of appropriate policy measures...

  17. Urban transitions: on urban resilience and human-dominated ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernstson, Henrik; van der Leeuw, Sander E; Redman, Charles L; Meffert, Douglas J; Davis, George; Alfsen, Christine; Elmqvist, Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Urbanization is a global multidimensional process paired with increasing uncertainty due to climate change, migration of people, and changes in the capacity to sustain ecosystem services. This article lays a foundation for discussing transitions in urban governance, which enable cities to navigate change, build capacity to withstand shocks, and use experimentation and innovation in face of uncertainty. Using the three concrete case cities--New Orleans, Cape Town, and Phoenix--the article analyzes thresholds and cross-scale interactions, and expands the scale at which urban resilience has been discussed by integrating the idea from geography that cities form part of "system of cities" (i.e., they cannot be seen as single entities). Based on this, the article argues that urban governance need to harness social networks of urban innovation to sustain ecosystem services, while nurturing discourses that situate the city as part of regional ecosystems. The article broadens the discussion on urban resilience while challenging resilience theory when addressing human-dominated ecosystems. Practical examples of harnessing urban innovation are presented, paired with an agenda for research and policy.

  18. Analysis, reconstruction and manipulation using arterial snakes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Guo

    2010-01-01

    Man-made objects often consist of detailed and interleaving structures, which are created using cane, coils, metal wires, rods, etc. The delicate structures, although manufactured using simple procedures, are challenging to scan and reconstruct. We observe that such structures are inherently 1D, and hence are naturally represented using an arrangement of generating curves. We refer to the resultant surfaces as arterial surfaces. In this paper we approach for analyzing, reconstructing, and manipulating such arterial surfaces. The core of the algorithm is a novel deformable model, called arterial snake, that simultaneously captures the topology and geometry of the arterial objects. The recovered snakes produce a natural decomposition of the raw scans, with the decomposed parts often capturing meaningful object sections. We demonstrate the robustness of our algorithm on a variety of arterial objects corrupted with noise, outliers, and with large parts missing. We present a range of applications including reconstruction, topology repairing, and manipulation of arterial surfaces by directly controlling the underlying curve network and the associated sectional profiles, which are otherwise challenging to perform. © 2010 ACM.

  19. Urban bioclimatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, H

    1993-11-15

    This article deals with the part of urban climatology which is of particular relevance to human beings. Presented first is a summary of all human biometerologically effective complexes, as well as other factors which are relevant to urban planning and which depend on atmospheric conditions in urban structures in a direct or indirect manner. Later, methods for human biometerologically significant assessment of thermal and air pollution components of the urban climate are discussed in detail, because these components can be strongly influenced by urban planning. The application of these methods is illustrated by some results of appropriate investigations in urban areas.

  20. Anomalous origin of the right coronary artery with an interarterial course and intramural part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Fuglsang

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: In this report, we present some unique images of the RCAs course, which contribute to the understanding of this disease’s symptomatology. The patient successfully underwent surgery with Right Internal Mammary Artery to RCA (RIMA–RCA2 RIMA–RCA = right Internal mammary artery to right coronary artery. bypass with complete remission of all symptoms.

  1. Rural-urban migration and urban unemployment in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aigbokhan, B E

    1988-01-01

    This paper argues that urban unemployment in Nigeria has been due largely to a failure on the part of the government to pursue policies that reflect commitment on its part to its stated objectives, particularly with regard to employment opportunities. Rural-urban migration has been taking place in the country since the 1960s and at an increasing rate since the 1970s. Economic policies have contributed to this, notably the rural-urban imbalance resulting from the pattern of allocation of public investment expenditures and the wages determination process which tends to concentrate more on the urban sector. These have contributed to the widening urban-rural income differentials. In the face of such migration, the urban industrial sector has been able to absorb only a negligible proportion of migrants. A major factor that has contributed to this is the increased capital-intensity of the sector. Some laudable measures have been introduced this year, notably the establishment of the Directorate of Employment and the Directorate of Food, Road, and Rural infrastructure. The latter, if effectively implemented, should enhance rural income and thereby reduce the rural-urban income gap. The former should reduce the problem of open unemployment. While it is too early to assess the effects of these 2 measures on urban unemployment, they may not improve urban unemployment significantly. There is still the need to design policies to increase labor absorption in general.

  2. Carbon monoxide exposures inside an automobile traveling on an urban arterial highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, W; Switzer, P; Willits, N

    1994-08-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. On each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the test vehicle drove the same 5.9-mile segment of roadway in both directions, for a total of 11.8 miles, passing through 20 intersections with traffic lights (10 in each direction) in three California cities (Menlo Park, Palo Alto, and Los Altos). Earlier tests showed that the test vehicle was free of CO intrusion. For the 88 trips, the mean CO concentration was 9.8 ppm, with a standard deviation of 5.8 ppm. Of nine covariates that were examined to explain the variability in the mean CO exposures observed on the 88 trips (ambient CO at two fixed stations, atmospheric stability, seasonal trend function, time of day, average surrounding vehicle count, trip duration, proportion of time stopped at lights, and instrument type), a fairly strong seasonal trend was found. A model consisting of only a single measure of traffic volume and a seasonal trend component had substantial predictive power (R2 = 0.68); by contrast, the ambient CO levels, although partially correlated with average exposures, contributed comparatively little predictive power to the model. The CO exposures experienced while drivers waited at the red lights at an intersection ranged from 6.8 to 14.9 ppm and differed considerably from intersection to intersection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. A Unique Branching Pattern of the Axillary Artery: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bagoji, Ishwar B.; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A.; Bannur, Balappa M.; Patil, B.G.; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-01-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in t...

  4. Arterial blood supply to midbrain, thalamus and internal capsule on CT, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Gen; Ottomo, Michinori; Sasaki, Taisuke; Fukuda, Eiko.

    1984-01-01

    The selective injection of dye into the anterior choroidal artery (blue), the medial posterior choroidal artery (green), and the lateral posterior choroidal artery (red), using seven post-mortem brains, was performed. After fixation, sections parallel with the orbito-meatal line were obtained. The distribution of the anterior choroidal artery was visualized in the uncal region of the temporal lobe and the cerebral peduncle below the slice of the third ventricle. On the slice of the third ventricle, the lateral part of the geniculate region, the globus pallidus, and the posterior limb of the internal capsule were supplied by the anterior choroidal artery. The blood supply of the posterior limb of the internal capsule was also demonstrated on the slice of the anterior horn and on the body of the lateral ventricle. The distribution of the medial posterior choroidal artery was visualized in the tegmentum of the midbrain below the slice of the third ventricle, and on the slice of the anterior horn, the pineal body and the posterior part of the thalamus were also supplied. The distribution of the lateral posterior choroidal artery was visualized in the lateral part of the midbrain, around the red nucleus, below the slice of the third ventricle, and on the slice of the third ventricle, the upper part of the cerebral peduncle, the posterior part of the hypothalamus, and the medial part of the geniculate region were also supplied. Also, distribution to the medial and posterior parts of the thalamus was noted on the slice of the anterior horn. It was quite useful to identify the distribution of each choroidal artery on CT sections for the CT diagnosis of cerebrovascular disorders. (author)

  5. [Part II: basic hemodynamic monitoring and the use of pulmonary artery catheter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Fernando Suparregui; Rezende, Ederlon; Mendes, Ciro Leite; Réa-Neto, Alvaro; David, Cid Marcos; Schettino, Guilherme; Lobo, Suzana Margareth Ajeje; Barros, Alberto; Silva, Eliézer; Friedman, Gilberto; Amaral, José Luiz Gomes do; Park, Marcelo; Monachini, Maristela; Oliveira, Mirella Cristine de; Assunção, Murillo Santucci César; Akamine, Nelson; Mello, Patrícia Veiga C; Pereira, Renata Andréa Pietro; Costa Filho, Rubens; Araújo, Sebastião; Félix Pinto, Sérgio; Ferreira, Sérgio; Mitushima, Simone Mattoso; Agareno, Sydney; Brilhante, Yuzeth Nóbrega de Assis

    2006-03-01

    Monitoring of vital functions is one of the most important tools in the management of critically ill patients. Nowadays is possible to detect and analyze a great deal of physiologic data using a lot of invasive and non-invasive methods. The intensivist must be able to select and carry out the most appropriate monitoring technique according to the patient requirements and taking into account the benefit/risk ratio. Despite the fast development of non invasive monitoring techniques, invasive hemodynamic monitoring using Pulmonary Artery Catheter still is one of the basic procedures in Critical Care. The aim was to define recommendations about clinical utility of basic hemodynamic monitoring methods and the Use of Pulmonary Artery Catheter. Modified Delphi methodology was used to create and quantify the consensus between the participants. AMIB indicated a coordinator who invited more six experts in the area of monitoring and hemodynamic support to constitute the Consensus Advisory Board. Twenty-five physicians and nurses selected from different regions of the country completed the expert panel, which reviewed the pertinent bibliography listed at the MEDLINE in the period from 1996 to 2004. Recommendations were made based on 55 questions about the use of central venous pressure, invasive arterial pressure, pulmonary artery catheter and its indications in different settings. Evaluation of central venous pressure and invasive arterial pressure, besides variables obtained by the PAC allow the understanding of cardiovascular physiology that is of great value to the care of critically ill patients. However, the correct use of these tools is fundamental to achieve the benefits due to its use.

  6. Quality of service and customer satisfaction on arterial streets : final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-13

    This report presents the results of a qualitative study of driver perception of quality of service (QOS) on urban arterial streets. The purpose of the study was to identify the factors that are important to drivers of personal automobiles (non-commer...

  7. Contaminants in stream sediments from seven United States metropolitan areas: part I: distribution in relation to urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Moran, Patrick W.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Kemble, Nile E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Phillips, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    Organic contaminants and trace elements were measured in bed sediments collected from streams in seven metropolitan study areas across the United States to assess concentrations in relation to urbanization. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, the pyrethroid insecticide bifenthrin, and several trace elements were significantly related to urbanization across study areas. Most contaminants (except bifenthrin, chromium, nickel) were significantly related to the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the sediments. Regression models explained 45–80 % of the variability in individual contaminant concentrations using degree of urbanization, sediment-TOC, and study-area indicator variables (which represent the combined influence of unknown factors, such as chemical use or release, that are not captured by available explanatory variables). The significance of one or more study-area indicator variables in all models indicates marked differences in contaminant levels among some study areas, even after accounting for the nationally modeled effects of urbanization and sediment-TOC. Mean probable effect concentration quotients (PECQs) were significantly related to urbanization. Trace elements were the major contributors to mean PECQs at undeveloped sites, whereas organic contaminants, especially bifenthrin, were the major contributors at highly urban sites. Pyrethroids, where detected, accounted for the largest share of the mean PECQ. Part 2 of this series (Kemble et al. 2012) evaluates sediment toxicity to amphipods and midge in relation to sediment chemistry.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix H to Part 122 - Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of 250,000 or More According to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Census H Appendix H to Part 122 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED.... 122, App. H Appendix H to Part 122—Counties With Unincorporated Urbanized Areas With a Population of...

  9. Urban agriculture in the transition to low carbon cities through urban greening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Thornbush

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Urban agriculture presents an opportunity to extend food production to cities. This could enhance food security, particularly in developing countries, and allow for adaptation to growing urbanization. This review paper examines current trends in urban agriculture from a global perspective as a mitigation-adaptation approach to climate change adaptation in the midst of a growing world population. Employing vegetation as a carbon capture and storage system encapsulates a soft-engineering strategy that can be easily deployed by planners and environmental managers. In this review, urban agriculture is presented as a land-use solution to counteract the effects of urbanization, and as a means to establish a continuum between cities and the countryside. It espouses the usefulness of urban agriculture to enhance food security while sequestering carbon. As part of urban greening (including newer approaches, such as green roofs and gardens as well as more established forms of greening, such as forests and parks, urban agriculture offers traditionally rural services in cities, thereby contributing to food resources as well as working to alleviate pressing social issues like poverty. It also provides a way to reduce stress on farmland, and creates opportunities for employment and community-building. As part of greening, urban agriculture provides a buffer for pollution and improves environmental (and well as human health and well-being. This review begins by addressing the physical factors of adopting urban agriculture, such as climate change and development, land use and degradation, technology and management, and experimental findings as well as human factors investigated in the published literature. As such, it presents an integrated approach to urban agriculture that is part of a social-ecological perspective.

  10. Iterative Bayesian Estimation of Travel Times on Urban Arterials: Fusing Loop Detector and Probe Vehicle Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kai; Cui, Meng-Ying; Cao, Peng; Wang, Jiang-Bo

    2016-01-01

    On urban arterials, travel time estimation is challenging especially from various data sources. Typically, fusing loop detector data and probe vehicle data to estimate travel time is a troublesome issue while considering the data issue of uncertain, imprecise and even conflicting. In this paper, we propose an improved data fusing methodology for link travel time estimation. Link travel times are simultaneously pre-estimated using loop detector data and probe vehicle data, based on which Bayesian fusion is then applied to fuse the estimated travel times. Next, Iterative Bayesian estimation is proposed to improve Bayesian fusion by incorporating two strategies: 1) substitution strategy which replaces the lower accurate travel time estimation from one sensor with the current fused travel time; and 2) specially-designed conditions for convergence which restrict the estimated travel time in a reasonable range. The estimation results show that, the proposed method outperforms probe vehicle data based method, loop detector based method and single Bayesian fusion, and the mean absolute percentage error is reduced to 4.8%. Additionally, iterative Bayesian estimation performs better for lighter traffic flows when the variability of travel time is practically higher than other periods.

  11. Technique for arterial-phase contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography of the carotid and vertebral arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, H; Takehara, Y; Isogai, S; Takeda, H; Kaneko, M; Nozaki, A; Sun, Y; Foo, T K

    1998-08-01

    Our goal was to evaluate whether contrast-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography using the MR Smartprep technique would enable us to obtain arterial-phase MR angiograms of the carotid and vertebral arteries. The study included 35 patients with suspected lesions of the neck in whom the MR Smartprep technique was used for MR angiography performed with a 1.5-T superconducting system. The tracker volume was placed primarily in the middle part of the right common carotid artery. The imaging volume was placed in a coronal direction to include the carotid and vertebral arteries from the aortic arch to the skull base. A centric phase-ordering scheme was used. Imaging times were 20 to 38 seconds for 14 patients and 11 to 16 seconds for 21 patients. By using a smaller tracker volume and an imaging time of less than 16 seconds, we were able to achieve a 100% successful triggering rate and to delineate selectively arterial-phase carotid and vertebral arteries with almost no venous contamination. Contract-enhanced 3-D MR angiography with the MR Smartprep technique was useful for showing arterial-phase carotid and vertebral arteries selectively.

  12. Expert System Development for Urban Fire Hazard Assessment. Study Case: Kendari City, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taridala, S.; Yudono, A.; Ramli, M. I.; Akil, A.

    2017-08-01

    Kendari City is a coastal urban region with the smallest area as well as the largest population in Southeast Sulawesi. Fires in Kendari City had rather frequently occurred and caused numerous material losses. This study aims to develop a model of urban fire risk and fire station site assessment. The model is developed using Expert Systems with the Geographic Information System (GIS). The high risk of fire area is the area which of high building density with combustible material, not crossed by arterial nor collector road. The fire station site should be appropriately close by high risk of fire area, located on arterial road and near with potential water resource.

  13. Natural Arsenic Pollution and Hydrochemistry of Drinking Water of an Urban Part of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Mosaferi; Mohammad Shakerkhatibi; Saeid Dastgiri; Mohammad Asghari Jafar-abadi; Alireza Khataee; Samira Sheykholeslami

    2014-01-01

    Natural contamination of surface and groundwater resources with arsenic is a worldwide problem. The present study aimed to investigate and report on the quality of drinking water resources with special focus on arsenic presence in an urban part of Iran. Arsenic concentrations were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). In both surface and groundwater samples, arsenic concentrations ranged from 6 - 61 µg/L with an average value of 39 ± 20 µg/L. Concentration of ar...

  14. Hypothenar hammer syndrome: long-term follow-up after ulnar artery reconstruction with the lateral circumflex femoral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Niet, A; Van Uchelen, J H

    2017-06-01

    In symptomatic patients with hypothenar hammer syndrome, the occluded part of the ulnar artery can be reconstructed with an autologous graft. Venous grafts are used frequently, but they are known for their low patency rate. Arterial grafts show better patency rates than venous grafts in coronary bypass surgery. We performed 11 ulnar artery reconstructions with the descending branch of the lateral circumflex femoral artery and compared these with previously performed venous reconstructions. All patients with an arterial graft reconstruction had a patent graft at a mean follow-up of 63 months. In addition, nine out of 11 patients reported improvement in their symptoms. The patency rate of venous reconstructions in hypothenar hammer syndrome is significantly lower. Arterial grafting for hypothenar hammer syndrome has superior patency compared with venous grafting; we recommend it as the surgical treatment of choice for symptomatic hypothenar hammer syndrome. 4.

  15. Coronary artery with aberrant origin malignant right

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozcan, E.; Bozlar, U.; Demirkol, S.; Saglam, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries is a major cause of sudden death, especially in young patients. Objectives and tasks: In this study we aim to present a young patient with chest pain who had malignant right coronary artery (RCA) with aberrant origin. Materials and methods: 24-year-old man who applied cardiology clinic for chest pain and palpitations especially after exercise, was referred to our clinic for coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography to evaluate coronary artery anomalies. Results: In CT angiography; we detected aberrant RCA with origin of tubularly part of ascendant aorta with a malignant course between aorta and pulmonary artery. Left main coronary artery, left anterior descending and circumflex artery had normal origin and course. Conclusion: Coronary artery with malignant course may cause sudden death especially after exercise. Coronary CT angiography has an important role in diagnosis of congenital coronary artery anomalies, with high resolution multiplanner reformatted images

  16. Clinical efficacy of intra-arterial thrombolsis for basilar artery occlusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Hua; Li Shenmao; Zhu Fengshui; Zhao Huipin; Xu Yanjie

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and influence of intra-arterial thrombolysis for basilar artery occlusion. Methods: Thirty-three consecutive cases of basilar artery occlusion treated by intra-arterial thrombolysis were retrospectively reviewed. They were 25 males and 8 females aged from 28 to 71 years old (average: 56±11 years). The recovery was graded by Glasgow outcome scale, which 1 to 3 point is unfavorable and 4 to 5 is favorable. The short-term follow-up was performed referring to the medical record at the time of discharge and the long-term follow-up was performed by telephone. The differences between the favorable and unfavorable, including sex, age, time to thrombolysis, dizziness, nystagmus, coma, bilateral babinski syndrome, occlusive part, revascularization, angioplasty and its type, were compared by Fisher exact test where P<0.05 was significant. Results: The short-term follow-up was evaluated during the admission (2 to 63 days, 21±16 days). Eighteen eases were favorable and 15 cases were unfavorable and 3 cases died. Twenty one cases showed revascularization and 19 cases showed bilateral positive Babinski sign. The positive Babinski sign, revascularization and coma had significant difference between the favorable and unfavorable (P<0.05). The sex, age, time to thrombolysis between the favorable and unfavorable showed no statistical difference. The long-term follow-up were performed after 1 year and 9 cases missed. 15 of them were favorable and 6 were unfavorable (4 cases died). Conclusion: The intra-arterial thrombolysis could improved the prognosis of basilar artery occlusion. (authors)

  17. Some notions on urbanity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Bo

    According to International Federation of Housing and Planning the majority of the population of the planet will be urban in 2007. That definition of the urban, however, is based on zombie categories, to speak as Ulrich Beck. Urbanization and urban areas as we normally understand them are concepts...... of 'the first modernity'. Nowadays, in 'the second modernity', we have instead to aks: where in the city do you really find urbanity? A large part of what statistically is called urban areas lack urban quality and visible urban life. In the space syntax community urbanity is basically understood...

  18. 7 CFR 1951.232 - Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Water and waste disposal systems which have become... Water and waste disposal systems which have become part of an urban area. A water and/or waste disposal.... The following will be forwarded to the Administrator, Attention: Water and Waste Disposal Division...

  19. Indicators to support healthy urban gardening in urban management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram-Bijkerk, Dieneke; Otte, Piet; Dirven, Liesbet; Breure, Anton M

    2018-01-01

    Urban gardening is part of a trend towards more parks and green areas in cities, consumption of organic, locally grown products, and a closer relationship with one's own living environment. Our literature review shows that urban gardens provide opportunities for physical activity and allow people to

  20. Urban green areas as the starting point for planning hydroelectric and urban developments: The case of the Sava River in the City of Ljubljana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Mlakar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the landscape and urbanistic layout of the Sava River space and North part of the Bežigrad stretch of Ljubljana. Focus is on methodological and content starting points for the layout preparation and development of urban green areas of the wider Sava River space, which as a connecting link and simultaneously independent spatial and functional entity represents the starting point for planning hydro-energetic and urban arrangements. The necessity of recognising and resolving real spatial planning issues, formulation of clear goals and concepts, confrontation of different spatial systems and interests, as well as the sensibility of devising alternative development scenarios are emphasised. One of the most important starting points of the proposed layout is comprehensive design of public open spaces and green areas. The urbanistic solution relies on a programmatically strong, distinct and structured Dunajska Street, which should transform into the public space of a modern urban artery, with a clear ending that simultaneously gradually adapts to the morphology akin to the surroundings and Sava River space. Because of its natural characteristics, preserved cultural landscape and good accessibility, this area has great potential for development of leisure activities. The proposed solution stems from the fact that the chain of hydro-electric plants shouldn't be seen as buildings with negative environmental effects, but also as development opportunities – the actual execution of a recreation area along the Sava River and a method for rehabilitating the degraded spaces. Comprehensive solutions along the river have been proposed as parts of the hydro-electric developments, with special attention focusing on active design of various riverbank types.

  1. Introducing Urban Cultural Heritage Management into Urban Planning Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    properties existing in human settlements such as historic cities, districts, town, villages, relics, buildings and structures, as well as landscapes, which could demonstrate the history of an area and the people who live there from generation to generation. Regarding that the spatial layout and the land-use arrangement of these urban cultural heritages are included in urban plan-ning management, the management of these urban cultural heritages should also be a part of urban planning management. Therefore, based on the comparison of the concepts, urban cultural heritage management could be regarded as a kind of integrated management that combines cultural heritage management and urban planning management. 2. Relationship between two kinds of managementAs the contents of urban cultural heritage expanding, especially being more rela-tive to the historic buildings in cities, the object of urban cultural heritage manage-ment has been increased, among which the overlapped part with that of urban planning management is becoming bigger and big-ger, resulting in the even closer relationship between the two kinds of management.

  2. 21 CFR 870.4260 - Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter... Cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter. (a) Identification. A cardiopulmonary bypass arterial line blood filter is a device used as part of a gas exchange (oxygenator) system to filter nonbiologic...

  3. Arterial vascularization patterns of the splenium: An anatomical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilogullari, G; Comert, A; Ozdemir, M; Brohi, R A; Ozgural, O; Esmer, A F; Egemen, N; Karahan, S T

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). The splenium is unique in that it is part of the largest commissural tract in the brain and a region in which pathologies are seen frequently. An exact description of the arterial vascularization of this part of the CC remains under debate. Thirty adult human brains (60 hemispheres) were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. Then, the brains were fixed in formaldehyde, and dissections were performed using a surgical microscope. The diameter of the arterial branches supplying the splenium of the CC at their origin was investigated, and the vascularization patterns of these branches were observed. Vascular supply to the splenium was provided by the anterior pericallosal artery (40%) from the anterior circulation and by the posterior pericallosal artery (88%) and posterior accessory pericallosal artery (50%) from the posterior circulation. The vascularization pattern of the splenium differs in each hemisphere and is usually supplied by multiple branches. The arterial vascularization of the splenium of the CC was studied comprehensively considering the ongoing debate and the inadequacy of the studies on this issue currently available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge is essential during the treatment of pathologies in this region and especially for splenial arteriovenous malformations.

  4. Impact of Intra-Extracranial Hemodynamics on Cerebral Ischemia by Arterial Hypertension (Part 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kruglov, PhD, ScD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The association between hemodynamic and biochemical parameters of cerebral blood flow have been studied in man, using mathematical methods of statistics. The values have been obtained through catheterization using a probe jammed at the level of the bulb of the superior jugular vein. Relationships with central hemodynamic parameters have been evaluated, including the right atrium, the right ventricle, and the left ventricle, as well as with pressure and biochemical values of the arterial bed. Data have been acquired in patients with stable arterial hypertension. Analysis of all relationship between hemodynamic and biochemical parameters has shown that the uniform hemodynamic zone: Sin.P. – SJV – SEV – the right atrium, normally participates in regulation of gaseous exchange in the human brain depending on the minimum pressure on the way of outflow from the brain. In stable arterial hypertension, this type of regulation is lost. On the basis of the results of this study, it has been concluded that blood viscosity is normally a primary controlled parameter of homeostasis. In stable arterial hypertension, homeostatic control of factors determining rheological and thrombogenic properties of blood, as well as participating in the development of brain ischemic conditions is lost. This increases risk of disturbances in central hemodynamics.

  5. Vascular patterns of upper limb: an anatomical study with accent on superficial brachial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kachlik

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the terminal segmentation of the axillary artery and to present four cases of anomalous branching of the axillary artery, the superficial brachial artery (arteria brachialis superficialis, which is defined as the brachial artery that runs superficially to the median nerve. Totally, 130 cadaveric upper arms embalmed by classical formaldehyde technique from collections of the Department of Anatomy, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, were macroscopically dissected with special focus on the branching arrangement of the axillary artery. The most distal part of the axillary artery (infrapectoral part terminated in four cases as a bifurcation into two terminal branches: the superficial brachial artery and profunda brachii artery, denominated according to their relation to the median nerve. The profunda brachii artery primarily gave rise to the main branches of the infrapectoral part of the axillary artery. The superficial brachial artery descended to the cubital fossa where it assumed the usual course of the brachial artery in two cases and in the other two cases its branches (the radial and ulnar arteries passed superficially to the flexors. The incidence of the superficial brachial artery in our study was 5% of cases. The reported incidence is a bit contradictory, from 0.12% to 25% of cases. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is of crucial importance for neurosurgeons and specialists using the radiodiagnostic techniques, particularly in cases involving traumatic injuries. The improved knowledge would allow more accurate diagnostic interpretations and surgical treatment.

  6. A CLINICAL CASE: DIAGNOSTICS OF SHERESHEVSKY TERNER SYNDROME WITH MULTIPLE CONGENITAL ANOMALIES IN MAIN ARTERIES OF A 4 YEAR OLD CHILD, SUFFERING FROM ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Tsygin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides a substantiation for the differential diagnostics of the symptomatic arterial hypertension of a 4 year old child, suffering from the arterial hypertension of the presumably renoparenchymal origin. In the course of the clinical examination, the researchers found out coarctation of aorta and hypoplasia of the right renal artery as a part of Shereshevsky-Terner syndrome.Key words: arterial hypertension, Shereshevsky-Terner syndrome, coarctation of aorta, renovascular hypertension.

  7. Urban Short Range Interaction: An LVC Solution for Urban Operation Training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, T; Krijnen, R.; Visschedijk, G.C.

    2012-01-01

    Urban Operations are an increasingly important part of military operations, both nationally and during expeditions. The complexity of the urban environment makes these operations difficult, and a key aspect of this complexity is the presence of local population. The individual soldier needs to

  8. [Baroreflexes originated in vertebral artery zones upon peripheral vein tonus, systemic arterial blood pressure, and external respiration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agadzhanian, N A; Kupriianov, S V

    2008-06-01

    The investigation was intended to study the role ofbaroreceptors ofhemodynamically isolated zone of vertebral arteries in regulation of peripheral veins tonus, arterial pressure and external respiration. Pressure decrease in this vascular reflexogenic zone led to reflex responses of increase in femoral vein tonus, elevation of blood pressure level and stimulation of external respiration. The opposite reflex responses of cardio-respiratory functional system to initial pressure activation of vertebral arteries baroreceptors are observed. Basing on generalization of our own findings and similar physiological and morphological researches of other authors, it is established that afferentation from the vertebral artery zone is a reflexogenic factor of somatic muscles' veins tonus regulation. These reflexes of capacity vessels tonic activity changes are part of cardio-respiratory responses of maintaining the tissue gaseous exchange.

  9. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, G.

    1980-01-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left interal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis. (orig.)

  10. Intracranial carotid anastomosis and partial aplasia of an internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, G.

    1980-12-01

    A rare arterial anastomosis between the right and left internal carotid arteries at the base at the skull, with aplasia of the cervical part of the left internal carotid artery is reported. The case is unusual because, in addition to the vascular anomaly of the carotid artery, there is an aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery and bilateral renal cysts. The condition is a complex malformation syndrome caused by defective regression of the third branchial artery. Because of the characteristic angiographic aspects such a case should be called transverse carotid anastomosis.

  11. Renal artery origins: best angiographic projection angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuyl, E J; Kaatee, R; Beek, F J; Patel, N H; Fontaine, A B; Daly, C P; Coldwell, D M; Bush, W H; Mali, W P

    1997-10-01

    To determine the best projection angles for imaging the renal artery origins in profile. A mathematical model of the anatomy at the renal artery origins in the transverse plane was used to analyze the amount of aortic lumen that projects over the renal artery origins at various projection angles. Computed tomographic (CT) angiographic data about the location of 400 renal artery origins in 200 patients were statistically analyzed. In patients with an abdominal aortic diameter no larger than 3.0 cm, approximately 0.5 mm of the proximal part of the renal artery and origin may be hidden from view if there is a projection error of +/-10 degrees from the ideal image. A combination of anteroposterior and 20 degrees and 40 degrees left anterior oblique projections resulted in a 92% yield of images that adequately profiled the renal artery origins. Right anterior oblique projections resulted in the least useful images. An error in projection angle of +/-10 degrees is acceptable for angiographic imaging of the renal artery origins. Patients sex, site of interest (left or right artery), and local diameter of the abdominal aorta are important factors to consider.

  12. Depression and Geographic Status as Predictors for Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Tam K.; Chu, Danny; Springer, Justin; Hiatt, Emily; Nguyen, Quang

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the relationships between depression, geographic status, and clinical outcomes following a coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Methods: Using the 2004 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we identified 63,061 discharge records of patients who underwent a primary CABG surgery (urban 57,247 and rural 5,814). We…

  13. Bypass grafting to the anterior tibial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, R H

    1976-01-01

    Four patients with severe ischaemia of a leg due to atherosclerotic occlusion of the tibial and peroneal arteries had reversed long saphenous vein grafts to the patent lower part of the anterior tibial artery. Two of these grafts continue to function 19 and 24 months after operation respectively. One graft failed on the fifth postoperative day and another occluded 4 months after operation. The literature on femorotibial grafting has been reviewed. The early failure rate of distal grafting is higher than in the case of femoropopliteal bypass, but a number of otherwise doomed limbs can be salvaged. Contrary to widely held views, grafting to the anterior tibial artery appears to give results comparable to those obtained when the lower anastomosis is made to the posterior tibial artery.

  14. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome: case report | Jani | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome (SMAS) is caused by trapping of the third part of the duodenum between Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) and aorta as result of narrowing of the angle between the two vessels due to acute loss of mesenteric fat which is secondary to rapid weight loss. A fifteen year old caucasian ...

  15. Contemporary management of civilian penetrating cervicothoracic arterial injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinberg, Jordan A; Moore, Andrew H; Magnotti, Louis J; Teague, Rebecca J; Ward, Tyler A; Wasmund, Joshua B; Lamb, Elena M P; Schroeppel, Thomas J; Savage, Stephanie A; Minard, Gayle; Maish, George O; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2016-08-01

    The management of arterial injury at the thoracic outlet has long hinged on the fundamental principles of extensile exposure and vascular anastomosis. Nonetheless, treatment options for such injuries have evolved to include both endovascular stent placement and temporary vascular shunts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate our recent experience with penetrating cervicothoracic arterial injuries in light of these developments in trauma care. Patients with penetrating injuries to the innominate, carotid, subclavian, or axillary arteries managed at a single civilian trauma center between 2000 and 2013 were categorized as the modern era (ME) cohort. The management strategies and outcomes pertaining to the ME group were compared to those of previously reported experience (PE) concerning injuries to the innominate, carotid, subclavian, or axillary arteries at the same institution from 1974 to 1988. Over the two eras, there were 202 patients: 110 in the ME group and 92 in the PE group. Most of the injuries in both groups were managed with primary repair (45% vs. 46%; p = 0.89). A similar proportion of injuries in each group was managed with anticoagulation alone (14% vs. 10%; p = 0.40). In the ME group, two cases were managed with temporary shunt placement, and endovascular stent placement was performed in 12 patients. Outcomes were similar between the groups (bivariate comparison): mortality (ME, 15% vs. PE, 14%; p = 0.76), amputation following subclavian or axillary artery injury (ME, 5% vs. PE, 4%; p = 0.58), and posttreatment stroke following carotid injury (ME, 2% vs. PE, 6%; p = 0.57). Experience with penetrating arterial cervicothoracic injuries at a high-volume urban trauma center remained remarkably similar with respect to both anatomic distribution of injury and treatment. Conventional operative exposure and repair remain the cornerstone of treatment for most civilian cervicothoracic arterial injuries. Therapeutic study, level V.

  16. Suburbanization, Intra-Urban Mobility and Homeownership Aspirations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Manja Hoppe

    construction of housing, financed, built and inhabited by individual residents, who are predominantly long-term urban residents moving from central parts of the city and who are engaging in urban-based livelihood activities, which are often critically reliant on daily or regular mobility and access to central...... parts of the city. The findings highlight residents’ search for affordable urban housing as well as intra-urban residential mobility as central dynamics in urban expansion. The thesis also highlights how the on-going transformation processes differ from common conceptions of suburbanization in important......Urban expansion is a significant trend in cities of Africa, but the processes and dynamics of urban expansion are still understudied and poorly understood. This PhD thesis presents an explorative study of the processes and dynamics of urban expansion in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The research...

  17. Urban Renewal as an Urban Hegemony Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gönül İÇLİ

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There is an organic relationship between capitalism and urban space. Thisrelationship is a dynamic one which reproduces and renovates itself constantlyaccording to the conjuncture of each period and which evolves / changes inparallel with the necessities and rationalities of capital accumulation in historicalprocess. Therefore, neither reproduction of capitalist urban space with the regimeof capital accumulation nor the process of restructuring following a crisis in theregime of capital accumulation with spatial organization of capitalism can becompared independently. Today, in the concrete phase that capitalism hasreached, urban space has become one of the most important parts of direct capitalaccumulation under the hegemony of financial capital. In this context, urbantransformation projects and various strategies ofthe process becomes significantwith the instrumentalization of space by capital rationality. However, this processcarries the internal paradoxes of capitalism into the urban space at the same time,and cities, competing as candidates to be financial centres where the capital hasintensified and centralized, also transforms into spaces of violent socialpolarization. At this point, especially the reformation of squatter settlements has astrategic importance in the process of urban transformation and there are attemptsto attach the urban poor, who are the addressee of the process, under a widerurban hegemony project with the strategy of urban renovation.

  18. Bronchial arterial RI-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyazono, Nobuaki; Inoue, Hiroki; Kanetsuki, Ichiro; Takeshita, Tuyoshi; Mukai, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Takaaki; Nakabeppu, Yoshiaki; Nakajo, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen bronchial arterial perfusion studies were performed in a total of 13 patients with lung tumors (11 cases of lung cancer, one metastatic tumor and one abscess), utilizing 99m TcO 4 - or 99m Tc-labeled macroaggregated albumin ( 99m Tc-MAA). Regions of interest (ROI) of the same size were set over areas of tumor, the mediastinum and healthy lung areas, and each ROI count was calculated by a nuclear medicine computer during an acquisition time period of 20 min with each tracer for 7 min to evaluate tumor part perfusion. The count ratios of tumor to healthy parts ranged from 1.7 to 6.5 (mean±s.d.; 3.8±1.9) in the 99m TcO 4 - group (10 patients) and from 130 to 230 (mean±s.d.; 163±30) in the 99m Tc-MAA group (3 patients), respectively. Tumor reduction rates 2 weeks after CDDP bronchial artery infusion therapy correlated positively to the count ratio in the 99m TcO 4 - lung cancer group, although significant correlation was not obtained. This study suggests that bronchial arterial infusion of anticancer agents may result in higher concentrations of anticancer agents in the tumors than with systemic chemotherapy and chemoembolic materials may exert more potent anticancer effects on tumors than nonparticulated anticancer agents. (author)

  19. Urban interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2008-01-01

    Challenging perspectives on the urban question have arisen in recent years from beyond academic realms through the work of artists and cultural practitioners. Often in dialogue with urban theory and political activism, and employing a range of tactical practices, they have engaged critically......, relationships and situations. Such interventionist practices may rarely be seen as part of the traditional purview of urban studies. Yet in asserting their significance here, this essay argues that growing dialogues across and between urban and spatial theory, and artistic and cultural practice, have...... considerable potential for inspiring and developing critical approaches to cities. The essay highlights a number of specific challenges thrown up by such interconnections that are of political and pedagogical significance and in need of further debate....

  20. Urbane Projekter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Juel

    2013-01-01

    of Chapter 1 ’problem and research questions’, Chapter 2 ’place, discourse and planning as a theoretical framework’ and Chapter 3 ’research design’. Part 2 ’urban practice locally, nationally and globally’ consisting of Chapter 4 ’background and context, urban trans- formations in Aalborg from 1950 to 2013...... of Chapter 9 with the same name. The analysis results and thus the conclusions are at 3 levels of knowledge: Historically specific development in terms of urban planning practices respectively in Aalborg and natio- nally/internationally The tools here have been a focus on different rationales or urban...... projects as a strategic tool in urban policy, development of place perceptions, the use of narratives in the planning processes, the functions of representations as discursive devised imagined realities, power structures and planning approaches - knowledge that can be used in the future practice of other...

  1. GPER Mediates Functional Endothelial Aging in Renal Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthias R; Rosemann, Thomas; Barton, Matthias; Prossnitz, Eric R

    2017-01-01

    Aging is associated with impaired renal artery function, which is partly characterized by arterial stiffening and a reduced vasodilatory capacity due to excessive generation of reactive oxygen species by NADPH oxidases (Nox). The abundance and activity of Nox depends on basal activity of the heptahelical transmembrane receptor GPER; however, whether GPER contributes to age-dependent functional changes in renal arteries is unknown. This study investigated the effect of aging and Nox activity on renal artery tone in wild-type and GPER-deficient (Gper-/-) mice (4 and 24 months old). In wild-type mice, aging markedly impaired endothelium-dependent, nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxations to acetylcholine, which were largely preserved in renal arteries of aged Gper-/- mice. The Nox inhibitor gp91ds-tat abolished this difference by greatly enhancing relaxations in wild-type mice, while having no effect in Gper-/- mice. Contractions to angiotensin II and phenylephrine in wild-type mice were partly sensitive to gp91ds-tat but unaffected by aging. Again, deletion of GPER abolished effects of Nox inhibition on contractile responses. In conclusion, basal activity of GPER is required for the age-dependent impairment of endothelium-dependent, NO-mediated relaxation in the renal artery. Restoration of relaxation by a Nox inhibitor in aged wild-type but not Gper-/- mice strongly supports a role for Nox-derived reactive oxygen species as the underlying cause. Pharmacological blockers of GPER signaling may thus be suitable to inhibit functional endothelial aging of renal arteries by reducing Nox-derived oxidative stress and, possibly, the associated age-dependent deterioration of kidney function. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Participatory urban renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Kos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The article consists of two parts. The first deals with the theoretical framework of urban rehabilitation. Literature provides the basis for a conclusion, which is that the key issue in rehabilitation projects is legitimate negotiation of various interests between participating individuals and institutions. In the second part this presentation and analyses of events that took place at the urban design workshop organised within the framework of the research project Renewal of housing estates in Ljubljana, provide experiential confirmation of the starting thesis. We established that the directly involved residents were willing to actively participate in rehabilitation procedures, however the process is never triggered, because of insufficient capacities in institutional frameworks. In conclusion several real proposals are shown, namely, how to surmount obstacles in urban rehabilitation and especially in larger housing estates built after World War 2.

  3. Urban Fields in the making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovgesen, Henrik Harder; Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    cities and accentuates the concept of the ?urban field? suggested by John Friedmann (1978). The concept of ?urban field? suggest that mobility has been democratizised and increased to a level where several cities can be part of the same functionally integrated urban field. As a consequence...... the significance of the single urban centre and the city as an entity will change markedly. This paper aims to analyse the development towards urban travel- and commuter fields in Denmark. The question asked is to what degree urban fields are emerging? ? And what is the speed of this development....

  4. Hepatic telangiectasia in Osler's disease treated with arterial embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goethlin, J H; Nordgard, K; Jonsson, K; Nyman, U

    1982-02-01

    Hepatic hereditary telangiectasia in 2 females was treated with hepatic artery embolization. In one patient both peripheral and central arterial occlusion was performed; the patient died of massive gastro-intestinal bleeding 2 months later. Autopsy showed extensive regions with necrosis in the right liver lobe. In the next patient only central occlusion of the right hepatic artery was performed and the arterio-venous shunting in the left liver lobe left remaining. After a long reconvalescence period the patient recovered completely. It is advocated to centrally occlude only that hepatic artery supplying the most affected parts of the liver in Osler's disease. Thus extensive necrosis with possible ensuing death may be avoided.

  5. Urban Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Bermúdez, Juan Carlos Carvajal; Fernández, Manu

    This book is an effort to explore the newly emerging field of urban interaction design that addresses these issues. In the first part of the book, 'Foundations', we look into its origins. Where do its practitioners come from? How are they working together? What methodologies do they bring...... to the table? What are the key concepts they are addressing in their work? In the second part of the book named 'Trends', we go into current developments in the networked city and how urban interaction design as a field addresses these. Taken together, these sections will not give the definite definition...

  6. Comparative prevalence of otitis media in children living in urban slums, non-slum urban and rural areas of Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Shelly K; Gulati, Kriti; Garg, Suneela; Agarwal, Arun K

    2014-12-01

    The study aimed to determine the prevalence and profile of otitis media in different parts of a city, i.e. non-slum urban areas, urban slums and rural areas. A door to door survey was conducted in identified areas of Delhi. A total of 3000 children (0-15 years) were randomly selected and examined for presence of otitis media. These children were equally distributed in the three areas under consideration. Data was analyzed to establish the prevalence of different types of otitis media. Chi-square test was then applied to compare disease prevalence among the three areas. 7.1% of the study population was identified with otitis media, which includes CSOM (4.26%), OME (2.5%) and ASOM (0.4%). In the non-slum urban parts of the city, 4.6% children had otitis media. This was significantly lower compared to 7% children in rural parts of Delhi and 9.9% in urban slums of the city. The prevalence of CSOM was considerably higher in slum areas (7.2%) as compared with rural (3%) and non-slum urban areas (2.6%). Ear infections are significantly more common in urban slums as compared to non-slum city areas and rural parts of Delhi. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Unilateral high bifurcation of brachial artery: a case report | Auwal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Profunda Brachii, Superior Ulnar Collateral and Inferior Ulnar Collateral arteries arose from the relatively short brachial arterial trunk. Although the documented incidence of this anatomical variation is low in Nigeria, its concomitant widespread documentation in other parts of the world makes it a sufficiently important ...

  8. Implementing a Generative Urban Design Model : Grammar-based design patterns for urban design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beirao, J.N.; Mendes, G.; Duarte, J.; Stouffs, R.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows the first results of a prototype implementation of a generative urban design tool. This implementation will form part of a design support tool for a GIS based platform defined to formulate, generate and evaluate urban designs. These three goals, formulation, generation and

  9. A unique branching pattern of the axillary artery: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagoji, Ishwar B; Hadimani, Gavishiddappa A; Bannur, Balappa M; Patil, B G; Bharatha, Ambadasu

    2013-12-01

    During routine dissection classes for under graduate students, we found a unique and unusual case regarding the anomalous branching in the third part of the axillary artery was terminated into subscapular arterial trunk, superficial brachial artery and deep brachial artery. The subscapular arterial trunk was origin of several important arteries as the circumflex scapular, thoracodorsal, posterior circumflex humeral, thoraco-acromial and lateral thoracic arteries. The deep brachial artery in the arm gave anterior circumflex humeral artery at the surgical neck of humerus, which terminated in the cubital fossa by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. The superficial brachial artery gave two profunda brachii arteries, both of which passed through spiral groove, along with radial nerve and three muscular branches, to brachialis muscle. This variation is very rare. As per our knowledge, we did not find any literature which explained variations which were similar to this. The normal and abnormal anatomy of the axillary region has practical importance among vascular radiologists and surgeons and it should be known for making an accurate diagnostic interpretation.

  10. Urban warming reduces aboveground carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meineke, Emily; Youngsteadt, Elsa; Dunn, Robert Roberdeau

    2016-01-01

    sequestration (carbon stored per year) of mature trees. Urban warming increased herbivorous arthropod abundance on trees, but these herbivores had negligible effects on tree carbon sequestration. Instead, urban warming was associated with an estimated 12% loss of carbon sequestration, in part because...... photosynthesis was reduced at hotter sites. Ecosystem service assessments that do not consider urban conditions may overestimate urban tree carbon storage. Because urban and global warming are becoming more intense, our results suggest that urban trees will sequester even less carbon in the future....

  11. Arteries of the falciform ligament on C-arm CT hepatic arteriography: The hepatic falciform artery and the Sappey's superior artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hur, Saebeom; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Jae Hwan; Cho, SooBeum; Kim, Minuk; Lee, Myungsu; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhou, Chun Gao [First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Nanjing, Jangsu (China)

    2017-04-15

    To investigate the prevalence, anatomy and distribution of the hepatic falciform artery (HFA) and Sappey's superior artery (SSA) using C-arm CT hepatic arteriography (C-arm CTHA). From January 2011 to December 2012, 220 patients who underwent C-arm CTHA during initial transarterial treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were included in this retrospective study. The HFAs and SSAs prevalence and origin were evaluated using axial images of C-arm CTHA. A 5-point scale for HFAs and a 4-point scale for SSAs were used to designate the radiologically conspicuous arteries. The prevalences of the total HFAs and SSAs were 95 % (n=209) and 22 % (n=49), while those of radiologically conspicuous HFAs and SSAs were 62 % (n=137) and 10 % (n=22), respectively. Thirty HFAs (22 % of radiologically conspicuous HFAs and 14 % of the total study population) were distributed in the subcutaneous layer of the anterior abdominal wall, while the majority of SSAs ran through the superior part of the falciform ligament in the left-anterior direction and anastomosed with left inferior phrenic artery. Our study using C-arm CTHA revealed that the prevalence of the HFA is higher than the existing knowledge and proved the existence of the SSA radiologically for the first time. (orig.)

  12. Arteries of the falciform ligament on C-arm CT hepatic arteriography: The hepatic falciform artery and the Sappey's superior artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Saebeom; Chung, Jin Wook; Lee, Jae Hwan; Cho, SooBeum; Kim, Minuk; Lee, Myungsu; Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Jae, Hwan Jun; Zhou, Chun Gao

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence, anatomy and distribution of the hepatic falciform artery (HFA) and Sappey's superior artery (SSA) using C-arm CT hepatic arteriography (C-arm CTHA). From January 2011 to December 2012, 220 patients who underwent C-arm CTHA during initial transarterial treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma were included in this retrospective study. The HFAs and SSAs prevalence and origin were evaluated using axial images of C-arm CTHA. A 5-point scale for HFAs and a 4-point scale for SSAs were used to designate the radiologically conspicuous arteries. The prevalences of the total HFAs and SSAs were 95 % (n=209) and 22 % (n=49), while those of radiologically conspicuous HFAs and SSAs were 62 % (n=137) and 10 % (n=22), respectively. Thirty HFAs (22 % of radiologically conspicuous HFAs and 14 % of the total study population) were distributed in the subcutaneous layer of the anterior abdominal wall, while the majority of SSAs ran through the superior part of the falciform ligament in the left-anterior direction and anastomosed with left inferior phrenic artery. Our study using C-arm CTHA revealed that the prevalence of the HFA is higher than the existing knowledge and proved the existence of the SSA radiologically for the first time. (orig.)

  13. Prostatic Artery Embolization (PAE) for Symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH): Part 2, Insights into the Technical Rationale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Fei, E-mail: feisun@ccmijesususon.com; Crisóstomo, Verónica, E-mail: crisosto@ccmijesususon.com; Báez-Díaz, Claudia, E-mail: cbaez@ccmijesususon.com; Sánchez, Francisco M., E-mail: msanchez@ccmijesususon.com [Jesús Usón Minimally Invasive Surgery Centre (Spain)

    2016-02-15

    Rationale of prostatic artery embolization (PAE) in the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia is conventionally believed to include two parts: shrinkage of the enlarged prostate gland as a result of PAE-induced ischemic infarction and potential effects to relax the increased prostatic smooth muscle tone by reducing the number and density of α{sub 1}-adrenergic receptor in the prostate stroma. This review describes new insights into the likely mechanisms behind PAE, such as ischemia-induced apoptosis, apoptosis enhanced by blockage of androgens circulation to the embolized prostate, secondary denervation following PAE, and potential effect of nitric oxide pathway immediately after embolization. Studies on therapeutic mechanisms in PAE may shed light on potentially new treatment strategies and development of novel techniques.

  14. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 2 final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  15. N-acetylcysteine improves arterial vascular reactivity in patients with chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittstock, Antje; Burkert, Magdalena; Zidek, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease show increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality that are partly related to impaired arterial vascular reactivity. We investigated whether intravenous administration of the antioxidant acetylcysteine improves arterial vascular reactivity in these ...

  16. MERCURY IN ATMOSPHERE OVER RURAL, URBAN AND INDUSTRIAL PARTS OF ZAGREB CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav A. Palinkaš

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years Zagreb city encounters severe pollution problems in aquatic, terrrestrial and atmospheric environment. A random or permanent monitoring of some inorganic gaseous pollutants in atmosphere has already been organized and published alsewhere. By means of a sophisticated mercury vapor analyser with a Zeeman effect background corrector, however, continuous registration along two traverses (monitoring routes over rural, urban and industrial parts of Zagreb has been elaborated for the first lime. Data show strong anthropogenic influence in the Žitnjak industrial area. The anomaly high 105 ngm Hg, on the 22 October moved slightly to downtown by change of wind direction on the 31 October. Intensity raised as much as 155 ngm Hg, 13 times augmented in comparison to a background value on the Medvednica mountain. Explanation should be sought in denser public traffic, change of wind direction and lowering of atmospheric pressure.

  17. Timing of avian breeding in an urbanized world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, M.; Van den Eertwegh, L.; Beskers, R.; De Vries, P.P.; Spoelstra, K.; Visser, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    A large part of the world is urbanized, and the process of urbanization is ongoing. Species differ in the extent to which they are impacted by urbanization, depending on adaption capacity, and on the fitness consequences when adaptation lags behind. One prominent effect of urbanization is the

  18. Urban geomorphological heritage - A new field of research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynard, Emmanuel; Pica, Alessia; Coratza, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Urbanization is one of the major challenges that the world faces. In 2015, 54% of the world population was living in urban areas and in some countries this percentage is close to 100% (Singapore 100%; Qatar 99%; Belgium 98%). In several parts of the world annual urbanization rates exceed 5% (e.g. Oman 8.54%; Rwanda 6.43%; Burkina Faso 5.87%), which means that urban sprawl is a widespread phenomenon. Urbanization and correlated infrastructure building highly impact and sometimes completely destroy natural landforms. Geomorphological heritage research has traditionally focused on rural or natural regions, in particular protected areas (nature parks, geoparks). We consider that urban areas, which have been poorly investigated until now, are particularly interesting in a geomorphological heritage point of view for almost three reasons: (i) The geomorphological context (site) of some cities is part of their "image" and their fame (e.g. the sugarloaf of Rio de Janeiro); (ii) Urban sprawl often interacts with landforms, which addresses the challenge of geoheritage protection in fast urbanizing areas; (iii) Cities are often tourist destinations, which creates a potential for a geotourist promotion of their geomorphological heritage. This study addresses the main challenges research on geomorphological heritage is facing in urban contexts: (i) the complex interrelationships between natural landforms and urban forms; (ii) the partial or total invisibility of landforms and sediments that are covered or destroyed by urban infrastructures; (iii) man-made landforms as part of urban geomorphological heritage; (iv) the suitability of some landforms (valleys, gullies, mounts) for specific urban uses; (v) the geomorphic constraints of landforms on urban development; and (vi) the importance of some landforms for the urban landscape and the image of the cities. To address these challenges a methodological framework is proposed, which combines: (i) the geomorphological analysis of the

  19. Rethinking Design and Urban Planning for the Cities of the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Saaty

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Growth of urban areas and abandonment of rural areas are phenomena that increase quickly. The main consequences of urbanization are pollution, consumption of resources and energy, waste dumps, and junk yards. These aspects require a better planning and design of European urban metropolitan areas, considering benefits, opportunities, costs and risks (B.O.C.R., derivable by urban transformations and available resources. The paper consists of five parts. The first part contains some reflections on consequences of urban sprawl. In the second part, some possible kinds of cities are discussed (sustainable city, smart city, and compact city. The third part briefly describes a multicriteria decision-making approach known as the ‘analytic hierarchy process’ to deal with complex decisions. In the fourth part, alternative city models are analyzed (compact city, elevated city, green house city, and water city. Finally, in the fifth part, the criteria selected for the planning and design of the alternative city models are used for the prioritization of some European cities.

  20. Predictability and interpretability of hybrid link-level crash frequency models for urban arterials compared to cluster-based and general negative binomial regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najaf, Pooya; Duddu, Venkata R; Pulugurtha, Srinivas S

    2018-03-01

    Machine learning (ML) techniques have higher prediction accuracy compared to conventional statistical methods for crash frequency modelling. However, their black-box nature limits the interpretability. The objective of this research is to combine both ML and statistical methods to develop hybrid link-level crash frequency models with high predictability and interpretability. For this purpose, M5' model trees method (M5') is introduced and applied to classify the crash data and then calibrate a model for each homogenous class. The data for 1134 and 345 randomly selected links on urban arterials in the city of Charlotte, North Carolina was used to develop and validate models, respectively. The outputs from the hybrid approach are compared with the outputs from cluster-based negative binomial regression (NBR) and general NBR models. Findings indicate that M5' has high predictability and is very reliable to interpret the role of different attributes on crash frequency compared to other developed models.

