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Sample records for uptake rates compared

  1. Comparative evaluation of SUV, tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR), and dual time point measurements for assessment of the metabolic uptake rate in FDG PET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofheinz, Frank; Hoff, Jörg van den; Steffen, Ingo G; Lougovski, Alexandr; Ego, Kilian; Amthauer, Holger; Apostolova, Ivayla

    2016-12-01

    We have demonstrated recently that the tumor-to-blood standard uptake ratio (SUR) is superior to tumor standardized uptake value (SUV) as a surrogate of the metabolic uptake rate K m of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), overcoming several of the known shortcomings of the SUV approach: excellent linear correlation of SUR and K m from Patlak analysis was found using dynamic imaging of liver metastases. However, due to the perfectly standardized uptake period used for SUR determination and the comparatively short uptake period, these results are not automatically valid and applicable for clinical whole-body examinations in which the uptake periods (T) are distinctly longer and can vary considerably. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate the correlation between SUR derived from clinical static whole-body scans and K m-surrogate derived from dual time point (DTP) measurements. DTP (18)F-FDG PET/CT was performed in 90 consecutive patients with histologically proven non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In the PET images, the primary tumor was delineated with an adaptive threshold method. For determination of the blood SUV, an aorta region of interest (ROI) was delineated manually in the attenuation CT and transferred to the PET image. Blood SUV was computed as the mean value of the aorta ROI. SUR values were computed as ratio of tumor SUV and blood SUV. SUR values from the early time point of each DTP measurement were scan time corrected to 75 min postinjection (SURtc). As surrogate of K m, we used the SUR(T) slope, K slope, derived from DTP measurements since it is proportional to the latter under the given circumstances. The correlation of SUV and SURtc with K slope was investigated. The prognostic value of SUV, SURtc, and K slope for overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) was investigated with univariate Cox regression in a homogeneous subgroup (N=31) treated with primary chemoradiation. Correlation analysis revealed for both, SUV and SURtc, a

  2. Comparison of specific oxygen uptake rates of two beach-scale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The determined values of oxygen uptake rate during the endogenous reaction phase (between 0.1054 and 0.3564 mgO2/L.minute) and concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (between 1183 and 1957 mgMLSS/L) are comparable to those reported elsewhere in literature. Results of specific oxygen uptake rate of ...

  3. Variable phosphorus uptake rates and allocation across microbial groups in the oligotrophic Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popendorf, Kimberly J; Duhamel, Solange

    2015-10-01

    Microbial uptake of dissolved phosphorus (P) is an important lever in controlling both microbial production and the fate and cycling of marine P. We investigated the relative role of heterotrophic bacteria and phytoplankton in P cycling by measuring the P uptake rates of individual microbial groups (heterotrophic bacteria and the phytoplankton groups Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus and picoeukaryotic phytoplankton) in the P-depleted Gulf of Mexico. Phosphorus uptake rates were measured using incubations with radiolabelled phosphate and adenosine triphosphate coupled with cell sorting flow cytometry. We found that heterotrophic bacteria were the dominant consumers of P on both a biomass basis and a population basis. Biovolume normalized heterotrophic bacteria P uptake rate per cell (amol P μm(-3) h(-1)) was roughly an order of magnitude greater than phytoplankton uptake rates, and heterotrophic bacteria were responsible for generally greater than 50% of total picoplankton P uptake. We hypothesized that this variation in uptake rates reflects variation in cellular P allocation strategies, and found that, indeed, the fraction of cellular P uptake utilized for phospholipid production was significantly higher in heterotrophic bacteria compared with cyanobacterial phytoplankton. These findings indicate that heterotrophic bacteria have a uniquely P-oriented physiology and play a dominant role in cycling dissolved P. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Gender differentials in ICT uptake rating among research scientists ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the challenge to ICT uptake rating among research scientists in the Nigerian Universities of Agriculture through gender inequality. Primary data were used for the study which was generated through the use of questionnaire. The study took a sample of 240 respondents from a population of 1758 from the ...

  5. Oxygen uptake rate (OUR) control strategy for improving avermectin B

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glucose metabolism plays a crucial role in the process of avermectin B1a biosynthesis. Controlling glucose feeding based on oxygen uptake rate (OUR) was established to improve the efficiency of avermectin B1a production. The result showed that avermectin B1a production was greatly enhanced by OUR control strategy.

  6. BANK RATING. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batrancea Ioan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Banks in Romania offers its customers a wide range of products but which involves both risk taking. Therefore researchers seek to build rating models to help managers of banks to risk of non-recovery of loans and interest. In the following we highlight rating Raiffeisen Bank, BCR-ERSTE Bank and Transilvania Bank, based on the models CAAMPL and Stickney making a comparative analysis of the two rating models.

  7. Bioavailability of contaminants estimated from uptake rates into soil invertebrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straalen, N.M. van; Donker, M.H.; Vijver, M.G.; Gestel, C.A.M. van

    2005-01-01

    It is often argued that the concentration of a pollutant inside an organism is a good indicator of its bioavailability, however, we show that the rate of uptake, not the concentration itself, is the superior predictor. In a study on zinc accumulation and toxicity to isopods (Porcellio scaber) the dietary EC 50 for the effect on body growth was rather constant and reproducible, while the internal EC 50 varied depending on the accumulation history of the animals. From the data a critical value for zinc accumulation in P. scaber was estimated as 53 μg/g/wk. We review toxicokinetic models applicable to time-series measurements of concentrations in invertebrates. The initial slope of the uptake curve is proposed as an indicator of bioavailability. To apply the dynamic concept of bioavailability in risk assessment, a set of representative organisms should be chosen and standardized protocols developed for exposure assays by which suspect soils can be evaluated. - Sublethal toxicity of zinc to isopods suggests that bioavailability of soil contaminants is best measured by uptake rates, not by body burdens

  8. Isotopic study of the comparative uptake and release of ions by deciduous and permanent dental enamel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetteh, G.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparative study of the uptake and release of calcium, orthophosphate, strontium and sodium from decidus and permanent dental enamel has been made using radioactive techniques. The rates of uptake and release of orthophosphate, strontium and sodium were observed to be greater in deciduous than in permanent enamel. However, for calcium, the rate of uptake was observed to be greater in the deciduous than in the permanent enamel but the rate of release was observed to be smaller in the deciduous enamel. These results in conjunction with the findings of Tetteh (1974) suggest that most of the calcification in the early stages of development of dental enamel is by a hetero-ionic exchange. (author) [fr

  9. Isotopic study of the comparative uptake and release of ions by deciduous and permanent dental enamel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetteh, G K [Department of Physics, University of Ghana,Legon

    1975-04-01

    A comparative study of the uptake and release of calcium, orthophosphate, strontium and sodium from decidus and permanent dental enamel has been made using radioactive techniques. The rates of uptake and release of orthophosphate, strontium and sodium were observed to be greater in deciduous than in permanent enamel. However, for calcium, the rate of uptake was observed to be greater in the deciduous than in the permanent enamel but the rate of release was observed to be smaller in the deciduous enamel. These results in conjunction with the findings of Tetteh (1974) suggest that most of the calcification in the early stages of development of dental enamel is by a hetero-ionic exchange.

  10. Rate equation analysis of hydrogen uptake on Si (100) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inanaga, S.; Rahman, F.; Khanom, F.; Namiki, A.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the uptake process of H on Si (100) surfaces by means of rate equation analysis. Flowers' quasiequilibrium model for adsorption and desorption of H [M. C. Flowers, N. B. H. Jonathan, A. Morris, and S. Wright, Surf. Sci. 396, 227 (1998)] is extended so that in addition to the H abstraction (ABS) and β 2 -channel thermal desorption (TD) the proposed rate equation further includes the adsorption-induced desorption (AID) and β 1 -TD. The validity of the model is tested by the experiments of ABS and AID rates in the reaction system H+D/Si (100). Consequently, we find it can well reproduce the experimental results, validating the proposed model. We find the AID rate curve as a function of surface temperature T s exhibits a clear anti-correlation with the bulk dangling bond density versus T s curve reported in the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) for amorphous Si films. The significance of the H chemistry in plasma-enhanced CVD is discussed

  11. A comparative study on the uptake and translocation of organochlorines by Phragmites australis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Miguel, Angélique; Ravanel, Patrick [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Raveton, Muriel, E-mail: muriel.raveton@ujf-grenoble.fr [Laboratoire d’Ecologie Alpine, UMR CNRS n°5553, Université Joseph Fourier, BP 53, 38041 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► This study compares uptake/translocation of organochlorine congeners in macrophytes. ► First, root OC uptake was strongly linked with the partitioning/diffusion process. ► With time exposure, bioconcentration increased with OC solubility and volatility. ► Translocation was linked to the combination of water flow and vapor flux transfers. ► The most volatile OCs might be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces. -- Abstract: Organochlorines (OCs) are persistent chemicals found in various environmental compartments. The differences in the uptake of {sup 14}C-labeled 1,4-dichlorobenzene (DCB), 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene (TCB) and γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γHCH) by Phragmites australis were investigated under hydroponic conditions. The first step in sorption appears to be correlated with the hydrophobic nature of the compounds, since log-linear correlations were obtained between root concentration factor and partition coefficient (LogK{sub ow}). After 7 days of exposure, plant uptake of DCB, TCB, γHCH was significant with bioconcentration factors reaching 14, 19 and 15, respectively. Afterwards, uptake and translocation were seen to be more complex, with a loss of the simple relationship between uptake and LogK{sub ow}. Linear correlations between the bioconcentration/translocation factors and the physico-chemical properties of OCs were shown, demonstrating that translocation from roots to shoots increases with solubility and volatility of the OCs. This suggests that OC-translocation inside plants might result from the combination of two processes, xylem sap flow and vapor fluxes. {sup 14}C-phytovolatilization was measured and was correlated with the volatility of the compounds; the more volatile OCs being most the likely to be phytovolatilized from foliar surfaces (p = 0.0008). Thus, OC-uptake/translocation appears to proceed at a rate that depends mostly on the OCs hydrophobicity, solubility and volatility.

  12. Binding proteins enhance specific uptake rate by increasing the substrate-transporter encounter rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosdriesz, Evert; Magnúsdóttir, Stefanía; Bruggeman, Frank J; Teusink, Bas; Molenaar, Douwe

    2015-06-01

    Microorganisms rely on binding-protein assisted, active transport systems to scavenge for scarce nutrients. Several advantages of using binding proteins in such uptake systems have been proposed. However, a systematic, rigorous and quantitative analysis of the function of binding proteins is lacking. By combining knowledge of selection pressure and physiochemical constraints, we derive kinetic, thermodynamic, and stoichiometric properties of binding-protein dependent transport systems that enable a maximal import activity per amount of transporter. Under the hypothesis that this maximal specific activity of the transport complex is the selection objective, binding protein concentrations should exceed the concentration of both the scarce nutrient and the transporter. This increases the encounter rate of transporter with loaded binding protein at low substrate concentrations, thereby enhancing the affinity and specific uptake rate. These predictions are experimentally testable, and a number of observations confirm them. © 2015 FEBS.

  13. The clinical significance of measuring the thyroid 131I uptake rate to identify the type of premature hypothyroidism for hyperthyroid after 131I treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Chen Huaming; Zhu Tianfeng

    2001-01-01

    The 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate and the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH are measured in 63 patients of premature hypothyroidism (consisting of 33 provisional hypothyroids and 30 perpetual hypothyroidism) before and after thyroxine substitutes treatment for six moths. The results show that there is obvious difference in 131 I uptake rate compared provisional hypothyroidism with perpetual hypothyroidism, and no difference in the content of serum TT 3 , TT 4 , TSH before the treatment. Compared with normal conditions, there is no difference in 131 I uptake rate of provisional hypothyroidism, but the 131 I uptake rate of perpetual hypothyroidism has obvious decrease before and after the treatment. Therefore the type of patients who suffer from premature hypothyroidism can be distinguished according to the 131 I uptake rate: if the 3 h thyroid 131 I uptake rate is normal, it is provisional hypothyroidism; if not, it is perpetual hypothyroidism

  14. Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Recovery and the Level of Aerobic Capacity in Mountain Bikers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalik Kamil

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Since mountain biking involves exercise of varying intensity, competitive performance may be affected by the rate of recovery. The aim of the current study was to determine whether maximal oxygen uptake is associated with the rate of heart rate and oxygen uptake recovery in mountain bike athletes.

  15. Comparison of phosphate uptake rates by the smallest plastidic and aplastidic protists in the North Atlantic subtropical gyre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Manuela; Grob, Carolina; Scanlan, David J; Martin, Adrian P; Burkill, Peter H; Zubkov, Mikhail V

    2011-11-01

    The smallest phototrophic protists (protists meet their inorganic nutrient requirements, we compared the phosphate uptake rates of plastidic and aplastidic protists in the phosphate-depleted subtropical and tropical North Atlantic (4-29°N) using a combination of radiotracers and flow cytometric sorting on two Atlantic Meridional Transect cruises. Plastidic protists were divided into two groups according to their size (protists showed higher phosphate uptake rates per cell than the aplastidic protists. Although the phosphate uptake rates of protist cells were on average seven times (Pprotists were one fourth to one twentieth of an average bacterioplankton cell. The unsustainably low biomass-specific phosphate uptake by both plastidic and aplastidic protists suggests the existence of a common alternative means of phosphorus acquisition - predation on phosphorus-rich bacterioplankton cells. © 2011 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Tc-99m-DMSA renal uptake rate and renal volume of elderly persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Kido, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Renal function of erderly persons was evaluated by the radionuclide renal function test based on the renal uptake rate and the renal volume determined by Tc-99m-DMSA transectional tomographic images using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Forty-three erderly cases (13 healthy persons and 30 patients with various types of renal disorders) aged between 60 and 87 on an average of 70 were studied and compared with results obtained from 20 healthy adults (18 - 45 years old). Renal volume was calculated from the summation of voxels in the region districted by equi-count threshold level (percentage to maximum count) on each section of the SPECT image. Attenuation correction was made by GE-STAR protocol utilizing Sorrenson's precorrection method. The renal uptake rate was expressed as a percentage of the total radioactivity detected within the renal volume, against an amount of dose injected. In the 26 kidneys of 13 healthy elderly persons, Tc-99m-DMSA renal uptake was 23 ± 5 %, which was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than that of healthy adults being 27 ± 2 %. A correlation coefficient between renal volume and uptake of 79 kidneys of 43 elderly persons was 0.5081 (p < 0.01). Creatinine clearance (Ccr) was better correlated with the total renal uptake (r = 0.6471, p < 0.01) than with the total renal volume (r = 0.3592, p < 0.01). This method is considered to be useful for clinical purpose as a test of renal function for elderly persons since it requires neither blood nor urine samples. (author)

  17. Estimation of uptake rate constants for PCB congeners accumulated by semipermeable membrane devices and brown treat (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, J.C.; Echols, K.R.; Huckins, J.N.; Borsuk, F.A.; Carline, R.F.; Tillitt, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMD to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB- contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and dissolved concentrations averaged 4.9 and 3.7 ??g/L, respectively, during the exposure. Total concentrations of PCBs in fish rose from 0.06 to 118.3 ??g/g during the 28-day exposure, while concentrations in the SPMD rose from 0.03 to 203.4 ??g/ g. Uptake rate constants (k1) estimated for SPMDs and brown trout were very similar, with k1 values for SPMDs ranging from one to two times those of the fish. The pattern of congener uptake by the fish and SPMDs was also similar. The rates of uptake generally increased or decreased with increasing K(ow), depending on the assumption of presence or absence of TOC.The triolein-filled semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) is a simple and effective method of assessing the presence of waterborne hydrophobic chemicals. Uptake rate constants for individual chemicals are needed to accurately relate the amounts of chemicals accumulated by the SPMB to dissolved water concentrations. Brown trout and SPMDs were exposed to PCB-contaminated groundwater in a spring for 28 days to calculate and compare uptake rates of specific PCB congeners by the two matrixes. Total PCB congener concentrations in water samples from the spring were assessed and corrected for estimated total organic carbon (TOC) sorption to estimate total dissolved concentrations. Whole and

  18. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greger, Maria [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Botany

    2006-02-15

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution.

  19. Influence of water relations and growth rate on plant element uptake and distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greger, Maria

    2006-02-01

    Plant uptake of Ni, Sr, Mo, Cs, La, Th, Se, Cl and I was examined to determine how plant water relations and growth rate influence the uptake and distribution of these elements in the studied plants. The specific questions were how water uptake and growth rate influenced the uptake of various nuclides and how transpiration influenced translocation to the shoot. The knowledge gained will be used in future modelling of radionuclide leakage from nuclear waste deposits entering the ecosystem via plants. The plant studied was willow, Salix viminalis, a common plant in the areas suggested for waste disposal; since there can be clone variation, two different clones having different uptake properties for several other heavy metals were used. The plants were grown in nutrient solution and the experiments on 3-month-old plants were run for 3 days. Polyethylene glycol was added to the medium to decrease the water uptake rate, a fan was used to increase the transpiration rate, and different light intensities were used to produce different growth rates. Element concentration was analysed in roots and shoots. The results show that both the uptake and distribution of various elements are influenced in different ways and to various extents by water flow and plant growth rate, and that it is not possible from the chemical properties of these elements to know how they will react. However, in most cases increased growth rate diluted the concentration of the element in the tissue, reduced water uptake reduced the element uptake, while transpiration had no effect on the translocation of elements to the shoot. The clones did not differ in terms of either the uptake or translocation of the elements, except that I was not taken up and translocated to the shoot in one of the clones when the plant water flow or growth rate was too low. Not all of the elements were found in the plant in the same proportions as they had been added to the nutrient solution

  20. Comparative uptake of plutonium from soils by Brassica juncea and Helianthus annuus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Hossner, L.R.; Attrep, M.; Kung, K.S.

    2002-01-01

    Extractability of Pu from soils was most affected by pH and amounts of clay, salts, and carbonates. - Plutonium uptake by Brassica juncea (Indian mustard) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower) from soils with varying chemical composition and contaminated with Pu complexes (Pu-nitrate [ 239 Pu(NO 3 ) 4 ], Pu-citrate [ 239 Pu(C 6 H 5 O 7 ) + ], and Pu-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Pu-DTPA [ 239 Pu-C 14 H 23 O 10 N 3 ]) was investigated. Sequential extraction of soils incubated with applied Pu was used to determine the distribution of Pu in the various soil fractions. The initial Pu activity levels in soils were 44.40-231.25 Bq g -1 as Pu-nitrate , Pu-citrate, or Pu-DTPA. A difference in Pu uptake between treatments of Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate without chelating agent was observed only with Indian mustard in acidic Crowley soil. The uptake of Pu by plants was increased with increasing DTPA rates, however, the Pu concentration of plants was not proportionally increased with increasing application rate of Pu to soil. Plutonium uptake from Pu-DTPA was significantly higher from the acid Crowley soil than from the calcareous Weswood soil. The uptake of Pu from the soils was higher in Indian mustard than in sunflower. Sequential extraction of Pu showed that the ion-exchangeable Pu fraction in soils was dramatically increased with DTPA treatment and decreased with time of incubation. Extractability of Pu in all fractions was not different when Pu-nitrate and Pu-citrate were applied to the same soil. More Pu was associated with the residual Pu fraction without DTPA application. Consistent trends with time of incubation for other fractions were not apparent. The ion-exchangeable fraction, assumed as plant-available Pu, was significantly higher in acid soil compared with calcareous soil with or without DTPA treatment. When the calcareous soil was treated with DTPA, the ion-exchangeable Pu was comparatively less influenced. This fraction in the soil was more affected with time

  1. Effectiveness of a group opt-in session on uptake and graduation rates for pulmonary rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J; Sandrey, V; Graves, T; Smith, D L

    2010-08-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is an effective intervention in the treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Unfortunately some patients offered this treatment either fail to take up the offer or fail to complete the course. Studies have indicated a number of factors influencing uptake and completion rates. We describe the introduction of an intervention, the group opt-in session (GOIS), prior to individualised baseline assessment and entry to the PR course, with the intention being to improve uptake and completion rates. A 1.5-hour-long GOIS was offered as the first face-to-face contact to all patients referred for PR. Drop-out rates at all stages of the pathway from referral to graduation were collected on 200 patients prior to the introduction of the GOIS (non-GOIS group) and compared to the first 400 patients following introduction (the GOIS group). Possible independent predictors of course uptake and completion were examined in the GOIS group. The proportion of referred patients taking up the offer of individualised baseline assessment or a GOIS was similar (75% vs. 72.2%, p value not significant [ns]). However, since in the GOIS group the opt-in session preceded the individualised baseline assessment and some patients opted-out, a smaller proportion of referred patients underwent this assessment than in the non-GOIS group (58.7% vs. 75%, p graduated in the GOIS group (87.9% vs. 76.4%, p rates due to illness were similar in both groups (8.5% pre vs. 6.8% post, ns). However, drop-out rates not due to illness were much higher in the non-GOIS group (15.1% vs. 5.3%, p graduation rates at The North Bristol Lung Centre PR Course and reduced wasted assessments. There was no effect on initial uptake. Analysis of the behaviour of patients invited to a GOIS suggested that age, lung function and travel distance were important factors influencing patient choice.

  2. Simple mass transport model for metal uptake by marine macroalgae growing at different rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Although algae growing at different rates may exhibit different concentrations of a given metal, such differences in algal chemistry may or may not reflect actual effects of environmental growth factors on the kinetics of metal uptake. Published data on uptake of rubidium, cadmium, and manganese by the green seaweed Ulva fasciata Delile grown at different rates in open system sea water was interpreted using the model. Differences in exposure time to sea water of relatively old and relatively young thalli were responsible for significant decreases in algal rubidium and cadmium concentrations with increases in specific growth rate. The biomass-specific growth rates of uptake of these two metals did not vary with growth rate. Both algal concentrations and specific rates of uptake of manganese increase significantly with increasing growth rate, thus indicating a distinct link between the kinetics of manganese uptake and metabolic rate. Under some circumstances, seaweed bioassay coupled with an interpretive model may provide the only reasonable approach to the study of chemical uptake-growth phenomena. In practice, if the residence time of sea water in culture chambers is sufficiently low to preclude pseudo-closed system artifacts, differences in trace metal concentrations between input and output sea water may be difficult to detect. In the field and in situ experiments based on time-series monitoring of changes in the water chemistry would be technically difficult or perhaps impossible to perform. 13 references, 1 figure.

  3. Correlation between TCA cycle flux and glucose uptake rate during respiro-fermentative growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Jan; Fu, Jianan; Blank, Lars M

    2009-12-01

    Glucose repression of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated under different environmental conditions using (13)C-tracer experiments. Real-time quantification of the volatile metabolites ethanol and CO(2) allowed accurate carbon balancing. In all experiments with the wild-type, a strong correlation between the rates of growth and glucose uptake was observed, indicating a constant yield of biomass. In contrast, glycerol and acetate production rates were less dependent on the rate of glucose uptake, but were affected by environmental conditions. The glycerol production rate was highest during growth in high-osmolarity medium (2.9 mmol g(-1) h(-1)), while the highest acetate production rate of 2.1 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed in alkaline medium of pH 6.9. Under standard growth conditions (25 g glucose l(-1) , pH 5.0, 30 degrees C) S. cerevisiae had low fluxes through the pentose phosphate pathway and the TCA cycle. A significant increase in TCA cycle activity from 0.03 mmol g(-1) h(-1) to about 1.7 mmol g(-1) h(-1) was observed when S. cerevisiae grew more slowly as a result of environmental perturbations, including unfavourable pH values and sodium chloride stress. Compared to experiments with high glucose uptake rates, the ratio of CO(2) to ethanol increased more than 50 %, indicating an increase in flux through the TCA cycle. Although glycolysis and the ethanol production pathway still exhibited the highest fluxes, the net flux through the TCA cycle increased significantly with decreasing glucose uptake rates. Results from experiments with single gene deletion mutants partially impaired in glucose repression (hxk2, grr1) indicated that the rate of glucose uptake correlates with this increase in TCA cycle flux. These findings are discussed in the context of regulation of glucose repression.

  4. Changes in calcium uptake rate by rat cardiac mitochondria during postnatal development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassani, R A; Fagian, M M; Bassani, J W; Vercesi, A E

    1998-10-01

    Ca2+ uptake, transmembrane electrical potential (Deltapsim) and oxygen consumption were measured in isolated ventricular mitochondria of rats from 3 days to 5 months of age. Estimated values of ruthenium red-sensitive, succinate-supported maximal rate of Ca2+ uptake (Vmax, expressed as nmol Ca2+/min/mg protein) were higher in neonates and gradually fell during postnatal development (from 435+/-24 at 3-6 days, to 156+/-10 in adults,Palpha-ketoglutarate as substrates) and state 3ADP (alpha-ketoglutarate-supported) respiration rates, as well as Deltapsim values (approximately-150 mV). Respiration-independent Deltapsim and Ca2+ uptake, supported by valinomycin-induced K+ efflux were also investigated at these ages. A transient Deltapsim (approximately -30 mV) was evoked by valinomycin in both neonatal and adult mitochondria. Respiration-independent Ca2+ uptake was also transient, but its initial rate was significantly higher in neonates than in adults (49. 4+/-10.0v 28.0+/-5.7 mmol Ca2+/min/mg protein,P<0.01). These results indicate that Ca2+ uptake capacity of rat cardiac mitochondria is remarkably high just after birth and declines over the first weeks of postnatal life, without change in apparent affinity of the transporter. Increased mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake rate in neonates appears to be related to the uniporter itself, rather than to modification of the driving force of the transport. Copyright 1998 Academic Press

  5. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: effects of external nitrate concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Granato, T. C.; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Net uptake of NO3- by non-nodulated soybean plants [Glycine max (L.) Merr. cv. Ransom] growing in flowing hydroponic cultures containing 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- was measured daily during a 24-d period of vegetative development to determine if amplitude of maximum and minimum rates of net NO3- uptake are responsive to external concentrations of NO3-. Removal of NO3- from the replenished solutions during each 24-h period was determined by ion chromatography. Neither dry matter accumulation nor the periodicity of oscillations in net uptake rate was altered by the external NO3- concentrations. The maxima of the oscillations in net uptake rate, however, increased nearly 3-fold in response to external NO3- concentrations. The maxima and minima, respectively, changed from 4.0 and 0.6 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 0.5 mol m-3 NO3- to 15.2 and -2.7 mmol NO3- per gram root dry weight per day at an external solution level of 10.0 mol m-3 NO3-. The negative values for minimum net uptake rate from 10.0 mol m-3 NO3- solutions show that net efflux was occurring and indicate that the magnitude of the efflux component of net uptake was responsive to external concentration of NO3-.

  6. Cyclic variations in nitrogen uptake rate of soybean plants: ammonium as a nitrogen source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, L. T.; Raper, C. D. Jr

    1989-01-01

    When NO3- is the sole nitrogen source in flowing solution culture, the net rate of nitrogen uptake by nonnodulated soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv Ransom) plants cycles between maxima and minima with a periodicity of oscillation that corresponds with the interval of leaf emergence. Since soybean plants accumulate similar quantities of nitrogen when either NH4+ or NO3- is the sole source in solution culture controlled at pH 6.0, an experiment was conducted to determine if the oscillations in net rate of nitrogen uptake also occur when NH4+ is the nitrogen source. During a 21-day period of vegetative development, net uptake of NH4+ was measured daily by ion chromatography as depletion of NH4+ from a replenished nutrient solution containing 1.0 millimolar NH4+. The net rate of NH4+ uptake oscillated with a periodicity that was similar to the interval of leaf emergence. Instances of negative net rates of uptake indicate that the transition between maxima and minima involved changes in influx and efflux components of net NH4+ uptake.

  7. Attempt to define a repair threshold (or the prospects for kidneys of reduced uptake rate)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Duc, A.; Camey, M.; Bourguignon, M.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    The definition of a repair threshold hardly seems realistic whatever the etiology considered. It is impossible to set a lower uptake limit below which a kidney does not recover, nor an upper limit above which recuperation is inevitable. To be able to use an uptake rate result with discernment it is useful to know two facts: '0 degradation' prospects exist for very diseased kidneys; the prospects of recovery are very appreciable for kidneys subjected to an infected stasis, amply justifying conservation in uptake regions around 20%. All this obviously needs confirmation which can only be obtained by adding a functional study to certain files which already date back significantly [fr

  8. HSMR : Comparing Death Rates Across UK Hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Teeuwen; Thuy Ngo; Frans Nauta

    2011-01-01

    The Hospital Standardized Mortality Ratio (HSMR) is a measurement tool that shows hospitals’ death rates. The HSMR compares deaths that occur in hospitals with death ratios that one would normally expect based on patients’ diseases. It is used as a benchmark for adjusted hospital death rates. These

  9. Retinol uptake and esterification in the rate sertoli cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shingleton, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism by which Sertoli cells accumulate retinol from retinol-binding protein (RBP) and the cellular metabolism of the accumulated retinol were investigated here using primary cultures of Sertoli cells isolated from 20 day-old rats. Cells incubated with [ 3 H]retinol-RBP accumulated [ 3 H]retinol in a time- and temperature dependent manner. The rate of [ 3 H] retinol accumulation declined when cellular [ 3 H] retinol concentrations reached approximately 0.53 pmol of retinol per μg of cellular DNA, equivalent to the cellular content of cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP). Excess unlabeled retinol-RBP competed with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP for [ 3 H] retinol delivery to the cells but free retinol did not. Furthermore, free [ 3 H] retinol associated with Sertoli cells in a non-saturable manner. The transport constant for specific retinol accumulation from RBP was 1.9 μM, suggesting that any change in the normal circulating retinol-RBP level would directly affect the rate of retinol accumulation. Competition studies and studies using labeled RBP, cellular energy inhibitors, and lysosomal poisons indicated that the specific retinol accumulation by Sertoli cells occurs by interaction with a cell-surface receptor that internalizes retinol without concomitant internalization of RBP. Extraction and HPLC analysis of the radioactivity associated with Sertoli cells after incubation with [ 3 H] retinol-RBP yielded retinol and retinyl esters

  10. Acute silver toxicity in aquatic animals is a function of sodium uptake rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bianchini, A.; Grosell, Martin Hautopp; Gregory, S.

    2002-01-01

    -specific surface area of the gills depends on animal body mass; and (iv) the gill surface is also the major site of Na+ loss by diffusion, we hypothesized that whole body Na+ uptake rate (i.e., turnover rate) and secondarily body mass would be good predictors of acute silver toxicity. Results obtained from...... toxicological (LC50 of AgNO3) and physiological (22Na uptake rate) tests performed on juvenile fish (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), early juvenile and adult crayfish (Cambarus diogenes diogenes), and neonate and adult daphnids (Daphnia magna) in moderately hard water of constant quality support the above...... hypothesis. Therefore, sensitivity to AgNO3, in terms of either total measured silver or free Ag+, was reliably predicted from the whole body Na+ uptake rate in animals with body mass ranging over 6 orders of magnitude (from micrograms to grams). A positive log-log correlation between acute AgNO3 toxicity...

  11. Specific light uptake rates can enhance astaxanthin productivity in Haematococcus lacustris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho-Sang; Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-05-01

    Lumostatic operation was applied for efficient astaxanthin production in autotrophic Haematococcus lacustris cultures using 0.4-L bubble column photobioreactors. The lumostatic operation in this study was performed with three different specific light uptake rates (q(e)) based on cell concentration, cell projection area, and fresh weight as one-, two- and three-dimensional characteristics values, respectively. The q(e) value from the cell concentration (q(e1D)) obtained was 13.5 × 10⁻⁸ μE cell⁻¹ s⁻¹, and the maximum astaxanthin concentration was increased to 150 % compared to that of a control with constant light intensity. The other optimum q e values by cell projection area (q(e2D)) and fresh weight (q( e3D)) were determined to be 195 μE m⁻² s⁻¹ and 10.5 μE g⁻¹ s⁻¹ for astaxanthin production, respectively. The maximum astaxanthin production from the lumostatic cultures using the parameters controlled by cell projection area (2D) and fresh weight (3D) also increased by 36 and 22% over that of the controls, respectively. When comparing the optimal q e values among the three different types, the lumostatic cultures using q(e) based on fresh weight showed the highest astaxanthin productivity (22.8 mg L⁻¹ day⁻¹), which was a higher level than previously reported. The lumostatic operations reported here demonstrated that more efficient and effective astaxanthin production was obtained by H. lacustris than providing a constant light intensity, regardless of which parameter is used to calculate the specific light uptake rate.

  12. Evaluation of [99mTc/EDDA/HYNIC0]octreotide derivatives compared with [111In-DOTA0,Tyr3, Thr8]octreotide and [111In-DTPA0]octreotide: does tumor or pancreas uptake correlate with the rate of internalization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Daniel; Béhé, Martin; Walter, Martin A; Chen, Jianhua; Powell, Pia; Mikolajczak, Renata; Mäcke, Helmut R

    2005-09-01

    Radiolabeled somatostatin analogs are important tools for the in vivo localization and targeted radionuclide therapy of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors. The aim of this study was to compare 3 somatostatin analogs designed for the labeling with (99m)Tc (where HYNIC is 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid): 6-hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid(0)-octreotide (HYNIC-OC/(99m)Tc-(1)), [HYNIC(0),Tyr(3)]octreotide (HYNIC-TOC/(99m)Tc-(2)), and [HYNIC(0),Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide (HYNIC-TATE/(99m)Tc-(3)), using ethylenediamine-N,N'-diacetic acid (EDDA) as a coligand. In addition, we compared the (99m)Tc-labeled peptides [(111)In-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid(0)]octreotide ([(111)In-DTPA]-OC) and [(111)In-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid(0),Tyr(3),Thr(8)]octreotide ([(111)In-DOTA]-TATE) with regard to the rate of internalization and the biodistribution in AR4-2J (expressing the somatostatin receptor subtype 2) tumor-bearing rats. The main attention was directed toward a potential correlation between the rate of internalization and the tumor or pancreas uptake. Synthesis was performed on solid phase using a standard Fmoc strategy. Internalization was studied in cell culture (AR4-2J) and biodistribution was studied using a Lewis rat tumor model (AR4-2J). The 5 radiopeptides showed a specific internalization into AR4-2J cells in culture (as shown by blocking experiments). The rate of internalization of the 5 radiopeptides differed significantly according to the following order: (99m)Tc-(1) approximately = [(111)In-DTPA]-OC EDDA/HYNIC]-TATE are suitable candidates for clinical studies.