  1. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome causing growth retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil İbrahim Taşcı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesenteric artery syndrome is a rare and lifethreateningclinical condition caused by the compressionof the third portion of the duodenum between the aortaand the superior mesenteric artery’s proximal part. Thiscompression may lead to chronic intermittent, acute totalor partial obstruction. Sudden weight-loss and the relateddecrease in the fat tissue are considered to be the etiologicalreason of acute stenosis. Weight-loss accompaniedby nausea, vomiting, anorexia, epigastric pain, andbloating are the leading complaints. Barium radiographs,computerized tomography, conventional angiography,tomographic and magnetic resonance angiography areused in the diagnosis. There are medical and surgical approachesto treatment. We hereby present the case ofa patient with superior mesenteric artery syndrome withdelayed diagnosis.Key words: superior mesenteric artery syndrome, nausea-vomiting, anorexia

  2. Effect of angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension on the voltage-dependent contractions of mouse arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Paul; Van Hove, Cor E; Leloup, Arthur J A; Schrijvers, Dorien M; De Meyer, Guido R Y; De Keulenaer, Gilles W

    2016-02-01

    Arterial hypertension (AHT) affects the voltage dependency of L-type Ca(2+) channels in cardiomyocytes. We analyzed the effect of angiotensin II (AngII)-induced AHT on L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated isometric contractions in conduit arteries. AHT was induced in C57Bl6 mice with AngII-filled osmotic mini-pumps (4 weeks). Normotensive mice treated with saline-filled osmotic mini-pumps were used for comparison. Voltage-dependent contractions mediated by L-type Ca(2+) channels were studied in vaso-reactive studies in vitro in isolated aortic and femoral arteries by using extracellular K(+) concentration-response (KDR) experiments. In aortic segments, AngII-induced AHT significantly sensitized isometric contractions induced by elevated extracellular K(+) and depolarization. This sensitization was partly prevented by normalizing blood pressure with hydralazine, suggesting that it was caused by AHT rather than by direct AngII effects on aortic smooth muscle cells. The EC50 for extracellular K(+) obtained in vitro correlated significantly with the rise in arterial blood pressure induced by AngII in vivo. The AHT-induced sensitization persisted when aortic segments were exposed to levcromakalim or to inhibitors of basal nitric oxide release. Consistent with these observations, AngII-treatment also sensitized the vaso-relaxing effects of the L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker diltiazem during K(+)-induced contractions. Unlike aorta, AngII-treatment desensitized the isometric contractions to depolarization in femoral arteries pointing to vascular bed specific responses of arteries to hypertension. AHT affects the voltage-dependent L-type Ca(2+) channel-mediated contraction of conduit arteries. This effect may contribute to the decreased vascular compliance in AHT and explain the efficacy of Ca(2+) channel blockers to reduce vascular stiffness and central blood pressure in AHT.

  3. Urbanization and the wealth of nations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, David E; Canning, David; Fink, Günther

    2008-02-08

    The proportion of a country's population living in urban areas is highly correlated with its level of income. Urban areas offer economies of scale and richer market structures, and there is strong evidence that workers in urban areas are individually more productive, and earn more, than rural workers. However, rapid urbanization is also associated with crowding, environmental degradation, and other impediments to productivity. Overall, we find no evidence that the level of urbanization affects the rate of economic growth. Our findings weaken the rationale for either encouraging or discouraging urbanization as part of a strategy for economic growth.

  4. ARTERIAL REVASCULARIZATION WITH THE RIGHT GASTROEPIPLOIC ARTERY AND INTERNAL MAMMARY ARTERIES IN 300 PATIENTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GRANDJEAN, JG; BOONSTRA, PW; DENHEYER, P; EBELS, T; KIRKLIN, JW

    From September 1989 to September 1992, the right gastroepiploic artery in combination with one or both internal mammary arteries was used as a graft in 300 patients who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. The gastroepiploic artery was the primary choice in preference to the saphenous vein.

  5. Informal Urban Development in Cairo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steinø, Nicolai; Petersen, Mads Dines

    2017-01-01

    The city of Cairo, Egypt, currently experiences rapid urban growth. Large parts of the city expand without formal urban planning. This results in large-scale informal and unplanned development. In addition, the resulting urban fabric and individual buildings feature severe deficiencies when...... it comes to the basic quality of urban space, ventilation and daylight. While retrofitting already built-up areas would be a huge challenge, some minor improvements might be possible in future development even within the current mode of production of these spaces. In recent years, parametric design tools...... have opened up new possibilities for modelling in urban design. By way of a parametric design approach, different urban design parameters can be modified and new urban space scenarios can be rendered three dimensionally in almost real time. In short, this is parametric urban design. It opens up...

  6. Microsurgical Bypass Training Rat Model, Part 1: Technical Nuances of Exposure of the Aorta and Iliac Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi Meybodi, Ali; Lawton, Michael T; Mokhtari, Pooneh; Yousef, Sonia; Gandhi, Sirin; Benet, Arnau

    2017-11-01

    Animal models using rodents are frequently used for practicing microvascular anastomosis-an essential technique in cerebrovascular surgery. However, safely and efficiently exposing rat's target vessels is technically difficult. Such difficulty may lead to excessive hemorrhage and shorten animal survival. This limits the ability to perform multiple anastomoses on a single animal and may increase the overall training time and costs. We report our model for microsurgical bypass training in rodents in 2 consecutive articles. In part 1, we describe the technical nuances for a safe and efficient exposure of the rat abdominal aorta and common iliac arteries (CIAs) for bypass. Over a 2-year period, 50 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent inhalant anesthesia for practicing microvascular anastomosis on the abdominal aorta and CIAs. Lessons learned regarding the technical nuances of vessel exposure were recorded. Several technical nuances were important for avoiding intraoperative bleeding and preventing animal demise while preparing an adequate length of vessels for bypass. The most relevant technical nuances include (1) generous subcutaneous dissection; (2) use of cotton swabs for the blunt dissection of the retroperitoneal fat; (3) combination of sharp and blunt dissection to isolate the aorta and iliac arteries from the accompanying veins; (4) proper control of the posterior branches of the aorta; and (5) efficient division and mobilization of the left renal pedicle. Applying the aforementioned technical nuances enables safe and efficient preparation of the rat abdominal aorta and CIAs for microvascular anastomosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: An examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Robert A; Sloan, Chantel D; Cooper, Victoria C; Robinson, Daniel R; Hendrickson, Nathan R; McCord, Tyler A; Johnston, James D

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2.7 km (1.68 mile) arterial urban route in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) during peak "rush hour" times. Using previously published minute ventilation rates, we estimated the inhaled dose and exposure rate for each mode of commuting. Mean PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 5.20 μg/m3 for driving with windows closed to 15.21 μg/m3 for driving with windows open. The estimated inhaled doses over the 2.7 km route were 6.83 μg for walking, 2.78 μg for cycling, 1.28 μg for light-rail train, 1.24 μg for driving with windows open, 1.23 μg for bus, and 0.32 μg for driving with windows closed. Similarly, the exposure rates were highest for cycling (18.0 μg/hr) and walking (16.8 μg/hr), and lowest for driving with windows closed (3.7 μg/hr). Our findings support previous studies showing that active commuters receive a greater PM2.5 dose and have higher rates of exposure than commuters using automobiles or public transportation. Our findings also support previous studies showing that driving with windows closed is protective against traffic-related PM2.5 exposure.

  8. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: An examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Cooper, Victoria C.; Robinson, Daniel R.; Hendrickson, Nathan R.; McCord, Tyler A.; Johnston, James D.

    2017-01-01

    Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters’ daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train) simultaneously on a single 2.7 km (1.68 mile) arterial urban route in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA) during peak “rush hour” times. Using previously published minute ventilation rates, we estimated the inhaled dose and exposure rate for each mode of commuting. Mean PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 5.20 μg/m3 for driving with windows closed to 15.21 μg/m3 for driving with windows open. The estimated inhaled doses over the 2.7 km route were 6.83 μg for walking, 2.78 μg for cycling, 1.28 μg for light-rail train, 1.24 μg for driving with windows open, 1.23 μg for bus, and 0.32 μg for driving with windows closed. Similarly, the exposure rates were highest for cycling (18.0 μg/hr) and walking (16.8 μg/hr), and lowest for driving with windows closed (3.7 μg/hr). Our findings support previous studies showing that active commuters receive a greater PM2.5 dose and have higher rates of exposure than commuters using automobiles or public transportation. Our findings also support previous studies showing that driving with windows closed is protective against traffic-related PM2.5 exposure. PMID:29121096

  9. Personal exposure to fine particulate air pollution while commuting: An examination of six transport modes on an urban arterial roadway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A Chaney

    Full Text Available Traffic-related air pollution in urban areas contributes significantly to commuters' daily PM2.5 exposures, but varies widely depending on mode of commuting. To date, studies show conflicting results for PM2.5 exposures based on mode of commuting, and few studies compare multiple modes of transportation simultaneously along a common route, making inter-modal comparisons difficult. In this study, we examined breathing zone PM2.5 exposures for six different modes of commuting (bicycle, walking, driving with windows open and closed, bus, and light-rail train simultaneously on a single 2.7 km (1.68 mile arterial urban route in Salt Lake City, Utah (USA during peak "rush hour" times. Using previously published minute ventilation rates, we estimated the inhaled dose and exposure rate for each mode of commuting. Mean PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 5.20 μg/m3 for driving with windows closed to 15.21 μg/m3 for driving with windows open. The estimated inhaled doses over the 2.7 km route were 6.83 μg for walking, 2.78 μg for cycling, 1.28 μg for light-rail train, 1.24 μg for driving with windows open, 1.23 μg for bus, and 0.32 μg for driving with windows closed. Similarly, the exposure rates were highest for cycling (18.0 μg/hr and walking (16.8 μg/hr, and lowest for driving with windows closed (3.7 μg/hr. Our findings support previous studies showing that active commuters receive a greater PM2.5 dose and have higher rates of exposure than commuters using automobiles or public transportation. Our findings also support previous studies showing that driving with windows closed is protective against traffic-related PM2.5 exposure.

  10. Regeneration Through Hidden Historical Landscape of Lecco. Urban Course Design Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Colucci

    2017-12-01

    The first part of paper presents the general learning process characterizing Urban Design course and the methodological process for the Urban Master Plan development in the studio modules. The second part presents the LeccoLAB didactical path developed in the Lecco Campus focusing on the urban design issues and presenting selected results and design proposals developed by students focusing on the Lecco Historical Urban Heritage issues. During the Academic Year 2016/2017 students’ work teams (27 applied the concepts, methods and techniques presented in Urban Design course to the Lecco waterfront urban systems developing proposal for Urban Master Plan aiming the regeneration of urban complex systems through principles of Nature Based Solutions and  Urban Resilience.

  11. Entrapment of Suprascapular Artery between Split Parts of Right Inferior Belly of Omohyoid Muscle - A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naina Santosh Wakode

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Inferior belly of omohyoid is used as a landmark for endoscopic exploration of the brachial plexus. Variation of inferior belly of omohyoid muscle has immense clinical significance because of its relation to brachial plexus, external jugular vein, suprascapular nerve, vessels and phrenic nerve. The need to understand muscular variation is of greater importance because of the increased number of endoscopic surgeries and images for diagnosis. A number of variations of omohyoid muscle such as the absence of muscle, unusual sites of origin and insertion, and multiple bellies have been reported. Doubling or splitting of superior belly of the omohyoid has been reported several times. However, the splitting of the inferior belly of the omohyoid muscle is rarely reported. Herein we report a case of unusual splitting of inferior belly of omohyoid muscle. During the dissection for undergraduate students at AIIMS Bhubaneswar, unusual morphology of inferior belly of omohyoid muscle was observed in formalin embalmed 60-year-old male cadaver. The inferior belly of omohyoid was split. Another important finding observed was suprascapular artery entrapment between the split upper and lower parts of belly of inferior omohyoid with slight indentation mark on the artery suggestive of chronic compression. This muscle is used for various important clinical procedures and is an important landmark for radical neck dissection. So, the knowledge of possible anomalies of omohyoid is important.

  12. Integration of biomass into urban energy systems for heat and power. Part II: Sensitivity assessment of main techno-economic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantaleo, Antonio M.; Giarola, Sara; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of a MILP tool for optimal sizing and location of heating and CHP plants to serve residential energy demand. • Trade-offs between local vs centralized heat generation, district heating vs natural gas distribution systems. • Assessment of the key factors influencing the use of biomass and district heating in residential areas. - Abstract: The paper presents the application of a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) methodology to optimize multi-biomass and natural gas supply chain strategic design for heat and power generation in urban areas. The focus is on spatial and temporal allocation of biomass supply, storage, processing, transport and energy conversion (heat and CHP) to match the heat demand of residential end users. The main aim lies on the assessment of the trade-offs between centralized district heating plants and local heat generation systems, and on the decoupling of the biomass processing and biofuel energy conversion steps. After a brief description of the methodology, which is presented in detail in Part I of the research, an application to a generic urban area is proposed. Moreover, the influence of energy demand typologies (urban areas energy density, heat consumption patterns, buildings energy efficiency levels, baseline energy costs and available infrastructures) and specific constraints of urban areas (transport logistics, air emission levels, space availability) on the selection of optimal bioenergy pathways for heat and power is assessed, by means of sensitivity analysis. On the basis of these results, broad considerations about the key factors influencing the use of bioenergy into urban energy systems are proposed. Potential further applications of this model are also described, together with main barriers for development of bioenergy routes for urban areas

  13. Clarification of serotonin-induced effects in peripheral artery disease observed through the femoral artery response in models of diabetes and vascular occlusion: The role of calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojanović, Marko; Prostran, Milica; Janković, Radmila; Radenković, Miroslav

    2017-07-01

    Recent findings have demonstrated that serotonin is an important participant in the development and progression of peripheral artery diseases. Taking this into consideration, the goals of this study were to investigate the effects of serotonin on isolated Wistar rat femoral arteries in both healthy and diabetic animals, with and without artery occlusion, with a particular focus on determining the role of calcium in this process. Contraction experiments with serotonin on intact and denuded femoral artery rings, in the presence or absence of nifedipine and ouabain (both separately, or in combination), as well as Ca 2+ -free Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate solution were performed. The serotonin-induced results were concentration dependent, but only in healthy animals. The endothelium-dependent contraction of the femoral artery was assessed. In healthy animals, the endothelium-reliant part of contraction was dependent on the extracellular calcium, while the smooth muscle-related part was instead dependent on the intracellular calcium. In diabetic animals, both nifedipine and ouabain influenced serotonin-induced vascular effects by blocking intracellular calcium pathways. However, this was diminished after the simultaneous administration of both blockers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  14. ASSESSING URBAN DROUGHTS IN A SMART CITY FRAMEWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Obringer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to integrate environmental data for drought monitoring to reduce uncertainty in urban drought characterization as part of the smart city framework. Currently, drought monitoring in urban areas is a challenge. This is due, in part, to a lack of knowledge on the subject of urban droughts and urban drought vulnerability. A critical part to assessing urban drought and implementing the necessary policies is determining drought conditions. Often the timing and severity of the drought can leave cities to enforce water restrictions, so accuracy of this determination has socioeconomic implications. To determine drought conditions, we need to know the water balance over the urban landscape, of which evapotranspiration (ET is a key variable. However, ET data and models have high uncertainty when compared to other hydrological variables (i.e., precipitation. This is largely due to ill-defined empirical models for characterizing the urban surface resistance parameter (rs that is used in ET calculations. We propose a method to estimate rs values using a combination of the Surface Temperature Initiated Closure (STIC method that calculates regional evapotranspiration data and an inverted version of the Penman-Monteith equation. We use this approach across the region surrounding Indianapolis, IN (USA from 2010-2014. We discuss the potential for this method to be integrated in to smart city framework to improve urban drought assessment.

  15. An unusual renal accessory artery originating from the thoracic aorta and its potential clinical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira Talović

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of an unsual anatomical vascular blood supply to the right kidney. In an analysis of kidneys, by dissection of 39 foetuses, additional renal arteries were found in 18 cases (46.15%. In only one case (2.5% was it noticed that the right kidney was supplied with blood by three renal arteries, one main and two additional arteries. One of the additional arteries, marked as the upper pole artery of aortic origin, separated from the thoracic aorta at the level of T11 (the eleventh thoracic rib, 1.5 cm above the truncus coeliacus. This artery, after passing through the diaphragm, entered the renal hilus at its upper part and served to vasculate that part of the kidney. Conclusion. The importance of this study is seen in the fact that anatomic knowledge of variations in the vascularization of the kidneys is of exceptional practical importance. Also, this information may concern transplant surgeons involved in living donor nephrectomies.

  16. Interspecies variation in the susceptibility of adult Pacific salmon to toxic urban stormwater runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Jenifer K; Lundin, Jessica I; Cameron, James R; Chow, Michelle I; Davis, Jay W; Incardona, John P; Scholz, Nathaniel L

    2018-07-01

    Adult coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) prematurely die when they return from the ocean to spawn in urban watersheds throughout northwestern North America. The available evidence suggests the annual mortality events are caused by toxic stormwater runoff. The underlying pathophysiology of the urban spawner mortality syndrome is not known, and it is unclear whether closely related species of Pacific salmon are similarly at risk. The present study co-exposed adult coho and chum (O. keta) salmon to runoff from a high traffic volume urban arterial roadway. The spawners were monitored for the familiar symptoms of the mortality syndrome, including surface swimming, loss of orientation, and loss of equilibrium. Moreover, the hematology of both species was profiled by measuring arterial pH, blood gases, lactate, plasma electrolytes, hematocrit, and glucose. Adult coho developed behavioral symptoms within a few hours of exposure to stormwater. Various measured hematological parameters were significantly altered compared to coho controls, indicating a blood acidosis and ionoregulatory disturbance. By contrast, runoff-exposed chum spawners showed essentially no indications of the mortality syndrome, and measured blood hematological parameters were similar to unexposed chum controls. We conclude that contaminant(s) in urban runoff are the likely cause of the disruption of ion balance and pH in coho but not chum salmon. Among the thousands of chemicals in stormwater, future forensic analyses should focus on the gill or cardiovascular system of coho salmon. Because of their distinctive sensitivity to urban runoff, adult coho remain an important vertebrate indicator species for degraded water quality in freshwater habitats under pressure from human population growth and urbanization. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of urbanization on the winter precipitation distribution in Beijing area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the urbanization extent of Beijing area, and with 1980 as a turning point, the duration from 1961 to 2000 is divided into two periods: one is defined as the slow urbanization period from 1961 to 1980, and other one as the fast urbanization period from 1981 to 2000. Based on the 40-year’s precipi-tation data of 14 standard weather stations in Beijing area, the effect of urbanization on precipitation distribution is studied. It is found that there has been a noticeable and systematic change of winter precipitation distribution pattern between these two periods in Beijing area: in the slow urbanization period, the precipitation in the southern part of Beijing is more than that in the northern part; but in the fast urbanization period, the precipitation distribution pattern is reverse, i.e. the precipitation in the southern part is less than that in the northern part; But in other seasons, the precipitation distribution pattern did not change remarkably in general. The possible cause resulting in the change of winter precipitation distribution pattern, might be that with urban area extension, the effects of "urban heat island" and "urban dry island" become more and more intensified, and increase hydrometeors evapo-ration below precipitable cloud, and then cause less precipitation received on the ground surface in the downtown and the southern part. It is also noteworthy to further research why the precipitation distri-bution pattern does not change systematically in other seasons except winter after intense urbaniza-tion in Beijing area.

  18. The Roadmap to achieve EU goals on urban mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Schippl, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Is it possible to change urban mobility in Europe to achieve ambitious sustainability goals? If so, who should dowhat by when? These questions are answered in a new Roadmap on urban mobility prepared as part of the European FP7 research project TRANSFORuM.......Is it possible to change urban mobility in Europe to achieve ambitious sustainability goals? If so, who should dowhat by when? These questions are answered in a new Roadmap on urban mobility prepared as part of the European FP7 research project TRANSFORuM....

  19. Studies on reconstruction of the carotid artery in the neck using arterial vessels irradiated by a large amount of high voltage electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumura, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    High voltage electron beam of 2,000,000 rad was irradiated to the common carotid arteries excised from dogs. After keeping them in a frozen state, they were replaced with the common carotid arteries of other adult dogs. The border of the artery transplanted could not be identified from the x-ray films 7 - 36 months after transplantation. There was no stenosis or dilation in the artery on either x-ray films or in histopathological examinations. There was no tissue reaction in the homologous transplantation, but all the cells died and the nuclei of muscular fibers of the tunica media disappeared. However, the internal elastica and other elastic fibers were unchanged. Cells proliferated from the original artery to form a false inner coat. Noradrenergic nerves and the vasa vasorum did not enter the graft. Thus, the arteries transplanted were only substitutive vessels. A rabbit abdominal aorta which was transplanted to a dog common carotid artery, showed sacculated dilation or obstruction. In the case of obstruction, severe tissue reaction was recognized. In the case of sacculated dilation, thinning of the arterial wall at the dilated part and fragmentation of the elastic fibers of the tunica media were observed, and other tissues also tended to be destructed and absorbed. (Ichikawa, K.)

  20. The Aalborg Survey / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm; Jensen, Maria Vestergaard

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young...... people do in urban spaces, where they are in the urban spaces and when the young people are in the urban spaces. The answers to these questions form the framework and enable further academic discussions and conclusions in relation to the overall research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS). The primary......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 3 - Interview Based Survey The 3rd part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the fall of 2009 and the summer and fall of 2010 as an interview based survey of 18 selected participants (nine...

  1. Bilateral Internal Carotid Artery Occlusion, External Carotid Artery Stenosis, and Vertebral Artery Kinking: May It Be Asymptomatic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatic, Nikola; Jaffer, Usman; Ivana, Saicic; Gordana, Globarevic-Vukcevic; Markovic, Dragan; Kostic, Dusan; Davidovic, Lazar

    2017-10-01

    The clinical spectrum of internal carotid artery occlusion ranges from being a completely asymptomatic occlusion to a devastating stroke or death. The prevalence of asymptomatic internal carotid artery occlusion is unknown, particularly for bilateral occlusion. The distal branches of the external carotid artery anastomose with distal branches of the internal carotid artery provide important sources of collateral circulation to the brain. Stenosis of the external carotid artery with ipsilateral/bilateral internal occlusion may result in ischemic sequelae. Coiling or kinking of the vertebral artery is a rare morphological entity that is infrequently reported because it remains asymptomatic and has no clinical relevance. Currently, there is little evidence to support management strategies for this disease entity and no official recommendations for asymptomatic bilateral carotid artery occlusion. We present a case of a 62-year-old female with asymptomatic bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, bilateral external carotid artery stenoses, and bilateral kinking of the vertebral artery at the V2 segment, who has been successfully managed conservatively for over 5 years. An individualized approach to management of patients with bilateral internal carotid artery occlusion, especially in combination with external carotid artery stenosis and elongation malformations of the vertebral artery is key to a successful strategy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal artery and occipital artery for gingival carcinoma of the mandible. Simultaneous catheter placement to the maxillary artery and facial artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Toshinori; Mitsudo, Kenji; Fukui, Takafumi

    2009-01-01

    Superselective intra-arterial infusion via the superficial temporal artery (STA) has become useful for oral cancer. Approaching via the occipital artery (OA) enables superselective intra-arterial infusion when catheter placement via the STA is impossible. Therefore, simultaneous catheter placement via the STA and OA is possible. We report a surgical method of simultaneous catheter placement via the STA and OA to achieve retrograde superselective intra-arterial infusion for gingival carcinoma of the mandible. Preoperatively, three-dimensional computed tomography angiography was performed to identify the route of the external carotid artery and branches such as the STA, OA, maxillary artery, and facial artery (FA). Thirteen patients with mandibular gingival cancer underwent catheter placement via the STA and OA under local anesthesia. Catheter placement via the STA and OA was superselectively successful in all the patients. The mean operating time was 150.8 min. Catheter placed to the FA via the OA was dislocated during the treatment in one patient, and so the catheter was replaced. This method is useful to enable superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy to the whole gingival carcinoma of the mandible from the start of treatment compared with approaching via the STA. (author)

  3. Laparoscopic management of superior mesentric artery syndrome: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makam Ramesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Superior mesentric artery syndrome is a rare cause of high small bowel obstruction, caused by compression of the transverse part of the duodenum in between the superior mesentric artery and aorta. Patients present with chronic abdominal pain, vomiting and weight loss. We report a case of superior mesenteric artery syndrome, managed laparoscopically with laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy.

  4. "You Are a Part of the Solution": Negotiating Gender-Based Violence and Engendering Change in Urban Informal Settlements in Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Proshant; Daruwalla, Nayreen; Jayaraman, Anuja; Pantvaidya, Shanti

    2016-08-04

    This article explores how women front-line workers engage with domestic and gender-based violence in the urban informal settlements of Dharavi in Mumbai, India. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 voluntary front-line workers, along with ethnographic fieldwork in Dharavi, as a part of a pilot study. Our findings contribute to literature on context-specific approaches to understanding gender-based violence and "models" to prevent domestic violence in urban micro-spaces. Furthermore, we also discuss notions of "change" (badlaav) that the front-line workers experience. Finally, this article presents implications for socially engaged ethnographic research, as well as contextual and grounded insights on ways to reduce gender-based and domestic violence. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Retinal artery occlusion during carotid artery stenting with distal embolic protection device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohara, Kotaro; Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Tomonori; Kawamata, Takakazu

    2018-01-01

    Retinal artery occlusion associated with carotid artery stenosis is well known. Although it can also occur at the time of carotid artery stenting, retinal artery occlusion via the collateral circulation of the external carotid artery is rare. We encountered two cases of retinal artery occlusion that were thought to be caused by an embolus from the external carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with a distal embolic protection device for the internal carotid artery. A 71-year-old man presented with central retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the Carotid Guardwire PS and a 77-year-old man presented with branch retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the FilterWire EZ. Because additional new cerebral ischaemic lesions were not detected in either case by postoperative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, it was highly likely that the debris that caused retinal artery occlusion passed through not the internal carotid artery but collaterals to retinal arteries from the external carotid artery, which was not protected by a distal embolic protection device. It is suggested that a distal protection device for the internal carotid artery alone cannot prevent retinal artery embolisation during carotid artery stenting and protection of the external carotid artery is important to avoid retinal artery occlusion.

  6. Blood Pressure Response to Main Renal Artery and Combined Main Renal Artery Plus Branch Renal Denervation in Patients With Resistant Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fengler, Karl; Ewen, Sebastian; Höllriegel, Robert; Rommel, Karl-Philipp; Kulenthiran, Saaraaken; Lauder, Lucas; Cremers, Bodo; Schuler, Gerhard; Linke, Axel; Böhm, Michael; Mahfoud, Felix; Lurz, Philipp

    2017-08-10

    Single-electrode ablation of the main renal artery for renal sympathetic denervation showed mixed blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects. Further improvement of the technique seems crucial to optimize effectiveness of the procedure. Because sympathetic nerve fibers are closer to the lumen in the distal part of the renal artery, treatment of the distal main artery and its branches has been shown to reduce variability in treatment effects in preclinical studies and a recent randomized trial. Whether this optimized technique improves clinical outcomes remains uncertain. We report a 2-center experience of main renal artery and combined main renal artery plus branches renal denervation in patients with resistant hypertension using a multielectrode catheter. Twenty-five patients with therapy-resistant hypertension underwent renal sympathetic denervation with combined main renal artery and renal branch ablation and were compared to matched controls undergoing an ablation of the main renal artery only. BP change was assessed by ambulatory measurement at baseline and after 3 months. At baseline, BP was balanced between the groups. After 3 months, BP changed significantly in the combined ablation group (systolic/diastolic 24-hour mean and daytime mean BP -8.5±9.8/-7.0±10.7 and -9.4±9.8/-7.1±13.5 mm Hg, P renal artery and branches appears to improve BP-lowering efficacy and should be further investigated. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  7. Systemic Arterial-to-Pulmonary Artery Shunt Utilization

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    multiruka1

    In certain circumstances, such as cyanotic neonates with tetralogy of Fallot (4) or cyanotic patients with. Tetralogy of Fallot and hypoplastic pulmonary arteries. (5), better outcomes are obtained if definitive surgery. (total correction or palliation) is preceded by creation of a systemic arterial-to-pulmonary artery shunt (SAPAS).

  8. A Hidden Markov Model for Urban-Scale Traffic Estimation Using Floating Car Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaomeng; Peng, Ling; Chi, Tianhe; Li, Mengzhu; Yao, Xiaojing; Shao, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Urban-scale traffic monitoring plays a vital role in reducing traffic congestion. Owing to its low cost and wide coverage, floating car data (FCD) serves as a novel approach to collecting traffic data. However, sparse probe data represents the vast majority of the data available on arterial roads in most urban environments. In order to overcome the problem of data sparseness, this paper proposes a hidden Markov model (HMM)-based traffic estimation model, in which the traffic condition on a road segment is considered as a hidden state that can be estimated according to the conditions of road segments having similar traffic characteristics. An algorithm based on clustering and pattern mining rather than on adjacency relationships is proposed to find clusters with road segments having similar traffic characteristics. A multi-clustering strategy is adopted to achieve a trade-off between clustering accuracy and coverage. Finally, the proposed model is designed and implemented on the basis of a real-time algorithm. Results of experiments based on real FCD confirm the applicability, accuracy, and efficiency of the model. In addition, the results indicate that the model is practicable for traffic estimation on urban arterials and works well even when more than 70% of the probe data are missing.

  9. Cognitive “Boy stories”: urban folklore and urban topographies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojan Žikić

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The culturally cognitive perception of Belgrade’s topographies is considered through its deployment, symbolic use and narrative foundation. As the explanatory material-one football-media incident, the use of certain areas of the city in a spectacleceremonial manner, knowledge and lore of certain elements of the Belgrade topographies and the organization of «the football Belgrade»-were considered. The attitude is taken that the topography of a city is a multifaceted cultural constituent, whose structure of particular meaning, as a part of cultural communication, is determined by the very fact it is an urban space. Physical aspects of spatial-ness are reduced to relationism, i.e. it has a meaning for the cultural communication only when the elements of urban topographies are brought into correlation. Other characteristics of physical spatial-ness are irrelevant for such communication. Meaning relations in which elements of urban topographies exist are formed on the very fact of them being urban, that is, the afore mentioned denotation that is ascribed to space, stems from those cultural features and artifacts that are associated in a given milieu with certain concrete elements of urban topographies.

  10. Assessing emergency situations and their aftermath in urban areas: The EMRAS II Urban Areas Working Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thiessen, K.M.; Andersson, Kasper Grann; Berkovskyy, V.

    2011-01-01

    The Urban Areas Working Group is part of the International Atomic Energy Agency’s EMRAS II (Environmental Modelling for Radiation Safety) Programme. The goal of this Working Group is to test and improve the capabilities of models used in assessment of radioactive contamination in urban settings...

  11. Obesidad, morfología corporal y presión arterial en grupos urbanos y rurales de Yucatán Obesity, body morphology, and blood pressure in urban and rural population groups of Yucatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Arroyo

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar la antropometría y presión arterial de adultos del estado de Yucatán, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se evaluaron diferencias rural-urbanas por grupos sexo-edad en peso, talla, circunferencias de cintura y cadera, y presión arterial en 313 adultos de origen urbano y 271 del rural, de Yucatán. RESULTADOS: No hubo diferencias rural-urbanas en prevalencias de obesidad y sobrepeso, y en hipertensión los urbanos tuvieron valores marginalmente mayores. Se encontró mayor prevalencia rural de cintura anormal sólo en mujeres y hombres jóvenes. La comparación con dos encuestas nacionales y una regional (mixtecos rurales mostró obesidad similar a la notificada en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud 2000 (ENSA y mayor que mixtecos y la informada en la Encuesta Nacional de Enfermedades Crónicas 1993 (ENEC. La prevalencia de cintura anormal fue intermedia entre la indicada en la Encuesta Nacional de Salud y Nutrición 2006 (ENSANUT y mixtecos, y la de hipertensión intermedia entre la notificada en la ENEC y mixtecos. CONCLUSIONES: Las poblaciones maya y mestiza de Yucatán presentaron alta prevalencia de obesidad y cintura anormal que no se acompañaron de prevalencia mayor de hipertensión. Esta observación requiere confirmación.OBJECTIVE: To characterize body morphology and blood pressure of adults of the Mexican state of Yucatan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Rural-urban differences in weight, height, waist, and hip circumferences, and blood pressure were analyzed in 313 urban and 271 rural subjects. RESULTS: No rural-urban differences in prevalence of obesity and overweight were found. Hypertension was marginally higher in urban subjects. Rural abnormal waist circumference was higher in young men and young women. Comparison with two national surveys and a survey in the aboriginal population (rural mixtecos showed similar prevalence of obesity as ENSA-2000 and higher than mixtecos and ENEC-1993. Abnormal waist circumference was

  12. Pedunculated Pulmonary Artery Sarcoma Suggested by Transthoracic Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaobing; Ren, Weidong; Yang, Jun

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma (PAS) is an extremely rare malignancy. It is usually found after it grows large enough to occupy almost the entire lumen of the pulmonary artery and causes serious clinical symptoms. Thus, it is usually difficult to distinguish PAS from pulmonary thromboembolism based on imaging examinations. Few case reports had shown the attachment of PAS to pulmonary artery, a key characteristic for diagnosis, and differential diagnosis of PAS. In this case, we found a PAS, which did not cause local obstruction and some tumor emboli, which obstructed the branches of the pulmonary arteries and caused pulmonary hypertension and clinical symptoms. Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) revealed a part of the tumor attached to the intima of the main pulmonary artery with a peduncle and had obvious mobility, which was suggestive of PAS and differentiated it from the pulmonary thromboembolism. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a pedunculated PAS suggested by TTE. Combined with pulmonary artery computed tomography angiography, the diagnosis of PAS is strongly suggested before the operation. This case indicates that TTE could reveal the attachment and mobility of PAS in the main pulmonary and may provide useful information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of PAS, especially a pedunculated PAS. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Right retrograde brachial cerebral angiography with simultaneous compression of the left carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ericson, K.; Mosskin, M.

    1981-01-01

    Right retrograde brachial angiography with simultaneous compression of the left common carotid artery was performed in 12 patients, invariably resulting in filling of the right vertebral and the basilar artery. In all but one patient, the right carotid artery and its branches were also filled. Retrograde filling of the left internal carotid artery occurred in 8 patients. Furthermore, retrograde filling of the intracranial part of the left vertebral artery was obtained in 5 of 12 patients. A complete four-vessel cranial angiography was thus obtained in one third of the patients. The method may be considered as a safe and valuable adjunct to other angiographic techniques. (Auth.)

  14. Urban Sustainability Versus Green-Washing—Fallacy and Reality of Urban Regeneration in Downtown Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Schuetze

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the planning paradigm shift related to the contested “urban renaissance” mega-project in Downtown Seoul (Korea. Similar to other global cities, over the last few decades, different mega-projects have been successfully implemented in Seoul. These projects have been considered engines for urban renewals and transformation. This paper builds on the analysis of the failure and re-framing planning strategy for the Green Corridor (GC mega-project, part of the “Urban Renaissance Master Plan for Downtown Seoul”. The GC case reveals various critical insights for urban sustainability: (i the current mega-projects’ sustainability fallacy, related to top-down, technocratic densification, and greening practices; and (ii the untapped potential of Asian traditional and irregular small scale urban patterns, and their related socio-cultural value in addressing the renaissance of the long term urban sustainability. In particular, the discussed research findings point out that urban renaissance enabling sustainability principles requires integrated, small scale, incremental, and adaptive (stepwise urban planning and design processes that go well beyond general strategies following the so-called “green growth” paradigm.

  15. Čačak and its daily urban system: 1st part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamenković Srboljub Đ.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to its functional capacity and the range of convergent and divergent gravitational influences, Čačak belongs to the group of macroregional centers of Serbia, with spatially and demographically strongly expressed and branchy urban system. In this article, we have analyzed daily convergent and divergent areas of labor force only, while other segments of urban system of Čačak will be treated in our forthcoming articles. Every day 10011 people travel toward Čačak, as well as from the city toward surroundings, to work or study. In the convergent daily gravitation, 8537 commuters take place (6592 workers or 77.2%, and 1945 schoolchildren and students or 22.8%, of which workers traveling from 166 settlements situated in the city surrounding. Divergent daily urban influence of Čačak has significantly smaller mass - 1474 commuters (1089 workers or 73.9%, and 385 pupils and students or 26.1%, as well as less settlements toward which distribution workers of commuters is distributed (91 settlements. Daily urban area of labor force of Čačak is wider and demographically more expressed comparing to the same area of pupils and students.

  16. The Orientation of The Use of Houses In The Sub Urbans: A Case Study In East Part of Kartasura, Sukoharjo 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Dilahur

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Kartasura, seen formspace point of view, has special position because it is located in the corridor intersection between Semarang-Surakarta-Yogyakarta. Which becomes three central developing cities in central part of Java. This study is carried out in border town area in east part of Kartasura, which consist of four village – Pabelan, Gonilan, Gumpang, and Makamhaji. That are growing fast due to the effect of urban characteristic from Surakarta. The orientation phenomena of the use of house (OPR, the urban population that led to the commercial use is an interesting fact dealing with the influence of urban activities in those areas. The goal of this study is to know the kindsand the spread of the space of OPR population in east part of Kartasura and the factors, which is studied, is the houses in the research areas and the respondents are the owner of the houses. The sampling uses systematic proportional random sampling. The location of house sample (UMS, UNS, Islamic Boarding Shcool of Assalam, health services (RSIS and RSO, and commercial services (ALFA, UMS stores. All of them are located in Pabelan and Makamhaji. While industrial center consist of PT Tyfountex and small industries around it in Gumpang. Every central activities is divided into two cluster based on the relative distance from central activities (far and near, so as a whole there are four clusters which made up of two clusters in service center and the other in industrial center. Sample at every cluster is taken proportional about 2,5% based on homogenity consideration, whether the selecction of house sampling is taken randomly. The numbers of samples as a whole 175 respondents. The collected data are prensented in the form of frequency and cross table. Qualitative data analysis uses logical thought, deductive induccctive, analogy and comparison, while quantitative data analysis is done using frequency table analysis and cross table. The use of both analysis is sadapted with

  17. Testicular artery arising from an aberrant right renal artery | Suluba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report we discovered the rare variation of the origin of the right testicular artery arising from the right aberrant renal artery with double renal artery irrigating both left and right kidneys. These variations in the testicular arteries and renal arteries have implication to surgical procedures such as orchidopexy repair for ...

  18. ASSESSMENT OF URBAN BUILT ENVIRONMENT QUALITY ON THE URBANIZED TERRITORIES: INTERREGIONAL COMPARISONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovsiannikova T. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The urbanization and growth of a cities role, formation of cities as reference points of regions economic development are modern global tendencies. Cities concentrate human and investment resources on their territory, so in large part cities cause competitiveness of the regions in the global market. For preservation of competitive advantages regions need to form on the urbanized territories not only the favorable environment for business, but also for the population life. This paper deals with the problem of an assessment of urban built environment quality, due to urban built environment is a space-material basis of life quality of the population on the urbanized territories. The role of the cities in social and economic development of regions and their considerable influence on competitiveness of territories in the global competition for economic resources are proved. The method of assessment of urban built environment quality on the basis of calculation of an integrated index is proposed. Interregional comparisons on the example of regions of the Siberian and Ural Federal districts are completed. The offered method of assessment of urban built environment quality allows to range the urbanized territories on usefulness for living, to reveal most and the least developed spheres of city infrastructure.

  19. Examination of the Relationships between Urban Form and Urban Public Services Expenditure in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunming Bo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This econometric study contributes to the ongoing debate about the costs and benefits of urban form by employing interdisciplinary means—urban planning, econometrics and public administration—to explore the relationship between urban form and urban public services expenditure. In China, particularly, rapid urbanization is accompanied by an increase of urban public services expenditure and a difference in efficiency, which undermines the promotion of urban public service development. The Chinese government has paid great attention to urban sustainable development and promoting urban public services performance; however, until recently there has been a lack of empirical studies exploring the relationship between urban public services expenditure and urban form. Thus, the present research aims to analyze this issue by using relevant indicators based on an econometric model. The results provide a promising basis for improving urban public services expenditure efficiency. Based on the urban area interpreted by remote sensing data and geographic information system, two urban form metrics, the compactness ratio and the elongation ratio, are selected and quantified to describe urban compactness and urban sprawl accurately. Panel data analyses are performed using a cross-sectional dataset of the 30 cities for the years 2007, 2010 and 2013 to assess the likelihood of association between indicators of urban form and urban public services expenditure, while controlling for other determinants, such as educational level, income per capita, degree of industrialization, and unemployment rate. The results indicate that urban elongation is positively correlated to per capita urban public services expenditure and urban compactness is insignificantly correlated to it. Thus, it is recommended that policymakers consider the relationship between urban form and public services expenditure as part of urban planning and on-going strategies to promote public service

  20. Measuring urban sprawl in China by night time light images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lu; Tang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    In the process of urbanization, a phenomenon called “urban sprawl” usually occurs. This phenomenon may exaggerated the negative effects of urbanization on environment, public and social health, energy efficiency, and maintenance of farmland. Therefore, the understanding of this phenomenon is urgently required for us to achieve sustainable development. This study proposed a group of night time lights (NTL) indicators of urban sprawl, which intend to use the distribution of lightness to quantify urban sprawl. These measures are proved to be efficient in describing urban sprawl. In addition, they are consistent and easy calculating, making comparison analysis easy to be done. These indicators are used to study urban sprawl in China during the year 2000 to 2010, the results show that in the last ten years, metropolitan areas in the northern part of China have undergone a more sprawl-like urban growth compared with other parts of China.

  1. Designing the Urban Microclimate. A framework for a design-decision support tool for the dissemination of knowledge on the urban microclimate to the urban design process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Pijpers-van Esch

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This doctoral thesis presents research on the integration and transfer of knowledge from the specialized field of urban microclimatology into the generic field of urban design. Both fields are studied in order to identify crosslinks and reveal gaps. The main research question of the research is: How can the design of urban neighbourhoods contribute to microclimates that support physical well-being and what kind of information and form of presentation does the urban designer need in order to make design decisions regarding such urban microclimates? This question consists of two parts, which are addressed separately in the first two parts of the dissertation. Part 1 concerns an assessment of relevant knowledge on urban design by literature review, followed by a field study into the use of expert information in the urban design process. Part 2 discusses the influence of the urban environment on its microclimate and, consequently, the living quality of its inhabitants – both by means of literature review. Combined, Parts 1 and 2 serve as a basis for a framework for a design-decision support tool, which is discussed in Part 3. This tool is proposed as a means to integrate knowledge of the urban microclimate into the urban design process, bridging an observed gap. Urban design is concerned with shaping the physical environment to facilitate urban life in all its aspects. This is a complex task, which requires the integration and translation of different stakeholder interests into a proposition for the realization of physical-spatial constructs in the urban environment. Such a proposition comprises different planning elements in the following categories: spatial-functional organization, city plan, public space design and rules for architecture. During the design process, the urban designer has to deal with incomplete, often contradictory and/or changing constraints and quality demands as well as other uncertainties. He/ she handles this complexity by

  2. Tectonic perspectives for urban ambiance? Towards a tectonic approach to urban design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Elias Melvin; Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Hvejsel, Marie Frier

    2017-01-01

    question of ambiance that seemingly signifies our sense of liveability is often suppressed. This requires us, as architects and urban designers, to refine our descriptions of ambiance as an integral part of the technical construction principles applied in the built environment, hereby considering......Urban challenges derived from climate prospects and densification call for a renewed engagement with the question of the liveability of the built environment. Within this context, the economic and technical concept of our cities is an increasingly dominant aspect, whereas the fragile but vital...... ambiances across scale, in relation to the concept of the built environment, when applying an “urban tectonic” perspective....

  3. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension and Neonatal Arterial Switch Surgery for Correction of Transposition of the Great Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Manzano, Paula; Mendoza Soto, Alberto; Román Barba, Violeta; Moreno Galdó, Antonio; Galindo Izquierdo, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    There are few reports of the appearance of pulmonary arterial hypertension following arterial switch surgery in the neonatal period to correct transposition of the great arteries. We assessed the frequency and clinical pattern of this complication in our series of patients. Our database was reviewed to select patients with transposition of the great arteries corrected by neonatal arterial switch at our hospital and who developed pulmonary hypertension over time. We identified 2 (1.3%) patients with transposition of the great arteries successfully repaired in the first week of life who later experienced pulmonary arterial hypertension. The first patient was a 7-year-old girl diagnosed with severe pulmonary hypertension at age 8 months who did not respond to medical treatment and required lung transplantation. The anatomic pathology findings were consistent with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. The second patient was a 24-month-old boy diagnosed with severe pulmonary hypertension at age 13 months who did not respond to medical therapy. Pulmonary hypertension is a rare but very severe complication that should be investigated in all patients with transposition of the great arteries who have undergone neonatal arterial switch, in order to start early aggressive therapy for affected patients, given the poor therapeutic response and poor prognosis involved. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Under X-ray guidance stent implantation through retrograde popliteal artery puncturing for the treatment of superficial femoral artery occlusion: the initial results in nine cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xu; Gu Jianping; Lou Wensheng; Chen Liang; Chen Guoping; Su Haobo; Song Jinhua; Wang Tao; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the application of retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance in the interventional therapy for superficial femoral artery occlusion. Methods: Retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance was carried out in nine patients with long-segment occlusion of superficial femoral artery as antegrade recanalization via femoral artery approach had failed in them. After retrograde route was successfully established, the balloon dilation and subsequent stent placement for occluded vessel were performed. Results: The technical success was obtained in all patients. The occluded superficial femoral arteries were reopened and the symptoms of intermittent claudication disappeared. No serious complications such as injuries of adjacent nerves or vessels occurred. The ankle-brachial index (ABI) increased from preoperative (0.38±0.13) to postoperative (0.92±0.11) with the difference being statistically significant (P<0.01). A follow-up period lasting for 2-16 months was conducted. Eleven months after the treatment, intermittent claudication recurred in one case, and CT angiography showed that the distal part of the stent was narrowed. The symptoms were improved after percutaneous transcatheter angioplasty was performed again. Conclusion: Retrograde popliteal artery puncturing under X-ray guidance is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of superficial femoral artery long-segment occlusion with stent placement, especially for patients in whom antegrade recanalization via femoral artery approach fails. (authors)

  5. Hipertensión arterial, menopausia y compromiso cognitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mildren del Sueldo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: La enfermedad cardiovascular es la primera causa de mortalidad en la mujer en la mayor parte del mundo y pese a esta realidad el riesgo de padecerla continúa siendo subestimado en mujeres. La hipertensión arterial es uno de los principales determinantes de este riesgo y su prevalencia ha incrementado de manera global, especialmente en mujeres después de los 60 años. Si bien la disminución o pérdida de los estrógenos tiene impacto sobre la regulación de la presión arterial, el papel de la menopausia en la patogénesis de la hipertensión arterial durante este período, es controversial. El daño vascular cerebral secundario a hipertensión arterial incrementa el riesgo de desarrollar deterioro cognitivo y/o demencia. La mujer es más susceptible a este daño, dada su mayor expectativa de vida aunada a la pérdida de la acción neuroprotectora de los estrógenos. Esta revisión pretende demostrar los vínculos entre la hipertensión arterial, la menopausia y el compromiso cognitivo en la mujer. Abstract: Cardiovascular Disease (CVD is the first cause of mortality in women in most parts of the world. In spite of this fact, the risk of CVD is still underestimated in women. Hypertension (HTN is one of the main determinants of this risk, and its prevalence has been increasing worldwide, especially in women over the age of 60. Even though the decrease or loss of estrogens has an impact on blood pressure (BP regulation, the role of menopause in the pathogenesis of HTN during this period is controversial. Vascular brain damage secondary to HTN increases the risk of cognitive impairment (CI and/or dementia. Women are more susceptible to these damages due to their longer life expectancy, together with the loss of the neuroprotective effects of estrogens. This review intends to show the relationships between HTN, menopause and CI in women. Palabras clave: Hipertensión arterial, Enfermedad cardiovascular, Mujer, Keywords: Arterial

  6. Arterial and venous revascularization with bifurcation of a single central artery: a reliable strategy for Tamai Zone I replantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chung-Chen; Lin, Yu-Te; Moran, Steven L; Lin, Cheng-Hung; Wei, Fu-Chan; Lin, Chih-Hung

    2010-12-01

    Replantation of the distal phalanx and pulp can be performed to improve finger function and finger aesthetics; however, establishing adequate venous drainage is a challenge. Slattery et al. reported microsurgical reattachment of a partial distal phalanx with the use of a bifurcated terminal digital artery. The bifurcation was divided into two pedicles, one of which was used for venous drainage. In this article, the authors report their experience with a similar technique and propose a new algorithm for distal finger replantation. From January of 2008 to February of 2009, five replantations were performed using a single central artery. The replanted levels were pulp, avulsed fingertip of the thumb, and distal phalanges. There was no volar vein, dorsal vein, or second artery available in the amputated part for standard venous drainage. Venous drainage in all cases was established by creating an anastomosis from a branch of the solitary terminal artery to a recipient vein. All digits were replanted successfully without evidence of arterial insufficiency or venous congestion. Partial necrosis was not identified postoperatively in any of the five fingers. There were no cases of wound infection. A branch of the central solitary artery may be used successfully to reestablish venous outflow in cases of distal finger tip replantation. This technique allowed for the salvage of all fingers in this study without the use of leeches or other techniques used in cases of venous insufficiency.

  7. The cerebral arterial circle (circulus arteriosus cerebri): an anatomical study in fetus and infant samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardakani, Shahab Kamali; Dadmehr, Majid; Nejat, Farideh; Ansari, Saeed; Eftekhar, Behzad; Tajik, Parvin; El Khashab, Mostafa; Yazdani, Shahrooz; Ghodsi, Mohammad; Mahjoub, Fatemeh; Monajemzadeh, Maryam; Nazparvar, Bashir; Abdi-Rad, Afshin

    2008-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the variations in the anatomy of each segment of the cerebral arterial circle while a few have addressed the variations of the cerebral arterial circle as a whole. Thirty brains of recently deceased Iranian infants and fetuses were dissected. The dissection process was filmed and digitized so as to be readily available for further studies. The variations of the circle as a whole and segmental variations were evaluated. Variants with uni- and bilateral hypoplasia of posterior communicating arteries (PcoAs) were the most common in our study, similar to previous works. No aplasia of the precommunicating part of the anterior cerebral artery (A1), the precommunicating part of the posterior cerebral artery (P1) and anterior communicating artery was seen. Hypoplasia of the right and left PcoA was observed in 8 and 5 cases, respectively. Aplasia of the right PcoA was found in 16.6% and of the left PcoA in 3.3%. In this study, we confirmed the previously described finding that the symmetrical, circular configuration of the circulus arteriosus cerebri is present in only about 42.1%. The main differences between the fetal and adult disposition are the diameter of the PcoA and the circular part of the posterior cerebral artery. According to previous studies, the fetal brain older than 4 months has anatomical characteristics very similar to the adult's circle; our finding was mostly similar to adult samples as most samples were from infants, not fetuses. (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Beyond urban legends: an emerging framework of urban ecology, as illustrated by the Baltimore Ecosystem Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steward T.A. Pickett; Mary L. Cadenasso; J. Morgan Grove; Peter M. Groffman; Lawrence E. Band; Christopher G. Boone; William R., Jr. Burch; Susan B. Grimmond; John Hom; Jennifer C. Jenkins; Neely L. Law; Charles H. Nilon; Richard V. Pouyat; Katalin Szlavecz; Paige S. Warren; Matthew A. Wilson

    2008-01-01

    The emerging discipline of urban ecology is shifting focus from ecological processes embedded within cities to integrative studies of large urban areas as biophysical-social complexes. Yet this discipline lacks a theory. Results from the Baltimore Ecosystem Study, part of the Long Term Ecological Research Network, expose new assumptions and test existing assumptions...

  9. Soils in urban and industrial environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burghardt, W.

    1994-01-01

    Urban areas are expanding rapidly. Therefore the interest in soil science activities on urban and industrial sites grows. The paper gives an overview of the research and mapping activities in Germany. A model of soils in urban ecosystems shows the relationships of development of soils and soil quality to land use. The water regime of soils is influenced by the characteristics of urban landscape and sealing. Of special interest are the typical substrates. Some properties of soils which develop on tipped substrates of natural material are discussed. Of importance are technological substrates as rubble, ash, slag, waste material and sludges in urban environments. Proposals of classification of urban and industrial soils are presented. For proper use by the municipal authorities availability and application of information on urban soils must be a part of research. (orig.) [de

  10. The Spatial Economy in the Urban Informal Settlement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tunas, D.

    2008-01-01

    In the rapidly urbanizing world, the informal settlement has been forming a significant part of the common urban scene in many cities in the developing countries. It holds a particular role in the city as it houses millions of urban poor who has no access to the public housing. However it does not

  11. Sediment problems in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    A recognition of and solution to sediment problems in urban areas is necessary if society is to have an acceptable living environment. Soil erosion and sediment deposition in urban areas are as much an environmental blight as badly paved and littered streets, dilapidated buildings, billboard clutter, inept land use, and air, water, and noise pollution. In addition, sediment has many direct and indirect effects on streams that may be either part of or very remote from the urban environment. Sediment, for example, is widely recognized as a pollutant of streams and other water bodies.

  12. Do motorways shape urban growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick; Hovgesen, Henrik Harder

    2005-01-01

    results suggest that the motorway most markedly influences the location of non-residential building activities within the city – in favour of locations near the entrance points to/from the motorway network. The development can be explained in part by municipal planning, which in some instances has opened......The paper is an offspring from the Research project Town, Road and Landscape that aims to assess the effect of the Danish motorway network (specifically the last 20 years) on urban growth and interaction patterns. As one of the main interests of the project is the changing urban form...... and the changing character of the roadscape, the impact of the motorway is in part analysed with micro level data, spatial statistics and GIS – to allowing mapping of changing development trends in motorway corridors. The paper presents analysis of the impact of motorway openings on urban form in two Danish...

  13. Earliest Urbanism in Northern Mesopotamia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skuldbøl, Tim Boaz Bruun

    This dissertation is based on new evidence from the most recent archaeological fieldwork conducted at Tell Brak in northeastern Syria, one of the most important early cities in Mesopotamia. An analysis of this data underscores the transformative and creative nature of the urbanization process...... in the early 4th millennium BC, in which discontinuity and experimentation – rather than continuity and stability – prevailed. This aspect of early urban formation is mirrored in the immediate environs of early cities; farmland was transformed into new and experimental zones of use. In the early 4th millennium...... reports, which are integrated to form Part 1 of the dissertation. In Part 2, a set of theoretical approaches to the rise of cities is considered, in light of the new information from Tell Brak, with a view to suggesting future approaches towards the urbanization process. Total printed: 470 pages incl...

  14. Coordinated signal control for arterial intersections using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermanian, Davood; Zare, Assef; Balochian, Saeed

    2013-09-01

    Every day growth of the vehicles has become one of the biggest problems of urbanism especially in major cities. This can waste people's time, increase the fuel consumption, air pollution, and increase the density of cars and vehicles. Fuzzy controllers have been widely used in many consumer products and industrial applications with success over the past two decades. This article proposes a comprehensive model of urban traffic network using state space equations and then using Fuzzy Logic Tool Box and SIMULINK Program MATLAB a fuzzy controller in order to optimize and coordinate signal control at two intersections at an arterial road. The fuzzy controller decides to extend, early cut or terminate a signal phase and phase sequence to ensure smooth flow of traffic with minimal waiting time and length of queue. Results show that the performance of the proposed traffic controller at novel fuzzy model is better that of conventional controllers under normal and abnormal traffic conditions.

  15. Urbanization and Land Use Changes in Peri-Urban Area using Spatial Analysis Methods (Case Study: Ciawi Urban Areas, Bogor Regency)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahya, D. L.; Martini, E.; Kasikoen, K. M.

    2018-02-01

    Urbanization is shown by the increasing percentage of the population in urban areas. In Indonesia, the percentage of urban population increased dramatically form 17.42% (1971) to 42.15% (2010). This resulted in increased demand for housing. Limited land in the city area push residents looking for an alternative location of his residence to the peri-urban areas. It is accompanied by a process of land conversion from green area into built-up area. Continuous land conversion in peri-urban area is becoming increasingly widespread. Bogor Regency as part of the Jakarta Metropolitan Area is experiencing rapid development. This regency has been experienced land-use change very rapidly from agricultural areas into urban built up areas. Aim of this research is to analyze the effect of urbanization on land use changes in peri-urban areas using spatial analysis methods. This research used case study of Ciawi Urban Area that experiencing rapid development. Method of this research is using descriptive quantitative approach. Data used in this research is primary data (field survey) and secondary data (maps). To analyze land use change is using Geographic Information System (GIS) as spatial analysis methods. The effect of urbanization on land use changes in Ciawi Urban Area from year 2013 to 2015 is significant. The reduction of farm land is around -4.00% and wetland is around - 2.51%. The increasing area for hotel/villa/resort is around 3.10%. Based on this research, local government (Bogor Regency) should be alert to the land use changes that does not comply with the land use plan and also consistently apply the spatial planning.

  16. 172 ANALYSIS OF URBAN DECAY FROM LOW RESOLUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    temporal pattern of urban decay in different parts of a traditional organic city through ... c. Twenty percent or more of the residential structures were in need of major ... the body of the city which must be removed through surgical blades of urban ... Figure 1. Pay-off matrix of urban blight development. (Adapted from Sule 1980).

  17. Presence of calcium in the vessel walls after end-to-end arterial anastomoses with polydioxanone and polypropylene sutures in growing dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersak, B

    1993-10-01

    The presence of calcium in the vessel walls after end-to-end arterial anastomoses performed with polydioxanone and polypropylene interrupted sutures was studied in 140 anastomoses in 35 10-week-old German shepherd dogs. Histologic examination with hematoxylin and eosin, van Gieson, and von Kossa staining techniques was performed after the animals were killed 6 months after the operation. Ketamine hydrochloride was used as an anesthetic agent. At the start of the investigation the dogs weighed 14.5 +/- 2.6 kg (mean +/- standard deviation, n = 35), and after 6 months they weighed 45.3 +/- 3.1 kg (mean +/- standard deviation, n = 35). The diameter of the sutured arteries in the first operation was 2.6 +/- 0.5 mm (mean +/- standard deviation, n = 140). With each dog, both brachial and both femoral arteries were used--one artery for each different type of suture. In different dogs, different arteries were used for the same type of suture. The prevalence of calcifications after 6 months was determined from the numeric density of calcifications with standard stereologic techniques. The sutured and sutureless parts taken from longitudinal sections from each artery were studied, and t test values were calculated as follows: In paired samples, statistically significant differences in numerical density of calcifications were seen between sutured and sutureless arterial parts for both materials (sutureless part versus part with polydioxanone sutures, p 0.05, n = 70) and sutureless parts (p > 0.05, n = 70).

  18. Aberrant overian artery originating from the Ilolumbar artery: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jae Myeong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Here, we report a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with primary postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony. She received uterine artery embolization (UAE). During left internal iliac arteriography, an aberrant left ovarian artery originating from the left iliolumbar artery was visualized. The aberrant left ovarian artery was connected to the left uterine artery via prominent collateral vessels. It supplied a significant amount of blood to the fundus of the uterus. Bilateral hypertrophied uterine arteries were embolized very carefully so that the embolic material did not reflux into the aberrant left ovarian artery. After the procedure, her vaginal bleeding was successfully controlled. Accurate understanding of anatomical variations of the ovarian artery is essential to avoid failure in controlling postpartum hemorrhage with UAE.

  19. Aberrant overian artery originating from the Ilolumbar artery: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Jae Myeong

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report a case of a 30-year-old woman who presented with primary postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony. She received uterine artery embolization (UAE). During left internal iliac arteriography, an aberrant left ovarian artery originating from the left iliolumbar artery was visualized. The aberrant left ovarian artery was connected to the left uterine artery via prominent collateral vessels. It supplied a significant amount of blood to the fundus of the uterus. Bilateral hypertrophied uterine arteries were embolized very carefully so that the embolic material did not reflux into the aberrant left ovarian artery. After the procedure, her vaginal bleeding was successfully controlled. Accurate understanding of anatomical variations of the ovarian artery is essential to avoid failure in controlling postpartum hemorrhage with UAE

  20. Martial arts training attenuates arterial stiffness in middle aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douris, Peter C; Ingenito, Teresa; Piccirillo, Barbara; Herbst, Meredith; Petrizzo, John; Cherian, Vincen; McCutchan, Christopher; Burke, Caitlin; Stamatinos, George; Jung, Min-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    Arterial stiffness increases with age and is related to an increased risk of coronary artery disease. Poor trunk flexibility has been shown to be associated with arterial stiffness in middle-aged subjects. The purpose of our research study was to measure arterial stiffness and flexibility in healthy middle-aged martial artists compared to age and gender matched healthy sedentary controls. Ten martial artists (54.0 ± 2.0 years), who practice Soo Bahk Do (SBD), a Korean martial art, and ten sedentary subjects (54.7 ± 1.8 years) for a total of twenty subjects took part in this cross-sectional study. Arterial stiffness was assessed in all subjects using pulse wave velocity (PWV), a recognized index of arterial stiffness. Flexibility of the trunk and hamstring were also measured. The independent variables were the martial artists and matched sedentary controls. The dependent variables were PWV and flexibility. There were significant differences, between the SBD practitioners and sedentary controls, in PWV (P = 0.004), in trunk flexibility (P= 0.002), and in hamstring length (P= 0.003). The middle-aged martial artists were more flexible in their trunk and hamstrings and had less arterial stiffness compared to the healthy sedentary controls. The flexibility component of martial art training or flexibility exercises in general may be considered as a possible intervention to reduce the effects of aging on arterial stiffness.

  1. Cerebellar arteries originating from the internal carotid artery: angiographic evaluation and embryologic explanations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Young; Han, Moon Hee; Yu, In Gyu; Chang, Ki Hyun; Kim, Eui Jong; Kim, Dae Ho

    1997-01-01

    To find and describe the cerebellar arteries arising from the internal carotid artery, explain them embryologically, and evaluate their clinical implication. To determine the point in the internal carotid artery from which the cereballar artery arose anomalously, consecutive angiographic studies performed in the last three years were reviewed. The distribution of such anomalous cerebellar arteries, the point in the internal carotid artery from which the anomalous vessels originated, and associated findings were analyzed. Five anomalous origins of cerebellar arteries arising arising directly from the internal carotid artery were found in five patients. Three anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA) and one common trunk of an AICA and a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) were found to originate from the internal carotid artery at a point close to the origin of the primitive trigeminal artery. A PICA arose from an artery presenting a course similar to the proatlantal intersegmental artery. Intracranial aneurysms in two patients, Moyamoya disease in one, and facial arteriovenous malformation in one. In our series, AICAs supplied from the arteries considered to be persistent trigeminal artery variants were the most common type. A correlation between type of anomalous cerebellar artery and type of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis may exist. Cerebellar arteries originating anomalously from the internal carotid artery seem to occur as a result of the persistence of carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomoses associated with incomplete fusion of the longitudinal neural arteries. An understanding of these anomalous cerebellar arteries may help prevent accidents during therapeutic embolization and surgical treatment, as well as misinterpretation

  2. Embolic intracranial arterial occlusion visualized by non-enhanced computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Masaaki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Choki, Junichiro; Yamaguchi, Takenori [National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)

    1984-12-01

    A 77-year-old woman with a history of valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation and a massive infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere developed contralateral infarction due to occlusion of the internal carotid artery. A string-like structure with higher density than normal brain was demonstrated on non-enhanced computed tomography that was performed in the acute stage. This abnormal structure seen in the left hemisphere was thought to be consistent with the middle cerebral artery trunk of the affected side. Seventeen days after the onset, the abnormal structure was no more visualized on non-enhanced CT. These findings suggested that the abnormal structure with increased density was compatible with thromboembolus or intraluminal clot formed in the distal part of the occluded internal carotid artery. The importance of this finding as a diagnostic sign of the cerebral arterial occlusion was discussed.

  3. Embolic intracranial arterial occlusion visualized by non-enhanced computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Masaaki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Choki, Junichiro; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    1984-01-01

    A 77-year-old woman with a history of valvular heart disease, atrial fibrillation and a massive infarction in the right cerebral hemisphere developed contralateral infarction due to occlusion of the internal carotid artery. A string-like structure with higher density than normal brain was demonstrated on non-enhanced computed tomography that was performed in the acute stage. This abnormal structure seen in the left hemisphere was thought to be consistent with the middle cerebral artery trunk of the affected side. Seventeen days after the onset, the abnormal structure was no more visualized on non-enhanced CT. These findings suggested that the abnormal structure with increased density was compatible with thromboembolus or intraluminal clot formed in the distal part of the occluded internal ca rotid artery. An importance of this finding as a diagnostic sign of the cerebral arterial occlusion was discussed. (author)

  4. Aberrant ovarian artery arising from the common Iliac artery: Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Won Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Jae Myeong [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae; Chang, Yun Woo [Dept. of Radiology, Soonchunhyang University Seoul Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    A 46-year-old Vietnamese woman received embolization therapy in order to control postpartum hemorrhage. Angiography revealed an aberrant ovarian artery arising from the right common iliac artery. Superselective catheterization and subsequent embolization of the aberrant ovarian artery and bilateral uterine arteries were performed. Precise knowledge of the anatomic variations of the ovarian artery is important for successful embolization.

  5. Aberrant ovarian artery arising from the common Iliac artery: Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Won Kyung; Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Jae Myeong; Goo, Dong Erk; Kim, Yong Jae; Chang, Yun Woo

    2013-01-01

    A 46-year-old Vietnamese woman received embolization therapy in order to control postpartum hemorrhage. Angiography revealed an aberrant ovarian artery arising from the right common iliac artery. Superselective catheterization and subsequent embolization of the aberrant ovarian artery and bilateral uterine arteries were performed. Precise knowledge of the anatomic variations of the ovarian artery is important for successful embolization.

  6. Urban sores. On the interaction between segregation, urban decay and deprived neighbourhoods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    Most European countries have experienced special problems that have emerged in certain more or less well-defined parts of cities called de-prived or depressed urban neighbourhoods. These problems were initially found in the oldest urban areas with the lowest quality housing. Since the beginning...... of the 1980s, however, in Europe they have also emerged in newer social housing estates outside city centres. These neighbourhoods display visible physical and social problems that can disfigure the perhaps otherwise attractive urban landscape. They could in severe cases even be termed sores on the face...... of the city. They are often perceived by the public as places that are not inhabited or frequented by decent people – they are seen as ‘places of exclusion’. The purpose of this book is to contribute to a deeper understanding of why such neighbourhoods come to exist and the impacts they have on cities. Urban...

  7. Access to the ophthalmic artery by retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery for intra-arterial chemotherapy of retinoblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, Chi-Tuan; Blanc, Raphael; Pistocchi, Silvia; Bartolini, Bruno; Piotin, Michel [Fondation Rothschild Hospital, Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, Paris (France); Lumbroso-Le Rouic, Livia [Institut Curie, Department of Ocular Oncology, Paris (France)

    2012-08-15

    Intra-arterial infusion of chemotherapy into the ophthalmic artery for treatment of retinoblastoma has been realized after catheterization of the internal carotid and temporary balloon occlusion beyond the orifice of the ophthalmic artery, or more recently after superselective canulation of the ophthalmic artery by a microcatheter. The superselective catheterization of the ophthalmic artery could be cumbersome because of the implantation of the ostium on the carotid siphon or because of the tortuosity of the carotid siphon. We report our experience of using a retrograde approach through the posterior communicating artery that allows a more direct angle of access to the origin of the ophthalmic artery. (orig.)

  8. CHANGES IN URBAN SKYLINES AND PERCEPTION OF THE CITIZENS: A STUDY OF ISTANBUL

    OpenAIRE

    Altuntaş, Zeynep Büşra; Önder, Deniz Erinsel

    2018-01-01

    Being a citizen or resident of a particular city or urban center does not only refer to a person's participation in the city but also encompasses their sense of belonging to and being a part of the city. In the perspective of urban space, the sense of urban belonging is an indicator of how people feel about themselves as part of the city, their feelings of urban consciousness, and their sense of responsibility toward the city and urbanized areas around it. Cities that have a recognized u...

  9. Urban agriculture: Rosario, Argentina reaps the benefits | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-06

    Oct 6, 2010 ... Urban agriculture: Rosario, Argentina reaps the benefits ... Urban agriculture has become a permanent part of the city's fabric, ... The Global Roundtable of Chief Economists highlights global trends and best practices to help ...

  10. CT scans of giant aneurysms in the vertebro-basilar artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shishido, Toyofumi; Ohsugi, Tamotsu; Motozaki, Takahiko; Sakaki, Saburo; Matsuoka, Kenzo

    1980-01-01

    Clinical course and neurological and neuroradiological findings of giant aneurysms in the vertebro-basilar artery observed in two of our cases were discussed. The first case was a 66-year-old man. He complained of sensory disturbance over his left face and unstable gait for 2 years before admission. Neurological examinations on admission showed hypesthesia in the territory of the second branch of the left fifth cranial nerve, nystagmus, and a left cerebellar sign. No mental deterioration or pyramidal signs were noticed. Retrograde left brachial artery angiograms revealed a giant aneurysm with inferior pointing measuring 30 x 10 mm in diameter arising from the left superior cerebellar artery. Precontrast CT scans demonstrated a round, large, high-density area, cantaining a relatively low-density area within it, in the medioventral portion of the left cerebellum; a part of this high-density area was markedly enhanced in the postcontrast CT scan. No ventricular dilatations were noticed by CT scans. Direct surgery was abandoned due to the size and location of the aneurysm. No neurologically abnormal finding developed after discharge. The second case was a 61-year-old man. He complained of unstable gait for 2 years before admission. Neurological examinations on admission showed bilateral pyramidal sings (more pronounced on the left) and nystagmus. There were no cranial nerve palsy and no sensory disturbances. Precontrast CT scans showed a large, oval, high-density area in the medioventral portion of the right cerebellum, extending to the upper brainstem; a part of this high-density area was markedly enhanced in the postcontrast CT scans. Retrograde left brachial artery angiograms revealed that the fusiform aneurysm in the left vertebral, the basilar artery, and the dilated basilar artery ran 30 mm from the clivus, with a dorsal convex arch. (J.P.N.)

  11. Arterial scan versus radiographic angiography in detection of shallow arterial ulcers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollak, E.W.; Webber, M.M.; Cragin, M.D.; Wolfman, E.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of 99m-technetium albumin aggregated arterial scan and radiographic angiography for detection of shallow intimal carotid artery ulcerations was made in a series of 12 anesthetized dogs, having a total of 16 acute arterial ulcerations. Radiographic angiography showed positive findings related to presence of stenosis or mural thrombosis in 12 instances. Direct visualization of ulceration was only exceptionally encountered. Arterial scan detected 14 of 16 intimal ulcers. The radionuclide method was reliable even in absence of stenosis or when only minimal mural thrombosis was present. Moreover, autopsy scan of the isolated arterial segments detected all 16 intimal lesions. These results indicate that the arterial scan was a more reliable method for detection of shallow arterial ulcers in this experimental model than radiographic angiography, especially when arterial lumen stenosis or mural thrombosis was minimal or absent

  12. Prediction of parent artery of anterior communicating artery aneurysm on CT angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jin Young; Han, Tae Il; Kim, Dae Hong; Han, Hyun Young; Kim, Hyun Jung; Song, Mun Kab

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether CT angiography can predict the parent artery of an anterior communicating aneurysm on the basis of characteristics of the aneurysm and precommunication anterior cerebral artery. Eighteen patients with anterior communication aneurysm were studied prospectively using CT angiography and conventional angiography. The parent artery of an aneurysm was predicted by evaluating aneurysm neck location, direction of aneurysm projection, and size of the precommunicating anterior cerebral artery, as seen on CT angiography. A somatom Plus-4 spiral CT scanner was used and shaded-surface display three-dimensional images were constructed. Aneurysm neck was located near the parent artery in 12 cases(66.7%), and aneurysm projection was against the parent artery in 11 cases(61.1%). The parent artery of the anterior cerebral artery was larger in 15 cases(83.3%), including ten cases of hypoplasia or agenesis of the contralateral anterior cerebral artery. In 17 of 18 aneurysms(94.4%) the parent artery seen on DSA was correctly predicted by CT angiography. The parent artery of an anterior communicating aneurysm can be predicted by evaluating aneurysm neck location, direction of aneurysm projection, and precommunicating anterior cerebral artery, as seen on CT angiography

  13. Hipertensión arterial, menopausia y compromiso cognitivo

    OpenAIRE

    Mildren del Sueldo; Augusto Vicario; Gustavo H. Cerezo; Gonzalo Miranda; Judith Zilberman

    2018-01-01

    Resumen: La enfermedad cardiovascular es la primera causa de mortalidad en la mujer en la mayor parte del mundo y pese a esta realidad el riesgo de padecerla continúa siendo subestimado en mujeres. La hipertensión arterial es uno de los principales determinantes de este riesgo y su prevalencia ha incrementado de manera global, especialmente en mujeres después de los 60 años. Si bien la disminución o pérdida de los estrógenos tiene impacto sobre la regulación de la presión arterial, el papel d...

  14. Urban security annual report for 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The work during fiscal year 1997 focused in an effort titled ''Urban Security -- A High-Performance Computing Pilot Project.'' During this year a team was engaged representing five Laboratory divisions and a range of expertise including atmospheric and hydrologic modeling, software design, mathematics, geographic information systems (GIS), geology, and urban planning. One major part of the pilot project was to link regional atmospheric modeling with ground water models in order to assess vulnerability of urban water supplies to climate change. Another part of the pilot project was to model the transport of an airborne toxic gas, including effects of buildings on air flow, and to link this to traffic simulations for effective emergency response. Other activities were to establish connections with potential collaborators and funding agencies, as well as highlighting the project through presentations at professional meetings

  15. Anomalous external carotid artery-internal carotid artery anastomosis in two patients with proximal internal carotid arterial remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Chang Hun [Dept. of Neurology, Stroke Center, Myongji Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Dae; Kang, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jeong Eun; Han, Moon Hee [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Seung Chai [Dept. of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jun Hyong [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Anyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    Two angiographic instances of anomalous external carotid artery (ECA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) anastomosis are described, each occurring at the C2-3 level and bearing remnants of proximal ICA. The ICA remnant of one patient (identifiable immediately upon bifurcation of the common carotid artery) was hypoplastic, and that of the other patient was an occluded arterial stump. These features are not typical of non-bifurcating ICA. The occipital artery originated from an anomalous connection in one instance and from the main trunk of the ECA (just past the ECA-ICA connection) in the other.

  16. Decision Making on Allocating Urban Green Spaces Based upon Spatially-Varying Relationships between Urban Green Spaces and Urban Compaction Degree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsueh-Sheng Chang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The compact city is becoming a prevailing paradigm in the world to control urban sprawl and achieve a pattern of sustainable urban development. However, discussions of the area's overcrowded neighborhoods, its health problems, and the destruction of its green areas have inspired self-examination with respect to the compact city paradigm. High population density attracts even more residents and frequently renders the existing urban green space (UGS insufficient for use as part of a living environment. Due to the unique benefits that these qualities confer, UGS allocation is now considered a significant contributing factor to urban livability. In addition, the UGS allocation may be different due to the presence of many spatial non-stationarity processes. Therefore, this study employs geographically-weighted regression (GWR to explore the unique and spatially-explicit relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS within the Taipei metropolitan area. Maps summarizing the GWR results demonstrate that there is significantly insufficient UGS allocation in the central area, which consists mainly of Taipei City. Townships with higher parameters contain UGS levels that better meet the needs of their residents. Overall, the exploration of conceptualizing spatial heterogeneity of relationships between the degree of urban compaction and UGS can provide insightful analyses for decision-making on allocating UGS.

  17. Pure Motor Stroke Secondary to Cerebral Infarction of Recurrent Artery of Heubner after Mild Head Trauma: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Ali; Kizilay, Zahir; Ozkul, Ayca; ?irak, Bayram

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The recurrent Heubner's artery is the distal part of the medial striate artery. Occlusion of the recurrent artery of Heubner, classically contralateral hemiparesis with fasciobrachiocrural predominance, is attributed to the occlusion of the recurrent artery of Heubner and is widely known as a stroke syndrome in adults. However, isolated occlusion of the deep perforating arteries following mild head trauma also occurs extremely rarely in childhood. CASE REPORT: Here we report t...

  18. Experimental exposure to diesel exhaust increases arterial stiffness in man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newby David E

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Exposure to air pollution is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity, although the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Vascular dysfunction reduces arterial compliance and increases central arterial pressure and left ventricular after-load. We determined the effect of diesel exhaust exposure on arterial compliance using a validated non-invasive measure of arterial stiffness. Methods In a double-blind randomized fashion, 12 healthy volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 350 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during moderate exercise. Arterial stiffness was measured using applanation tonometry at the radial artery for pulse wave analysis (PWA, as well as at the femoral and carotid arteries for pulse wave velocity (PWV. PWA was performed 10, 20 and 30 min, and carotid-femoral PWV 40 min, post-exposure. Augmentation pressure (AP, augmentation index (AIx and time to wave reflection (Tr were calculated. Results Blood pressure, AP and AIx were generally low reflecting compliant arteries. In comparison to filtered air, diesel exhaust exposure induced an increase in AP of 2.5 mmHg (p = 0.02 and in AIx of 7.8% (p = 0.01, along with a 16 ms reduction in Tr (p = 0.03, 10 minutes post-exposure. Conclusion Acute exposure to diesel exhaust is associated with an immediate and transient increase in arterial stiffness. This may, in part, explain the increased risk for cardiovascular disease associated with air pollution exposure. If our findings are confirmed in larger cohorts of susceptible populations, this simple non-invasive method of assessing arterial stiffness may become a useful technique in measuring the impact of real world exposures to combustion derived-air pollution.

  19. Case of radiation necrosis with vascular changes on main cerebral arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishibashi, Y; Okada, H; Mineura, K; Kodama, N [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). School of Medicine

    1982-03-01

    A 64-year-old woman had received radiotherapy, following surgery of a chromophobe pituitary adenoma. Six years after irradiation she began to complain of headache and dementia. Right vertebrogram demonstrated a right temporal mass lesion, stenosis and dilatation of middle cerebral artery and posterior communicating artery in the field of irradiation. CT scan showed the irregular low density area at the right temporal region, and the irregular enhancement after an intravenous injection of contrast medium was seen at the small part of affected area. From these findings, radiation necrosis at the right temporal lobe was diagnosed. Reports of vascular changes of the main cerebral arteries due to radiation are rare.

  20. Comparison between angiographic and arterial duplex ultrasound assessment of tibial arteries in patients with peripheral arterial disease: on behalf of the Joint Endovascular and Non-Invasive Assessment of LImb Perfusion (JENALI) Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Saab, Fadi; Diaz-Sandoval, Larry; Karenko, Barbara; McGoff, Theresa; Heaney, Carmen; Sevensma, Matthew

    2013-11-01

    Endovascular treatment of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) involving the tibial arteries is becoming an increasingly important part of revascularization. The current anatomical description of vessel patency in tibial arteries does not contribute effectively to therapeutic strategies. The Joint Endovascular and Non-Invasive Assessment of Limb Perfusion (JENALI) score, is a novel scoring system developed to further assess patency of tibial arteries, via both angiography and arterial duplex ultrasonography. A comparison was made between the JENALI score obtained by ultrasound and by angiography. Angiography is currently considered the gold standard of tibial artery imaging. This prospective single-center study involved 49 patients undergoing peripheral angiography for evaluation of PAD, between November 2011 and November 2012. All patients underwent a detailed ultrasound assessment of the tibial arteries ± 7 days from diagnostic angiography. Eligible patients had a Rutherford score ≥ III or abnormal ankle-brachial index values. Angiography and ultrasound were evaluated in a blinded fashion. Average age of patients was 69.8 years. A total of 846 segments were assessed by both angiography and ultrasound. We found that 648 segments (76.6%) were deemed to be patent by angiography compared to 723 (85.5%) by ultrasound. Critical limb ischemia (CLI; Rutherford score ≥ 4) was described in 26 patients (53%). Average JENALI score for the right lower extremity was 7.0 by angiogram vs 7.7 by ultrasound. The average JENALI score of the left leg was 6.7 by angiogram vs 7.7 by ultrasound. A total of 94 lower extremities were assigned a JENALI score. Ultrasound was accurate in detecting tibial artery patency or occlusion in 80% of segments. The overall sensitivity/specificity of ultrasound detecting tibial artery patency was calculated at 93% and 40% (P<.05), respectively. Detection of patency via ultrasound was highest for the anterior tibial artery and the lowest for the

  1. Urban-rural variations in health in the Netherlands: does selective migration play a part?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheij, R.A.; Mheen, H.D. van de; Bakker, D.H. de; Groenewegen, P.P.; Mackenbach, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: urban-rural health differences are observed in many countries, even when socioeconomic and demographic characteristics are controlled for. People living in urban areas are often found to be less healthy. One of the possible causes for these differences is selective migration with

  2. Are Urban Stream Restoration Plans Worth Implementing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarvilinna, Auri; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Hjerppe, Turo

    2017-01-01

    To manage and conserve ecosystems in a more sustainable way, it is important to identify the importance of the ecosystem services they provide and understand the connection between natural and socio-economic systems. Historically, streams have been an underrated part of the urban environment. Many of them have been straightened and often channelized under pressure of urbanization. However, little knowledge exists concerning the economic value of stream restoration or the value of the improved ecosystem services. We used the contingent valuation method to assess the social acceptability of a policy-level water management plan in the city of Helsinki, Finland, and the values placed on improvements in a set of ecosystem services, accounting for preference uncertainty. According to our study, the action plan would provide high returns on restoration investments, since the benefit-cost ratio was 15-37. Moreover, seventy-two percent of the respondents willing to pay for stream restoration chose "I want to conserve streams as a part of urban nature for future generations" as the most motivating reason. Our study indicates that the water management plan for urban streams in Helsinki has strong public support. If better marketed to the population within the watershed, the future projects could be partly funded by the local residents, making the projects easier to accomplish. The results of this study can be used in planning, management and decision making related to small urban watercourses.

  3. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario; Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo; Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max; Raz, Eytan; Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  4. Association between internal carotid artery dissection and arterial tortuosity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, Luca; Piga, Mario [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Radiology, Monserrato, Cagliari (Italy); Argiolas, Giovanni Maria; Siotto, Paolo [Azienda Ospedaliero Brotzu (A.O.B.), Department of Radiology, di Cagliari (Italy); Sumer, Suna; Wintermark, Max [Neuroradiology Division, Neuroradiology, UVA Department of Radiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Raz, Eytan [New York University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Sapienza University of Rome, Department of Neurology and Psychiatry, Rome (Italy); Sanfilippo, Roberto; Montisci, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria (A.O.U.), Department of Vascular Surgery, di Cagliari (Italy)

    2014-10-18

    Carotid artery dissection is an important cause of ischemic stroke in all age groups, particularly in young patients. The purpose of this work was to assess whether there is an association between the presence of an internal carotid artery dissection (ICAD) and the arterial tortuosity. This study considered 124 patients (72 males and 52 females; median age 57 years) with CT/MR diagnosis of ICAD of the internal carotid artery were considered in this multi-centric retrospective study. The arterial tortuosity was evaluated and, when present, was categorized as elongation, kinking, or coiling. For each patient, both the right and left sides were considered for a total number of 248 arteries in order to have the same number of cases and controls. Fisher's exact test was applied to test the association between elongation, kinking, coiling, dissection, and the side affected by CAD. Fisher's exact test showed a statistically significant association between the ICAD and kinking (p = 0.0089) and coiling (p = 0.0251) whereas no statistically significant difference was found with arterial vessel elongation (p = 0.444). ICAD was more often seen on the left side compared to the right (p = 0.0001). These results were confirmed using both carotid arteries of the same patient as dependent parameter with p = 0.0012, 0.0129, and 0.3323 for kinking, coiling, and elongation, respectively. The presence of kinking and coiling is associated with ICAD. (orig.)

  5. Emergency Stent Grafting After Unsuccessful Surgical Repair of a Mycotic Common Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Drug Abuser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupattelli, Tommaso; Garaci, Francesco Giuseppe; Basile, Antonio; Minnella, Daniela Paola; Casini, Andrea; Clerissi, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    Mycotic false aneurysm caused by local arterial injury from attempted intravenous injections in drug addicts remains a challenging clinical problem. The continued increase in drug abuse has resulted in an increased incidence of this problem, particularly in high-volume urban centres. In the drug-abusing population, mycotic arterial pseudoaneurysms most often occur because of missed venous injection and are typically seen in the groin, axilla, and antecubital fossa. Mycotic aneurysms may lead to life-threatening haemorrhage, limb loss, sepsis, and even death. Any soft-tissue swelling in the vicinity of a major artery in an intravenous drug abuser should be suspected of being a false aneurysm until proven otherwise and should prompt immediate referral to a vascular surgeon for investigation and management. We report a case of rupturing mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the left common femoral artery treated by surgical resection followed by vessel reconstruction with autologous material. Unfortunately, at the time of discharge a sudden leakage from the vein graft anastomosis occurred, with subsequent massive bleeding, and required emergent endovascular covered stenting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of femoral artery bleeding in a drug abuser treated by stent graft placement.

  6. Normal variation of hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Inn; Nam, Myung Hyun; Rhim, Hyun Chul; Koh, Byung Hee; Seo, Heung Suk; Kim, Soon Yong

    1987-01-01

    This study was an analyses of blood supply of the liver in 125 patients who received hepatic arteriography and abdominal aortography from Jan. 1984 to Dec. 1986 at the Department of Radiology of Hanyang University Hospital. A. Variations in extrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal extrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 106 of 125 cases (84.8%) ; Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and hepatic artery proper arising from the common hepatic artery. 2. The most common type of variation of extrahepatic artery was replaced right hepatic artery from superior mesenteric artery: 6 of 125 cases (4.8%). B. Variations in intrahepatic arteries: 1. The normal intrahepatic artery pattern occurred in 83 of 125 cases (66.4%). Right hepatic and left hepatic arteries arising from the hepatic artery proper and middle hepatic artery arising from lower portion of the umbilical point of left hepatic artery. 2. The most common variation of intrahepatic arteries was middle hepatic artery. 3. Among the variation of middle hepatic artery; Right, middle and left hepatic arteries arising from the same location at the hepatic artery proper was the most common type; 17 of 125 cases (13.6%)

  7. Massive cerebral arterial air embolism following arterial catheterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, C.W. [Northwestem University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Chicago, IL (United States); Yang, B.P. [Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine, Department of Neurological Surgery, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Microscopic cerebral arterial air embolism (CAAE) has been described in many patients undergoing cardiac surgery as well as other invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. However, massive CAAE is rare. We report a 42-year-old woman who initially presented with thalamic and basal ganglia hemorrhages. Shortly after a radial arterial catheter was inserted, the patient suffered a generalized seizure and CT demonstrated intra-arterial air in bilateral cerebral hemispheres. (orig.)

  8. The Historic Urban Core of Antakya under the Influence of the French Mandate, and Turkish Republican Urban Conservation and Development Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Nezih RİFAİOĞLU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Antakya, known as Antioch during the ancient period, is significant among Turkey’s historical urban contexts. It is located in the south-east of Turkey, near the Syrian border and is the capital of Hatay province. Called the ‘Queen of the East’ at one time, it is an important city historically since it was an early center of Christianity and one of the capital cities of the Roman Empire. As a result of its importance, the city has been formed/re-formed over time by different empires, and many structures from various periods are still persist in the current urban form. The aim of this paper is to examine the French Mandate and Turkish Republican Period urban conservation and development strategies in Antakya in order to better understand their influences and effects on its historical urban core. The paper thus begins with an introduction and brief outline of the historical development of the core of Antakya. The second part focuses on the French Mandate and Turkish Republican Period urban conservation and development plan strategies. The final part discusses the effects of different urban development strategies on the historic core of the city.

  9. Observing the Vertical Dimensions of Singapore's Urban Heat Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, W. T. L.; Ho, D. X. Q.

    2015-12-01

    In numerous cities, measurements of urban warmth in most urban heat island (UHI) studies are generally constrained towards surface or near-surface (quadcopter platforms to measure urban temperature and humidity profiles in Singapore, which is a rapidly urbanizing major tropical metropolis. These profiles were measured from the surface to ~100 m above ground level, a height which includes all of the urban canopy and parts of the urban boundary layer. Initial results indicate significant variations in stability measured over different land uses (e.g. urban park, high-rise residential, commercial); these profiles are also temporally dynamic, depending on the time of day and larger-scale weather conditions.

  10. A map of urban tales. Laboratory Q, a place for urban creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alanis Arroyo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory Q, a place for urban creativity is a research platform set up to study the contemporary city. Contained in a participatory virtual map are processes, spaces, and creative actions that took place in Seville between 1996 and 2012, the last part of which was defined by the economic crisis. This article is structured like a manifesto and presents the structural foundations that hold up the project. Each declaration works autonomously in relation to everything, describes the ideal strategy, and states how common urban tales are constructed.

  11. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery can hurt kidney function. ... need include: Duplex Doppler ultrasound exam of the renal arteries to test blood flow MRI of the kidney arteries, which can show ...

  12. Carotid artery surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carotid endarterectomy; CAS surgery; Carotid artery stenosis - surgery; Endarterectomy - carotid artery ... through the catheter around the blocked area during surgery. Your carotid artery is opened. The surgeon removes ...

  13. Regeneration Through Hidden Historical Landscape of Lecco. Urban Course Design Process

    OpenAIRE

    Colucci, Angela; Kolmogorova, Anna; Kraja, Benida; Ziyaee, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    The article focus on the role of Historical Urban Heritage in Urban Design through the presentation of the integrated learning  path developed for Urban Design and Urban Design Studio classes of Lecco Campus of Politecnico of Milan (school of Architecture Urban Planning Construction Engineering, master degree in Building and Architectural Engineering - BAE and Architectural-Engineering– EDA). The first part of paper presents the general learning process characterizing Urban Design course a...

  14. The Features of Extrahepatic Collateral Arteries Related to Hepatic Artery Occlusion and Benefits in the Trans arterial Management of Liver Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Zhang, X.M.; Ren, Y.J.; Miao, N.D.; Huang, X.H.; Dong, G.L.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the extrahepatic collateral arteries related to hepatic artery occlusion (HAO) and to determine its benefits in the trans arterial management of liver tumors. Methods and Findings. Eleven patients (7 hepatocellular carcinomas, 3 liver metastases, and 1 with hemangioma) with HAO confirmed with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were admitted to our hospital. Of the 11 patients, 7 were men and 4 were women, with an average age of 41.5 ± 15.5 years (range: 29 to 70 years). DSA was performed to evaluate the collateral routes to the liver. In the 11 patients with HAO, DSA showed complete occlusion of the common hepatic artery in 9 patients and the proper hepatic artery (PHA) in 2 patients. Extrahepatic collateral arteries supplying the liver were readily evident. The collateral arteries originated from the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) in 8 patients, from the gastroduodenal artery in 2 patients, and from the left gastric artery (LGA) in 1 patient. Transcatheter treatment was successfully performed via the collateral artery in all patients except the one who had hemangioma. Conclusions. DSA is an effective method for detecting collateral circulation related to HAO and may provide information to guide transcatheter management decisions.

  15. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  16. Pathological evaluation of thyroid glands in Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Xiao Haipeng; Cheng Wei; Yang Jianyong; Chen Guorui; Ling Qibo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphology of thyroid specimen after thyroid arteries embolization. In order to select appropriate size of embolizing granules, the diameters of thyroid arteries in Graves' disease were measured. Methods: Multiple slides of embolized thyroid tissues from superior pole, body and inferior pole of the resected thyroid glands were made. After being embedded and stained, pathological morphology was observed and diameters of arteries in various parts of thyroid glands were measured under microscopy. Results: Pathological examination of thyroid glands showed that superior and inferior thyroid arteries and most of their branches were embolized with ischemic necrosis and fibrosis in the embolized thyroid tissue. Follicular epithelium appeared as flat or cubic shapes with colloid reduction. Average diameter of main branches of superior artery was 440-550 μm and that of inferior artery was 300-375 μm. The diameters of capillary network in the thyroid body was 120-250 μm, and the non-embolized ones was 40-110 μm. The diameter of isthmus was 130-150 μm. Conclusions: Pathological morphology of Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization showed that the excretion of thyroid glands would be decreased and equivalents to subtotal thyroidectomy

  17. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk, E-mail: mdkim@yuhs.ac; Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  18. Aberrant Ovarian Collateral Originating from External Iliac Artery During Uterine Artery Embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Joon Ho; Kim, Man Deuk; Lee, Kwang-hun; Lee, Myungsu; Lee, Mu Sook; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who underwent uterine artery embolization (UAE) for symptomatic multiple uterine fibroids with collateral aberrant right ovarian artery that originated from the right external iliac artery. We believe that this is the first reported case in the literature of this collateral uterine flow by the right ovarian artery originated from the right external iliac artery. We briefly present the details of the case and review the literature on variations of ovarian artery origin that might be encountered during UAE.

  19. The common iliac artery in the ground squirrel (Citellus citellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blagojević M.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The common iliac arteries (a. iliaca communis dextra et a. iliaca communis sinistra are the terminal branches of the abdominal aorta. The paired external iliac artery (a. iliaca externa dextra et a. iliaca externa sinistra is a stronger branch of the paired common iliac artery. Before they leave the abdominal cavity and continue as the femoral arteries (a. femoralis dextra et a. femoralis sinistra each external iliac artery forms the following branches: 1. The internal pudendal artery (a. pudenda interna which, with its branches, supplies the tensor fasciae latae and quadriceps muscles (a. circumflexa femoris lateralis, cranial region of the urinary bladder, cranial end of the uterine horn in females, the deferent duct and tail of the epididymis in males (a. umbilicalis the rectum, the external anal sphincter and perineum (a. rectalis caudalis with blood. 2. The obturator artery (a. obturatoria, which supplies both of the obturator muscles, as well as the proximal end of the adductor muscle. 3. The pudendoepigastric trunk (truncus pudendoepigastricus is a short vessel, which with its branches (a. pudenda externa, a. epigastrica caudalis et a. urethrogenitalis supplies the caudal end of the rectus abdominis muscle, tip of the penis, preputium, superficial inguinal lymph nodes, scrotum in males and inguinal mamma in females, transversus and internus abdominis muscles, neck of the urinary bladder, urethra, vagina and vulva in females and accessory glands in males. 4. Paired internal iliac arteries (a. iliaca interna dextra et a. iliaca interna sinistra are thinner branches than the external iliac arteries. The internal iliac artery with its branches supplies the cranial and caudal parts of the gluteal muscles (a. glutea cranialis et a. glutea caudalis, as well as the muscles of the lateral side of the tail (a. caudalis lateralis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 143018

  20. Hepatic falciform artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaques, Paul F.; Mauro, Matthew A.; Sandhu, Jeet

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic falciform artery is an occasional terminal branch of the left or middle hepatic artery, and may provide an uncommon but important collateral route when the principal visceral arteries are occluded

  1. The kunitz protease inhibitor domain of protease nexin-2 inhibits factor XIa and murine carotid artery and middle cerebral artery thrombosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wenman; Li, Hongbo; Navaneetham, Duraiswamy; Reichenbach, Zachary W.; Tuma, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    Coagulation factor XI (FXI) plays an important part in both venous and arterial thrombosis, rendering FXIa a potential target for the development of antithrombotic therapy. The kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain of protease nexin-2 (PN2) is a potent, highly specific inhibitor of FXIa, suggesting its possible role in the inhibition of FXI-dependent thrombosis in vivo. Therefore, we examined the effect of PN2KPI on thrombosis in the murine carotid artery and the middle cerebral artery. Intravenous administration of PN2KPI prolonged the clotting time of both human and murine plasma, and PN2KPI inhibited FXIa activity in both human and murine plasma in vitro. The intravenous administration of PN2KPI into WT mice dramatically decreased the progress of FeCl3-induced thrombus formation in the carotid artery. After a similar initial rate of thrombus formation with and without PN2KPI treatment, the propagation of thrombus formation after 10 minutes and the amount of thrombus formed were significantly decreased in mice treated with PN2KPI injection compared with untreated mice. In the middle cerebral artery occlusion model, the volume and fraction of ischemic brain tissue were significantly decreased in PN2KPI-treated compared with untreated mice. Thus, inhibition of FXIa by PN2KPI is a promising approach to antithrombotic therapy. PMID:22674803

  2. Feeding Arteries of Primary Tongue Cancers on Intra-arterial Infusion Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitani, Takeshi, E-mail: kamitani@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Kawanami, Satoshi, E-mail: kawanami-01@mac.com [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Asayama, Yoshiki, E-mail: asayama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Matsuo, Yoshio, E-mail: yymatsuo@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yonezawa, Masato, E-mail: ymasato@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Yamasaki, Yuzo, E-mail: yyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nagao, Michinobu, E-mail: minagao@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Molecular Imaging and Diagnosis, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yamanouchi, Torahiko, E-mail: tora0228@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake, E-mail: h-yabu@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nakamura, Katsumasa, E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Nakashima, Torahiko, E-mail: nakatora@qent.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan); Honda, Hiroshi, E-mail: honda@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the frequency and the predictive factor of each feeding artery on intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) in primary tongue cancer.Materials and MethodsWe retrospectively evaluated 20 patients who received IAIC for primary tongue cancer. The main and accompanying feeding arteries were identified on super-selective angiography of the branches of the external carotid artery. Tumor diameter, and extension to the contralateral side, tongue extrinsic muscles (TEMs), and lateral mesopharyngeal wall were determined based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography findings.ResultsThe main feeding artery was the ipsilateral lingual artery (LA) in 15 of the 20 examined tumors and the contralateral LA in the other 5. Ten cancers had only one feeding artery, and multiple feeding arteries were detected in the remaining 10. Tumors >4 cm (n = 9), those with extension to the contralateral side (n = 13), and those with extension to TEMs (n = 15) were supplied by significantly larger numbers of feeding arteries compared to tumors without these features (P = 0.01, 0.049, and 0.02, respectively). The frequency of feeding from the contralateral LA was 64 % (9/14) and 17 % (1/6) in tumors with and without extension to the contralateral side, respectively. Feeding from a facial artery (FA) was not detected in tumors ≤4 cm, while 5 of the 9 (56 %) tumors >4 cm were supplied by a FA (P = 0.01).ConclusionA careful search for feeding arteries is required, especially in large tumors with extension to the contralateral side or to TEMs.

  3. Feeding Arteries of Primary Tongue Cancers on Intra-arterial Infusion Chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamitani, Takeshi; Kawanami, Satoshi; Asayama, Yoshiki; Matsuo, Yoshio; Yonezawa, Masato; Yamasaki, Yuzo; Nagao, Michinobu; Yamanouchi, Torahiko; Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Nakamura, Katsumasa; Nakashima, Torahiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the frequency and the predictive factor of each feeding artery on intra-arterial infusion chemotherapy (IAIC) in primary tongue cancer. We retrospectively evaluated 20 patients who received IAIC for primary tongue cancer. The main and accompanying feeding arteries were identified on super-selective angiography of the branches of the external carotid artery. Tumor diameter, and extension to the contralateral side, tongue extrinsic muscles (TEMs), and lateral mesopharyngeal wall were determined based on magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography findings. The main feeding artery was the ipsilateral lingual artery (LA) in 15 of the 20 examined tumors and the contralateral LA in the other 5. Ten cancers had only one feeding artery, and multiple feeding arteries were detected in the remaining 10. Tumors >4 cm (n = 9), those with extension to the contralateral side (n = 13), and those with extension to TEMs (n = 15) were supplied by significantly larger numbers of feeding arteries compared to tumors without these features (P = 0.01, 0.049, and 0.02, respectively). The frequency of feeding from the contralateral LA was 64 % (9/14) and 17 % (1/6) in tumors with and without extension to the contralateral side, respectively. Feeding from a facial artery (FA) was not detected in tumors ≤4 cm, while 5 of the 9 (56 %) tumors >4 cm were supplied by a FA (P = 0.01). A careful search for feeding arteries is required, especially in large tumors with extension to the contralateral side or to TEMs.

  4. A methodological framework of travel time distribution estimation for urban signalized arterial roads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, Fangfang; van Zuylen, H.J.; Liu, Xiaobo

    2017-01-01

    Urban travel times are rather variable as a result of a lot of stochastic factors both in traffic flows, signals, and other conditions on the infrastructure. However, the most common way both in literature and practice is to estimate or predict only expected travel times, not travel time

  5. Unsteady 3D flow simulations in cranial arterial tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, Leopold; Anor, Tomer; Madsen, Joseph; Karniadakis, George

    2008-11-01

    High resolution unsteady 3D flow simulations in major cranial arteries have been performed. Two cases were considered: 1) a healthy volunteer with a complete Circle of Willis (CoW); and 2) a patient with hydrocephalus and an incomplete CoW. Computation was performed on 3344 processors of the new half petaflop supercomputer in TACC. Two new numerical approaches were developed and implemented: 1) a new two-level domain decomposition method, which couples continuous and discontinuous Galerkin discretization of the computational domain; and 2) a new type of outflow boundary conditions, which imposes, in an accurate and computationally efficient manner, clinically measured flow rates. In the first simulation, a geometric model of 65 cranial arteries was reconstructed. Our simulation reveals a high degree of asymmetry in the flow at the left and right parts of the CoW and the presence of swirling flow in most of the CoW arteries. In the second simulation, one of the main findings was a high pressure drop at the right anterior communicating artery (PCA). Due to the incompleteness of the CoW and the pressure drop at the PCA, the right internal carotid artery supplies blood to most regions of the brain.

  6. Visual aspects in urban woodland management and planning

    OpenAIRE

    Ode, Åsa

    2003-01-01

    Urban woodland is an important component of people's everyday environment, both as an attractive environment to visit as well as being an intrinsic part of the surrounding landscape. This thesis focuses on one specific aspect of the urban woodland - the visual. The visual aspect is how most people experience the woodland, both when visiting and as part of their everyday landscape. In order to take visual aspects into account there is a need to have tools and approaches for analysing and descr...

  7. Cerebral Angiographic Findings of Cosmetic Facial Filler-related Ophthalmic and Retinal Artery Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Kyu; Jung, Cheolkyu; Woo, Se Joon; Park, Kyu Hyung

    2015-12-01

    Cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion is rare but is a devastating complication, while the exact pathophysiology is still elusive. Cerebral angiography provides more detailed information on blood flow of ophthalmic artery as well as surrounding orbital area which cannot be covered by fundus fluorescein angiography. This study aimed to evaluate cerebral angiographic features of cosmetic facial filler-related ophthalmic artery occlusion patients. We retrospectively reviewed cerebral angiography of 7 patients (4 hyaluronic acid [HA] and 3 autologous fat-injected cases) showing ophthalmic artery and its branches occlusion after cosmetic facial filler injections, and underwent intra-arterial thrombolysis. On selective ophthalmic artery angiograms, all fat-injected patients showed a large filling defect on the proximal ophthalmic artery, whereas the HA-injected patients showed occlusion of the distal branches of the ophthalmic artery. Three HA-injected patients revealed diminished distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries, which clinically corresponded with skin necrosis. However, all fat-injected patients and one HA-injected patient who were immediately treated with subcutaneous hyaluronidase injection showed preserved distal runoff of the internal maxillary and facial arteries and mild skin problems. The size difference between injected materials seems to be associated with different angiographic findings. Autologous fat is more prone to obstruct proximal part of ophthalmic artery, whereas HA obstructs distal branches. In addition, hydrophilic and volume-expansion property of HA might exacerbate blood flow on injected area, which is also related to skin necrosis. Intra-arterial thrombolysis has a limited role in reconstituting blood flow or regaining vision in cosmetic facial filler-associated ophthalmic artery occlusions.

  8. Urbanization eases water crisis in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yiping; Liu, Shu-Guang; Ji, Chen

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic development in China has resulted in rapid urbanization, which includes a large amount of people making the transition from rural areas to cities. Many have speculated that this mass migration may have worsened the water crisis in many parts of the country. However, this study shows that the water crisis would be more severe if the rural-to-urban migration did not occur.

  9. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun

    1995-01-01

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method

  10. Recanalization of superficial femoral artery by retrograde approach via popliteal artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Kyu; Kim, Hyung Kil; Yun, Ung; Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-15

    To recanalize the occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery at origin site by retrograde approach via popliteal artery. 15 patients, who were poor surgical candidates due to coronary artery disease and who had severe occlusive lesion of superficial femoral artery close to its origin with good distal runoffs to popliteal artery, were selected. Patients were all men and range of age were from 53 years to 66 years (mean age: 63 years). Range of lesion length were from 15 cm to 30 cm (mean length: 22.4 cm). Localization of popliteal artery was done with Doppler stethoscope or 'road-map' DSA. The method of recanalization were transluminal endarterectomy catheter (TEC), TEC and angioplasty, thrombolysoangioplasty (TLA). Retrograde puncture of popliteal artery was done in 15 patients successfully. TEC and PTA was performed in 9 patients, TEC only in 2 patients, and TLA and PTA in 2 patients. During the follow-up period of 5 months to 2 years reocclusion did not occur in 10 patients except for 1 patient with poor cardiac output in whom it occurred 1 day later. Remained 4 patients were lost in follow up. Any neurologic or vascular complication did not occur. Retrograde approach of superficial femoral artery via popliteal artery in patients with difficult vascular intervention by common method provides a useful, alternative recanalization method.

  11. Experimental research of covered stent implanted in canine hepatic artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Bing; Liu Linxiang; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yongde

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of success rate of implantation, post-procedure stenosis rate, apposition ability and endothelialization level, etc. for implantation with balloon-expandable covered stent in canine hepatic artery. Methods: 8 adult canines were implanted with balloon-expendable stents covered by expandable poly Teflon ester membrane (e-PTFEM). Follow-up DSA was performed immediately, 2, 4 and 12 wk after the procedure. The canines were sacrificed for histopathologic examination and statistical analysis with correlation of implantation manenvor and angiographic manifestations. Results: 8 cases were all implanted with the covered stents in proper hepatic artery/right hepatic artery successfully; showing good apposition ability and non-opacification of the separated branches. 2 cases showed intraluminal obvious stenosis( > 50%)of the stent at 2 weeks follow-up, so did 3 cases at 12 weeks follow-up, and the total stenosis rate was 37.5% and 5 cases manifested full endothelialization (3 different locations of the sample all manifested full endothelialization), 3 cased manifested partial endothelialization (at least 1 location of the sample didn't show full endothelialization), and the two terminal parts were easier to get endothelialization than the central part. Before and after the stent implantation, hepatic function of all cases didn't demonstrate any obvious changes. Conclusions: Balloon-expandable covered stent can be implanted in canine hepatic artery. successfully, with good apposition ability, full endothelialization, and no influence on hepatic function. (authors)

  12. Contested Urbanism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pløger, John

    2010-01-01

    Iconic architecture plays a crucial role in cities' interurban competition. This is also the case with Copenhagen which has used iconic architecture as part of its boosterism to gain investment, to increase tourism and to attract the creative class. This battle over the symbolic representation of...... intertwined through symbolic, visual and virtual representations of the wrongs of current urban planning...

  13. Urban Maglev Technology Development Program : Colorado Maglev Project : part 1 : executive summary of final report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-06-01

    The overall objective of the urban maglev transit technology development program is to develop magnetic levitation technology that is a cost effective, reliable, and environmentally sound transit option for urban mass transportation in the United Sta...

  14. Urban sprawl in Iranian cities and its differences with the western sprawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahimpour-Masoumi Houshmand

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently a number of studies have focused on urban sprawl in the Iranian cities and the negative impacts of such development pattern. Although in a general view the phrase “urban sprawl” is used for fast and sometimes uncontrolled urbanizations, but there are dissimilarities between the urban sprawl in the western societies with the so-called Iranian urban sprawl. This paper discusses these differences as part of five main aspects that are mentioned in the internationally recognized urban sprawl definitions. Suburban sprawl, single-use developments/zoning, disconnected street network, low accessibility of the new developments, and commercial strip development are the aspects that are descriptively discussed as the main differences between the two types of sprawl. The main point of the discussion is that due to the wide range of similarities, which are briefly introduced, the type of the fast outward urban growth that is observed in the periphery of the Iranian cities can be defined as a part of the universal urban sprawl trend. Finally a definition is suggested for explaining urban sprawl in Iran.

  15. Hepatic artery aneurysms (HAAs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosratini, H.

    2004-01-01

    The hepatic artery aneurysms are rare, especially in interahepatic branches, The frequency consists of 75-80% extrahepatic and 20-25% intrahepatic. Catheterization is achieved usually from common femoral artery, other methods implemented in the case of unsuccessful catheterization from femoral artery, are translumbar and brachial catheterization. The study consist of 565 patients that were referred to the angiography ward, During seven years of assessment, five cases of hepatic artery aneurysm were found; this is a rare condition reported in the English literature. In the literature as well as in this case report the hepatic artery aneurysms are rare. In reported series the extrahepatic artery aneurysms are found more often than in the intrahepatic artery aneurysm but in this case report intrahepatic artery aneurysms are more than extrahepatic one. (author)

  16. Three-dimensional modeling of radiative and convective exchanges in the urban atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu, Yongfeng

    2011-01-01

    In many micro-meteorological studies, building resolving models usually assume a neutral atmosphere. Nevertheless, urban radiative transfers play an important role because of their influence on the energy budget. In order to take into account atmospheric radiation and the thermal effects of the buildings in simulations of atmospheric flow and pollutant dispersion in urban areas, we have developed a three-dimensional (3D) atmospheric radiative scheme, in the atmospheric module of the Computational Fluid Dynamics model Code-Saturne. The radiative scheme was previously validated with idealized cases, using as a first step, a constant 3D wind field. In this work, the full coupling of the radiative and thermal schemes with the dynamical model is evaluated. The aim of the first part is to validate the full coupling with the measurements of the simple geometry from the 'Mock Urban Setting Test' (MUST) experiment. The second part discusses two different approaches to model the radiative exchanges in urban area with a comparison between Code-Saturne and SOLENE. The third part applies the full coupling scheme to show the contribution of the radiative transfer model on the airflow pattern in low wind speed conditions in a 3D urban canopy. In the last part we use the radiative-dynamics coupling to simulate a real urban environment and validate the modeling approach with field measurements from the 'Canopy and Aerosol Particles Interactions in Toulouse Urban Layer' (CAPITOUL). (author) [fr

  17. The establishment of bilateral external iliac artery stenosis model in experimental canines and its angiographic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia Yonghui; Li Weixiao; Bi Yonghua; Xu Ke

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish an experimental canine model of bilateral external iliac artery stenosis by surgical method with absorbable suture. Methods: Under general anesthesia bilateral external iliac arteries were partly obstructed (about 50%) with absorbable suture in ten dogs. Three months later angiography was performed to evaluate the arterial stricture degree. Results: Bilateral external iliac artery stenosis model was successfully established in eight dogs and the other two dogs died within two weeks after the procedure. Angiography performed three months after the procedure showed that the stricture degree of arterial lumen was (60.6±12.5)%. Conclusion: Satisfactory experimental canine model of bilateral external iliac artery stenosis can be established by surgical method with absorbable suture. This method can be used for reference when peripheral artery stenosis model is to be prepared in larger animals. (authors)

  18. A convivência com a hipertensão arterial Coping with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edlene Loureiro Aceti Goes

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Estudo exploratório desenvolvido junto a 50 indivíduos hipertensos, com o objetivo de conhecer como eles percebem sua convivência com a hipertensão arterial. Os dados foram coletados através de entrevista semi-estruturada e os resultados revelaram que 40% deles se conheciam como hipertensos há mais de 10 anos e que 30% não apresentavam nenhum sintoma, por ocasião do diagnóstico. Grande parte percebe a hipertensão como uma doença que provoca preocupação, medo e revolta, sendo que mais da metade faz uma avaliação negativa de suas vidas após o diagnóstico. As mudanças sentidas com maior pesar estão relacionadas à limitação ao trabalho e a dificuldades financeirasThis is an exploratory study with 50 hypertensive individuals aiming to know how they perceive and cope with arterial hypertension. Data collected by an interview revealed that 40% of them have realized their hypertension conditions for over ten years and 30% had no symptom of the disease while diagnosis process. Most of them think that the arterial hypertension is a disease that requires concern, fear and revolt. The majority has a negative evaluation of life after the hypertension diagnosis. According to the hypertensive individuals, their largest difficulties are related to work limitation and financial problems

  19. Basilar artery angulation and vertigo due to the hemodynamic effect of dominant vertebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Murat; Yaman, Mehmet; Eser, Olcay; Songur, Ahmet; Ozen, Oguz A

    2008-01-01

    Vertebral arteries form the basilar artery at the pontobulbar junction. The vertebral artery may have dominancy in one of them. The branches of basilar arteries supply blood for the vestibular nuclei and its connections. Vertigo is seen generally in the upper middle aged patients. Vertigo can be observed in dolichoectasia of basilar artery such as angulation and elongation, because of the diminished blood supply and changed hemodynamic factors of vestibular nuclei and its connections. We hypothesized that angulation or elongation of basilar artery can be estimated according to the unilateral vertebral artery dominant hypertensive patients. The basilar artery can angulate from the dominant side of vertebral artery to the recessive side. These angulation and elongation can effect the hemodynamic factors in absence of growing collateral arteries. So, the vertigo attacks may occur in these patients.