  13. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and various organ-uptake rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1989-01-01

    Fifty four elements and 65 radioactive compounds were examined to determine the organ uptake rates for rats 3, 24 and 48 h after i.v. injection of these compounds. They were prepared as carrier free nuclides, or containing a small amount of stable nuclide. Generally speaking, behaviors of K, Rb, Cs and Tl in all the organs were very similar to one another, but they differed from that of Na. Bivalent hard acids were avidly taken up into bone; therefore, uptake rates in soft tissues were very small. Hard acids of tri-, quadri- and pentavalence which were taken up into the soft tissue organs decreased more slowly from these organs than other ions. Soft acids such as Hg2+ were bound very firmly to the component in the kidney. Anions (with few exceptions), GeCl4 and SbCl3 were rapidly excreted in urine, so that the uptake rates in organs were low.

  14. Uptake rate of cationic mitochondrial inhibitor MKT-077 determines cellular oxygen consumption change in carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Chunta

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Since tumor radiation response is oxygen-dependent, radiosensitivity can be enhanced by increasing tumor oxygenation. Theoretically, inhibiting cellular oxygen consumption is the most efficient way to increase oxygen levels. The cationic, rhodacyanine dye-analog MKT-077 inhibits mitochondrial respiration and could be an effective metabolic inhibitor. However, the relationship between cellular MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition is unknown. We hypothesized that rat and human mammary carcinoma cells would take up MKT-077, causing a decrease in oxygen metabolism related to drug uptake. METHODS: R3230Ac rat breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to MKT-077. Cellular MKT-077 concentration was quantified using spectroscopy, and oxygen consumption was measured using polarographic electrodes. MKT-077 uptake kinetics were modeled by accounting for uptake due to both the concentration and potential gradients across the plasma and mitochondrial membranes. These kinetic parameters were used to model the relationship between MKT-077 uptake and metabolic inhibition. MKT-077-induced changes in oxygen consumption were also characterized in MDA-MB231 human breast carcinoma cells. RESULTS: Cells took up MKT-077 with a time constant of ∼1 hr, and modeling showed that over 90% of intracellular MKT-077 was bound or sequestered, likely by the mitochondria. The uptake resulted in a rapid decrease in oxygen consumption, with a time constant of ∼30 minutes. Surprisingly the change in oxygen consumption was proportional to uptake rate, not cellular concentration. MKT-077 proved a potent metabolic inhibitor, with dose-dependent decreases of 45-73% (p = 0.003. CONCLUSIONS: MKT-077 caused an uptake rate-dependent decrease in cellular metabolism, suggesting potential efficacy for increasing tumor oxygen levels and radiosensitivity in vivo.

  15. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial ∘Bé densities as compared with higher initial ∘Bé densities.

  16. A Radiochemical Biotechnological Approach: Preliminary Study of Lactose Uptake Rate by Kefir Cells, Using 14C-labeled Lactose, in Anaerobic Fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golfinopoulos, A.; Soupioni, M.; Kanellaki, M.; Koutinas, A. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of initial lactose concentration on lactose uptake rate by kefir free cells, during the lactose fermentation, was studied in this work. For the investigation 14 C-labelled lactose was used due to the fact that labeled and unlabeled molecules are fermented in the same way. The results illustrated lactose uptake rates are about up to two fold higher at lower initial (convolution sign)Be densities as compared with higher initial (convolution sign)Be densities

  17. Analysis of heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics studied by two different pseudo-random binary sequence work rate amplitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drescher, U; Koschate, J; Schiffer, T; Schneider, S; Hoffmann, U

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the kinetics responses of heart rate (HR), pulmonary (V˙O 2 pulm) and predicted muscular (V˙O 2 musc) oxygen uptake between two different pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) work rate (WR) amplitudes both below anaerobic threshold. Eight healthy individuals performed two PRBS WR protocols implying changes between 30W and 80W and between 30W and 110W. HR and V˙O 2 pulm were measured beat-to-beat and breath-by-breath, respectively. V˙O 2 musc was estimated applying the approach of Hoffmann et al. (Eur J Appl Physiol 113: 1745-1754, 2013) considering a circulatory model for venous return and cross-correlation functions (CCF) for the kinetics analysis. HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics seem to be independent of WR intensity (p>0.05). V˙O 2 pulm kinetics show prominent differences in the lag of the CCF maximum (39±9s; 31±4s; p<0.05). A mean difference of 14W between the PRBS WR amplitudes impacts venous return significantly, while HR and V˙O 2 musc kinetics remain unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg/sup 2 +/, Au/sup +/ and Bi/sup 3 +/ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as /sup 85/Sr/sup 2 +/, /sup 67/Ga/sup 3 +/, /sup 181/Hf/sup 4 +/, and /sup 95/Nb/sup 5 +/, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases. Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl/sub 4/ and SbCl/sub 3/ behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  19. Relation between the location of elements in the periodic table and tumor-uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, A; Ando, I; Hiraki, T; Hisada, K

    1985-01-01

    The bipositive ions and anions, with few exceptions, indicated a low tumor uptake rate. On the other hand, compounds of Hg, Au and Bi, which have a strong binding power to protein, showed a high tumor uptake rate. As Hg2+, Au+ and Bi3+ are soft acids according to the classification of Lewis acids, it was thought that these ions would bind strongly to soft bases (R-SH, R-S-) present in tumor tissue. For many hard acids such as 85Sr2+, 67Ga3+, 181Hf4+, and 95Nb5+, tumor uptake rates are shown as a function of ionic potentials (valency/ionic radii) of the metal ions. Considering the present data and previously reported results, it was presumed that hard acids of trivalence, quadrivalence and pentavalence would replace calcium in the calcium salts of hard bases (calcium salts of acid mucopolysaccharides, etc.). Ionic potentials of alkaline metals and Tl were small, but the tumor-uptake rate of these elements indicated various values. As Ge and Sb are bound by covalent bonds to chloride, GeCl4 and SbCl3 behaved differently from many metallic compounds in tumor tissue.

  20. The time aspect of bioenergy. Climate impacts of bioenergy due to differences in carbon uptake rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zetterberg, Lars [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute, Stockholm (Sweden); Chen, Deliang [Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Gothenburg, Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2011-07-01

    This paper investigates the climate impacts from bioenergy due to how they influence carbon stocks over time and more specifically how fast combustion related carbon emissions are compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon. A set of fuel types representing different uptake rates are investigated, namely willow, branches and tops, stumps and coal. Net emissions are defined as emissions from utilizing the fuel minus emissions from a reference case of no utilisation. In the case of forest residues, the compensating 'uptake' is avoided emissions from the reference case of leaving the residues to decompose on the ground. Climate impacts are estimated using the measures radiative forcing and global average surface temperature, which have been calculated by an energy balance climate model. We conclude that there is a climate impact from using bioenergy due to how fast the emission pulse is compensated by uptake of atmospheric carbon (or avoided emissions). Biofuels with slower uptake rates have a stronger climate impact than fuels with a faster uptake rate, assuming all other parameters equal. The time perspective over which the analysis is done is crucial for the climate impact of biofuels. If only biogenic fluxes are considered, our results show that over a 100 year perspective branches and tops are better for climate mitigation than stumps which in turn are better than coal. Over a 20 year time perspective this conclusion holds, but the differences between these fuels are relatively smaller. Establishing willow on earlier crop land may reduce atmospheric carbon, provided new land is available. However, these results are inconclusive since we haven't considered the effects, if needed, of producing the traditional agricultural crops elsewhere. The analysis is not a life cycle assessment of different fuels and does therefore not consider the use of fossil fuels for logging, transportation and refining, other greenhouse gases than carbon or energy

  1. Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Water Uptake Rate and Gelatinization of Brown Rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, C.S.; Lee, J.W.; Lee, Y.S.; Byun, M.W.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of gamma irradiation on brown rice quality were evaluated. Brown rice was irradiated at absorbed dose of 1, 3 or 5 kGy, and ground. Water uptake, pasting properties, and physicochemical characteristics of flour samples were tested. Water uptake rates of irradiated samples were higher than that of control, and were dose-dependent. Hydration capacity decreased in sample irradiated at 5 kGy due to leaching out of soluble compounds, whereas no differences were observed among other irradiated samples and control

  2. Glucagon effects on the membrane potential and calcium uptake rate of rat liver mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingrove, D.E.; Amatruda, J.M.; Gunter, T.E.

    1984-01-01

    It has been widely reported that the in vivo administration of glucagon to rats results in the stimulation of calcium influx in subsequently isolated liver mitochondria. The mechanism of this effect is investigated through simultaneous measurements of calcium uptake rate and mitochondrial membrane potential. This allows the measurement of the calcium uniporter conductance independent of hormonal effects on electron transport or respiration. Two experimental approaches are used. The first involves measuring the uptake of 40-50 nmol of Ca 2+ /mg of mitochondrial protein with the calcium dye antipyrylazo III; the second uses 45 Ca 2+ to follow uptake in the presence of 0.5 to 1.5 μM free calcium, buffered with HEDTA. In both cases a tetraphenyl phosphonium electrode is used to follow membrane potential, and membrane potential is varied using either malonate or butylmalonate in the presence of rotenone. The relative merits of these two approaches are discussed. The conductance of the calcium uniporter is found not to be stimulated by glucagon pretreatment. Also, the relative glucagon stimulation of both calcium influx and membrane potential is found to increase with increasing malonate concentration. These results imply that there is no direct stimulation of calcium uptake into liver mitochondria following glucagon treatment. The results are consistent with a glucagon stimulation of substrate transport, substrate oxidation, or a stimulation of electron transport resulting in an increased membrane potential and secondary stimulation of calcium uptake

  3. Comparative kinetic analysis of89 Sr,60 Co and65 Zn Uptake by human bone powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Fatah, A.T.A.; Essa, M.W.A.; Mohamed, S.A.; Molokhia, M.K.

    1990-01-01

    Human bone powder samples were prepared from recent femurs. The Bone particles range between 30 and 40 MU in diameter. One portion of this powder was prepared fat-free (FFB), the second portion as protein-free (PFB) and the last portion was left as raw bone powder-(RB). The sequence of uptake of 89 Sr by these types of bone powder is : FFB > RB > PFB, while that of 60 Co and 65 Zn is: PFB > FFB > RB. Kinetic analysis of the uptake curves of the 3 isotopes indicated that these processes proceed in 3 distinct steps; very fast initial, moderate intermediate and slow last step. The obtained rates of uptake indicated that : (1) the uptake by PEB is faster in its third step than the other types, (2) the most predominant step in case of 89 Sr and 60 Co is the third step (ion exchange step) while in case of 65 Zn it is the first step (physical adsorption), (3) defatenisation or deproteinisation, in general, inhances the uptake process

  4. Rates of Water Loss and Uptake in Recalcitrant Fruits of Quercus Species Are Determined by Pericarp Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Ke; Daws, Matthew I.; Stuppy, Wolfgang; Zhou, Zhe-Kun; Pritchard, Hugh W.

    2012-01-01

    Desiccation-sensitive recalcitrant seeds and fruits are killed by the loss of even moderate quantities of water. Consequently, minimizing the rate of water loss may be an important ecological factor and evolutionary driver by reducing the risk of mortality during post-dispersal dry-spells. For recalcitrant fruits of a range of Quercus species, prolonged drying times have been observed previously. However, the underlying mechanism(s) for this variation is unknown. Using nine Quercus species we investigated the major route(s) of water flow into and out of the fruits and analysed the relative importance of the different pericarp components and their anatomy on water uptake/loss. During imbibition (rehydration), the surface area of the cupule scar and the frequency and area of the vascular bundles contained therein were significantly correlated with the rates of water uptake across the scar. The vascular bundles serving the apex of the fruit were a minor contributor to overall water. Further, the rate of water uptake across the remainder of the pericarp surface was significantly correlated with the thickness of the vascularised inner layer in the pericarp. Fruits of Q. franchetii and Q. schottkyana dried most slowly and had a comparatively small scar surface area with few vascular bundles per unit area. These species inhabit drier regions than the other species studied, suggesting these anatomical features may have ecological value by reducing the risk of desiccation stress. However, this remains to be tested in the field. PMID:23071795

  5. Human papillomavirus immunization uptake among girls with a refugee background compared with Danish-born girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    P. Møller, Sanne; Kristiansen, Maria; Norredam, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Refugee children and their families may experience impaired access to healthcare; therefore, we aimed to uncover human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization patterns among a large group of refugee girls compared with Danish-born girls. We also examined possible predictors of uptake among refugee girls....... We used aregister-based cohort design where refugee girls (n = 3264) who, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark, were included and matched on age and sex with Danish-born girls (n = 19 584). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the National...... Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for HPV-immunization in both the ordinary HPV-immunization program and in a catch-up program. We applied logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of uptake. We found that refugee girls had significantly lower HPV-immunization uptake...

  6. Scoparia dulcis (SDF7) endowed with glucose uptake properties on L6 myotubes compared insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beh, Joo Ee; Latip, Jalifah; Abdullah, Mohd Puad; Ismail, Amin; Hamid, Muhajir

    2010-05-04

    Insulin stimulates glucose uptake and promotes the translocation of glucose transporter 4 (Glut 4) to the plasma membrane on L6 myotubes. The aim of this study is to investigate affect of Scoparia dulcis Linn water extracts on glucose uptake activity and the Glut 4 translocation components (i.e., IRS-1, PI 3-kinase, PKB/Akt2, PKC and TC 10) in L6 myotubes compared to insulin. Extract from TLC fraction-7 (SDF7) was used in this study. The L6 myotubes were treated by various concentrations of SDF7 (1 to 50 microg/ml) and insulin (1 to 100 nM). The glucose uptake activities of L6 myotubes were evaluated using 2-Deoxy-D-glucose uptake assay in with or without fatty acid-induced medium. The Glut 4 translocation components in SDF7-treated L6 myotubes were detected using immunoblotting and quantified by densitometry compared to insulin. Plasma membrane lawn assay and glycogen colorimetry assay were carried out in SDF7- and insulin-treated L6 myotubes in this study. Here, our data clearly shows that SDF7 possesses glucose uptake properties on L6 myotubes that are dose-dependent, time-dependent and plasma membrane Glut 4 expression-dependent. SDF7 successfully stimulates glucose uptake activity as potent as insulin at a maximum concentration of 50 microg/ml at 480 min on L6 myotubes. Furthermore, SDF7 stimulates increased Glut 4 expression and translocation to plasma membranes at equivalent times. Even in the insulin resistance stage (free fatty acids-induced), SDF7-treated L6 myotubes were found to be more capable at glucose transport than insulin treatment. Thus, we suggested that Scoparia dulcis has the potential to be categorized as a hypoglycemic medicinal plant based on its good glucose transport properties. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative assessment of thallium myocardial washout rate: Importance of peak heart rate and lung thallium uptake in defining normal values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahiro; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka

    1987-01-01

    Traditionally, the results of exercise thallium scintigraphy were interpreted by transient defect analysis using initial and delayed images. Recently, washout rate analysis has been used for the relative quantification of exercise thallium scintigraphy. A diffuse slow washout from all myocardial regions has been defined as the indicator of extensive coronary artery disease. However, slow washout has occasionally been observed in normal cases and in healthy myocardial segments which are not supplied by a stenosed artery in patients with single or double vessel disease. We evaluate the factors influencing washout rate in 100 normal patients and 63 patients with angina pectoris (33 cases of single vessel disease and 30 cases of double vessel disease). The washout rates were calculated using circumferential profile analysis. In normal patients, washout rate was closely related to peak heart rate (r=0.72) and inversely related to lung thallium uptake (r=-0.56). A diffuse slow washout was observed in seven (7%) of 100 normal patients, six (18%) of 33 cases of single vessel disease and eight (24%) of 30 cases of double vessel disease. The patients with diffuse slow washout showed significantly higher lung thallium uptake values and lower peak heart rates than those without diffuse slow washout (P<0.01). Thus, this false positive slow washout should be considered in the interpretation of quantitative exercise thallium scintigraphy. (orig.)

  8. Rates and tissue sites of non-insulin- and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, A.D.; Brechtel, G.; Wallace, P.; Edelman, S.V.

    1988-01-01

    In vivo glucose uptake can occur via two mechanisms, namely, insulin-mediated glucose uptake (IMGU) and non-insulin-mediated glucose uptake (NIMGU). Although the principal tissue sites for IMGU are skeletal muscle, the tissue sites for NIMGU at a given serum glucose concentration are not known. To examine this issue, rates of whole body glucose uptake (Rd) were measured at basal and during glucose clamp studies performed at euglycemia (approximately 90 mg/dl) and hyperglycemia (approximately 220 mg/dl) in six lean healthy men. Studies were performed during hyperinsulinemia (approximately 70 microU/ml) and during somatostatin-induced insulinopenia to measure IMGU and NIMGU, respectively. During each study, leg glucose balance (arteriovenous catheter technique) was also measured. With this approach, rates of whole body skeletal muscle IMGU and NIMGU can be estimated, and the difference between overall Rd and skeletal muscle glucose uptake represents non-skeletal muscle Rd. The results indicate that approximately 20% of basal Rd is into skeletal muscle. During insulinopenia approximately 86% of body NIMGU occurs in non-skeletal muscle tissues at euglycemia. When hyperglycemia was created, whole body NIMGU increased from 128 +/- 6 to 213 +/- 18 mg/min (P less than 0.01); NIMGU into non-skeletal muscle tissues was 134 +/- 11 and 111 +/- 6 mg/min at hyperglycemia and euglycemia, respectively, P = NS. Therefore, virtually all the hyperglycemia induced increment in NIMGU occurred in skeletal muscle. During hyperinsulinemia, IMGU in skeletal muscle represented 75 and 95% of body Rd, at euglycemia and hyperglycemia, respectively

  9. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin; Christie, Peter; Chen Qing; Zhang Fusuo

    2008-01-01

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects

  10. Seasonal temperatures have more influence than nitrogen fertilizer rates on cucumber yield and nitrogen uptake in a double cropping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo Ruiying; Li Xiaolin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Christie, Peter [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China); Agricultural and Environmental Science Department, Queen' s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 5PX (United Kingdom); Chen Qing [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)], E-mail: qchen@cau.edu.cn; Zhang Fusuo [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University, No. 2 Yuanmingyuan Xilu, Haidian District, Beijing 100094 (China)

    2008-02-15

    Two-year greenhouse cucumber experiments were conducted to investigate seasonal effects on fruit yield, dry matter allocation, and N uptake in a double-cropping system with different fertilizer management. Seasonal effects were much greater than fertilizer effects, and winter-spring (WS) cucumber attained higher fruit yields and N uptake than autumn-winter (AW) cucumber due to lower cumulative air temperatures during fruit maturation in the AW season. Fertilizer N application and apparent N loss under recommended N management (Nmr) decreased by 40-78% and 33-48% without yield loss compared to conventional N management (Nmt) over four growing seasons. However, there were no seasonal differences in N recommendations, taking into consideration seasonal differences in crop N demand, critical nutrient supply in the root zone and N mineralization rate. - Nitrogen inputs can be reduced to minimize N losses to the environment while maintaining yields but N recommendations must reflect seasonal temperature effects.

  11. Fatty acid uptake and turnover rate in the ischemic before and after bypass surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freundlieb, C.; Hoeck, A.; Vyska, K.; Erbel, R.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    17-123-Iodo-heptadecanoic acid (IHA) turnover in myocardium signals myocardial metabolism of free fatty acids. Thus, it appeared promising to examine the influence of cardiovascular surgery on coronary perfusion and on the metabolic state of the ischemic myocardium by use of IHA. The data show that IHA uptake and elimination are two separate parameters which may be changed in the ischemic heart. The two parameters do not necessarily change in parallel. In ischemic heart disease at rest a normal IHA accumulation pattern may be associated with altered regional IHA turnover rates. On the other hand also accumulation defects without changes in IHA turnover rate were observed. Although the relationship between IHA uptake and turnover is not yet sufficiently understood that statements about the indication and prognosis of bypass surgery can be derived

  12. High HPV vaccination uptake rates for adolescent girls after regional governmental funding in Shiki City, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Y; Shimizu, Y; Netsu, S; Hanley, S; Konno, R

    2012-08-10

    In Japan, the bivalent HPV vaccine was approved in October, 2009 and became available as a non-routine vaccine from December, 2009. While routine vaccinations are free, the cost and responsibility for non-routine vaccinations are left to the individual. In exceptional circumstances regional governments fund non-routine vaccinations. This was the case in Shiki City, Saitama Prefecture, where a high uptake rate for individual (non-school based) HPV vaccination was obtained. On January 20, 2010, the mayor of Shiki City announced to the media his decision to vaccinate adolescent girls in Shiki City against HPV. A project team for HPV vaccination was set up in the city's Health Promotion Center. To gain mutual consent for HPV vaccination, senior health professionals, city officials, the head of the board of education, school principals and health-care teachers met several times. The cohort to be vaccinated was 1254 girls aged 12-15 years. Individual notifications were mailed to each girl on April 23, 2010, along with information about the HPV vaccine. As of April 10th, 2011, the uptake rate for girls aged 15 years old was 90.7% for the 1st dose. The vaccine registry is managed by the health care system of the city. The success of the HPV vaccination program and high uptake rates in Shiki City is a good model for the nationwide HPV vaccination program that started in February, 2011. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of wearing clothes on oxygen uptake and ratings of perceived exertion while swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, S W; Kurokawa, T; Ebisu, Y; Kikkawa, K; Shiokawa, M; Yamasaki, M

    2000-07-01

    For a comparative study between swimming in swimwear (control-sw) and swimming in clothes (clothes-sw), oxygen uptake (VO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. The subjects were six male members of a university swimming team. Three swimming strokes--the breaststroke, the front crawl stroke and the elementary backstroke--were applied. With regards to clothes-sw, swimmers wore T-shirts, sportswear (shirt and pants) over swimwear and running shoes. In both cases of control-sw and clothes-sw, the VO2 was increased exponentially with increased swimming speed. The VO2 of the subjects during the clothed tests did not exceed 1.4 times of that in the case of control-sw at swimming speeds below 0.3 m/s. As swimming speeds increased, VO2 difference in both cases increased. Consequently, VO2 in the clothed tests was equal to 1.5-1.6 times and 1.5-1.8 times of that in the swimwear tests at speeds of 0.5 and 0.7 m/s, respectively. At speeds below 0.6 m/s in clothes-sw, the breaststroke showed lower VO2 than the front crawl stroke, and the elementary backstroke showed higher VO2 than the other two swimming strokes. RPE increased linearly with %peak VO2. In addition, any RPE differences among the three swimming strokes were not shown in the control-sw tests. At an exercise intensity above 60 %peak VO2, clothed swimmers showed slightly higher RPE in the front crawl stroke compared to that in the two other swimming strokes.

  14. Comparative uptake of gamma-emitting fission product nuclides by plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'souza, T.J.; Mistry, K.B.

    1974-01-01

    The comparative uptake of long-lived gamma-emitting fission product nuclides 106 Ru, 125 Sb, 137 Cs and 144 Ce, present in global fallout from nuclear explosions, by maize (Zea mays L) plants was examined in water culture experiments. Over identical duration of plant growth, the extent of accumulation of the radionuclides in aerial tissues was in the following decreasing order: 137 Cs >, 125 Sb >, 106 Ru > and 144 Ce. In roots, however, the retention of 144 Ce and 106 Ru was greater than that of 137 Cs and 125 Sb. Complementary studies with maize and rice (Oryza sativa L) grown on two contrasting soil types, namely, laterite and black clay loam indicated that 137 Cs uptake by plants was markedly greater than that of the other radionuclides in both soil types. Plant uptake of 106 Ru and 125 Sb was significantly higher than that of 144 Ce in the black soil. In the laterite, however, 144 Ce uptake far exceeded that of 106 Ru and 125 Sb. In general, maize removed higher amounts of the radionuclides than rice from both soil types. (author)

  15. Comparative uptake and distribution of plutonium, americium, curium and neptunium in four plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckhise, R E; Cline, J F [Battelle Pacific Northwest Labs., Richland, WA (USA)

    1980-05-01

    Uptake of the nitrate forms of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am, /sup 244/Cm and /sup 237/Np from soil into selected parts of four different plant species grown under field conditions was compared Alfalfa, barley, peas and cheatgrass were grown outdoors in small weighing lysimeters filled with soil containing these radionuclides. The plants were harvested at maturity, divided into selected components and radiochemically analyzed by alpha-energy analysis. Soil concentration did not appear to affect the plant uptake of /sup 238/Pu, /sup 239/Pu, /sup 241/Am or /sup 244/Cm for the two levels utilized. The relative plant uptake of the five different transuranics was /sup 237/Np>/sup 244/Cm approximately equal /sup 241/Am>/sup 239/Pu approximately equal/sup 238/Pu. Relative uptake values of Np for various plant parts ranged from 2200 to 45,000 times as great as for Pu, while Am and Cm values were 10-20 times as great. The values for seeds were significantly lower than those for the other aboveground plant parts for all four transuranic elements. The legumes accumulated approx. 10 times more than the grasses. A comparison of the postulated radionuclide content of plants grown in soil contaminated with material from spent liquid metal fast breeder reactor fuels indicated that concentrations of isotopes of Am, Cm and Np would exceed /sup 239/Pu values.

  16. Accessibility and screening uptake rates for gestational diabetes mellitus in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cullinan, John

    2012-03-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy and is associated with a range of maternal and neonatal complications and conditions. Given increasing levels of prevalence worldwide, there are growing calls for the implementation of screening practices to identify and treat positive GDM cases. This paper uses a unique dataset to investigate the role of healthcare centre accessibility on the decision to attend for screening, employing geographic information systems, econometric and simulation techniques. We focus on the extent to which \\'travel distance to screening hospital site\\' impacts upon the individual\\'s screen uptake decision, whether significant geographic inequalities exist in relation to accessibility to screening, and the likely impact on uptake rates of providing screening services at a local level via primary care. Our findings have important implications for the provision of GDM screening services.

  17. Estimation of time-varying growth, uptake and excretion rates from dynamic metabolomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Eugenio; Laroute, Valérie; Cocaign-Bousquet, Muriel; de Jong, Hidde; Ropers, Delphine

    2017-07-15

    Technological advances in metabolomics have made it possible to monitor the concentration of extracellular metabolites over time. From these data, it is possible to compute the rates of uptake and excretion of the metabolites by a growing cell population, providing precious information on the functioning of intracellular metabolism. The computation of the rate of these exchange reactions, however, is difficult to achieve in practice for a number of reasons, notably noisy measurements, correlations between the concentration profiles of the different extracellular metabolites, and discontinuties in the profiles due to sudden changes in metabolic regime. We present a method for precisely estimating time-varying uptake and excretion rates from time-series measurements of extracellular metabolite concentrations, specifically addressing all of the above issues. The estimation problem is formulated in a regularized Bayesian framework and solved by a combination of extended Kalman filtering and smoothing. The method is shown to improve upon methods based on spline smoothing of the data. Moreover, when applied to two actual datasets, the method recovers known features of overflow metabolism in Escherichia coli and Lactococcus lactis , and provides evidence for acetate uptake by L. lactis after glucose exhaustion. The results raise interesting perspectives for further work on rate estimation from measurements of intracellular metabolites. The Matlab code for the estimation method is available for download at https://team.inria.fr/ibis/rate-estimation-software/ , together with the datasets. eugenio.cinquemani@inria.fr. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  18. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F; Chen, Chuck T; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P Mark; Bazinet, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain.

  19. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Chen, Chuck T.; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P. Mark; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing ALA or DHA for 15 weeks. Over the 15 weeks, whole body and brain DHA accretion was measured, while at the end of the study, whole body DHA synthesis rates, brain gene expression, and DHA uptake rates were measured. Despite large differences in body DHA accretion, there was no difference in brain DHA accretion between rats fed ALA and DHA. In rats fed ALA, DHA synthesis and accretion was 100-fold higher than brain DHA accretion of rats fed DHA. Also, ALA-fed rats synthesized approximately 3-fold more DHA than the DHA uptake rate into the brain. This work indicates that DHA synthesis from ALA may be sufficient to supply the brain. PMID:24212299

  20. Influence of salinity on uptake rate and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs in the oyster crassostrea glomerata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiatullah, A.; Qureshi, R.M.; Khan, S.; Chaghtai, F.; Akhter, P.; Jabbar, A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes results of experiment on bioaccumulation and uptake rate of radiocesium /sup 137/Cs from dissolved phase in the flesh of the Oysters (Crassostrea glomerata) collected off Karachi coast. A radiotracer experiment was conducted under laboratory conditions to determine the uptake rate and bioaccumulation of /sup 137/Cs from dissolved phase in the flesh of the Oyster. Oysters (size: 6-7 cm) were subjected to radiocesium activity of 24 Kilobecquerel per liter (kBq L/sup -1/) under three salinity Ievels (25, 30 and 35 ppt). The uptake of /sup 137/Cs was monitored for a period of seven days. The results showed that bioaccumulation and uptake of /sup 137/Cs in oysters were considerably dependent of salinity levels. Higher bioaccumulation factors and uptake rates were found at low salinity levels. (author)

  1. The rate of 99m Tc-MDP uptake in metastatic bone lesions before and after 89m Sr therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Joseane Fonseca; Braga, Francisco J.H.N.

    1996-01-01

    The rate of 99m Tc-MDP uptake is studied in metastatic bone lesions, before and after 89m Sr therapy. Eight hopeless patients (age between 56 and 74) presenting disseminated carcinoma of the prostate are evaluated. No hormonal therapy and a limited radiotherapy were considered. It is concluded that therapeutical doses of 89m Sr reduces MDP uptake

  2. Comparative uptake of uranium, thorium, and plutonium by biota inhabiting a contaminated Tennessee floodplain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garten, C.T. Jr.; Bondietti, E.A.; Walker, R.L.

    1981-01-01

    The uptake of 238 U, 232 Th, and 239 Pu from soil by fescue, grasshoppers, and small mammals was compared at the contaminated White Oak Creek floodplain in East Tennessee. Comparisons of actinide uptake were based on analyses of radionuclide ratios (U/Pu and Th/Pu) in soil and biota. U:Pu ratios in small mammal carcasses (shrews, mice, and rats) and bone samples from larger mammals (rabbit, woodchuck, opossum, and raccoon) were significantly greater (P less than or equal to 0.05) than U/Pu ratios in soil (based on 8M HNO 3 extractable). There was no significant difference between Th/Pu ratios in animals and soil. The order of actinide accumulation by biota from the site relative to contaminated soil was U > Th approx. = Pu

  3. Effects of heart rate on myocardial thallium-201 uptake and clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordrehaug, J.E.; Danielsen, R.; Vik-Mo, H.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of heart rate on the myocardial uptake and clearance of 201 Tl were studied prospectively in seven healthy men, mean age 43 +/- 7 (s.d.) yr. Initial and delayed (3 hr) thallium images were obtained in three views after three bicycle exercise tests: to maximal, 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate. The mean of three views initial myocardial 201 Tl uptake was higher at maximal than at both 80% and 60% of predicted maximal heart rate, being 81% (p less than 0.01) and 60% (p less than 0.01) of maximal activity, respectively. The myocardial activity in the delayed images was identical. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and the initial myocardial activity, r = 0.86 (p less than 0.001). The mean (range) 201 Tl clearance was 58% (51-65), 47% (34-56), and 34% (22-49) (all differences p less than 0.01), respectively. Concordance among the three individual views in estimating clearance was best for the highest exercise level. There was a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance, r = 0.80 (p less than 0.001). Clearance was altered by only 1.67 x 10%/heart bpm (0.024 hr/heart beat). Clearance in the liver, spleen and lungs increased at submaximal exercise levels. Thus, a linear relationship between heart rate and clearance is the result of changes in the initial exercise myocardial 201 Tl activity. Submaximal exercise may reduce reproducibility of clearance estimation, and the change of myocardial clearance with heart rate seems less than previously suggested

  4. Influence of Prolonged Spaceflight on Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, U.; Moore, A.; Drescher, U.

    2013-02-01

    During prolonged spaceflight, physical training is used to minimize cardiovascular deconditioning. Measurement of the kinetics of cardiorespiratory parameters, in particular the kinetic analysis of heart rate, respiratory and muscular oxygen uptake, provides useful information with regard to the efficiency and regulation of the cardiorespiratory system. Practically, oxygen uptake kinetics can only be measured at the lung site (V’O2 resp). The dynamics of V’O2 resp, however, is not identical with the dynamics at the site of interest: skeletal muscle. Eight Astronauts were tested pre- and post-flight using pseudo random binary workload changes between 30 and 80 W. Their kinetic responses of heart rate, respiratory as well as muscular V’O2 kinetics were estimated by using time-series analysis. Statistical analysis revealed that the kinetic responses of respiratory as well as muscular V’O2 kinetics are slowed post-flight than pre-flight. Heart rate seems not to be influenced following flight. The influence of other factors (e. g. astronauts’ exercise training) may impact these parameters and is an area for future studies.

  5. Composition and properties of atmospheric particles in the eastern Atlantic and impacts on gas phase uptake rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. McFiggans

    2009-12-01

    humidity using HTDMA data. Heterogeneous uptake rates of hypoiodous acid (HOI were also predicted and the nss accumulation mode was found to be the most significant part of the size distribution, which could act as an inert sink for this species. The predicted uptake rates were enhanced by around a factor of 2 during the African influence period due to the addition of both coarse and fine particles.

    The hygroscopicity of the nss fraction was modelled using the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM using the measured composition and results compared with the HTDMA data. This was the first time such a reconciliation study with this model has been performed with marine data and good agreement was reached within the resolution of the instruments. The effect of hygroscopic growth on HOI uptake was also modelled and ambient uptake rates were found to be approximately doubled compared to equivalent dry particles.