  20. A pressão arterial está sendo medida? Is the blood pressure being measured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora C. Alavarce

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A medida da pressão arterial faz parte do exame físico e deve ser realizada em toda consulta médica. Para avaliar se a pressão arterial é medida nas consultas médicas, foram consultados 500 prontuários de pacientes de primeira consulta ambulatorial, sendo 335 (67% provenientes de clínicas médicas e cirúrgicas e 165 (33% das clínicas ginecológica e obstétrica. A pressão arterial foi anotada em 39% das consultas realizadas (135±32/85±19 mm Hg, sendo que em 11% destas anotações a pressão diastólica estava acima de 90 mm Hg. Em relação ao diagnóstico prévio de hipertensão arterial verificou-se que: a em 62% dos prontuários não havia esta informação; b 20% referiram ter hipertensão, e em 79% destes a pressão arterial foi anotada; e c 18% referiram não ter hipertensão e 46% destes tiveram registro da pressão arterial. Portanto, a maior parte dos pacientes não teve sua pressão arterial anotada.The blood pressure measure is part of the physical exam and it should be accomplished in every medical consultation. To verify the blood pressure measured in the accomplished medical consultations record of first they were consulted it consults 500 patient's ambulatorial being 335 (67% coming of medical and surgical clinics and 165 (33% of the gynecological and obstetric clinics. The blood pressure was written down in 39% of the accomplished consultations (135+32 mm Hg 85+19 mm Hg, and 11% of this annotations the pressure diastólica was above 90 mm Hg. In relation to the previous diagnosis of hypertension it was verified that: a in 62% of the records there was not this information; b 20% referred to have hypertension, and in 79% of these the arterial pressure was scored; and c 18% referred not to have hypertension and 46% of these had registration of the arterial pressure. Therefore, most of the patients didn't have its logged arterial pressure.

  1. Irregular Warfare: Brazil’s Fight Against Criminal Urban Guerrillas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    reflex action on the part of the urban guerrilla. To learn how to shoot and have good aim, the urban guerrilla must train himself systematically, uti ... pharmacist , or who simply has had first-aid training is a necessity in modern guerrilla struggles. A small manual of first aid for urban guerrillas, 76 JSOU

  2. : Urban design, urban project, urban art, urban composition ... a question of vocabulary?

    OpenAIRE

    Pinson , Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Actes à paraître; International audience; The term "urbanism" of Pierre Clerget (1910) put the mess in the practice and the formations in France. Urban planning is thus, on the academic level, a coexistence of disciplinary approaches, which does not help to a multidisciplinary urban training. Thinking about "urban design", after beautifull city, urban composition, or alongside the urban project and other territorial approaches can help to see more clearly in town planning.; Le terme « urbanis...

  3. Detection of renal arteries with fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tello, R.; Mitchell, P.J.; Witte, D.J.; Thomson, K.R. [University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC (Australia). Department of Radiology

    1998-08-01

    With the increasing use of non-invasive imaging with MR and volumetric CT to evaluate renal arteries, the ability to accurately detect the number and state of native renal arteries becomes critical if conventional angiography is to be supplanted in these settings. The present study evaluated the utility of a fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted sequence to detect the number and course of renal arteries and their ostia compared to conventional angiography. Ten patients underwent conventional catheter angiography either for renal artery stenosis evaluation or as potential renal donors. Each patient then had an MR study of the renal arteries and kidneys with FSE MR (TR = 4000 ms, TE = 102 ms, eight- echo train length, 5-mm-thick interleaved 128 phase encodes, superior and inferior saturation pulses, number of excitations (NEX) = 4, on a 1.5-T superconducting magnet). Images were reviewed by two `blinded` radiologists and renal arteries were counted and their ostia were evaluated. Results were compared with angiography and inter- and intra-observer statistics were calculated. All 10 patients underwent MR successfully, nine for renal artery stenosis (RAS) evaluation and one was a renal donor. A total of 24 renal arteries were imaged in 19 kidneys. Fast spin-echo MR is 95% accurate (95%CI: 88-100%) in detection of renal arteries, with no statistical difference between FSE MR and catheter angiography (McNemar P = 0.0). Inter- and intra-observer statistics demonstrate good-to-excellent agreement in renal artery detection (kappa: 0.63-0.90). In one case of RAS evaluation an incidental adrenal mass was detected as the aetiology of the patient`s hypertension. Fast spin-echo MR can be a useful adjunct as part of the imaging for renal arteries with MRI. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 16 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Detection of renal arteries with fast spin-echo magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tello, R.; Mitchell, P.J.; Witte, D.J.; Thomson, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of non-invasive imaging with MR and volumetric CT to evaluate renal arteries, the ability to accurately detect the number and state of native renal arteries becomes critical if conventional angiography is to be supplanted in these settings. The present study evaluated the utility of a fast spin-echo (FSE) T2-weighted sequence to detect the number and course of renal arteries and their ostia compared to conventional angiography. Ten patients underwent conventional catheter angiography either for renal artery stenosis evaluation or as potential renal donors. Each patient then had an MR study of the renal arteries and kidneys with FSE MR (TR = 4000 ms, TE = 102 ms, eight- echo train length, 5-mm-thick interleaved 128 phase encodes, superior and inferior saturation pulses, number of excitations (NEX) = 4, on a 1.5-T superconducting magnet. Images were reviewed by two 'blinded' radiologists and renal arteries were counted and their ostia were evaluated. Results were compared with angiography and inter- and intra-observer statistics were calculated. All 10 patients underwent MR successfully, nine for renal artery stenosis (RAS) evaluation and one was a renal donor. A total of 24 renal arteries were imaged in 19 kidneys. Fast spin-echo MR is 95% accurate (95%CI: 88-100%) in detection of renal arteries, with no statistical difference between FSE MR and catheter angiography (McNemar P = 0.0). Inter- and intra-observer statistics demonstrate good-to-excellent agreement in renal artery detection (kappa: 0.63-0.90). In one case of RAS evaluation an incidental adrenal mass was detected as the aetiology of the patient's hypertension. Fast spin-echo MR can be a useful adjunct as part of the imaging for renal arteries with MRI. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  5. Endovascular rescue from arterial rupture and thrombosis during middle cerebral artery stenting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J.Y.; Chung, Y.S. [Department of Neurosurgery, College of Medicine, Pundang CHA Hospital, 351 Yatap-ding, Pundang-gu, 463-712, Sungnam (Korea); Lee, B.H. [Department of Interventional Neuroradiology, College of Medicine, Pundang CHA Hospital, 351 Yatap-dong, Pundang-gu, 463-712, Sungnam (Korea); Kim, O.J. [Department of Emergency Medicine, College of Medicine, Pundang CHA Hospital, 351 Yatap-dong, Pundang-gu, 463-712, Sungnam (Korea)

    2003-08-01

    Intravascular stents are being used with increasing frequency in interventional neuroradiology. Iatrogenic arterial rupture is an uncommon but serious complication. We present a case of arterial rupture and subarachnoid haemorrhage during middle cerebral artery stenting, treated by emergency additional, overlapping stenting and balloon tamponade of the dissected vessel. Thrombotic occlusion of the artery was managed by intra-arterial abciximab. Normal vessel patency was re-established within 20 min and the patient recovered with no neurological deficit. (orig.)

  6. Preserving the Modernist Vertical Urban Factory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Rappaport

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is adapted in part, from the section, “Modern Factory Architecture” case studies from Nina Rappaport’s book Vertical Urban Factory, published by Actar this spring. Vertical Urban Factory began as an architecture studio, and then an exhibition, which opened in New York in 2011 and traveled to Detroit and Toronto in 2012. Last year the show was displayed at Archizoom at EPFL in Lausanne; Industry City, Brooklyn; and the Charles Moore School of Architecture at Kean University, in New Jersey. The project continues as a think tank evaluating factory futures and urban industrial potential.

  7. Urban Mass Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervine, K. E.

    This bibliography is part of a series of Environmental Resource Packets prepared under a grant from EXXON Education Foundation. The most authoritative and accessible references in the urban transportation field are reviewed. The authors, publisher, point of view, level, and summary are given for each reference. The references are categorized…

  8. Arterial stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Quinn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of biomechanical properties of arteries have become an important surrogate outcome used in epidemiological and interventional cardiovascular research. Structural and functional differences of vessels in the arterial tree result in a dampening of pulsatility and smoothing of blood flow as it progresses to capillary level. A loss of arterial elastic properties results a range of linked pathophysiological changes within the circulation including increased pulse pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, subendocardial ischaemia, vessel endothelial dysfunction and cardiac fibrosis. With increased arterial stiffness, the microvasculature of brain and kidneys are exposed to wider pressure fluctuations and may lead to increased risk of stroke and renal failure. Stiffening of the aorta, as measured by the gold-standard technique of aortic Pulse Wave Velocity (aPWV, is independently associated with adverse cardiovascular outcomes across many different patient groups and in the general population. Therefore, use of aPWV has been proposed for early detection of vascular damage and individual cardiovascular risk evaluation and it seems certain that measurement of arterial stiffness will become increasingly important in future clinical care. In this review we will consider some of the pathophysiological processes that result from arterial stiffening, how it is measured and factors that may drive it as well as potential avenues for therapy. In the face of an ageing population where mortality from atheromatous cardiovascular disease is falling, pathology associated with arterial stiffening will assume ever greater importance. Therefore, understanding these concepts for all clinicians involved in care of patients with cardiovascular disease will become vital.

  9. A Rare Case of Pulmonary Artery Sling with the VACTERL Association in a 20-Month-Old Infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandi, Yazdan; Shafiee, Akbar; Sharifi, Mehrazad; Bolandnazar, Najmeh Sadat

    2017-07-01

    The VACTERL association, co-occurrence of vertebral, anorectal, cardiac, tracheoesophageal, genitourinary, and limb malformations, is a rare congenital anomaly. Several cardiac anomalies have been reported as a part of the VACTERL association, particularly ventricular and atrial septal defects. Pulmonary artery sling is a rare congenital abnormality in which the left pulmonary artery arises from the right pulmonary artery. This anomaly is not frequently observed in the VACTERL association and has been rarely reported. A 20-month-old girl was admitted to our hospital due to pneumonia in the right lung, which had pulmonary artery sling as a part of the VACTERL association. Barium meal X-ray showed pressure effects on the esophagus, and computed tomography angiography revealed pulmonary artery sling. Pneumonia management was done. However, the parents of our patient refused to give consent for the surgical correction of this vascular anomaly. Three months after discharge from the hospital, the patient was visited, at which time the parents again refused surgery and treatment for their daughter despite our recommendations.

  10. Urban green infrastructure: The role of urban agriculture in city resilience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Panagopoulos

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies about the subject of cultivated land confirmed that it is the part of urban informal open space and the specific land using form in the city’s natural area. It has ecological, cultural, social and socio-economic value and help to achieve more sustainable urban forms. The European practice shows that the functions of allotments are changing in the city development process from the producing to the function of traditional city greenery which does not demand the city’s budget money. The moving of population into cities drives increasing demands for residential buildings and other urban built up land. From the city planning point of view it is convenient to develop the allotment territories which usually are located near the city centre and has appropriate infrastructure. However the allotments are very popular among the unprosperous people and elders because of contact with the nature and some economic benefits from cultivating the land. Studies show that the complex metropolitan systems cannot be managed by a single set of top-down governmental policies; instead, they require the coordinated action of multiple independent players operating under locally diverse biophysical conditions and constraints, constantly adjusting their behaviour to maintain an optimal balance between human and ecological functions. The increase in urban agriculture in many European cities has been part of a response to a sense of a global crisis, attesting to the resilience of the people living in cities. However, the citizens involved have much to gain from municipal intervention, which can provide and operate some important for agriculture communal infrastructures and define a set of rules. The municipality is also in an ideal position to design and apply a comprehensive strategy for its territory. In conclusion, municipal intervention is instrumental for urban agriculture and for the city’s resilience because is as a vital source of food and occupation in

  11. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) of supra-aortic arteries especially the internal carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachel, R.; Basche, S. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik); Heerklotz, I.; Grossmann, K. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Innere Medizin); Endler, S. (Medizinische Akademie, Erfurt (Germany, F.R.). Klinik fuer Neurologie und Psychiatrie)

    1991-06-01

    We present our experience with 105 patients in whom percutaneous transluminal angioplasty was performed in 112 stenosed or occluded supra-aortic arteries. Symtoms of cerebrovascular and/or vertebrobasilar insufficiency were present in 104 of the 105 patients. The angioplasty was successful in 35 stenoses of the internal carotid artery, 2 stenoses of the common carotid artery, 1 stenosis of the external carotid artery, 15 stenoses of the vertebral artery, 3 stenoses of the innominate artery and 44 stenoses of the subclavian artery. There were only 4 minor-complications (2 haematomas, 1 transient ischemic attack, 1 small thrombus of the internal carotid artery which was detected by 111-indium platelet scintigraphy and treated by thrombendarterectomy before the appearance of neurological symptoms). All patients were symptom free after angioplasty. During the observations period of 3 to 109 months (average 58 months) there were only two cases with re-stenosis after subclavian angioplasty. The results of more than 700 personal and international published percutaneous transluminal angioplasties of supra-aortic arteries are presented. The results suggest that angioplasty of supra-aortic arteries is an effective method. On strict definition of the indications, the complication rate for angioplasty of the supra-aortic arteries is not likely to be higher than that for operative treatment. (orig.).

  12. Contribution of household environment factors to urban Childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Contribution of household environment factors to urban Childhood mortality in Mozambique. ... Conclusion: Type of toilet facility and source of drinking water play an important role in the risk of childhood mortality in urban areas of Mozambique and the relationship seems to be mediated partly by demographic and ...

  13. From Seed to Table : Strengthening Urban Farmers' Organizational ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    From Seed to Table : Strengthening Urban Farmers' Organizational and Marketing Skills (Middle East and North Africa). RUAF (Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security) was established in 1999 in response to an expressed need on the part of organizations and local governments in the South for a ...

  14. Long-term facial artery catheter implantation for serial arterial blood sampling and invasive arterial blood pressure measurement in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Deborah Penteado Martins; Teixeira, Luisa Gouvêa; Canola, Paulo Aléscio; Albernaz, Raquel Mincarelli; Marques, José Antônio; Neto, José Corrêa de Lacerda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate surgical catheter implantation in the facial artery of horses and the long-term maintenance of such arteries using heparin and ascorbic acid as filling solution. Nine horses were implanted with a polyurethane catheter. The catheters were flushed with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution every 8h and remained patent for 25 days. Arterial blood samples were collected twice a day, and one exercise test that included serial blood samples and arterial pressure recordings was performed on a treadmill. Polyurethane catheters surgically implanted in the facial artery can be kept patent by filling with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution and provide convenient invasive arterial access in horses which is suitable for use for serial blood sampling and blood pressure recordings, even during exercise on treadmill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An anatomical study of variations in termination of brachial artery, with its embryological basis and clinical significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa T. K

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The brachial artery is the main artery of the arm. It begins as the continuation of 3rd part of axillary artery, at the level of inferior border of teres major muscle. It ends at the level of the neck of radius by dividing into radial and ulnar arteries. In the present study we found higher division of brachial artery at mid arm level into its terminal branches with superficial course of radial artery. The present study was done on 51 cadavers from our dept. of Anatomy. The upper limbs of the cadaver were dissected and observed for any variations in the branching pattern of brachial artery. In the present study, a total number of 51 cadaver’s, 102 upper limbs were studied. In one male cadaver we found bilateral higher division of brachial artery, trifurcation on left side and bifurcation on right side brachial artery, with superficial course of radial artery. The knowledge of variation in origin and course of brachial artery is useful for orthopaedicians, physicians, radiologist, vascular and plastic surgeons.

  16. Exploring the Use of ICTs in Learning and Disseminating Livestock Husbandry Knowledge to Urban and Peri-Urban Communities in Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Consolata

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the importance of various Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in learning and disseminating relevant information on livestock husbandry in Tanzania. The paper is part of a study that investigated the extent of use of ICTs by urban and peri-urban livestock keepers and how access and dissemination of livestock…

  17. Congenital coronary artery fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Yeon Hee; Kim, Hong; Zeon, Seoc Kil; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1986-01-01

    Congenital coronary artery fistula (CCAF) is communication of a coronary artery or its main branch with one of the atria or ventricles, the coronary sinus, the superior vena cava, or the pulmonary artery. In Korean peoples, only 4 cases of the CCAF were reported as rare as worldwide and authors want to report another case of CCAF, confirmed by operation. 10-year-old girl shows a fistula between sinus node artery of the right coronary artery and right atrium on root aortogram with left-to-right shunt and Qp/Qs=1.58, in which simple ligation of the sinus node artery from right coronary artery was performed. All of the 5 Korean CCAF (4 were previously reported and 1 of authors) were originated from right coronary artery, and of which 4 were opening into right ventricle and 1 of authors were into right atrium. Associated cardiac anomaly was noted in only 1 case as single coronary artery. Ages were from 9 months of age to 10 years old and no adult left case were found. 3 were female and 2 were male patients.

  18. Mechanobiology of LDL mass transport in the arterial wall under the effect of magnetic field, part I: Diffusion rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aminfar, Habib, E-mail: hh_aminfar@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadpourfard, Mousa, E-mail: Mohammadpour@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz 5166616471 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, Kosar, E-mail: k.khajeh.2005@tabrizu.ac.ir [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    It is well-known that the Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) can accumulate and penetrate into the arterial wall. Here, we have investigated the diffusion rate of macromolecules across the porous layer of blood vessel under the effects of magnetic force. By using a finite volume technique, it was found that magnetic field makes alterations in diffusion rate of LDLs, also surface concentration of macromolecules on the walls. As well, the influence of different value of Re and Sc number in the presence of a magnetic field have shown as nondimensional concentration profiles. Magnetic field considered as a body force, porous layer simulated by using Darcy's law and the blood regarded as nano fluid which was examined as a single phase model. - Highlights: • LDLs mass transfer across the arterial wall under magnetic field has simulated numerically. • Arterial wall assumed as a homogeneous porous layer by using Darcy's law. • Blood containing 4% Vol. Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} regarded as nanofluid and has examined by single phase model. • Magnetic field significantly affects the diffusion rate of LDLs through porous arterial wall.

  19. Arterial occlusion to treat basilar artery dissecting aneurysm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cui, Qing Ke; Liu, Wei Dong; Liu, Peng; Li, Xue Yuan; Zhang, Lian Qun; Ma, Long Jia; Ren, Yun Fei; Wu, Ya Ping; Wang, Zhi Gang

    2015-01-01

    Object: To explore the clinical feasibility of employing occlusion to treat basilar artery dissecting aneurysm. Methods: One patient, male and 46 years old, suffered transient numbness and weakness on the right limbs. Cerebral angiography indicated basilar artery dissecting aneurysm. The patient

  20. Spiral CT angiography (SCTA) study of celiac artery and superior mesenteric artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Zhenguo; Zhou Cunsheng; Xu Zuodong; Shi Hao; Wang Tao

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study the visualization capability and scanning technique of SCTA in celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and other branches. Methods: Thirty patients, with normal abdominal SCTA results, were given small injection test dose after plain scan. The abdominal aorta parallel to the body of pancreas was chosen as target vessel, the peak-time plus 2 seconds as the best delay scan time. Iodine contrast medium 90∼110 ml was injected into antecubital vein at the speed of 3.5 ml/s, then scan from cranial to caudal was performed. Pitch 1.0 and slice thickness 3.2 mm were selected as the scan parameters. Maximum intensity projection (MaxIP) was employed in all patients and shaded surface display (SSD) in 23 cases. Results: The display rate using MaxIP and SSD of celiac artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery, proper hepatic artery and SMA were all 100%, the gastroduodenal artery 100% and 91%, the left gastric artery 83% and 87%, respectively. Conclusions: SCTA as a minimally invasive examination is a valuable method to detect and diagnose disease or variations of celiac artery, its branches and SMA. Spiral scanning technique and image processing have a decisive effect on the image quality

  1. Future Directions for Urban Forestry Research in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Dwyer; David J. Nowak; Gary W. Watson

    2002-01-01

    Urban forestry research promises to continue to be an integral part of the growth and development of forestry in urban and urbanizing areas of the United States. The future is expected to bring increased emphasis on research in support of the care of trees and other plants, ecological restoration, and comprehensive and adaptive management across the landscape....

  2. Avaliação de fatores de risco associados com elevação da pressão arterial em crianças Evaluation of risk factors associated with increased blood pressure in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico D Garcia

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Identificar fatores associados a níveis elevados de pressão arterial em crianças. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal da pressão arterial de 672 crianças entre 2 e 11 anos de idade em duas instituições de ensino de Belo Horizonte, entre setembro e dezembro de 2001. A pressão arterial foi mensurada seguindo os parâmetros estabelecidos pelo relatório do Update on the 1987 Task Force Report on High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents. As seguintes variáveis foram estudadas: idade, sexo, cor da pele, índice de qualidade de vida urbana, estatura e índice de massa corporal. Para a comparação das médias, foi utilizada a análise de variância, e para a comparação de proporções, o teste qui-quadrado. As variáveis associadas a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial foram incluídas em análise de regressão linear múltipla. RESULTADOS: Na análise univariada, níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica estiveram associados com crianças de cor branca, crianças da região com alto índice de qualidade de vida urbana e com elevado índice de massa corporal. Na análise multivariada, apenas o índice de massa corporal, o índice de qualidade de vida urbana e a estatura mantiveram-se associados com níveis elevados de pressão sistólica. Em relação aos níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial diastólica, apenas as variáveis índice de qualidade de vida urbana e idade foram mantidas no modelo após o ajustamento. CONCLUSÃO: O sobrepeso e a obesidade estiveram associados com níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial sistólica. Outros fatores, não identificados, foram parcialmente associados a níveis mais elevados de pressão arterial de crianças do estabelecimento privado do ensino.OBJECTIVE: To identify factors associated with increased arterial blood pressure in children. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, arterial blood pressure was measured in 672 children between 2 and 11

  3. Anatomical relation between S1 sacroiliac screws' entrance points and superior gluteal artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; You, Libo; Lian, Wei; Zou, Dexin; Dong, Shengjie; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Shudong; Wang, Dan; Li, Jingning; Li, Wenliang; Zhao, Yuchi

    2018-01-18

    To conduct radiologic anatomical study on the relation between S1 sacroiliac screws' entry points and the route of the pelvic outer superior gluteal artery branches with the aim to provide the anatomical basis and technical reference for the avoidance of damage to the superior gluteal artery during the horizontal sacroiliac screw placement. Superior gluteal artery CTA (CT angiography) vascular imaging of 74 healthy adults (37 women and 37 men) was done with 128-slice spiral CT (computed tomography). The CT attendant-measuring software was used to portray the "safe bony entrance area" (hereinafter referred to as "Safe Area") of the S1 segment in the standard lateral pelvic view of three-dimensional reconstruction. The anatomical relation between S1 sacroiliac screws' Safe Area and the pelvic outer superior gluteal artery branches was observed and recorded. The number of cases in which artery branches intersected the Safe Area was counted. The cases in which superior gluteal artery branches disjointed from the Safe Area were identified, and the shortest distance between the Safe Area and the superior gluteal artery branch closest to the Safe Area was measured. Three cases out of the 74 sample cases were excluded from this study as they were found to have no bony space for horizontal screw placement in S1 segment. Among the remaining 71 sample cases, there are 32 cases (45.1%) where the deep superior branch of superior gluteal artery passes through the Safe Area of S1 entrance point. There was no distinguishing feature and rule on how the deep superior branches and the Safe Area overlapped. In the 39 cases in which superior gluteal artery branches disjointed from the Safe Area, the deep superior branches of superior gluteal artery were the branches closest to the Safe Area and the part of the branch closest to the Safe Area was located in front of the widest part of the Safe Area. The shortest distance between the deep superior branch and the Safe Area is 0.86

  4. Calculation of arterial wall temperature in atherosclerotic arteries: effect of pulsatile flow, arterial geometry, and plaque structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Taehong

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents calculations of the temperature distribution in an atherosclerotic plaque experiencing an inflammatory process; it analyzes the presence of hot spots in the plaque region and their relationship to blood flow, arterial geometry, and inflammatory cell distribution. Determination of the plaque temperature has become an important topic because plaques showing a temperature inhomogeneity have a higher likelihood of rupture. As a result, monitoring plaque temperature and knowing the factors affecting it can help in the prevention of sudden rupture. Methods The transient temperature profile in inflamed atherosclerotic plaques is calculated by solving an energy equation and the Navier-Stokes equations in 2D idealized arterial models of a bending artery and an arterial bifurcation. For obtaining the numerical solution, the commercial package COMSOL 3.2 was used. The calculations correspond to a parametric study where arterial type and size, as well as plaque geometry and composition, are varied. These calculations are used to analyze the contribution of different factors affecting arterial wall temperature measurements. The main factors considered are the metabolic heat production of inflammatory cells, atherosclerotic plaque length lp, inflammatory cell layer length lmp, and inflammatory cell layer thickness dmp. Results The calculations indicate that the best location to perform the temperature measurement is at the back region of the plaque (0.5 ≤ l/lp ≤ 0.7. The location of the maximum temperature, or hot spot, at the plaque surface can move during the cardiac cycle depending on the arterial geometry and is a direct result of the blood flow pattern. For the bending artery, the hot spot moves 0.6 millimeters along the longitudinal direction; for the arterial bifurcation, the hot spot is concentrated at a single location due to the flow recirculation observed at both ends of the plaque. Focusing on the

  5. Depression and Anxiety following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: Current Indian Scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprakash Chaudhury

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of coronary artery disease among the Indian Population. Due to increasing availability and affordability of tertiary care in many parts of India, carefully selected patients undergo coronary artery bypass surgery to improve cardiac function. However, the procedure is commonly associated with depression and anxiety which can adversely affect overall prognosis. The objective of this review is to highlight early identifiable symptoms of depression and anxiety following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG in Indian context so as to facilitate prompt intervention for better outcome. The current review was able to establish firm evidence in support of screening for depression and anxiety following CABG. Management of depression and anxiety following CABG is briefly reviewed.

  6. Quantifying the Driving Forces of Informal Urbanization in the Western Part of the Greater Cairo Metropolitan Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taher Osman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the driving forces (DFs of informal urbanization (IU in the greater Cairo metropolitan region (GCMR using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP. The IU patterns in the GCMR have been extremely influenced by seven DFs: geographical characteristics, availability of life facilities, economic incentives, land demand and supply, population increase, administrative function, and development plans. This research found that these forces vary significantly in how they influence urban growth in the three study sectors, namely, the middle, north, and south areas in the western part of the GCMR. The forces with the highest influence were economic incentives in the middle sector, population increase in the north sector, and the administrative function in the south sector. Due to the lower availability of buildable land in the middle sector, the land demand and supply force had a lesser influence in this sector compared to in the north and south sectors. The development plans force had medium influence in all sectors. The geographical characteristics force had little influence in both the middle and the north sectors, but higher influence than economic incentives, availability of life facilities, and development plans in the south sector. Because of the spatial variances in life facilities organizations in the GCMR, the life facilities availability force had little effect on IU in the south sector.

  7. Dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound and transient arterial occlusion for quantification of arterial perfusion reserve in peripheral arterial disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amarteifio, E.; Wormsbecher, S.; Krix, M.; Demirel, S.; Braun, S.; Delorme, S.; Böckler, D.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Weber, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To quantify muscular micro-perfusion and arterial perfusion reserve in peripheral arterial disease (PAD) with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) and transient arterial occlusion. Materials and methods: This study had local institutional review board approval and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects. We examined the dominant lower leg of 40 PAD Fontaine stage IIb patients (mean age, 65 years) and 40 healthy volunteers (mean age, 54 years) with CEUS (7 MHz; MI, 0.28) during continuous intravenous infusion of 4.8 mL microbubbles. Transient arterial occlusion at mid-thigh level simulated physical exercise. With time–CEUS–intensity curves obtained from regions of interest within calf muscles, we derived the maximum CEUS signal after occlusion (max) and its time (t max ), slope to maximum (m), vascular response after occlusion (AUC post ), and analysed accuracy, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, and correlations with ankle-brachial index (ABI) and walking distance. Results: All parameters differed in PAD and volunteers (p max was delayed (31.2 ± 13.6 vs. 16.7 ± 8.5 s, p post as optimal parameter combination for diagnosing PAD and therefore impaired arterial perfusion reserve. Conclusions: Dynamic CEUS with transient arterial occlusion quantifies muscular micro-perfusion and arterial perfusion reserve. The technique is accurate to diagnose PAD.

  8. Urban rivers - the principle of immissions as a new planning strategy in urban drainage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittenberg, D.

    1992-01-01

    A new planning strategy for urban drainage systems is developed and applicated on two case studies. The concept is basing on the idea of inclusion of water quality aspects of the receiving systems as limiting values into planning guidelines. As a new instrument for the execution of this immission oriented planning a hydrodynamic water quality model for urban rivers is developed in the central part of the treatise. Two case studies are used for the application of the immission oriented planning strategy. As a main result from these applications it is easily to be seen that the inclusion of water quality aspects into the main standards for dimensioning and construction of sewer systems and treatment plants leads to a better protection of water quality in urban waters. A set up of the principle of immissions unconditionally requires a new definition of several normally used official standards for urban drainage systems. (orig.) [de

  9. Environment, urban poverty and scavenging: review of relationship and its effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamhuri Siwar; Amzad Hossain; Norshamleeda Chamhuri

    2001-01-01

    Urban poverty and environment is interrelated to each other. Environmental degradation is a crucial factor for urban poverty and vice-versa. The generation of solid waste all over the world has reached an alarming proportion and constitutes one of the world's greatest sources of environmental degradation (fagan, 1974). Solid waste is one of the three major environmental problems faced by municipalities in Malaysia (World Bank, 1993) which is one of the major cause or contributor to urban poverty. However, urban solid waste consists of two strata such as source of environmental degradation and income generating agents for urban poor scavengers. In Malaysia, full-time and part-time scavengers are recycling 6% of total generated residential solid waste in some selected areas other wise its emitted or disposed to the environment. On the other hand, by doing this work full-time scavengers are earning wages of RM750 per month which is equal to that of the majority of Third world urbanities; part-time scavengers are earning 33% of their daily income. This paper discusses a theoretical framework of the relationship of environment and urban poverty. Policies, issues and some case studies of scavenging as a means of urban poverty reduction and environmental improvements of sustainable urban development are also explored. (Author)

  10. Can green roofs reduce urban heat stress in vulnerable urban communities: A coupled atmospheric and social modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A.; Woodruff, S.; Budhathoki, M.; Hamlet, A. F.; Fernando, H. J. S.; Chen, F.

    2017-12-01

    Urban areas provide organized, engineered, sociological and economical infrastructure designed to provide a high quality of life, but the implementation and management of urban infrastructure has been a continued challenge. Increasing urbanization, warming climate, as well as anthropogenic heat emissions that accompany urban development generates "stress". This rapidly increasing `urban stress' affects the sustainability of cities, making populations more vulnerable to extreme hazards, such as heat. Cities are beginning to extensively use green roofs as a potential urban heat mitigation strategy. This study explores the potential of green roofs to reduce summertime temperatures in the most vulnerable neighborhoods of the Chicago metropolitan area by combining social vulnerability indices (a function of exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity), and temperatures from mesoscale model. Numerical simulations using urbanized version the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model were performed to measure rooftop temperatures, a representative variable for exposure in this study. The WRF simulations were dynamically coupled with a green roof algorithm as a part of urban parameterization within WRF. Specifically, the study examines roof surface temperature with changing green roof fractions and how would they help reduce exposure to heat stress for vulnerable urban communities. This study shows an example of applied research that can directly benefit urban communities and be used by urban planners to evaluate mitigation strategies.

  11. Applicability of models to estimate traffic noise for urban roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ricardo A; Pimentel, Roberto L; Lacerda, Diego M; Silva, Wekisley M

    2015-01-01

    Traffic noise is a highly relevant environmental impact in cities. Models to estimate traffic noise, in turn, can be useful tools to guide mitigation measures. In this paper, the applicability of models to estimate noise levels produced by a continuous flow of vehicles on urban roads is investigated. The aim is to identify which models are more appropriate to estimate traffic noise in urban areas since several models available were conceived to estimate noise from highway traffic. First, measurements of traffic noise, vehicle count and speed were carried out in five arterial urban roads of a brazilian city. Together with geometric measurements of width of lanes and distance from noise meter to lanes, these data were input in several models to estimate traffic noise. The predicted noise levels were then compared to the respective measured counterparts for each road investigated. In addition, a chart showing mean differences in noise between estimations and measurements is presented, to evaluate the overall performance of the models. Measured Leq values varied from 69 to 79 dB(A) for traffic flows varying from 1618 to 5220 vehicles/h. Mean noise level differences between estimations and measurements for all urban roads investigated ranged from -3.5 to 5.5 dB(A). According to the results, deficiencies of some models are discussed while other models are identified as applicable to noise estimations on urban roads in a condition of continuous flow. Key issues to apply such models to urban roads are highlighted.

  12. Socioeconomic, Rural-Urban, and Racial Inequalities in US Cancer Mortality: Part I-All Cancers and Lung Cancer and Part II-Colorectal, Prostate, Breast, and Cervical Cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, K. G.; Williams, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    We analyzed socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial inequalities in US mortality from all cancers, lung, colorectal, prostate, breast, and cervical cancers. A deprivation index and rural-urban continuum were linked to the 2003-2007 county-level mortality data. Mortality rates and risk ratios were calculated for each socioeconomic, rural-urban, and racial group. Weighted linear regression yielded relative impacts of deprivation and rural-urban residence. Those in more deprived groups and rural areas had higher cancer mortality than more affluent and urban residents, with excess risk being marked for lung, colorectal, prostate, and cervical cancers. Deprivation and rural-urban continuum were independently related to cancer mortality, with deprivation showing stronger impacts. Socioeconomic inequalities existed for both whites and blacks, with blacks experiencing higher mortality from each cancer than whites within each deprivation group. Socioeconomic gradients in mortality were steeper in nonmetropolitanlitan areas. Mortality disparities may reflect inequalities in smoking and other cancer-risk factors, screening, and treatment

  13. Venous digital subtraction angiography for diagnosis of renal artery stenosis in arterial hypertony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoerner, W.; Kempter, H.; Banzer, D.; Aviles, C.; Weiss, T.; Felix, R.

    1984-01-01

    Venous digital subtraction angiography was performed in 248 patients for the diagnosis of renal arterial stenosis. In 88% of the investigations the stenosis could be found. Comparison of digital angiography and conventional angiography was made for 57 renal arteries (25 investigations). In 52 renal arteries we found the same results with both methods, in 5 renal arteries we found the same results with both methods, in 5 renal arteries the digital angiography showed false positive results. The spatial resolution of digital subtraction angiography is sufficient for the correct diagnosis of significant renal arterial stenosis. With regard to the lower invasion of digital subtraction angiography compared to conventional angiography the first method should be used for clarification of renal arterial hypertension. (orig.)

  14. Urban heat island research of Novi Sad (Serbia: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of the 20th century, urbanization accelerated and reached enormous magnitude, which results more and more people live in urbanized regions. Nowadays, about half of the human population is affected by the burdens of urban environments and furthermore the modified parameters of the urban atmosphere compared to the natural environment. Novi Sad (45°15’N, 19°50’E is located in the northern part of Serbia, i.e. on the southern part of the Pannonian Plain and it is the second largest city in the country with a population of about 320,000 in a built-up area of approximately 80 km2. The geographical area is plain, from 80 to 86 m a.s.l., with a gentle relief, so its climate is free from orographic effects. According to Köppen-Geiger climate classification, this region is categorised as Cfa climate (temperate warm climate with a rather uniform annual distribution of precipitation. In the last 20 years, a few papers have been published considering urban heat island (UHI investigations of Novi Sad. The first publication in 1994 is theoretically based and presents all parameters, methods and measurements, which have to be used in order to work on UHI research of Novi Sad. The next studies from 1995 and 2006 analyzed various temperature parameters based on 30-40 year long time series and used rural and urban stations in order to get urban-rural temperature differences. Based on meteorological parameters and the structure of urban area, in 2010 the necessity of defining locations of an urban climate network was showed in order to advance further UHI research. In the last two publications from 2011 a new empirical modeling method, adjusted for cities located on plains, has been used in order to determine locations for representative stations of an urban climate network in Novi Sad.

  15. Myocardial infarction in Québec rural and urban populations between 1995 and 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loslier, Julie; Vanasse, Alain; Niyonsenga, Théophile; Courteau, Josiane; Orzanco, Gabriela; Hemiari, Abbas

    2007-01-01

    There is abundant evidence of health inequities between urban and rural populations. The purpose of this paper is to describe the socioeconomic characteristics of Québec urban and rural populations and the relation between rurality and incidence of myocardial infarction (MI), care management and outcomes. Socioeconomic data by census subdivisions were available from the 1996 Canadian census, representing 7,137,245 individuals. Data on patients with MI were taken from the provincial administrative health database (MED-ECHO), which is managed by the Ministry of Health and contains clinical and demographic information collected when patients are released from acute care hospitals in Québec. We included a total of 37,678 cases compiled over the 3 years of follow-up in the analyses. Residents of rural areas with low urban influence have higher MI incidence rates than all of the other populations in the study. In comparison with urban populations, their observed rural counterparts are at a disadvantage with regard to education, employment and income. Although angioplasty and coronary artery bypass graft surgery rates were higher in more urban areas, the survival rate was lower than in rural areas. This study revealed geographic heterogeneity of MI incidence, revascularization rates and survival rates among urban and rural populations.

  16. A case of radiation necrosis with vascular changes on main cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yasuhiko; Okada, Hitoshi; Mineura, Katsuyoshi; Kodama, Namio

    1982-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman had received radiotherapy, following surgery of a chromophobe putuitary adenoma. Six years after irradiation she began to complain of headache and dementia. Right vertebrogram demonstrated a right temporal mass lesion, stenosis and dilatation of middle cerebral artery and posterior communicating artery in the field of irradiation. CT scan showed the irregular low density area at the right temporal region, and the irregular enhancement after an intravenous injection of contrast medium was seen at the small part of affected area. From these findings, radiation necrosis at the right temporal lobe was diagnosed. As vascular changes of the main cerebral arteries due to radiation are rare, we discussed on them from ever reported literature. (author)

  17. Understanding Urban Regeneration in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candas, E.; Flacke, J.; Yomralioglu, T.

    2016-06-01

    In Turkey, rapid population growth, informal settlements, and buildings and infrastructures vulnerable to natural hazards are seen as the most important problems of cities. Particularly disaster risk cannot be disregarded, as large parts of various cities are facing risks from earthquakes, floods and landslides and have experienced loss of lives in the recent past. Urban regeneration is an important planning tool implemented by local and central governments in order to reduce to disaster risk and to design livable environments for the citizens. The Law on the Regeneration of Areas under Disaster Risk, commonly known as the Urban Regeneration Law, was enacted in 2012 (Law No.6306, May 2012). The regulation on Implementation of Law No. 6306 explains the fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process. The relevant institutions furnished with various authorities such as expropriation, confiscation and changing the type and place of your property which makes urban regeneration projects very important in terms of property rights. Therefore, urban regeneration projects have to be transparent, comprehensible and acceptable for all actors in the projects. In order to understand the urban regeneration process, the legislation and projects of different municipalities in Istanbul have been analyzed. While some steps of it are spatial data demanding, others relate to land values. In this paper an overview of the urban regeneration history and activities in Turkey is given. Fundamental steps of the urban regeneration process are defined, and particularly spatial-data demanding steps are identified.

  18. Urban Green Infrastructure: German Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Olegovna Dushkova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a concept of urban green infrastructure and analyzes the features of its implementation in the urban development programmes of German cities. We analyzed the most shared articles devoted to the urban green infrastructure to see different approaches to definition of this term. It is based on materials of field research in the cities of Berlin and Leipzig in 2014-2015, international and national scientific publications. During the process of preparing the paper, consultations have been held with experts from scientific institutions and Administrations of Berlin and Leipzig as well as local experts from environmental organizations of both cities. Using the German cities of Berlin and Leipzig as examples, this paper identifies how the concept can be implemented in the program of urban development. It presents the main elements of green city model, which include mitigation of negative anthropogenic impact on the environment under the framework of urban sustainable development. Essential part of it is a complex ecological policy as a major necessary tool for the implementation of the green urban infrastructure concept. This ecological policy should embody not only some ecological measurements, but also a greening of all urban infrastructure elements as well as implementation of sustainable living with a greater awareness of the resources, which are used in everyday life, and development of environmental thinking among urban citizens. Urban green infrastructure is a unity of four main components: green building, green transportation, eco-friendly waste management, green transport routes and ecological corridors. Experience in the development of urban green infrastructure in Germany can be useful to improve the environmental situation in Russian cities.

  19. Imaging of Dual Ophthalmic Arteries: Identification of the Central Retinal Artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Louw

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the origin of the central retinal artery (CRA is imperative in tailoring angiographic studies to resolve a given clinical problem. A case with dual ophthalmic arteries (OAs, characterized by different origins and distinct branching patterns, is documented for training purposes. Pre-clinical diagnosis of a 9-year-old child who presented with a sharp wire in the left-side eyeball was primarily corneal laceration. For imaging, a selected six-vessel angiographic study with the transfemoral approach was performed. Embolization was not required and the wire could be successfully removed. Right-side OA anatomy was normal, while left-side dual OAs with external carotid artery (ECA and internal carotid artery (ICA origins were seen. The case presented with a left-side meningo-ophthalmic artery (M-OA anomaly via the ECA, marked by a middle meningeal artery (MMA (origin: Maxillary artery; course: Through foramen spinosum with normal branches (i.e. anterior and posterior branches, and an OA variant (course: Through superior orbital fissure with a distinct orbital branching pattern. A smaller OA (origin: ICA; course: Through optic foramen with a distinct ocular branching pattern presented with the central retinal artery (CRA. The presence of the dual OAs and the M-OA anomaly can be explained by disturbed evolutionary changes of the primitive OA and stapedial artery during development. The surgical interventionist must be aware of dual OAs and M-OA anomalies with branching pattern variations on retinal supply, because of dangerous extracranial-intracranial anastomotic connections. It is of clinical significance that the origin of the CRA from the ICA or ECA must be determined to avoid complications to the vision.

  20. Thrombin Avtivable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor in Venous and Arterial Thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.L.E. de Bruijne

    2011-01-01

    textabstractVenous and arterial thromboses are major causes of morbidity and mortality. Venous thrombosis is the result of pathological occlusive clot formation in the veins. It occurs mainly in the deep veins of the leg (deep vein thrombosis), from which parts of the clot frequently embolize to the

  1. Urban Floods Adaptation and Sustainable Drainage Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena M. Ramos

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is crucial to the urban zones, especially related to the water management, which is vulnerable to flood occurrence. This research applies the procedure contemplated by the Soil Conservation Service (SCS to determine the generated volumes when the impervious areas can exceed the drainage capacity of existing pluvial water networks. Several computational simulations were developed for the current scenario of an existing basin in Lisbon. Using CivilStorm software from Bentley Systems (Bentley EMEA, Bentley Systems International Limited, Dublin, Ireland, it enabled the evaluation of the volumes of flood peaks and the hydraulic behavior of a small hydrographic basin in the continuation of an urbanization process, considering the modification of its superficial impervious parts and the growth of the urbanized area. Several measures are suggested to solve the limited capacity of the existing drainage system. This study analyzes the efficiency of the application of constructive measures, pondering the viability of their effectiveness, individually and combined. The option that best minimizes the effects of the urbanization is the combination of different structural measures, in particular retention ponds, storage blocks, ditches and specific drainage interventions in some parts of the network.

  2. Anatomical study of terminal peroneal artery perforators and their clinical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran Purushothaman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peroneal artery gives off plenty of perforators that pass through fascial septum to supply skin and tenosynovium of peroneal muscles. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the anatomical basis of perforators from terminal part of peroneal artery axiality and to make use of this knowledge in reconstructing defects of posterior heel with the advantage of reducing the morbidity of conventional flaps. Materials and Methods: Our study was conducted at Department of Plastic surgery, Madras Medical College and Rajiv Gandhi Government General Hospital, India. We have carried out eleven cadaver dissections (from six cadavers-four fresh cadavers and two preserved cadavers and delineated all septocutaneous and septosynovial perforators of distal peroneal axis and studied their relation with short saphenous vein (SSV and sural nerve. Using this anatomical knowledge we have fashioned perforator based flaps in 13 patients (three propeller, four V-Y advancement, six tenosynovial flaps for reconstruction of defects over tendo achilles and pericalcaneal region . Results: In all cases, SSV and sural nerve were preserved and donor site was closed primarily. No total flap loss was noted. Conclusion: Perforator based flaps from distal most part of peroneal artery provide a good and reliable method for reconstruction of pericalcaneal and tendo achilles region defects with preservation of SSV and sural nerve. It also avoids contour deformity of the grafted donor site of the classical lateral calcaneal artery axial flap.

  3. Relationship of daily arterial blood pressure monitoring readings and arterial stiffness profile in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease combined with arterial hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoli N.A.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine correlation between arterial blood pressure daily rhythm and daily profile of arterial stiffness in male patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and arterial hypertension. Materials et methods: Prospective investigation comprised 45 male patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. Individuals of 40 years younger and 80 years elder, patients with diabetes, stroke, angina pectoris, or heart infarction, vascular diseases, and exacerbation of chronic disease, bronchial and pulmonary diseases of other etiology were excluded from the analyses. Comparison group included 47 patients with essential arterial hypertension and without chronic respiratory diseases closely similar on general parameters with patients from main clinical series. Twenty-four-hour arterial blood pressure monitoring (ABPM and daily arterial stiffness monitoring were performed using BPLab® MnSDP-2 apparatus (Petr Telegin, Russian Federation. Results: Patients with COPD combined with arterial hypertension with raised arterial stiffness measures prevail over individuals in essential hypertension group. There is pathological alteration of the ABPM circadian rhythm and raised «Pressure load» values in raised arterial stiffness group. Conclusion: We found ABPM raised parameters in patients with COPD and arterial hypertension. It confirms necessity of ABPM in daily arterial stiffness assessment in patients with COPD.

  4. Collecting standardized urban health indicator data at an individual level for school-aged children living in urban areas: methods from EURO-URHIS 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, D; Katreniak, Z; Guha, J; Puzzolo, E; Higgerson, J; Steels, S; Woode-Owusu, M; Bruce, N; Birt, Christopher A; Ameijden, E van; Verma, A

    2017-05-01

    Measuring health and its determinants in urban populations is essential to effectively develop public health policies maximizing health gain within this context. Adolescents are important in this regard given the origins of leading causes of morbidity and mortality develop pre-adulthood. Comprehensive, accurate and comparable information on adolescent urban health indicators from heterogeneous urban contexts is an important challenge. EURO-URHIS 2 aimed to develop standardized tools and methodologies collecting data from adolescents across heterogenous European urban contexts. Questionnaires were developed including (i) comprehensive assessment of urban health indicators from 7 pre-defined domains, (ii) use of previously validated questions from a literature review and other European surveys, (iii) translation/back-translation into European languages and (iv) piloting. Urban area-specific data collection methodologies were established through literature review, consultation and piloting. School-based surveys of 14-16-year olds (400-800 per urban area) were conducted in 13 European countries (33 urban areas). Participation rates were high (80-100%) for students from schools taking part in the surveys from all urban areas, and data quality was generally good (low rates of missing/spoiled data). Overall, 13 850 questionnaires were collected, coded and entered for EURO-URHIS 2. Dissemination included production of urban area health profiles (allowing benchmarking for a number of important public health indicators in young people) and use of visualization tools as part of the EURO-URHIS 2 project. EURO-URHIS 2 has developed standardized survey tools and methodologies for assessing key measures of health and its determinants in adolescents from heterogenous urban contexts and demonstrated the utility of this data to public health practitioners and policy makers. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association

  5. PBDEs and other POPs in urban birds of prey partly explained by trophic level and carbon source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, John E. [Environment Canada, Science & Technology Branch, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Department of Biological Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Brogan, Jason [Department of Biological Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6 (Canada); Lee, Sandi L. [Environment Canada, Science & Technology Branch, Pacific Wildlife Research Centre, Delta, British Columbia V4K 3N2 (Canada); Drouillard, Ken G. [Great Lakes Institute for Environmental Research, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON N9B 3P4 (Canada); Elliott, Kyle H. [Department of Natural Resource Sciences, McGill University, Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec H9X 3V9 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    As urban sprawl and agricultural intensification continue to invade prime wildlife habitat, some animals, even apex predators, are managing to adapt to this new environment. Chemical pollution is one of many stressors that wildlife encounter in urban environments. Predators are particularly sensitive to persistent chemical pollutants because they feed at a high trophic level where such pollution is biomagnified. To examine levels of pollution in urban birds of prey in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia, Canada, we analyzed persistent organic contaminants in adult birds found dead of trauma injury. The hepatic geometric mean concentration of sum polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑PBDEs) in 13 Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) from Greater Vancouver was 1873 ng/g (lipid weight) with one bird reaching 197,000 ng/g lipid weight, the highest exposure reported to date for a wild bird. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs, ∑PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and, surprisingly, cyclodiene insecticides were greatest in the urban environment while those of DDE (1,1-dichloroethylene bis[p-chlorophenyl) were highest in a region of intensive agriculture. The level of most chlorinated and brominated contaminants increased with trophic level (δ{sup 15}N). The concentrations of some contaminants, PBDEs in particular, in these birds of prey may have some toxicological consequences. Apex predators in urban environments continue to be exposed to elevated concentrations of legacy pollutants as well as more recent brominated pollutants. - Highlights: • As urban areas expand, many animal species are adapting and invading urban areas. • Urban colonists encounter many new stressors, especially chemical pollution. • Urban birds of prey in Canada had high levels of brominated flame retardants (PBDEs). • One individual had the highest level of PBDEs ever recorded for wildlife. • Such high levels may have had toxicological implications.

  6. PBDEs and other POPs in urban birds of prey partly explained by trophic level and carbon source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, John E.; Brogan, Jason; Lee, Sandi L.; Drouillard, Ken G.; Elliott, Kyle H.

    2015-01-01

    As urban sprawl and agricultural intensification continue to invade prime wildlife habitat, some animals, even apex predators, are managing to adapt to this new environment. Chemical pollution is one of many stressors that wildlife encounter in urban environments. Predators are particularly sensitive to persistent chemical pollutants because they feed at a high trophic level where such pollution is biomagnified. To examine levels of pollution in urban birds of prey in the Lower Mainland region of British Columbia, Canada, we analyzed persistent organic contaminants in adult birds found dead of trauma injury. The hepatic geometric mean concentration of sum polybrominated diphenyl ethers (∑PBDEs) in 13 Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) from Greater Vancouver was 1873 ng/g (lipid weight) with one bird reaching 197,000 ng/g lipid weight, the highest exposure reported to date for a wild bird. Concentrations of ∑PBDEs, ∑PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls) and, surprisingly, cyclodiene insecticides were greatest in the urban environment while those of DDE (1,1-dichloroethylene bis[p-chlorophenyl) were highest in a region of intensive agriculture. The level of most chlorinated and brominated contaminants increased with trophic level (δ 15 N). The concentrations of some contaminants, PBDEs in particular, in these birds of prey may have some toxicological consequences. Apex predators in urban environments continue to be exposed to elevated concentrations of legacy pollutants as well as more recent brominated pollutants. - Highlights: • As urban areas expand, many animal species are adapting and invading urban areas. • Urban colonists encounter many new stressors, especially chemical pollution. • Urban birds of prey in Canada had high levels of brominated flame retardants (PBDEs). • One individual had the highest level of PBDEs ever recorded for wildlife. • Such high levels may have had toxicological implications

  7. Geomorphic Assessment of Floods within the Urban Environment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examined urban geomorphic conditions that lead to flooding in urban areas of ... the elimination of vegetation cover as well as deficient drainage networks ... Department of Geography & Resource Development, University of Ghana, Legon, .... A number of case studies from different parts of the world dealing.

  8. OUT-OF-SCHOOL EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS NETWORK AS THE PART OF URBAN SUSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MERYLOVA I. O.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Formulation of the problem. Abstract. Formulation of the problem. The solution of urban development problems of an extensive and accessible network of out-of-school educational institutions, the formation of proposals for the placement of out-of-school institutions in the structure of the building and functional and planning features of the organization of territories of out-of-school institutions has systemically character. The system approach involves studying not only the internal functional structure of the territory, buildings and structures, but also the analysis of the connections of out-of-school institutions with all urban buildings, with industrial enterprises and research organizations, with a network of public service institutions and with other educational establishments. Article purpose: to analyze theoretical research in the field of urban planning, which should be taken into account when developing principles and methods for optimizing the network of out-of-school educational institutions. Conclusions. The research found that the systematic approach implies relation of out-of-school educational institutions with all urban environment, as well as with industrial enterprises and research organizations, with a network of public service institutions and, most importantly, with other educational establishments. The formation of a network of out-of-school educational institutions directly depends on the tendency of the development of social-pedagogical programs and the reform of the educational sector as a whole. The main system properties of a network of out-of-school educational institutions were determined. It was found that the cooperation of the resources of out-of-school and general education institutions is one of the effective ways to develop continuing education. In the state programs of educational reform is noted that the cooperation of the resources between the out-of-school institutions and general educational

  9. Impact of Urban Growth and Urbanization on the Environmental Degradation of Lakes in Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, M. J.; Sen, M. K.; Harini, P.; Sekhar, B. M.; Balaji, T.

    2013-12-01

    Lakes are a vital part of urban ecosystems which perform important ecological and environmental functions to safeguard local climate, groundwater and habitat. The incessant population growth coupled with low urban planning is causing severe damage to urban ecosystems throughout the world. Hyderabad is one of the largest growing metropolitan cities of India covering an area of 65000 ha situated on the banks of Musi River in the northern part of the Deccan Plateau. The city had a population of 1.25 million in 1961 which increased to 6.8 million in 2011 with a metropolitan population of 7.75 million, making it India's fourth most populous city and sixth most populous urban agglomeration. Hyderabad is popularly known as 'City of Lakes' which occupies the top position in India in terms of Urban Lakes. In 20th century, the number of lakes were around 925 which are now reduced to 521 and most of these lakes are facing extinction. The water spread area of these lakes has been considerably reduced due to steady urban growth and the carrying capacity and ecological status of these urban lakes are in real danger. Many of these lakes have shrunk in size while the waters of several lakes got polluted with the discharge of untreated domestic and industrial effluents. Taking into consideration the environmental degradation of urban lakes, an attempt was made to study the current status, loss of water bodies and water spread using remote sensing and GIS techniques. Time-series satellite images of MSS, IRS and RESOURCESAT and Survey of India maps of 1:50,000 and 1:25,000 were used for this study. Analysis of these together with other data sets was accomplished through integrated use of ERDAS Imagine Arc view and ArcGIS software packages. It is estimated that there were 925 lakes in 1982 in erstwhile Hyderabad Urban Development Authority (HUDA) area which came down to 521 in 2012. A total number of 404 lakes disappeared during the last 30 years period. Consequently the water spread

  10. Staging Urban Interactions with Media Facades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin; Dalsgaard, Peter; Ebsen, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Using media façades as a subcategory of urban computing, this paper contributes to the understanding of spatial interaction, sense-making, and social mediation as part of identifying key characteristics of interaction with media façades. Our research addresses in particular the open-ended but fra......Using media façades as a subcategory of urban computing, this paper contributes to the understanding of spatial interaction, sense-making, and social mediation as part of identifying key characteristics of interaction with media façades. Our research addresses in particular the open......-ended but framed nature of interaction, which in conjunction with varying interpretations enables individual sense-making. Moreover, we contribute to the understanding of flexible social interaction by addressing urban interaction in relation to distributed attention, shared focus, dialogue and collective action....... Finally we address challenges for interaction designers encountered in a complex spatial setting calling for a need to take into account multiple viewing and action positions. Our research-through-design approach has included a real-life design intervention in terms of the design, implementation...

  11. Decreasing Net Primary Productivity in Response to Urbanization in Liaoning Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Regional ecosystems have been greatly affected by the rapid expansion of urban areas. In order to explore the impact of land use change on net primary productivity (NPP in rapidly developing cities during the current urbanization process, we quantified land use change in Liaoning province between 2000 and 2010 using net primary productivity as an indicator of ecosystem productivity and health. The Carnegie–Ames–Stanford Approach model was used to estimate NPP by region and land use. We used a unit circle-based evaluation model to quantify local urbanization effects on NPP around eight representative cities. The dominant land use types were farmland, woodland and urban, with urban rapidly replacing farmland. Mean annual NPP and total NPP decreased faster from 2005 to 2010 than from 2000 to 2005, reflecting increasing urbanization rates. The eastern, primarily woodland part of Liaoning province had the greatest reduction in NPP, while the western part, which was primarily farmland and grassland, had the lowest reduction.

  12. Transposition of the great arteries - a phenotype associated with 16p11.2 duplications?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunanithi, Zarmiga; Vestergaard, Else Marie; Lauridsen, Mette H

    2017-12-26

    Genetic analyses of patients with transposition of the great arteries have identified rare copy number variations, suggesting that they may be significant to the aetiology of the disease. This paper reports the identification of a 16p11.2 microduplication, a variation that has yet to be reported in association with transposition of the great arteries. The 16p11.2 microduplication is associated with autism spectrum disorder and developmental delay, but with highly variable phenotypic effects. Autism and attention deficit disorders are observed more frequently in children with congenital heart disease than in the general population. Neonatal surgery is proposed as a risk factor, but as yet unidentified genetic abnormalities should also be taken into account. Thus, congenital heart abnormalities may constitute a part of the phenotypic spectrum associated with duplications at 16p11.2. We suggest chromosomal microarray be considered part of the diagnostic work-up in patients with transposition of the great arteries.

  13. Monitoring and Risk Identification Caused by High Water, Floods and Erosion Processes in Urban Part of Sava Riverbed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskoruš, D.; Miković, N.; Ljevar, I.

    2012-04-01

    Riverbed erosion and bottom deepening are part of natural fluvial processes in the upper stream of Sava River. The increasing gradient of those changes is interconnected with the level of human influence in the river basin and riverbed as well. In time period of last forty years the consequences of riverbed erosion are become serious as well as dangerous and they threaten the stability of hydro technical structures. The increasing value of flow velocity in riverbed in urban part of river section during high water level, mud and debris flow during the floods as well, is especially dangerous for old bridges. This paper contains result of velocity measurements during high waters taken by Hydrological Service of Republic Croatia, load transport monitoring during such events and cross sections in some vulnerable location. In this paper is given one example of Jakuševac railway bridge in Zagreb, heavily destroyed during high water event on the 30 March 2009., recently reconstructed by "Croatian Railways" company. Keywords: Riverbed erosion, flow velocity, mud and debris flow, risk identification, stability of bridges

  14. Urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L. K.; Lyytimäki, J.; Normander, B.

    2007-01-01

    This report is concerned with the relations between lifestyles of urban populations on one hand and protection of biodiversity in urban areas on the other. Urban areas are of importance for the general protection of biodiversity. In the surroundings of cities and within urban sprawls there can...... biodiversity, recreational, educational and other needs. However, uncovered and unsealed space is constantly under pressure for building and infrastructure development in the urban landscape, and the design and usages of urban green structure is a matter of differing interests and expectations. Integrating...... the green needs of urban lifestyle in the planning process does not come by itself. Nor does finding the synergies between urban lifestyle and urban biodiversity. Careful planning including stakeholder involvement is required. In this process various mapping techniques and use of indicators can be most...

  15. Adaptive governance to promote ecosystem services in urban green spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing urban green space as part of an ongoing social-ecological transformationposes novel governance issues, particularly in post-industrial settings. Urban green spaces operate as small-scale nodes in larger networks of ecological reserves that provide and maintain key ecosys...

  16. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang

    2009-01-01

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  17. An isolated left subclavian artery supplied by a collateral artery from the abdominal aorta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ming, Zhu; Qian, Wang [Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Shanghai Children' s Medical Center, Shanghai (China)

    2009-08-15

    An isolated left subclavian artery is a rare anomaly. We report a 9-month-old boy with an isolated left subclavian artery associated with tetralogy of Fallot and the right aortic arch. MRI and angiography show that the blood supply through the left subclavian artery was maintained by a large tortuous collateral artery from the abdominal aorta. This type of collateral artery structure is unique. (orig.)

  18. Changing perspectives in urban park management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Chung-shing; Marafa, Lawal M.; Konijnendijk, Cecil Cornelis

    2015-01-01

    managers in Hong Kong have encountered different challenges over time, and the quest for changing park managerial strategies. In 2004, a set of indicators for urban park management in Hong Kong was produced as part of a Master's research. Local park managers were asked about their views on the respective......Urban parks provide numerous benefits to our society. In densely populated metropolises such as Hong Kong, urban parks are in high demand. A variety of indicators can be used as tools for improving park planning and management. Facing a dynamic society and increasing user expectations, urban park...... importance and performance (I–P) of the indicators. In 2012, a follow-up questionnaire survey was conducted with the managers to study if their views regarding these indicators and their performance had changed. Results from the 2004 and 2012 surveys revealed changing perceptions regarding both I...

  19. Urban Gardening in the Crisis Conjuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Maughan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Urban gardening finds itself at a juncture – not only are crises caused and exacerbated by the industrial food system urgently demonstrating the need for more localised, sustainable, and democratically-determined food systems, but alternative food movements are increasingly negotiating crises of their own. Critical Foodscapes was a one-day conference part-funded by Warwick’s Institute of Advanced Study (IAS and the Food GRP. The conference was put together with the intention of bringing a ‘critical studies’ approach to the emerging research area of urban community food growing; namely, to put critical – but constructive – pressure on some of the assumptions which underlie current theory and practice of the various forms of urban food growing. This article offers some reflections on the conference itself as well as on the prospects for urban gardening more generally.

  20. Pure Motor Stroke Secondary to Cerebral Infarction of Recurrent Artery of Heubner after Mild Head Trauma: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Ali; Kizilay, Zahir; Ozkul, Ayca; Çirak, Bayram

    2016-03-15

    The recurrent Heubner's artery is the distal part of the medial striate artery. Occlusion of the recurrent artery of Heubner, classically contralateral hemiparesis with fasciobrachiocrural predominance, is attributed to the occlusion of the recurrent artery of Heubner and is widely known as a stroke syndrome in adults. However, isolated occlusion of the deep perforating arteries following mild head trauma also occurs extremely rarely in childhood. Here we report the case of an 11-year-old boy with pure motor stroke. The brain MRI showed an acute ischemia in the recurrent artery of Heubner supply area following mild head trauma. His fasciobrachial hemiparesis and dysarthria were thought to be secondary to the stretching of deep perforating arteries leading to occlusion of the recurrent artery of Heubner. Post-traumatic pure motor ischemic stroke can be secondary to stretching of the deep perforating arteries especially in childhood.

  1. Evaluation by multislice computed tomography of atherosclerotic coronary artery plaques in non-culprit, remote coronary arteries of patients with acute coronary syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunimasa, Taeko; Sugi, Kaoru; Moroi, Masao; Sato, Yuichi

    2005-01-01

    Patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) frequently have vulnerable plaques in the remote coronary arteries, suggesting that ACS is part of the pan-coronary process. In the present study the computed tomography (CT) plaque density in non-culprit atherosclerotic coronary artery lesions was evaluated by multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) in patients with ACS and non-ACS. MSCT was performed in 21 patients with ACS and 53 patients with non-ACS: 16 of the 21 ACS patients (76%) and 30 of the non-ACS 53 patients (57%) had non-calcified plaques in the non-culprit coronary arteries (p=0.18). CT-low-density plaques (CT density <68 Hounsfield units (HU)) were more frequent in the ACS group (13/16 patients, 81%) than in the non-ACS group (13/30 patients, 43%, p=0.03). In addition, the CT density of the non-culprit lesion was significantly lower in patients with ACS than in those with non-ACS (44.1±22.9 and 77.3±33.7 HU, respectively). Patients with ACS more frequently had CT-low-density plaques in the non-culprit, remote arteries than those with non-ACS, which suggests that ACS treatment should focus not only on stabilizing the culprit lesion but also on systemic stabilization of non-culprit lesions. (author)

  2. Theme 10: greenhouse effect transport policies and urban organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-07-01

    This document describes the reference framework of the theme 10 ''greenhouse effect, transport policies and urban organization'' which is a part of the urban transports interface. It presents the specific actions realized by the theme 10 for a future integration in theme 1, 5 and 8. (A.L.B.)

  3. Pressure drop and arterial compliance - Two arterial parameters in one measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Oren M; Zaretsky, Uri; Shitzer, Avraham; Einav, Shmuel

    2017-01-04

    Coronary artery pressure-drop and distensibility (compliance) are two major, seemingly unrelated, parameters in the cardiovascular clinical setting, which are indicative of coronary arteries patency and atherosclerosis severity. While pressure drop is related to flow, and therefore serves as a functional indicator of a stenosis severity, the arterial distensibility is indicative of the arterial stiffness, and hence the arterial wall composition. In the present study, we hypothesized that local pressure drops are dependent on the arterial distensibility, and hence can provide information on both indices. The clinical significance is that a single measurement of pressure drop could potentially provide both functional and bio-mechanical metrics of lesions, and thus assist in real-time decision making prior to stenting. The goal of the current study was to set the basis for understanding this relationship, and define the accuracy and sensitivity required from the pressure measurement system. The investigation was performed using numerical fluid-structure interaction (FSI) simulations, validated experimentally using our high accuracy differential pressure measurement system. Simplified silicone mock coronary arteries with zero to intermediate size stenoses were used, and various combinations of arterial distensibility, diameter, and flow rate were simulated. Results of hyperemic flow cases were also compared to fractional flow reserve (FFR). The results indicate the potential clinical superiority of a high accuracy pressure drop-based parameter over FFR, by: (i) being more lesion-specific, (ii) the possibility to circumvent the FFR dependency on pharmacologically-induced hyperemia, and, (iii) by providing both functional and biomechanical lesion-specific information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Anomalous right coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery and constrictive pericarditis: an unusual association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Odilson Marcos; Adam, Eduardo Leal; de Melo, Dirceu Thiago Pessoa; Dias, Ricardo Ribeiro; Ramires, Felix J. A.; Mady, Charles

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The association of anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery and constrictive pericarditis has never been showed in the literature. We present the first case of this unusual association in a patient with right heart failure. After diagnosis, the patient was referred to surgery and underwent phrenic-to-phrenic pericardiectomy; graft implant of right internal thoracic artery to right coronary artery; and ligation of the anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the pulmonary artery. Such procedures solved the potential risk of sudden death related to anomalous right coronary artery originating from the pulmonary artery and alleviated the symptoms of heart failure caused by constrictive pericarditis. PMID:24136766

  5. BILATERAL DUPLICATION OF RENAL ARTERIES

    OpenAIRE

    Prajkta A Thete; Mehera Bhoir; M.V.Ambiye

    2014-01-01

    Routine dissection of a male cadaver revealed the presence of bilateral double renal arteries. On the right side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta just above the main renal artery. On the left side the accessory renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta about 1 cm above the main renal artery. Knowledge of the variations of renal vascular anatomy has importance in exploration and treatment of renal trauma, renal transplantation, renal artery embolization, su...

  6. Intra-arterial thrombolysis of digital artery occlusions in a patient with polycythemia vera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jud, Philipp; Hafner, Franz; Gary, Thomas; Ghanim, Leyla; Lipp, Rainer; Brodmann, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    There are limited therapeutic options for the resolution of digital artery occlusions. Intra-arterial thrombolysis with anticoagulative and thrombolytic drugs successfully restored the blood flow in the affected digital arteries.

  7. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of kidneys in renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, Erkan; Kirbas, Ismail; Teksam, Mehmet; Karadeli, Elif; Gullu, Hakan; Ozer, Ismail

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to evaluate perfusion and diffusion of kidneys in renal artery stenosis (RAS) and any correlation between stenosis and ADC values and whether this imaging modality may be a noninvasive complementary assessment technique to MR angiography before interventional procedures. Materials and methods: Twenty consecutive patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis were evaluated with renal MR angiography to exclude stenosis and were then included in the study. Transverse DW multisection echo-planar MR imaging was performed. In the transverse ADC map, rectangular regions of interest were placed in the cortex on 3 parts (upper, middle, and lower poles) in each kidney. ADCs of the kidneys were calculated separately for the low, average, and high b-values to enable differentiation of the relative influence of the perfusion fraction and true diffusion. The ADC values of 39 kidneys (13 with renal artery stenosis and 26 normal renal arteries) were compared, and the relationship between stenosis degree and ADC values was calculated. Results: RAS was detected in 11 of 20 (55%) patients with MRA. Thirteen of 39 kidneys demonstrated RAS, and 26 were normal. The ADC low (1.9 ± 0.2 versus 2.1 ± 0.2; P = .020), ADC average (1.7 ± 0.2 versus 1.9 ± 0.1; P = .006), and ADC high (1.8 ± 0.2 versus 2.0 ± 0.1; P = .012) values were significantly lower in patients with kidneys with arterial stenosis than that in patients with kidneys with normal arteries. Statistical analysis revealed that stenosis degree correlated strongly with ADC low (r = -.819; P = .001), ADC average (r = -.754; P = .003), and ADC high (r = -.788; P = .001). The ADC low , ADC average , and ADC high values were significantly lower in patients with kidneys with arterial stenosis than that in patients with kidneys with normal arteries. Conclusion: We think that DW MR imaging of kidneys with RAS can help determine the functional status of a renal artery stenosis

  8. Anomalous Origin of Left Coronary Artery from Pulmonary Artery (ALCAPA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Younus, Z.; Ahmed, I.; Iftikhar, R.

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery also recognized as Bland White Garland syndrome is a very rare congenital condition. A two-months old baby boy presented with dyspnoea for two weeks and a pansystolic murmur on auscultation. The base line investigations showed cardiomegaly and bilateral basal haze on X-ray chest. ECG showed ST elevation in leads l and AVl and echocardiography showed situs solitus, levocardia, hypokinetic intraventricular septum, ejection fraction of 30%, mitral regurgitation of grade-I and an anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from pulmonary artery was diagnosed. Patient was in left heart failure. It was rectified surgically by creating a transpulmonary tunnel (Takeuchi repair). Postoperative course was uneventful and he was finally discharged in stable condition. (author)

  9. Intra-arterial high signals on arterial spin labeling perfusion images predict the occluded internal carotid artery segment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogabe, Shu; Satomi, Junichiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Mure, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji; Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi; Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Kaji, Ryuji

    2017-01-01

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) involves perfusion imaging using the inverted magnetization of arterial water. If the arterial arrival times are longer than the post-labeling delay, labeled spins are visible on ASL images as bright, high intra-arterial signals (IASs); such signals were found within occluded vessels of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The identification of the occluded segment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for endovascular treatment. We tested our hypothesis that high IASs on ASL images can predict the occluded segment. Our study included 13 patients with acute ICA occlusion who had undergone angiographic and ASL studies within 48 h of onset. We retrospectively identified the high IAS on ASL images and angiograms and recorded the occluded segment and the number of high IAS-positive slices on ASL images. The ICA segments were classified as cervical (C1), petrous (C2), cavernous (C3), and supraclinoid (C4). Of seven patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, five demonstrated high IASs at C1-C2, suggesting that high IASs could identify stagnant flow proximal to the occluded segment. Among six patients with extracranial ICA occlusion, five presented with high IASs at C3-C4, suggesting that signals could identify the collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery. None had high IASs at C1-C2. The mean number of high IAS-positive slices was significantly higher in patients with intra- than extracranial ICA occlusion. High IASs on ASL images can identify slow stagnant and collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery in patients with acute ICA occlusion and help to predict the occlusion site. (orig.)

  10. Intra-arterial high signals on arterial spin labeling perfusion images predict the occluded internal carotid artery segment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogabe, Shu; Satomi, Junichiro; Tada, Yoshiteru; Kanematsu, Yasuhisa; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Yagi, Kenji; Yoshioka, Shotaro; Mizobuchi, Yoshifumi; Mure, Hideo; Yamaguchi, Izumi; Kitazato, Keiko T.; Nagahiro, Shinji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Neurosurgery, Tokushima (Japan); Abe, Takashi; Harada, Masafumi [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Radiology, Tokushima (Japan); Yamamoto, Nobuaki; Kaji, Ryuji [Tokushima University Graduate School, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Institute of Biomedical Biosciences, Tokushima (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    Arterial spin labeling (ASL) involves perfusion imaging using the inverted magnetization of arterial water. If the arterial arrival times are longer than the post-labeling delay, labeled spins are visible on ASL images as bright, high intra-arterial signals (IASs); such signals were found within occluded vessels of patients with acute ischemic stroke. The identification of the occluded segment in the internal carotid artery (ICA) is crucial for endovascular treatment. We tested our hypothesis that high IASs on ASL images can predict the occluded segment. Our study included 13 patients with acute ICA occlusion who had undergone angiographic and ASL studies within 48 h of onset. We retrospectively identified the high IAS on ASL images and angiograms and recorded the occluded segment and the number of high IAS-positive slices on ASL images. The ICA segments were classified as cervical (C1), petrous (C2), cavernous (C3), and supraclinoid (C4). Of seven patients with intracranial ICA occlusion, five demonstrated high IASs at C1-C2, suggesting that high IASs could identify stagnant flow proximal to the occluded segment. Among six patients with extracranial ICA occlusion, five presented with high IASs at C3-C4, suggesting that signals could identify the collateral flow via the ophthalmic artery. None had high IASs at C1-C2. The mean number of high IAS-positive slices was significantly higher in patients with intra- than extracranial ICA occlusion. High IASs on ASL images can identify slow stagnant and collateral flow through the ophthalmic artery in patients with acute ICA occlusion and help to predict the occlusion site. (orig.)

  11. Mechanisms Involved in Thromboxane A2-induced Vasoconstriction of Rat Intracavernous Small Penile Arteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grann, Martin; Comerma Steffensen, Simon Gabriel; Arcanjo, Daniel Dias Rufino

    2015-01-01

    relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. Our findings suggest that U46619 contraction depends on Ca2+ influx through L-type and TRP channels, and ROCKdependent mechanisms in penile arteries. Inhibition of the ROCK pathway is a potential approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction associated......Diabetes is associated with erectile dysfunction and with hypercontractility in erectile tissue and this is in part ascribed to increased formation of thromboxane. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of calcium sensitization and contraction in vascular smooth muscle. This study investigated...... the role of calcium and ROCK in contraction evoked by activation of the thromboxane receptors. Rat intracavernous penile arteries were mounted for isometric tension and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i) recording and corpus cavernosum for measurements of MYPT1 phosphorylation. In penile arteries, U46619...

  12. Pharmacological modulation of arterial stiffness.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boutouyrie, Pierre

    2011-09-10

    Arterial stiffness has emerged as an important marker of cardiovascular risk in various populations and reflects the cumulative effect of cardiovascular risk factors on large arteries, which in turn is modulated by genetic background. Arterial stiffness is determined by the composition of the arterial wall and the arrangement of these components, and can be studied in humans non-invasively. Age and distending pressure are two major factors influencing large artery stiffness. Change in arterial stiffness with drugs is an important endpoint in clinical trials, although evidence for arterial stiffness as a therapeutic target still needs to be confirmed. Drugs that independently affect arterial stiffness include antihypertensive drugs, mostly blockers of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, hormone replacement therapy and some antidiabetic drugs such as glitazones. While the quest continues for \\'de-stiffening drugs\\

  13. Frequency and predictors of renal artery stenosis in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.S.; Hafeezullah, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is a common finding in patients undergoing coronary angiography. We designed this study to look for the frequency and any predictors of renal artery stenosis in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods: A total of 201 consecutive patients with CAD confirmed by coronary angiography underwent an abdominal aortogram in the same sitting to screen for RAS. Patient demographics and co-morbidities were analysed for any association with RAS. Results: Forty-one of the patients were female (20.4%); ninety patients were hypertensive (44.8%); 49 patients (24.4%) were smokers; 19 patients (9.5%) had renal insufficiency; 88 patients (43.8%) had high cholesterol levels; 44 patients (21.9%) were diabetic. Thirty-two patients (15.9%) had single coronary artery disease, 59 patients (29.4%) had two vessel disease, and 110 patients (54.7%) had three vessel disease. Significant renal artery stenosis (less or equal to 50% stenosis) was present in 26 patients (12.9%). Among the variables studied, only female gender was found to be associated with a higher frequency of renal artery stenosis (24.39% vs 10.0%, p=0.01). Conclusions: The frequency of renal artery stenosis in patients with coronary artery disease is 12.9%. Female gender is associated with a higher frequency of renal artery stenosis in patients with CAD. (author)

  14. Coronary Artery Anomalies in Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Scansen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Coronary artery anomalies represent a disease spectrum from incidental to life-threatening. Anomalies of coronary artery origin and course are well-recognized in human medicine, but have received limited attention in veterinary medicine. Coronary artery anomalies are best described in the dog, hamster, and cow though reports also exist in the horse and pig. The most well-known anomaly in veterinary medicine is anomalous coronary artery origin with a prepulmonary course in dogs, which limits treatment of pulmonary valve stenosis. A categorization scheme for coronary artery anomalies in animals is suggested, dividing these anomalies into those of major or minor clinical significance. A review of coronary artery development, anatomy, and reported anomalies in domesticated species is provided and four novel canine examples of anomalous coronary artery origin are described: an English bulldog with single left coronary ostium and a retroaortic right coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and transseptal left coronary artery; an English bulldog with single right coronary ostium and absent left coronary artery with a prepulmonary paraconal interventricular branch and an interarterial circumflex branch; and a mixed-breed dog with tetralogy of Fallot and anomalous origin of all coronary branches from the brachiocephalic trunk. Coronary arterial fistulae are also described including a coronary cameral fistula in a llama cria and an English bulldog with coronary artery aneurysm and anomalous shunting vessels from the right coronary artery to the pulmonary trunk. These examples are provided with the intent to raise awareness and improve understanding of such defects.

  15. The Aalborg Survey / Part 1 - Web Based Survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 1 Web Base Survey The 1st part of the research project Diverse Urban Spaces (DUS) has been carried out during the period from December 1st 2007 to February 1st 2008 as a Web Based Survey of the 27.040 gross...... [statistikbanken.dk, a] young people aged 14-23 living in Aalborg Municipality in 2008. The web based questionnaire has been distributed among the group of young people studying at upper secondary schools in Aalborg, i.e. 7.680 young people [statistikbanken.dk, b]. The resulting data from those respondents who...

  16. Prevalence of Hypertension in Akwa Ibom State, South-South Nigeria: Rural versus Urban Communities Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Effiong Ekong Akpan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown an increasing trend in the prevalence of hypertension in rural communities compared to that of the urban communities. This study was therefore carried out to determine the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors (if any in both urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Subjects and Method. This was a cross-sectional study of urban and rural communities of Akwa Ibom State for the prevalence of hypertension and its predictors. Two urban cities and two rural communities were randomly selected from the three senatorial districts of the state. Hypertension was defined based on the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of Hypertension. Results. Nine hundred and seventy-eight (978 participants were recruited from rural areas and five hundred and ninety (590 from urban centers. The rural populace had higher systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure than the urban populace (P<0.001, < 0.002, < 0.001, resp.. The prevalence of hypertension was significantly higher in the rural populace than in the urban populace [44.3% (95% CI 41.1–47.4% versus 28.6% (95% CI 24.9–32.3%]. Age, BMI, and proteinuria were independent predictors of hypertension occurrence. Conclusion. There is an epidemiologic change in the prevalence of hypertension in the rural communities of Nigeria.

  17. Modeling carbon emissions from urban traffic system using mobile monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daniel Jian; Zhang, Ying; Xue, Rui; Zhang, Yi

    2017-12-01

    Comprehensive analyses of urban traffic carbon emissions are critical in achieving low-carbon transportation. This paper started from the architecture design of a carbon emission mobile monitoring system using multiple sets of equipment and collected the corresponding data about traffic flow, meteorological conditions, vehicular carbon emissions and driving characteristics on typical roads in Shanghai and Wuxi, Jiangsu province. Based on these data, the emission model MOVES was calibrated and used with various sensitivity and correlation evaluation indices to analyze the traffic carbon emissions at microscopic, mesoscopic and macroscopic levels, respectively. The major factors that influence urban traffic carbon emissions were investigated, so that emission factors of CO, CO 2 and HC were calculated by taking representative passenger cars as a case study. As a result, the urban traffic carbon emissions were assessed quantitatively, and the total amounts of CO, CO 2 and HC emission from passenger cars in Shanghai were estimated as 76.95kt, 8271.91kt, and 2.13kt, respectively. Arterial roads were found as the primary line source, accounting for 50.49% carbon emissions. In additional to the overall major factors identified, the mobile monitoring system and carbon emission quantification method proposed in this study are of rather guiding significance for the further urban low-carbon transportation development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevalence of significant carotid artery stenosis in Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghabili K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abolhassan Shakeri Bavil1, Kamyar Ghabili2, Seyed Ebrahim Daneshmand3, Masoud Nemati3, Moslem Shakeri Bavil4, Hossein Namdar5, Sheyda Shaafi61Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 2Medical Philosophy and History Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 3Department of Radiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 4Department of Neurosurgery, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 5Department of Cardiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran; 6Neuroscience Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, IranBackground: Generalized screening for carotid artery stenosis with carotid duplex ultrasonography in patients with peripheral arterial disease is controversial.Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of significant internal carotid artery (ICA stenosis in a group of Iranian patients with peripheral arterial disease.Methods: We prospectively screened 120 patients with a known diagnosis of peripheral vascular disease for carotid artery stenosis. Based on the angiographic assessment of abdominal aorta and arteries of the lower extremities, patients with stenosis greater than 70% in the lower extremity arteries were included. A group of healthy individuals aged ≥50 years was recruited as a control. Risk factors for atherosclerosis including smoking, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, and cerebrovascular disease were recorded. Common carotid arteries (CCAs and the origins of the internal and external arteries were scanned with B-mode ultrasonogaphy. Significant ICA stenosis, >70% ICA stenosis but less than near occlusion of the ICA, was diagnosed when the ICA/CCA peak systolic velocity ratio was ≥3.5.Results: Ninety-five patients, with a mean age of 58.52 ± 11.04 years, were studied. Twenty-five patients had a history of smoking, six

  19. The cristal (right superior septal) coronary artery and its relationship to anomalous left coronary origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.B.; Ridley, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    The cristal artery is an occasional finding, being visible in around 3% of coronary angiograms, arising from the proximal right coronary artery (RCA) and passing downwards and forwards through the muscle of the crista superventricularis. It supplies a variable volume of the superior interventricular septum, and can contribute to collateralization of the other septal vessels. When part or all of the left coronary artery (LCA) arises anomalously from the right coronary sinus, its passage to the left may be in the same pathway as a cristal artery, bearing a tell-tale septal vessel arising from its proximal segment. This helps to differentiate it from one that has a higher pathway, running between the great vessels, and which may have a greater correlation with sudden cardiac death.

  20. Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion for advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-yu CAO

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the clinical effects of chemotherapy via arterial infusion in treatment of advanced gastric cancer.Methods Forty-seven patients with advanced gastric cancer were given chemotherapy via arterial infusion.Chemotherapy plan was as follows: 5-Fluorouracil(Fu 500mg/m2,cyclophosphamide(MMX 10mg/m2,Hydroxycamptothecin(HPT 20mg/m2,once per week,2 weeks as a course,a total of 2-3 courses.Results After chemotherapy via arterial infusion,complete remission(CR was achieved in 1 case,partial remission(PR in 28 cases,stabilization of disease(SD in 16 cases,progression of disease(PD was found in 2 cases,and rate with response(CR+PR was 61.7%.Four of 28 PR patients underwent tumorectomy,the pathology revealed the presence of cancer cells around the vascular vessels,manifesting karyopyknosis,karyorrhexis,coagulation and necrosis of cytoplasm,intercellular edema,hyperplasia of fibroblasts,inflammatory cell infiltration,thickening of endothelium,and thrombosis.One,two and three-year survival rates were 70.2%,14.9% and 2.1%,respectively.The average survival period was 17.2 months.Conclusion Targeting chemotherapy via arterial infusion,as a part of the combined treatment,is beneficial to the patients with unresectable advanced gastric cancer.

  1. Radionuclides in plants in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorovic, D.; Ajtic, J.; Popovic, D.; Nikolic, J.

    2009-01-01

    The results of a long-term study (from 2002 to 2008) on the concentrations of natural ( 7 Be, 210 Pb, 40 K) and fission ( 137 Cs) radionuclides in leaves of higher plants (linden and chestnut) in an urban area (city of Belgrade) are presented. The activity of the radionuclides was determined on an HPGe detector by standard gamma spectrometry. The study is a part of the ongoing air quality monitoring programme in urban areas in the Republic of Serbia. (author) [sr

  2. Establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui Xuee; Li Minghua; Wang Yongli; Cheng Yingsheng; Li Wenbin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the feasibility of establishing experimental model of human internal carotid artery siphon segment in canine common carotid artery (CCA) by end-to-end anastomoses of one side common carotid artery segment with the other side common carotid artery. Methods: Surgical techniques were used to make siphon model in 8 canines. One side CCA was taken as the parent artery and anastomosing with the cut off contra-lateral CCA segment which has passed through within the S-shaped glass tube. Two weeks after the creation of models angiography showed the model siphons were patent. Results: Experimental models of human internal carotid artery siphon segment were successfully made in all 8 dogs. Conclusions: It is practically feasible to establish experimental canine common carotid artery models of siphon segment simulating human internal carotid artery. (authors)

  3. Hemodynamic effects of innominate artery occlusive disease on anterior cerebral artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Teng-Yeow; Lien, Li-Ming; Schminke, Ulf; Tesh, Paul; Reynolds, Patrick S; Tegeler, Charles H

    2002-01-01

    Stenoses of the innominate artery (IA) may affect flow conditions in the carotid arteries. However, alternating flow in ipsilateral anterior cerebral artery (ACA) due to IA stenosis is extremely rare. A 49-year-old woman who was evaluated for symptomatic cerebrovascular disease presented with right latent subclavian and right carotid system steal. Transcranial Doppler examination displayed systolic deceleration wave-forms in the right terminal internal carotid artery and alternating flow in the right ACA. Magnetic resonance angiography demonstrated tight stenosis of the right IA. For a thorough study of the hemodynamic effects of IA stenosis, a combination of duplex and transcranial Doppler examination is required.

  4. Air quality effects of urban trees and parks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nowak; Gordon Heisler

    2010-01-01

    Parks are significant parts of the urban landscape and comprise about 6% of city and town areas in the conterminous United States. These urban parks are estimated to contain about 370 million trees with a structural value of approximately $300 billion. The number of park trees varies by region of the country, but they can produce significant air quality effects in and...

  5. Impacts of Realistic Urban Heating, Part I: Spatial Variability of Mean Flow, Turbulent Exchange and Pollutant Dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Negin; Martilli, Alberto; Kleissl, Jan

    2018-03-01

    As urbanization progresses, more realistic methods are required to analyze the urban microclimate. However, given the complexity and computational cost of numerical models, the effects of realistic representations should be evaluated to identify the level of detail required for an accurate analysis. We consider the realistic representation of surface heating in an idealized three-dimensional urban configuration, and evaluate the spatial variability of flow statistics (mean flow and turbulent fluxes) in urban streets. Large-eddy simulations coupled with an urban energy balance model are employed, and the heating distribution of urban surfaces is parametrized using sets of horizontal and vertical Richardson numbers, characterizing thermal stratification and heating orientation with respect to the wind direction. For all studied conditions, the thermal field is strongly affected by the orientation of heating with respect to the airflow. The modification of airflow by the horizontal heating is also pronounced for strongly unstable conditions. The formation of the canyon vortices is affected by the three-dimensional heating distribution in both spanwise and streamwise street canyons, such that the secondary vortex is seen adjacent to the windward wall. For the dispersion field, however, the overall heating of urban surfaces, and more importantly, the vertical temperature gradient, dominate the distribution of concentration and the removal of pollutants from the building canyon. Accordingly, the spatial variability of concentration is not significantly affected by the detailed heating distribution. The analysis is extended to assess the effects of three-dimensional surface heating on turbulent transfer. Quadrant analysis reveals that the differential heating also affects the dominance of ejection and sweep events and the efficiency of turbulent transfer (exuberance) within the street canyon and at the roof level, while the vertical variation of these parameters is less

  6. Jet pump assisted artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    A procedure for priming an arterial heat pump is reported; the procedure also has a means for maintaining the pump in a primed state. This concept utilizes a capillary driven jet pump to create the necessary suction to fill the artery. Basically, the jet pump consists of a venturi or nozzle-diffuser type constriction in the vapor passage. The throat of this venturi is connected to the artery. Thus vapor, gas, liquid, or a combination of the above is pumped continuously out of the artery. As a result, the artery is always filled with liquid and an adequate supply of working fluid is provided to the evaporator of the heat pipe.

  7. Calcified Plaque of Coronary Artery: Factors Influencing Overestimation of Coronary Artery Stenosis on Coronary CT Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mok Hee; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Choi, Song; Seon, Hyun Ju; Jeong, Gwang Woo; Park, Jin Gyoon; Kang, Heoung Keun; Ko, Joon Seok

    2010-01-01

    To assess the influence of calcified plaque characteristics on the overestimation of coronary arterial stenosis on a coronary CT angiography (CCTA). The study included 271 coronary arteries with calcified plaques identified by CCTA, and based on 928 coronary arteries from 232 patients who underwent both CCTA and invasive coronary angiography (ICA). Individual coronary arteries were classified into two groups by agreement based on the degree of stenosis from each CCTA and ICA: 1) group A includes patients with concordant CCTA and ICA results and, 2) group B includes patients with an overestimation of CCTA compared to ICA. Parameters including total calcium score, calcium score of an individual coronary artery, calcium burden number of an individual coronary artery, and the density of each calcified plaque (calcium score / number of calcium burden) for each individual coronary artery were compared between the two groups. Of the 271 coronary arteries, 164 (60.5%) were overestimated on CCTA. The left anterior descending artery (LAD) had a significantly low rate of overestimation (47.1%) compared to the other coronary arteries (p=0.001). No significant differences for total calcium score, calcium score of individual coronary artery, and the density of each calcified plaque from individual coronary arteries between two groups was observed. However, a decreasing tendency for the rate of overestimation on CCTA was observed with an increase in calcium burden of individual coronary arteries (p<0.05). The evaluation of coronary arteries suggests that the degree of coronary arterial stenosis had a tendency to be overestimated by calcified plaques on CCTA. However, the rate of overestimation for the degree of coronary arterial stenosis by calcified plaques was not significantly influenced by total calcium score, calcium score of individual coronary artery, and density of each calcified plaque

  8. Bilateral renal artery variation

    OpenAIRE

    Üçerler, Hülya; Üzüm, Yusuf; İkiz, Z. Aslı Aktan

    2014-01-01

    Each kidney is supplied by a single renal artery, although renal artery variations are common. Variations of the renal arteryhave become important with the increasing number of renal transplantations. Numerous studies describe variations in renalartery anatomy. Especially the left renal artery is among the most critical arterial variations, because it is the referred side forresecting the donor kidney. During routine dissection in a formalin fixed male cadaver, we have found a bilateral renal...

  9. Perforating arteries originating from the posterior communicating artery: a 7.0-Tesla MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Takahara, Taro; Mali, Willem P.T.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Hp E 01.132), P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands); Geerlings, Mirjam I. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Luijten, Peter R. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology (Hp E 01.132), P.O. Box 85500, Utrecht (Netherlands); University Medical Center Utrecht, Image Sciences Institute, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 7.0 Tesla to show the perforating branches of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and to investigate the presence of such visible perforating branches in relation to the size of the feeding PCoA. The secondary aim was to visualise and describe the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating branches of the P1-segment of posterior cerebral artery (P1). Forty-six healthy volunteers underwent TOF MR angiography at 7.0 Tesla. With 7.0-Tesla imaging, we visualised for the first time perforating arteries originating from the PCoA in vivo without the use of contrast agents. A perforating artery from the PCoA was found in a large proportion of the PCoAs (64%). The presence was associated with a larger diameter of the underlying PCoA (1.23 versus 1.06 mm, P = 0.03). The anterior choroidal artery was visible bilaterally in all participants. In 83% of all P1s, one or two perforating branches were visible. Non-invasive assessment of the perforating arteries of the PCoA together with the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating arteries of the P1 may increase our understanding of infarcts in the deep brain structures supplied by these arteries. (orig.)

  10. Perforating arteries originating from the posterior communicating artery: a 7.0-Tesla MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conijn, Mandy M.A.; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Takahara, Taro; Mali, Willem P.T.M.; Zwanenburg, Jaco J.M.; Geerlings, Mirjam I.; Luijten, Peter R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 7.0 Tesla to show the perforating branches of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and to investigate the presence of such visible perforating branches in relation to the size of the feeding PCoA. The secondary aim was to visualise and describe the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating branches of the P1-segment of posterior cerebral artery (P1). Forty-six healthy volunteers underwent TOF MR angiography at 7.0 Tesla. With 7.0-Tesla imaging, we visualised for the first time perforating arteries originating from the PCoA in vivo without the use of contrast agents. A perforating artery from the PCoA was found in a large proportion of the PCoAs (64%). The presence was associated with a larger diameter of the underlying PCoA (1.23 versus 1.06 mm, P = 0.03). The anterior choroidal artery was visible bilaterally in all participants. In 83% of all P1s, one or two perforating branches were visible. Non-invasive assessment of the perforating arteries of the PCoA together with the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating arteries of the P1 may increase our understanding of infarcts in the deep brain structures supplied by these arteries. (orig.)

  11. Perforating arteries originating from the posterior communicating artery: a 7.0-Tesla MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conijn, Mandy M A; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Zwanenburg, Jaco J M; Takahara, Taro; Geerlings, Mirjam I; Mali, Willem P Th M; Luijten, Peter R

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of time-of-flight (TOF) magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 7.0 Tesla to show the perforating branches of the posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and to investigate the presence of such visible perforating branches in relation to the size of the feeding PCoA. The secondary aim was to visualise and describe the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating branches of the P1-segment of posterior cerebral artery (P1). Forty-six healthy volunteers underwent TOF MR angiography at 7.0 Tesla. With 7.0-Tesla imaging, we visualised for the first time perforating arteries originating from the PCoA in vivo without the use of contrast agents. A perforating artery from the PCoA was found in a large proportion of the PCoAs (64%). The presence was associated with a larger diameter of the underlying PCoA (1.23 versus 1.06 mm, P = 0.03). The anterior choroidal artery was visible bilaterally in all participants. In 83% of all P1s, one or two perforating branches were visible. Non-invasive assessment of the perforating arteries of the PCoA together with the anterior choroidal artery and the perforating arteries of the P1 may increase our understanding of infarcts in the deep brain structures supplied by these arteries.

  12. Isolated anomalous origin of the vertebral artery from the common carotid artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesler, William W; Sabat, Shyamsunder B

    2018-04-18

    Anomalous origins of the vertebral arteries are uncommon and typically associated with other abnormalities of the great vessels. We present a case of an isolated origin of the right vertebral artery from the ipsilateral common carotid artery detected using magnetic resonance angiography. Such variants can significantly affect endovascular and surgical planning.

  13. Central retinal and posterior ciliary artery occlusion after particle embolization of the external carotid artery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mames, R N; Snady-McCoy, L; Guy, J

    1991-04-01

    A 15-year-old boy underwent neuroradiologic embolization of the left internal maxillary artery with polyvinyl alcohol to stop traumatic epistaxis after failure of surgical clipping and nasal packing. Selective catheterization of the external carotid artery before embolization showed a faint choroidal blush. Although the procedure provided hemostasis, embolization to the central retinal artery and ciliary arteries resulted in loss of vision. The route of the emboli to the eye was via the anastomotic network of the lacrimal artery supplied by the external carotid artery system. Neuroradiologic embolization of the external carotid artery is an effective mode of therapy for dural-cavernous fistulas when fed by the external carotid artery system. Because the blood flow to the brain and eye is predominantly supplied by the internal carotid artery, embolization of the external carotid artery is considered relatively safe. The authors document the importance of recognition of the choroidal blush during selective external carotid artery angiography as a sign of collateral blood flow to the eye. Physicians and patients need to be aware of the risk of blindness as a complication of external carotid artery embolization when this sign is present.

  14. An unreported type of coronary artery naomaly in congenitally corrected transposition of great arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Min Kyu; Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Gee Won; Lee, Nam Kyung; Choi, Jung Hyun; Lee, Ji Won [Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Coronary artery variations are associated anomalies in 45% of congenitally corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) cases, and it is important to detect any coronary artery anomalies before cardiac surgery. We report a case of a 51-year-old woman with ccTGA and an unreported type of coronary artery anomaly.

  15. Missed Total Occlusion Due to the Occipital Artery Arising from the Internal Carotid Artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ustunsoz, Bahri; Gumus, Burcak; Koksal, Ali; Koroglu, Mert; Akhan, Okan

    2007-01-01

    A 56-year-old man was referred for digital subtraction angiography (DSA) with an ultrasound diagnosis of right proximal internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis for possible carotid artery stenting. DSA revealed total occlusion of the ICA and an occipital artery arising from the stump and simulating continuation of the ICA. An ascending pharyngeal artery also arose from the same occipital artery. This case is of interest because this is a rare variation besides being a cause of misdiagnosis at carotid ultrasound

  16. Arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxuan; Lyu, Peiyuan; Ren, Yanyan; An, Jin; Dong, Yanhong

    2017-09-15

    Arterial stiffness is one of the earliest indicators of changes in vascular wall structure and function and may be assessed using various indicators, such as pulse-wave velocity (PWV), the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI), the ankle-brachial index (ABI), pulse pressure (PP), the augmentation index (AI), flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and arterial stiffness index-β. Arterial stiffness is generally considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. To date, a significant number of studies have focused on the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment. To investigate the relationships between specific arterial stiffness parameters and cognitive impairment, elucidate the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment and determine how to interfere with arterial stiffness to prevent cognitive impairment, we searched PUBMED for studies regarding the relationship between arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment that were published from 2000 to 2017. We used the following key words in our search: "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment" and "arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment mechanism". Studies involving human subjects older than 30years were included in the review, while irrelevant studies (i.e., studies involving subjects with comorbid kidney disease, diabetes and cardiac disease) were excluded from the review. We determined that arterial stiffness severity was positively correlated with cognitive impairment. Of the markers used to assess arterial stiffness, a higher PWV, CAVI, AI, IMT and index-β and a lower ABI and FMD were related to cognitive impairment. However, the relationship between PP and cognitive impairment remained controversial. The potential mechanisms linking arterial stiffness and cognitive impairment may be associated with arterial pulsatility, as greater arterial pulsatility

  17. Evaluation of diversion strategies in the context of advanced traffic management systems (ATMS) for an urban traffic corridor with heterogeneous traffic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korlapati, D.R.

    2007-07-01

    Due to urbanization and accelerated growth in vehicular traffic, most big cities in India face problems related to traffic management resulting in severe congestion, pollution, and a high rate of accidents during peak hours. Lane blocking incidents on arterials or urban traffic corridors cause major disruption to traffic flow. Peak hour congestion with low average speeds and high accident rates are commonly associated with traffic in major cities in India. The situation is deteriorating further as creation of new facilities are almost impossible, with resource and space constraints. In such scenarios, application of advanced technologies seems to offer hope. One such application area is Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), a component of intelligent transportation system (ITS). Due to the unique traffic characteristics prevailing in India, the application of such systems needs to first be evaluated before implementation. This paper proposed a research methodology for the evaluation of diversion strategies in the context of ATMS for an urban corridor in India. The evaluation framework combined several relevant modules related to various aspects of traffic control, surveillance and advisory. As part of this study, a simulation model and a simulation optimization model were developed. The simulation model was microscopic in nature and captured the driver behaviour and traffic characteristics realistically by modeling the complex interactions among vehicles traversing a corridor. It was concluded that the results and observations were useful indicators to gauge the potential success of diversion plans. 10 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  18. Arterial mapping of lower limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acuna Allen, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    A bibliographic review is realized in the arterial mapping of lower limbs by ultrasonographic. The physical properties of the Doppler effect applied to diagnostic ultrasound are described. The anatomical characteristics of the general arterial system and specifically of the lower limbs arterial system are mentioned. Pathologies of the ischemic arterial disease of lower limbs are explained. The study characteristics of lower limbs arterial mapping are documented to determine its importance as appropriate method for the assessment of lower limb ischemia. An adequate arterial mapping of lower limbs is recognized in atherosclerotic ischemic disease as a reliable initial method alternative to arteriography. Arteriography is considered as reference pattern for therapeutic decision making in patients with critical ischemia of the lower limbs. Non-invasive methods to assess the arterial system of lower limbs has evidenced the advantages of the arterial mapping with Doppler, according to the consulted literature. The combination morphological and hemodynamic information has been possible and a map of the explored zone is made. The arterial mapping by ultrasonography has offered similar reliability to angiography [es

  19. Impaired vascular function after exposure to diesel exhaust generated at urban transient running conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerholm Roger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traffic emissions including diesel engine exhaust are associated with increased respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Controlled human exposure studies have demonstrated impaired vascular function after inhalation of exhaust generated by a diesel engine under idling conditions. Objectives To assess the vascular and fibrinolytic effects of exposure to diesel exhaust generated during urban-cycle running conditions that mimic ambient 'real-world' exposures. Methods In a randomised double-blind crossover study, eighteen healthy male volunteers were exposed to diesel exhaust (approximately 250 μg/m3 or filtered air for one hour during intermittent exercise. Diesel exhaust was generated during the urban part of the standardized European Transient Cycle. Six hours post-exposure, vascular vasomotor and fibrinolytic function was assessed during venous occlusion plethysmography with intra-arterial agonist infusions. Measurements and Main Results Forearm blood flow increased in a dose-dependent manner with both endothelial-dependent (acetylcholine and bradykinin and endothelial-independent (sodium nitroprusside and verapamil vasodilators. Diesel exhaust exposure attenuated the vasodilatation to acetylcholine (P Conclusion Exposure to diesel exhaust generated under transient running conditions, as a relevant model of urban air pollution, impairs vasomotor function and endogenous fibrinolysis in a similar way as exposure to diesel exhaust generated at idling. This indicates that adverse vascular effects of diesel exhaust inhalation occur over different running conditions with varying exhaust composition and concentrations as well as physicochemical particle properties. Importantly, exposure to diesel exhaust under ETC conditions was also associated with a novel finding of impaired of calcium channel-dependent vasomotor function. This implies that certain cardiovascular endpoints seem to be related to general diesel

  20. Variant Branching Pattern of Dorsalis Pedis Artery Accompanied with Anomalous Presence of Extensor Hallucis Brevis Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwini Aithal Padur

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During routine dissection, we came across multiple variations in the dorsum of the right foot. Dorsalis pedis artery (DPA presented with an unusual branching pattern. The arcuate artery was completely absent, and hence three tarsal branches arose from lateral side of DPA. The first branch continued as first dorsal metatarsal artery, the second branch continued as the second dorsal metatarsal artery, and the third branch continued as third dorsal metatarsal artery which also provided a small twig to the fourth intermetatarsal space as the fourth dorsal metatarsal artery. We also observed the unique presence of extensor hallucis brevis muscle with the origin from the medial part of superior surface of the calcaneus and inserted to proximal phalanx of great toe. Since the DPA was just beneath this muscle, anomalous presence of the muscle may lead to compression of DPA. Awareness regarding such variations is critical for angiographers, vascular surgeons, reconstructive and plastic surgeons.

  1. Urban air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenger, J.

    1999-01-01

    Since 1950 the world population has more than doubled, and the global number of cars has increased by a factor of 10. In the same period the fraction of people living in urban areas has increased by a factor of 4. In year 2000 this will amount to nearly half of the world population. About 20 urban regions will each have populations above 10 million people. Seen over longer periods, pollution in major cities tends to increase during the built up phase, they pass through a maximum and are then again reduced, as abatement strategies are developed. In the industrialised western world urban air pollution is in some respects in the last stage with effectively reduced levels of sulphur dioxide and soot. In recent decades however, the increasing traffic has switched the attention to nitrogen oxides, organic compounds and small particles. In some cities photochemical air pollution is an important urban problem, but in the northern part of Europe it is a large-scale phenomenon, with ozone levels in urban streets being normally lower than in rural areas. Cities in Eastern Europe have been (and in many cases still are) heavily polluted. After the recent political upheaval, followed by a temporary recession and a subsequent introduction of new technologies, the situation appears to improve. However, the rising number of private cars is an emerging problem. In most developing countries the rapid urbanisation has so far resulted in uncontrolled growth and deteriorating environment. Air pollution levels are here still rising on many fronts. Apart from being sources of local air pollution, urban activities are significant contributors to transboundary pollution and to the rising global concentrations of greenhouse gasses. Attempts to solve urban problems by introducing cleaner, more energy-efficient technologies will generally have a beneficial impact on these large-scale problems. Attempts based on city planning with a spreading of the activities, on the other hand, may generate

  2. Urbanization in Africa since independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, J D

    1994-01-01

    Over 185 million inhabitants were added to the urban areas of Africa between 1950 and 1990. Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland is the most highly urbanized, with 55% in 1990; while less than a quarter of Eastern Africa's population is living in urban centers. By the year 2015 more than half of Africa's population will be living in urban areas. Many parts of Africa have suffered prolonged droughts, overgrazing, locust infestations, and desertification. Millions have become refugees from natural disasters, political oppression, and rural poverty. The large exodus from Africa's rural areas has gone to cities but the large cities have attracted disproportionately large numbers of destitute migrants. Alexandria (1 million), Cairo (2.4 million) and the Witwatersrand in South Africa were the only African urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants in 1950. By 1990 the two Egyptian cities together had 12.7 million inhabitants and the Witwatersrand some 5 million, whereas the other 25 urban agglomerations with a million inhabitants each in 1990 had a total population of about 51 million. Lagos, Kinshasa, and Algiers ranged from 3 to 7.7 million. The capitals are the largest cities in at least 54 of the 59 countries and territories. Lagos, Nairobi, and Dar es Salaam are disproportionately larger than the next most populous cities in their countries. The 28 urban agglomerations with at least one million inhabitants had a total population of 70 million in 1990, and are projected to reach 100 million in the year 2000. Overall, Africa's urban population is projected to increase by approximately 135 million in the 1990-2000 decade (from 217 million to 352 million). About 105 million of the growth probably will occur in the smaller urban centers. The total African urban population is likely to reach one billion inhabitants within the next 50 years. It stood at 32 million in 1950. Presently, the United Nations projects 912 million urban residents

  3. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  4. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Cystic Artery Pseudoaneurysm in Acalculous Cholecystitis: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Ook; Lee, Young Hwan [Dept. of Radiology, Daegu Catholic University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Hwan [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Dongsan Medical Center, Keimyung University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    A pseudoaneurysm of the cystic artery is a rare complication of cholecystitis, and is manifested by hemobilia or hematemesis. An early diagnosis is required for the successful treatment by cholecystectomy and ligation of the cystic artery. Herein, we report a case of a pseudoaneurysm of the cystic artery diagnosed by color Doppler ultrasonography and CT, and successfully treated by transcatheter arterial embolization with N-butyl cyanoacrylate in a high-risk surgical patient.

  5. Urban and peri-urban precipitation and air temperature trends in mega cities of the world using multiple trend analysis methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajaaj, Aws A.; Mishra, Ashok K.; Khan, Abdul A.

    2018-04-01

    Urbanization plays an important role in altering local to regional climate. In this study, the trends in precipitation and the air temperature were investigated for urban and peri-urban areas of 18 mega cities selected from six continents (representing a wide range of climatic patterns). Multiple statistical tests were used to examine long-term trends in annual and seasonal precipitation and air temperature for the selected cities. The urban and peri-urban areas were classified based on the percentage of land imperviousness. Through this study, it was evident that removal of the lag-k serial correlation caused a reduction of approximately 20 to 30% in significant trend observability for temperature and precipitation data. This observation suggests that appropriate trend analysis methodology for climate studies is necessary. Additionally, about 70% of the urban areas showed higher positive air temperature trends, compared with peri-urban areas. There were not clear trend signatures (i.e., mix of increase or decrease) when comparing urban vs peri-urban precipitation in each selected city. Overall, cities located in dry areas, for example, in Africa, southern parts of North America, and Eastern Asia, showed a decrease in annual and seasonal precipitation, while wetter conditions were favorable for cities located in wet regions such as, southeastern South America, eastern North America, and northern Europe. A positive relationship was observed between decadal trends of annual/seasonal air temperature and precipitation for all urban and peri-urban areas, with a higher rate being observed for urban areas.