  6. Comparing BV solutions of rate independent processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejčí, Pavel; Recupero, V.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 1 (2014), s. 121-146 ISSN 0944-6532 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP201/10/2315 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : variational inequalities * rate independence * convex sets Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.552, year: 2014 http://www.heldermann.de/JCA/JCA21/JCA211/jca21006.htm

  7. Vesicular GABA Uptake Can Be Rate Limiting for Recovery of IPSCs from Synaptic Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manami Yamashita

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Synaptic efficacy plays crucial roles in neuronal circuit operation and synaptic plasticity. Presynaptic determinants of synaptic efficacy are neurotransmitter content in synaptic vesicles and the number of vesicles undergoing exocytosis at a time. Bursts of presynaptic firings depress synaptic efficacy, mainly due to depletion of releasable vesicles, whereas recovery from strong depression is initiated by endocytic vesicle retrieval followed by refilling of vesicles with neurotransmitter. We washed out presynaptic cytosolic GABA to induce a rundown of IPSCs at cerebellar inhibitory cell pairs in slices from rats and then allowed fast recovery by elevating GABA concentration using photo-uncaging. The time course of this recovery coincided with that of IPSCs from activity-dependent depression induced by a train of high-frequency stimulation. We conclude that vesicular GABA uptake can be a limiting step for the recovery of inhibitory neurotransmission from synaptic depression. : Recovery of inhibitory synaptic transmission from activity-dependent depression requires refilling of vesicles with GABA. Yamashita et al. find that vesicular uptake rate of GABA is a slow process, limiting the recovery rate of IPSCs from depression.

  8. A longitudinal analysis of the effect of nonmedical exemption law and vaccine uptake on vaccine-targeted disease rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y Tony; Debold, Vicky

    2014-02-01

    We assessed how nonmedical exemption (NME) laws and annual uptake of vaccines required for school or daycare entry affect annual incidence rates for 5 vaccine-targeted diseases: pertussis, measles, mumps, Haemophilus influenzae type B, and hepatitis B. We employed longitudinal mixed-effects models to examine 2001-2008 vaccine-targeted disease data obtained from the National Notifiable Disease Surveillance System. Key explanatory variables were state-level vaccine-specific uptake rates from the National Immunization Survey and a state NME law restrictiveness level. NME law restrictiveness and vaccine uptake were not associated with disease incidence rate for hepatitis B, Haemophilus influenzae type B, measles, or mumps. Pertussis incidence rate, however, was negatively associated with NME law restrictiveness (b = -0.20; P = .03) and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus vaccine uptake (b = -0.01; P = .05). State NME laws and vaccine uptake rates did not appear to influence lower-incidence diseases but may influence reported disease rates for higher-incidence diseases. If all states increased their NME law restrictiveness by 1 level and diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus uptake by 1%, national annual pertussis cases could decrease by 1.14% (171 cases) and 0.04% (5 cases), respectively.

  9. AMF Inoculation Enhances Growth and Improves the Nutrient Uptake Rates of Transplanted, Salt-Stressed Tomato Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrit Balliu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to investigate the effects of commercially available AMF inoculate (Glomus sp. mixture on the growth and the nutrient acquisition in tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L. plants directly after transplanting and under different levels of salinity. Inoculated (AMF+ and non-inoculated (AMF− tomato plants were subjected to three levels of NaCl salinity (0, 50, and 100 mM·NaCl. Seven days after transplanting, plants were analyzed for dry matter and RGR of whole plants and root systems. Leaf tissue was analyzed for mineral concentration before and after transplanting; leaf nutrient content and relative uptake rates (RUR were calculated. AMF inoculation did not affect plant dry matter or RGR under fresh water-irrigation. The growth rate of AMF−plants did significantly decline under both moderate (77% and severe (61% salt stress compared to the fresh water-irrigated controls, while the decline was much less (88% and 75%,respectivelyand statistically non-significant in salt-stressed AMF+ plants. Interestingly, root system dry matter of AMF+ plants (0.098 g plant–1 remained significantly greater under severe soil salinity compared to non-inoculated seedlings (0.082 g plant–1. The relative uptake rates of N, P, Mg, Ca, Mn, and Fe were enhanced in inoculated tomato seedlings and remained higher under (moderate salt stress compared to AMF− plants This study suggests that inoculation with commercial AMF during nursery establishment contributes to alleviation of salt stress by maintaining a favorable nutrient profile. Therefore, nursery inoculation seems to be a viable solution to attenuate the effects of increasing soil salinity levels, especially in greenhouses with low natural abundance of AMF spores.

  10. A prospective population study of resting heart rate and peak oxygen uptake (the HUNT Study, Norway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javaid Nauman

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We assessed the prospective association of resting heart rate (RHR at baseline with peak oxygen uptake (VO(2peak 23 years later, and evaluated whether physical activity (PA could modify this association. BACKGROUND: Both RHR and VO(2peak are strong and independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, the association of RHR with VO(2peak and modifying effect of PA have not been prospectively assessed in population studies. METHODS: In 807 men and 810 women free from cardiovascular disease both at baseline (1984-86 and follow-up 23 years later, RHR was recorded at both occasions, and VO(2peak was measured by ergospirometry at follow-up. We used Generalized Linear Models to assess the association of baseline RHR with VO(2peak, and to study combined effects of RHR and self-reported PA on later VO(2peak. RESULTS: There was an inverse association of RHR at baseline with VO(2peak (p<0.01. Men and women with baseline RHR greater than 80 bpm had 4.6 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.8 to 6.3 and 1.4 mL.kg(-1.min(-1 (95% CI, -0.4 to 3.1 lower VO(2peak at follow-up compared with men and women with RHR below 60 bpm at baseline. We found a linear association of change in RHR with VO(2peak (p=0.03, suggesting that a decrease in RHR over time is likely to be beneficial for cardiovascular fitness. Participants with low RHR and high PA at baseline had higher VO(2peak than inactive people with relatively high RHR. However, among participants with relatively high RHR and high PA at baseline, VO(2peak was similar to inactive people with relatively low RHR. CONCLUSION: RHR is an important predictor of VO(2peak, and serial assessments of RHR may provide useful and inexpensive information on cardiovascular fitness. The results suggest that high levels of PA may compensate for the lower VO(2peak associated with a high RHR.

  11. Impact of Glycerol as Carbon Source onto Specific Sugar and Inducer Uptake Rates and Inclusion Body Productivity in E. coli BL21(DE3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Kopp

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium E. coli is the host of choice for a multitude of used recombinant proteins. Generally, cultivation is easy, media are cheap, and a high product titer can be obtained. However, harsh induction procedures using isopropyl β-d-1 thiogalactopyranoside as inducer are often referred to cause stress reactions, leading to a phenomenon known as “metabolic” or “product burden”. These high expressions of recombinant proteins mainly result in decreased growth rates and cell lysis at elevated induction times. Therefore, approaches tend to use “soft” or “tunable” induction with lactose and reduce the stress level of the production host. The usage of glucose as energy source in combination with lactose as induction reagent causes catabolite repression effects on lactose uptake kinetics and as a consequence reduced product titer. Glycerol—as an alternative carbon source—is already known to have positive impact on product formation when coupled with glucose and lactose in auto-induction systems, and has been referred to show no signs of repression when cultivated with lactose concomitantly. In recent research activities, the impact of different products on the lactose uptake using glucose as carbon source was highlighted, and a mechanistic model for glucose-lactose induction systems showed correlations between specific substrate uptake rate for glucose or glycerol (qs,C and the maximum specific lactose uptake rate (qs,lac,max. In this study, we investigated the mechanistic of glycerol uptake when using the inducer lactose. We were able to show that a product-producing strain has significantly higher inducer uptake rates when being compared to a non-producer strain. Additionally, it was shown that glycerol has beneficial effects on viability of cells and on productivity of the recombinant protein compared to glucose.

  12. Uptake rate constants and partition coefficients for vapor phase organic chemicals using semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cranor, W.L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To fully utilize semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) as passive samplers in air monitoring, data are required to accurately estimate airborne concentrations of environmental contaminants. Limited uptake rate constants (kua) and no SPMD air partitioning coefficient (Ksa) existed for vapor-phase contaminants. This research was conducted to expand the existing body of kinetic data for SPMD air sampling by determining kua and Ksa for a number of airborne contaminants including the chemical classes: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, brominated diphenyl ethers, phthalate esters, synthetic pyrethroids, and organophosphate/organosulfur pesticides. The kuas were obtained for 48 of 50 chemicals investigated and ranged from 0.03 to 3.07??m3??g-1??d-1. In cases where uptake was approaching equilibrium, Ksas were approximated. Ksa values (no units) were determined or estimated for 48 of the chemicals investigated and ranging from 3.84E+5 to 7.34E+7. This research utilized a test system (United States Patent 6,877,724 B1) which afforded the capability to generate and maintain constant concentrations of vapor-phase chemical mixtures. The test system and experimental design employed gave reproducible results during experimental runs spanning more than two years. This reproducibility was shown by obtaining mean kua values (n??=??3) of anthracene and p,p???-DDE at 0.96 and 1.57??m3??g-1??d-1 with relative standard deviations of 8.4% and 8.6% respectively.

  13. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) accretion in the placenta but not the fetus is matched by plasma unesterified DHA uptake rates in pregnant Long Evans rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metherel, Adam H; Kitson, Alex P; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Lacombe, R J Scott; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Alashmali, Shoug M; Lin, Lin; Bazinet, Richard P

    2017-10-01

    Maternal delivery of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) to the developing fetus via the placenta is required for fetal neurodevelopment, and is the only mechanism by which DHA can be accreted in the fetus. The aim of the current study was to utilize a balance model of DHA accretion combined with kinetic measures of serum unesterified DHA uptake to better understand the mechanism by which maternal DHA is delivered to the fetus via the placenta. Female rats maintained on a 2% α-linolenic acid diet free of DHA for 56 days were mated, and for balance analysis, sacrificed at 18 days of pregnancy, and fetus, placenta and maternal carcass fatty acid concentration were determined. For tissue DHA uptake, pregnant dams (14-18 days) were infused for 5 min with radiolabeled 14 C-DHA and kinetic modeling was used to determine fetal and placental serum unesterified DHA uptake rates. DHA accretion rates in the fetus were determined to be 38 ± 2 nmol/d/g, 859 ± 100 nmol/d/litter and 74 ± 3 nmol/d/pup, which are all higher (P  0.05) in placental DHA accretion rates versus serum unesterified DHA uptake rates were observed as values varied only 6-35% between studies. No differences in placental accretion and uptake rates suggests that serum unesterified DHA is a significant pool for the maternal-placental transfer of DHA, and lower fetal DHA uptake compared to accretion supports remodeling of placental DHA for delivery to the fetus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differences in uptake of immunisations and health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, Sanne Pagh; Hjern, Anders; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Norredam, Marie

    2016-04-01

    Refugee children and their families constitute a vulnerable group regarding health and access to care. In a register-based cohort design, we examined differences in uptake of immunisations and child health examinations between refugee children and Danish-born children, including predictors of uptake among refugee children. Refugee children (n = 16,701) who, between January 1993 and December 2010, obtained residency permits in Denmark were included and matched in a 1:6 ratio on age and sex with Danish-born children (n = 100,206). Personal identification numbers were cross-linked to the National Danish Health Service Register, identifying all contacts for immunisation and child health examinations. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) of uptake. Refugee children had a lower uptake of all immunisations compared to Danish-born children. The lowest uptake was found for immunisation against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio (HR = 0.50; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.48-0.51). Participation in child health examinations was also lower among refugee children with the lowest at the last child health examination at age 5 (HR = 0.48; 95 % CI 0.47-0.50). Adjusting the analysis for parental income increased the HRs by 10-20 %. This Danish register-based study using nationwide data revealed a lower uptake of routine immunisations and child health examinations among refugee children compared to Danish-born children. •Uptake of immunisation and child health examination is associated with low household income, unemployment and low educational status among the parents. •Uptake may be even lower among refugee families as they constitute a vulnerable group regarding access to healthcare. What is New: •Refugee children had lower uptake of immunisations and child health examinations compared to Danish-born children. •Several predictors of uptake were identified including region of origin and duration of residence.

  15. Microbial uptake of radiolabeled substrates: estimates of growth rates from time course measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, W.K.W.

    1984-01-01

    The uptake of [ 3 H]glucose and a mixture of 3 H-labeled amino acids was measured, in time course fashion, in planktonic microbial assemblages of the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean. The average generation times of those portions of the assemblages able to utilize these substrates were estimated from a simple exponential growth model. Other workers have independently used this model in its integrated or differential form. A mathematical verification and an experimental demonstration of the equivalence of the two approaches are presented. A study was made of the size distribution of heterotrophic activity, using time course measurements. It was found that the size distribution and the effect of sample filtration before radiolabeling were dependent on time of incubation. In principle, it was possible to ascribe these time dependences to differences in th specific growth rate and initial standing stock of the microbial assemblages. 33 references

  16. Using the North Dakota Immunization Information System to determine adolescent vaccination rates and uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoMurray, Keith; Sander, Molly

    2011-01-01

    We described the uptake and coverage rates of meningococcal conjugate vaccine (MCV4); tetanus-diphtheria-acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap); and quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) in North Dakota using the North Dakota Immunization Information System (NDIIS). We analyzed all available MCV4, Tdap, and HPV4 doses given after vaccine licensure and through December 31, 2009, obtained from the NDIIS to identify trends and patterns in vaccine administration. We analyzed all data by administration date, age group, and health-care provider type. We also calculated missed opportunities to complete all recommended vaccines among vaccinated adolescents. For adolescents aged 13-17 years, 69.2% had > or = 1 dose of Tdap and 62.8% had > or = 1 dose of MCV4. Of females aged 13-17 years, 42.8% initiated the HPV4 vaccination series and 24.9% received > or = 3 HPV4 doses. Only 48.7% of males aged 13-17 years received both Tdap and MCV4 at the same visit, and only 11.5% of females aged 13-17 years received Tdap, MCV4, and HPV4 doses at the first visit. The NDIIS is useful in tracking adolescent vaccine uptake. The immunization rates for all three routinely recommended adolescent vaccines are rising in North Dakota, although at different paces. Providers should be educated about the importance of not missing opportunities to vaccinate, and school-based vaccination clinics should be used to reach adolescents who are less likely to have preventive care visits.

  17. A comparison of deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak plot in parenchymal renal uptake rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shakhrah, Issa A

    2012-07-01

    Deconvolution and the Rutland-Patlak (R-P) plot are two of the most commonly used methods for analyzing dynamic radionuclide renography. Both methods allow estimation of absolute and relative renal uptake of radiopharmaceutical and of its rate of transit through the kidney. Seventeen patients (32 kidneys) were referred for further evaluation by renal scanning. All patients were positioned supine with their backs to the scintillation gamma camera, so that the kidneys and the heart are both in the field of view. Approximately 5-7 mCi of (99m)Tc-DTPA (diethylinetriamine penta-acetic acid) in about 0.5 ml of saline is injected intravenously and sequential 20 s frames were acquired, the study on each patient lasts for approximately 20 min. The time-activity curves of the parenchymal region of interest of each kidney, as well as the heart were obtained for analysis. The data were then analyzed with deconvolution and the R-P plot. A strong positive association (n = 32; r = 0.83; R (2) = 0.68) was found between the values that obtained by applying the two methods. Bland-Altman statistical analysis demonstrated that ninety seven percent of the values in the study (31 cases from 32 cases, 97% of the cases) were within limits of agreement (mean ± 1.96 standard deviation). We believe that R-P analysis method is expected to be more reproducible than iterative deconvolution method, because the deconvolution technique (the iterative method) relies heavily on the accuracy of the first point analyzed, as any errors are carried forward into the calculations of all the subsequent points, whereas R-P technique is based on an initial analysis of the data by means of the R-P plot, and it can be considered as an alternative technique to find and calculate the renal uptake rate.

  18. Iodine capsules in thyroid therapy: An individually controlled study of I-131 uptake kinetics as compared to liquid administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Schulthess, G.K.; Seelentag, W.W.; Pfeiffer, G.; Blauenstein, P.; Bekier, A.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the additional radiation dose sustained by parts of the patients gastric mucosa when given I-131 therapy in capsular rather than liquid form, and thus to establish the safety of this procedure. 16 patients with benign thyroid disease were studied by measuring serum radioactivity at 0, 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80 min. after administration of the capsule (120-200 MBq I131). These serum uptake values were compared to the uptake after administration of a liquid diagnostic dose of I-131 (2 MBq). From the resulting uptake curves the delay due to capsular dissolution was determined. The average dissolution time was found to be 12 min. with a large standard deviation of 7 min. Also, a theoretical curve was computed to indicate the dose rate as a function of the distance from the surface of the capsule. Based on this information the maximum dose to the gastric mucosa is of the order of 250 cGy for a therapeutic activity of 185 MBq, which is the maximum dose which may be given as single application to outpatients in Switzerland. By having the patient swallow some liquid during the first ten minutes, the capsule can be made to move around, and hence, the local radiation dose can be reduced substantially. The authors conclude, that I-131 in capsular form is a safe galenic form for therapeutic use in patients with thyroid disease. When large doses are given, administration of the dose in several capsules may be advisable

  19. Mapping water exchange rates in rat tumor xenografts using the late-stage uptake following bolus injections of contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Colleen; Moosvi, Firas; Stanisz, Greg J

    2014-05-01

    To map the intra-to-extracellular water exchange rate constant in rat xenografts using a two-compartment model of relaxation with water exchange and a range of contrast agent concentrations and compare with histology. MDA-MB-231 cells were xenografted into six nude rats. Three bolus injections of gadodiamide were administered. When uptake in the tumor demonstrated a steady-state, T1 data were acquired by spoiled gradient recalled acquisitions at four flip angles. A global fit of data to a two-compartment model incorporating exchange was performed, assuming a distribution volume of 20% of the rat. Voxels that did not reach steady-state and were excluded from parametric maps tended to be in large necrotic areas. TUNEL-negative (nonapoptotic) regions tended to have well-defined error bounds, with an average intra-to-extracellular exchange rate constant of 0.6 s(-1) . Apoptotic regions had higher exchange, but poorly determined upper bounds, with goodness of fit similar to that for a model assuming infinitely fast exchange. A lower bound of >3 s(-1) was used to establish voxels where the exchange rate constant was fast despite a large upper bound. Water exchange rates were higher in apoptotic regions, but examination of statistical errors was an important step in the mapping process. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Can hydrographic data provide evidence that the rate of oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 is increasing?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Carlisle Thacker

    Full Text Available Predictions of the rate of accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the Pacific Ocean near 32°S and 150°W based on the P16 surveys of 1991 and 2005 and on the P06 surveys of 1992 and 2003 underestimate the amount found in the P06 survey of 2009-2010, suggesting an increasing uptake rate. Assuming the accumulation rate to be constant over the two decades, analyses using all five surveys lead to upward revision of the rates based only on the first four. On the other hand, accumulation rates estimated for 2003-2010 are significantly greater than those for 1991-2003, again suggesting an increasing uptake rate. In addressing this question it is important to acknowledge the limitations of the repeat hydrography and consequent uncertainties of estimated accumulation rates.

  1. Plant uptake of dual-labeled organic N biased by inorganic C uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jim; Sauheitl, Leopold; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    glycine or CO2-3 , but found no differences in uptake rates between these C-sources. The uptake of inorganic C to the shoot tissue was higher for maize grown in full light compared to shading, which indicates a passive uptake of inorganic C with water. We conclude that uptake of inorganic C produced...

  2. A Comparative Uptake Study of Multiplexed PET Tracers in Mice with Turpentine-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Huang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The potential value of multiplexed positron emission tomography (PET tracers in mice with turpentine-induced inflammation was evaluated and compared with 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ([18F]FDG for glucose metabolism imaging. These PET tracers included [18F]fluoromethylcholine ([18F]FCH for choline metabolism imaging, (S-[11C]methyl-D-cysteine ([11C]DMCYS for amino acid metabolism imaging, [11C]bis(zinc(II-dipicolylamine ([11C]DPA-Zn2+ for apoptosis imaging, 2-(4-N-[11C]-methylaminophenyl-6-hydroxybenzothiazole ([11C]PIB for β amyloid binding imaging, and [18F]fluoride (18F− for bone metabolism imaging. In mice with turpentine-induced inflammation mice, the biodistribution of all the tracers mentioned above at 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min postinjection was determined. Also, the time-course curves of the tracer uptake ratios for inflammatory thigh muscle (IM to normal uninflammatory thigh muscle (NM, IM to blood (BL, IM to brain (BR, and IM to liver (LI were acquired, respectively. Moreover, PET imaging with the tracers within 60 min postinjection on a clinical PET/CT scanner was also conducted. [18F]FDG and 18F− showed relatively higher uptake ratios for IM to NM, IM to BL, IM to BR, and IM to LI than [18F]FCH, [11C]DPA-Zn2+, [11C]DMCYS and [11C]PIB, which were highly consistent with the results delineated in PET images. The results demonstrate that 18F− seems to be a potential PET tracer for inflammation imaging. [18F]FCH and [11C]DMCYS, with lower accumulation in inflammatory tissue than [18F]FDG, are not good PET tracers for inflammation imaging. As a promising inflammatory tracer, the chemical structure of [11C]DPA-Zn2+ needs to be further optimized.

  3. Experiments comparing the uptake of americium from chloride media using extraction chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FitzPatrick, J.R.; Schake, B.S.; Schulte, L.D.; Martinez, B.T.; Salazar, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Clean-up of actinide effluent waste steams is of increasing importance at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility, TA-55, and removing the actinide elements to very low levels allows less radioactivity to go the Los Alamos National Laboratory Water Treatment Facility, TA-50, thus reducing the number of drums of TRU waste. Americium (Am) is a difficult element to remove from chloride media because the +3 state is difficult to oxidize and chelating resins work better with elements such as plutonium which are more readily oxidized to the +4 and/or +6 state. Currently in hydrochloric acid (HC1) media, the acidic liquid waste is neutralized with potassium hydroxide to precipitate the metal hydroxides, before disposal to TA-50. This process is not very efficient. The removal of Am from chloride media was compared using a series of resins, some commercial and some made in our laboratory, using different percentages by weight of octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diiso- butylcarbamoyl-methylphosphine oxide (CMPO ) along with diamyl amylphosphonate (DAAP) or tributyl phosphate (TBP) as diluents. Resins were also made with no added diluent. Early comparisons using small-scale contact studies with 0.5 grams of resin in 0.1M-12M HC1, and subsequent small-scale flow experiments show a trend in which Am uptake is proportional to the amount of CMPO on the resins and the diluent plays a minor role in the uptake of Am from these solutions. Redox chemistry effects were also investigated. From these studies, it is possible to determine the best conditions for the removal of Am from HC1 media thus reducing the gross alpha content of the waste stream by a factor of 10-100 which reduces the number of barrels of waste produced at the Water Treatment Facility

  4. Pedaling rate is an important determinant of human oxygen uptake during exercise on the cycle ergometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formenti, Federico; Minetti, Alberto E; Borrani, Fabio

    2015-09-01

    Estimation of human oxygen uptake (V˙o2) during exercise is often used as an alternative when its direct measurement is not feasible. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) suggests estimating human V˙o2 during exercise on a cycle ergometer through an equation that considers individual's body mass and external work rate, but not pedaling rate (PR). We hypothesized that including PR in the ACSM equation would improve its V˙o2 prediction accuracy. Ten healthy male participants' (age 19-48 years) were recruited and their steady-state V˙o2 was recorded on a cycle ergometer for 16 combinations of external work rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 W) and PR (50, 70, 90, and 110 revolutions per minute). V˙o2 was calculated by means of a new equation, and by the ACSM equation for comparison. Kinematic data were collected by means of an infrared 3-D motion analysis system in order to explore the mechanical determinants of V˙o2. Including PR in the ACSM equation improved the accuracy for prediction of sub-maximal V˙o2 during exercise (mean bias 1.9 vs. 3.3 mL O2 kg(-1) min(-1)) but it did not affect the accuracy for prediction of maximal V˙o2 (P > 0.05). Confirming the validity of this new equation, the results were replicated for data reported in the literature in 51 participants. We conclude that PR is an important determinant of human V˙o2 during cycling exercise, and it should be considered when predicting oxygen consumption. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  5. Effect of pedal rate on primary and slow-component oxygen uptake responses during heavy-cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Jamie S M; Doust, Jonathan H; Carter, Helen; Tolfrey, Keith; Jones, Andrew M

    2003-04-01

    We hypothesized that a higher pedal rate (assumed to result in a greater proportional contribution of type II motor units) would be associated with an increased amplitude of the O(2) uptake (Vo(2)) slow component during heavy-cycle exercise. Ten subjects (mean +/- SD, age 26 +/- 4 yr, body mass 71.5 +/- 7.9 kg) completed a series of square-wave transitions to heavy exercise at pedal rates of 35, 75, and 115 rpm. The exercise power output was set at 50% of the difference between the pedal rate-specific ventilatory threshold and peak Vo(2), and the baseline power output was adjusted to account for differences in the O(2) cost of unloaded pedaling. The gain of the Vo(2) primary component was significantly higher at 35 rpm compared with 75 and 115 rpm (mean +/- SE, 10.6 +/- 0.3, 9.5 +/- 0.2, and 8.9 +/- 0.4 ml. min(-1). W(-1), respectively; P exercise at the same relative intensity, presumably by altering motor unit recruitment patterns.

  6. Do individuals with intellectual disability have a lower peak heart rate and maximal oxygen uptake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa Irena Maria; Baynard, Tracy

    2017-12-12

    Individuals with intellectual disability (ID) have very low physical activity and low peak oxygen uptake (VO 2peak ), potentially explained by physiologically lower peak heart rates (HR peak ). The present authors performed a retrospective analysis of a large data set of individuals with intellectual disability (n = 100), with Down syndrome (DS) (n = 48) and without intellectual disability (n = 224) using multiple linear regression analyses, to determine if individuals with intellectual disability exhibit lower HR peak and VO 2peak than individuals without intellectual disability, controlling for age, sex and body mass index (BMI). Individuals with intellectual disability on average have significantly lower HR peak and VO 2peak than individuals without intellectual disability, even when controlling VO 2peak for the lower HR peak . This study suggests potential physiological differences in individuals with intellectual disability and warrants further investigation to determine their relevance to physical activity promotion and exercise testing in individuals with intellectual disability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Heart rate during basketball game play and volleyball drills accurately predicts oxygen uptake and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scribbans, T D; Berg, K; Narazaki, K; Janssen, I; Gurd, B J

    2015-09-01

    There is currently little information regarding the ability of metabolic prediction equations to accurately predict oxygen uptake and exercise intensity from heart rate (HR) during intermittent sport. The purpose of the present study was to develop and, cross-validate equations appropriate for accurately predicting oxygen cost (VO2) and energy expenditure from HR during intermittent sport participation. Eleven healthy adult males (19.9±1.1yrs) were recruited to establish the relationship between %VO2peak and %HRmax during low-intensity steady state endurance (END), moderate-intensity interval (MOD) and high intensity-interval exercise (HI), as performed on a cycle ergometer. Three equations (END, MOD, and HI) for predicting %VO2peak based on %HRmax were developed. HR and VO2 were directly measured during basketball games (6 male, 20.8±1.0 yrs; 6 female, 20.0±1.3yrs) and volleyball drills (12 female; 20.8±1.0yrs). Comparisons were made between measured and predicted VO2 and energy expenditure using the 3 equations developed and 2 previously published equations. The END and MOD equations accurately predicted VO2 and energy expenditure, while the HI equation underestimated, and the previously published equations systematically overestimated VO2 and energy expenditure. Intermittent sport VO2 and energy expenditure can be accurately predicted from heart rate data using either the END (%VO2peak=%HRmax x 1.008-17.17) or MOD (%VO2peak=%HRmax x 1.2-32) equations. These 2 simple equations provide an accessible and cost-effective method for accurate estimation of exercise intensity and energy expenditure during intermittent sport.

  8. The declining uptake rate of atmospheric CO2 by land and ocean sinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Raupach

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Through 1959–2012, an airborne fraction (AF of 0.44 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions remained in the atmosphere, with the rest being taken up by land and ocean CO2 sinks. Understanding of this uptake is critical because it greatly alleviates the emissions reductions required for climate mitigation, and also reduces the risks and damages that adaptation has to embrace. An observable quantity that reflects sink properties more directly than the AF is the CO2 sink rate (kS, the combined land–ocean CO2 sink flux per unit excess atmospheric CO2 above preindustrial levels. Here we show from observations that kS declined over 1959–2012 by a factor of about 1 / 3, implying that CO2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO2. Using a carbon–climate model, we attribute the decline in kS to four mechanisms: slower-than-exponential CO2 emissions growth (~ 35% of the trend, volcanic eruptions (~ 25%, sink responses to climate change (~ 20%, and nonlinear responses to increasing CO2, mainly oceanic (~ 20%. The first of these mechanisms is associated purely with the trajectory of extrinsic forcing, and the last two with intrinsic, feedback responses of sink processes to changes in climate and atmospheric CO2. Our results suggest that the effects of these intrinsic, nonlinear responses are already detectable in the global carbon cycle. Although continuing future decreases in kS will occur under all plausible CO2 emission scenarios, the rate of decline varies between scenarios in non-intuitive ways because extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms respond in opposite ways to changes in emissions: extrinsic mechanisms cause kS to decline more strongly with increasing mitigation, while intrinsic mechanisms cause kS to decline more strongly under high-emission, low-mitigation scenarios as the carbon–climate system is perturbed further from a near-linear regime.

  9. The declining uptake rate of atmospheric CO2 by land and ocean sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupach, M.R.; Gloor, M.; Sarmiento, J.L.; Gasser, T.

    2014-01-01

    Through 1959-2012, an airborne fraction (AF) of 0.44 of total anthropogenic CO 2 emissions remained in the atmosphere, with the rest being taken up by land and ocean CO 2 sinks. Understanding of this uptake is critical because it greatly alleviates the emissions reductions required for climate mitigation, and also reduces the risks and damages that adaptation has to embrace. An observable quantity that reflects sink properties more directly than the AF is the CO 2 sink rate (k S ), the combined land-ocean CO 2 sink flux per unit excess atmospheric CO 2 above pre industrial levels. Here we show from observations that k S declined over 1959-2012 by a factor of about 1/3, implying that CO 2 sinks increased more slowly than excess CO 2 . Using a carbon-climate model, we attribute the decline in k S to four mechanisms: slower-than-exponential CO 2 emissions growth (35% of the trend), volcanic eruptions (25 %), sink responses to climate change (20 %), and nonlinear responses to increasing CO 2 , mainly oceanic (20 %). The first of these mechanisms is associated purely with the trajectory of extrinsic forcing, and the last two with intrinsic, feedback responses of sink processes to changes in climate and atmospheric CO 2 . Our results suggest that the effects of these intrinsic, nonlinear responses are already detectable in the global carbon cycle. Although continuing future decreases in k S will occur under all plausible CO 2 emission scenarios, the rate of decline varies between scenarios in non intuitive ways because extrinsic and intrinsic mechanisms respond in opposite ways to changes in emissions: extrinsic mechanisms cause k S to decline more strongly with increasing mitigation, while intrinsic mechanisms cause k S to decline more strongly under high-emission, low-mitigation scenarios as the carbon-climate system is perturbed further from a near-linear regime. (authors)

  10. The effect of eating salt with iodine on the normal values of thyroid 131I uptake rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Wang Huawen; Li Guirong; Chen Chunmei; Zhang Lixia; Yu Yuehua

    2002-01-01

    131 I uptake rates of control group, which stop eating salt with iodine for over six weeks, eating salt with iodine group, the hyperthyroidism group are determined in 2 h, 6 h and 24 h respectively. The results show 131 I uptake rate of eating salt with iodine group are (7.7 +- 4.2)% in 2 h, (13.8 +- 5.3)% in 6 h and (21.9 +- 7.7)% in 24 h. There are no difference between sex. There is significance of difference (P 131 I uptake rates between the hyperthyroidism group of eating salt with iodine and control group is 5.0%, and eating salt with iodine group is 22.5%. To determine the thyroid iodine uptake rate in the patients who did not stop eating salt with iodine, the ranges of normal values must be defined. This result could be as a standard to diagnose the patients of hyperthyroidism of eating salt with iodine

  11. A clinical study on 125I T3 resin uptake rate and serum thyroxin (T4) in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, E.S.; Park, Y.H.; Cho, C.H.; Park, I.S.; Lee, C.S.; Lee, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    Total of 94 cases of hyperthyroidism were classified as toxic diffuse goiter (77 case) as toxic adematous goiter (8 case) and as toxic multinodular goiter (9 case) on the levels of T 3 - 125 I resin uptake rate and the measurement of serum T 4 levels. Various clinical symptoms and diagnostic characteristics were discussed. (author)

  12. 'In vitro' determination of the rate of 32P uptake by erythrocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Filho, J.C.; Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Abdalla, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    An ''in vitro'' methodology based on 32 p uptake by erythrocytes was established as a potencial method for a phosphorus sub-clinical deficiency diagnosis in ruminant. Blood samples stored up to 48 hours were incubated with 32 p at different periods and temperatures. There was no effect of storage time and the greatest 32 p uptake values were obtained with incubation over 2 hours at 38 to 50 0 C. (author) [pt

  13. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamper, A.L.; Thomsen, H.S.; Nielsen, S.L.; Strandgaard, S.; Herlev Hospital

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51 Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P 99m Tc-DMSA increased by 10% (P<0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken up by the tubular cells from the peritubular capillaries since the uptake was unaffected by the acute decrease in GFR. (orig.)

  14. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Thomsen, H S; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P less than 0.01), but renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA increased by 10% (P less than 0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken......Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney...

  15. The rate of 45Ca uptake by two corals species at waters of Burung island, Bangka-Belitung province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulkifli Dahlan; Gusti Diansyah; T Zia Ulqodry; Ania Citraresmini

    2010-01-01

    Coral reefs transplantation is the most technique used for coral reefs rehabilitation, at the present. Recently the 45 Ca technique has been using for determining growth appearances in corals because of its ability to calculate the calcification process. For this reason, the study on the rate of 45 Ca uptake by natural corals Acropora Formosa and Acropora nobilis was carried out between June and December 2009 at the waters of Burung Island, Bangka-Belitung Province. The coral fragments of about 5 cm were harvested and put into a PVC container filled with 2 liters of fresh sea water, then incubated with 45 CaCl 2 solutions with an activity of 11.04 μCi/ml for 8 hour under fluorescent light. After the incubation, the “labeled” coral fragments were transplanted to where they have been taken from, and after such period will be re-harvested to determine their 45 Ca uptake content. The results showed that the 45 Ca technique was a reliable method to calculate the rate 45 Ca uptake by coral fragments, which were studied in different depths and time periods of light exposure. There was a significant difference in the 45 Ca uptake by the two different coral species. A. Formosa up took more 45 Ca than A. nobilis did. The highest 45 Ca uptake was shown by A. Formosa at 5 m. This was true for all the lengths of time to light exposure (1, 3, 5 and 7 hours). Different pattern of 45 Ca uptake showed by A. nobilisat 10 m depth, where it could be recognized that after a drop of 45 Ca the uptake increase continuously until the end of the light exposure (7 hours). The difference in 45 Ca uptake between the coral fragments is assumed to be influence by light and the algae species living symbiotically with the coral species that will further influence the CO 2 -fixation. This process will influence the calcification process, which is expressed in 45 Ca uptake. Further studies should be carried out to exactly gathered data of all the factors which could influence the calcification

  16. A COMPARISON BETWEEN VENTILATION AND HEART RATE AS INDICATOR OF OXYGEN UPTAKE DURING DIFFERENT INTENSITIES OF EXERCISE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Prioux

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to compare the relation between ventilation (VE and oxygen uptake (VO2 [VO2=ƒ(VE] and between heart rate (HR and VO2 [VO2=ƒ(HR]. Each one of the subjects performed three types of activities of different intensities (walking without load, walking with load and intermittent work. VO2, VE, and HR were measured continuously by using indirect calorimetry and an electrocardiogram. Linear regressions and coefficients of determination (r² were calculated to compare the relation VO2 =ƒ(VE and VO2 =ƒ(HR for two different regroupings: by session duration (r²session and by subject (r²subject. Results showed that r²session of the relation VO2 =ƒ(VE were significantly higher than those of the relation VO2 =ƒ(HR for steady state activities (walking with or without load during 3 or 6 min, p < 0.01 and for activities without oxygen consumption steady state (walking with or without load during 1 min, p < 0.01 and intermittent work, p < 0.05. VE is more strongly correlated with VO2 than with HR. This is a very promising approach to develop a new method to estimate energy expenditure

  17. Comparative short-term effects of sewage sludge and its biochar on soil properties, maize growth and uptake of nutrients on a tropical clay soil in Zimbabwe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Willis Gwenzi; Moreblessing Muzava; Farai Mapanda; Tonny P Tauro

    2016-01-01

    Soil application of biochar from sewage could potentialy enhance carbon sequestration and close urban nutrient balances. In sub-Saharan Africa, comparative studies investigating plant growth effect and nutrients uptake on tropical soils amended with sewage sludge and its biochar are very limited. A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of sewage sludge and its biochar on soil chemical properties, maize nutrient and heavy metal uptake, growth and biomass partitioning on a tropical clayey soil. The study compared three organic amendments; sewage sludge (SS), sludge biochar (SB) and their combination (SS+SB) to the unamended control and inorganic fertilizers. Organic amendments were applied at a rate of 15 t ha–1 for SS and SB, and 7.5 t ha–1 each for SS and SB. Maize growth, biomass production and nutrient uptake were signiifcantly improved in biochar and sewage sludge amendments compared to the unamended control. Comparable results were observed with F, SS and SS+SB on maize growth at 49 d of sowing. Maize growth for SB, SS, SS+SB and F increased by 42, 53, 47, and 49%, respectively compared to the unamended control. Total biomass for SB, SS, SS+SB, and F increased by 270, 428, 329, and 429%, respectively compared with the unamended control. Biochar amendments reduced Pb, Cu and Zn uptakes by about 22% compared with sludge alone treatment in maize plants. However, there is need for future research based on the current pot experiment to determine whether the same results can be produced under ifeld conditions.

  18. An experimental set-up to study carbon, water, and nitrate uptake rates by hydroponically grown plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriolo, J L; Le Bot, J; Gary, C; Sappe, G; Orlando, P; Brunel, B; Sarrouy, C

    1996-01-01

    The experimental system described allows concomitant hourly measurements of CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by plants grown hydroponically in a greenhouse. Plants are enclosed in an airtight chamber through which air flows at a controlled speed. Carbon dioxide exchange and transpiration rates are determined from respective differences of concentrations of CO2 and water vapor of the air at the system inlet and outlet. This set-up is based on the "open-system" principle with improvements made on existing systems. For instance, propeller anemometers are used to monitor air flow rates in the chamber. From their signal it is possible to continuously adjust air speed to changing environmental conditions and plant activity. The air temperature inside the system therefore never rises above that outside. Water and NO3 uptake rates are calculated at time intervals from changes in the volume and the NO3 concentration of the nutrient solution in contact with the roots. The precise measurement of the volume of solution is achieved using a balance which has a higher precision than any liquid level sensors. Nitrate concentration is determined in the laboratory from aliquots of solution sampled at time intervals. A number of test runs are reported which validate the measurements and confirm undisturbed conditions within the system. Results of typical diurnal changes in CO2, H2O, and NO3 uptake rates by fruiting tomato plants are also presented.

  19. Comparative effects of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on nitrogen uptake in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huiqun; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2009-01-01

    The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) as compared with deficit irrigation (DI) and full irrigation (FI) on nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were investigated. Potato plants were grown in split-root pots and were exposed to FI, PRD, and DI treatments...

  20. Increasing uptake of comparative effectiveness and patient-centered outcomes research among stakeholders: insights from conference discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Ernest; Harrington, Rachel; Alexander, G Caleb; Saha, Soumi; Oehrlein, Elisabeth; Perfetto, Eleanor M

    2018-02-01

    The goal of comparative effectiveness research (CER) and patient-centered outcomes research (PCOR) is to improve health outcomes by providing stakeholders with evidence directly relevant to decision making. In January 2017, the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers Association Foundation, alongside the Academy for Managed Care Pharmacy, organized a conference aimed at engaging experts and opinion leaders representing clinicians, patients and payers to identify and discuss barriers and strategies to enhancing uptake and use of CER/PCOR. This report summarizes the conference discussion in the following sections: preconference survey; summary of barriers and strategies to the uptake of CER/PCOR identified by conference attendees; and future perspectives on the field.

  1. A method for comparing intra-tumoural radioactivity uptake heterogeneity in preclinical positron emission tomography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grafström, Jonas; Ahlzén, Hanna-Stina; Stone-Elander, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Non-uniformity influences the interpretation of nuclear medicine based images and consequently their use in treatment planning and monitoring. However, no standardised method for evaluating and ranking heterogeneity exists. Here, we have developed a general algorithm that provides a ranking and a visualisation of the heterogeneity in small animal positron emission tomography (PET) images. The code of the algorithm was written using the Matrix Laboratory software (MATLAB). Parameters known to influence the heterogeneity (distances between deviating peaks, gradients and size compensations) were incorporated into the algorithm. All data matrices were mathematically constructed in the same format with the aim of maintaining overview and control. Histograms visualising the spread and frequency of contributions to the heterogeneity were also generated. The construction of the algorithm was tested using mathematically generated matrices and by varying post-processing parameters. It was subsequently applied in comparisons of radiotracer uptake in preclinical images in human head and neck carcinoma and endothelial and ovarian carcinoma xenografts. Using the developed algorithm, entire tissue volumes could be assessed and gradients could be handled in an indirect manner. Similar-sized volumes could be compared without modifying the algorithm. Analyses of the distribution of different tracers gave results that were generally in accordance with single plane preclinical images, indicating that it could appropriately handle comparisons of targeting vs. non-targeting tracers and also for different target levels. Altering the reconstruction algorithm, pixel size, tumour ROI volumes and lower cut-off limits affected the calculated heterogeneity factors in expected directions but did not reverse conclusions about which tumour was more or less heterogeneous. The algorithm constructed is an objective and potentially user-friendly tool for one-to-one comparisons of heterogeneity in

  2. A method for comparing intra-tumoural radioactivity uptake heterogeneity in preclinical positron emission tomography studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafström, Jonas; Ahlzén, Hanna-Stina [Division of Biochemistry, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Stone-Elander, Sharon [Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden); PET Radiochemistry, Neuroradiology Department, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-17176 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-09-08

    Non-uniformity influences the interpretation of nuclear medicine based images and consequently their use in treatment planning and monitoring. However, no standardised method for evaluating and ranking heterogeneity exists. Here, we have developed a general algorithm that provides a ranking and a visualisation of the heterogeneity in small animal positron emission tomography (PET) images. The code of the algorithm was written using the Matrix Laboratory software (MATLAB). Parameters known to influence the heterogeneity (distances between deviating peaks, gradients and size compensations) were incorporated into the algorithm. All data matrices were mathematically constructed in the same format with the aim of maintaining overview and control. Histograms visualising the spread and frequency of contributions to the heterogeneity were also generated. The construction of the algorithm was tested using mathematically generated matrices and by varying post-processing parameters. It was subsequently applied in comparisons of radiotracer uptake in preclinical images in human head and neck carcinoma and endothelial and ovarian carcinoma xenografts. Using the developed algorithm, entire tissue volumes could be assessed and gradients could be handled in an indirect manner. Similar-sized volumes could be compared without modifying the algorithm. Analyses of the distribution of different tracers gave results that were generally in accordance with single plane preclinical images, indicating that it could appropriately handle comparisons of targeting vs. non-targeting tracers and also for different target levels. Altering the reconstruction algorithm, pixel size, tumour ROI volumes and lower cut-off limits affected the calculated heterogeneity factors in expected directions but did not reverse conclusions about which tumour was more or less heterogeneous. The algorithm constructed is an objective and potentially user-friendly tool for one-to-one comparisons of heterogeneity in

  3. A Clinical Study on 125IT3 Resin Uptake Rate and Serum Thyroxin(T4) in Hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MooN, Ern Soo; Park, Yoh Han; Cho, Chang Ho; Park, In Soo; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong

    1978-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism may be defined as those clinical conditions which result from an increase in the circulating levels of one or both thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism in broad sense could be classified with toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter on the basis of the circulating thyroid hormone levels. For this study, the subject included 94 cases with hyperthyroidism were presented in 77 with toxic diffuse goiter, 8 with toxic adenomatous goiter, and 9 with toxic multinodular goiter on the levels of 125 IT 3 resin uptake rate and serum thyroxine (T 4 ). The observed results were as follows: 1) In the cases of hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter, 20.21% of the patients were male and 79.79% female. The majority of the patients were in 2nd to 4th decades of their lives. 2) There were objective signs clearly manifested in hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter which were rare in the multinodular goiter. The clinical signs in toxic diffuse and toxic adenomatous goiter included wide pulse pressure, tachycardia, systolic murmur, exophthalmos, tremor and warm skin etc. 3) The most frequent complaints of the patients with hyperthyroidism were palpitation, weight loss, increased appetite, perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, exertional dyspnea, and menstrual disturbance etc. There was no clear difference in the incidence of symptoms between toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter, but there was clear difference between toxic multinodular goiter. 4) Considering of results of 125 IT 3 resin uptake rate and serum T 4 level in toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter and toxic multinodular goiter, 125 IT 3 resin uptake rate was 49.15±9.94% (mean) and serum T 4 21.29±7.04 ug/dl (mean) in toxic diffuse goiter. In toxic multinodular goiter, 125 I T 3 resin uptake rate was 32.47±6.74% (mean) and serum T 4 level 11.03

  4. Nitrogen uptake and rate-limiting step in low-temperature nitriding of iron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Inia, DK; Vredenberg, AM; Habraken, FHPM; Boerma, DO

    1999-01-01

    Recently, a method to nitride iron in NH3 ambients at low temperature (225-350 degrees C) has been developed. In this method, the Fe is covered with a thin (similar to 40 nm) Ni layer, which acts as a catalyst for the nitriding process. From experiments, in which the amount of nitrogen uptake is

  5. Real-time monitoring of specific oxygen uptake rates of embryonic stem cells in a microfluidic cell culture device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Super, Alexandre; Jaccard, Nicolas; Cardoso Marques, Marco Paulo; Macown, Rhys Jarred; Griffin, Lewis Donald; Veraitch, Farlan Singh; Szita, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Oxygen plays a key role in stem cell biology as a signaling molecule and as an indicator of cell energy metabolism. Quantification of cellular oxygen kinetics, i.e. the determination of specific oxygen uptake rates (sOURs), is routinely used to understand metabolic shifts. However current methods to determine sOUR in adherent cell cultures rely on cell sampling, which impacts on cellular phenotype. We present real-time monitoring of cell growth from phase contrast microscopy images, and of respiration using optical sensors for dissolved oxygen. Time-course data for bulk and peri-cellular oxygen concentrations obtained for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and mouse embryonic stem cell (mESCs) cultures successfully demonstrated this non-invasive and label-free approach. Additionally, we confirmed non-invasive detection of cellular responses to rapidly changing culture conditions by exposing the cells to mitochondrial inhibiting and uncoupling agents. For the CHO and mESCs, sOUR values between 8 and 60 amol cell(-1) s(-1) , and 5 and 35 amol cell(-1) s(-1) were obtained, respectively. These values compare favorably with literature data. The capability to monitor oxygen tensions, cell growth, and sOUR, of adherent stem cell cultures, non-invasively and in real time, will be of significant benefit for future studies in stem cell biology and stem cell-based therapies. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. EFFECTS OF IMMOBILIZATION IN Ba-ALGINATE ON NITRILE-DEPENDENT OXYGEN UPTAKE RATES OF CANDIDA GUILLIERMONDII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João Carlos Teixeira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Yeast cells immobilized by entrapment in Ba-alginate gel were investigated for growth pattern and respiratory activity. The oxygen uptake rates (OUR of cells entrapped in gels with 4% alginate were 5.2 and 23% lower than the OUR of 2% alginate and free cells, respectively. The mass-transfer resistance offered by the matrix and growth of the entrapped cells determine a gradient of nutrients throughout the gel which is responsible for both a lower specific growth rate of immobilized cells with respect to that of free ones, and a heterogeneous biomass distribution, with progressively increasing cellular density from the inside to the outside of the matrix. Gel-matrix polymer concentration affected the maximum oxygen uptake of immobilized growing yeast cells.

  7. Ratio of thyroid radioiodine uptake calculated via the physic decay rate of the standard radioactive source: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Yu; Zhou Luyi

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the difference of the ratio of thyroid radioiodine ( 131 I) uptake calculated by actually measuring counts of the standard radioactive source(method 1) and by computing counts of the standard radioactive source via physic half life of 131 I (method 2). Methods: Two hundred and nine consecutive patients with Graves' Disease were prospectively recruited. The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake was calculated by two methods at 4 h and 24 h after administration of 1.48 MBq 131 I, respectively. Paired t-test was used to compare the difference between the two methods. Results: The ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake at 4h was (32±16)% and ( 35±10)% (t=1.98, P=0.20), at 24h (72±19)% and (69±24)% ( t=1.49, P=0.23), respectively, by the two methods. Conclusion: To calculate the ratio of thyroid 131 I uptake via the physic half life of the standard radioactive resource is feasible, and can both reduce the risk of ionizing radiation to technical staff and act as verifying method for quality control of thyroid function equipment. (authors)

  8. Comparative studies on uptake and translocation of labelled dimethoate and methamidophos by means of systemic and local bibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, S.; Dedek, W.

    1983-01-01

    Uptake, mobility and translocation of 14 C-dimethoate and 32 P-methamidophos in Vicia faba L. and Oryza sativa L. were studied by means of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris), red spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) and rice cicada (Sogatodes orizicola Muir). A relationship was found to exist between the uptake of active ingredients and the individual developmental stages. Both ingredients are rapidly taken up through the roots and translocated throughout the plant, the rate of incorporation being higher with mites - due to the higher share of active ingredients in their cells - than with aphids. Tests without allowing time for exposition are possible and provide direct information on the rate of uptake. Both dimethoate and methamidophos penetrate into the leaf tissue. The phloem is loaded somewhat more slowly, the rate of load being more favourable with dimethoate. Acropetal and basipetal translocation proceed accordingly. However, the two active ingredients under review are not transported in insecticidal or acaricidal concentrations. Unlike dimethoate, the insecticidal action of methamidophos in field bean persists for 20 days or more. Studies on the mobility of dimethoate in rice plants point to a high apoplastic translocation in the treated leaf and to a somewhat retarded acropetal translocation in insecticidal concentrations. These results show that bioassays may be carried out not only with aphids but also with spider mites and cicades to demonstrate the mobility of chemical agents in plants. (author)

  9. Comparable stocks, boundedly rational stock markets and IPO entry rates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Chok

    Full Text Available In this study, we examine how initial public offerings (IPO entry rates are affected when stock markets are boundedly rational and IPO firms infer information from their counterparts in the market. We hypothesize a curvilinear relationship between the number of comparable stocks and initial public offerings (IPO entry rates into the NASDAQ Stock Exchange. Furthermore, we argue that trading volume and changes in stock returns partially mediates the relationship between the number of comparable stocks and IPO entry rates. The statistical evidence provides strong support for the hypotheses.

  10. A novel method for measuring cellular antibody uptake using imaging flow cytometry reveals distinct uptake rates for two different monoclonal antibodies targeting L1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazin, John; Moldenhauer, Gerhard; Altevogt, Peter; Brady, Nathan R

    2015-08-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have emerged as a promising tool for cancer therapy. Differing approaches utilize mAbs to either deliver a drug to the tumor cells or to modulate the host's immune system to mediate tumor kill. The rate by which a therapeutic antibody is being internalized by tumor cells is a decisive feature for choosing the appropriate treatment strategy. We herein present a novel method to effectively quantitate antibody uptake of tumor cells by using image-based flow cytometry, which combines image analysis with high throughput of sample numbers and sample size. The use of this method is established by determining uptake rate of an anti-EpCAM antibody (HEA125), from single cell measurements of plasma membrane versus internalized antibody, in conjunction with inhibitors of endocytosis. The method is then applied to two mAbs (L1-9.3, L1-OV52.24) targeting the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 (L1CAM) at two different epitopes. Based on median cell population responses, we find that mAb L1-OV52.24 is rapidly internalized by the ovarian carcinoma cell line SKOV3ip while L1 mAb 9.3 is mainly retained at the cell surface. These findings suggest the L1 mAb OV52.24 as a candidate to be further developed for drug-delivery to cancer cells, while L1-9.3 may be optimized to tag the tumor cells and stimulate immunogenic cancer cell killing. Furthermore, when analyzing cell-to-cell variability, we observed L1 mAb OV52.24 rapidly transition into a subpopulation with high-internalization capacity. In summary, this novel high-content method for measuring antibody internalization rate provides a high level of accuracy and sensitivity for cell population measurements and reveals further biologically relevant information when taking into account cellular heterogeneity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Radiation utilization efficiency, nitrogen uptake and modeling crop growth and yield of rainfed rice under different nitrogen rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouranga, Kar; Ashwani Kumar; Mohapatra, Sucharita

    2014-01-01

    Optimum utilization of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) along with proper nitrogen (N) management for sustainable rice production is still a promising management recommendation for sustainable rainfed rice cultivation in eastern India. The objective of this investigation was to study radiation utilization efficiency (RUE), N uptake and modeling growth and productivity of wet/rainy season rice (cv. Lalat and Gayatri) under 0, 50, 90, 120 and 150 kg ha -1 N application. Results showed that N rates significantly affected plant biomass, leaf area index (LAI), biological yield (straw and grain yield) and N uptake for both the varieties. The intercepted photosynthetically active radiation (IPAR) and spectral reflectance based vegetation indices (IR/R, NDVI) were also different between two varieties and among N rates. Higher rate of N increased the RUE significantly; averaged over years and varieties, mean values of RUE were 1.35, 1.70, 2.01, 2.15 and 2.17 g MJ -1 under 0, 50, 90, 120 and 150 kg N ha -1 , respectively. Though crop growth, yield, N uptake and RUE were higher at 150 kg N ha -1 but the results were at par with 120 kg N ha -1 . Agronomic N use efficiency (ANUE) was also low at 150 kg N ha -1 . The DSSAT v 4.5 model was applied to simulate crop growth, yield and phenology of the crop under different N rates. Model performance was found to be poor at low N rates (0, 50 kg N ha -1 ), but the model performed fairly well at higher N rates (90 kg ha -1 and above). (author)

  12. Comparative study of the radionuclide uptake and distribution within plants for barley and maize varieties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, O.

    1998-01-01

    Differences in the Cs-134 and Sr-85 uptake by three barley and two maize varieties were investigated in a water culture experiment. In barley, the maximum differences were about 30% for cesium and 50% for strontium. The differences between the maize varieties were negligible. The maximum difference between the varieties of the two species of crops was approximately 30% for cesium and 1 70% for strontium with higher radionuclide uptake by maize. All barley varieties accumulated cesium nearly 3.5 times more effectively than strontium, whereas for the maize varieties, cesium was accumulated about 2 times more effectively. There is a large difference in the radionuclide distribution within the plants: the amount of radiocesium in the green part of plants of both species was approximately 30% of the total, while for radiostrontium it was about 80%. As a result, approximately the same amount of the radionuclides were present in the green part of plants, despite the large difference in the uptake of the radionuclides by the whole plants. It is concluded that crop selection as a provision to reduce radionuclide contamination of the food chain should only be applied taking into account the different radionuclide distributions within the plants

  13. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoek, Pim [Minnetonka, MN; Aristidou, Aristos [Maple Grove, MN; Rush, Brian [Minneapolis, MN

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  14. Uptake and release of glucose by the human kidney. Postabsorptive rates and responses to epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumvoll, M; Chintalapudi, U; Perriello, G; Welle, S; Gutierrez, O; Gerich, J

    1995-11-01

    Despite ample evidence that the kidney can both produce and use appreciable amounts of glucose, the human kidney is generally regarded as playing a minor role in glucose homeostasis. This view is based on measurements of arteriorenal vein glucose concentrations indicating little or no net release of glucose. However, inferences from net balance measurements do not take into consideration the simultaneous release and uptake of glucose by the kidney. Therefore, to assess the contribution of release and uptake of glucose by the human kidney to overall entry and removal of plasma glucose, we used a combination of balance and isotope techniques to measure renal glucose net balance, fractional extraction, uptake and release as well as overall plasma glucose appearance and disposal in 10 normal volunteers under basal postabsorptive conditions and during a 3-h epinephrine infusion. In the basal postabsorptive state, there was small but significant net output of glucose by the kidney (66 +/- 22 mumol.min-1, P = 0.016). However, since renal glucose fractional extraction averaged 2.9 +/- 0.3%, there was considerable renal glucose uptake (2.3 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1) which accounted for 20.2 +/- 1.7% of systemic glucose disposal (11.4 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1). Renal glucose release (3.2 +/- 0.2 mumol.kg-1.min-1) accounted for 27.8 +/- 2.1% of systemic glucose appearance (11.4 +/- 0.5 mumol.kg-1.min-1). Epinephrine infusion, which increased plasma epinephrine to levels observed during hypoglycemia (3722 +/- 453 pmol/liter) increased renal glucose release nearly twofold (5.2 +/- 0.5 vs 2.8 +/- 0.1 mol.kg-1.min-1, P = 0.01) so that at the end of the infusion, renal glucose release accounted for 40.3 +/- 5.5% of systemic glucose appearance and essentially all of the increase in systemic glucose appearance. These observations suggest an important role for the human kidney in glucose homeostasis.

  15. Accounting for rate variation among lineages in comparative demographic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Andrew G.; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Malaney, Jason L.; Cook, Joseph A.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic analyses of contemporary populations can be used to estimate the demographic histories of species within an ecological community. Comparison of these demographic histories can shed light on community responses to past climatic events. However, species experience different rates of molecular evolution, and this presents a major obstacle to comparative demographic analyses. We address this problem by using a Bayesian relaxed-clock method to estimate the relative evolutionary rates of 22 small mammal taxa distributed across northwestern North America. We found that estimates of the relative molecular substitution rate for each taxon were consistent across the range of sampling schemes that we compared. Using three different reference rates, we rescaled the relative rates so that they could be used to estimate absolute evolutionary timescales. Accounting for rate variation among taxa led to temporal shifts in our skyline-plot estimates of demographic history, highlighting both uniform and idiosyncratic evolutionary responses to directional climate trends for distinct ecological subsets of the small mammal community. Our approach can be used in evolutionary analyses of populations from multiple species, including comparative demographic studies.

  16. Comparing Public Quality Ratings for Accredited and Nonaccredited Nursing Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Scott C; Morton, David J; Braun, Barbara I; Longo, Beth Ann; Baker, David W

    2017-01-01

    Compare quality ratings of accredited and nonaccredited nursing homes using the publicly available Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) Nursing Home Compare data set. This cross-sectional study compared the performance of 711 Joint Commission-accredited (TJC-accredited) nursing homes (81 of which also had Post-Acute Care Certification) to 14,926 non-Joint Commission-accredited (non-TJC-accredited) facilities using the Nursing Home Compare data set (as downloaded on April 2015). Measures included the overall Five-Star Quality Rating and its 4 components (health inspection, quality measures, staffing, and RN staffing), the 18 Nursing Home Compare quality measures (5 short-stay measures, 13 long-stay measures), as well as inspection deficiencies, fines, and payment denials. t tests were used to assess differences in rates for TJC-accredited nursing homes versus non-TJC-accredited nursing homes for quality measures, ratings, and fine amounts. Analysis of variance models were used to determine differences in rates using Joint Commission accreditation status, nursing home size based on number of beds, and ownership type. An additional model with an interaction term using Joint Commission accreditation status and Joint Commission Post-Acute Care Certification status was used to determine differences in rates for Post-Acute Care Certified nursing homes. Binary variables (eg, deficiency type, fines, and payment denials) were evaluated using a logistic regression model with the same covariates. After controlling for the influences of facility size and ownership type, TJC-accredited nursing homes had significantly higher star ratings than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes on each of the star rating component subscales (P homes with Post-Acute Care Certification performed statistically better on the overall star rating, as well as 3 of the 4 subscales (P homes had statistically fewer deficiencies than non-TJC-accredited nursing homes (P payment denials (P homes

  17. Comparative rates of violence in chimpanzees and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrangham, Richard W; Wilson, Michael L; Muller, Martin N

    2006-01-01

    This paper tests the proposal that chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and humans have similar rates of death from intraspecific aggression, whereas chimpanzees have higher rates of non-lethal physical attack (Boehm 1999, Hierarchy in the forest: the evolution of egalitarian behavior. Harvard University Press). First, we assembled data on lethal aggression from long-term studies of nine communities of chimpanzees living in five populations. We calculated rates of death from intraspecific aggression both within and between communities. Variation among communities in mortality rates from aggression was high, and rates of death from intercommunity and intracommunity aggression were not correlated. Estimates for average rates of lethal violence for chimpanzees proved to be similar to average rates for subsistence societies of hunter-gatherers and farmers. Second, we compared rates of non-lethal physical aggression for two populations of chimpanzees and one population of recently settled hunter-gatherers. Chimpanzees had rates of aggression between two and three orders of magnitude higher than humans. These preliminary data support Boehm's hypothesis.

  18. Post Approval Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Uptake Is Higher in Minorities Compared to Whites in Girls Presenting for Well-Child Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan C. Modesitt

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV vaccine, there remains low uptake compared to other adolescent vaccines. There is limited information postapproval about parental attitudes and barriers when presenting for routine care. This study evaluates HPV vaccine uptake and assesses demographics and attitudes correlating with vaccination for girls aged 11–12 years. A prospective cohort study was performed utilizing the University of Virginia (UVA Clinical Data Repository (CDR. The CDR was used to identify girls aged 11–12 presenting to any UVA practice for a well-child visit between May 2008 and April 2009. Billing data were searched to determine rates of HPV vaccine uptake. The parents of all identified girls were contacted four to seven months after the visit to complete a telephone questionnaire including insurance information, child’s vaccination status, HPV vaccine attitudes, and demographics. Five hundred and fifty girls were identified, 48.2% of whom received at least one HPV vaccine dose. White race and private insurance were negatively associated with HPV vaccine initiation (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85 and RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.72–1.01, respectively. In the follow-up questionnaire, 242 interviews were conducted and included in the final cohort. In the sample, 183 (75.6% parents reported white race, 38 (15.7% black race, and 27 (11.2% reported other race. Overall 85% of parents understood that the HPV vaccine was recommended and 58.9% of parents believed the HPV vaccine was safe. In multivariate logistic regression, patients of black and other minority races were 4.9 and 4.2 times more likely to receive the HPV vaccine compared to their white counterparts. Safety concerns were the strongest barrier to vaccination. To conclude, HPV vaccine uptake was higher among minority girls and girls with public insurance in this cohort.

  19. The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaarts, A.P.; Willigen, de P.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of the rate and method of nitrogen application on nitrogen uptake and utilization by broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) was studied in four field experiments. The methods of application were broadcast application vs band placement and split application. Maximum uptake of nitrogen

  20. Increasing plant use of organic nitrogen with elevation is reflected in nitrogen uptake rates and ecosystem delta15N.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, Colin; Finzi, Adrien

    2011-04-01

    It is hypothesized that decreasing mean annual temperature and rates of nitrogen (N) cycling causes plants to switch from inorganic to organic forms of N as the primary mode of N nutrition. To test this hypothesis, we conducted field experiments and collected natural-abundance delta15N signatures of foliage, soils, and ectomycorrhizal sporocarps along a steep elevation-climate gradient in the White Mountains, New Hampshire, USA. Here we show that with increasing elevation organic forms of N became the dominant source of N taken up by hardwood and coniferous tree species based on dual-labeled glycine uptake analysis, an important confirmation of an emerging theory for the biogeochemistry of the N cycle. Variation in natural abundance foliar delta15N with elevation was also consistent with increasing organic N uptake, though a simple, mass balance model demonstrated that the uptake of delta15N depleted inorganic N, rather than fractionation upon transfer of N from mycorrhizal fungi, best explains variations in foliar delta15N with elevation.

  1. In-situ Measured Carbon and Nitrogen Uptake Rates of Melt Pond Algae in the Western Arctic Ocean, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ho Jung; Kim, Kwanwoo; Lee, Jae Hyung; Ahn, So Hyun; Joo, Houng-Min; Jeong, Jin Young; Yang, Eun Jin; Kang, Sung-Ho; Yun, Mi Sun; Lee, Sang Heon

    2018-03-01

    Although the areal coverage of melt pond in the Arctic Ocean has recently increased, very few biological researches have been conducted. The objectives in this study were to ascertain the uptake rates of carbon and nitrogen in various melt ponds and to understand the major controlling factors for the rates. We obtained 22 melt pond samples at ice camp 1 (146.17°W, 77.38°N) and 11 melt pond samples at ice camp 2 (169.79°W, 76.52°N). The major nutrient concentrations varied largely among melt ponds at the ice camps 1 and 2. The chl-a concentrations averaged from the melt ponds at camps 1 and 2 were 0.02-0.56 mg chl-a m-3 (0.12 ± 0.12 mg chl-a m-3) and 0.08-0.30 mg chl-a m-3 (0.16 ± 0.08 mg chl-a m-3), respectively. The hourly carbon uptake rates at camps 1 and 2 were 0.001-0.080 mg C m-3 h-1 (0.025 ± 0.024 mg C m-3 h-1) and 0.022-0.210 mg C m-3 h-1 (0.077 ± 0.006 mg C m-3 h-1), respectively. In comparison, the nitrogen uptake rates at camps 1 and 2 were 0.001-0.030 mg N m-3 h-1 (0.011 ± 0.010 mg N m-3 h-1) and 0.002-0.022 mg N m-3 h-1 (0.010 ± 0.006 mg N m-3 h-1), respectively. The values obtained in this study are significantly lower than those reported previously. A large portion of algal biomass trapped in the new forming surface ice in melt ponds appears to be one of the main potential reasons for the lower chl-a concentration and subsequently lower carbon and nitrogen uptake rates revealed in this study. A long-term monitoring program on melt ponds is needed to understand the response of the Arctic marine ecosystem to ongoing environmental changes.