  6. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions. Part II: source contribution assessment using the Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badol, Caroline; Locoge, Nadine; Galloo, Jean-Claude

    2008-01-25

    In Part I of this study (Badol C, Locoge N, Leonardis T, Gallo JC. Using a source-receptor approach to characterise VOC behaviour in a French urban area influenced by industrial emissions, Part I: Study area description, data set acquisition and qualitative data analysis of the data set. Sci Total Environ 2007; submitted as companion manuscript.) the study area, acquisition of the one-year data set and qualitative analysis of the data set have been described. In Part II a source profile has been established for each activity present in the study area: 6 profiles (urban heating, solvent use, natural gas leakage, biogenic emissions, gasoline evaporation and vehicle exhaust) have been extracted from literature to characterise urban sources, 7 industrial profiles have been established via canister sampling around industrial plants (hydrocarbon cracking, oil refinery, hydrocarbon storage, lubricant storage, lubricant refinery, surface treatment and metallurgy). The CMB model is briefly described and its implementation is discussed through the selection of source profiles and fitting species. Main results of CMB modellings for the Dunkerque area are presented. (1) The daily evolution of source contributions for the urban wind sector shows that the vehicle exhaust source contribution varies between 40 and 55% and its relative increase at traffic rush hours is hardly perceptible. (2) The relative contribution of vehicle exhaust varies from 55% in winter down to 30% in summer. This decrease is due to the increase of the relative contribution of hydrocarbon storage source reaching up to 20% in summer. (3) The evolution of source contributions with wind directions has confirmed that in urban wind sectors the contribution of vehicle exhaust dominate with around 45-55%. For the other wind sectors that include some industrial plants, the contribution of industrial sources is around 60% and could reach 80% for the sector 280-310 degrees , which corresponds to the most dense

  7. Bilateral triple renal arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pestemalci, Turan; Yildiz, Yusuf Zeki; Yildirim, Mehmet; Mavi, Ayfer; Gumusburun, Erdem

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations of the renal artery has grown in importance with increasing numbers of renal transplants, vascular reconstructions and various surgical and radio logic techniques being performed in recent years. We report the presence of bilateral triple renal arteries, discovered on routine dissection of a male cadaver. On the right side, one additional renal artery originated from the abdominal aorta (distributed to superior pole of the kidney) and one other originated from the right common iliac artery (distributed to lower pole of the kidney). On the left side, both additional renal arteries originated from the abdominal aorta. Our observation has been compared with variations described in the literature and their clinical importance has been emphasized. (author)

  8. Arterial vascularization of the pineal gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahilogullari, Gokmen; Ugur, Hasan Caglar; Comert, Ayhan; Brohi, Recep Ali; Ozgural, Onur; Ozdemir, Mevci; Karahan, Suleyman Tuna

    2013-10-01

    The arterial vascularization of the pineal gland (PG) remains a debatable subject. This study aims to provide detailed information about the arterial vascularization of the PG. Thirty adult human brains were obtained from routine autopsies. Cerebral arteries were separately cannulated and injected with colored latex. The dissections were carried out using a surgical microscope. The diameters of the branches supplying the PG at their origin and vascularization areas of the branches of the arteries were investigated. The main artery of the PG was the lateral pineal artery, and it originated from the posterior circulation. The other arteries included the medial pineal artery from the posterior circulation and the rostral pineal artery mainly from the anterior circulation. Posteromedial choroidal artery was an important artery that branched to the PG. The arterial supply to the PG was studied comprehensively considering the debate and inadequacy of previously published studies on this issue available in the literature. This anatomical knowledge may be helpful for surgical treatment of pathologies of the PG, especially in children who develop more pathology in this region than adults.

  9. Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Transcatheter Arterial Embolization for Ruptured Occipital Arterial Aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanematsu, Masayuki; Kato, Hiroki; Kondo, Hiroshi; Goshima, Satoshi; Tsuge, Yusuke; Kojima, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Haruo

    2011-01-01

    Two cases of ruptured aneurysms in the posterior cervical regions associated with type-1 neurofibromatosis treated by transcatheter embolization are reported. Patients presented with acute onset of swelling and pain in the affected areas. Emergently performed contrast-enhanced CT demonstrated aneurysms and large hematomas widespread in the posterior cervical regions. Angiography revealed aneurysms and extravasations of the occipital artery. Patients were successfully treated by percutaneous transcatheter arterial microcoil embolization. Transcatheter arterial embolization therapy was found to be an effective method for treating aneurysmal rupture in the posterior cervical regions occurring in association with type-1 neurofibromatosis. A literature review revealed that rupture of an occipital arterial aneurysm, in the setting of neurofibromatosis type 1, has not been reported previously.

  10. A Renal Perforating Artery Mistaken for Arterial Bleeding after Percutaneous Renal Biopsy: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ye Lim; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min

    2009-01-01

    Perirenal hematoma after a renal biopsy is a common complication that usually resolves spontaneously, but this rarely requires transfusions or surgical/radiological intervention. We report here on a case of a renal perforating artery that was mistaken for renal arterial bleeding in a 53-year-old woman who was complicated with perirenal hematoma after undergoing a percutaneous renal biopsy. On the color and pulsed wave Doppler ultrasonography, linear blood flow was seen in the perirenal hematoma, which extended perpendicularly from the renal parenchyma into the perirenal space, and this linear blood flow exhibited an arterial pulse wave. On CT angiography, the renal perforating artery was demonstrated as a curvilinear vessel coursing tangentially to the renal margin and we decided that it was a pseudolesion caused by the renal perforating artery. A renal perforating artery may be mistaken for renal arterial bleeding after a percutaneous renal biopsy. A renal perforating artery and arterial bleeding can be differentiated by the location and shape seen on a color Doppler examination and the pulse waves characteristics

  11. A Renal Perforating Artery Mistaken for Arterial Bleeding after Percutaneous Renal Biopsy: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ye Lim; Lee, Chang Hee; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Park, Cheol Min [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    Perirenal hematoma after a renal biopsy is a common complication that usually resolves spontaneously, but this rarely requires transfusions or surgical/radiological intervention. We report here on a case of a renal perforating artery that was mistaken for renal arterial bleeding in a 53-year-old woman who was complicated with perirenal hematoma after undergoing a percutaneous renal biopsy. On the color and pulsed wave Doppler ultrasonography, linear blood flow was seen in the perirenal hematoma, which extended perpendicularly from the renal parenchyma into the perirenal space, and this linear blood flow exhibited an arterial pulse wave. On CT angiography, the renal perforating artery was demonstrated as a curvilinear vessel coursing tangentially to the renal margin and we decided that it was a pseudolesion caused by the renal perforating artery. A renal perforating artery may be mistaken for renal arterial bleeding after a percutaneous renal biopsy. A renal perforating artery and arterial bleeding can be differentiated by the location and shape seen on a color Doppler examination and the pulse waves characteristics

  12. Urban Experiments and Concrete Utopias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Lasse

    2009-01-01

    The paper explores how concrete urban experiments can challenge the pecuniary version of the experience city and stimulate a locally rooted and democratic version of an experience based city using heterotopias and concrete utopias as the link between top down planning and bottom up experiments...... administrations with public participation in order to shape a cultural agenda. The second part of the paper looks at two cases: NDSM in Amsterdam and Platform4 in Aalborg suggesting that it is concrete urban experiments like these that can create a link between visions and local reality in the Experience city...

  13. The ethics of smart cities and urban science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchin, Rob

    2016-12-28

    Software-enabled technologies and urban big data have become essential to the functioning of cities. Consequently, urban operational governance and city services are becoming highly responsive to a form of data-driven urbanism that is the key mode of production for smart cities. At the heart of data-driven urbanism is a computational understanding of city systems that reduces urban life to logic and calculative rules and procedures, which is underpinned by an instrumental rationality and realist epistemology. This rationality and epistemology are informed by and sustains urban science and urban informatics, which seek to make cities more knowable and controllable. This paper examines the forms, practices and ethics of smart cities and urban science, paying particular attention to: instrumental rationality and realist epistemology; privacy, datafication, dataveillance and geosurveillance; and data uses, such as social sorting and anticipatory governance. It argues that smart city initiatives and urban science need to be re-cast in three ways: a re-orientation in how cities are conceived; a reconfiguring of the underlying epistemology to openly recognize the contingent and relational nature of urban systems, processes and science; and the adoption of ethical principles designed to realize benefits of smart cities and urban science while reducing pernicious effects.This article is part of the themed issue 'The ethical impact of data science'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  14. Intermediaries in sustainable urban transitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birgitte; Agger, Annika

    ´s, or semi public institutions. Our claim is that interme-diary actors have the potential to reach a broader scope of citizens due to their particular role in between public au-thorities and civil society. The key question of the paper is how the intermediary actors facilitate citizens' participatory...... processes in sustainable urban management and the paper explores the development of communities of practise as a way to develop learning processes and new practises? The aim is to analyse approaches of involving citizens and how they contribute to the development of new actor configurations in urban social...... the development of new practises plays a part in multi level transitions. Empirically, the article is based on case studies from Denmark of local environmental centres, green guides etc. that have performed innovative forms of involving citizens in sustainable urban development. The empirical material...

  15. Duplication of Inferior Gluteal Artery and Course of Superior Gluteal Artery Through the Lumbosacral Trunk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satheesha Nayak B

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Internal iliac artery (IIA shows great deal of variations in its branching pattern. The knowledge of its variant branches is required for successful surgical, orthopedic, plastic surgery and radiological procedures. We observed variations of some of the branches of right IIA in an adult male cadaver. The iliolumbar artery originated from the main trunk of the IIA. After this, IIA divided into anterior and posterior divisions. The posterior division gave lateral sacral and superior gluteal arteries. Superior gluteal artery pierced the lumbosacral trunk before leaving the pelvis. The anterior division further divided into anterior and posterior trunks. Anterior trunk gave rise to superior vesical, inferior vesical, middle rectal and obturator arteries. The posterior trunk gave two inferior gluteal arteries and an internal pudendal artery.

  16. Arterial Stiffness and its Correlation with the Extent of Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hourak Poorzand

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary artery disease secondary to atherosclerosis is the most common cause of mortality. Coronary angiography is the most precise method for determining the extent of disease in the coronary vascular bed. Arterial stiffness has been proposed as a marker of atherosclerosis in some studies. One of the noninvasive methods for the determination of arterial stiffness is Doppler echocardiography. In this study, we aimed to find the correlation between arterial stiffness as measured by echocardiography and the extent of coronary artery disease as evaluated through angiography. Materials and Methods: Aortic pulse wave velocity (APWV was measured by using the Doppler method in 70 patients, who were candidates for coronary angiography. The extent of coronary artery disease was determined quantitatively in terms of Friesinger index and semi-quantitatively as the number of vessels with stenosis of over 50%. Then, the correlation between arterial stiffness and these factors was evaluated. Results: The mean APWV was 9.1±5 m/s. There was a direct relationship between APWV and Friesinger index, which was not statistically significant (P=0.67. The mean APWV for patients with one-vessel disease was 4.4±1.8 m/s, while it was 9.9±3.6 m/s in patients with two and 7.9±4 m/s in three-vessel disease which did not show statistically significant difference. Conclusion: Doppler echocardiography to measure APWV was not considered as a promising tool to predict the extent of coronary artery disease.

  17. Human-Induced Climate Variations Linked to Urbanization: From Observations to Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, J. Marshall; Jin, Menglin

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this session is to bring together scientists from interdisciplinary backgrounds to discuss the data, scientific approaches and recent results focusing on the impact of urbanization on the climate. The discussion will highlight current observational and modeling capabilities being employed for investigating the urban environment and its linkage to the change in the Earth's climate system. The goal of the session is to identify our current stand and the future direction on the topic. Urbanization is one of the extreme cases of land use change. Most of population of the world has moved to urban areas. By 1995, more than 70% of population of North America and Europe were living in cities. By 2025, the United Nations estimates that 60% of the worlds population will live in cities. Although currently only 1.2% of the land is urban, better understanding of how the atmosphere-ocean-land-biosphere components interact as a coupled system and the influence of human activities on this system is critical. Our understanding of urbanization effect is incomplete, partly because human activities induce new changes on climate in addition to the original natural variations, and partly because previously few data available for study urban effect globally. Urban construction changes surface roughness, albedo, heat capacity and vegetation coverage. Traffic and industry increase atmospheric aerosol. It is suggested that urbanization may modify rainfall processes through aerosol-cloud interactions or dynamic feedbacks. Because urbanization effect on climate is determined by many factors including land cover, the city's microscale features, population density, and human lifestyle patterns, it is necessary to study urban areas over globe.

  18. Long-term outcomes of internal carotid artery disease treated using radial artery graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murai, Yasuo; Teramoto, Akira; Mizunari, Takayuki; Kobayashi, Shiro; Umeoka, Katsuya; Tateyama, Kojiro

    2009-01-01

    Complex internal carotid artery disease presents a surgical challenge because limitations and difficulty are encountered with either clipping or endovascular treatment. Our review of previous reports suggests that no current vascular assessment can accurately predict occurrence of ischemic complications after internal carotid artery ligation. The present study concerns long-term clinical outcome of radial artery grafting followed by parent artery trapping or proximal occlusion for management of these difficult lesions. Between September 1997 and October 2007, we performed radial artery grafting followed immediately by parent artery occlusion in 20 sides of 19 patients with complex internal carotid arteries disease with follow-up for more than 36 months (5 men, 14 women; mean follow-up duration, 62 months). All patients underwent postoperative MRI and MR angiography (MRA) every year to assess graft patency, ischemic complications, and de novo aneurysm. Another 20 carotid aneurysms with visual disturbance were assessed concerning outcome. Among 13 patients with cranial nerve (III and VI) disturbances, all dysfunctions were improved in cases treated within 8 months of onset to operation. On the other hand, patients with second cranial nerve disturbances were not improved in cases treated after 4 months of onset. No long-term complications were discovered with MRI and MRA. With appropriate attention to surgical technique, radial artery grafting followed by acute parent artery occlusion is a safe treatment for complex internal carotid artery aneurysms. Long-term safety is satisfactory, with no delayed complications such as graft stenosis, ischemic complications or de novo aneurysm formations in follow-up periods of more than 3 years. Good clinical outcome of cranial nerve palsy was achieved in patients treated within 8 months of onset for cranial nerve (CN) III and VI, and 4 of CN II palsy. (author)

  19. Urban church forests for local temperature regulation: Implications the role of managing and incorporating urban green space in urban planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulu Tolla TURA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The global surface temperature shows an increment of 0.50.1C per decade and 1.050.3C per century from 1880-2014 with greater increases in cities than non-urban areas. Global communities are shifting towards urbanization due to various factors. Urbanization has caused lack of stable condition for dwellers due to environmental and anthropogenic factors such as land cover changes. Urban temperature rising is the main factors hindering urban dwellers at global level due to insufficient green areas. Social institutions are playing important role in urban greening and urban climate regulation. Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church has long history in indigenous trees biodiversity conservation that plays largely greening role in urban and rural parts of the country. However, there is a research gap in Ethiopia regarding the role of urban green area in the church yards in regulating urban temperature and microclimate change. Therefore, the study evaluated the role of church managed forests in Addis Ababa in regulating surface temperature. Surface temperature inside four church forests at a buffer radius of 0–50 m, 50–100 m, 100–200 m and 200–500 m estimated using Landsat image thermal band 6 of 1986, 2000 and 2010 and ground measurement by ambient thermometer at 10:00 am, 12:30 am and 3:00 pm local time. The ground measurement was done in order to validate satellite image analysis. Plant species diversity, DBH, H, HC, BH and BA was measured. There were 1167 trees in the four studied churches. The mean temperatures of the studied sites were 22.50.1, 23.250.2, 240.6, 24.61.1 and 25.52.2C on site,0–50 m, 50–100 m, 100–200m and 200–500 m respectively for 1986 images; 23.20.5, 23.31.0, 24.32.1, 24.82.2 and 25.51.8C on site, 0-50 m, 50–100 m, 100–200 m and 200–500 m respectively for 2000 images and 23.20.3, 23.270.2, 23.71.6, 241.4 and 24.71.3C on site, 0–50 m, 50–100 m

  20. Hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive hepatic artery injury: transcatheter arterial chemoembolization through collaterals after coil embolizatoin of gastric arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gab Choul; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Lee, Duck Hee; Song, Ho Young; Suh, Dong Jin; Lee, Yung Sang; Chung, Young Hwa; Sung, Gyu Bo; Ko, Ki Young

    1999-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) after coil embolization of the gastroduodenal artery in hepatocellular carcinoma cases with multiple collateral arteries caused by proper hepatic artery injury. Between March 1997 and November 1998, a prospective trial of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was performed through collaterals from the gastroduodenal artery of 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients with extensive proper hepatic artery injury due to repeated TACE. Among this number, 16 (group A) underwent TACE after coil embolization of the right gastric and gastroduodenal artery. The other 15 patients (group B) underwent TACE without coil embolization. The two groups had the same TNM stage and Clild-Pugh status. During the follow-up period, group A underwent additional TACE 3.3 times, and group B 2.8 times. The therapeutic effect of TACE was evaluated with computed tomography and by measuring alpha-fetoprotein levels. Complications were evaluated by means of gastrofibroscopy, laboratory data, and evaluation of the patients' clinical symptoms. The results obtained after six months and one year were compared within and between each group. At six months follow-up, CT findings had improved or were unchanged in 11 patients(69 %) in group A, and four patients(27 %) in group B(p = 0.032). In ten patients in each group, the level of alpha-fetoprotein was above 200 ng/ml. Its level was decreased in five patients(50 %) and three patients(30 %), respectively. The six-month survival rate was 81 % (13/16) in group A and 67% (10/15) in group B (p 0.43), while the one-year survival figures for these two groups were 50 % (8/16) and 20 % (3/15), respectively(p = 0.135). In group A, the CT findings were steady in five out of eight patients(63 %), while in groupB, CT findings showed that tumors with increased alpha-fetoprotein levels had increased in size and/or number. In group A, it was found that in two (33 %) of six

  1. Hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive hepatic artery injury: transcatheter arterial chemoembolization through collaterals after coil embolizatoin of gastric arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gab Choul; Yoon, Hyun Ki; Hwang, Jae Cheol; Lee, Duck Hee; Song, Ho Young; Suh, Dong Jin; Lee, Yung Sang; Chung, Young Hwa; Sung, Gyu Bo [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Ki Young [Catholic Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE) after coil embolization of the gastroduodenal artery in hepatocellular carcinoma cases with multiple collateral arteries caused by proper hepatic artery injury. Between March 1997 and November 1998, a prospective trial of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) was performed through collaterals from the gastroduodenal artery of 31 hepatocellular carcinoma patients with extensive proper hepatic artery injury due to repeated TACE. Among this number, 16 (group A) underwent TACE after coil embolization of the right gastric and gastroduodenal artery. The other 15 patients (group B) underwent TACE without coil embolization. The two groups had the same TNM stage and Clild-Pugh status. During the follow-up period, group A underwent additional TACE 3.3 times, and group B 2.8 times. The therapeutic effect of TACE was evaluated with computed tomography and by measuring alpha-fetoprotein levels. Complications were evaluated by means of gastrofibroscopy, laboratory data, and evaluation of the patients' clinical symptoms. The results obtained after six months and one year were compared within and between each group. At six months follow-up, CT findings had improved or were unchanged in 11 patients(69 %) in group A, and four patients(27 %) in group B(p = 0.032). In ten patients in each group, the level of alpha-fetoprotein was above 200 ng/ml. Its level was decreased in five patients(50 %) and three patients(30 %), respectively. The six-month survival rate was 81 % (13/16) in group A and 67% (10/15) in group B (p 0.43), while the one-year survival figures for these two groups were 50 % (8/16) and 20 % (3/15), respectively(p = 0.135). In group A, the CT findings were steady in five out of eight patients(63 %), while in groupB, CT findings showed that tumors with increased alpha-fetoprotein levels had increased in size and/or number. In group A, it was found that in two (33 %) of six

  2. The evolution of Wisconsin's urban FIA program—yesterday today and tomorrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew M. Stoltman; Richard B. Rideout

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, Wisconsin was part of two pilot projects in cooperation with the US Forest Service. The first was a street tree assessment, and the second was an urban FIA project. The data generated by these pilots changed the way that Wisconsin DNRs’ Urban Forestry Program conducts its business. Although there have been several urban FIA pilot projects throughout the U.S.,...

  3. Towards a peri-urban political ecology of water quality decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karpouzoglou, Timothy; Marshall, Fiona; Mehta, Lyla

    2018-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed an expanding body of peri-urban and urban scholarship. However, recent scholarship has yet to adequately address the central role of politics and power shaping water quality decline. The article focuses on the trans-Hindon region which is part of Ghaziabad city, close to

  4. Excretory urogramm with angiotomography: Imaging of the renal arteries by excretory urogramm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, G.

    1982-01-01

    Excretory urography permits imaging of the renal arteries up to the intrarenal ramification if the contrast medium is injected as a bolus and the time of circulation between arm vein and abdominal aorta is determined with sufficient accuracy. Imaging of the vessel phase is done using simultaneous tomography. In the experimental part of the paper phantom tests are carried through to establish the contrast medium concentration to be expected in the renal arteries by means of microdensitometry. With the aid of 100 computerized tomograms of the abdomen the layer thickness required was determined to 4.5 cm; further phantom tests provided the necessary layer distances to image renal arteries that do not run in parallel to the plain of the film. The circulation time between arm vein and abdominal aorta was measured in 180 patients using the radioisotope method. It ranges between 9 and 22 seconds. Comparisons with the Decholin-method were made. 739 renal arteries were seen during the evaluation of 343 excretory urographies with angiotomograms, in 83 per cent of the cases these arteries were presented entirely. Provided perfect execution, simultaneous tomography is a very informative method. For 212 patients the side-effects of the bolar contrast medium injection were recorded. The importance of excretory urography with combined angiotomography for the diagnosis of arterial hypertension is discussed. (orig.) [de

  5. Severe gastric variceal haemorrhage due to splenic artery thrombosis and consecutive arterial bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasmuth Hermann E

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage is mainly caused by ulcers. Gastric varicosis due to portal hypertension can also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Portal hypertension causes the development of a collateral circulation from the portal to the caval venous system resulting in development of oesophageal and gastric fundus varices. Those may also be held responsible for upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Case presentation In this study, we describe the case of a 69-year-old male with recurrent severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by arterial submucosal collaterals due to idiopathic splenic artery thrombosis. The diagnosis was secured using endoscopic duplex ultrasound and angiography. The patient was successfully treated with a laparoscopic splenectomy and complete dissection of the short gastric arteries, resulting in the collapse of the submucosal arteries in the gastric wall. Follow-up gastroscopy was performed on the 12th postoperative week and showed no signs of bleeding and a significant reduction in the arterial blood flow within the gastric wall. Subsequent follow-up after 6 months also showed no further gastrointestinal bleeding as well as subjective good quality of life for the patient. Conclusion Submucosal arterial collaterals must be excluded by endosonography via endoscopy in case of recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Laparoscopic splenectomy provides adequate treatment in preventing any recurrent bleeding, if gastric arterial collaterals are caused by splenic artery thrombosis.

  6. Traumatic Distal Ulnar Artery Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet A. Karaarslan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about a posttraumatic distal ulnar artery thrombosis case that has occurred after a single blunt trauma. The ulnar artery thrombosis because of chronic trauma is a frequent condition (hypothenar hammer syndrome but an ulnar artery thrombosis because of a single direct blunt trauma is rare. Our patient who has been affected by a single blunt trauma to his hand and developed ulnar artery thrombosis has been treated by resection of the thrombosed ulnar artery segment. This report shows that a single blunt trauma can cause distal ulnar artery thrombosis in the hand and it can be treated merely by thrombosed segment resection in suitable cases.

  7. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P Exercise training reduced (P exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Ankle-brachial index as indicator of chronic arterial insufficiency of the lower extremities and renal artery stenosis CT/DS angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiev, A.; Chervenkov, L.; Karadon, S.

    2015-01-01

    Full text: The aim is to validate the measurements of ankle -brachial index (ABI), as part of routine examination algorithm in conducting CTA/DSA of the extremities in patients suffering from PAD. Correlations between ABI values and renal artery stenosis. The present study includes 200 patients (138 men and 62 women, aged between 60 and 75 years). 130 of them were examined by a computer- tomography angiography - 95 men and 32 women. 70 patients were examined by digital subtraction angiography - 50 men and 20 women. Measurements of ankle-brachial index (ABI) were performed on all patients by measuring the systolic blood pressure on both brachial arteries and determine the peak pressure in both aa. dorsalis pedis. Statistical data processing. There are no patients in the study with ABI values above 0.7 that have established renal artery stenosis. All patients with severe atherosclerotic changes have values of the ABI below 0.7, and those with the most severe changes below 0.5. This fully corresponds to global data showing that values below 0.9 ABI show mild engagement, below 0.7 average, and below 0.5 severe involvement. According to the results of this survey sensitivity of ABI for renal arteries below 0.7 equals 100% and its specificity = 67.5%. For values of ABI below 0.5: Sensitivity =100%; Specificity = 83.85%. By determining ABI values both symptomatic and asymptomatic form of a PAD can be diagnosed. the method is fast, non-invasive, inexpensive and applicable everywhere. No special preparation of the patient is needed. The method can be used not only to assess the degree of commitment of the vessels of the lower limbs, but also as an indicator for the state of renal arteries in those patients

  9. Central projections of the sensory innervation of the rat middle meningeal artery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Y.; Broman, J.; Edvinsson, L.

    2008-01-01

    Headaches, especially migraine, involve not only pain but also aspects such as vasodilation of cranial vessels and sensitization of nerve endings, processes dependent on and connected to the central nervous system. To understand pathogenic mechanisms of headache, it is important to elucidate...... the central projections of sensory nerves that innervate cranial vessels, of which the middle meningeal artery (MMA) is the largest artery supplying the dura mater. In this study, cholera toxin subunit b (CTb) or wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugate (WGA-HRP) was applied on the adventitia....... Labeled nerve terminations were found ipsilaterally in the lateral part of the spinal dorsal horn of segments C1-C3 and in the caudal and interpolar parts of the spinal trigeminal nucleus. WGA-HRP labeled terminations were mainly located in laminae I and II, whereas CTb labeled terminations located...

  10. Clinical significance of intramammary arterial calcifications in diabetic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Zorica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that intramammary arterial calcifications diagnosed by mammography as a part of generalized diabetic macroangiopathy may be an indirect sign of diabetes mellitus. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of intramammary arterial calcifications, the patient’s age when the calcifications occur, as well as to observe the influence of diabetic polineuropathy, type, and the duration of diabetes on the onset of calcifications, in comparison with nondiabetic women. Methods. Mammographic findings of 113 diabetic female patients (21 with type 1 diabetes and 92 with type 2, as well as of 208 nondiabetic women (the control group were analyzed in the prospective study. The data about the type of diabetes, its duration, and polineuropathy were obtained using the questionnaire. Statistical differences were determined by Mann-Whitney test. Results. Intramammary arterial calcifications were identified in 33.3% of the women with type 1 diabetes, in 40.2% with type 2, and in 8.2% of the women from the control group, respectively. The differences comparing the women with type 1, as well as type 2 diabetes and the controls were statistically significant (p=0.0001. Women with intramammary arterial calcifications and type 1 diabetes were younger comparing to the control group (median age 52 years, comparing to 67 years of age, p=0.001, while there was no statistically significant difference in age between the women with calcifications and type 2 diabetes (61 years of age in relation to the control group (p=0.176. The incidence of polineuropathy in diabetic women was higher in the group with intramammary arterial calcifications (52.3% in comparison to the group without calcifications (26.1%, (p=0.005. The association between intramammary arterial calcifications and the duration of diabetes was not found. Conclusion. The obtained results supported the theory that intramammary arterial calcifications, detected by

  11. Measurement of Blood Flow in an Intracranial Artery Bypass From the Internal Maxillary Artery by Intraoperative Duplex Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zaitao; Shi, Xiang'en; Brohi, Shams Raza; Qian, Hai; Liu, Fangjun; Yang, Yang

    2017-02-01

    This study explored the hemodynamic characteristics of a subcranial-intracranial bypass from the internal maxillary artery by measuring blood flow on intraoperative duplex sonography. The hemodynamic parameters of the internal maxillary artery (n = 20), radial artery (n = 20), internal maxillary artery-middle cerebral artery bypass (n = 42), and internal maxillary artery-posterior cerebral artery bypass (n = 9) were measured by intraoperative duplex sonography. There was no significant difference in the internal diameters of the internal maxillary and radial arteries (mean ± SD, 2.51 ± 0.34 versus 2.56 ± 0.22 mm; P = .648). The mean radial artery graft length for subcranial-intracranial bypasses was 88.5 ± 12.78 mm (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.8-90.2 mm). Internal maxillary artery-middle cerebral artery bypasses required a shorter radial artery graft than internal maxillary artery-posterior cerebral artery bypasses (77.8 ± 2.47 versus 104.8 ± 4.77 mm; P = .001). The mean flow volumes were 85.3 ± 18.5 mL/min (95% CI, 76.6-93.9 mL/min) for the internal maxillary artery, 72.6 ± 26.4 mL/min (95% CI, 64.3-80.9 mL/min) for internal maxillary artery-middle cerebral artery bypasses, and 45.4 ± 6.7 mL/min (95% CI, 40.7-50.0 mL/min) for internal maxillary artery-posterior cerebral artery bypasses. All grafts were opened after the success of the salvage procedures had been established, and the early patency rates (1 month after the operation) were 95% for internal maxillary artery-middle cerebral artery bypasses and 100% the internal maxillary artery-posterior cerebral artery bypasses. Measurement of blood flow by intraoperative sonography can be helpful in decision making and predicting graft patency and success after neurosurgical bypass procedures. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  12. Intra-arterial port implantation for intra-arterial chemotherapy : comparison between PIPS(Percutaneously Implantable Port System) and port system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Jin; Shim, Hyung Jin; Jung, Hun Young; Choi, Yong Ho; Kim, Yang Soo; Song, In Sup; Kwak, Byung Kook

    1999-01-01

    To compare the techniques and complications of intra-arterial port implantation for intra-arterial chemotherapy between PIPS and the port system. For intra-arterial port implantation, 27 cases in 27 patients were retrospectively evaluated using PIPS(PIPS-200, William Cook Europe, Denmark) while for 21 cases in 19 patients a pediatric venous port system(Port-A-Cath, 5.8F, SIMS Deltec, U. S. A.) was used. All intra-arterial port implantation was performed percuteneously in an angiographic ward. Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 18 patients and hepatic metastasis in 16. Peripheral cholangiocarcinoma, and pancreatic gastric, ovarian, renal cell and colon carcinoma were included. We compared the techniques and complications between PIPS and the port system. The follow up period ranged from 23 to 494(mean, 163) days in PIPS and from 12 to 431(mean, 150) days in the port system. In all cases, intra-arterial port implantations were technically successful. Port catheter tips were located in the common hepatic artery(n=8), proper hepatic artery(n=7), right hepatic artery(n=5), gastroduodenal artery(n=2), left hepatic artery(n=1), pancreaticoduodenal artery(n=1), inferior mesenteric artery(n=1), lumbar artery(n=1), and renal artery(n=1) in PIPS, and in the proper hepatic artery(n=6), gastroduodenal artery(n=6), common hepatic artery(n=3), right hepatic artery(n=4), inferior mesenteric artery(n=1), and internal iliac artery(n=1) in the port system. Port chambers were buried in infrainguinal subcutaneous tissue. Using PIPS, complications developed in seven cases(25.9%) and of these, four (57.1%) were catheter or chamber related. In the port system, catheter or chamber related complications developed in four cases(19.0%). Because PIPS and the port system have relative merits and demetrits, successful intra-arterial port implantation is possible if equipment is properly selected

  13. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriacou, P A; Shafqat, K; Pal, S K

    2007-01-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO 2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  14. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  15. Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient, Milwaukee to Green Bay, Wisconsin, 2003-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Kevin D.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Steuer, Jeffery J.; Bell, Amanda H.; Peppler, Marie C.; Stewart, Jana S.; Harris, Mitchell A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, 30 streams near Milwaukee and Green Bay, Wisconsin, were part of a national study by the U.S. Geological Survey to assess urbanization effects on physical, chemical, and biological characteristics along an agriculture-to-urban land-use gradient. A geographic information system was used to characterize natural landscape features that define the environmental setting and the degree of urbanization within each stream watershed. A combination of land cover, socioeconomic, and infrastructure variables were integrated into a multi-metric urban intensity index, scaled from 0 to 100, and assigned to each stream site to identify a gradient of urbanization within relatively homogeneous environmental settings. The 35 variables used to develop the final urban intensity index characterized the degree of urbanization and included road infrastructure (road area and road traffic index), 100-meter riparian land cover (percentage of impervious surface, shrubland, and agriculture), watershed land cover (percentage of impervious surface, developed/urban land, shrubland, and agriculture), and 26 socioeconomic variables (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001). Characteristics examined as part of this study included: habitat, hydrology, stream temperature, water chemistry (chloride, sulfate, nutrients, dissolved and particulate organic and inorganic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediment), benthic algae, benthic invertebrates, and fish. Semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) were used to assess the potential for bioconcentration of hydrophobic organic contaminants (specifically polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine and pyrethroid insecticides) in biological membranes, such as the gills of fish. Physical habitat measurements reflective of channel enlargement, including bankfull channel size and bank erosion, increased with increasing urbanization within the watershed. In this study, percentage of riffles and streambed substrate size were

  16. Variations in superior thyroid artery: A selective angiographic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Bhalla, Ashu Seith; Thulkar, Sanjay; Kumar, Atin; Mohanti, Bidhu Kalyan; Thakar, Alok; Sharma, Atul

    2014-01-01

    To investigate variations in superior thyroid artery (STA) based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Twenty five angiography studies of 15 pts performed between June 2010 and December 2012 were retrospectively evaluated. These patients underwent DSA of the head and neck region as a part of their superselective neoadjuvant intra-arterial chemotherapy protocol for treatment of laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancers. Depending upon the location of the tumor, unilateral or bilateral arteriograms of common carotid artery (CCA), external carotid artery (ECA), and STA were performed. Arteriograms were evaluated for the site of origin and branching pattern of STA. STA anatomy was ascribed to one of the three branching patterns. A total of 25 angiograms were evaluated, including 14 right and 11 left. On the right side, STA was noted to arise from ECA in 10 (71.5%), bifurcation of CCA in 3 (21.5%), and CCA in 1 (7%) patient. Left STA was seen to arise from ECA in 8 (72.5%), bifurcation of CCA in 2 (18.5%), and internal carotid artery (ICA) in 1 (9%) patient. Type III branching pattern (non-bifurcation, non-trifurcation) was found to be the most frequent (52%). Infrahyoid branch was found to be the most consistent in terms of its origin from STA. Origin of STA is predictable, arising from ECA in more than 70% cases. Branching pattern of STA, following origin from ECA, is, however, highly variable. Knowledge concerning the origin and branching pattern of STA is essential in enhancing precision and decreasing morbidity related to the surgical and interventional radiological head and neck procedures

  17. Metabolic liver function measured in vivo by dynamic (18)F-FDGal PET/CT without arterial blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsager, Jacob; Munk, Ole Lajord; Sørensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic liver function can be measured by dynamic PET/CT with the radio-labelled galactose-analogue 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose ((18)F-FDGal) in terms of hepatic systemic clearance of (18)F-FDGal (K, ml blood/ml liver tissue/min). The method requires arterial blood sampling from a radial artery (arterial input function), and the aim of this study was to develop a method for extracting an image-derived, non-invasive input function from a volume of interest (VOI). Dynamic (18)F-FDGal PET/CT data from 16 subjects without liver disease (healthy subjects) and 16 patients with liver cirrhosis were included in the study. Five different input VOIs were tested: four in the abdominal aorta and one in the left ventricle of the heart. Arterial input function from manual blood sampling was available for all subjects. K*-values were calculated using time-activity curves (TACs) from each VOI as input and compared to the K-value calculated using arterial blood samples as input. Each input VOI was tested on PET data reconstructed with and without resolution modelling. All five image-derived input VOIs yielded K*-values that correlated significantly with K calculated using arterial blood samples. Furthermore, TACs from two different VOIs yielded K*-values that did not statistically deviate from K calculated using arterial blood samples. A semicircle drawn in the posterior part of the abdominal aorta was the only VOI that was successful for both healthy subjects and patients as well as for PET data reconstructed with and without resolution modelling. Metabolic liver function using (18)F-FDGal PET/CT can be measured without arterial blood samples by using input data from a semicircle VOI drawn in the posterior part of the abdominal aorta.

  18. Comparison of selective arterial spin labeling using 1D and 2D tagging RF pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konstandin, Simon; Heiler, Patrick M.; Schad, Lothar R. [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Computer Assisted Clinical Medicine; Scharf, Johann [Heidelberg Univ., Mannheim (Germany). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2011-07-01

    Generic arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques label all brain feeding arteries. In this work, we used two different selective ASL (SASL) methods to show the perfusion of one single artery. A slice selective inversion of an area including the desired vessel was compared to a multidimensional RF pulse with Gaussian profile to label only the artery of interest. Perfusion images with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 5 mm{sup 3} are shown that were acquired after tagging only the internal carotid artery of healthy volunteers. In addition, both techniques were applied to a patient with an extra-intracranial bypass to illustrate its perfusion territory. These perfusion images are consistent with a standard angiography. SASL imaging with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 5 mm{sup 3} is possible in a total scan time of 5 min. The presented MR techniques may in part replace the assessment of revascularization success by conventional angiography. (orig.)

  19. Comparison of selective arterial spin labeling using 1D and 2D tagging RF pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstandin, Simon; Heiler, Patrick M.; Schad, Lothar R.; Scharf, Johann

    2011-01-01

    Generic arterial spin labeling (ASL) techniques label all brain feeding arteries. In this work, we used two different selective ASL (SASL) methods to show the perfusion of one single artery. A slice selective inversion of an area including the desired vessel was compared to a multidimensional RF pulse with Gaussian profile to label only the artery of interest. Perfusion images with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 5 mm 3 are shown that were acquired after tagging only the internal carotid artery of healthy volunteers. In addition, both techniques were applied to a patient with an extra-intracranial bypass to illustrate its perfusion territory. These perfusion images are consistent with a standard angiography. SASL imaging with a resolution of 2 x 2 x 5 mm 3 is possible in a total scan time of 5 min. The presented MR techniques may in part replace the assessment of revascularization success by conventional angiography. (orig.)

  20. Strategies for managing the effects of urban development on streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappiella, Karen; Stack, William P.; Fraley-McNeal, Lisa; Lane, Cecilia; McMahon, Gerard

    2012-01-01

    Urban development remains an important agent of environmental change in the United States. The U.S. population grew by 17 percent from 1982 to 1997, while urbanized land area grew by 47 percent, suggesting that urban land consumption far outpaced population growth (Fulton and others, 2001; Sierra Club, 2003; American Farmland Trust, 2009). Eighty percent of Americans now live in metropolitan areas. Each American effectively occupies about 20 percent more developed land (for housing, schools, shopping, roads, and other related services) than 20 years ago (Markham and Steinzor, 2006). Passel and Cohn (2008) predict a dramatic 48 percent increase in the population of the United States from 2005 to 2050. The advantages and challenges of living in these developed areas—convenience, congestion, employment, pollution—are part of the day-to-day realities of most Americans. Nowhere are the environmental changes associated with urban development more evident than in urban streams. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program investigation of the effects of urban development on stream ecosystems (EUSE) during 1999–2004 provides the most spatially comprehensive analysis of stream impacts of urban development that has been completed in the United States. A nationally consistent study design was used in nine metropolitan areas of the United States—Portland, Oregon; Salt Lake City, Utah; Birmingham, Alabama; Atlanta, Georgia; Raleigh, North Carolina; Boston, Massachusetts; Denver, Colorado; Dallas, Texas; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. A summary report published as part of the EUSE study describes several of these impacts on urban streams (Coles and others, 2012).

  1. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkáč Štefan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual “energy circles”. This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  2. The Power of Micro Urban Structures, Theory of EEPGC - the Micro Urban Energy Distribution Model as a Planning Tool for Sustainable City Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkáč, Štefan

    2015-11-01

    To achieve the smart growth and equitable development in the region, urban planners should consider also lateral energies represented by the energy urban models like further proposed EEPGC focused on energy distribution via connections among micro-urban structures, their onsite renewable resources and the perception of micro-urban structures as decentralized energy carriers based on pre industrialized era. These structures are still variously bound when part of greater patterns. After the industrial revolution the main traded goods became energy in its various forms. The EEPGC is focused on sustainable energy transportation distances between the villages and the city, described by the virtual "energy circles". This more human scale urbanization, boost the economy in micro-urban areas, rising along with clean energy available in situ that surely gives a different perspective to human quality of life in contrast to overcrowded multicultural mega-urban structures facing generations of problems and struggling to survive as a whole.

  3. Morphometry of A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery and its clinical importance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, A; Nayak, S R; Bagoji, I B; D'Costa, S; Pai, M M; Jiji, P J; Kumar, C G; Rai, R

    2010-01-01

    Anterior cerebral artery, one of the terminal branches of the internal carotid artery is an important vessel taking part in the formation of circle of Willis. It supplies a large part of the medial surface of the cerebral hemisphere containing the areas of motor and somatosensory cortices of the lower limb. Aim of this study was the morphometry of A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery. 93 formalin fixed brain specimen of either sex and of Indian origin were studied. The mean length, mean external diameter and the anomalies present in A1 segment of the vessel were studied in detail and photographed. The mean length of A1 segment of the vessel was 14.49+/-0.28 mm and 14.22+/-0.22 mm on right and left side respectively. The mean external diameter of the vessel on right and left side was 2.12+/-0.07 mm and 2.32+/-0.06 mm respectively. Narrowing, aneurysm formation, buttonhole formation and median anterior cerebral artery were the anomalies seen with an occurrence of 15.05%, 5.37%, 3.22% and 12.9%, respectively. The above anomalies did not have any sex or side predilection. Knowledge of morphometry of the vessel will be of use to neurosurgeons while performing the shunt operation, in assessing the feasibility of such operations and in the choice of patients. From this study we infer that the morphometry of anterior cerebral artery varies in different population and that the neurosurgeons operating should have a thorough knowledge of the possible variations.

  4. Surgical treatment of chronic occlusive in peripheral arteries (Review of 100 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AHRARI

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to diseuse the philosophy of our approch to the severely ischemic extremity and ourcurrent methods of treatment. 1 - The natural history of artheriosclerotic arterial obstruction should always be borne in mind. There is no doubt that many people have some degree of arterial stenosis or obstrcction and never suffer symptoms, either because of the reduced demand due to senility or because they are prepared to tolerate minor inconveniences which do not significantly interfere with their lives or livelihood. It should also be remembered that a proportion of patients with claudication improve spontaneously ever a time scale extending to many months or years. Taylor and Cale (1962, in a long term follow up of patients with untreated intermittent claudication, found spontaneous relief of symptoms in 39 per cent of the cases, no change in 45% and 16% worsening. Because of this it is impossible to lay down precise rules concerning the treatment of patients with intermittent claudication. It would be wrong to advise major arterial surgery in an elderly patient with extensive main' vessel disease and relatively mild claudication, and equally wrong to deny surgical treatment to an active younger patient with a we 11 localized arterial lesion. It is superfuous to add that anyhow, the surgery must not make the patient worse. 2- In a survey of a decade of experience, the arterioplastie treatment of occlusive disease seems to fall int three groups based on the anatomic distribution of the lesion. (Ref, 13. A - These in whom the obstructive disease is limited to the aortoiliac segments of the arterial tree supplying the leg. B - Those with both aort-iliao and femoral arterial disease. C - These with only femoropopliteal or proximal part of the popliteal arteries. Results in both the aorto-iliac and femoral arterial disease operations were in general satisfactory. The good early results of aorto-iliac operations showed only a

  5. Anomalous left the pulmonary dilemma coronary artery artery from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anomalous origin ofthe left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is an unusual congenital ... led us to review our experience of this anomaly over the past 10 years. During this .... New York: McGraw-Hill, 1978: 1345. 5. Bland EF, White PO, ...

  6. Emergency Pancreatoduodenectomy with Preservation of Gastroduodenal Artery for Massive Gastrointestinal Bleeding due to Duodenal Metastasis by Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma in a Patient with Celiac Artery Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Neofytou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal metastasis from renal cell carcinoma is rare, and even rarer is a massive gastrointestinal bleeding from such tumours. Coeliac occlusive disease, although rarely symptomatic, can lead to ischaemic changes with anastomotic dehiscence and leaks when a patient undergoes pancreatoduodenectomy. A 41-year-old man with known metastasis to the adrenal glands and the second part of the duodenum close to the ampulla of Vater from clear cell renal cell carcinoma was admitted to our department due to massive gastrointestinal bleeding from the duodenal metastasis. Endoscopic control of the bleed was not possible, while the bleeding vessel embolization was able to control the haemorrhage only temporarily. An angiography during the embolization demonstrated the presence of stenosis of the coeliac artery and also hypertrophic inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries supplying the proper hepatic artery via the gastroduodenal artery (GDA. The patient underwent emergency pancreatoduodenectomy with preservation of the gastroduodenal artery. The patient had an uneventful recovery and did not experience further bleeding. Also the blood flow to the liver was compromised as shown by the normal liver function tests (LFTs postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a preservation of the GDA during an emergency pancreatoduodenectomy.

  7. Correlation of femoral artery vs radial artery pressures with central pressure after cardiopulmonary bypass in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaseen, R.; Memon, H.

    2008-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of femoral and radial arterial lines on the correlation of peripheral and central mean arterial blood pressure in children after discontinuation of cardiopulmonary bypass. Fifty children scheduled for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass were included in the study. After approval from the hospital ethics committee and informed consent. 50 children undergoing cardiac surgical procedures with cardiopulmonary bypass were randomly assigned to two different groups. In Group- A (RAP, n-2) a radial arterial line and in Group-B (FAP, n-25) a femoral arterial line was used to monitor the blood pressure. Simultaneous mean peripheral arterial pressure and mean central aortic pressure were recorded before cardiopulmonary bypass and 5 mins after separation from the cardiopulmonary bypass. The correlation of mean peripheral arterial pressure (radial and femoral) versus mean aortic pressure were compared. The data was recorded as Mean +- SD and P-value. The ages of children ranged from 4-12 years and their weight from 14.1-28.5 kg. In all of them following cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic pressure correlates better with femoral arterial pressure (p<0.001). The radial arterial line readings under estimated central aortic pressure when compared to femoral arterial line readings. Aortic pressure readings correlate better with femoral arterial pressure than radial arterial pressure in children. (author)

  8. Pelvic injuries in combination with vascular lesions of branches from the iliac artery: Outcome - Incidence - Treatment strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmal, H.; Klemt, C.; Uhrmeister, P.

    2002-01-01

    The acute haemorrhagic shock is one of the leading causes for death following severe pelvic injuries. Typical bleeding sources are fractured spongiosa surfaces, lesions of the major venous plexus or ruptures of branches originating from the iliac artery. This study characterizes the population...... from active hemorrhage because of vascular lacerations of iliac artery branches. Average of ISS, PTS, part of multiple injured patients, prevalence of rotary and vertical unstable fractures as well as mortality of patients with accompanying arterial injury was found to be much higher when compared...

  9. Renal Branch Artery Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Zarah; Thisted, Ebbe; Andersen, Ulrik Bjørn

    2017-01-01

    Renovascular hypertension is a common cause of pediatric hypertension. In the fraction of cases that are unrelated to syndromes such as neurofibromatosis, patients with a solitary stenosis on a branch of the renal artery are common and can be diagnostically challenging. Imaging techniques...... that perform well in the diagnosis of main renal artery stenosis may fall short when it comes to branch artery stenosis. We report 2 cases that illustrate these difficulties and show that a branch artery stenosis may be overlooked even by the gold standard method, renal angiography....

  10. Imaging the vertebral artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Gillard, Jonathan H. [Addenbrooke' s Hospital and University of Cambridge, Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Addenbrooke' s Hospitald, University Department of Radiology, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  11. Imaging the vertebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tay, Keng Yeow; U-King-Im, Jean Marie; Trivedi, Rikin A.; Higgins, Nicholas J.; Cross, Justin J.; Antoun, Nagui M.; Davies, John R.; Weissberg, Peter L.; Gillard, Jonathan H.

    2005-01-01

    Although conventional intraarterial digital subtraction angiography remains the gold standard method for imaging the vertebral artery, noninvasive modalities such as ultrasound, multislice computed tomographic angiography and magnetic resonance angiography are constantly improving and are playing an increasingly important role in diagnosing vertebral artery pathology in clinical practice. This paper reviews the current state of vertebral artery imaging from an evidence-based perspective. Normal anatomy, normal variants and a number of pathological entities such as vertebral atherosclerosis, arterial dissection, arteriovenous fistula, subclavian steal syndrome and vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia are discussed. (orig.)

  12. [Ultrastructure of the intima of human pial arteries in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chertok, V M; Kotsiuba, A E; Babich, E V

    2009-01-01

    Ultrastructure of the intima of human pial arteries obtained from 5 male cadavers of practically healthy individuals and from 8 cadavers of the patients with the intravitally diagnosed grade I arterial hypertension (AH) was studied by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. AH was found to be associated with the remodeling of the intimal structural elements in the pial arteries. In most arteries, the changes were detected in the microrelief of the luminal surface and in the permeability of the vascular endothelial lining and of the subendothelial layer. During this remodeling, some endothelial cells were found in the state of structural and functional adaptation to the elevated arterial pressure, while the others were undergoing the dystrophic changes. The latter include the cells containing lipid inclusions, as well as the endothelial cells presumably in the state of apoptosis. The destruction of the intercellular junctions, the disturbances in the endothelium permeability contributed to the development of subendothelial layer edema, resulting in its significant thickening. This layer became looser and contained abundant collagen fibrils.

  13. Growing ‘Smart’? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Butsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indian city of Pune witnessed rapid growth and deep transformation processes in the last three decades. This paper assesses past developments and recent structures and processes against the concept of urban sustainability. Following an overview of the historical development, the dimensions of sustainability are discussed separately, based on empirical findings. Urban growth puts enormous pressure on Pune’s land and water resources, changing the ecology of the area. The increasing water demand of Pune’s growing population competes with growing energy and water demands. An assessment of future climate change impacts indicates that the storage capacity of the reservoirs is more frequently not met during the rainy season. In addition, extreme dry years can aggravate the effects of land use change on water resources in the future. The city’s growth and especially the large in-migration has also changed Pune’s social fabric significantly. Wealth is distributed unevenly in the city and social disparities can be observed along two fault lines, namely along classes and caste groups. The population development and the increasing socioeconomic polarization are linked to the economic development of the city. Pune’s formal economy has a robust base. However, as in many cities of the Global South, the informal economy is the most relevant source of income for large parts of the population. Pune’s development is challenged by informality, poor infrastructure and inadequate planning and governance. Recently new approaches towards urban renewal and smart city development were launched. These new approaches aim at overcoming blockades in the traditional planning. A special challenge for urban planning is the transformation of urban fringe areas of the city, as this process is currently taking place in an unsustainable manner. The paper concludes that urban development has to become holistic, integrative and participative and should abandon the

  14. Recanalization of Splenic Artery Aneurysm After Transcatheter Arterial Embolization Using N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Keiji; Ushijima, Yasuhiro; Tajima, Tsuyoshi; Nishie, Akihiro; Hirakawa, Masakazu; Ishigami, Kousei; Yamaji, Yukiko; Honda, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman who had been diagnosed as having microscopic polyangiitis developed sudden abdominal pain and entered a state of shock. Abdominal CT showed massive hemoperitoneum, and emergent angiography revealed a ruptured splenic artery aneurysm. After direct catheterization attempts failed due to tortuous vessels and angiospasm, transcatheter arterial embolization using an n-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture was successfully performed. Fifty days later, the patient developed sudden abdominal pain again. Repeated angiography demonstrated recanalization of the splenic artery and splenic artery aneurysm. This time, the recanalized aneurysm was embolized using metallic coils with the isolation method. Physicians should keep in mind that recanalization can occur after transcatheter arterial embolization using N-butyl cyanoacrylate, which has been used as a permanent embolic agent.

  15. Arterial responses during migraine headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Olesen, J

    1990-01-01

    The superficial temporal artery has been thought to be the main focus of pain during migraine attacks, but its diameter has never been measured directly. The use of a new, high-resolution ultrasound machine to measure arterial size in 25 migraine patients with unilateral head pain showed...... that the lumen was wider on the painful than on the non-painful side during a migraine attack. The diameters of both radial arteries and the temporal artery on the non-painful side were smaller during than between attacks. The generalised vasoconstriction was not shared by the temporal artery on the affected...... side, which suggests a local vasodilatory response. The findings suggest that cephalic arteries may play a role in migraine pathogenesis....

  16. A Living Story of Parks : Urban History Research of Stockholmsskolan

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Jiayi

    2016-01-01

    Our thesis started with a continuous discovery of theory and observation. As a group work of landscape architect and architect, during the study of our Urbanism program, we were both curious about the urbanism theories within Europe. Among them, partly in terms of the landscape background, we were particularly interested in the theory of landscape urbanism and its practices in Europe. Spontaneously, this became our original thesis topic.   However, after reading and collecting, we realized la...

  17. Application of the lattice Boltzmann model to simulated stenosis growth in a two-dimensional carotid artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, J; Buick, J; Cosgrove, J A; Stansell, P

    2005-01-01

    The lattice Boltzmann model is used to observe changes in the velocity flow and shear stress in a carotid artery model during a simulated stenosis growth. Near wall shear stress in the unstenosed artery is found to agree with literature values. The model also shows regions of low velocity, rotational flow and low near wall shear stress along parts of the walls of the carotid artery that have been identified as being prone to atherosclerosis. These regions persist during the simulated stenosis growth, suggesting that atherosclerotic plaque build-up creates regions of flow with properties that favour atherosclerotic progression

  18. Participatory Design in an Urban Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John

    of the conditions necessary for estab-lishing urban social networks, and different methodologies for doing so are examined. As part of this, a study is done on electronic democracy, i.e., different forms of information and communi-cation technologies (IT/ICT, Internet) that are actually and potentially applicable...... to innovative urban community development. The project combines theories of communication, dialogue and innovation with theories of systems, information, media and decision making. The project involves a comparative study of selected projects in the capital regions of Den-mark (Copenhagen) and Japan (Tokyo...

  19. A Case of Duplicated Right Vertebral Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motomura, Mayuko; Watanabe, Koichi; Tabira, Yoko; Iwanaga, Joe; Matsuuchi, Wakako; Yoshida, Daichi; Saga, Tsuyoshi; Yamaki, Koh-Ichi

    2018-04-27

    We encountered a case of duplicated right vertebral artery during an anatomical dissection course for medical students in 2015. Two vertebral arteries were found in the right neck of a 91-year-old female cadaver. The proximal leg of the arteries arose from the area between the right subclavian artery and the right common carotid artery that diverged from the brachiocephalic artery. The distal leg arose from the right subclavian artery as expected. The proximal leg entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra and the distal leg entered the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra. The two right vertebral arteries joined to form one artery just after the origin of the right vertebral artery of the brachiocephalic artery entered the transverse foramen of the fourth cervical vertebra. This artery then traveled up in the transverse foramina and became the basilar artery, joining with the left vertebral artery. We discuss the embryological origin of this case and review previously reported cases.