  2. Predicting human papillomavirus vaccine uptake in young adult women: Comparing the Health Belief Model and Theory of Planned Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerend, Mary A.; Shepherd, Janet E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Although theories of health behavior have guided thousands of studies, relatively few studies have compared these theories against one another. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to compare two classic theories of health behavior—the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB)—in their prediction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination. Methods After watching a gain-framed, loss-framed, or control video, women (N=739) ages 18–26 completed a survey assessing HBM and TPB constructs. HPV vaccine uptake was assessed ten months later. Results Although the message framing intervention had no effect on vaccine uptake, support was observed for both the TPB and HBM. Nevertheless, the TPB consistently outperformed the HBM. Key predictors of uptake included subjective norms, self-efficacy, and vaccine cost. Conclusions Despite the observed advantage of the TPB, findings revealed considerable overlap between the two theories and highlighted the importance of proximal versus distal predictors of health behavior. PMID:22547155

  3. Factors influencing [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) uptake in melanoma cells. The role of proliferation rate, viability, glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Brink, I.; Bisse, E.; Epting, T.; Engelhardt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Using human (SK-MEL 23, SK-MEL 24 and G361) and murine (B16) melanoma cell lines, the coregulatory potential of the uptake of the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [Fluorine-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) has been investigated in relationship to tumor characteristics. Comparative studies among the four melanoma cell lines demonstrated that the lowest FDG uptake in SK-MEL 24 corresponded strongly to the data for DT (population doubling time) and MTT (tetrazolium salt) cell viability as well as hexokinase (HK) activity, but was not related to the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1) expression level. Furthermore, the FDG uptake in each melanoma cell line measured by cell cycle kinetics was significantly positively correlated to both the proliferation index (PI=S/G 2 M phase fractions) and the cell viability, though with one exception relating to the proliferation index (PI) of the lowest FDG uptake cell line, SK-MEL 24. No positive correlation was found between the expression of GLUT 1 and FDG uptake in any individual cell line. However, the HK activities in SK-MEL 23 and 24 showed considerable positive relationships with FDG uptake. Our present study suggests that both the proliferation rate and the cell viability of melanoma cells may be key factors for FDG uptake and that HK activity, rather than GLUT 1 expression, seems to be a major factor. (author)

  4. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  5. Heart Rate and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in Type 2 Diabetes Patients - A Pilot Study on the Influence of Cardiovascular Medication on Regulatory Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschate, Jessica; Drescher, Uwe; Baum, Klaus; Brinkmann, Christian; Schiffer, Thorsten; Latsch, Joachim; Brixius, Klara; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether there are differences in heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in type 2 diabetes patients, considering their cardiovascular medication. It was hypothesized that cardiovascular medication would affect heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics and that this could be detected using a standardized exercise test. 18 subjects were tested for maximal oxygen uptake. Kinetics were measured in a single test session with standardized, randomized moderate-intensity work rate changes. Time series analysis was used to estimate kinetics. Greater maxima in cross-correlation functions indicate faster kinetics. 6 patients did not take any cardiovascular medication, 6 subjects took peripherally acting medication and 6 patients were treated with centrally acting medication. Maximum oxygen uptake was not significantly different between groups. Significant main effects were identified regarding differences in muscular oxygen uptake kinetics and heart rate kinetics. Muscular oxygen uptake kinetics were significantly faster than heart rate kinetics in the group with no cardiovascular medication (maximum in cross-correlation function of muscular oxygen uptake vs. heart rate; 0.32±0.08 vs. 0.25±0.06; p=0.001) and in the group taking peripherally acting medication (0.34±0.05 vs. 0.28±0.05; p=0.009) but not in the patients taking centrally acting medication (0.28±0.05 vs. 0.30±0.07; n.s.). It can be concluded that regulatory processes for the achievement of a similar maximal oxygen uptake are different between the groups. The used standardized test provided plausible results for heart rate and oxygen uptake kinetics in a single measurement session in this patient group. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Two-day thionamide withdrawal prior to radioiodine uptake sufficiently increases uptake and does not exacerbate hyperthyroidism compared to 7-day withdrawal in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Sumihisa; Ohye, Hidemi; Yano, Genichiro; Nishihara, Eijun; Kudo, Takumi; Ito, Mitsuru; Fukata, Shuji; Amino, Nobuyuki; Kuma, Kanji; Miyauchi, Akira

    2006-01-01

    The appropriate period of antithyroid drug (ATD) discontinuation before radioiodine therapy is the most critical problem in Graves' disease patients under going treatment with ATD. To determine the optimal period that does not alter the outcome of radioiodine therapy or exacerbate hyperthyroidism, we compared serum FT4 levels at radioiodine uptake (RAIU) and therapy outcomes between a 2-day withdrawal group and 7-day withdrawal group. We prospectively recruited 43 patients for the 2-day withdrawal protocol and retrospectively reviewed 49 patients treated with radioiodine following the protocol of 7-day withdrawal. There was no significant difference in RAIU between the 2 groups. The mean serum FT4 level measured on the first day of 24-h RAIU of the 7-day group was significantly higher than that in the 2-day group. There were no significant differences in the outcomes at each point (6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after therapy) between the 2 groups. Our results indicated that withdrawal of ATD for 2 days is superior to 7 days in that 2 days discontinuation did not exacerbate hyperthyroidism. In order to prevent serum thyroid hormone increase after ATD withdrawal and radioiodine therapy, a 2-day ATD withdrawal period before radioiodine therapy may be useful for high-risk patients such as the elderly and patients with cardiac complications. We believe that the 2-day ATD withdrawal method may be useful for patients undergoing treatment with ATD who are to undergo radioiodine therapy. (author)

  7. Influence of the form and rate of 15N-labelled nitrogen fertilizers on nitrogen uptake by maize grown on two different soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balabanova-Georgieva, R.; Ikonomova, E.

    1996-01-01

    The influence of 15 N-labelled urea and ammonium sulfate on the yield and uptake of fertilizer nitrogen and soil nitrogen by maize was studied under the conditions of pot experiments on calcareous black earth and leached black earth. The nitrogen fertilizers were applied in rates: N 1 =250 mg, N 2 =500 mg, N 3 =750 mg and N 4 =1000 mg/1 kg of soil, on phosphorus(P)-potassium(K) background (P=200 and K=600 mg/kg soil). When treating with N 3 and N 4 , the application of the whole nitrogen rate was compared with its split application. It was found that the form of the nitrogen fertilizer played no important role for the formation of the yield of biomass and the uptake of nitrogen with the yield when it is applied in low nitrogen rates and maize was grown on calcareous black earth. The yield of biomass and the uptake of nitrogen with the yield of maize reach their maximum under the conditions of calcareous black earth and high nitrogen rates applied as urea depressed the plants which proves the statement that in case of calcareous black earth application of ammonium sulfate should be preferred rather that urea, fertilization with which should be avoided. No depression of plants was observed under the conditions of leached black earth and application of high urea rates. The amount of nitrogen taken up is growing with the increasing of the nitrogen rate (excluding the N-treatment). The split application of high nitrogen rates increased notably the yield of maize-vegetation mass which proved the great ability of this crop for effective utilization of the nitrogen fertilizers when applied in portions and at suitable phases of plant vegetation. The role of the fertilizer nitrogen on the formation of the plant mass yield is much greater compared to that of the soil nitrogen; in the split application of urea the soil nitrogen plays a much bigger role than in its single application. The additional mobilization of the soil nitrogen under the influence of the applied nitrogen

  8. Measurement of the iodine uptake by the thyroid: comparative analysis between the gamma camera system with 'pinhole' collimator and 13S002 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Carlos Borges da; Mello, Rossana Corbo R. de; Rebelo, Ana Maria O.

    2002-01-01

    The thyroid uptake measurements are common in medical uses and are considered a direct and precise form of diagnostic, however, different results have been observed as measurements of thyroid uptake are taken using distinct equipment. This study attempts to find the cause of the differences between a thyroid uptake probe and a gamma camera. These discrepancies can be associated to the different patients samples, equipment's problems or operator procedures errors. This work presents the results of comparative uptake measurements performed in a neck phantom and a 4-hour thyroid uptake study in 40 patients, using a Gamma Camera Ohio Nuclear model Sigma 410 with a pinhole collimator and Nuclear Medicine System model 13S002, developed by Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. The results observed show that in spite of non satisfactory results commented in literature, both the System 13S002 and System Gamma Camera Ohio can be used in uptake thyroid diagnostic with statistical confidence degree of 99 %. (author)

  9. Nursing magnet hospitals have better CMS hospital compare ratings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been conflicting data on whether Nursing Magnet Hospitals (NMH provide better care. Methods: NMH in the Southwest USA (Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Nevada, and New Mexico were compared to hospitals not designated as NMH using the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid (CMS hospital compare star designation. Results: NMH had higher star ratings than non-NMH hospitals (3.34 + 0.78 vs. 2.86 + 0.83, p<0.001. The hospitals were mostly large, urban non-critical access hospitals. Academic medical centers made up a disproportionately large portion of the NMH. Conclusions: Although NMH had higher hospital ratings, the data may favor non-critical access academic medical centers which are known to have better outcomes.

  10. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia B. Agostinho

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1 evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2 evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha−1 combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha−1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L−1 and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As (P < 0.01, but not on rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si (P < 0.001. While there was an improvement in biomass (42% and tiller production (25% for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  11. Effect of Different Silicon Sources on Yield and Silicon Uptake of Rice Grown under Varying Phosphorus Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostinho, Flavia B; Tubana, Brenda S; Martins, Murilo S; Datnoff, Lawrence E

    2017-08-29

    A series of pot experiments were conducted to: (1) evaluate the effects of different Si sources (soil- and foliar-applied) on grain yield and Si accumulation of rice supplied with varying P rates, and (2) evaluate Si absorption of rice using foliar- and soil-applied Si fertilizers. Three P rates, (0, 112, and 224 kg ha -1 ) combined with five Si treatments (wollastonite and slag applied at 4.5 ton ha -1 and one foliar Si solution applied at 20, 40 and 80 mg Si L -1 ) and a check were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. The presence of P and Si in the soil created a synergistic effect on soil Al, Mn, and As ( P rice growth and P uptake. Wollastonite and slag application were most effective in raising rice Si content than foliar applied Si ( P production (25%) for rice receiving foliar Si, no supporting evidence was obtained in these experiments to verify leaf surface Si absorption. The application of Si-rich materials to soil still remains the most effective method for enhancing Si uptake by plants.

  12. Dose painting based on tumor uptake of Cu-ATSM and FDG: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, Malene Martini; Hansen, Anders Elias; Lundemann, Michael; Hollensen, Christian; Pommer, Tobias; Munck af Rosenschöld, Per; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri; Kjær, Andreas; McEvoy, Fintan J; Engelholm, Svend Aage

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia and increased glycolytic activity of tumors are associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in radiotherapy (RT) dose painting based on the uptake of 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the proposed hypoxia tracer, copper(II)diacetyl-bis(N 4 )-methylsemithiocarbazone (Cu-ATSM) using spontaneous clinical canine tumor models. Positron emission tomography/computed tomography scans of five spontaneous canine sarcomas and carcinomas were obtained; FDG on day 1 and 64 Cu-ATSM on day 2 and 3 (approx. 3 and 24 hours pi.). Sub-volumes for dose escalation were defined by a threshold-based method for both tracers and five dose escalation levels were formed in each sub-volume. Volumetric modulated arc therapy plans were optimized based on the dose escalation regions for each scan for a total of three dose plans for each dog. The prescription dose for the GTV was 45 Gy (100%) and it was linearly escalated to a maximum of 150%. The correlations between dose painting plans were analyzed with construction of dose distribution density maps and quality volume histograms (QVH). Correlation between high-dose regions was investigated with Dice correlation coefficients. Comparison of dose plans revealed varying degree of correlation between cases. Some cases displayed a separation of high-dose regions in the comparison of FDG vs. 64 Cu-ATSM dose plans at both time points. Among the Dice correlation coefficients, the high dose regions showed the lowest degree of agreement, indicating potential benefit of using multiple tracers for dose painting. QVH analysis revealed that FDG-based dose painting plans adequately covered approximately 50% of the hypoxic regions. Radiotherapy plans optimized with the current approach for cut-off values and dose region definitions based on FDG, 64 Cu-ATSM 3 h and 24 h uptake in canine tumors had different localization of the regional dose escalation levels. This indicates that 64 Cu-ATSM at two

  13. Comparing replacement rates under private and federal retirement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Patricia P

    One measure of the adequacy of retirement income is replacement rate - the percentage of pre-retirement salary that is available to a worker in retirement. This article compares salary replacement rates for private-sector employees of medium and large private establishments with those for federal employees under the Civil Service Retirement System and the Federal Employees Retirement System. Because there is no standard benefit formula to represent the variety of formulas available in the private sector, a composite defined benefit formula was developed using the characteristics of plans summarized in the Bureau of Labor Statistics Medium and Large Employer Plan Survey. The resulting "typical" private-sector defined benefit plan, with an accompanying defined contribution plan, was then compared with the two federal systems. The Civil Service Retirement System (CSRS) is a stand-alone defined benefit plan whose participants are not covered by Social Security. Until passage of the 1983 Amendments to Social Security Act, it was the only retirement plan for most federal civilian employees. Provisions of the 1983 Amendments were designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. One provision created the Federal Employees Retirement System (FERS), which covers federal employees hired after 1983. It was one of the provisions designed to restore long-term financial stability to the Social Security trust funds. FERS employees contribute to and are covered by Social Security. FERS, which is a defined benefit plan, also includes a basic benefit and a 401(k)-type plan known as the Thrift Savings Plan (TSP). To compare how retirees would fare under the three different retirement systems, benefits of employees retiring at age 65 with 35 years of service were calculated using hypothetical workers with steady earnings. Workers were classified according to a percentage of the average wage in the economy: low earners (45 percent), average earners

  14. Biomass characterization by dielectric monitoring of viability and oxygen uptake rate measurements in a novel membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Farshid Pajoum; Heran, Marc; Sarrafzadeh, Mohammad Hossein; Mehrnia, Mohammad Reza; Sarzana, Gabriele; Ghommidh, Charles; Grasmick, Alain

    2013-07-01

    The application of permittivity and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) as biological process control parameters in a wastewater treatment system was evaluated. Experiments were carried out in a novel airlift oxidation ditch membrane bioreactor under different organic loading rates (OLR). Permittivity as representative of activated sludge viability was measured by a capacitive on-line sensor. OUR was also measured as a representative for respirometric activity. Results showed that the biomass concentration increases with OLR and all biomass related measurements and simulators such as MLSS, permittivity, OUR, ASM1 and ASM3 almost follow the same increasing trends. The viability of biomass decreased when the OLR was reduced from 5 to 4 kg COD m(-3)d(-1). During decreasing of OLR, biomass related parameters generally decreased but not in a similar manner. Also, protein concentration in the system during OLR decreasing changed inversely with the activated sludge viability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of different phosphorus fertilizer rates on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea maize yield in irrigated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Kh.

    1993-01-01

    Effect of different rates of P fertilizer on N-uptake, N-efficiency and zea mays (C.V.Lg 11) were studied by use of 15 N technique. The main objectives of this study were to study effect of different level of P on N-utilization and determine the interaction between P and N on zea mays yield, and the efficiency of N-fertilizer during different stages of plant growth. The field experiment was conducted for two years 1985 and 1986. The treatments were 0, 80, 160 Kg N, as urea Co( 15 NH 2 ) 2 and 0, 40, 80, 160 Kg P 2 O 5 as triplsuperphophate. The experiment design was randomized block of four replicates for each treatment. Yield (grain and dry matter), utilization of urea, N-uptake, total N, N-yield, Ndff%, NDF% and A-values were determined. All results indicate that zea mays responds to the addition of nitrogen and the yield increases with the increase of added nitrogen. The highest yield was for N 2 (160 Kg) level during two seasons. Also zea mays responds clearly to phosphorus especially at stages 1 and 2, where dry matter yield increases with the increase of phosphorus rate. The highest yield was for P 3 (160 Kg) rate. While in grain stage the response was for rate P 1 (40 Kg) and P 2 (80 Kg) in comparison with control. However P 1 , rate was dominant over P 2 and P 3 . The effect of P 2 rate on grain yield was very little in comparison with P 1 , while P 3 decreases the grain yield during two seasons in comparison with control. There is an effect of N and P when added both or separately. There is also effect for interaction between them on the yield (grain and dry matter). Generally, from the previous data we can conclude that the rate 160 Kg N/ha and 40 Kg P 2 O 5 /ha were optimum rate for zea mays fertilization in Deir-Ezzor (Syria) and similar areas for grain yield. (author). 17 refs., 6 tabs

  16. Comparative effects of partial root-zone irrigation and deficit irrigation on phosphorus uptake in tomato plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2012-01-01

    The comparative effects of partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) and deficit irrigation (DI) on phosphorus (P) uptake in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) plants were investigated in a split-root pot experiment. The results showed that PRI treatment improved water-use efficiency (WUE) compared...... to the DI treatment. PRI-treated plants accumulated significantly higher amounts of P in their shoots than DI plants under organic maize straw N fertilisation, whereas similar levels of shoot P accumulation were observed under mineral N fertilisation. Thus, the form of N fertiliser, and thereby...... the different plant N status, affected the accumulation of P in shoots, as reflected by a higher plant N:P ratio following mineral N fertilisation than after organic N fertilisation. Compared to the DI treatment, PRI significantly increased both the physiological and agronomic efficiencies of P-use under...

  17. High substrate uptake rates empower Vibrio natriegens as production host for industrial biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Eugenia; Grenz, Sebastian; Lange, Julian; Nitschel, Robert; Müller, Felix; Schwentner, Andreas; Feith, André; Lenfers-Lücker, Mira; Takors, Ralf; Blombach, Bastian

    2017-09-08

    The productivity of industrial fermentation processes is essentially limited by the biomass specific substrate consumption rate (q S ) of the applied microbial production system. Since q S depends on the growth rate (μ), we highlight the potential of the fastest growing non-pathogenic bacterium, Vibrio natriegens , as novel candidate for future biotechnological processes. V. natriegens grows rapidly in BHIN complex medium with a μ of up to 4.43 h -1 (doubling time of 9.4 min) as well as in minimal medium supplemented with various industrially relevant substrates. Bioreactor cultivations in minimal medium with glucose showed that V. natriegens possesses an exceptionally high q S under aerobic (3.90 ± 0.08 g g -1 h -1 ) and anaerobic (7.81 ± 0.71 g g -1 h -1 ) conditions. Fermentations with resting cells of genetically engineered V. natriegens under anaerobic conditions yielded an overall volumetric productivity of 0.56 ± 0.10 g alanine L -1 min -1 (i.e. 34 g L -1 h -1 ). These inherent properties render V. natriegens a promising new microbial platform for future industrial fermentation processes operating with high productivity. Importance Low conversion rates are one major challenge to realize microbial fermentation processes for the production of commodities operating competitively to existing petrochemical approaches. For this reason, we screened for a novel platform organism possessing superior characteristics to traditionally employed microbial systems. We identified the fast growing Vibrio natriegens which exhibits a versatile metabolism and shows striking growth and conversion rates, as a solid candidate to reach outstanding productivities. Due to these inherent characteristics V. natriegens can speed up common laboratory routines, is suitable for already existing production procedures, and forms an excellent foundation to engineer next generation bioprocesses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  18. Comparative genomic analysis by microbial COGs self-attraction rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Daniele; Romano-Spica, Vincenzo

    2009-06-21

    Whole genome analysis provides new perspectives to determine phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms. The availability of whole nucleotide sequences allows different levels of comparison among genomes by several approaches. In this work, self-attraction rates were considered for each cluster of orthologous groups of proteins (COGs) class in order to analyse gene aggregation levels in physical maps. Phylogenetic relationships among microorganisms were obtained by comparing self-attraction coefficients. Eighteen-dimensional vectors were computed for a set of 168 completely sequenced microbial genomes (19 archea, 149 bacteria). The components of the vector represent the aggregation rate of the genes belonging to each of 18 COGs classes. Genes involved in nonessential functions or related to environmental conditions showed the highest aggregation rates. On the contrary genes involved in basic cellular tasks showed a more uniform distribution along the genome, except for translation genes. Self-attraction clustering approach allowed classification of Proteobacteria, Bacilli and other species belonging to Firmicutes. Rearrangement and Lateral Gene Transfer events may influence divergences from classical taxonomy. Each set of COG classes' aggregation values represents an intrinsic property of the microbial genome. This novel approach provides a new point of view for whole genome analysis and bacterial characterization.

  19. Non-invasive Estimation of Metabolic Uptake Rate of Glucose using F18-FDG PET and Linear Transformation of Outputs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Reichkendler, M.; Auerback, P.

    For quantitative analysis and kinetic modeling of dynamic PET-data an input function is needed. Normally this is obtained by arterial blood sampling, potentially an unpleasant experience for the patient and laborious for the staff. Aim: To validate methods for determination of the metabolic uptake...... rate (Km) of glucose from dynamic FDG-PET scans using Image Derived Input Functions (IDIF) without blood sampling. Method: We performed 24 dynamic FDG-PET scans of the thigh of 14 healthy young male volunteers during a hyperinsulinemic isoglycemic clamp. Ten of the subjects were scanned twice 11 weeks...... artery diameter in the material, the method should also be applicable to women and people of other ages, but used with caution in the elderly due to variance in intramuscular adipose distribution. If only Km and no other kinetic parameters are needed, the described method with transformation...

  20. Oxygen in the deep-sea: The challenge of maintaining uptake rates in a changing ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A. F.; Peltzer, E. T.; Brewer, P. G.

    2011-12-01

    Although focused on recently, ocean acidification is not the only effect of anthropogenic CO2 emissions on the ocean. Ocean warming will reduce dissolved oxygen concentrations and at the hypoxic limit for a given species this can pose challenges to marine life. The limit is traditionally reported simply as the static mass concentration property [O2]; here we treat it as a dynamic gas exchange problem for the animal analogous to gas exchange at the sea surface. The diffusive limit and its relationship to water velocity is critical for the earliest stages of marine life (eggs, embryos), but the effect is present for all animals at all stages of life. We calculate the external limiting O2 conditions for several representative metabolic rates and their relationship to flow of the bulk fluid under different environmental conditions. Ocean O2 concentrations decline by ≈ 14 μmol kg-1 for a 2 °C rise in temperature. At standard 1000 m depth conditions in the Pacific, flow over the surface would have to increase by ≈ 60% from 2.0 to 3.2 cm s-1 to compensate for this change. The functions derived allow new calculations of depth profiles of limiting O2 concentrations, as well as maximal diffusively sustainable metabolic oxygen consumption rates at various places around the world. Our treatment shows that there is a large variability in the global ocean in terms of facilitating aerobic life. This variability is greater than the variability of the oxygen concentration alone. It becomes clear that temperature and pressure dependencies of diffusion and partial pressure create a region typically around 1000 m depth where a maximal [O2] is needed to sustain a given metabolic rate. This zone of greatest physical constriction on the diffusive transport in the boundary layer is broadly consistent with the oxygen minimum zone, i.e., the zone of least oxygen concentration supply, resulting in a pronounced minimum of maximal diffusively sustainable metabolic oxygen consumption

  1. Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masafumi

    1991-01-01

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99m Tc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. At first, male Wistar rats were given intraperitoneally 1.8 mg/kg/day of cisplatin for periods of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days. On the next day, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake and Ccr were measured. Ccr of 5-day treated group was significantly lower than that of control (0.13±0.10 vs 0.34±0.05 ml/min/100 g; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake did not change. 99m Tc-DMSA uptake of 7-day treated group was significantly lower than that of control (28.57±7.23 vs 39.84±2.23%; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was lower than that of control on the 8th, 11th and 15th day (32.40±3.86, 32.56±1.19, 35.21±2.97 vs 39.84±2.23%, respectively; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake and Ccr was observed in the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was suggested to be a reliable indicator of a renal function in a different way from Ccr. (author)

  2. A comparative analysis of simulated and observed photosynthetic CO2 uptake in two coniferous forest canopies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, A.; Jarvis, P.G.; Clement, R.

    2006-01-01

    -photosynthetically-active-radiation-induced biophysical variability in the simulated Pg. Analysis of residuals identified only small systematic differences between the modeled flux estimates and turbulent flux measurements at high vapor pressure saturation deficits. The merits and limitations of comparative analysis for quality evaluation of both...

  3. Relationship between work rate and oxygen uptake in mitochondrial myopathy during ramp-incremental exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Gimenes

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available We determined the response characteristics and functional correlates of the dynamic relationship between the rate (Δ of oxygen consumption ( O2 and the applied power output (work rate = WR during ramp-incremental exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy (MM. Fourteen patients (7 males, age 35.4 ± 10.8 years with biopsy-proven MM and 10 sedentary controls (6 males, age 29.0 ± 7.8 years took a ramp-incremental cycle ergometer test for the determination of the O2 on-exercise mean response time (MRT and the gas exchange threshold (GET. The ΔO2/ΔWR slope was calculated up to GET (S1, above GET (S2 and over the entire linear portion of the response (S T. Knee muscle endurance was measured by isokinetic dynamometry. As expected, peak O2 and muscle performance were lower in patients than controls (P O2/ΔWR than controls, especially the S2 component (6.8 ± 1.5 vs 10.3 ± 0.6 mL·min-1·W-1, respectively; P O2/ΔWR (S T and muscle endurance, MRT-O2, GET and peak O2 in MM patients (P O2/ΔWR below 8 mL·min-1·W-1 had severely reduced peak O2 values (O2 had lower ΔO2/ΔWR (P O2/ΔWR is typically reduced in patients with MM, being related to increased functional impairment and higher cardiopulmonary stress.

  4. Relationship between oxygen uptake slow component and surface EMG during heavy exercise in humans: influence of pedal rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruyssen, Fabrice; Missenard, Olivier; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that extreme pedal rates contributed to the slow component of oxygen uptake (VO(2) SC) in association with changes in surface electromyographic (sEMG) during heavy-cycle exercise. Eight male trained cyclists performed two square-wave transitions at 50 and 110 rpm at a work rate that would elicit a VO(2) corresponding to 50% of the difference between peak VO(2) and the ventilatory threshold. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath and sEMG was obtained from the vastus lateralis and medialis muscles. Integrated EMG flow (QiEMG) and mean power frequency (MPF) were computed. The relative amplitude of the VO(2) SC was significantly higher during the 110-rpm bout (556+/-186 ml min(-1), Pexercise only during the 110-rpm bout and were associated with the greater amplitude of the VO(2) SC observed for this condition (Pmotor units recruitment pattern, muscle energy turnover and muscle temperature have been suggested to explain the different VO(2) SC to heavy pedal rate bouts.

  5. Nitrogen nutrition of Canna indica: Effects of ammonium versus nitrate on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and N uptake rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konnerup, Dennis; Brix, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inorganic nitrogen (N) source (NH4+, NO3- or both) on growth, biomass allocation, photosynthesis, N uptake rate, nitrate reductase activity and mineral composition of Canna indica were studied in hydroponic culture. The relative growth rates (0.05-0.06 g g-1 d-1), biomass allocation...

  6. Comparative uptake of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 by plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Souza, T J; Mistry, K B

    1970-01-01

    The entry and translocation of /sup 230/thorium, /sup 226/radium, /sup 210/lead, and /sup 210/polonium were examined in nutrient culture experiments. Strontium-89 was included for comparison. Red kidney beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) were treated for a period of 15 days. Results indicate that accumulation of /sup 230/thorium, /sup 210/lead and /sup 210/polonium occurs predominantly in roots and only very small amounts of these nuclides are translocated to shoots. Over comparable periods, the accumulation of /sup 226/radium in roots is 2-3 times lower than that of the other nuclides of uranium series. However, the most significant difference between /sup 226/radium and other nuclides is in the extent of their upward transport which for radium is 50-200 times greater. The amount of radium translocated to shoots is comparable to that of strontium. The present evidence of rapid transfer of /sup 226/radium to shoots suggests that among the nuclides examined, /sup 226/radium is likely to make the major contribution to radioactivity in aerial tissues of plants grown under conditions where root absorption is the principal route of entry of the nuclides.

  7. Yield, nitrogen uptake and nitrogen use efficiency by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant as affected by nitrogen rates applied with drip-irrigation under greenhouse conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halitligil, M.B.; Akin, A.I.; Kislal, H.; Ozturk, A.; Deviren, A.

    2002-01-01

    A number of experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of different N rates applied through drip irrigation on the growth and N uptake by tomato, pepper, cucumber, melon and eggplant under greenhouse conditions. It was found that, for tomato, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer through fertigation (53.9%) as compared to the soil application (34.0%) at 100 mg N/L. In general, any further increase of N fertilizer did not have an improving effect on the tomato yield. With pepper, the % NUE was significantly increased by applying the N fertilizer in the irrigation water (49.2%) as compared to the soil application (33.9%) at the same N level (140 mg N/L), being the optimum N rate under our greenhouse conditions. At a fertilization level of 100 mg N/L with fertigation, the % NUE was significantly increased as compared to the soil application. With respectively cucumber, melon and eggplant; the % NUE with fertigation was 63.4, 21.4 and 50.8%, while with soil application it was 34,0 11.0 and 18.8%. (author)

  8. Comparative evaluation of nano-CuO crossing Caco-2 cell monolayers and cellular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Gao; Lianqin, Zhu; Fenghua, Zhu; Fang, Zheng; Mingming, Song; Kai, Huang

    2015-01-01

    Different concentrations of CuSO 4 , micro-CuO, and nano-CuO were added to Caco-2 cell monolayers to study the absorption and transport characteristics in this epithelial cell model. Nano-CuO nanoparticles had a diameter of 10–20 nm. Inhibitors of endocytosis were used to explore whether nano-CuO could enter the Caco-2 cell in the form of nanoparticles, and to ascertain the endocytotic pathway that is involved in the transport process. The apparent permeability coefficient (P app ) of CuSO 4 and nano-CuO increased with the Cu concentration in the culture medium (p < 0.05). The micro-CuO of different concentrations had no significant impact on the P app value of Caco-2 cells (p > 0.05). When the Cu concentration in the culture medium was in the range 31.25–500 μM, the P app value of Caco-2 cells incubated with nano-CuO was significantly higher than that obtained with CuSO 4 . The latter was also significantly higher than that when cells were incubated with micro-CuO (p < 0.05). The amount of Cu transport increased with the increase of CuSO 4 concentration in the culture medium. After 90 min, the amount of transport began to saturate, and the transport rate of Cu declined with the increase of CuSO 4 concentration. For the cells incubated with nano-CuO, the amount of Cu transport increased with the increase of nano-CuO concentration, but did not show an obvious saturation with the extension of transport time. Nano-CuO could enter the Caco-2 cell in the form of nanoparticles, and were found in the cytoplasm, vesicles, lysosomes, and cell nuclei. Several inhibitors of endocytosis effectively prevented the entry of nano-CuO into the Caco-2 cells. It was concluded that nano-CuO particles can enter the Caco-2 cells through several cellular endocytotic pathways

  9. Comparative evaluation of nano-CuO crossing Caco-2 cell monolayers and cellular uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Gao; Lianqin, Zhu, E-mail: lianqinz1963@163.com; Fenghua, Zhu [Qingdao Agricultural University, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine (China); Fang, Zheng [Dezhou University, College of Agriculture (China); Mingming, Song; Kai, Huang [Qingdao Agricultural University, College of Animal Science and Veterinary Medicine (China)

    2015-04-15

    Different concentrations of CuSO{sub 4}, micro-CuO, and nano-CuO were added to Caco-2 cell monolayers to study the absorption and transport characteristics in this epithelial cell model. Nano-CuO nanoparticles had a diameter of 10–20 nm. Inhibitors of endocytosis were used to explore whether nano-CuO could enter the Caco-2 cell in the form of nanoparticles, and to ascertain the endocytotic pathway that is involved in the transport process. The apparent permeability coefficient (P{sub app}) of CuSO{sub 4} and nano-CuO increased with the Cu concentration in the culture medium (p < 0.05). The micro-CuO of different concentrations had no significant impact on the P{sub app} value of Caco-2 cells (p > 0.05). When the Cu concentration in the culture medium was in the range 31.25–500 μM, the P{sub app} value of Caco-2 cells incubated with nano-CuO was significantly higher than that obtained with CuSO{sub 4}. The latter was also significantly higher than that when cells were incubated with micro-CuO (p < 0.05). The amount of Cu transport increased with the increase of CuSO{sub 4} concentration in the culture medium. After 90 min, the amount of transport began to saturate, and the transport rate of Cu declined with the increase of CuSO{sub 4} concentration. For the cells incubated with nano-CuO, the amount of Cu transport increased with the increase of nano-CuO concentration, but did not show an obvious saturation with the extension of transport time. Nano-CuO could enter the Caco-2 cell in the form of nanoparticles, and were found in the cytoplasm, vesicles, lysosomes, and cell nuclei. Several inhibitors of endocytosis effectively prevented the entry of nano-CuO into the Caco-2 cells. It was concluded that nano-CuO particles can enter the Caco-2 cells through several cellular endocytotic pathways.

  10. Glomerular filtration rate estimated from the uptake phase of 99mTc-DTPA renography in chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, L J; Petersen, J R; Talleruphuus, U

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA renography with that estimated from the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, creatinine and urea.......The purpose of the study was to compare the estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) from 99mTc-DTPA renography with that estimated from the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA, creatinine and urea....

  11. Higher fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake in tuberculous compared to bacterial spondylodiscitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassetti, Matteo; Merelli, Maria; Della Siega, Paola; Righi, Elda [Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Infectious Diseases Division, Udine (Italy); Di Gregorio, Fernando [Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Microbiology Unit, Udine (Italy); Screm, Maria; Scarparo, Claudio [Santa Maria della Misericordia University Hospital, Radiology Unit, Udine (Italy)

    2017-06-15

    Tuberculous spondylodiscitis can be difficult to diagnose because of its nonspecific symptoms and the similarities with non-tubercular forms of spinal infection. Fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) is increasingly used for the diagnosis and monitoring of tubercular diseases. Retrospective, case-control study comparing tuberculous spondylodiscitis with biopsy-confirmed pyogenic spondylodiscitis in the period 2010-2012. Ten cases of tuberculous spondylodiscitis and 20 controls were included. Compared to pyogenic, tuberculous spondylodiscitis was more frequent in younger patients (P = 0.01) and was more often associated with thoraco-lumbar tract lesions (P = 0.01) and multiple vertebral involvement (P = 0.01). Significantly higher maximum standardized uptake values (SUV) at FDG-PET were displayed by tuberculous spondylodiscitis compared to controls (12.4 vs. 7.3, P = 0.003). SUV levels above 8 showed the highest value of specificity (0.80). Mean SUV reduction of 48% was detected for tuberculous spondylodiscitis at 1-month follow-up. Higher SUV levels at FDG-PET were detected in tuberculous compared with pyogenic spondylodiscitis. PET-CT use appeared useful in the disease follow-up after treatment initiation. (orig.)

  12. Study of oxygen mass transfer coefficient and oxygen uptake rate in a stirred tank reactor for uranium ore bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zokaei-Kadijani, S.; Safdari, J.; Mousavian, M.A.; Rashidi, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mass transfer coefficient does not depend on biomass concentration. ► The pulp density has a negative effect on mass transfer coefficient. ► The pulp density is the unique factor that affects maximum OUR. ► In this work, Neale’s correlation is corrected for prediction of mass transfer coefficient. ► Biochemical reaction is a limiting factor in the uranium bioleaching process. - Abstract: In this work, the volumetric oxygen mass transfer coefficient and the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) were studied for uranium ore bioleaching process by Acidthiobacillus ferrooxidans in a stirred tank reactor. The Box-Bohnken design method was used to study the effect of operating parameters on the oxygen mass transfer coefficient. The investigated factors were agitation speed (rpm), aeration rate (vvm) and pulp density (% weight/volume) of the stirred tank reactor. Analysis of experimental results showed that the oxygen mass transfer coefficient had low dependence on biomass concentration but had higher dependence on the agitation speed, aeration rate and pulp density. The obtained biological enhancement factors were equal to ones in experiments. On the other hand, the obtained values for Damkohler number (Da < 0.468) indicated that the process was limited by the biochemical reaction rate. Experimental results obtained for oxygen mass transfer coefficient were correlated with the empirical relations proposed by Garcia-Ochoa and Gomez (2009) and Neale and Pinches (1994). Due to the high relative error in the correlation of Neale and Pinches, that correlation was corrected and the coefficient of determination was calculated to be 89%. The modified correlation has been obtained based on a wide range of operating conditions, which can be used to determine the mass transfer coefficient in a bioreactor

  13. Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masafumi

    1991-01-01

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99m Tc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day) was given subcutaneously to male Wistar rats for periods of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. On the next day, the renoscintigraphy was performed 2 hours following intravenous injection of 99m Tc-DMSA and Ccr was measured. On the 7th day, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower in the treated rats than that in control (32.27±0.92 vs 39.84±2.24%; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was measured and the histological examination was done. On the 4th day, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower than that on the 1st day (32.32±3.00 vs 38.91±1.95%; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake reduces earlier than Ccr in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and 99m Tc-DMSA uptake is a reliable indicator in the evaluation of a renal function in drug-induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  14. Comparative microscopic and biochemical study of the uptake of fluorescent and 125I-labeled lipoproteins by skin fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and peritoneal macrophages in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, G.D.; St Clair, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Uptake of low density lipoprotein (LDL) and of acetyl LDL was compared in skin fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, and peritoneal macrophages with the use of lipoproteins labeled with either 125 I or the fluorescent probe 3,3'-dioctadecylindocarbocyanine (DiI). The uptake of DiI-labeled lipoproteins was assessed by quantitative spectrofluorometry and by fluorescence microscopy. The DiI was quantitatively retained by the cells, while the 125 I-LDL was degraded and 125 I-labeled degradation products were excreted from the cells. In smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts the uptake of LDL was virtually the same whether measured with the use of the DiI or 125 I-label. The labeling of acetyl LDL with DiI enhanced its uptake in peritoneal macrophages by an average of 18%. With the DiI label, lipoprotein uptake could be determined after as little as 10 minutes of incubation at 37 C. The pattern of uptake of the DiI-labeled lipoproteins was consistent with binding to specific receptors, because no DiI could be detected in mutant cells without LDL receptors, and uptake was competitively inhibited by addition of excess unlabeled lipoprotein. When the DiI-labeled lipoproteins were removed from the medium, there was a 5-15% loss of DiI from all cell types studied over the first 24 hours

  15. Uptake and cytotoxicity of citrate-coated gold nanospheres: Comparative studies on human endothelial and epithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freese Christian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs for diagnostic applications and for drug and gene-delivery is currently under intensive investigation. For such applications, biocompatibility and the absence of cytotoxicity of AuNPs is essential. Although generally considered as highly biocompatible, previous in vitro studies have shown that cytotoxicity of AuNPs in certain human epithelial cells was observed. In particular, the degree of purification of AuNPs (presence of sodium citrate residues on the particles was shown to affect the proliferation and induce cytotoxicity in these cells. To expand these studies, we have examined if the effects are related to nanoparticle size (10, 11 nm, 25 nm, to the presence of sodium citrate on the particles' surface or they are due to a varying degree of internalization of the AuNPs. Since two cell types are present in the major barriers to the outside in the human body, we have also included endothelial cells from the vasculature and blood brain barrier. Results Transmission electron microscopy demonstrates that the internalized gold nanoparticles are located within vesicles. Increased cytotoxicity was observed after exposure to AuNPs and was found to be concentration-dependent. In addition, cell viability and the proliferation of both endothelial cells decreased after exposure to gold nanoparticles, especially at high concentrations. Moreover, in contrast to the size of the particles (10 nm, 11 nm, 25 nm, the presence of sodium citrate on the nanoparticle surface appeared to enhance these effects. The effects on microvascular endothelial cells from blood vessels were slightly enhanced compared to the effects on brain-derived endothelial cells. A quantification of AuNPs within cells by ICP-AES showed that epithelial cells internalized a higher quantity of AuNPs compared to endothelial cells and that the quantity of uptake is not correlated with the amount of sodium citrate on the

  16. Comparative potentials of native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to improve nutrient uptake and biomass of Sorghum bicolor Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pattarawadee Sumthong Nakmee

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor Linn. seedlings were grown in pots using Pakchong soil from Nakhon Ratchasima province. Ten species of native Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungi: Glomus sp. 1, Glomus sp. 2, Glomus sp. 3, Glomus aggregatum, Glomus fasciculatum, Acaulospora longula, Glomus occultum, Acaulospora scrobiculata, Acaulospora spinosa and Scutellospora sp., were used to inoculate sorghum seedlings. The sorghum growth and uptake of several major nutrients were evaluated at the harvesting stage. The results revealed that sorghum inoculated with A. scrobiculata produced the greatest biomass, grain dry weight and total nitrogen uptake in shoots. The highest phosphorus uptake in shoots was found in A. spinosa-inoculated plants, followed by Glomus sp. and A. scrobiculata, whereas Scutellospora sp.-inoculated plants showed the highest potassium uptake in shoots followed by A. scrobiculata. Overall, the most efficient AM fungi for improvement of nutrient uptake, biomass and grain dry weight in sorghum were A. scrobiculata.

  17. Benthic Uptake Rate due to Hyporheic Exchange: The Effects of Streambed Morphology for Constant and Sinusoidally Varying Nutrient Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Tonina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyporheic exchange carries reactive solutes, which may include biological oxygen demand (BOD, dissolved oxygen (DO and reactive dissolved inorganic nitrogen (Nr, into the sediment, where biochemical reactions consume DO. Here, we study the impact of streambed morphology, stream-reactive solute loads and their diel oscillations on the DO benthic uptake rate (BUR due to hyporheic processes. Our model solves the hyporheic flow field and the solute transport equations analytically, within a Lagrangian framework, considering advection, longitudinal diffusion and reactions modeled as first order kinetics. The application of the model to DO field measurements over a gravel bar-pool sequence shows a good match with measured DO concentrations with an overall agreement of 58% and a kappa index of 0.46. We apply the model to investigate the effects of daily constant and sinusoidally time varying stream BOD, DO and Nr loads and of the morphodynamic parameters on BUR. Our modeling results show that BUR varies as a function of bedform size and of nutrient loads and that the hyporheic zone may consume up to 0.06% of the stream DO at the pool-riffle bedform scale. Daily oscillations of stream BOD and DO loads have small effects on BUR, but may have an important influence on local hyporheic processes and organisms’ distribution.

  18. Schools That Make a Difference to Post-Compulsory Uptake of Physical Science Subjects: Some comparative case studies in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Judith; Lubben, Fred; Hampden-Thompson, Gillian

    2013-03-01

    This paper presents the findings of the qualitative component of a combined methods research study that explores a range of individual and school factors that influence the uptake of chemistry and physics in post-compulsory study in England. The first phase involves using the National Pupil Database to provide a sampling frame to identify four matched pairs of high-uptake and low-uptake schools by salient school factors. Case studies of these eight schools indicate that students employ selection strategies related to their career aspirations, their sense of identity and tactics, and their prior experience. The school factors influencing subject choice relate to school management, student support and guidance, and student empowerment. The most notable differences between students in high-uptake and low-uptake schools are that students in high-uptake schools appear to make a proactive choice in relation to career aspirations, rather than a reactive choice on the basis of past experience. Schools with a high uptake offer a diverse science curriculum in the final two years of compulsory study, set higher examination entry requirements for further study and, crucially, provide a range of opportunities for students to interact with the world of work and to gain knowledge and experience of science-related careers.

  19. Calibrated image-derived input functions for the determination of the metabolic uptake rate of glucose with [18F]-FDG PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anders Nymark; Reichkendler, Michala H.; Larsen, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the use of a simple calibration method to remove bias in previously proposed approaches to image-derived input functions (IDIFs) when used to calculate the metabolic uptake rate of glucose (Km) from dynamic [18F]-FDG PET scans of the thigh. Our objective was to obtain nonbiased, low...

  20. Human rights of children with intellectual disabilities: comparing self-ratings and proxy ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huus, K; Granlund, M; Bornman, J; Lygnegård, F

    2015-11-01

    A child rights-based approach to research articulates well with Article 12 of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and highlights the importance and value of including children's own views about aspects that concern them. The aim of this study is to compare children with intellectual disability's own ratings (as self-raters) to those of their primary caregivers (as proxy raters) regarding human rights of children. The study also aims to establish whether there is an inter-rater agreement between the self-raters and proxy raters concerning Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This study is nested in a larger study examining the human rights of children with intellectual disability in South Africa. In total, 162 children with intellectual disability from 11 schools across three provinces and their primary caregivers participated by answering parts of a Children's Rights Questionnaire (CRQ) developed by the researchers based on the United Nation's CRC. We compared the answers for six questions in the questionnaire that were addressed to self-raters (children) and proxy raters (primary caregivers) in the same way. Questions regarding basic needs, such as access to clean water or whether the child had food to eat at home, were answered similarly by self-raters and proxy raters. Larger differences were found when self-raters and proxy raters were asked about whether the child had things or friends to play with at home. Socio-economic variables seemed to affect whether self-raters and proxy raters answered similarly. The results underscore the importance of promoting children's rights to express themselves by considering the opinions of both the children as self-raters and their primary caregivers as proxy raters - not only the latter. The results indicate that it is especially important to include children's own voices when more complex needs are surveyed. Agreement between self- and proxy ratings could be affected by socio-economic circumstances.

  1. Comparative uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin in cancer cells and tissue expressing P-Glycoprotein or multidrug resistance associated protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jung Ah; Lee, Jae Tae; Yoo, Jung Ah

    2005-01-01

    99m Tc-sestamibi(MIBI) and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin have been used as substrates for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), which are closely associated with multidrug resistance of the tumors. To understand different handling of radiotracers in cancer cell lines expressing Pgp and MRP, we compared cellular uptakes of 99m Tc-MIBI and 99m Tc-tetrofosmin. The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA), well-known multidrug resistant reversing agent, on the uptake of both tracers were also compared. HCT15/CL02 human colorectal cancer cells for Pgp expressing cells, and human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells for MRP expressing cells, were used for in vitro and in vivo studies. RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for detection of Pgp and MRP. MDR-reversal effect with CsA was evaluated at different drug concentrations after incubation with MIBI or tetrofosmin. Radioactivities of supernatant and pellet were measured with gamma well counter. Tumoral uptake of the tracers were measured from tumor bearing nude mice treated with or without CsA. RT-PCR, western blot analysis of the cells and immunochemical staining revealed selective expression of Pgp and MRP for HCT15/CL02 and A549 cells, respectively. There were no significant difference in cellular uptakes of both tracers in HCT15/CL02 cells, but MIBI uptake was slightly higher than that of tetrofosmin in A549 cells. Co-incubation with CsA resulted in a increase in cellular uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin. Uptake of MIBI or tetrofosmin in HCT15/CL02 cells was increased by 10-and 2.4-fold, and by 7.5 and 6.3-fold in A549 cells, respectively. Percentage increase of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin with CsA for both cells (ρ < 0.05). In vivo biodistribution study showed that MIBI (114% at 10 min, 257% at 60 min, 396% at 24C min) and tetrofosmin uptake (110% at 10 min, 205% at 60 min, 410% at 240 min) were progressively increased by the time, up to 240 min with CsA. But

  2. Comparative uptake of Tc-99m sestamibi and Tc-99m tetrofosmin in cancer cells and tissue expressing P-Glycoprotein or multidrug resistance associated protein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jung Ah; Lee, Jae Tae; Yoo, Jung Ah [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-02-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi(MIBI) and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin have been used as substrates for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance associated protein (MRP), which are closely associated with multidrug resistance of the tumors. To understand different handling of radiotracers in cancer cell lines expressing Pgp and MRP, we compared cellular uptakes of {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI and {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin. The effects of cyclosporin A (CsA), well-known multidrug resistant reversing agent, on the uptake of both tracers were also compared. HCT15/CL02 human colorectal cancer cells for Pgp expressing cells, and human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells for MRP expressing cells, were used for in vitro and in vivo studies. RT-PCR, western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry were used for detection of Pgp and MRP. MDR-reversal effect with CsA was evaluated at different drug concentrations after incubation with MIBI or tetrofosmin. Radioactivities of supernatant and pellet were measured with gamma well counter. Tumoral uptake of the tracers were measured from tumor bearing nude mice treated with or without CsA. RT-PCR, western blot analysis of the cells and immunochemical staining revealed selective expression of Pgp and MRP for HCT15/CL02 and A549 cells, respectively. There were no significant difference in cellular uptakes of both tracers in HCT15/CL02 cells, but MIBI uptake was slightly higher than that of tetrofosmin in A549 cells. Co-incubation with CsA resulted in a increase in cellular uptakes of MIBI and tetrofosmin. Uptake of MIBI or tetrofosmin in HCT15/CL02 cells was increased by 10-and 2.4-fold, and by 7.5 and 6.3-fold in A549 cells, respectively. Percentage increase of MIBI was higher than that of tetrofosmin with CsA for both cells ({rho} < 0.05). In vivo biodistribution study showed that MIBI (114% at 10 min, 257% at 60 min, 396% at 24C min) and tetrofosmin uptake (110% at 10 min, 205% at 60 min, 410% at 240 min) were progressively increased by the time, up to

  3. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying rate constants for the solar dryer and open- air sun dried bitter leaf were 0.8 and ... of cost benefit but the poorest when other considerations ... J. I. Eze, National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of ...

  4. Corn nitrogen fertilization rate tools compared over eight Midwest states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Publicly-available nitrogen (N) rate recommendation tools are utilized to help maximize yield in corn production. These tools often fail when N is over-applied and results in excess N being lost to the environment, or when N is under-applied and results in decreased yield and economic returns. Perfo...

  5. Increasing carbon discrimination rates and depth of water uptake favor the growth of Mediterranean evergreen trees in the ecotone with temperate deciduous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeta, Adrià; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-12-01

    Tree populations at the low-altitudinal or -latitudinal limits of species' distributional ranges are predicted to retreat toward higher altitudes and latitudes to track the ongoing changes in climate. Studies have focused on the climatic sensitivity of the retreating species, whereas little is known about the potential replacements. Competition between tree species in forest ecotones will likely be strongly influenced by the ecophysiological responses to heat and drought. We used tree-ring widths and δ 13 C and δ 18 O chronologies to compare the growth rates and long-term ecophysiological responses to climate in the temperate-Mediterranean ecotone formed by the deciduous Fagus sylvatica and the evergreen Quercus ilex at the low altitudinal and southern latitudinal limit of F. sylvatica (NE Iberian Peninsula). F. sylvatica growth rates were similar to those of other southern populations and were surprisingly not higher than those of Q. ilex, which were an order of magnitude higher than those in nearby drier sites. Higher Q. ilex growth rates were associated with high temperatures, which have increased carbon discrimination rates in the last 25 years. In contrast, stomatal regulation in F. sylvatica was proportional to the increase in atmospheric CO 2 . Tree-ring δ 18 O for both species were mostly correlated with δ 18 O in the source water. In contrast to many previous studies, relative humidity was not negatively correlated with tree-ring δ 18 O but had a positive effect on Q. ilex tree-ring δ 18 O. Furthermore, tree-ring δ 18 O decreased in Q. ilex over time. The sensitivity of Q. ilex to climate likely reflects the uptake of deep water that allowed it to benefit from the effect of CO 2 fertilization, in contrast to the water-limited F. sylvatica. Consequently, Q. ilex is a strong competitor at sites currently dominated by F. sylvatica and could be favored by increasingly warmer conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Comparative Advantage, Exchange Rates, and G-7 Sectoral Trade Balances

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen S. Golub

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses a Ricardian framework to clarify the role of microeconomic and macroeconomic factors governing the time series and cross-section behavior of sectoral trade balances. Unit labor costs and trade balances are calculated for several sectors for the seven major industrial countries. The time series and cross-section variation in sectoral unit labor costs is decomposed into relative productivity, wage differentials, and exchange rate variations. The main findings are that changes ov...

  7. Comparative study between in Vivo and Vitro radionuclide technique in measurement of Glomerular filtration rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziada, G.; Moustafa, H.; Elhaddad, SH.; Taalab, KH.

    1995-01-01

    Fifty patients were referred to nuclear medicine department in NEMROCK center for measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The group included 34 males and 16 females with a mean age of 38.3 ± 10.7 years. Estimation of GFR was done using 111-185 mBq of 99m Tc-DTPA with data collected on 128 x 128 matrix on IDAC computer every 15 seconds with calculation of renal uptake and GFR applying Gates method. 72 hours, a dose 3.7 mBq of 51 Cr-EDTA with 2 blood samples taken at 120, 240 minutes with estimation of plasma clearance using Russel et al., method (1985). The mean clearance of 51 Cr-EDTA was 79.61±22.4 ml/min compared to 84.34±26.3 ml/min. Using direct scintigraphic method with positive correlation using regression analysis (r=0.96). Also, both 51 Cr-EDTA and in vivo 99m Tc-DTPA were positively correlated with creatinine clearance (r=0.87 and 0.91 respectively). A modified regression formulas was used for correction of the results of 99m Tc-DTPA values GFR ( 99m Tc-DTPA) x 0.81 + 11 ± 6.4 ml/min. 4 figs., 1 tab

  8. Comparative study between in Vivo and Vitro radionuclide technique in measurement of Glomerular filtration rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziada, G; Moustafa, H; Elhaddad, SH; Taalab, KH [Nuclear medicine department, Faculty of medicine, Cairo university, Cairo, (Egypt)

    1995-10-01

    Fifty patients were referred to nuclear medicine department in NEMROCK center for measurement of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The group included 34 males and 16 females with a mean age of 38.3 {+-} 10.7 years. Estimation of GFR was done using 111-185 mBq of {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA with data collected on 128 x 128 matrix on IDAC computer every 15 seconds with calculation of renal uptake and GFR applying Gates method. 72 hours, a dose 3.7 mBq of {sup 51} Cr-EDTA with 2 blood samples taken at 120, 240 minutes with estimation of plasma clearance using Russel et al., method (1985). The mean clearance of {sup 51} Cr-EDTA was 79.61{+-}22.4 ml/min compared to 84.34{+-}26.3 ml/min. Using direct scintigraphic method with positive correlation using regression analysis (r=0.96). Also, both {sup 51} Cr-EDTA and in vivo {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA were positively correlated with creatinine clearance (r=0.87 and 0.91 respectively). A modified regression formulas was used for correction of the results of {sup 99m} Tc-DTPA values GFR ({sup 99m}Tc-DTPA) x 0.81 + 11 {+-} 6.4 ml/min. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Decreased cisplatin uptake by resistant L1210 leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hromas, R.A.; North, J.A.; Burns, C.P.

    1987-01-01

    Cisplatin resistance remains poorly understood compared to other forms of anti-neoplastic drug resistance. In this report radiolabelled cisplatin and rapid separation techniques were used to compare drug uptake by L1210 leukemia cells that are sensitive (K25) or resistant (SCR9) to cisplatin. Uptake of cisplatin by both cell lines was linear without saturation kinetics up to 100 μM. The resistant ZCR9 cells had 36-60% reduced drug uptake as compared to its sensitive parent line, K25. In contrast, there was no difference in the rate of efflux. We conclude that a decreased rate of uptake is one possible mechanism of cellular cisplatin resistance. (Author)

  10. Growth and Nitrogen Uptake in Sorghum Plants Manured with Leucaena Leucocaphala Leaves as Affected by Nitrogen Rate and Time of Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Shammaa, M.

    2011-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to determine the effect of four rates of nitrogen (N) in the form of leucaena leaves and the time of application on the performance of sorghum plants using the 15 N isotopic dilution technique. Results showed that leucaena green manure (LGM) increased dry matter and N yield of sorghum. Nitrogen recoveries of LGM ranged between 23 and 47%. An additional beneficial effect of LGM was attributed to the enhancement of soil N uptake. The best timing of LGM incorporation for obtaining more N derived from LGM, less soil N uptake, and greater dry matter and N in sorghum leaves seemed to be at planting. However, the appropriate timing and rate of LGM to obtain greater dry matter and N yield in panicles, as well as in the whole plant of sorghum, appeared to be at 30 days before planting, particularly a rate of 120 kg N ha - 1. (author)

  11. Comparative uptake of trace elements in vines and olive trees over calcareous soils in western La Mancha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ángel Amorós, José; Higueras, Pablo; Pérez-de-los-Reyes, Caridad; Jesús García, Francisco; Villaseñor, Begoña; Bravo, Sandra; Losilla, María Luisa; María Moreno, Marta

    2014-05-01

    Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) and olive-tree (Olea europea L.) are very important cultures in Castilla-La Mancha for its extension and contribution to the regional economy. This study was carried out in the municipality of Carrión de Calatrava (Ciudad Real) where the variability of soils of different geological origin, with different evolutions giving a great diversity of soils. The metabolism of trace elements in plants has been extensively studied although each soil-plant system must be investigated, especially since small variations in composition can lead to marked differences. It can be stated that the composition of the plant reflects the environment where it is cultivated and the products of the plant (leaves, fruits, juices, etc…) will be influenced by the composition of the soil. The main aim of the work was to compare the uptake of 24 trace elements in grapevine and olive-tree cultivated in the same soil. Samples from surface soils and plant material (leaf) have been analyzed by X-ray fluorescence, obtaining trace elements in mg/kg. It can be concluded that the leaves of grapevines in the studied plots have shown content in elements: -Similar to the olive-tree in case of: Co, Ga, Y, Ta, Th, U y Nd. -Over to the olive-tree in: Sc, V, Cr, Ni, Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Hf y W. -Below to the olive-tree in: Cu, Zn, Cs y Pb. Keywords: woody culture soils, mineral nutrition, X-ray fluorescence.

  12. RAPID NITRATE UPTAKE RATES AND LARGE SHORT-TERM STORAGE CAPACITIES MAY EXPLAIN WHY OPPORTUNISTIC GREEN MACROALGAE DOMINATE SHALLOW EUTROPHIC ESTUARIES1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennison, Rachel L; Kamer, Krista; Fong, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    We quantified the effects of initial macroalgal tissue nitrogen (N) status (depleted and enriched) and varying pulses of nitrate (NO 3 - ) concentration on uptake and storage of nitrogen in Ulva intestinalis L. and Ulva expansa (Setch.) Setch. et N. L. Gardner using mesocosms modeling shallow coastal estuaries in Mediterranean climates. Uptake of NO 3 - (μmol · g dry weight [dwt] -1  · h -1 ) was measured as loss from the water after 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 h and storage as total tissue nitrogen (% dwt) and nitrate (ppm). Both species of algae exhibited a high affinity for NO 3 - across all N pulses and initial tissue contents. There was greater NO 3 - removal from the water for depleted than enriched algae across all time intervals. In the low-N-pulse treatment, U. intestinalis and U. expansa removed all measurable NO 3 - within 8 and 12 h, respectively, and in the medium and high treatments, removal was high and then decreased over time. Maximum mean uptake rates of nitrate were greater for U. expansa (∼300 μmol · g dwt -1  · h -1 ) than U. intestinalis (∼100 μmol · g dwt -1  · h -1 ); however, uptake rates were highly variable over time. Overall, U. expansa uptake rates were double those of U. intestinalis. Maximum tissue NO 3 - for U. expansa was >1,000 ppm, five times that of U. intestinalis, suggesting that U. expansa has a greater storage capacity in this cellular pool. These results showed that opportunistic green algae with differing tissue nutrient histories were able to efficiently remove nitrate from the water across a wide range of N pulses; thus, both are highly adapted to proliferate in estuarine environments with pulsed nutrient supplies. © 2011 Phycological Society of America.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of U.S. Brand and Generic Intravenous Sodium Ferric Gluconate Complex in Sucrose Injection: In Vitro Cellular Uptake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Wu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency anemia is a common clinical consequence for people who suffer from chronic kidney disease, especially those requiring dialysis. Intravenous (IV iron therapy is a widely accepted safe and efficacious treatment for iron deficiency anemia. Numerous IV iron drugs have been approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA, including a single generic product, sodium ferric gluconate complex in sucrose. In this study, we compared the cellular iron uptake profiles of the brand (Ferrlecit® and generic sodium ferric gluconate (SFG products. We used a colorimetric assay to examine the amount of iron uptake by three human macrophage cell lines. This is the first published study to provide a parallel evaluation of the cellular uptake of a brand and a generic IV iron drug in a mononuclear phagocyte system. The results showed no difference in iron uptake across all cell lines, tested doses, and time points. The matching iron uptake profiles of Ferrlecit® and its generic product support the FDA’s present position detailed in the draft guidance on development of SFG complex products that bioequivalence can be based on qualitative (Q1 and quantitative (Q2 formulation sameness, similar physiochemical characterization, and pharmacokinetic bioequivalence studies.

  14. Whole body synthesis rates of DHA from α-linolenic acid are greater than brain DHA accretion and uptake rates in adult rats[S

    OpenAIRE

    Domenichiello, Anthony F.; Chen, Chuck T.; Trepanier, Marc-Olivier; Stavro, P. Mark; Bazinet, Richard P.

    2014-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is important for brain function, however, the exact amount required for the brain is not agreed upon. While it is believed that the synthesis rate of DHA from α-linolenic acid (ALA) is low, how this synthesis rate compares with the amount of DHA required to maintain brain DHA levels is unknown. The objective of this work was to assess whether DHA synthesis from ALA is sufficient for the brain. To test this, rats consumed a diet low in n-3 PUFAs, or a diet containing...

  15. Rate of uptake and distribution of Hg in dissolved organic carbon compounds in darkwater ecosystems by ICP-MS and enriched stable isotope spiking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telmer, Kevin; Dario Bermudez, Rafael; Veiga, Marcello M.; Souza, Terezinha Cid da

    2001-01-01

    The role of natural organic acids on mercury binding, transportation, net uptake rates and possibly net methylation rates will be evaluated by tracing these processes with isotope enriched mercury and ICP-MS technology. The correlation between dissolved organic matter and Hg in waters is well documented. It appears that organic acids can react with mercury residing in or emitted from different sources such as soils (particularly hydromorphic soils), laterites, natural degassing, forest fires, fuel combustion, gold mining activities, etc. to form soluble Hg-organo-complexes. The formation of these complexes is believed to greatly enhance Hg transport and be an important preliminary step in the formation of Methyl-Hg and biological uptake. The rates of these reactions and the key organic compounds involved in mercury binding will be determined by reacting isotopically-enriched Hg with samples containing a variety of concentrations and types of organic acids and subsequently analysing both reactants and organisms exposed to the reactants (bioassays) for Hg isotopes by ICP-MS. The Hg spike will allow the precise determination of rates of uptake and the most active agents of uptake. Initially, the method will be used to examine total Hg uptake and distribution but if technological limitations are overcome, this same approach can be used to determine net rates of methylation and net MeHg uptake. After the method is validated the experimental design can be altered to test the relative effects of such things as the addition of CO 2 (pH change), or adding a substrate such as Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides. The addition of synthetic materials such as mulched automobile tires, can also be tested with the goal developing a pragmatic remedial method for Hg containment. Ultimately, this research should contribute to an understanding of mercury mobilization, transport and bio-concentration mechanisms, and provide a basis for developing management and treatment strategies. Emphasis will be

  16. Lung inhomogeneities, inflation and [18F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake rate in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressoni, Massimo; Chiumello, Davide; Chiurazzi, Chiara; Brioni, Matteo; Algieri, Ilaria; Gotti, Miriam; Nikolla, Klodiana; Massari, Dario; Cammaroto, Antonio; Colombo, Andrea; Cadringher, Paolo; Carlesso, Eleonora; Benti, Riccardo; Casati, Rosangela; Zito, Felicia; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the size and location of homogeneous inflamed/noninflamed and inhomogeneous inflamed/noninflamed lung compartments and their association with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) severity.In total, 20 ARDS patients underwent 5 and 45 cmH2O computed tomography (CT) scans to measure lung recruitability. [(18)F]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) uptake and lung inhomogeneities were quantified with a positron emission tomography-CT scan at 10 cmH2O. We defined four compartments with normal/abnormal [(18)F]FDG uptake and lung homogeneity.The homogeneous compartment with normal [(18)F]FDG uptake was primarily composed of well-inflated tissue (80±16%), double-sized in nondependent lung (32±27% versus 16±17%, pinflation and [(18)F]FDG uptake decreases with ARDS severity, while the inhomogeneous poorly/not inflated compartment increases. Most of the lung inhomogeneities are inflamed. A minor fraction of healthy tissue remains in severe ARDS. Copyright ©ERS 2016.

  17. Root distribution pattern and nitrogen uptake of some wheat and triticale germplasms in relation to rates and methods of nitrogen application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meena, N.L.; Seth, Jagdish

    1975-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under irrigated conditions with four germplasms viz. Triticale(70-2), and wheat varieties HD 4502(durum), Kalyan Sona and Moti (aestivums) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute Farm, New Delhi, during rabi season of 1972-73. The treatments comprised of three rates of nitrogen viz. 0,60 and 120 kg/ha and two methods of nitrogen application viz. (1) soil + foliar and (2) soil. The root distribution of the four germplasms, studied by 32 P injection technique was increased both vertically and horizontally with the addition of nitrogen. Root distribution of triticale was observed to be deep and spreading in habit, while durum proved to be shallow rooted and compact in nature. The total uptake of nitrogen was significantly increased with higher rates of nitrogen in all the germplasms. The maximum uptake of nitrogen was observed in the durum wheat. (author)

  18. A Comparative Study of the Uptake, Clearance and Metabolism of Technetium in Lobster (Homarus Gammarus) and Edible Crab (Cancer Paguras)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, J.F.; Smith, D.L.; Winpenny, K

    1998-07-01

    Lobsters and edible crabs have been exposed to {sup 95}Tc{sup m} in their sea water or in their food, and the uptake, retention and distribution of the isotope in their bodies examined. The steady-state concentration factor C{sub ss} for uptake of {sup 95}Tc{sup m} from sea water was significantly greater for female crabs (C{sub ss}=17.9) than for males (C{sub ss}=14.4). There was no such sex difference in lobsters and they took up {sup 95}Tc{sup m} to much higher levels with a C{sub ss} of 1160. Retention of the isotope was similar for crabs and lobsters and for animals of both sexes. However the route of uptake was important with more rapid clearance after uptake from sea water (t{sub b1/2} = 51 days) than after uptake from food (t{sub b1/2} = 108 days). Technetium was found predominantly in the hepatopancreas of all crabs and most male lobsters. In a few male lobsters and all females it was mainly in muscle. Lobster ovaries consistently contained more activity than testes but this difference was not seen in crabs. At the subcellular level {sup 95}Tc{sup m} in hepatopancreas cells of both lobster and crab occurred mainly in the cytosol. Results of initial studies into the relationships between technetium and cytosol proteins are given and the possible basis for the much greater accumulation of the element by lobsters than crabs discussed. (author)

  19. Predictive value of casual ECG-based resting heart rate compared with resting heart rate obtained from Holter recording

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Nicholas; Dixen, Ulrik; Marott, Jacob L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated resting heart rate (RHR) is associated with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Assessment of heart rate (HR) from Holter recording may afford a more precise estimate of the effect of RHR on cardiovascular risk, as compared to casual RHR. Comparative analysis was carried ...

  20. High failure rates after (131)I therapy in Graves hyperthyroidism patients with large thyroid volumes, high iodine uptake, and high iodine turnover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Jeroen A F; Verkooijen, Helena M; Valk, Gerlof D; Zelissen, Pierre M J; de Keizer, Bart

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify patient characteristics positively and independently associated with I-iodide treatment failure in a large cohort of patients with Graves hyperthyroidism treated with either a calculated "standard" activity of 3.7 MBq/mL (0.1 mCi) or 7.4 MBq/mL (0.2 mCi) of thyroid volume. Data on 385 consecutive patients were prospectively collected. Clinical treatment outcome up to 1 year in relation to thyroid volume, 5- and 24-hour I uptake, 5/24-hour I uptake ratio, and the administered activity of radioiodine were analyzed. Overall treatment results were hypothyroidism in 46%, euthyroidism in 29%, and recurrent hyperthyroidism in 26% of patients. Thyroid volume (P = 0.000), 5/24-hour uptake ratio (P = 0.000), and 5- and 24-hour uptake alone (respectively, P = 0.000 and P = 0.002) were significantly associated with therapy outcome. Patients with a combination of a thyroid volume greater than 50 mL and a 5/24-hour uptake ratio 0.8 or greater showed treatment failure in 70% and 42% (respectively, 3.7 MBq/mL, n = 20; and 7.4 MBq/mL, n = 41).Thyroid volume and 5/24-hour uptake ratio were positively and independently associated with recurrent hyperthyroidism (respectively, odds ratio [OR], 5.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.39-11.76; and OR, 2.97; 95% CI, 1.59-5.59). Higher activities of 7.4 MBq/mL I were associated with a lower risk of treatment failure (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.18-0.62). Large thyroid volumes and high 5/24-hour uptake ratios are positively and independently associated with recurrent hyperthyroidism following I therapy in Graves hyperthyroidism. Higher success rates can be achieved when account is taken of these poor prognostic factors. In consequence, these patients should be treated with activities greater than 7.4 MBq/mL.

  1. Rates of oxygen uptake increase independently of changes in heart rate in late stages of development and at hatching in the green iguana, Iguana iguana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartori, Marina R; Abe, Augusto S; Crossley, Dane A; Taylor, Edwin W

    2017-03-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), heart rate (f H ), heart mass (M h ) and body mass (M b ) were measured during embryonic incubation and in hatchlings of green iguana (Iguana iguana). Mean f H and VO 2 were unvarying in early stage embryos. VO 2 increased exponentially during the later stages of embryonic development, doubling by the end of incubation, while f H was constant, resulting in a 2.7-fold increase in oxygen pulse. Compared to late stage embryos, the mean inactive level of VO 2 in hatchlings was 1.7 fold higher, while f H was reduced by half resulting in a further 3.6 fold increase in oxygen pulse. There was an overall negative correlation between mean f H and VO 2 when data from hatchlings was included. Thus, predicting metabolic rate as VO 2 from measurements of f H is not possible in embryonic reptiles. Convective transport of oxygen to supply metabolism during embryonic incubation was more reliably indicated as an index of cardiac output (CO i ) derived from the product of f H and M h . However, a thorough analysis of factors determining rates of oxygen supply during development and eclosion in reptiles will require cannulation of blood vessels that proved impossible in the present study, to determine oxygen carrying capacity by the blood and arteriovenous oxygen content difference (A-V diff), plus patterns of blood flow. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Coatings on the Uptake Rate and HONO Yield in Heterogeneous Reaction of Soot with NO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Quiñones, M.; Khalizov, A. F.; Zhang, R.