  20. Negotiating Urban Citizenship: The Urban Poor, Brokers and The State in Mexico City and Khartoum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denissen, I.N.M.

    2014-01-01

    This study is about citizenship and informality in megacities. The percentage of the world population living in cities is expected to further increase in the coming decades. Urbanisation is characterised by informality in large parts of the globe. Despite urban dwellers formally having the right to

  1. Public private co-operation in urban regeneration investment planning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    development. However, we believe that municipalities can become much better at attracting private investors and developers, partly because there is knowledge about the motives and backgrounds for the developers' engagement in the urban regeneration. Based on data from a number of case studies and interviews......Increasing renovation costs and ever more limited public funding for urban regeneration in combination with a political desire to stimulate the development of a sense of ownership in urban regeneration neighbourhoods has brought about a growing interest in attracting private sector funding...... with developers we argue that developers own networks are more likely to lead them to the urban regeneration areas, than knowledge of the urban regeneration itself. Also, the study reveals a mutual knowledge-gap between the municipal planners and developers; planners have limited knowledge of developers...

  2. A Novel External Carotid Arterial Sheath System for Intra-arterial Infusion Chemotherapy of Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ii, Noriko; Fuwa, Nobukazu; Toyomasu, Yutaka; Takada, Akinori; Nomura, Miwako; Kawamura, Tomoko; Sakuma, Hajime; Nomoto, Yoshihito

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe a novel system for treating advanced head and neck cancer consisting of an external carotid arterial sheath (ECAS) and a microcatheter to inject drugs retrogradely into multiple feeding arteries through the superficial temporal artery (STA). Four consecutive patients with head and neck cancer that had more than one feeding artery were enrolled in this study. The ECAS was made of polyurethane and surface-coated with heparin resin to prevent thrombus formation, allowing it to remain in place for a prolonged period of time. The ECAS was inserted through the STA, and its tip was placed between the maxillary artery and facial artery. The tumor-feeding arteries were selected using a hooked-shaped microcatheter through the ECAS. A total of 13 target arteries were selected in the four patients. The microcatheter inserted via the ECAS was used to catheterize ten arteries (five lingual arteries and five facial arteries). The remaining three lingual arteries were directly selected by the catheter without ECAS. All of the target arteries were able to be catheterized superselectively. The technical success rate was 100%. Vascular occlusion, which might have been caused by the ECAS, was observed in one patient. No neurologic toxicities occurred. This ECAS system is a new approach for retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy that covers the entire tumor with anticancer drugs. It has the potential to increase the effectiveness of therapy for advanced head and neck cancer. Level 4, Case Series.

  3. Urbanism & urban qualities New data and methodologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The interest in urban spaces and their qualities has become stronger in recent years. A substantial volume of projects aims to create attractive urban spaces reasons of Sustainability, Quality of Life and urban vitality. But who actually uses the urban spaces, which urban spaces are used? How do...... they use them? What characterizes the good urban space? And how and by who is it evaluated? How is a better co-operation between urban space researchers, decision makers and users established? Is it the right urban spaces which receive investments? How can research optimize the basis for decisions......?   Proceedings from the conference "Urbanism & urban qualities - new data & methodologies" held 24th of June 2009 at The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts in Copenhagen....

  4. Decision-Support System for Urban Air Pollution under Future Climate Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen , Steen ,; Brandt , Jørgen; Hvidberg , Martin; Ketzel , Matthias; Hedegaard , Gitte ,; Christensen , Jens ,

    2011-01-01

    Part 6: Climate Services and Environmental Tools for Urban Planning and Climate Change Applications and Services; International audience; Climate change is expected to influence urban living conditions and challenge the ability of cities to adapt to and mitigate climate change. Urban climates will be faced with elevated temperatures and future climate conditions are expected to cause higher ozone concentrations, increased biogenic emissions from vegetation, changes in the chemistry of the atm...

  5. Studies on arterial stiffness and wave reflections in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Michel E; Levy, Bernard I

    2015-01-01

    Patho-physiological and pharmacological studies have consistently noticed that, with the exception of subjects with end-stage renal disease, total intravascular blood volume is not increased in patients with chronic hypertension. Because the mean circulatory pressure is enhanced in such subjects, it was postulated that the compliance of the cardiovascular system could be abnormally low in this particular population. This simple observation has influenced a great part of our experimental and clinical research directed toward subjects with hypertension and their relationship with the compliance of the vascular system. These works started between 1970 and 1980 by methodological investigations and validations followed by analysis of clinical situations that showed that venous and mostly arterial stiffness were significantly increased in hypertensive patients independently of blood pressure level. During the same time, we assessed the role of endothelium on the large arterial wall mechanical properties in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Thereafter more specific directions have been developed, affecting large arteries structure and function and arterial wall remodeling, including their consequences on central and peripheral hemodynamics. In parallel, epidemiological studies identified the pulsatile hemodynamic parameters as major independent predictors of cardiovascular risks. The consequences of these alterations on clinical pharmacology and therapeutics in hypertension are analyzed in detail. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Facing urban complexity : towards cognitive modelling. Part 1. Modelling as a cognitive mediator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Occelli

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last twenty years, complexity issues have been a central theme of enquiry for the modelling field. Whereas contributing to both a critical revisiting of the existing methods and opening new ways of reasoning, the effectiveness (and sense of modelling activity was rarely questioned. Acknowledgment of complexity however has been a fruitful spur new and more sophisticated methods in order to improve understanding and advance geographical sciences. However its contribution to tackle urban problems in everyday life has been rather poor and mainly limited to rhetorical claims about the potentialities of the new approach. We argue that although complexity has put the classical modelling activity in serious distress, it is disclosing new potentialities, which are still largely unnoticed. These are primarily related to what the authors has called the structural cognitive shift, which involves both the contents and role of modelling activity. This paper is a first part of a work aimed to illustrate the main features of this shift and discuss its main consequences on the modelling activity. We contend that a most relevant aspect of novelty lies in the new role of modelling as a cognitive mediator, i.e. as a kind of interface between the various components of a modelling process and the external environment to which a model application belongs.

  7. Can additional urban development have major impacts on streamflow of a peri-urban catchment? A case study from Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Nunes, João; Steenhuis, Tammo; de Lima, João; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that urban development brings about changes in hydrological response. Relatively little, however, is known about impacts on streamflow during urban development in the Mediterranean climate. This paper examines changes in streamflow resulting from the construction of an enterprise park, a major road and apartment blocks in a small partially urbanized peri-urban catchment (6.2 km2) in central Portugal. These developments led to an increase in urban area from 32% to 40% over a five-year period (hydrological years 2008/09-2012/13). In the initial two-year period minor land-use changes increased impervious surfaces from 12.8% to 13.2%. The subsequent three-year period led to a further 17.2% increase in impervious area. Streamflow was recorded by a V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Rainfall was recorded at a weather station 0.5km north of the catchment, and by five tipping-bucket raingauges installed in January 2011 within the study catchment. Annual runoff and storm runoff coefficients ranged from 14% to 21% and 9% to 14%, respectively, recorded in 2011/12 and 2012/13. Although these differences in runoff were caused in part by variation in rainfall, the comparison between 2009/10 (pre-) and 2012/13 (post-additional urban development), with broadly similar rainfall (887mm vs 947mm, respectively) and evapotranspiration (740mm vs 746mm), showed a 43% increase in storm runoff (from 90mm to 129mm), resulting from additional overland flow generated largely by the 4.4% increase in impervious surfaces. The additional urban development also led to changes in hydrograph parameters. The increase in storm runoff was not progressive over the study period, but regression lines of storm runoff against rainstorm parameters exhibited higher vertical positions in 2012/13 than 2008/09. Increasing peak flows, however, were more progressive over the study period, with annual regression lines displaying higher vertical positions, but with a clear distance between pre

  8. Implication of molecular vascular smooth muscle cell heterogeneity among arterial beds in arterial calcification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Espitia

    Full Text Available Vascular calcification is a strong and independent predictive factor for cardiovascular complications and mortality. Our previous work identified important discrepancies in plaque composition and calcification types between carotid and femoral arteries. The objective of this study is to further characterize and understand the heterogeneity in vascular calcification among vascular beds, and to identify molecular mechanisms underlying this process. We established ECLAGEN biocollection that encompasses human atherosclerotic lesions and healthy arteries from different locations (abdominal, thoracic aorta, carotid, femoral, and infrapopliteal arteries for histological, cell isolation, and transcriptomic analysis. Our results show that lesion composition differs between these locations. Femoral arteries are the most calcified arteries overall. They develop denser calcifications (sheet-like, nodule, and are highly susceptible to osteoid metaplasia. These discrepancies may derive from intrinsic differences between SMCs originating from these locations, as microarray analysis showed specific transcriptomic profiles between primary SMCs isolated from each arterial bed. These molecular differences translated into functional disparities. SMC from femoral arteries showed the highest propensity to mineralize due to an increase in basal TGFβ signaling. Our results suggest that biological heterogeneity of resident vascular cells between arterial beds, reflected by our transcriptomic analysis, is critical in understanding plaque biology and calcification, and may have strong implications in vascular therapeutic approaches.

  9. Using GeoVisual Analytics for understanding the distribution of complex movement patterns on the arterial roads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveladze, Irma; Agerholm, Niels

    streets by igniting traffic rules. This will be studied on the basis of clusters of big unexplainable deviations from driving speed in FCD. The results will allow us to uncover meaningful patterns from complex traffic movements in populated areas, and provide some recommendations that are critical......Arterial roads have a particular operational significance and play a substantial role in the mobility and economic development of the modern society. They make up the majority of the road transport in urban and rural areas, and allow high-speed movement despite speed limitations and traffic...... controlling elements urban areas. In densely populated areas, where the presence of Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) is high, a high-speed movement is problematic from a road safety perspective, since many VRUs do crossroads by ignoring regardless of regulation and design limitations of the road network...

  10. Arterial hypertension in cirrhosis: arterial compliance, volume distribution, and central haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F

    2006-01-01

    , was significantly better in hypertensive cirrhotics than in their normotensive counterparts (pportal pressure was similar (HVPG 13 v 15 mm Hg; NS). AC was significantly lower and normal in the arterial hypertensive cirrhotic group (1.07 v 1.39 mm Hg/ml; p...BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Arterial hypertension is a common disorder. Hyperkinetic circulation and reduced effective volaemia are central elements in the haemodynamic dysfunction in cirrhosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cirrhotic patients with arterial hypertension...... are normokinetic and normovolaemic or whether they reveal the same circulatory dysfunction as their normotensive counterparts. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty three patients with arterial hypertension were identified among 648 patients with cirrhosis: 14 in Child class A, 12 in class B, and seven in class C. Controls...

  11. Locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma: pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection based on axial arterial encasement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perinel, J; Nappo, G; El Bechwaty, M; Walter, T; Hervieu, V; Valette, P J; Feugier, P; Adham, M

    2016-12-01

    Pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA) is associated with high morbidity and is thus considered as a contraindication. The aim of our study was to report our experience of pancreatectomy with planned arterial resection for locally advanced PDA based on specific selection criteria. All patients receiving pancreatectomy for PDA between October 2008 and July 2014 were reviewed. The patients were classified into group 1, pancreatectomy without vascular resection (66 patients); group 2, pancreatectomy with isolated venous resection (31 patients), and group 3, pancreatectomy with arterial resection for locally advanced PDA (14 patients). The primary selection criteria for arterial resection was the possibility of achieving a complete resection based on the extent of axial encasement, the absence of tumor invasion at the origin of celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), and a free distal arterial segment allowing reconstruction. Patient outcomes and survival were analyzed. Six SMA, two CT, four common hepatic artery, and two replaced right hepatic artery resections were undertaken. The preferred arterial reconstruction was splenic artery transposition. Group 3 had a higher preoperative weight loss, a longer operative time, and a higher incidence of intraoperative blood transfusion. Ninety-day mortality occurred in three patients in groups 1 and 2. There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence, grade, and type of complications in the three groups. Postoperative pancreatic fistula and postpancreatectomy hemorrhage were also comparable. In group 3, none had arterial wall invasion and nine patients had recurrence (seven metastatic and two loco-regional). Survival and disease-free survival were comparable between groups. Planned arterial resection for PDA can be performed safely with a good outcome in highly selected patients. Key elements for defining the resectability is based on

  12. Mining the Urban Sprawl Pattern: A Case Study on Sunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ronghua; Gu, Chaolin; Pu, Yingxia; Ma, Xiaodong

    2008-10-14

    China's urbanization is going into a fast development stage. This paper focuses on the recent evolution of an urbanized area - Sunan, the southern part of Jiangsu province in the Yangtze River Delta in China - by means of complementary approaches, especially different fractal and autocorrelation measures. The research shows that Sunan's urban clusters are becoming more and more homogenous and compact and are growing up along the important transportation axes. The enriching discussion of the findings establishes the links between the morphology of urban sprawl and recent socio-economic changes in China.

  13. [Endarterectomy of the coronary arteries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, V; Simkovic, I; Holoman, M; Verchvodko, P; Janotík, P; Galbánek, J; Hulman, M; Kostelnicák, J; Jurco, R; Slezák, J

    1992-02-01

    The authors analyze 50 patients with endarterectomy of the coronary arteries during the periods of 1972-1974 and 1988-1990. The results of endarterectomy of the right and left coronary artery provide evidence of its justification in indicated cases whereby contrary to some departments the results of endarterectomy of the left coronary artery are comparable with endarterectomy of the right coronary artery.

  14. Race, Class, and Cultural Reproduction: Critical Theories in Urban Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Walker

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available In spite of decades of reform attempts urban education remains an intractable policy issue for educators. National and state level data continue to show disparities in educational achievement and attainment between students from affluent and poor urban communities. If past policies have not proven to be effective in substantially improving urban educational systems the question is why? In this paper the argument is raised that urban educational policies lack sound epistemological grounding. Policies are divorced from an understanding of the “urban problematic”. Functionalist in orientation these policies have for the most part sought to “fix” urban schools by focusing on micro-ecological issues. In this paper three theoretical perspectives are explored for their potential contribution to inform research and policy on urban educational issues. The three perspectives are: 1 class theories 2 critical race theory and 3 cultural reproduction theories.

  15. Study on blood supply of lung metastasis with trans-pulmonary arterial lipiodol infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Jianqin; Dong Weihua; Dong Weihua; Ouyang Chang; Chang Heng; Xiao Xiangsheng

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the blood supply of pulmonary metastases using small volume of lipiodol through pulmonary arterial infusion. Methods: 10 cases of lung metastasis were enroled including the primary tumors of liver cancer (n=5), renal carcinoma (n=3), chordoma (n=1) and malignant neurofibroma (n=1). Plain CT scan was performed to exclude calcification or ossification within metastasis and then pulmonary arterial DSA was undertaken to evaluate tumor vessels or staining. After pulmonary arteriovenous fistula or other anomalous circulation was excluded by lobar arterial DSA, small volume of lipiodol was infused under fluoroscopy (0.5-1.5 ml for each lobar artery, total volume less than 3.0 ml). CT scan was immediately performed. Blood supply of the pulmonary metastases was assessed according to the accumulation of lipiodol on CT scans. Results: No cases but one experienced cough, expectoration, suffocating or dyspnea. No complication of cerebral or visceral embolism occurred. Totally 27 nodules were studied including 6 nodules with cloudy lipiodol accumulation and 6 nodules with tiny granules of lipiodol accumulation. No enlarged tumor vessel or tumor stain was observed within all 27 nodules on pulmonary arterial DSA. Conclusions: Pulmonary artery supplys only parts of pulmonary metastases, especially those sited at the peripheral region of the lung. Infusion of small volume of lipiodol through pulmonary artery is safe, and the increased density of lung field could return normal after several days. (authors)

  16. Arterial function of carotid and brachial arteries in postmenopausal vegetarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su T

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Ta-Chen Su1, Pao-Ling Torng2, Jiann-Shing Jeng3, Ming-Fong Chen1, Chiau-Suong Liau1,41Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 3Department of Neurology, National Taiwan University Hospital, National Taiwan University College of Medicine, 4Cardiovascular Center, Taipei Buddist Tzu-Chi Hospital, Hsin-Dian, Taipei, TaiwanBackground: Vegetarianism is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies of arterial function in vegetarians are limited.Methods: This study investigated arterial function in vegetarianism by comparing 49 healthy postmenopausal vegetarians with 41 age-matched omnivores. The arterial function of the common carotid artery was assessed by carotid duplex, while the pulse dynamics method was used to measure brachial artery distensibility (BAD, compliance (BAC, and resistance (BAR. Fasting blood levels of glucose, lipids, lipoprotein (a, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were also measured.Results: Vegetarians had significantly lower serum cholesterol, high-density and low-density lipoprotein, and glucose compared with omnivores. They also had lower vitamin B12 but higher homocysteine levels. Serum levels of lipoprotein (a and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were no different between the two groups. There were no significant differences in carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD between the two groups even after adjustment for associated covariates. However, BAR was significantly lower in vegetarians than in omnivores. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and pulse pressure were two important determinants of carotid beta stiffness index and BAD. Vegetarianism is not associated with better arterial elasticity.Conclusion: Apparently healthy postmenopausal vegetarians are not significantly better in terms of carotid beta stiffness index, BAC, and BAD, but have significantly decreased BAR than

  17. Fencing as a Part of the Urban Context of the District Blasewitz in Dresden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Potapova

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Every city has its unique urban context including the objects that form the historical environment of the city; the material elements represented by buildings, constructions, sculptural and architectural forms, elements of spatial surroundings of monuments and terraced houses; the atmosphere, the landscape elements, and the visage as an element expressing the real nature of the visual object, that is the city space (the open space “enclosed” by material elements.The city of Dresden is not an exception. In its district Blasewitz, one of the most important aspects of urban context is expressed by the fences of the Gründer Epoch. These pompous and fine constructions separating the street space from the park villas have remained since the middle of the XIX century.The article explores the origin of villas as an urban ensemble of the Italian architecture, the development of this type of architecture in the 18-19th centuries and the methods of preservation of all the elements of this structure, including fences. It describes the fences remained in the district Blasewitz and their unique features.

  18. Bioindication in Urban Soils in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amossé, J.; Le Bayon, C.; Mitchell, E. A. D.; Gobat, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Urban development leads to profound changes in ecosystem structure (e.g. biodiversity) and functioning (e.g. ecosystem services). While above-ground diversity is reasonably well studied much less is known about soil diversity, soil processes and more generally soil health in urban settings. Soil invertebrates are key actors of soil processes at different spatial and temporal scales and provide essential ecosystem services. These functions may be even more vital in stressed environments such as urban ecosystems. Despite the general recognition of the importance of soil organisms in ecosystems, soil trophic food webs are still poorly known and this is especially the case in urban settings. As urban soils are characterised by high fragmentation and stress (e.g. drought, pollution) the structure and functioning of soil communities is likely to be markedly different from that of natural soils. It is for example unclear if earthworms, whose roles in organic matter transformation and soil structuration is well documented in natural and semi-natural soils, are also widespread and active in urban soils. Bioindication is a powerful tool to assess the quality of the environment. It is complementary to classical physicochemical soil analysis or can be used as sole diagnostic tool in cases where these analyses cannot be performed. However little is known about the potential use of bioindicators in urban settings and especially it is unclear if methods developped in agriculture can be applied to urban soils. The development of reliable methods for assessing the quality of urban soils has been identified as a priority for policy making and urban management in Switzerland, a high-urbanized country. We therefore initiated a research project (Bioindication in Urban Soil - BUS). The project is organised around four parts: (i) typology of urban soils in a study Region (Neuchâtel), (ii) sampling of soil fauna and analysis of soil physicochemical properties, (iii) comparison of the

  19. Coronary artery aneurysms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koischwitz, D.; Harder, T.; Schuppan, U.; Thurn, P.

    1982-04-01

    Seven saccular coronary artery aneurysms have been demonstrated in the course of 1452 selective coronary artery angiograms. In six patients they were arterio-sclerotic; in one patient the aneurysm must have been congenital or of mycotic-embolic origin. The differential diagnosis between true aneurysms and other causes of vascular dilatation is discussed. Coronary artery aneurysms have a poor prognosis because of the possibility of rupture with resultant cardiac tamponade, or the development of thrombo-embolic myocardial infarction. These aneurysms can only be diagnosed by means of coronary angiography and require appropriate treatment.

  20. Rare variation in the origin of the right vertebral artery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    34. SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • May 2004. Introduction. Anomalous origin of the right ver- tebral artery from the distal part of the aortic arch is very rare and is discov- ered as an incidental finding during an angiographic study or in laborato- ry specimens. It has been suggested that these anomalies are of diagnostic.

  1. Numerical investigation of road salt impact on an urban wellfield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bester, M L; Frind, E O; Molson, J W; Rudolph, D L

    2006-01-01

    The impact of road salt on a wellfield in a complex glacial moraine aquifer system is studied by numerical simulation. The moraine underlies an extensive urban and industrial landscape, which draws its water supply from >20 wellfields, several of which are approaching or have exceeded the drinking water limit for chloride. The study investigates the mechanisms of road salt infiltration, storage, and transport in the subsurface and assesses the effectiveness of mitigation measures designed to reduce the impact. The three-dimensional transport model accounts for increases in salt loading, as well as growth of the urbanized area and road network over the past 50 years. The simulations, which focus on one impacted wellfield, show chloride plumes originating mainly at arterial roads and migrating through aquitard windows into the water supply aquifers. The results suggest that the aquifer system contains a large and heterogeneously distributed mass of chloride and that concentrations in the aquifer can be substantially higher than the concentrations in the well water. Future impact scenarios indicate that although the system responds rapidly to reductions in salt loading, the residual chloride mass may take decades to flush out, even if road salting were discontinued. The implications with respect to urban wellfields in typical snow-belt areas are discussed.

  2. Single coronary artery from right aortic sinus in a very elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashanth Panduranga

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of other associated cardiac anomalies, single coronary artery (SCA per se is a rare anomaly detected during coronary angiography or autopsy. Various types of SCA detected during coronary angiography have already been described. We herein report a type of SCA originating from the right sinus of Valsalva, with the right circumflex, left circumflex, and left anterior descending coronary arteries arising from the proximal part of the SCA in a 76-year-old female patient. She developed ventricular fibrillation during coronary angiography, which calls for caution while performing a coronary angiogram in such patients.

  3. Anatomical variations of hepatic arterial system, coeliac trunk and renal arteries: an analysis with multidetector CT angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugurel, M S; Battal, B; Bozlar, U; Nural, M S; Tasar, M; Ors, F; Saglam, M; Karademir, I

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine the anatomical variations in the coeliac trunk-hepatic arterial system and the renal arteries in patients who underwent multidetector CT (MDCT) angiography of the abdominal aorta for various reasons. A total of 100 patients were analysed retrospectively. The coeliac trunk, hepatic arterial system and renal arteries were analysed individually and anatomical variations were recorded. Statistical analysis of the relationship between hepatocoeliac variations and renal artery variations was performed using a chi(2) test. There was a coeliac trunk trifurcation in 89% and bifurcation in 8% of the cases. Coeliac trunk was absent in 1%, a hepatosplenomesenteric trunk was seen in 1% and a splenomesenteric trunk was present in 1%. Hepatic artery variation was present in 48% of patients. Coeliac trunk and/or hepatic arterial variation was present in 23 (39.7%) of the 58 patients with normal renal arteries, and in 27 (64.3%) of the 42 patients with accessory renal arteries. There was a statistically significant correlation between renal artery variations and coeliac trunk-hepatic arterial system variations (p = 0.015). MDCT angiography permits a correct and detailed evaluation of hepatic and renal vascular anatomy. The prevalence of variations in the coeliac trunk and/or hepatic arteries is increased in people with accessory renal arteries. For that reason, when undertaking angiographic examinations directed towards any single organ, the possibility of variations in the vascular structure of other organs should be kept in mind.

  4. A coincidental variation of the axillary artery: the brachioradial artery and the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Konarik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of anomalous terminal branching of the axillary artery was encountered and described in a left upper limb of a male cadaver. A series of 214 upper limbs of Caucasian race was dissected. A variant artery, stemming from the very end of the axillary artery followed a superficial course distally. It passed the cubital fossa, ran on the lateral side of the forearm as usual radial artery, crossed ventrally to the palm and terminated in the deep palmar arch. This vessel is a case of the brachioradial artery (incorrectly termed as the “radial artery with high origin”. Moreover, it was associated with another variation, concerning the aberrant posterior humeral circumflex artery passing under the tendon of the latissimus dorsi muscle. The anatomical knowledge of the axillary region is essential for radiodiagnostic, surgical and traumatologic procedures. The superficially located artery brings an elevated danger of heavy bleeding in all unexpected situations, its variant branching can cause problems in radial catheterization procedures and the anomalously coursing other arterial variant poses an elevated danger in surgical procedures concerning the surgical neck of humerus.

  5. Adaptive governance to promote ecosystem services in urban ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Managing urban green space as part of an ongoing social-ecological transformationposes novel governance issues, particularly in post-industrial settings. Urban green spaces operate as small-scale nodes in larger networks of ecological reserves that provide and maintain key ecosystem services such as pollination, water retention and infiltration, and sustainable food production. In an urban mosaic, a myriad of social and ecological components factor into aggregating and managing land to maintain or increase the flow of ecosystem services associated with green spaces. Vacant lots (a form of urban green space) are being repurposed for multiple functions, such as habitat for biodiversity, including arthropods that provide pollination services to other green areas; to capture urban runoff that eases the burden on ageing wastewater systems and other civic infrastructure; and to reduce urban heat island effects. Urban green spaces provide vital ecosystem services at varying degrees, depending on the size, function, and management of these spaces. Governance of linked social-ecological systems to maximize those services poses unique challenges given the uncertainty of ecological responses and the social political complexity of managing ecological resources in an urban context where fiscal and human resources are strained. In North America, many cities are facing fiscal austerity because of shrinkage in manufacturing and industrial sectors and the foreclosure crisis. As

  6. The use of the inferior epigastric artery for accessory lower polar artery revascularization in live donor renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, M; Abou-Elela, A; Morsy, A; Salah, M; Foda, A

    2008-01-01

    This study describes the surgical technique and outcomes of live donor renal allografts with multiple arteries in which the lower polar artery was anastomosed to the inferior epigastric artery after declamping. Between 1988 and 2004, 477 consecutive live donor renal transplants were performed, including 429 with single and 48 with multiple arteries. Anastomosis of the lower polar artery to the inferior epigastric artery was used for 15 grafts with multiple arteries. Successful revascularization of all areas of the transplanted graft was confirmed by Doppler ultrasonography in most patients and radionuclide renal scanning +/- MRA in some patients. In live donor renal transplantation with multiple arteries, the anastomosis of the lower polar artery to the inferior epigastric artery after declamping avoids prolongation of the ischemia time that occurs with other surgical and microsurgical techniques of intracorporeal and ex vivo surgeries.

  7. [The state of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarova, A F; Iurtaeva, V R; Kotovskaia, Iu V; Kobalava, Zh D

    2012-01-01

    To study elastic properties of carotid arteries in young men with arterial hypertension (AH). We examined men aged 18-25 years (mean 21.1+/-0.14 years): 36 with normal blood pressure (BP), 123 with stable and 51 with unstable AH. Parameters studied comprised intima-media thickness (IMT) of carotid arteries, their M-mode measured maximal systolic and minimal diastolic diameters (Ds and Dd), stiffness of common carotid artery (CCA) wall determined on the basis of analysis of elasticity and distensibility coefficients (CC and DC), Peterson's and Young's modules of elasticity (Ep and E), and index of flow deformation (CS). Compared with young men with normal BP and unstable AH patients with stable AH had abnormal elastic properties of CCA and increased IMT. Stable AH in young men is associated with signs of remodeling of CCA walls and increase of their rigidity.

  8. Atypical presentation of popliteal artery entrapment syndrome: involvement of the anterior tibial artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou, Steven; Day, Carly

    2014-11-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES) is a rare condition that should be suspected in a young patient with exertional lower extremity pain. We report the case of an 18-year-old female volleyball player with bilateral exertional lower extremity pain who had been previously diagnosed with tendinitis and periostitis. Diagnostic studies showed entrapment of the left popliteal artery and the left anterior tibial artery. To our knowledge, there has only been 1 previous report of anterior tibial artery involvement in PAES. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Issues - I. Renewable energies and urban planning law - Urban planning law and renewable energies: I love you, neither I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory Kalfleche

    2012-01-01

    After having noticed that fossil energies must still be used beside renewable energies, and that renewable energies have some negative impacts on landscape and on the environment, the author highlights the fact that the French urban planning law gives a strong support to small renewable energy production units. In a second part, he shows that despite a commitment for the development of renewable energies, urban planning law mostly remains a constraint as far as the development of large units is concerned

  10. Results of Infrageniculate Bypasses Using the Profunda Femoris Artery as Inflow Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Calio', Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Pasqua, Rocco; Masci, Federica; Frezzotti, Francesca; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2018-02-01

    When the common femoral artery is not accessible for infrainguinal bypass grafting, the profunda femoris artery (PFA) can be a valuable alternative inflow source for distal arterial revascularization. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the results of infrageniculate bypass grafting via the PFA as inflow source for critical limb ischemia. Between 1994 and 2016, 68 patients, 51 men of a mean age of 74 years, underwent an infrageniculate arterial bypass grafting for critical limb ischemia, using the PFA as inflow site. PFA was exposed at the Scarpa's triangle in 38 patients (56%) and at its medio-crural segment in 30 patients (44%). The distal anastomosis was performed on the infragenicular popliteal artery in 33 patients (48%), the peroneal artery in 14 patients (20%), the tibioperoneal trunk in 8 patients (12%), the posterior tibial artery in 8 patients (12%), and the dorsalis pedis artery in 5 patients (8%). The graft material consisted of a reversed great saphenous vein (GSV) in 62 patients (91%) and a 6-mm polytetrafluoroethylene graft in 6 patients (9%). The median duration of follow-up was 51 months (range, 6-72 months). As main results, postoperative mortality and morbidity, overall late patients' survival, primary grafts' patency, and limb salvage rate were considered. Operative mortality and morbidity were 3% and 4%, respectively. Overall patients' survival, primary patency and limb salvage rate, at 36 and 60 months were, respectively, 62% and 53%, 66% and 59%, and 92% and 77%. The PFA, both exposed at the Scarpa's triangle and at mid-thigh, is an excellent inflow source for infrageniculate revascularizations. It should remain an important part of the technical armamentarium of vascular surgeons, even in the endovascular era. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Urban street structure and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Villaveces, Andres

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the influence of road type and junction density on road traffic fatality rates in U.S. cities. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files were used to obtain fatality rates for all cities for the years 2005-2010. A stratified random sample of 16 U.S. cities was taken, and cities with high and low road traffic fatality rates were compared on their road layout details (TIGER maps were used). Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of junction density and road type on road traffic fatality rates. The analysis of road network and road traffic crash fatality rates in these randomly selected U.S. cities shows that, (a) higher number of junctions per road length was significantly associated with a lower motor- vehicle crash and pedestrian mortality rates, and, (b) increased number of kilometers of roads of any kind was associated with higher fatality rates, but an additional kilometer of main arterial road was associated with a significantly higher increase in total fatalities. When compared to non-arterial roads, the higher the ratio of highways and main arterial roads, there was an association with higher fatality rates. These results have important implications for road safety professionals. They suggest that once the road and street structure is put in place, that will influence whether a city has low or high traffic fatality rates. A city with higher proportion of wider roads and large city blocks will tend to have higher traffic fatality rates, and therefore in turn require much more efforts in police enforcement and other road safety measures. Urban planners need to know that smaller block size with relatively less wide roads will result in lower traffic fatality rates and this needs to be incorporated at the planning stage. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The new technique of using the epigastric arteries in renal transplantation with multiple renal arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Amirzargar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common anatomic variant seen in the donor kidneys for renal transplantation is multiple renal arteries (MRA, which can cause an increased risk of complications. We describe the long-term outcomes of 16 years of experience in 76 kidney transplantations with MRAs. In a new reconstruction technique, we remove arterial clamps after anastomosing the donor to the recipient′s main renal vessels, which cause backflow from accessory arteries to prevent thrombosis. By this technique, we reduce the ischemic times as well as the operating times. Both in live or cadaver donor kidneys, lower polar arteries were anastomosed to the inferior epigastric artery and upper polar arteries were anastomosed to the superior epigastric arteries. Injection of Papaverine and ablation of sympathic nerves of these arteries dilate and prevent them from post-operative spasm. Follow-up DTPA renal scan in all patients showed good perfusion and function of the transplanted kidney, except two cases of polar arterial thrombosis. Mean creatinine levels during at least two years of follow-up remained acceptable. Patient and graft survival were excellent. No cases of ATN, hypertension, rejection and urologic complications were found. In conclusion, this technique can be safely and successfully utilized for renal transplantation with kidneys having MRAs, and may be associated with a lower complication rate and better graft function compared with the existing techniques.

  13. The Aalborg Survey / Part 4 - Literature Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harder, Henrik; Christensen, Cecilie Breinholm

    Background and purpose The Aalborg Survey consists of four independent parts: a web, GPS and an interview based survey and a literature study, which together form a consistent investigation and research into use of urban space, and specifically into young people’s use of urban space: what young......) and the research focus within the cluster of Mobility and Tracking Technologies (MoTT), AAU. Summary / Part 4 - Literature Study The 4th part of the DUS research project has been carried out during the spring 2012 and consists primarily of a literature search and bibliographical listings of literature by the three....... Jensen are conducting research within the field related to this research project. Furthermore, both are intended end users of the outcome of this literature study. Finally, all references have been collected in a digital database in RefWorks....

  14. Internal thoracic artery collateral to the external iliac artery in chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jinna; Won, Jong Yun; Park, Sung Il; Lee, Do Yun

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and angiographic findings of the collateral pathway involving the internal thoracic artery in patients with chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease. Between March 2000 and Februrary 2001, 124 patients at our hospital underwent angiographic evaluation of chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease, and in 15 of these complete obstruction or severe stenosis of the aortoiliac artery was identified. The aortograms and collateral arteriograms obtained, including internal thoracic arteriograms, as well as the medical records of the patients involved, were evaluated. In nine patients there was complete occlusion of the infrarenal aorta, or diffuse stenosis of 75% or more in the descending thoracic aorta, and in the other six, a patent aorta but complete occlusion or stenosis of 75% or more of the common iliac artery was demonstrated. Collateral perfusion via hypertrophied internal thoracic arteries and rich anastomoses between the superior and inferior epigastric arteries, reconstituting the external iliac artery, were noted in all fifteen patients, regardless of symptom duration, which ranged from six months to twelve years. In patients with chronic aortoiliac occlusive disease, the internal thoracic artery, along with visceral collaterals and those from the contralateral side, is one of the major parietal collateral pathways

  15. Isolated Unilateral Absent Branch Pulmonary Artery with Peripheral Pulmonary Stenosis and Coronary Artery Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Abhishek B

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Isolated Unilateral Absent Pulmonary Artery (UAPA is a rare congenital anomaly. It is usually associated with congenital heart defects. A 45 year old male patient presented with complaints of fever with cough and expectoration for 15 days and retrosternal chest discomfort for the previous 2 days. ECG showed diffuse ST segment depression with T wave inversion in the inferior and lateral leads. Coronary Angiogram done through the right femoral approach revealed diffusely diseased Left Anterior Descending (LAD artery that was totally cut off at the mid segment. The Left Circumflex (LCx artery was providing blood supply to the right middle and lower lung areas. There was another collateral arising from the Left Subclavian Artery supplying the right middle and lower lung areas. The left pulmonary artery was normal, but branches supplying the middle and lower lobes of the right lung were absent and the upper lobe branch had pulmonary stenosis. UAPA is a rare clinical entity; collaterals from coronaries are extremely rare in this condition and till now there has not been any case report of unilateral absent branch pulmonary artery with peripheral stenosis of other branches, on the affected side and associated coronary artery disease.

  16. Extrahepatic Arteries Originating from Hepatic Arteries: Analysis Using CT During Hepatic Arteriography and Visualization on Digital Subtraction Angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Kumi; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Matsui, Osamu; Minami, Tetsuya; Koda, Wataru; Gabata, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    PurposeTo investigate the prevalence and site of origin of extrahepatic arteries originating from hepatic arteries on early phase CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) was accessed. Visualization of these elements on digital subtraction hepatic angiography (DSHA) was assessed using CTHA images as a gold standard.Materials and MethodsA total of 943 patients (mean age 66.9 ± 10.3 years; male/female, 619/324) underwent CTHA and DSHA. The prevalence and site of origin of extrahepatic arteries were accessed using CTHA and visualized using DSHA.ResultsIn 924 (98.0%) patients, a total of 1555 extrahepatic branches, representing eight types, were found to originate from hepatic arteries on CTHA. CTHA indicated the following extrahepatic branch prevalence rates: right gastric artery, 890 (94.4%); falciform artery, 386 (40.9%); accessory left gastric artery, 161 (17.1%); left inferior phrenic artery (IPA), 43 (4.6%); posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, 33 (3.5%); dorsal pancreatic artery, 26 (2.8%); duodenal artery, 12 (1.3%); and right IPA, 4 (0.4%). In addition, 383 patients (40.6%) had at least one undetectable branch on DSHA. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of visualization on DSHA were as follows: RGA, 80.0, 86.8, and 80.4%; falciform artery, 53.9, 97.7, and 80.0%; accessory LGA, 64.6, 98.6, and 92.3%; left IPA, 76.7, 99.8, and 98.7%; PSPDA, 100, 99.7, and 99.9%; dorsal pancreatic artery, 57.7, 100, and 98.8%; duodenal artery, 8.3, 99.9, and 98.7%; and right IPA, 0, 100, and 99.6%, respectively.ConclusionExtrahepatic arteries originating from hepatic arteries were frequently identified on CTHA images. These arteries were frequently overlooked on DSHA.

  17. Extrahepatic Arteries Originating from Hepatic Arteries: Analysis Using CT During Hepatic Arteriography and Visualization on Digital Subtraction Angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozaki, Kumi, E-mail: ozakik-rad@umin.org [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan); Kobayashi, Satoshi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Quantum Medicine Technology (Japan); Matsui, Osamu; Minami, Tetsuya; Koda, Wataru; Gabata, Toshifumi [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Radiology (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    PurposeTo investigate the prevalence and site of origin of extrahepatic arteries originating from hepatic arteries on early phase CT during hepatic arteriography (CTHA) was accessed. Visualization of these elements on digital subtraction hepatic angiography (DSHA) was assessed using CTHA images as a gold standard.Materials and MethodsA total of 943 patients (mean age 66.9 ± 10.3 years; male/female, 619/324) underwent CTHA and DSHA. The prevalence and site of origin of extrahepatic arteries were accessed using CTHA and visualized using DSHA.ResultsIn 924 (98.0%) patients, a total of 1555 extrahepatic branches, representing eight types, were found to originate from hepatic arteries on CTHA. CTHA indicated the following extrahepatic branch prevalence rates: right gastric artery, 890 (94.4%); falciform artery, 386 (40.9%); accessory left gastric artery, 161 (17.1%); left inferior phrenic artery (IPA), 43 (4.6%); posterior superior pancreaticoduodenal artery, 33 (3.5%); dorsal pancreatic artery, 26 (2.8%); duodenal artery, 12 (1.3%); and right IPA, 4 (0.4%). In addition, 383 patients (40.6%) had at least one undetectable branch on DSHA. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of visualization on DSHA were as follows: RGA, 80.0, 86.8, and 80.4%; falciform artery, 53.9, 97.7, and 80.0%; accessory LGA, 64.6, 98.6, and 92.3%; left IPA, 76.7, 99.8, and 98.7%; PSPDA, 100, 99.7, and 99.9%; dorsal pancreatic artery, 57.7, 100, and 98.8%; duodenal artery, 8.3, 99.9, and 98.7%; and right IPA, 0, 100, and 99.6%, respectively.ConclusionExtrahepatic arteries originating from hepatic arteries were frequently identified on CTHA images. These arteries were frequently overlooked on DSHA.

  18. Cannabis-associated arterial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Anne Claire; Cacoub, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the different arterial complications reported in cannabis smokers. This study was a literature review. Cannabis use was found to be associated with stroke, myocardial infarction, and lower limb arteritis. Arterial disease involved especially young men. There was a very strong temporal link between arterial complications and cannabis use for stroke and myocardial infarction episodes. Patient outcome was closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal and relapses associated with cannabis rechallenge. Cannabis use was associated with particular characteristics of arterial disease. The increased risk of myocardial infarction onset occurred within 1 hour of smoking marijuana compared with periods of non-use. Strokes occurred mainly in the posterior cerebral circulation. Compared with cohorts of thromboangiitis obliterans patients, those with cannabis-associated limb arteritis were younger, more often male, and had more frequent unilateral involvement of the lower limbs at clinical presentation. Cannabis use is associated with arterial disease such as stroke, myocardial infarction, and limbs arteritis. It appears essential to investigate cannabis use in young patients presenting with such arterial manifestations, as outcome is closely correlated with cannabis withdrawal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Case of radiation induced aneurysm of extracranial carotid artery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashiro, Takashi; Ikota, Toshio; Yamashita, Kousuke; Kodama, Takao

    1988-08-01

    An unusual case of post-irradiation aneurysm of extracranial internal carotid artery is presented. A 70-year-old man, complaining of left cervical throbbing mass with focal pain, was admitted on February 8, 1985. It was noted, from his past history, that he had had surgery of the removal of cervical lymphnodes and that unknown dosage of irradiation had been added to the cervical region 30 years before. Left carotid angiography (on admission) demonstrated a giant aneurysm in the cervical portion of internal carotid artery. Right carotid angiography with compression of left carotid artery revealed good cross filling through anterior communicating artery. Computed tomography with contrast media showed a ring like enhanced mass, which was thought to suggest that a large part of the aneurysm was filled with intraluminal thrombosis. During 30 days of evaluation, the aneurysm grew larger and his cervical pain became untolerable. Operation, the resection of the aneurysm and the reconstruction (of circulation) with vein graft, was challenged on March 12. It was so difficult with meticulous work that the ligation of left common carotid artery was performed after all. Seven days after the operation, he suffered from the gastrointestinal bleeding, which was enough to lead him to hypovolemic shock. Thereafter, right hemiparesis and aphasia were brought about. Two months later, he died of pneumonia. On histological examination, it was demonstrated that the aneurysm communicated with the necrotic tissue and that the normal structure of the blood vessel was not observed in the aneurysmal wall and consisted of the collagenous fiber and granulated tissue. The aneurysm was interpreted as a false one.

  20. Mega-event strategy as a tool of urban transformation : Sydney's experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Y.; Spaans, M.

    2009-01-01

    Mega-event strategies and their impact on host cities have drawn increasing interest, as organising large-scale urban events has become part of a deliberate urban policy strategy to promote local economic growth and put the host city on the world agenda. Thus far, the research addressing what

  1. Positive association between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis: is OA also part of the metabolic syndrome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Geest, Rob J. van der; Lamb, Hildo J.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain; Kloppenburg, Margreet; Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if a positive association exists between arterial vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis (OA). Our hypothesis is that generalized OA is another facet of the metabolic syndrome. The medical ethical review board of our institution approved the study. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to the study. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained in 42 patients who had been diagnosed with generalized OA at multiple joint sites. Another 27 MR images of the knee were obtained from a matched normal (non-OA) reference population. Vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was quantitatively measured by dedicated software. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between vessel wall thickness and generalized OA. Adjustments were made for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Confidence intervals (CI) were computed at the 95% level and a significance level of α = 0.05 was used. Patients in the generalized OA population had a significant higher average vessel wall thickness than persons from the normal reference population (p ≤ α), even when correction was made for sex, age, and BMI. The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population. The association found between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis suggests that generalized OA might be another facet of the metabolic syndrome. (orig.)

  2. Positive association between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis: is OA also part of the metabolic syndrome?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kornaat, Peter R.; Sharma, Ruby; Geest, Rob J. van der; Lamb, Hildo J.; Bloem, Johan L.; Watt, Iain [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Kloppenburg, Margreet [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Rheumatology, Leiden (Netherlands); Hellio le Graverand, Marie-Pierre [Pfizer Global Research and Development, New London, CT (United States)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to determine if a positive association exists between arterial vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis (OA). Our hypothesis is that generalized OA is another facet of the metabolic syndrome. The medical ethical review board of our institution approved the study. Written informed consent was obtained from each patient prior to the study. Magnetic resonance (MR) images of the knee were obtained in 42 patients who had been diagnosed with generalized OA at multiple joint sites. Another 27 MR images of the knee were obtained from a matched normal (non-OA) reference population. Vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was quantitatively measured by dedicated software. Linear regression models were used to investigate the association between vessel wall thickness and generalized OA. Adjustments were made for age, sex, and body mass index (BMI). Confidence intervals (CI) were computed at the 95% level and a significance level of {alpha} = 0.05 was used. Patients in the generalized OA population had a significant higher average vessel wall thickness than persons from the normal reference population (p {<=} {alpha}), even when correction was made for sex, age, and BMI. The average vessel wall thickness of the popliteal artery was 1.09 mm in patients with generalized OA, and 0.96 mm in the matched normal reference population. The association found between increased popliteal artery vessel wall thickness and generalized osteoarthritis suggests that generalized OA might be another facet of the metabolic syndrome. (orig.)

  3. Visualizing Conflict: Possibilities for Urban Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Francisco Saldarriaga

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Spatial Research (CSR is undertaking a multiyear project investigating what we have termed Conflict Urbanism. The term designates not simply the conflicts that take place in cities, but also conflict as a structuring principle of cities intrinsically, as a way of inhabiting and creating urban space. The increasing urbanization of warfare and the policing and surveillance of everyday life are examples of the term (Graham, 2010; Misselwitz & Rieniets, 2006; Weizman, 2014, but conflict is not limited to war and violence. Cities are not only destroyed but also built through conflict. They have long been arenas of friction, difference, and dissidence, and their irreducibly conflictual character manifests itself in everything from neighborhood borders, to differences of opinion and status, to ordinary encounters on the street. One major way in which CSR undertakes research is through interrogating the world of ‘big data.’ This includes analyzing newly accessible troves of ‘urban data,’ working to open up new areas of research and inquiry, as well as focusing on data literacy as an essential part of communicating with these new forms of urban information. In what follows we discuss two projects currently under way at CSR that use mapping and data visualization to explore and analyze Conflict Urbanism in two different contexts: the city of Aleppo, and the nation of Colombia.

  4. Spatial temporal analysis of urban heat hazard in Tangerang City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Adi; Kuswantoro; Ardiansyah; Rustanto, Andry; Putut Ash Shidiq, Iqbal

    2016-11-01

    Urban heat is a natural phenomenon which might caused by human activities. The human activities were represented by various types of land-use such as urban and non-urban area. The aim of this study is to identify the urban heat behavior in Tangerang City as it might threats the urban environment. This study used three types of remote sensing data namely, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM+ and Landsat OLI-TIRS, to capture the urban heat behavior and to analysis the urban heat signature of Tangerang City in 2001, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016. The result showed that urban heat signature change dynamically each month based on the sun radiation. The urban heat island covered only small part of Tangerang City in 2001, but it was significantly increased and reached 50% of the area in 2012. Based on the result on urban heat signature, the threshold for threatening condition is 30 oC which recognized from land surface temperature (LST). The effective temperature (ET) index explains that condition as warm, uncomfortable, increase stress due to sweating and blood flow and may causing cardiovascular disorder.

  5. Losing Ground? Part 1: The Dimensions of Urban Sprawl. Know Your Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA.

    This bulletin provides information on the issues surrounding urban sprawl. It is designed to offer information on the dimensions of sprawl and related policy debates. Some of the major debates include whether or not sprawl is a problem that even needs to be addressed. A summary of the major points of debated topics is included. (Contains 20…

  6. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children: diagnostic use of multidetector computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Quanli; Yao, Qiong; Hu, Xihong [Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China)

    2016-09-15

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly. It is important to demonstrate the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery and its course before surgery. To explore the clinical diagnostic use of multidetector CT coronary angiography in detecting anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children. Nine children (2 boys, 7 girls) ages 2 months to 9 years with surgically confirmed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery were studied. Clinical data, transthoracic echocardiography and CT coronary angiography images were retrospectively analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiography correctly diagnosed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in 7 of 9 patients (95% CI: 40-97%). CT coronary angiography revealed the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery in all children (95% CI: 66-100%). In a 4-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl, CT coronary angiography showed dilation of the right coronary artery and collateral circulation between the right and the left coronary arteries. CT coronary angiography is a useful method to show the anomalous origin of the coronary artery in children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, especially for patients in whom origin of the left coronary artery cannot be detected by transthoracic echocardiography. (orig.)

  7. Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children: diagnostic use of multidetector computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Quanli; Yao, Qiong; Hu, Xihong

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery is a rare congenital anomaly. It is important to demonstrate the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery and its course before surgery. To explore the clinical diagnostic use of multidetector CT coronary angiography in detecting anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in children. Nine children (2 boys, 7 girls) ages 2 months to 9 years with surgically confirmed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery were studied. Clinical data, transthoracic echocardiography and CT coronary angiography images were retrospectively analyzed. Transthoracic echocardiography correctly diagnosed anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery in 7 of 9 patients (95% CI: 40-97%). CT coronary angiography revealed the anomalous origin of the left coronary artery in all children (95% CI: 66-100%). In a 4-year-old girl and a 9-year-old girl, CT coronary angiography showed dilation of the right coronary artery and collateral circulation between the right and the left coronary arteries. CT coronary angiography is a useful method to show the anomalous origin of the coronary artery in children with anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery, especially for patients in whom origin of the left coronary artery cannot be detected by transthoracic echocardiography. (orig.)

  8. The role of cGMP hydrolysing phosphodiesterases 1 and 5 in cerebral artery dilatation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina; Rybalkin, S D; Khurana, T S

    2001-01-01

    The aim was to investigate the presence and activity of cGMP hydrolysing phosphodiesterases in guinea pig basilar arteries and the effect of selective and non-selective phosphodiesterase inhibitors on cerebral artery dilatation involving the nitric oxide (NO)-guanosine cyclic 3'5-monophosphate (cGMP...... a close relation to the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. The responses to zaprinast and dipyridamole, however, were not only moderately affected, but also restored by sodium nitroprusside (0.1 microM) pretreatment. At high concentrations, the dilatory effects of zaprinast and dipyridamole were partly caused...... by cGMP-independent mechanisms. Targeting the phosphodiesterases present in cerebral arteries, with selective inhibitors or activators of phosphodiesterase, may be a possible new way of treating cerebrovascular disease....

  9. Nineteenth-century urbanization as sacred process: insights from German Strasbourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhoff, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    This article examines a crucial site for modernity’s encounter with religion during the long nineteenth century, albeit one largely ignored both by religious and urban historians: the modern big city. Drawing on evidence from Strasbourg, which joined the ranks of Germany’s big cities soon after the Franco-Prussian War, it points out first, that urbanization had a significant urban dimension. It altered the absolute and relative size of the city’s faith communities, affected the confessional composition of urban neighborhoods, and prompted faith communities to mark additional parts of the urban landscape as sacred. Second, while urban growth—both demographic and physical—frequently challenged traditional understandings of religious community, it also facilitated the construction of new understandings of piety and community, especially via voluntary organizations and the religious media. Thereby, urbanization emerged as a key force behind sacralization in city and countryside as the nineteenth century ended and the twentieth began.

  10. Pulmonary artery aneurysm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Introduction. Pulmonary artery aneurysms are a rare finding in general radiological practice. The possible causes are myriad and diverse in pathophysiolo- gy. Patients with post-stenotic dilata- tion of the main pulmonary artery usually present fairly late with insidi- ous cardiorespiratory symptoms. Diagnosis requires ...

  11. Vertebrobasilar Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoen, Jessica

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of vertebrobasilar artery occlusion varies with the cause of occlusion and location of ischemia. This often results in delay in diagnosis. Areas of the brain supplied by the posterior circulation are difficult to visualize and usually require angiography or magnetic resonance imaging. Intravenous thrombolysis and local-intra arterial thrombolysis are the most common treatment approaches used. Recanalization of the occluded vessel significantly improves morbidity and mortality. Here we present a review of the literature and a case of a patient with altered mental status caused by vertebrobasilar artery occlusion. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(2:233-239.

  12. Transcatheter arterial embolization of a pseudoaneurysm of gastroduodenal artery: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Young Min; Kang, Sung Soo; Lee, Jeong Min; Chung, Jin Young; Lee, Sang Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul [Chonbuk National University School of Medicine, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm is a relatively rare and potentionally life-threatening complication of chronic pancreatitis, which is thought to occur because of autodigestion of arterial walls by pancreatic enzymes. Embolotherapy should probably be the first method of treatment, since surgical treatment carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity. We report the case of 30-year-old male with gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm caused by chronic pancreatitis which was successfully treated by transcatheter embolization using Gianturco spring coils.

  13. Transcatheter arterial embolization of a pseudoaneurysm of gastroduodenal artery: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young Min; Kang, Sung Soo; Lee, Jeong Min; Chung, Jin Young; Lee, Sang Yong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Kim, Chong Soo; Sohn, Myung Hee; Choi, Ki Chul

    1997-01-01

    Gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm is a relatively rare and potentionally life-threatening complication of chronic pancreatitis, which is thought to occur because of autodigestion of arterial walls by pancreatic enzymes. Embolotherapy should probably be the first method of treatment, since surgical treatment carries a high risk of mortality and morbidity. We report the case of 30-year-old male with gastroduodenal artery pseudoaneurysm caused by chronic pancreatitis which was successfully treated by transcatheter embolization using Gianturco spring coils

  14. Techniques and Applications of Urban Data Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan N.

    2016-05-26

    Digitization and characterization of urban spaces are essential components as we move to an ever-growing ’always connected’ world. Accurate analysis of such digital urban spaces has become more important as we continue to get spatial and social context-aware feedback and recommendations in our daily activities. Modeling and reconstruction of urban environments have thus gained unprecedented importance in the last few years. Such analysis typically spans multiple disciplines, such as computer graphics, and computer vision as well as architecture, geoscience, and remote sensing. Reconstructing an urban environment usually requires an entire pipeline consisting of different tasks. In such a pipeline, data analysis plays a strong role in acquiring meaningful insights from the raw data. This dissertation primarily focuses on the analysis of various forms of urban data and proposes a set of techniques to extract useful information, which is then used for different applications. The first part of this dissertation presents a semi-automatic framework to analyze facade images to recover individual windows along with their functional configurations such as open or (partially) closed states. The main advantage of recovering both the repetition patterns of windows and their individual deformation parameters is to produce a factored facade representation. Such a factored representation enables a range of applications including interactive facade images, improved multi-view stereo reconstruction, facade-level change detection, and novel image editing possibilities. The second part of this dissertation demonstrates the importance of a layout configuration on its performance. As a specific application scenario, I investigate the interior layout of warehouses wherein the goal is to assign items to their storage locations while reducing flow congestion and enhancing the speed of order picking processes. The third part of the dissertation proposes a method to classify cities

  15. Urban base flow with low impact development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Aditi; Hogan, Dianna M.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel form of urbanization, low impact development (LID), aims to engineer systems that replicate natural hydrologic functioning, in part by infiltrating stormwater close to the impervious surfaces that generate it. We sought to statistically evaluate changes in a base flow regime because of urbanization with LID, specifically changes in base flow magnitude, seasonality, and rate of change. We used a case study watershed in Clarksburg, Maryland, in which streamflow was monitored during whole-watershed urbanization from forest and agricultural to suburban residential development using LID. The 1.11-km2 watershed contains 73 infiltration-focused stormwater facilities, including bioretention facilities, dry wells, and dry swales. We examined annual and monthly flow during and after urbanization (2004–2014) and compared alterations to nearby forested and urban control watersheds. We show that total streamflow and base flow increased in the LID watershed during urbanization as compared with control watersheds. The LID watershed had more gradual storm recessions after urbanization and attenuated seasonality in base flow. These flow regime changes may be because of a reduction in evapotranspiration because of the overall decrease in vegetative cover with urbanization and the increase in point sources of recharge. Precipitation that may once have infiltrated soil, been stored in soil moisture to be eventually transpired in a forested landscape, may now be recharged and become base flow. The transfer of evapotranspiration to base flow is an unintended consequence to the water balance of LID.

  16. Planning & Urban Affairs Library Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobbe, Mary L., Ed.; Lessel, Janice W., Ed.

    Written especially for persons without a library degree who are operating a small urban study or planning agency library on a part-time basis. Subjects covered are: (1) library function and staff function, duties and training; (2) physical layout and equipment of library; (3) establishing and maintaining the library; (4) library administration;…

  17. Foster replantation of fingertip using neighbouring digital artery in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing-Hong; Gao, Zheng-Jun; Yao, Jing-Ming; Tan, Wei-Qiang; Dawreeawo, Javed

    2010-06-01

    Reconstruction of an amputated fingertip in a young child demands special techniques for success. We report a 2.5-year-old female patient with an amputated left index fingertip with the vascular defect being too severe to perform the usual replantation. Comparing several methods, we used the neighbouring digital artery as the feeding artery to perform foster replantation. Finally, the patient was satisfied with the appearance and function of her fingers. The clinical case, techniques, results are described and discussed. We consider it a useful technique, especially for those with a rather severe vascular defect. A 2.5-year-old girl suffered a crush amputation of the left index fingertip. Only the flexor tendon of the amputated fingertip was connected to the proximal finger tissue and the blood supply was completely lost (Figure 1). The distal amputated fingertip was fixed using Kirschner wire under general anaesthesia. Then, microsurgery operation was carried out immediately to replant this amputated fingertip. Both ulnar and radial digital arteries were avulsed, while the dorsal vein was intact and the digital nerve was also surviving. The integrity of blood vessels was too traumatised to connect to the proximal part. In the case of the distal part of the ulnar artery of the injured index finger, the blood supply was established by anastomosing the distal end of the amputated tip and the radial artery of the middle finger, which was the feeding artery (Figure 2). A 11/0 nylon suture was used. The dorsal vein and digital nerve were repaired by means of microsurgical anastomosis. The wound was covered with the dorsal skin of the middle finger and the palmar skin of the index finger to form a skin pedicle, and then, immobility of the two fingers was maintained to prevent avulsion. The index tip obtained good blood supply and survived completely (Figure 3). Detachment of the index and middle finger was performed after 3 weeks, and both of the fingers showed good

  18. GENDER FRONTIERS IN MODERN URBANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alice Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of what perspectives are the city, the street, the home, the working place and the spaces for leisure being built? On the basis of whose interests and to what purposes are cities ordained? What ideology is behind this “order” proposed to the cities? This article presents a feminist critical analysis of urban modernism since its genesis on the XIX century, in the context of urbanization emerging from industrialization. For the most part, what has been produced on modern urbanism and its planning is male-white-European authored. Analysis, from a feminist perspective, leads to the questioning of “objective” knowledge, produced independently of positionality and thus to the adoption of standpoint epistemologies. Finally, going against the grain of mainstream urbanistic discourse, it demonstrates that the subject of knowledge is not neuter; urbanistic knowledge is produced by men, so as to tend to, and reinforce, patriarchal ideology. The consequences of such a situation are still felt by contemporary women.

  19. Arterial innervation in development and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichmann, Anne; Brunet, Isabelle

    2014-09-03

    Innervation of arteries by sympathetic nerves is well known to control blood supply to organs. Recent studies have elucidated the mechanisms that regulate the development of arterial innervation and show that in addition to vascular tone, sympathetic nerves may also influence arterial maturation and growth. Understanding sympathetic arterial innervation may lead to new approaches to treat peripheral arterial disease and hypertension. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  20. From Slum Clearance to Urban Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagnby, Bo Hellisen; Jensen, Ole B.

    2002-01-01

    the physical and social living conditions in the cities, as well as discussing the actors and their interests behind these approaches. Thus the aim is to use the theory of planning dosctrine to investigate how Danish urban policy has changed historically, under different rationales and on behalf of different......The article explores the societal conditions under which the various approaches to Danish housing improvement and urban renewal have been exercised since the early part of the 20th century. In doing, so, the article analyses the specific approaches used by the Danish state in order to improve...... stakeholder interests and powers....

  1. Cardiac tamponade and coronary artery pseudoaneurysm after brachial arterial embolectomy, possible role for an aberrant origin of the right coronary artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irit Stessman-Lande, MD

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A patient developed hemopericardium shortly after left brachial arterial embolectomy using an embolectomy catheter. Evaluation disclosed evolving pseudoaneurysm of the right coronary artery that was successfully managed by stenting. Misplacement of the embolectomy catheter within the coronary vessel was facilitated by an anomalous origin of the right coronary artery. This complication highlights the importance of correct insertion of the embolectomy catheter using the markers to avoid maladvancement and damage to central vessels.

  2. Long-term results after carotid artery stenting. Restenosis after carotid artery stenting using self-expandable stent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Yasushi; Furui, Eisuke; Tsuboi, Ken; Takahashi, Akira; Ezura, Masayuki

    2008-01-01

    Carotid artery stenting has emerged as an acceptable treatment alternative in patients with carotid artery stenosis. Although early clinical results of carotid artery stenting have shown promise, long, term clinical results remain less certain. We report the frequency, management, and clinical results of in-stent restenosis after carotid artery stenting using a self-expandable stent. Between August 1998 and September 2004, 80 carotid artery stenting procedures in 78 patients were performed. We evaluated 76 of the 80 procedures in 75 of the 78 patients treated during this period who had a minimum 6-month clinical and imaging (ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance angiography) follow-up. Recurrent stenosis (≥50%) after carotid artery stenting occurred in 3 (3.9%) patients. The recurrent stenosis occurred within one year after the procedure in all cases. The low rate of in-stent restenosis using self-expandable stent suggested that carotid artery stenting may be an effective alternative treatment for carotid artery stenosis, but more data of long-term follow-up are required. (author)

  3. The pathophysiology of arterial vasodilatation and hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2018-01-01

    transplantation and point to the pathophysiological significance of portal hypertension. In this paper we aimed to review current knowledge on the pathophysiology of arterial vasodilatation and the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.......Patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension often develop complications from a variety of organ systems leading to a multiple organ failure. The combination of liver failure and portal hypertension result in a hyperdynamic circulatory state partly owing to simultaneous splanchnic and peripheral...... arterial vasodilatation. Increases in circulatory vasodilators are believed to be due to portosystemic shunting and bacterial translocation leading to redistribution of the blood volume with central hypovolemia. Portal hypertension per se and increased splanchnic blood flow are mainly responsible...

  4. PSInSAR Analysis in the Pisa Urban Area (Italy: A Case Study of Subsidence Related to Stratigraphical Factors and Urbanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Solari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Permanent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI has been used to detect and characterize the subsidence of the Pisa urban area, which extends for 33 km2 within the Arno coastal plain (Tuscany, Italy. Two SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar datasets, covering the time period from 1992 to 2010, were used to quantify the ground subsidence and its temporal evolution. A geotechnical borehole database was also used to make a correspondence with the detected displacements. Finally, the results of the SAR data analysis were contrasted with the urban development of the eastern part of the city in the time period from 1978 to 2013. ERS 1/2 (European Remote-Sensing Satellite and Envisat SAR data, processed with the PSInSAR (Permanent Scatterer InSAR algorithm, show that the investigated area is divided in two main sectors: the southwestern part, with null or very small subsidence rates (<2 mm/year, and the eastern portion which shows a general lowering with maximum deformation rates of 5 mm/year. This second area includes deformation rates higher than 15 mm/year, corresponding to small groups of buildings. The case studies in the eastern sector of the urban area have demonstrated the direct correlation between the age of construction of buildings and the registered subsidence rates, showing the importance of urbanization as an accelerating factor for the ground consolidation process.

  5. Morphological patterns of urban sprawl territories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica I. Stan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of global criticism on urban sprawl, the questions which arises are: what can we do with the expansion forms already occurred in most part of our cities; can they be fully or partially integrated into the city? But first, which exactly are the common morphological features of urban expansion areas in large European cities, and (by comparison in Romania? The urban form correlated to these „sparwl patterns” and „sprawl mechanisms” shows more then the lack of planning, but a social input in occuping the territory, related with a specific meaning of the landscape. The paper explores the relationship between the five distinct morphological patterns ways of forming in relation to spatial and landscape shapes which they generate, in the territories of sprawl, all illustrated through case studies of Bucharest.

  6. Coronary Arteries Segmentation Based on the 3D Discrete Wavelet Transform and 3D Neutrosophic Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Shuo-Tsung Chen; Tzung-Dau Wang; Wen-Jeng Lee; Tsai-Wei Huang; Pei-Kai Hung; Cheng-Yu Wei; Chung-Ming Chen; Woon-Man Kung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Most applications in the field of medical image processing require precise estimation. To improve the accuracy of segmentation, this study aimed to propose a novel segmentation method for coronary arteries to allow for the automatic and accurate detection of coronary pathologies. Methods. The proposed segmentation method included 2 parts. First, 3D region growing was applied to give the initial segmentation of coronary arteries. Next, the location of vessel information, HHH subband c...

  7. Permeability of the arterial endothelium of spontaneously hypertensive rats to plasma macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurukova, Z.B.; Georgiev, P.G.

    1979-01-01

    By means of vascular labelling technique at cellular level, the permeability of the arterial endothelium of spontaneously hypertensive rats has been studied. For this purpose colloidal carbon and plasma lipoproteins were introduced into the jugular vein of the animals. Material for light- and electron-microscopic and radioautographic examinations was taken from the thoracic and abdominal parts of the aorta. The results show that in long-term hypertension substances from plasma enter the aortic wall in increased amounts through two main pathways. First, through the selective physiological pathways of transendothelial transport (through cell junctions and vesicular transport) and secondly, through discontinuities of the endothelial lining (separation of the intercellular junctions, areas of loss of one to several endothelial cells). The alteration of the arterial endothelium barrier function in chronic hypertension seems to be an important mechanism for the progression of hypertensive arterial lesions. (A.B.)

  8. Constriction of collateral arteries induced by "head-up tilt" in patients with occlusive arterial disease of the legs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, K; Henriksen, O; Tønnesen, K H

    1981-01-01

    The effect of head-up tilt on leg blood flow and segmental arterial blood pressures was studied in 21 patients with occlusion or severe stenosis of the common or superficial femoral artery. Arterial pressure was measured directly in the brachial artery, common femoral artery and popliteal artery....... Relative change in blood flow in the leg during tilt was estimated by changes in arterio-venous oxygen differences and by the indicator dilution technique in nine patients. Head-up tilt caused a decrease in leg blood flow of 36% corresponding to an increase in total vascular resistance of 57%. Tilt did...... not change the pressure gradient from femoral to popliteal artery in the patients with occlusion of the superficial femoral artery, indicating that the flow resistance offered by the collateral arteries had increased. In a bilateral sympathectomised patient the increase in collateral resistance was almost...

  9. Anticoncepcionais orais e pressão arterial: pesquisa epidemiológica de hipertensão arterial no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Célia L. Szwarcwald

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo descrever a relação entre o uso de anticoncepcionais orais e a pressão arterial em mulheres residentes nas áreas urbana, rural e metropolitana no Rio Grande do Sul situado no extremo sul do Brasil Os dados utilizados nesta análise provêm de um inquérito de hipertensão arterial conduzido neste Estado, em 1978. Através de uma análise de covariâncias, controlando-se idade e índice de Quetelet, as médias de pressão sistólica e diastólica das mulheres usuárias e ex-usuárias de pílulas, foram comparadas com as médias de pressão das mulheres que nunca tomaram anticoncepcionais. Observou-se que, para a pressão sistólica, houve, sistematicamente, nos quatro estratos considerados na pesquisa (Interior Rural, Interior Urbano, Cinturão Metropolitano e Porto Alegre, uma diferença positiva para as mulheres que estão tomando pílula atualmente. Esta diferença mostrou-se significativa (p The present paper describes the relationship between the use of oral contraceptives and arterial blood pressure among women residing in rural, urban and metropolitan areas of Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil. The analysis is based on data from a cross-sectional survey of blood pressure carried out in Rio Grande do Sul, in 1978. In an analysis ofcovariance, controlling forage and Quetelet Index, the average systolic and diastolic pressures of oral contraceptive users or ex-users were compared to the average pressure of never-users. A positive difference in systolic pressure was observed systematically for all four study strata (Rural Interior, Urban Interior, Capital and its Metropolitan Belt, among women using oral contraceptives at the time of interview. The difference was found to be significant (p < 1% for women residing in the Metropolitan Belt using oral contraceptives for more than 2 y ears. The effect on diastolic pressure, although generally positive, were smaller and not significant

  10. Contrast Media Delivery in the Assessment of Anomalous Left Coronary Artery From the Pulmonary Artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saade, Charbel; Al-Hamra, Salam; Al-Mohiy, Hussain; El-Merhi, Fadi

    2016-05-01

    A patient with a history of mitral valve prolapse and regurgitation that was corrected with a mitral ring repair 15 years earlier received a diagnosis of anomalous left coronary artery arising from the pulmonary artery and underwent repair. Coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA) was employed to image the patient before surgical intervention. Synchronizing contrast media administration to opacify the right coronary artery in the arterial phase and the left coronary artery in the venous phase required a test-bolus approach. Matching compromised cardiovascular dynamics with patient-specific contrast media administration protocols was improved considerably with the use of a test-bolus technique during electrocardiography-gated coronary CTA.

  11. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  12. Safety and Outcome of Intra-Arterial Treatment for Basilar Artery Occlusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houwelingen, Reinier C.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; Mazuri, Aryan; Bokkers, Reinoud P. H.; Eshghi, Omid S.; Uyttenboogaart, Maarten

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE After the many positive results in thrombectomy trials in ischemic stroke of the anterior circulation, the question arises whether these positive results also apply to the patient with basilar artery occlusion (BAO). OBJECTIVE To report up-to-date outcome data of intra-arterial (IA)

  13. Right Coronary Artery Originated from the Left Anterior Descending Artery in a Patient with Congenital Pulmonary Valvular Stenosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hoşoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The single coronary artery, anomalous origin of the right coronary artery from the left anterior descending artery, is a benign and very rare coronary artery anomaly. We firstly present a case with this type of single coronary artery and congenital pulmonary valvular stenosis with large poststenotic dilatation.

  14. Absent right common carotid artery associated with aberrant right subclavian artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchino, Akira; Uwabe, Kazuhiko; Osawa, Iichiro

    2018-06-01

    Rarely, the external and internal carotid arteries arise separately from the brachiocephalic trunk and right subclavian artery (SA) or the aortic arch and reflect the absence of a common carotid artery (CCA). We report a 45-year-old man with absent right CCA associated with aberrant right SA, an extremely rare combination, diagnosed by computed tomography (CT) angiography during follow-up for postoperative aortic dissection. Retrospective careful observation of preoperative postcontrast CT revealed the absent right CCA. Previously reported arch variations associated with absent CCA include cervical aortic arch, double aortic arch, and right aortic arch.

  15. Definitions of urban areas feasible for examining urban health in the European Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breckenkamp, Jürgen; Patterson, Lesley; Scharlach, Martina; Hellmeier, Wolfgang; Verma, Arpana

    2017-05-01

    As part of the EU-funded project, European Urban Health Indicator System (EURO-URHIS), a definition of urban areas (UAs) and of urban populations was needed to be able to identify comparable UAs in all member states. A literature review on existing definitions, as well as those used by other relevant projects, was performed. A survey of national experts in public health or land planning was also conducted. An algorithm was proposed to find UAs, which were feasible for the focus of EURO-URHIS. No unique general definition of UAs was found. Different fields of research define UAs differently. None of the definitions found were feasible for EURO-URHIS. All of them were found to have critical disadvantages when applied to an urban health project. An ideal definition for this type of project needs to provide a description of the situation without recourse to administrative boundaries yet inform the collection of routine data for urban health monitoring. These requirements were found to contradict each other and were not met in any existing definition. An algorithm was developed for the definition of UAs for the purpose of this study whereby national experts would select regions which are urban as an agglomeration or as a metropolitan area and which are potentially interesting in terms of public health; identify the natural boundaries, where countryside ends and residential or commercial areas of the region begin (e.g. by aerial photos); identify local government boundaries or other official boundaries used for routine data collection purposes which approximate the natural UA as closely as possible and list all administrative areas which are contained in the larger UA. The aggregation of all administrative areas within the original region formed the UA which was used in the project. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  16. Urban water trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Allen, Adriana; Hofmann, Pascale; Teh, Tse-Hui

    2017-01-01

    Water is an essential element in the future of cities. It shapes cities’ locations, form, ecology, prosperity and health. The changing nature of urbanisation, climate change, water scarcity, environmental values, globalisation and social justice mean that the models of provision of water services and infrastructure that have dominated for the past two centuries are increasingly infeasible. Conventional arrangements for understanding and managing water in cities are being subverted by a range of natural, technological, political, economic and social changes. The prognosis for water in cities remains unclear, and multiple visions and discourses are emerging to fill the space left by the certainty of nineteenth century urban water planning and engineering. This book documents a sample of those different trajectories, in terms of water transformations, option, services and politics. Water is a key element shaping urban form, economies and lifestyles, part of the ongoing transformation of cities. Cities are face...

  17. Life cycle implications of urban green infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatari, Sabrina; Yu, Ziwen; Montalto, Franco A

    2011-01-01

    Low Impact Development (LID) is part of a new paradigm in urban water management that aims to decentralize water storage and movement functions within urban watersheds. LID strategies can restore ecosystem functions and reduce runoff loadings to municipal water pollution control facilities (WPCF). This research examines the avoided energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of select LID strategies using life cycle assessment (LCA) and a stochastic urban watershed model. We estimate annual energy savings and avoided GHG emissions of 7.3 GJ and 0.4 metric tons, respectively, for a LID strategy implemented in a neighborhood in New York City. Annual savings are small compared to the energy and GHG intensity of the LID materials, resulting in slow environmental payback times. This preliminary analysis suggests that if implemented throughout an urban watershed, LID strategies may have important energy cost savings to WPCF, and can make progress towards reducing their carbon footprint. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Symbolic Interactionism, Mass Panics and Urban Legends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Kovačević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The constructionist approach to social problems has developed a thesis about mass panics and urban legends as "unconstructed social problems". This thesis, advanced by the American sociologist Joel Best, and his analysis of the urban legend of Halloween sadism, have provided the model for studying three mass panics and two urban legends. The three panics in question are the mass exodus from Kraljevo because of a prophesy that the town would be destroyed in an earthquake, the mass fear of body parts thieves in three villages in Srem, and the panic over the appearance of a cannibal sect in the town of Šabac. The two urban legends involve the rich old emigrant whose acquaintance a child from a poor family made while dialling phone numbers at random, and the thieving postman who set up his own business in Russia with the stolen pension money he had been supposed to deliver.

  19. The high opening of the right bronchial artery with a non-typical course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejewski, R; Madej, B; Anasiewicz, A

    1995-01-01

    Authors describing the bronchial vessels agree to the fact that they are characterised by a great variability in regard to their number and the place where they leave aorta (1, 2, 6). The characteristic feature of the right bronchial artery is that it often forms common trunks with other vessels (mainly with the first right aortic intercostal branch or with one of the upper oesophageal arteries). It can also have a common let-out trunk with the left upper bronchial artery (4). Bearing in mind that the operations on trachea and bronchi are difficult, and that it is very important to maintain the blood supply of the walls in the operated organs we have decided to publish our observations. They refer to a case, not described before, in which the right bronchial artery left the aortic arch in a high position making the vascular supply to the front lower half of the trachea and its bifurcation. Then, it went down to the membranous part of the right bronchus.

  20. Classification of Global Urban Centers Using ASTER Data: Preliminary Results From the Urban Environmental Monitoring Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, W. L.; Stefanov, W. L.; Christensen, P. R.

    2001-05-01

    Land cover and land use changes associated with urbanization are important drivers of global ecologic and climatic change. Quantification and monitoring of these changes are part of the primary mission of the ASTER instrument, and comprise the fundamental research objective of the Urban Environmental Monitoring (UEM) Program. The UEM program will acquire day/night, visible through thermal infrared ASTER data twice per year for 100 global urban centers over the duration of the mission (6 years). Data are currently available for a number of these urban centers and allow for initial comparison of global city structure using spatial variance texture analysis of the 15 m/pixel visible to near infrared ASTER bands. Variance texture analysis highlights changes in pixel edge density as recorded by sharp transitions from bright to dark pixels. In human-dominated landscapes these brightness variations correlate well with urbanized vs. natural land cover and are useful for characterizing the geographic extent and internal structure of cities. Variance texture analysis was performed on twelve urban centers (Albuquerque, Baghdad, Baltimore, Chongqing, Istanbul, Johannesburg, Lisbon, Madrid, Phoenix, Puebla, Riyadh, Vancouver) for which cloud-free daytime ASTER data are available. Image transects through each urban center produce texture profiles that correspond to urban density. These profiles can be used to classify cities into centralized (ex. Baltimore), decentralized (ex. Phoenix), or intermediate (ex. Madrid) structural types. Image texture is one of the primary data inputs (with vegetation indices and visible to thermal infrared image spectra) to a knowledge-based land cover classifier currently under development for application to ASTER UEM data as it is acquired. Collaboration with local investigators is sought to both verify the accuracy of the knowledge-based system and to develop more sophisticated classification models.

  1. Land use/cover change detection and urban sprawl analysis in Bandar Abbas city, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadras, Mohsen; Shafri, Helmi Zulhaidi Mohd; Ahmad, Noordin; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Safarpour, Sahabeh

    2014-01-01

    The process of land use change and urban sprawl has been considered as a prominent characteristic of urban development. This study aims to investigate urban growth process in Bandar Abbas city, Iran, focusing on urban sprawl and land use change during 1956-2012. To calculate urban sprawl and land use changes, aerial photos and satellite images are utilized in different time spans. The results demonstrate that urban region area has changed from 403.77 to 4959.59 hectares between 1956 and 2012. Moreover, the population has increased more than 30 times in last six decades. The major part of population growth is related to migration from other parts the country to Bandar Abbas city. Considering the speed of urban sprawl growth rate, the scale and the role of the city have changed from medium and regional to large scale and transregional. Due to natural and structural limitations, more than 80% of barren lands, stone cliffs, beach zone, and agricultural lands are occupied by built-up areas. Our results revealed that the irregular expansion of Bandar Abbas city must be controlled so that sustainable development could be achieved.

  2. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development......Characteristic findings in patients with cirrhosis are vasodilatation with low overall systemic vascular resistance, high arterial compliance, increased cardiac output, secondary activation of counter-regulatory systems (renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic nervous system, release...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  3. Cervicocephalic arterial dissection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Kentaro; Nagata, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    The authors review the clinical and neuroradiological features of cervicocephalic arterial dissection, which is occasionally seen in young adults, with special reference to the differences in the region of occurrence of these lesions between patients in Western countries and Japan. In Western countries, the cervical internal carotid artery is the most common site of occurrence of these lesions; however, in Japan, these lesions have been frequently reported to occure in the intracranial vertebral artery. Most clinical manifestations of cervical arterial dissection are non-hemorrhagic events such as headaches associated with arterial dissection or cerebral ischemia caused by a distal embolism following thrombus formation in the cervical lesion. On the other hand, a subarachnoid hemorrhage and cerebral infarction are frequently observed in intracranial arterial dissections. Non-invasive procedures, including MR imaging, are useful for demonstrating characteristic features of this condition such as the presence of an intimal flap or a double lumen, and for monitoring the chronological changes in the lesions, which may regress spontaneously. Since the pathological mechanisms underlying the progression and/or the regression of this condition are still unknown, the clinical evidence indicating the optimal therapeutic strategies has not yet been reported. Nevertheless, conservative therapy, including antithrombotic treatment, is widely used for the treatment of non-hemorrhagic lesions, which generally results in good clinical outcomes. Further, surgical intervention is essential for the treatment of lesions with a subarachnoid hemorrhage to prevent fatal rebleeding, and it is also required for the treatment of certain non-hemorrhagic lesions. Recent advancements in surgical procedures, especially endovascular treatments, may therefore be helpful in the management of similar complicated vascular conditions. (author)

  4. Localized arterial occlusion following irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, S; Hasue, M [Japan Red Cross Medical Center, Tokyo; Fujiwara, M

    1982-04-01

    Occlusion of the major artery (the iliac artery in 2 cases and subclavicular artery in one) was reported, which occurred in association with bone necrosis 5 - 21 years after postoperative radiotherapy for malignant tumors (uterine cancer in 2 cases and mammary cancer in one).

  5. Urban forests for sustainable urban development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundara, Denny M.; Hartono, Djoko M.; Suganda, Emirhadi; Haeruman, S. Herman J.

    2017-11-01

    This paper explores the development of the urban forest in East Jakarta. By 2030 Jakarta area has a target of 30% green area covering 19,845 hectares, including urban forest covering an area of 4,631 hectares. In 2015, the city forest is only 646 hectares, while the city requires 3,985 hectares of new land Urban forest growth from year to year showed a marked decrease with increasing land area awoke to commercial functions, environmental conditions encourage the development of the city to become unsustainable. This research aims to support sustainable urban development and ecological balance through the revitalization of green areas and urban development. Analytical methods for urban forest area is calculated based on the amount of CO2 that comes from people, vehicles, and industrial. Urban spatial analysis based on satellite image data, using a GIS program is an analysis tool to determine the distribution and growth patterns of green areas. This paper uses a dynamic system model to simulate the conditions of the region against intervention to be performed on potential areas for development of urban forests. The result is a model urban forest area is integrated with a social and economic function to encourage the development of sustainable cities.

  6. Physiologic assessment of coronary artery fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, N.C.; Beauvais, J. (Creighton Univ., Omaha, NE (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon clinical entity. The most common coronary artery fistula is from the right coronary artery to the right side of the heart, and it is less frequent to the pulmonary artery. The effect of a coronary artery fistula may be physiologically significant because of the steal phenomenon resulting in coronary ischemia. Based on published reports, it is recommended that patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas be considered candidates for elective surgical correction to prevent complications including development of congestive heart failure, angina, subacute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial infarction, and coronary aneurysm formation with rupture or embolization. A patient is presented in whom treadmill-exercise thallium imaging was effective in determining the degree of coronary steal from a coronary artery fistula, leading to successful corrective surgery.

  7. Physiologic assessment of coronary artery fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, N.C.; Beauvais, J.

    1991-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula is an uncommon clinical entity. The most common coronary artery fistula is from the right coronary artery to the right side of the heart, and it is less frequent to the pulmonary artery. The effect of a coronary artery fistula may be physiologically significant because of the steal phenomenon resulting in coronary ischemia. Based on published reports, it is recommended that patients with congenital coronary artery fistulas be considered candidates for elective surgical correction to prevent complications including development of congestive heart failure, angina, subacute bacterial endocarditis, myocardial infarction, and coronary aneurysm formation with rupture or embolization. A patient is presented in whom treadmill-exercise thallium imaging was effective in determining the degree of coronary steal from a coronary artery fistula, leading to successful corrective surgery

  8. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Arterial Esophageal Bleeding with the Use of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung [Seoul National University Hospita, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of arterial esophageal bleeding. Between August 2000 and April 2008, five patients diagnosed with arterial esophageal bleeding by conventional angiography, CT angiography or endoscopy, underwent a TAE with NBCA. We mixed NBCA with iodized oil at ratios of 1:1 to 1:4 to supply radiopacity and achieve a proper polymerization time. After embolization, we evaluated the angiographic and clinical success, recurrent bleeding, and procedure-related complications. The bleeding esophageal artery directly originated from the aorta in four patients and from the left inferior phrenic artery in one patient. Although four patients had an underlying coagulopathy at the time of the TAE, angiographic and clinical success was achieved in all five patients. In addition, no procedurerelated complications such as esophageal infarction were observed during this study. NBCA can be an effective and feasible embolic agent in patients with active arterial esophageal bleeding, even with pre-existing coagulopathy.

  9. Transcatheter Arterial Embolization of Arterial Esophageal Bleeding with the Use of N-Butyl Cyanoacrylate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Hyo Cheol; Chung, Jin Wook; Jae, Hwan Jun; Park, Jae Hyung

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a transcatheter arterial embolization (TAE) with N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) for the treatment of arterial esophageal bleeding. Between August 2000 and April 2008, five patients diagnosed with arterial esophageal bleeding by conventional angiography, CT angiography or endoscopy, underwent a TAE with NBCA. We mixed NBCA with iodized oil at ratios of 1:1 to 1:4 to supply radiopacity and achieve a proper polymerization time. After embolization, we evaluated the angiographic and clinical success, recurrent bleeding, and procedure-related complications. The bleeding esophageal artery directly originated from the aorta in four patients and from the left inferior phrenic artery in one patient. Although four patients had an underlying coagulopathy at the time of the TAE, angiographic and clinical success was achieved in all five patients. In addition, no procedurerelated complications such as esophageal infarction were observed during this study. NBCA can be an effective and feasible embolic agent in patients with active arterial esophageal bleeding, even with pre-existing coagulopathy

  10. Good Practice Lessons from the Urban Traffic Project, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2002-01-01

    In 1990, as the first government in the world, the Danish Cabinet approved a national action plan for sustainable transport. In 1992, as part of the implementation of this plan, the Urban Traffic Project was set up with the EPA. The policy situation was one of a state agency trying to motivate...... urban municipalities to work with T&E (transport and environment) integration, i.e. integration of concerns for safety, energy, air quality, noise etc. in urban traffic planning. 50 major urban municipalities participated in the project. The most important lessons to be learned from the project are: (1......) With a fairly modest investment (DKK 150 million in seed money) it has been possible on a voluntary basis to motivate the majority of urban municipalities to work with T&E integration. (2) The top motivating factor for municipalities to participate was a desire for organisational and professional learning. (3...

  11. Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, D P

    2010-01-01

    Popliteal artery entrapment syndrome is a rare abnormality of the anatomical relationship between the popliteal artery and adjacent muscles or fibrous bands in the popliteal fossa. The following is a case report of a 19 year old female, in whom popliteal artery entrapment syndrome was diagnosed, and successfully treated surgically. A review of literature is also presented and provides details on how PAES is classified, diagnosed both clinically and radiologically, and treated surgically.

  12. Endovascular treatment of the subclavian artery aneurysm in high-risk patient - a single-center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our first experience with endovascular treatment of 6 subclavian artery aneurysms (SAA occurring in five male and one female patient. All patients, in our studies, according to ASA classification were high risk for open repair of SAA. The etiology of the all aneurysms was atherosclerosis degeneration of the artery. Two aneurysms were of intrathoracic location, then the other were extrathoracic. Symptoms related to subclavian artery aneurysms were present in two patients, compression and chest pain in one, and hemorrhage shock in second, while the remaining patients were asymptomatic. We preferred the Viabhan endoprosthesis for endovascular repair in 5 cases. In one patient with ruptured of subclavian artery aneurysm who was high-risk for open repair we made combined endovascular procedure. First at all, we covered the origin of left subclavian artery with thoracic stent graft and after that we put two coils in proximal part of subclavian artery. There was no operative mortality, and the early patency rate was 100%. The follow-up period was from 3 months to 3 years. During this period, one patient died of heart failure and one patient required endovascular reoperation due to endoleak type I. Endovascular treatment is recommended for all patients with subclavian artery aneurysm whenever this is possible due to anatomical reasons especially in high-risk patient with intrathoracic localization of aneurysm, to prevent potential complications.

  13. Liver cirrhosis and arterial hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    blood pressure. This review considers the alterations in systemic hemodynamics in patients with cirrhosis in relation to essential hypertension and arterial hypertension of the renal origin. Subjects with arterial hypertension (essential, secondary) may become normotensive during the development...... of cirrhosis, and arterial hypertension is rarely manifested in patients with cirrhosis, even in cases with renovascular disease and high circulating renin activity. There is much dispute as to the understanding of homoeostatic regulation in cirrhotic patients with manifest arterial hypertension. This most...

  14. Renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desberg, A.; Paushter, D.M.; Lammert, G.K.; Hale, J.; Troy, R.; Novic, A.; Nally, J. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Renal artery disease is a potentially correctable cause of hypertension. Previous studies have suggested the utility of duplex sonography in accurately detecting and grading the severity of renal artery stenosis. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate color flow Doppler for this use. Forty-three kidneys were examined by color-flow Doppler and conventional duplex sampling in patients with suspected renovascular hypertension or those undergoing aortography for unrelated reasons. Doppler tracings were obtained from the renal arteries and aorta with calculation of the renal aortic ratio (RAR) and resistive index (RI). Results of Doppler sampling with color flow guidance were compared with aortograms in a blinded fashion

  15. Demonstration of the dorsal pancreatic artery by CTA to facilitate superselective arterial infusion of stem cells into the pancreas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Yuning; Yang Xizhang; Chen Ziqian; Tan Jianming; Zhong Qun; Yang Li; Wu Zhixian

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the diagnostic performance of 64-section CTA in the detection of dorsal pancreatic artery before interventional therapy for patients with diabetes. Materials and methods: The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee; written informed consent was obtained. Forty-two consecutive patients with diabetes received an experimental treatment of autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation by means of infusion into the dorsal pancreatic artery. All cases underwent abdominal CTA before angiography of pancreatic arteries in order to locate the origin and course of dorsal pancreatic artery. Angiography of coeliac artery, splenic artery, common hepatic artery and superior mesenteric artery were performed both in CTA and DSA. Superselective catheterization of dorsal pancreatic artery was carried out for the infusion of stem cell. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the detection of dorsal pancreatic artery with CTA were calculated using DSA images as the reference standard. Results: Thirty-five and thirty-six dorsal pancreatic arteries were detected by CTA and DSA respectively. Dorsal pancreatic artery was not visualized in either CTA or DSA in 5 patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for CTA were 94.4%, 83.3% and 92.9%. Conclusion: 64-section CTA is accurate for the detection of dorsal pancreatic artery. It may be useful for the facilitation of superselective arterial infusion of stem cells to pancreas.

  16. Urban Bike Scapes in New York

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marling, Gitte; Marie Bruun Jespersen, Line

    2017-01-01

    In recent years New York has developed a whole new web of bicycle routes through some of the most urbane and dense city areas in the world. The article explores what this new, urban typology, which is the result of 'mobility-design' consists of. The article suggests how these new cycle environments...... contribute to opening the city in new ways. With an analysis of the Manhattan Waterfront Greenway as point of departure the focus is partly on the role of the new cycle environment as a mobility space, which can be experienced via movement and in transit, and partly on the architectonic and spatial qualities...... and the design related localization of the programs play? Which concepts can be used to capture the particular atmosphere, which prevails in the interaction between users and architecture? And what is the impact of movement and mobility on the aesthetic experience? The article begins with a presentation of New...

  17. Envisioning Urban Farming for Food Security during the Climate Change Era. Vertical Farm within Highly Urbanized Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januszkiewicz, Krystyna; Jarmusz, Małgorzata

    2017-10-01

    Global climate change constitutes a serious threat to global security including food production in the following decades. This paper is focused on a new possibility and advisability of creating a systemic solution to resolve the problem of food security in highly-urbanized areas. The first part of the paper deal with historical development vertical farms ideas and defines the main environmental and spatial constrains also it indicates that vertical farms are going to be part of the future horticultural production. The second part presents results of the research program undertaken at West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin by authors. The program goes on to attempt to solve the problem through architectural design. This study highlights an integrating large-scale horticultural production directly into the cities, where the most of the food consumption takes place. In conclusions emphasizes, that the design will force architects, engineers and urban planners to completely revise and redefine contemporary design process and understanding of the idea-fix of sustainable design. To successfully migrate food production from extensive rural areas to dense environment of city centres, a new holistic approach, integrating knowledge and advances of multiple fields of science, have to develop.

  18. Utilização de consulta médica e hipertensão arterial sistêmica nas áreas urbanas e rurais do Brasil, segundo dados da PNAD 2008 Use of medical consultations and the occurrence of systemic arterial hypertension in urban and rural areas of Brazil, according to PNAD data 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Pronestino de Lima Moreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de consultas médicas é influenciada por determinantes, como necessidades de saúde e características dos serviços, que dependem se o ambiente é urbano ou rural. Objetiva-se estimar a proporção de consulta ao médico nos últimos 12 meses dos indivíduos que referiram ou não hipertensão arterial sistêmica (HAS, residentes em área urbana e rural, e analisar os padrões de utilização de consulta e associações. Trata-se de um estudo seccional, utilizando a PNAD 2008. Executaram-se regressões logísticas para obter odds ratios (OR's, brutas e ajustadas, por HAS autorreferida e situação do domicílio. Consultaram o médico 70,6% dos adultos brasileiros. Foi encontrada uma associação entre HAS e consulta ao médico de 3,63 (OR maior na área urbana. A chance de consulta ao médico foi maior entre as mulheres, os que utilizam medicamentos contínuos, os que possuem plano de saúde ou tiveram financiamento no último atendimento, os que referiram alguma morbidade ou limitação na mobilidade e entre os que referiram estado de saúde ruim, em todos os estratos. A análise multivariada modificou as associações de todas as variáveis. Diferenças nas duas áreas sugerem que políticas de acesso devem ser implantadas, com o objetivo de reduzir iniquidades.The use of medical consultations is influenced by determinants such as healthcare needs and service characteristics, which depend on whether the environment is urban or rural. The scope was to estimate the proportions of individuals attending medical consultations over the previous 12 months with and without self-reported systemic arterial hypertension (SAH living in urban and rural areas, and to analyze the patterns of consultation use and associations. This was a sectional study, using PNAD 2008. Logistic regression was performed to obtain crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs, according to self-reported SAH and household situation. 70.6% of adult Brazilians consult

  19. Transcatheter Splenic Artery Occlusion for Treatment of Splenic Artery Steal Syndrome After Orthotopic Liver Transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uflacker, Renan; Selby, J. Bayne; Chavin, Kenneth; Rogers, Jeffrey; Baliga, Prabhakar

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To review some aspects of the problem of splenic artery steal syndrome as cause of ischemia in transplanted livers and treatment by selective splenic artery occlusion. Materials and Methods: Eleven liver transplant patients from a group of 350 patients, nine men and two women,ranging in age from 40 years to 61 years (mean 52 years), presented with biochemical evidences of liver ischemia and failure, ranging from one to 60 days following orthotopic liver transplantation. Diagnosis of splenic artery steal syndrome was suspected by elevated enzymes, Doppler ultrasound and confirmed by celiac angiogram. Patients with confirmed hepatic artery thrombosis before angiography were excluded from the study. Embolization with Gianturco coils was performed. Results: All patients were treated by splenic artery embolization with Gianturco coils. The 11 patients improved clinically within 24 hours of the procedure with significant change in the biochemical and clinical parameters. Followup ranged from one month to two years. One of the 11 patient initially improved, but developed hepatic artery thrombosis within 24 hours of the embolic treatment,requiring surgical repair. Conclusion: Splenicartery steal syndrome following liver transplantation surgery can be diagnosed by celiac angiography, and effectively treated by splenic artery embolization with coils. Embolization is one of the treatments available, it is minimally invasive, and leads to immediate clinical improvement. Hepatic artery thrombosis is a possible complication of the procedure

  20. Obtaining traffic information by urban air quality inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Federico, G; Simone, A.; Simone, A.; Traverso, M.; Nicolosi, S.

    2006-01-01

    Transportation and its environmental impacts are a major component of urban environmental management. At the same time, transportation and mobility are an important part of urban economics and quality of life. To analyze urban transportation and its environmental impacts, a comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach is needed. Unfortunately, theoretical works about traffic flow and pollutant dynamic have independently evolved, rarely meeting contact points. Our works aims to provide a contribution in linking traffic flow and pollutant dynamic by proponing a new traffic model, able to calculate the number of running vehicles, once the ground level of an arbitrary pollutant concentration is know. The validation and simulation of this model is made possible by the training of an adaptive.(Author)

  1. Public space and ecology in Medellin: of the indexes of square meters for inhabitant, to the system of urban green spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez Restrepo, Luis Anibal

    2002-01-01

    This paper constitutes a critic for green urban areas management from the landscape ecology perspective. In the context of urban public space as a reference, the decree No.1504 (1998) about urban public space in the Colombian land planning, and the agreement No.62 (1999) for the Medellin land planning 2000-2010. In the first part the conceptual limitations (from the ecological point of view) of both the decree and land planning in relation lo green areas and city-nature relationships, are highlighted. Green areas are being treated, in fact, as accessory to the urban public spaces and nowadays constitute a functionally disarticulated complex. In the second part the Medellin land planning is examined in detail to show the above-mentioned limitations especially in the absence of an ecological perspective of the urban landscape together with a lack of articulation of private open spaces and green areas. In the third part the new environmental functions of urban green areas are considered, as well as the importance of taking into account and making feasible the interactions among them, under an ecological functioning perspective. Further than an index of square meters per inhabitant. A system of green urban areas and management policies oriented to a greater naturalization are needed. The last part suggests ways of incorporating ecological criteria to the urban environmental management to the urban public space and of course to the planning and management of Medellin urban green areas and its metropolitan area

  2. City logistics initiatives aimed at improving sustainability by changing the context of urban area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadić Snežana R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available City logistics is a field that attracts increasing attention of professionals and scientific community and international organizations. Research on problems of urban areas' logistics gives different results and practical solutions. City logistics flows are characterized by partiality, spatial dispersion of generators, diversity in terms of the logistics chains structure, frequency of a large number of smaller shipments, dynamism, stochasticity etc. Problems and the complexity of logistics in urban areas as well as significant decline in the quality of life in modern cities have caused the development of initiatives and concepts of city logistics which should allow the sustainable development of urban areas. The first part of this paper presents the problems of city logistics and impact of logistics activities on urban areas in terms of economic, environmental and social sustainability. The second part presents city logistics initiatives that involve the change of urban area context, in order to improve its sustainability.

  3. Liquid breathing - Prevention of pulmonary arterial-venous shunting during acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sass, D. J.; Ritman, E. L.; Caskey, P. E.; Banchero, N.; Wood, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    Dependent pulmonary atelectasis, arterial-venous shunting, and downward displacement of the heart caused by the gravitational-inertial force environment were prevented in dogs breathing oxygenated liquid fluorocarbon in a whole-body water-immersion respirator. Partial closure of the major airways during part of the expiratory phase of liquid respiration was a significant problem initially but was minimized in subsequent studies.

  4. Tuberothalamic Artery Infarction Following Coil Embolization of a Ruptured Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Belonging to a Transitional Type Posterior Cerebral Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyeong Duk; Kwon, Soon Chan; Muniandy, Sarawana; Park, Eun Suk; Sim, Hong Bo; Lyo, In Uk

    2013-01-01

    Summary There are many potential anatomical variations in the connection between the internal carotid artery and the posterior circulation through the posterior communicating artery (PCoA). We describe the endovascular treatment of an aneurysm arising near the origin of the PCoA belonging to a transitional type posterior cerebral artery. Coil embolization subsequently resulted in thrombo-occlusion of the adjacent PCoA causing thalamic infarction even though sufficient retrograde flow had been confirmed pre-operatively by Allcock’s test. PMID:24070079

  5. Feasibility Study of Ex Ovo Chick Chorioallantoic Artery Model for Investigating Pulsatile Variation of Arterial Geometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kweon-Ho Nam

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research efforts on the relationship between arterial geometry and cardiovascular pathology, information is lacking on the pulsatile geometrical variation caused by arterial distensibility and cardiomotility because of the lack of suitable in vivo experimental models and the methodological difficulties in examining the arterial dynamics. We aimed to investigate the feasibility of using a chick embryo system as an experimental model for basic research on the pulsatile variation of arterial geometry. Optical microscope video images of various arterial shapes in chick chorioallantoic circulation were recorded from different locations and different embryo samples. The high optical transparency of the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM allowed clear observation of tiny vessels and their movements. Systolic and diastolic changes in arterial geometry were visualized by detecting the wall boundaries from binary images. Several to hundreds of microns of wall displacement variations were recognized during a pulsatile cycle. The spatial maps of the wall motion harmonics and magnitude ratio of harmonic components were obtained by analyzing the temporal brightness variation at each pixel in sequential grayscale images using spectral analysis techniques. The local variations in the spectral characteristics of the arterial wall motion were reflected well in the analysis results. In addition, mapping the phase angle of the fundamental frequency identified the regional variations in the wall motion directivity and phase shift. Regional variations in wall motion phase angle and fundamental-to-second harmonic ratio were remarkable near the bifurcation area. In summary, wall motion in various arterial geometry including straight, curved and bifurcated shapes was well observed in the CAM artery model, and their local and cyclic variations could be characterized by Fourier and wavelet transforms of the acquired video images. The CAM artery model with

  6. Exclusive use of arterial grafts in coronary artery bypass operations for three-vessel disease : Use of both thoracic arteries and the gastroepiploic artery in 256 consecutive patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grandjean, JG; Voors, AA; Boonstra, PW; denHeyer, P; Ebels, T

    1996-01-01

    Methods: From September 1989 to September 1994 we operated on a consecutive group of 256 patients with three-vessel disease in whom we used the right gastroepiploic artery together with both internal thoracic arteries, Vein grafts were not used in these patients, This population consisted of 233 men

  7. Berlin Mitte: Alexanderplatz and Friedrichstaße: Urban and historical images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aranđelović Biljana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Berlin Mitte is one of the most interesting parts of the city, located in the core of Berlin where every corner and stone can tell a story. Mitte, the cultural center of Berlin is also known as the political and economic hub of Berlin. This paper explores the urban and historical image of two important parts of Berlin Mitte district: Alexanderplatz and Friedrichstaße. Friedrichstraße, as the main shopping and business street in this area, was planned with great attention by Prussian authorities, while the area around Alexanderplatz grew up randomly and its streets did not follow any special urban patterns. All potential international investors wanted to come to Friedrichstraße after the fall of the Wall, while Alexanderplatz was not so attractive to them. Many famous architects took part in numerous competitions regarding urban planning reconstructions of the famous Alex throughout the 20th century. These two areas of the Mitte district, Alexanderplatz and Friedrichstaße, are very important for contemporary Berlin and both areas have different problems.

  8. Migração interna e pressão arterial no Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Leal

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil no ano de 1978. Foram amostrados 2.056 domicílios, num total de 4.500 pessoas entre 20 e 74 anos de idade. A amostra foi composta por quatro estratos: Porto Alegre (capital, Cinturão Metropolitano (cidades em torno de Porto Alegre, Interior Urbano (sedes municipais e Interior Rural. Analisou-se a migração dentro e entre os quatro estratos amostrais e sua relação com a pressão arterial. Os moradores da Área Rural apresentaram os mais baixos níveis pressóricos e os do Cinturão Metropolitano os mais altos. As médias de pressão arterial diastólica dos naturais e migrantes em cada estrato foram semelhantes. Os migrantes nascidos na área rural que foram residir em Porto Alegre e Cinturão Metropolitano apresentaram médias pressóricas mais elevadas que os indivíduos naturais da área rural. Por outro lado, os indivíduos que migraram dentro do estrato rural (de uma área rural para outra exibiram baixos valores de pressão arterial e não se mostraram diferentes dos naturais. Importa ainda registrar que os migrantes oriundos da área rural que foram encontrados residindo em cidades apresentaram valores tensionais crescentes quando aumentava o tempo de permanência.A cross-sectional survey was carried-out in 1978 in Rio Grande do Sul, the southernmost state of Brazil (population: about 8,000,000 inhabitants in 1978. The state was divided into four strata, each one being a district geo-economic area: Porto Alegre, the state capital-Metropolitan Belt, including 13 counties around Porto Alegre; Urban Interior, the non-metropolitan urban areas of the state; Rural Interior, composed of all non-urban areas outside the Metropolitan Belt. In each stratum a probability sample was selected in multiple stages. A total of 2.056 households were successfully contacted (94.7% of the 2.172 households selected. This article presents an analysis of migration between the four strata and

  9. Anomalies of radial and ulnar arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajani Singh

    Full Text Available Abstract During dissection conducted in an anatomy department of the right upper limb of the cadaver of a 70-year-old male, both origin and course of the radial and ulnar arteries were found to be anomalous. After descending 5.5 cm from the lower border of the teres major, the brachial artery anomalously bifurcated into a radial artery medially and an ulnar artery laterally. In the arm, the ulnar artery lay lateral to the median nerve. It followed a normal course in the forearm. The radial artery was medial to the median nerve in the arm and then, at the level of the medial epicondyle, it crossed from the medial to the lateral side of the forearm, superficial to the flexor muscles. The course of the radial artery was superficial and tortuous throughout the arm and forearm. The variations of radial and ulnar arteries described above were associated with anomalous formation and course of the median nerve in the arm. Knowledge of neurovascular anomalies are important for vascular surgeons and radiologists.

  10. EVERYDAY LANDSCAPE AND MEANING IN URBAN LIVING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LAKSHMI PRIYA RAJENDRAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper conceptualizes landscape from a temporal and spatial perspective which emphasizes peoples’ interactions and activities as an inherent part of understanding the landscape itself. Today, peoples’ interaction with the landscape has become more complex, largely owing to the changing notions of place in contemporary urban living. In this context, the paper examines the role and significance of the landscapes of everyday life in urban environment and delineates how it (reconstructs ordinary human and social meanings that are necessary conditions for our existence. The paper is presented in three sections. In the first section, it discusses the concept of everyday life and its relevance in the contemporary urban living. In the following section, it examines the complexities encountered in urban landscapes today .The third section of the paper discusses how meaningful interaction experienced with everyday landscapes offer valuable insights for addressing the challenges posed by the complexities of urban city living. The paper concludes by highlighting the need for attention towards the largely neglected or overlooked domains of ‘ordinary’ everyday landscape by designer professionals, which plays a crucial role in creating meaningful relationship between people and place.

  11. Catheter placement via the occipital artery to achieve superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Toshinori; Mitsudo, Kenji; Fukui, Takafumi

    2008-01-01

    Superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy via the superficial temporal artery (STA) has become useful for oral cancer. However, this method can not be performed if catheter placement via the STA is impossible. Therefore, we report a surgical method for catheter placement via the occipital artery (OA) to achieve retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy. Preoperatively, three-dimensional computed tomography angiography was performed to identify the course of the external carotid artery and the relationship between OA and the target artery. Ten patients with oral cancer underwent catheter placement via the OA with Doppler ultrasound and Harmonic Scalpel under local anesthesia. Catheter placement via the OA was superselectively successful in all the patients. The mean exposure time of OA and mean operating time were 17.5 min and 70.5 min, respectively. Catheter placement via the OA is useful when catheter placement via the STA is impossible. Three-dimensional vascular mapping and the use of Doppler ultrasound and Harmonic Scalpel can shorten the surgical time. (author)

  12. Comparative study of Newtonian physiological blood flow through normal and stenosed carotid artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad Matiur; Hossain, Md. Anwar; Mamun, Khairuzzaman; Akhter, Most. Nasrin

    2017-06-01

    A numerical simulation is performed to investigate Newtonian physiological flows behavior on three dimensional idealized carotid artery (CA) and single stenosed (75% by area) carotid artery(SCA). The wall vessel is set as rigid during simulation. Bifurcated blood vessel are simulated by using three-dimensional flow analysis. Physiological and parabolic velocity profiles are set out to fix the conditions of inlet boundaries of artery. In other hand, physiological waveform is an important part of compilation and it is successfully done by utilization of Fourier series having sixteen harmonics. The investigation has a Reynolds number range of 94 to 1120. Low Reynolds number k — ω model has been used as governing equation. The investigation has been carried out to characterize the flow behavior of blood in two geometry, namely, (i) Normal carotid artery (CA) and (ii) Stenosed carotid artery (SCA). The Newtonian model has been used to study the physics of fluid. The findings of the two models are thoroughly compared in order to observe there behavioral sequence of flows. The numerical results were presented in terms of velocity, pressure, wall shear stress distributions and cross sectional velocities as well as the streamlines contour. Stenosis disturbs the normal pattern of blood flow through the artery as reduced area. At stenosis region velocity and peak Reynolds number rapidly increase and Reynolds number reach transitional and turbulent region. These flow fluctuation and turbulence have bad effect to the blood vessel which makes to accelerate the progress of stenosis.

  13. URBAN FORESTRY AND ITS PRACTICES IN ARTVIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Güner

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban population expansion is taking place most rapidly in Turkey, and cities are experiencing some serious problems: deterioration of air quality, higher air temperatures, increased noise levels, greater psychological stress and a decreased sense of community. Urban forests are all the trees and other vegetation growing in and close to urban areas, and it should be managed for their economic, environmental and social benefits. The amount, type, location and condition of urban vegetation directly affect the amount of benefits derived from the vegetation and their associated costs. Trees and green spaces help keep cities cool, act as natural filters and noise absorbers; improve microclimates and protect and improve the quality of natural resources, including soil, water, vegetation and wildlife. Trees contribute significantly to the aesthetic appeal of cities, thereby helping to maintain the psychological health of their inhabitants. Beyond ecological and aesthetic benefits, urban forestry has a role in helping resource-poor populations meet basic needs, particularly but not exclusively in developing countries. The city of Artvin isn’t rich in urban trees which are those in street trees and in local parks but rich in those along greenspace areas around city. But, trees and green spaces didn’t play an important role in improving city living conditions. Thus, urban forests in Artvin should become an integral part of the efforts to improve the quality of life in Artvin. Forest General Directorate established an “urban forest” in Artvin in 2006 and this area contains more than 95 plant species.

  14. Urbanization and the Resulting Peripheralization in Solo Raya, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradoto, W.; Mardiansjah, F. H.; Manullang, O. R.; Putra, A. A.

    2018-02-01

    Dynamic urbanization in Solo Raya, a local term for Surakarta Metropolitan, amongst rapid regional based-urbanization in Indonesia, shows the unbalance pattern of growth. A number of Surakarta City’s peripherals become the newly growing area which is characterized by a well-facilitated region, while the former urbanized areas next to the city center present the declining process. Different socioeconomic development triggers a unique mosaic of socio-spatial pattern, on which the phenomena of peripheralization could be investigated. Urban investment that boosted by the political will of both the national and local government has led to a shift in demographic condition. A relatively massive in-migration has been attracted to the peripheral and creates the new landscape of urban-rural society. Complex dynamic of metropolitan growth and the resulting peripheralization reminds that socio-spatial pattern calls the challenges for managing the rapid change of land use and space use. The pattern of urbanization that differs upon the surrounding areas of Surakarta City would be interesting to be explored. This paper will discuss the conceptual framework of peripheral urbanization and the methodological approach. It is actually the part of ongoing research on peripheralisation in Solo Raya.

  15. 24 CFR Appendix C to Part 3500 - Instructions for Completing Good Faith Estimate (GFE) Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... 3500, App. C Appendix C to Part 3500—Instructions for Completing Good Faith Estimate (GFE) Form The... 24 Housing and