    2009-12-01

    Heterogeneous reaction of nitrogen dioxide on carbon soot aerosols has been suggested as a possible source of nighttime nitrous acid (HONO) in atmosphere boundary layer. Available laboratory data show significant variability in the measured reaction probabilities and HONO yields, making it difficult to asses the atmospheric significance of this process. Moreover, little is known of how aging of soot aerosol through internal mixing with other atmospheric trace constituents will affect the heterogeneous reactivity and HONO production. In this work, the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on fresh and aged soot films leading to HONO formation was studied through a series of kinetic uptake experiments and HONO yield measurements. Soot samples were prepared by incomplete combustion of propane and kerosene fuels under lean and rich flame conditions. Experiments were performed in a low-pressure, fast-flow reactor coupled to a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS), using atmospheric-level NO2 concentrations. Heterogeneous uptake coefficients, γ(geom) and γ(BET), were calculated using geometric and internal BET soot surface areas, respectively. The uptake coefficient and the HONO yield depend on the type of fuel and combustion regime and are the highest for soot samples prepared using rich kerosene flame. Although, the internal surface area of soot measured by BET method is a factor of 50 to 500 larger than the geometric surface area, only the top soot layers are involved in heterogeneous reaction with NO2 as follows from the observed weak dependence of γ(geom) and decrease in γ(BET) with increasing sample mass. Heating the soot samples before exposure to NO2 increases the BET surface area, the HONO yield, and the NO2 uptake coefficient due to the removal of the organic fraction from the soot backbone that unblocks active sites and makes them accessible for physical adsorption and chemical reactions. Our results support the oxidation-reduction mechanism involving

  3. Comparing Basal Area Growth Rates in Repeated Inventories: Simpson's Paradox in Forestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles E. Thomas; Bernard R. Parresol

    1989-01-01

    Recent analyses of radial growth rates in southern commercial forests have shown that current rates are lower than past rates when compared diameter class by diameter class. These results have been interpreted as an indication that the growth rate of the forest is declining. In this paper, growth rates of forest populations in Alabama are studied. Basal area growth (a...

  4. Comparative sequence analyses of the major quantitative trait locus phosphorus uptake 1 (Pup1) reveal a complex genetic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Sigrid; Lu, Xiaochun; Chin, Joong Hyoun; Tanaka, Juan Pariasca; Kanamori, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; De Leon, Teresa; Ulat, Victor Jun; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Yano, Masahiro; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2009-06-01

    The phosphorus uptake 1 (Pup1) locus was identified as a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for tolerance of phosphorus deficiency in rice. Near-isogenic lines with the Pup1 region from tolerant donor parent Kasalath typically show threefold higher phosphorus uptake and grain yield in phosphorus-deficient field trials than the intolerant parent Nipponbare. In this study, we report the fine mapping of the Pup1 locus to the long arm of chromosome 12 (15.31-15.47 Mb). Genes in the region were initially identified on the basis of the Nipponbare reference genome, but did not reveal any obvious candidate genes related to phosphorus uptake. Kasalath BAC clones were therefore sequenced and revealed a 278-kbp sequence significantly different from the syntenic regions in Nipponbare (145 kb) and in the indica reference genome of 93-11 (742 kbp). Size differences are caused by large insertions or deletions (INDELs), and an exceptionally large number of retrotransposon and transposon-related elements (TEs) present in all three sequences (45%-54%). About 46 kb of the Kasalath sequence did not align with the entire Nipponbare genome, and only three Nipponbare genes (fatty acid alpha-dioxygenase, dirigent protein and aspartic proteinase) are highly conserved in Kasalath. Two Nipponbare genes (expressed proteins) might have evolved by at least three TE integrations in an ancestor gene that is still present in Kasalath. Several predicted Kasalath genes are novel or unknown genes that are mainly located within INDEL regions. Our results highlight the importance of sequencing QTL regions in the respective donor parent, as important genes might not be present in the current reference genomes.

  5. Comparative effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on glucose uptake and lactate production in the perfused working rat heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronau, L.H. Jr.; Merin, R.G.; Aboulish, E.; Steenberg, M.L.; Maljorda, A.

    1986-01-01

    It has been suggested that at equivalent therapeutic concentrations, lidocaine and bupivacaine may have different cardiotoxic potency. In the isolated working rat heart preparation, the effect of a range of lidocaine and bupivacaine concentrations on glucose uptake and lactate production (LP) were observed. Insulin was added, 10 μ/L, to Ringer's solution containing 3 H-labeled glucose to measure the glycolytic flux (GF). The effect of the local anesthetics on LP at the indicated concentrations were similar. Lidocaine appears to depress the glycolytic flux from exogenous glucose to a lesser degree. Bupivacaine, 10 mg/L, depresses VO 2 to a greater degree than does lidocaine, 40 mg/L

  6. Application of false discovery rate control in the assessment of decrease of FDG uptake in early Alzheimer dementia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Hye Jin; Jang, Myung Jin; Kang, Won Jun; Lee, Jae Sung; Kang, Eun Joo; Lee, Kang Uk; Woo, Jong In; Lee, Myung Chul; Cho, Sang Soo

    2003-01-01

    Determining an appropriate thresholding is crucial for PDG PET analysis since strong control of Type I error could fail to find pathological differences between early Alzheimer' disease (AD) patients and healthy normal controls. We compared the SPM results on FDG PET imaging of early AD using uncorrected p-value, random-field based corrected p-value and false discovery rate (FDR) control. Twenty-eight patients (66±7 years old) with early AD and 18 age-matched normal controls (68±6 years old) underwent FDG brain PET. To identify brain regions with hypo-metabolism in group or individual patient compared to normal controls, group images or each patient's image was compared with normal controls using the same fixed p-value of 0.001 on uncorrected thresholding, random-field based corrected thresholding and FDR control. The number of hypo-metabolic voxels was smallest in corrected p-value method, largest in uncorrected p-value method and intermediate in FDG thresholding in group analysis. Three types of result pattern were found. The first was that corrected p-value did yield any voxel positive but FDR gave a few significantly hypometabolic voxels (8/28, 29%). The second was that both corrected p-value and FDR did not yield any positive region but numerous positive voxels were found with the threshold of uncorrected p-values (6/28, 21%). The last was that FDR was detected as many positive voxels as uncorrected p-value method (14/28, 50%). Conclusions FDR control could identify hypo-metabolic areas in group or individual patients with early AD. We recommend FDR control instead of uncorrected or random-field corrected thresholding method to find the areas showing hypometabolism especially in small group or individual analysis of FDG PET

  7. A Clinical Study on {sup 125}IT{sub 3} Resin Uptake Rate and Serum Thyroxin(T{sub 4}) in Hyperthyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MooN, Ern Soo; Park, Yoh Han; Cho, Chang Ho; Park, In Soo; Lee, Chong Suk; Lee, Hak Choong [National Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1978-09-15

    Hyperthyroidism may be defined as those clinical conditions which result from an increase in the circulating levels of one or both thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism in broad sense could be classified with toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter on the basis of the circulating thyroid hormone levels. For this study, the subject included 94 cases with hyperthyroidism were presented in 77 with toxic diffuse goiter, 8 with toxic adenomatous goiter, and 9 with toxic multinodular goiter on the levels of {sup 125}IT{sub 3} resin uptake rate and serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}). The observed results were as follows: 1) In the cases of hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter, and toxic multinodular goiter, 20.21% of the patients were male and 79.79% female. The majority of the patients were in 2nd to 4th decades of their lives. 2) There were objective signs clearly manifested in hyperthyroidism including toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter which were rare in the multinodular goiter. The clinical signs in toxic diffuse and toxic adenomatous goiter included wide pulse pressure, tachycardia, systolic murmur, exophthalmos, tremor and warm skin etc. 3) The most frequent complaints of the patients with hyperthyroidism were palpitation, weight loss, increased appetite, perspiration, heat intolerance, nervousness, exertional dyspnea, and menstrual disturbance etc. There was no clear difference in the incidence of symptoms between toxic diffuse goiter and toxic adenomatous goiter, but there was clear difference between toxic multinodular goiter. 4) Considering of results of {sup 125}IT{sub 3} resin uptake rate and serum T{sub 4} level in toxic diffuse goiter, toxic adenomatous goiter and toxic multinodular goiter, {sup 125}IT{sub 3} resin uptake rate was 49.15+-9.94% (mean) and serum T{sub 4} 21.29+-7.04 ug/dl (mean) in toxic diffuse goiter. In toxic multinodular goiter, {sup 125}I T{sub 3} resin uptake

  8. Comparative study of uptake and washout of 99mTcN(NOEt)2 with 99mTc-MIBI in human cervical carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing Shi'an; Zhang Yongxue; An Rui

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to investigate the cellular kinetics of bis (N-ethoxy-N-ethyl dithiocarbamato) nitrido 99m Tc(V) [ 99m TcN (NOEt) 2 ] in human cervical carcinoma cell line Hela and to compare it with that of 99m Tc hexakis-2- methoxyisobutyl isonitrile ( 99m Tc-MIBI), and hence to define the possible clinical value of 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 in tumor imaging. Methods: Using radionuclide tracer technique, 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 and 99m Tc-MIBI were incubated with human cervical carcinoma cell lines Hela at 37 degree C and at 22 degree C respectively. At several incubation times, the uptake and washout characteristics of the radiotracers in human cervical carcinoma cell line Hela were investigated and compared. Results: The maximum uptake of 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 in Hela was 46.15% and that of 99m Tc-MIBI was 12.6% (P 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 after 5 min incubation in human cervical carcinoma cell line Hela was 65% of the total uptake, while that of 99m Tc-MIBI was 50% of the total uptake (P 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 was retained in the Hela cells at one hour while 56.67% of 99m Tc-MIBI was retained (P 99m Tc-MIBI, the cellular kinetics of 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 was not temperature-dependent (the cellular kinetics is similar at 37 degree C and at 22 degree C, P>0.05). Conclusions: In vitro data suggest that 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 may be a better tracer than 99m Tc-MIBI in tumor imaging and 99m TcN(NOEt) 2 has potential application in clinical use

  9. (18)F-FDG dynamic PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma: patterns of tracer uptake and correlation with bone marrow plasma cell infiltration rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachpekidis, Christos; Mai, Elias K; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Hillengass, Jens; Hose, Dirk; Pan, Leyun; Haberkorn, Uwe; Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss, Antonia

    2015-06-01

    The value of F-FDG PET in the diagnostic approach of multiple myeloma (MM) remains incompletely elicited. Little is known about the kinetics of F-FDG in the bone marrow and extramedullary sites in MM. This study aimed to evaluate quantitative data on kinetics and distribution patterns of F-FDG in MM patients with regard to pelvic bone marrow plasma cell infiltration. The study included 40 patients with primary MM. Dynamic PET/CT scanning of the lower lumbar spine and pelvis was performed after the administration of F-FDG. Whole-body PET/CT studies were performed. Sites of focal increased tracer uptake were considered as highly suggestive of myelomatous involvement after taking into account the patient history and CT findings. Bone marrow of the os ilium without pathologic tracer accumulation served as reference. The evaluation of dynamic PET/CT studies was based in addition to the conventional visual (qualitative) assessment, on semiquantitative (SUV) calculations, as well as on absolute quantitative estimations after application of a 2-tissue compartment model and a noncompartmental approach. F-FDG quantitative information and corresponding distribution patterns were correlated with pelvic bone marrow plasma cell infiltration. Fifty-two myelomatous lesions were detected in the pelvis. All parameters in suspected MM lesions ranged in significantly higher levels than in reference tissue (P PET/CT imaging demonstrated 4 patterns of tracer uptake; these are as follows: negative, focal, diffuse, and mixed (focal/diffuse) tracer uptake. Patients with a mixed pattern of radiotracer uptake had the highest mean plasma cell infiltration rate in their bone marrow, whereas those with negative PET/CT scans demonstrated the lowest bone marrow plasma cell infiltration. In total, 265 focal myeloma-indicative F-FDG-avid lesions were detected, 129 of which correlated with low-dose CT osteolytic findings. No significant correlation between the number of focal lesions detected in PET

  10. Comparative effect of lidocaine and bupivacaine on glucose uptake and lactate production in the perfused working rat heart

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronau, L.H. Jr.; Merin, R.G.; Aboulish, E.; Steenberg, M.L.; Maljorda, A.

    1986-03-01

    It has been suggested that at equivalent therapeutic concentrations, lidocaine and bupivacaine may have different cardiotoxic potency. In the isolated working rat heart preparation, the effect of a range of lidocaine and bupivacaine concentrations on glucose uptake and lactate production (LP) were observed. Insulin was added, 10 ..mu../L, to Ringer's solution containing /sup 3/H-labeled glucose to measure the glycolytic flux (GF). The effect of the local anesthetics on LP at the indicated concentrations were similar. Lidocaine appears to depress the glycolytic flux from exogenous glucose to a lesser degree. Bupivacaine, 10 mg/L, depresses VO/sub 2/ to a greater degree than does lidocaine, 40 mg/L.

  11. Comparative study of P uptake and utilization from P fertilizers by Chilean wheat genotypes in volcanic ash soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pino, I.; Parada, A.M.; Zapata, F.; Navia, M.; Luzio, W.

    2002-01-01

    The intensification of the agricultural production in Southern Chile demand the application of P fertilizers to volcanic ash soils for optimum plant growth and crop yields. Due to the high P sorption capacities of these soils, high amounts of water-soluble phosphatic fertilizers need to be applied. Therefore, the direct application of locally available Bahia Inglesa phosphate rock has been utilized to supply P to crops in these acid soils. Phosphate rock is a very efficient P input for crops with long growth cycles or crop rotations nevertheless water-soluble P fertilizers must still be applied to crops of short growth cycle. Combined with these strategic P inputs, the use of acid-tolerant and P-efficient genotypes can further contribute to agricultural sustainability. Greenhouse studies were undertaken to explore and identify genotypic variations in P efficiency of wheat grown in Andisols of Southern Chile. 32 P isotopic techniques were utilized to measure the uptake of P from triple superphosphate, a water-soluble P fertilizer and the locally available Bahia Inglesa phosphate rock. Substantial genotypic variations in P use efficiency were found among the Chilean wheat genotypes tested. The utilization of the 32 P isotopic techniques enabled to quantify the P taken up from the P fertilizer and the assessment of differences among the genotypes. Significant genotypic differences were obtained in the P uptake from the local phosphate rock Bahia Inglesa. Much higher applications of phosphate rock were required in Santa Barbara soil series (Andisol) due to its high P retention. A sustainable strategy for agricultural production in the Andisols of Chile would therefore, be the combined utilization of those efficient wheat genotypes and the local phosphate rock Bahia Inglesa. As P efficiency is a multi-faceted trait, which interacts with a range of environmental factors, further field-testing and validation is required accompanied by in depth studies to assess the

  12. Opposite Effects of the Spinach Food Matrix on Lutein Bioaccessibility and Intestinal Uptake Lead to Unchanged Bioavailability Compared to Pure Lutein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margier, Marielle; Buffière, Caroline; Goupy, Pascale; Remond, Didier; Halimi, Charlotte; Caris-Veyrat, Catherine; Borel, Patrick; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2018-06-01

    Food matrix is generally believed to alter carotenoid bioavailability, but its effect on xanthophylls is usually limited. This study thus aims to decipher the digestion-absorption process of lutein in the presence or not of a food matrix. Lutein transfer to gastric-like lipid droplets or artificial mixed micelles was assessed when lutein was added to test meals either as a pure molecule ((all-E)-lutein) or in canned spinach ((Z) + (all-E)-lutein). The obtained mixed micelles were delivered to Caco-2 cells to evaluate lutein uptake. Finally postprandial plasma lutein responses were compared in minipigs after the two test meals. Lutein transfer to gastric-like lipid droplets and to mixed micelles was higher when lutein was added in spinach than when it was added as pure lutein (+614% and +147%, respectively, p < 0.05). Conversely, lutein uptake was less effective when micellar lutein was from a meal containing spinach than from a meal containing its pure form (-55%, p < 0.05). In minipigs, postprandial lutein response was delayed with spinach but not significantly different after the two test meals. Opposite effects at the micellarization and intestinal cell uptake steps explain the lack of effect of spinach matrix on lutein bioavailability. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Transfection efficiency and uptake process of polyplexes in human lung endothelial cells: a comparative study in non-polarized and polarized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennesson, Eric; Erbacher, Patrick; Piller, Véronique; Kieda, Claudine; Midoux, Patrick; Pichon, Chantal

    2005-06-01

    Following systemic administration, polyplexes must cross the endothelium barrier to deliver genes to the target cells underneath. To design an efficient gene delivery system into lung epithelium, we evaluated capture and transfection efficiencies of DNA complexed with either Jet-PEI (PEI-polyplexes) or histidylated polylysine (His-polyplexes) in human lung microvascular endothelial cells (HLMEC) and tracheal epithelial cells. After optimizing growth conditions to obtain a tight HLMEC monolayer, we characterized uptake of polyplexes by flow cytometry and evaluated their transfection efficiency. Polyplexes were formulated as small particles. YOYO-labelled plasmid fluorescence intensity and luciferase activity were used as readouts for uptake and gene expression, respectively. PEI-polyplexes were more efficiently taken up than His-polyplexes by both non-polarized (2-fold) and polarized HLMEC (10-fold). They were mainly internalized by a clathrin-dependent pathway whatever the cell state. In non-polarized cells, His-polyplexes entered also mainly via a clathrin-dependent pathway but with an involvement of cholesterol. The cell polarization decreased this way and a clathrin-independent pathway became predominant. PEI-polyplexes transfected more efficiently HLMEC than His-polyplexes (10(7) vs. 10(5) relative light units (RLU)/mg of proteins) with a more pronounced difference in polarized cells. In contrast, no negative effect of the cell polarization was observed with tracheal epithelial cells in which both polyplexes had comparable efficiency. We show that the efficiency of polyplex uptake by HLMEC and their internalization mechanism are polymer-dependent. By contrast with His-polyplexes, the HLMEC polarization has little influence on the uptake process and on the transfection efficiency of PEI-polyplexes. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Influence of body size, metabolic rate and life history stage on the uptake and excretion of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) by invasive sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Laura R; Long, Tristan A F; Wilkie, Michael P

    2018-01-01

    Invasive sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) are controlled in the Great Lakes using the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM), which is applied to streams infested with larval lamprey. However, lamprey that survive treatments (residuals) remain a challenge because they may subsequently undergo metamorphosis into parasitic juvenile animals that migrate downstream to the Great Lakes, where they feed on important sport and commercial fishes. The goal of this study was to determine if body size and life stage could potentially influence sea lamprey tolerance to TFM by influencing patterns of TFM uptake and elimination. Because mass specific rates of oxygen consumption (M˙O 2 ) are lower in larger compared to smaller lamprey, we predicted that TFM uptake would be negatively correlated to body size, suggesting that large larvae would be more tolerant to TFM exposure. Accordingly, TFM uptake and M˙O 2 were measured in larvae ranging in size from 0.2-4.2g using radio-labelled TFM ( 14 C-TFM) and static respirometry. Both were inversely proportional to wet mass (M), and could be described usingthe allometric power relationship: Y=aM b , in which M˙O 2 =1.86M 0.53 and TFM Uptake=7.24M 0.34 . We also predicted that body size would extend to rates of TFM elimination, which was measured following the administration of 14 C-TFM (via intraperitoneal injection). However, there were no differences in the half-lives of elimination of TFM (T 1/2 -TFM). There were also no differences in M˙O 2 or TFM uptake amongst size-matched larval, metamorphosing (stages 6-7), or post-metamorphic (juvenile) sea lamprey. However, the T 1/2 -TFM was significantly lower in larval than post-metamorphic lamprey (juvenile), indicating the larval lamprey cleared TFM more efficiently than juvenile lamprey. We conclude that larger larval sea lamprey are more likely to survive TFM treatments suggesting that body size might be an important variable to consider when treating streams with TFM to

  15. High air-sea CO 2 uptake rates in nearshore and shelf areas of Southern Greenland: Temporal and spatial variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rysgaard, Søren; Mortensen, J.; Juul-Pedersen, T.

    2012-01-01

    significant correlation between average annual gross primary production and annual air-sea flux during 2005-2010, which suggests that regulation of pCO 2 in the fjord is more complex. Despite three confined periods with supersaturated pCO 2 conditions in surface waters during 2005-2010, Godthåbsfjord can......The present study is based on hourly samplings of wind speed, monthly sampling sessions of temperature, salinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, alkalinity, nutrients, primary productivity and vertical export in the outer sill region (station GF3) of a sub-arctic SW Greenland fjord (Godthåbsfjord......) through 2005-2010. Air-sea CO 2 fluxes varied at GF3 from c. -20gCm -2month -1 (uptake from the atmosphere) to 25gCm -2month -1 (release to the atmosphere) during 2005-10. The average annual air-sea CO 2 flux of -83 to -108gCm -2yr -1 was within the range of the local gross annual primary productivity...

  16. Measurement of Passive Uptake Rates for Volatile Organic Compounds on Commercial Thermal Desorption Tubes and the Effect of Ozone on Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Parra, Amanda [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Russell, Marion [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Lee, Wen-Yee [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Diffusive or passive sampling methods using commercially filled axial-sampling thermal desorption tubes are widely used for measuring volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in air. The passive sampling method provides a robust, cost effective way to measure air quality with time-averaged concentrations spanning up to a week or more. Sampling rates for VOCs can be calculated using tube geometry and Fick’s Law for ideal diffusion behavior or measured experimentally. There is evidence that uptake rates deviate from ideal and may not be constant over time. Therefore, experimentally measured sampling rates are preferred. In this project, a calibration chamber with a continuous stirred tank reactor design and constant VOC source was combined with active sampling to generate a controlled dynamic calibration environment for passive samplers. The chamber air was augmented with a continuous source of 45 VOCs ranging from pentane to diethyl phthalate representing a variety of chemical classes and physiochemical properties. Both passive and active samples were collected on commercially filled Tenax TA thermal desorption tubes over an 11-day period and used to calculate passive sampling rates. A second experiment was designed to determine the impact of ozone on passive sampling by using the calibration chamber to passively load five terpenes on a set of Tenax tubes and then exposing the tubes to different ozone environments with and without ozone scrubbers attached to the tube inlet. During the sampling rate experiment, the measured diffusive uptake was constant for up to seven days for most of the VOCs tested but deviated from linearity for some of the more volatile compounds between seven and eleven days. In the ozone experiment, both exposed and unexposed tubes showed a similar decline in terpene mass over time indicating back diffusion when uncapped tubes were transferred to a clean environment but there was no indication of significant loss by ozone reaction.

  17. Screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for gestational diabetes mellitus in primary versus secondary care: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O Dea, Angela

    2014-01-17

    The risks associated with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are well recognized, and there is increasing evidence to support treatment of the condition. However, clear guidance on the ideal approach to screening for GDM is lacking. Professional groups continue to debate whether selective screening (based on risk factors) or universal screening is the most appropriate approach. Additionally, there is ongoing debate about what levels of glucose abnormalities during pregnancy respond best to treatment and which maternal and neonatal outcomes benefit most from treatment. Furthermore, the implications of possible screening options on health care costs are not well established. In response to this uncertainty there have been repeated calls for well-designed, randomised trials to determine the efficacy of screening, diagnosis, and management plans for GDM. We describe a randomised controlled trial to investigate screening uptake rates and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening in primary versus secondary care settings. The objective of this study is to assess screening uptake rates, and the clinical and cost effectiveness of screening for GDM in primary versus secondary care.

  18. Clinical study of radioisotope uptake mechanisms in 33 brain lesions by comparative use of Na131I and SAIR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsette, R.E.; Claeys, L.

    1975-01-01

    It is suggested that an isotope of small molecular size, not bound to proteins (NaI), would pass more easily into little-differentiated tumours and vascular syndromes due chiefly to a lesion of the hematoencephalic barrier (HEB). On the other hand iodinated serumalbumine (SAIR), a large organic molecule accumulating in abnormal extracellular spaces, should in principle be a better indicator in non-primitive tumours and highly differentiated tumours of the SNC. The clinical study reported confirms this hypothesis. Non-primitive tumours, meningiomas, metastases, sarcomas, are shown more clearly by SAIR (especially in meningiomas, nearly 90% of cases). In non-primitive tumours the difference in behaviour between NaI and SAIR does seem to depend on the degree of differentiation of the tumour. Thus in so-called benign gliomas the NaI uptake is greater, whereas in highly differentiated gliomas the advantage goes to SAIR. In one case of circulation deficiency a vascular type of hyperfixation was observed with NaI, while SAIR showed practically nothing [fr

  19. Comparative evaluation of three diphosphonates: in vitro adsorption (C-14 labeled) and in vivo osteogenic uptake (Tc-99m complexed)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.; Ferguson, D.L.; Tofe, A.J.; Bevan, J.A.; Michaels, S.E.

    1980-01-01

    We have investigated the in vitro adsorption of three C-14-labeled diphosphonates on calcium phosphate. The three are 1-hydroxy[1- 14 C]ethylidene diphosphonate (C-14 HEDP), [ 14 C]methylenediphosphonate (C-14 MDP), and hydroxy[ 14 C]-methylenediphosphonate (C-14 HMDP). All three adsorbed significantly more, per mole of calcium, on amorphous calcium phosphate than on crystalline hydroxyapatite. Among the three diphosphonates, C-14 HMDP adsorbed-on both amorphous and crystalline calcium phosphate-to a greater degree than did the other two bone-seeking agents. Moreover, when HMDP was complexed with Sn(II) and Tc-99m, it produced a significantly higher uptake of Tc-99m, per mg of calcium, in an isolated in vivo site of osteogenesis. The mechanisms of adsorption are discussed relative to the hydroxyl group on the diphosphonate, to the solubility of the calcium salts of the diphosphonates, and to the form of the calcium phosphate. These studies form a working rationale for the clinically observed high contrast obtained with Tc-99m HMDP between normal bone and soft tissue, and between normal and abnormal bone

  20. Facility and home based HIV Counseling and Testing: a comparative analysis of uptake of services by rural communities in southwestern Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerra Ranieri

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Uganda, public human immunodeficiency virus (HIV Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT services are mainly provided through the facility based model, although the home based approach is being promoted as a strategy for improving access to VCT. However the uptake of VCT varies according to service delivery model and is influenced by a number of factors. The aim of this study therefore, was to compare predictors for uptake of facility and home based VCT in a rural context. Methods A longitudinal study with cross-sectional investigative phases was conducted at two sites (Rugando and Kabingo in southwestern Uganda between November 2007 (baseline and March 2008 (follow up. During the baseline visit, facility based VCT was offered at the main health centre in Rugando while home based VCT was offered at the household level in Kabingo and a mixed survey questionnaire administered to the respondents. The results presented in this paper are derived from only the baseline data. Results Nine hundred ninety four (994 respondents were interviewed, of whom 500 received facility based VCT in Rugando and 494 home based VCT in Kabingo during the baseline visit. The respondents had a mean age of 32.2 years (SD 10.9 and were mainly female (68 percent. Clients who received facility based VCT were less likely to be residents of the more rural households (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR = 0.14, 95% CI 0.07, 0.22. The clients who received home based VCT were less likely to report having an STI symptom (aOR = 0.63, 95% CI 0.46, 0.86, and more likely to be worried about discrimination if they contracted AIDS (aOR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.22, 2.61. Conclusion The uptake of VCT provided through either the facility or home based models is influenced by client characteristics such as proximity to service delivery points, HIV related symptoms, and fear of discrimination in rural Uganda. Interventions that seek to improve uptake of VCT should provide potential clients

  1. ChargeOut! : discounted cash flow compared with traditional machine-rate analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ted Bilek

    2008-01-01

    ChargeOut!, a discounted cash-flow methodology in spreadsheet format for analyzing machine costs, is compared with traditional machine-rate methodologies. Four machine-rate models are compared and a common data set representative of logging skidders’ costs is used to illustrate the differences between ChargeOut! and the machine-rate methods. The study found that the...

  2. A study of personality in children aged 8-12 years: Comparing self- and partents' ratings

    OpenAIRE

    Quartier, V.; Rossier, J.

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate personality development with children aged 8 to 12. For this purpose, Children's self-perceptions were compared to parent's ratings. 506 children and their parents completed a selection of 38 questions from the Hierarchical Personality Inventory for Children (HiPIC). Results showed an age-related increase in the structural congruence of children's ratings compared to parents' ratings and a highly significant increase in the reliabilities of both parents'...

  3. Efficiency of nitrate uptake in spinach : impact of external nitrate concentration and relative growth rate on nitrate influx and efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Steege, MW; Stulen, [No Value; Wiersema, PK; Posthumus, F; Vaalburg, W

    1999-01-01

    Regulation of nitrate influx and efflux in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L., cv. Subito), was studied in short-term label experiments with N-13- and N-15-nitrate. Nitrate fluxes were examined in relation to the N demand for growth, defined as relative growth rate (RGR) times plant N concentration.

  4. Impact of policy support on uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement activities and the quality of care for Indigenous Australians: a comparative case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Ross; Matthews, Veronica; Larkins, Sarah; Thompson, Sandra; Burgess, Paul; Weeramanthri, Tarun; Bailie, Jodie; Cunningham, Frances; Kwedza, Ru; Clark, Louise

    2017-10-05

    To examine the impact of state/territory policy support on (1) uptake of evidence-based continuous quality improvement (CQI) activities and (2) quality of care for Indigenous Australians. Mixed-method comparative case study methodology, drawing on quality-of-care audit data, documentary evidence of policies and strategies and the experience and insights of stakeholders involved in relevant CQI programmes. We use multilevel linear regression to analyse jurisdictional differences in quality of care. Indigenous primary healthcare services across five states/territories of Australia. 175 Indigenous primary healthcare services. A range of national and state/territory policy and infrastructure initiatives to support CQI, including support for applied research. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) Trends in the consistent uptake of evidence-based CQI tools available through a research-based CQI initiative (the Audit and Best Practice in Chronic Disease programme) and (ii) quality of care (as reflected in adherence to best practice guidelines). Progressive uptake of evidence-based CQI activities and steady improvements or maintenance of high-quality care occurred where there was long-term policy and infrastructure support for CQI. Where support was provided but not sustained there was a rapid rise and subsequent fall in relevant CQI activities. Health authorities should ensure consistent and sustained policy and infrastructure support for CQI to enable wide-scale and ongoing improvement in quality of care and, subsequently, health outcomes. It is not sufficient for improvement initiatives to rely on local service managers and clinicians, as their efforts are strongly mediated by higher system-level influences. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. The rate of uptake of cardiac glycosides into human cultured cells and the effects of chloroquine on it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algharably, N; Owler, D; Lamb, J F

    1986-10-15

    HeLa cells grown on Petri dishes were either pulse labelled with various cardiac glycosides or grown in low concentrations of them for up to 2 days; either in the presence of chloroquine or not. The cells were then homogenised and the cell free homogenate layered on a continuous sucrose gradient; and the glycoside content and that of various markers measured. In another series of experiments HeLa cells were grown on plastic beads under the above conditions and then the content of glycosides and of some marker enzymes measured. The rate of internalisation of ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin from the plasma membrane preparation produced by the bead method is at 9% hr-1, similar to the rate of loss of digoxin and digitoxin from whole cells but much faster than that of ouabain. In the sucrose gradient experiments it was found that [3H]ouabain, digoxin and digitoxin all initially co-distribute with the plasma membrane marker, 5'-nucleotidase, and then leave this fraction of the homogenate at a fast rate when kept at 37 degrees, to co-distribute with the lysosomal marker, beta-hexosaminidase. At 2 degrees the ouabain remains co-distributed with the plasma membrane marker. The rate of transfer is estimated to be some 90% hr-1, much faster than previously thought. Chloroquine causes an increased retention of digoxin and digitoxin in the lysosomal fraction of the homogenate. These results are best explained by supposing that the sodium pump-glycoside complex rapidly enters a region of the peripheral cytoplasm, and that this region then controls the subsequent exit of digoxin and digitoxin from the cell. The main barrier for ouabain occurs at a stage later than this. The consequences of this model on other aspects of pump activity is discussed.

  6. The Effects of Source and Rate of Nitrogen Fertilizer and Irrigation on Nitrogen Uptake of Silage Corn and Residual Soil Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Khodshenas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Growing irrigation demand for corn production, along side with draws of ground water from stressed water sources, should be limited due to scarce resources and environmental protection aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer applied at rates higher than the optimum requirement for crop production may cause an increase in nitrate accumulation below the root zone and pose a risk of nitrate leaching. Improving nitrogen management for corn production has a close relation with soil water content. In this study, we investigated the effects of source and rate of nitrogen fertilizer and irrigation on silage corn production and nitrogen concentration, nitrogen uptake and residual soil nitrate in two depths. Materials and Methods: This experiment carried out as split spli- plot in a Randomized Complete Block design (RCBD with three replications, in Arak station (Agricultural research center of markazi province, 34.12 N, 49.7 E; 1715 m above mean sea level during three years. The soil on the site was classified as a Calcaric Regosols (loamy skeletal over fragmental, carbonatic, thermic, calcixerollic xerochrepts. Main plots were irrigation treatments based on 70, 100 and 130 mm cumulative evaporation from A class Pan. Sub plots were two kinds of nitrogen fertilizers (Urea and Ammonium nitrate and sub sub-plots were five levels of nitrogen rates (0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 kgN.ha-1. Nitrogen fertilizer rates were split into three applications: 1/3 was applied at planting, 1/3 at 7-9 leaf stage and 1/3 remainder was applied before tasseling as a banding method. Phosphorus was applied at a rate of 150 kg.ha-1in each season and potassium at a rate of 30kg.ha-1 (only in first growth season based on soil testing as triple super phosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. The corn variety of single cross 704 was planted at 20 m2 plots. The plants were sampled at dough stage from the two rows and weighted in each plot. Plant samples were dried in a forced air

  7. Monolayer to MTS: using SEM, HIM, TEM and SERS to compare morphology, nanosensor uptake and redox potential in MCF7 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, L. E.; Bell, A. P.; Harrison, D. J.; Campbell, C. J.

    2015-06-01

    Cellular redox potential is important for the control and regulation of a vast number of processes occurring in cells. When the fine redox potential balance within cells is disturbed it can have serious consequences such as the initiation or progression of disease. It is thought that a redox gradient develops in cancer tumours where the peripheral regions are well oxygenated and internal regions, further from vascular blood supply, become starved of oxygen and hypoxic. This makes treatment of these areas more challenging as, for example, radiotherapy relies on the presence of oxygen. Currently techniques for quantitative analysis of redox gradients are limited. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanosensors (NS) have been used to detect redox potential in a quantitative manner in monolayer cultured cells with many advantages over other techniques. This technique has considerable potential for use in multicellular tumour spheroids (MTS) - a three dimensional (3D) cell model which better mimics the tumour environment and gradients that develop. MTS are a more realistic model of the in vivo cellular morphology and environment and are becoming an increasingly popular in vitro model, replacing traditional monolayer culture. Imaging techniques such as transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and helium ion microscopy (HIM) were used to investigate differences in morphology and NS uptake in monolayer culture compared to MTS. After confirming NS uptake, the first SERS measurements revealing quantitative information on redox potential in MTS were performed.

  8. Influence of Poultry Manure Rates and Spacing on Growth, Yield, Nutrient Concentration , Uptake and Proximate Composition of Onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehizogie Joyce FALODUN

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Plant spacing determines to a greater extent crop performance in terms of growth and yield. The production of crop with organic fertilizer also plays a vital role in organic agriculture. Field studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of spacing and poultry manure on the growth, yield and quality of onion. Three spacing regimes were carried out consisting of (15cm x 15 cm , 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm and four levels of poultry manure at ( 0, 5, 10 and 15 t /ha . The effects of spacing and poultry manure were evaluated for 2 years based on plant growth, yield, nutrient concentration, uptake and proximate composition of onion plant. Leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights were significantly increased by the wider spacing of 20 cm x 20 cm and 25 cm x 25 cm, compared with the narrower spacing of 15cm x 15 cm in both seasons. However, highest total dry yield (1.82 and 1.58 t /ha, shoot yield (2.31 and 1.32 t /ha and total fresh yield (13.69 and 12.55 t/ha were obtained with the spacing of 20cm x 20 cm in both years. Similarly, application of poultry manure increased leaf thickness, bulb and shoot fresh weights and yields compared with the control. Generally, using 10 t/ha poultry manure has a superior effect on proximate composition and most of growth parameters and yield components achieved the highest nutrient concentrations and uptake on most of the macro and micronutrients in leaves and bulbs as compared with the control in both years.

  9. Factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuda, Seiei; Takahashi, Wakoh; Takagi, Shigeharu; Fujii, Hirofumi; Ide, Michiru; Shohtsu, Akira

    1998-01-01

    The intestine is a well-known site of physiological 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in positron emission tomography (PET). To identify factors influencing physiological FDG uptake in the intestine, the intensity of FDG uptake was evaluated in a total of 1,068 healthy adults. Non-attenuation-corrected whole-body PET images were obtained for all subjects and visually evaluated. Subjects were then classified into two groups according to the intensity of intestinal FDG uptake. Sex, age, presence or absence of constipation, and serum glucose, hemoglobin A 1 c, and free fatty acid levels were compared between the two groups. High intestinal FDG uptake was observed at an overall rate of 11.0%. Sex (female), age, and bowel condition (constipation) were found to affect intestinal FDG uptake. The factors we identified lead to further questions the relationship between intestinal motility and glucose uptake that warrant further study. (author)

  10. Peer Assessment in the Digital Age: A Meta-Analysis Comparing Peer and Teacher Ratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongli; Xiong, Yao; Zang, Xiaojiao; Kornhaber, Mindy L.; Lyu, Youngsun; Chung, Kyung Sun; Suen, Hoi K.

    2016-01-01

    Given the wide use of peer assessment, especially in higher education, the relative accuracy of peer ratings compared to teacher ratings is a major concern for both educators and researchers. This concern has grown with the increase of peer assessment in digital platforms. In this meta-analysis, using a variance-known hierarchical linear modelling…

  11. The Comparative Ratings and Indices as the Instruments of Measurement of Political Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Анна Олеговна Ярославцева

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the given article the main comparative ratings and indices of measurement of political stability in different countries are analyzed. The author proves that despite the broad acknowledgement and heuristic value of these ratings they often lack objectivity when depict situation in Russia.

  12. Structural Covariates of Homicide Rates : A European City Cross-National Comparative Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McCall, Patricia L.; Nieuwbeerta, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Most previous empirical comparative studies of homicide examine homicide rates across nations or subnational units within a single country. This study is the first in which a European cross-national city comparison is made. The article aims to provide insight into the extent that the homicide rates

  13. Screening of plant species for comparative uptake abilities of radioactive Co, Rb, Sr and Cs from soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouthu, S.; Arie, T.; Ambe, S.; Yamaguchi, I.

    1997-01-01

    In case of radioactive fallout, persistence of long lived nuclides in soil and subsequent transfer into the food chain through plants over a long period is the key factor. The possibility of 'phytoremediation'is suggested to reduce the radionuclides in soil. To exploit the natural potential of some plants in absorbing or accumulating certain radionuclides and depleting the soil radioactivity, thirty-two plant species were tested under laboratory conditions for their comparative ability in taking up radioactive Rb, Co, Sr and Cs. Broccoli and tomato for Co; tomato, chard, sunflower and cucumber for Rb; cucumber, sunflower and turnip (Kyona) for Sr; and tomato, chard and cucumber for Cs were found to be effective compared to other species tested. (author)

  14. Screening of plant species for comparative uptake abilities of radioactive Co, Rb, Sr and Cs from soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouthu, S; Arie, T; Ambe, S; Yamaguchi, I [Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    In case of radioactive fallout, persistence of long lived nuclides in soil and subsequent transfer into the food chain through plants over a long period is the key factor. The possibility of `phytoremediation`is suggested to reduce the radionuclides in soil. To exploit the natural potential of some plants in absorbing or accumulating certain radionuclides and depleting the soil radioactivity, thirty-two plant species were tested under laboratory conditions for their comparative ability in taking up radioactive Rb, Co, Sr and Cs. Broccoli and tomato for Co; tomato, chard, sunflower and cucumber for Rb; cucumber, sunflower and turnip (Kyona) for Sr; and tomato, chard and cucumber for Cs were found to be effective compared to other species tested. (author). 13 refs.

  15. Comparative measurement of sup(99m)Tc-thyroid-uptake (TcTU) using two different methods of data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hotze, L.A.; Schmitz, R.

    1982-01-01

    A new program for automatic measurement of TcTU was developed and compared with a standard interactive method of data analysis. The new program fullfils the requirements for correct calculation of TcTU. The advantages are: reduced working load for the technician and a diminished frequency of erroneous results by improving automatisation of data handling and procedure of activity measurement as well as detailed informative dialogue with the computer without any need for special knowledge of data processing. (orig.) [de

  16. Hospital Evaluations by Social Media: A Comparative Analysis of Facebook Ratings among Performance Outliers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, McKinley; Khalilzadeh, Omid; Choy, Garry; Prabhakar, Anand M; Pandharipande, Pari V; Gazelle, G Scott

    2015-10-01

    An increasing number of hospitals and health systems utilize social media to allow users to provide feedback and ratings. The correlation between ratings on social media and more conventional hospital quality metrics remains largely unclear, raising concern that healthcare consumers may make decisions on inaccurate or inappropriate information regarding quality. The purpose of this study was to examine the extent to which hospitals utilize social media and whether user-generated metrics on Facebook(®) correlate with a Hospital Compare(®) metric, specifically 30-day all cause unplanned hospital readmission rates. This was a retrospective cross-sectional study conducted among all U.S. hospitals performing outside the confidence interval for the national average on 30-day hospital readmission rates as reported on Hospital Compare. Participants were 315 hospitals performing better than U.S. national rate on 30-day readmissions and 364 hospitals performing worse than the U.S. national rate. The study analyzed ratings of hospitals on Facebook's five-star rating scale, 30-day readmission rates, and hospital characteristics including beds, teaching status, urban vs. rural location, and ownership type. Hospitals performing better than the national average on 30-day readmissions were more likely to use Facebook than lower-performing hospitals (93.3 % vs. 83.5 %; p Facebook rating was associated with increased odds of the hospital belonging to the low readmission rate group by a factor of 5.0 (CI: 2.6-10.3, p Facebook-related variables. Hospitals with lower rates of 30-day hospital-wide unplanned readmissions have higher ratings on Facebook than hospitals with higher readmission rates. These findings add strength to the concept that aggregate measures of patient satisfaction on social media correlate with more traditionally accepted measures of hospital quality.

  17. Can thyroid parotid ratio replace radioactive iodine uptake as a new objective parameter in the evaluation of thyroid function in cases of hyperthyroidism? A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, G.; Seshadri, N.; Gupta, A.; Das, B.K.; Gambhir, S.; Pradhan, P.K.; Bhagat, J.K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) measurements are used to distinguish other causes of thyrotoxicosis from hyperthyroidism. However it is a cumbersome technique requiring patients' visit for two or more days. Thyroid to parotid ratio (TP ratio) which is a ratio of Technetium-99m pertechnetate counts in thyroid to those in parotid glands is a new objective parameter for evaluation of thyroid function. The aim of present study was to compare TP ratio with RAIU in patients of thyrotoxicosis. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 15 patients (13 males and 2 females) who were clinically and biochemically hyperthyroid. All of these patients underwent Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy followed by RAIU on two separate occasions. The technetium thyroid scan was done 20 minutes after intravenous application of 185 MBq (5 mCi) of the radiotracer. Both anterior and oblique views of the neck region were acquired under a standard large field of view gamma camera with LEAP collimation. The TP ratio was calculated from anterior view by drawing the region of interest over the thyroid and two regions of interest over each parotid gland. The counts of thyroid region were compared with each parotid and average of two sides was taken as TP ratio. The radioactive iodine uptake was estimated at 2,4,24, and 48 hours after oral administration of 925 KBq (25 microcuries) of I-131 in all patients with a thyroid probe by the standard technique. Apart from this 10 controls (5 males and 5 females) who were clinically and biochemically euthyroid were also included in the study and they underwent same studies as the cases. All patients with nodular disease of thyroid, past history of thyroiditis and parotitis were excluded from the study. Results: The scintigraphic findings in all patients revealed a diffusely concentrating thyroid gland with no evidence of hot or cold areas. The RAIU and TP ratio in both cases and controls is presented.: S.E: Standard error. There was a

  18. The Hanford Site generic component failure-rate database compared with other generic failure-rate databases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reardon, M.F.; Zentner, M.D.

    1992-11-01

    The Risk Assessment Technology Group, Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), has compiled a component failure rate database to be used during risk and reliability analysis of nonreactor facilities. Because site-specific data for the Hanford Site are generally not kept or not compiled in a usable form, the database was assembled using information from a variety of other established sources. Generally, the most conservative failure rates were chosen from the databases reviewed. The Hanford Site database has since been used extensively in fault tree modeling of many Hanford Site facilities and systems. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reasonableness of the data chosen for the Hanford Site database by comparing the values chosen with the values from the other databases

  19. A Comparative Study on the Uptake and Toxicity of Nickel Added in the Form of Different Salts to Maize Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Nie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In soil ecotoxicological studies, a toxic metal is usually added in the form of either an inorganic or organic salt with relatively high solubility. Nitrate, chloride, acetate, or sulfate are commonly considered as valid options for that aim. However, recent studies have shown that different salts of the same metal at the same cationic concentration may exhibit different toxicities to plants and soil organisms. This information should be considered when selecting data to use for developing toxicological criteria for soil environment. A comparative study was carried out to evaluate the toxicity of five nickel (Ni salts: NiCl2, NiSO4, Ni(II-citrate, Ni(CH3COO2, and Ni(II-EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetate, on maize seedlings. The plant metrics used were plant height, shoot and root biomass, leaf soluble sugars and starch, and the Ni contents of the shoots and roots. The results indicated that when Ni was added to the soil, toxicity varied with the selected anionic partner with the following toxicity ranking NiSO4 < Ni(CH3COO2 < Ni(II-citrate < NiCl2 < Ni(II-EDTA. Taking the plant-height metric as an example, the effective concentrations for 50% inhibition (EC50 were 3148 mg·kg−1 for NiSO4, 1315 mg·kg−1 for NiCl2, and 89 mg·kg−1 for Ni(II-EDTA. Compared with the Ni in the other salts, that in Ni(II-EDTA was taken up the most efficiently by the maize roots and, thus, resulted in the greatest toxic effects on the plants. Nickel generally reduced leaf soluble sugars, which indicated an effect on plant carbohydrate metabolism. The outcome of the study demonstrates that different salts of the same metal have quite different ecotoxicities. Therefore, the anionic counterpart of a potentially toxic metal cation must be taken into account in the development of ecotoxicological criteria for evaluating the soil environment, and a preferred approach of leaching soil to reduce the anionic partner should also be considered.

  20. Myosin heavy chain composition in the vastus lateralis muscle in relation to oxygen uptake and heart rate during cycling in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majerczak, J; Nieckarz, Z; Karasinski, J; Zoladz, J A

    2014-04-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between fast myosin heavy chain (MyHC2) content in the vastus lateralis and the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) increase during an incremental exercise in 38, young, healthy men. Prior to the exercise test, muscle biopsies were taken in order to evaluate the MyHC composition. It was found that during cycling performed below the lactate threshold (LT), a positive relationship between MyHC2 and the intercept of the oxygen uptake and power output (VO2-PO) relationship existed (r=0.49, P=0.002), despite no correlation between MyHC2 and the slope value of the VO2-PO relationship (r= -0.18, P=0.29). During cycling performed above the LT, MyHC2 correlated positively with the magnitude of the nonlinearity in the VO2-PO relationship; i.e. with the accumulated VO2'excess' (r=0.44, P=0.006) and peak VO2'excess' (r=0.44, P=0.006), as well as with the slope of the HR-PO relationship (r=0.49, P=0.002). We have concluded that a greater MyHC2 content in the vastus lateralis is accompanied by a higher oxygen cost of cycling during exercise performed below the LT. This seems to be related to the higher energy cost of the non-cross-bridge activities in the muscles possessing a greater proportion of MyHC2 content. In the case of heavy-intensity exercise, a higher MyHC2 content in the vastus lateralis is accompanied by greater non-linearity in the VO2-PO relationship, as well as a steeper increase in HR in the function of an increase of PO. This relationship can be explained by greater disturbances in metabolic stability in type II muscle fibres during exercise, resulting in a decrease of muscle mechanical efficiency and greater increase of heart rate at a given power output. Therefore, MyHC composition has an impact on the oxygen cost of cycling both below and above the LT.

  1. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial examining the impact of a web-based personally controlled health management system on the uptake of influenza vaccination rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Annie Y S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Online social networking and personally controlled health management systems (PCHMS offer a new opportunity for developing innovative interventions to prevent diseases of public health concern (e.g., influenza but there are few comparative studies about patterns of use and impact of these systems. Methods/Design A 2010 CONSORT-compliant randomised controlled trial with a two-group parallel design will assess the efficacy of a web-based PCHMS called Healthy.me in facilitating the uptake of influenza vaccine amongst university students and staff. Eligible participants are randomised either to obtain access to Healthy.me or a 6-month waitlist. Participants complete pre-study, post-study and monthly surveys about their health and utilisation of health services. A post-study clinical audit will be conducted to validate self-reports about influenza vaccination and visits to the university health service due to influenza-like illness (ILI amongst a subset of participants. 600 participants older than 18 years with monthly access to the Internet and email will be recruited. Participants who (i discontinue the online registration process; (ii report obtaining an influenza vaccination in 2010 before the commencement of the study; or (iii report being influenced by other participants to undertake influenza vaccination will be excluded from analysis. The primary outcome measure is the number of participants obtaining influenza vaccination during the study. Secondary outcome measures include: number of participants (i experiencing ILI symptoms, (ii absent from or experiencing impairment in work or study due to ILI symptoms, (iii using health services or medications due to ILI symptoms; (iv expressing positive or negative attitudes or experiences towards influenza vaccination, via their reasons of receiving (or not receiving influenza vaccine; and (v their patterns of usage of Healthy.me (e.g., frequency and timing of hits, duration of

  2. Protocol for a randomised controlled trial examining the impact of a web-based personally controlled health management system on the uptake of influenza vaccination rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Annie Y S; Sintchenko, Vitali; Crimmins, Jacinta; Magrabi, Farah; Gallego, Blanca; Coiera, Enrico

    2012-04-02

    Online social networking and personally controlled health management systems (PCHMS) offer a new opportunity for developing innovative interventions to prevent diseases of public health concern (e.g., influenza) but there are few comparative studies about patterns of use and impact of these systems. A 2010 CONSORT-compliant randomised controlled trial with a two-group parallel design will assess the efficacy of a web-based PCHMS called Healthy.me in facilitating the uptake of influenza vaccine amongst university students and staff. Eligible participants are randomised either to obtain access to Healthy.me or a 6-month waitlist. Participants complete pre-study, post-study and monthly surveys about their health and utilisation of health services. A post-study clinical audit will be conducted to validate self-reports about influenza vaccination and visits to the university health service due to influenza-like illness (ILI) amongst a subset of participants. 600 participants older than 18 years with monthly access to the Internet and email will be recruited. Participants who (i) discontinue the online registration process; (ii) report obtaining an influenza vaccination in 2010 before the commencement of the study; or (iii) report being influenced by other participants to undertake influenza vaccination will be excluded from analysis. The primary outcome measure is the number of participants obtaining influenza vaccination during the study. Secondary outcome measures include: number of participants (i) experiencing ILI symptoms, (ii) absent from or experiencing impairment in work or study due to ILI symptoms, (iii) using health services or medications due to ILI symptoms; (iv) expressing positive or negative attitudes or experiences towards influenza vaccination, via their reasons of receiving (or not receiving) influenza vaccine; and (v) their patterns of usage of Healthy.me (e.g., frequency and timing of hits, duration of access, uptake of specific functions). This

  3. Cellular uptake mechanism and comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects of paclitaxel–cholesterol lipid emulsion on triple-negative and non-triple-negative breast cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye J

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Jun Ye,1,2 Xuejun Xia,1,2 Wujun Dong,1,2 Huazhen Hao,1,2 Luhua Meng,1,2 Yanfang Yang,1,2 Renyun Wang,1,2 Yuanfeng Lyu,3 Yuling Liu1,2 1State Key Laboratory of Bioactive Substance and Function of Natural Medicines, 2Beijing Key Laboratory of Drug Delivery Technology and Novel Formulation, Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, 3School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China Abstract: There is no effective clinical therapy for triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs, which have high low-density lipoprotein (LDL requirements and express relatively high levels of LDL receptors (LDLRs on their membranes. In our previous study, a novel lipid emulsion based on a paclitaxel–cholesterol complex (PTX-CH Emul was developed, which exhibited improved safety and efficacy for the treatment of TNBC. To date, however, the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul have not been investigated. In order to offer powerful proof for the therapeutic effects of PTX-CH Emul, we systematically studied the cellular uptake mechanism and intracellular trafficking of PTX-CH Emul and made a comparative evaluation of antineoplastic effects on TNBC (MDA-MB-231 and non-TNBC (MCF7 cell lines through in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro antineoplastic effects and in vivo tumor-targeting efficiency of PTX-CH Emul were significantly more enhanced in MDA-MB-231-based models than those in MCF7-based models, which was associated with the more abundant expression profile of LDLR in MDA-MB-231 cells. The results of the cellular uptake mechanism indicated that PTX-CH Emul was internalized into breast cancer cells through the LDLR-mediated internalization pathway via clathrin-coated pits, localized in lysosomes, and then released into the cytoplasm, which was consistent with the internalization pathway and intracellular trafficking of native

  4. Greater glucose uptake heterogeneity in knee muscles of old compared to young men during isometric contractions detected by [18F]-FDG PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten eRudroff

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We used positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT and [18F]-FDG to test the hypothesis that glucose uptake (GU heterogeneity in skeletal muscles as a measure of heterogeneity in muscle activity is greater in old than young men when they perform isometric contractions. Six young (26 ± 6 yrs and six old (77 ± 6 yrs men performed two types of submaximal isometric contractions that required either force or position control. [18F]-FDG was injected during the task and PET/CT scans were performed immediately after the task. Within-muscle heterogeneity of knee muscles was determined by calculating the coefficient of variation (CV of GU in PET image voxels within the muscles of interest. The average GU heterogeneity (mean ± SD for knee extensors and flexors was greater for the old (35.3 ± 3.3 % than the young (28.6 ± 2.4 % (P = 0.006. Muscle volume of the knee extensors were greater for the young compared to the old men (1016 ± 163 vs. 598 ± 70 cm3, P= 0.004. In a multiple regression model, knee extensor muscle volume was a predictor (partial r = - 0.87; P = 0.001 of GU heterogeneity for old men (R2 = 0.78; P < 0.001, and MVC force predicted GU heterogeneity for young men (partial r = - 0.95, P < 0.001. The findings demonstrate that glucose uptake is more spatially variable for old than young men and especially so for old men who exhibit greater muscle atrophy.

  5. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup

    2014-01-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified...... as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than...... suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death...

  6. Higher Precision of Heart Rate Compared with VO2 to Predict Exercise Intensity in Endurance-Trained Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Victor M; den Tillaar, Roland Van; Marques, Mario C

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg) with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s(-1) with a 0.56 m·s(-1) increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) and 181 ± 13 beats·min(-1). The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99) with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L(-1) lactate thresholds). The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods. Key pointsHeart rate is used in the control of exercise intensity in endurance sports.However, few studies have quantified the precision of its relationship with oxygen uptake in highly trained runners.We evaluated twelve elite half-marathon runners during track running at various intensities and established three regressions: oxygen uptake / heart rate; heart rate / running velocity and oxygen uptake / running velocity.The three regressions presented, respectively, imprecision of 4,2%, 2,75% and 4,5% at the velocity

  7. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie H. Rose

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc κ opioid receptors (KOR in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs.

  8. Distinct Effects of Nalmefene on Dopamine Uptake Rates and Kappa Opioid Receptor Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens Following Chronic Intermittent Ethanol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jamie H.; Karkhanis, Anushree N.; Steiniger-Brach, Björn; Jones, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    The development of pharmacotherapeutics that reduce relapse to alcohol drinking in patients with alcohol dependence is of considerable research interest. Preclinical data support a role for nucleus accumbens (NAc) κ opioid receptors (KOR) in chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) exposure-induced increases in ethanol intake. Nalmefene, a high-affinity KOR partial agonist, reduces drinking in at-risk patients and relapse drinking in rodents, potentially due to its effects on NAc KORs. However, the effects of nalmefene on accumbal dopamine transmission and KOR function are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of nalmefene on dopamine transmission and KORs using fast scan cyclic voltammetry in NAc brain slices from male C57BL/6J mice following five weeks of CIE or air exposure. Nalmefene concentration-dependently reduced dopamine release similarly in air and CIE groups, suggesting that dynorphin tone may not be present in brain slices. Further, nalmefene attenuated dopamine uptake rates to a greater extent in brain slices from CIE-exposed mice, suggesting that dopamine transporter-KOR interactions may be fundamentally altered following CIE. Additionally, nalmefene reversed the dopamine-decreasing effects of a maximal concentration of a KOR agonist selectively in brain slices of CIE-exposed mice. It is possible that nalmefene may attenuate withdrawal-induced increases in ethanol consumption by modulation of dopamine transmission through KORs. PMID:27472317

  9. Comparing low frequency heart rate variability and preejection period: Two sides of a different coin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, A.D.; Willemsen, G.; Houtveen, J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the ratio of heart rate variability in the low- (LF) and high- (HF) frequency bands may capture variation in cardiac sympathetic control. Here we tested the temporal stability of the LF/HF ratio in 24-h ambulatory recordings and compared this ratio to the preejection

  10. (2008) SWJ:21-25 Comparative Studies On the Dying rate Migration

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    COMPARATIVE STUDIES ON DYEING RATE MIGRATION AND WASH FASTNESS PROPERTIES OF AZO DYES. DERIVED FROM ..... The dyeing of Cellulose Fibres Publication thrust,. London. Standard methods for determination of fastness properties of textiles and leather, 4th Edition. 1978. Soceity of dyers and ...

  11. Comparing transfusion reaction rates for various plasma types: a systematic review and meta-analysis/regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van Hout, Fabienne M A; Schipperus, Martin R; le Cessie, Saskia; Middelburg, Rutger A; Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; van der Bom, Johanna G

    2017-09-01

    We estimated rates for common plasma-associated transfusion reactions and compared reported rates for various plasma types. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of peer-reviewed articles that reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Random-effects pooled rates were calculated and compared between plasma types. Meta-regression was used to compare various plasma types with regard to their reported plasma transfusion reaction rates. Forty-eight studies reported transfusion reaction rates for fresh-frozen plasma (FFP; mixed-sex and male-only), amotosalen INTERCEPT FFP, methylene blue-treated FFP, and solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma. Random-effects pooled average rates for FFP were: allergic reactions, 92/10 5 units transfused (95% confidence interval [CI], 46-184/10 5 units transfused); febrile nonhemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTRs), 12/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 7-22/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), 6/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1-30/10 5 units transfused); transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), 1.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 1.2-2.7/10 5 units transfused); and anaphylactic reactions, 0.8/10 5 units transfused (95% CI, 0-45.7/10 5 units transfused). Risk differences between plasma types were not significant for allergic reactions, TACO, or anaphylactic reactions. Methylene blue-treated FFP led to fewer FNHTRs than FFP (risk difference = -15.3 FNHTRs/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -24.7 to -7.1 reactions/10 5 units transfused); and male-only FFP led to fewer cases of TRALI than mixed-sex FFP (risk difference = -0.74 TRALI/10 5 units transfused; 95% CI, -2.42 to -0.42 injuries/10 5 units transfused). Meta-regression demonstrates that the rate of FNHTRs is lower for methylene blue-treated compared with FFP, and the rate of TRALI is lower for male-only than for mixed-sex FFP; whereas no significant differences are observed between plasma types for allergic reactions, TACO

  12. The Concept of State Capacity: Comparative International Ratings against State Legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Gennadievich Ivanov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the given article, the author analyzes the concept of state capacity, widely popular among political scientists and international relations specialists. The author proves that the evaluations of the level of state capacity of the developing and postcommunist countries based on popular comparative ratings are generally biased because of methodological defects and discrepancy of the whole theory as well as politicization and indoctrination of the given ratings. The negative evaluations of the quality of the government and state capacity of a country could be used to discredit and delegitimize the political regime as well as substantiation of mass protests and color revolutions and a tool of information war. The author concludes that numerous comparative international ratings are often used as a tool of political influence.

  13. Apolipoprotein CIII overexpression exacerbates diet-induced obesity due to adipose tissue higher exogenous lipid uptake and retention and lower lipolysis rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Helena F; Paiva, Adriene A; Kato, Larissa S; de Oliveira, Helena C F

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common type of dyslipidemia found in obesity. However, it is not established whether primary hyperlipidemia can predispose to obesity. Evidences have suggested that proteins primarily related to plasma lipoprotein transport, such as apolipoprotein (apo) CIII and E, may significantly affect the process of body fat accumulation. We have previously observed an increased adiposity in response to a high fat diet (HFD) in mice overexpressing apoCIII. Here, we examined the potential mechanisms involved in this exacerbated response of apoCIII mice to the HFD. We measured body energy balance, tissue capacity to store exogenous lipids, lipogenesis and lipolysis rates in non-transgenic and apoCIII overexpressing mice fed a HFD during two months. Food intake, fat excretion and whole body CO2 production were similar in both groups. However, the adipose tissue mass (45 %) and leptin plasma levels (2-fold) were significantly greater in apoCIII mice. Lipogenesis rates were similar, while exogenous lipid retention was increased in perigonadal (2-fold) and brown adipose tissues (40 %) of apoCIII mice. In addition, adipocyte basal lipolysis (55 %) and in vivo lipolysis index (30 %) were significantly decreased in apoCIII mice. A fat tolerance test evidenced delayed plasma triglyceride clearance and greater transient availability of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) during the post-prandial state in the apoCIII mice plasma. Thus, apoCIII overexpression resulted in increased NEFA availability to adipose uptake and decreased adipocyte lipolysis, favoring lipid enlargement of adipose depots. We propose that plasma apoCIII levels represent a new risk factor for diet-induced obesity.

  14. Autopsy rate in suicide is low among elderly in Denmark compared with Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ylijoki-Sørensen, Seija; Boldsen, Jesper Lier; Boel, Lene Warner Thorup; Bøggild, Henrik; Lalu, Kaisa; Sajantila, Antti

    2014-11-01

    National differences in the legislation on cause and manner of death investigation are reflected in a high autopsy rate in suicides in Finland and a low corresponding rate in Denmark. The consequences for mortality statistics of these different investigation practices on deaths classified as suicides in Denmark and Finland, respectively, are not known in detail. The aim of this article was to analyse autopsy rates in deaths classified as suicides, and to identify any differences in investigation practices in deaths with a comparable cause of death, but classified as unnatural deaths other than suicide. Data from the mortality registries were summarised for the years 2000, 2005 and 2010. Autopsy rates (total, forensic and medical) were analysed with regard to deaths classified as suicide, and they were compared for three age groups (1-50 years, 51-70 years and ≥71 years) and for causes of death. Deaths classified as suicide were compared with other unnatural classifications, and comparable causes of death were coded into six subgroups: poisonings, suffocations/strangulations, firearm discharges, drowning/submersions, explosions/flames and other/unspecified causes. The total autopsy rate for suicides was 99.8% in Finland and 13.2% in Denmark. Almost all of these autopsies were conducted as forensic autopsies. In the age group ≥71 years, Danish suicides outnumbered Finnish suicides (410 versus 283). The total autopsy rate was lower in the more senior age group in Denmark (19.5%, 9.9%, 5.6%), whereas it was consistently high in Finland (99.8%, 99.9%, 99.6%). Among Danish deaths due to poisonings, the autopsy rate was 89.5% when these were classified as accidents, but only 20.7% for cases classified as suicides. The number of deaths in the two Danish subgroups was comparable (550 versus 553). In Denmark, the decision regarding the need, if any, for a forensic autopsy is made during the external forensic examination of the body. Our study showed that the limited use

  15. Effect of abscisic acid on amino acid uptake and efflux in developing soybean seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guldan, S.J.; Brun, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    The role of abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating growth of developing soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seeds is not fully understood. The objectives of this study were to characterize the effect of ABA on the in vitro uptake of asparagine and glutamine by isolated immature cotyledons in three soybean plant introduction (PI) lines with genotypic differences in seed growth rate and final seed weight. Cotyledons were incubated in uptake buffer solutions plus 14 C-asparagine or 14 C-glutamine and treatment concentrations of ABA. The ABA levels in the uptake solutions were 0, 10 -7 , 10 -6 , and 10 -5 M. The uptake rate of glutamine was approximately three times that of asparagine. Among PI lines, the heavy seeded line had a greater rate of asparagine uptake while the light seeded line had a greater rate of glutamine uptake. For asparagine, 10 -6 M ABA depressed uptake compared to the control. For glutamine, ABA enhanced uptake compared to the control at both 10 -6 and 10 -5 M. In an additional experiment, the authors observed no effect of ABA and K on the release of labeled asparagine from excised soybean seed coats. These data indicate that amino acid uptake rates are genotypically dependent and may be influenced by ABA concentration

  16. Brown adipose and central nervous system glucose uptake is lower during cold exposure in older compared to young men: a preliminary PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindred, John H; Tuulari, Jetro J; Simon, Stacey; Luckasen, Gary J; Bell, Christopher; Rudroff, Thorsten

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and the central nervous system (CNS) during cold exposure in young and older men. Two young, 24 and 21 years, and two older, 76 and 74 years, men participated in the study. Positron emission tomography images showed cold-induced BAT activity was absent in older men but clearly present in the clavicular region of the young men (Standardized Uptake Value: SUVmean: 3.12 and 3.71). Statistical parametric mapping revealed cortical brain activity was lower in the older men within areas of the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes, and the thalamus (peak-level p uncorr  < 0.036). Cervical spinal cord SUVmean values tended to be lower for older (SUVmean: 1.64 and 1.61) compared to young men (SUVmean: 1.91 and 1.71). These preliminary findings suggest lower BAT activity in older men may in part be due to lower CNS activity.

  17. Comparative evaluation of iohexol and inulin clearance for glomerular filtration rate determinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblad, H.G.; Berg, U.B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors have evaluated iohexol as a filtration marker in 150 children. The clearance of iohexol was compared with that of inulin or with a formula clearance. The single-sample clearance of iohexol showed a good correlation with the clearance of inulin. The clearance of iohexol correlated well with the formula clearance. The optimal blood sampling time for iohexol clearance determinations appears to be between 120 and 180 min after injection, at least in patient with relatively normal filtration rates. It is concluded that iohexol clearance is an accurate method of determining the glomerular filtration rate in clinical practice. 25 refs., 5 figs

  18. Comparative Rates of Mortality and Serious Adverse Effects Among Commonly Prescribed Opioid Analgesics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, David L; Lebin, Jacob A; Severtson, Stevan G; Olsen, Heather A; Dasgupta, Nabarun; Dart, Richard C

    2018-03-26

    The epidemic of prescription opioid overdose and mortality parallels the dispensing rates of prescription opioids, and the availability of increasingly potent opioid analgesics. The common assumption that more potent opioid analgesics are associated with higher rates of adverse outcomes has not been adequately substantiated. We compared the rate of serious adverse events among commonly prescribed opioid analgesics of varying potency. Serious adverse events (SAEs; defined as death, major medical effect, or hospitalization) resulting from exposure to tablets containing seven opioid analgesics (oxycodone, hydrocodone, morphine, hydromorphone, oxymorphone, tapentadol, and tramadol) captured by the Researched Abuse, Diversion and Addiction-Related Surveillance (RADARS ® ) System Poison Center Program were evaluated from 2010 through 2016. Rates of SAEs were adjusted for availability through outpatient dispensing data and regressed on morphine milligram equivalents (MME). There were 19,480 cases of SAE during the 7-year study period. Hydrocodone and oxycodone contributed to 77% of SAE cases. Comparing rates of outcome by relative potency, a hierarchy was observed with hydromorphone (8.02 SAEs/100 kg) and tapentadol (0.27 SAE/100 kg) as the highest and lowest rates, reflecting a 30-fold difference among individual opioid products. SAE rate and potency were related linearly-SAEs increased 2.04 per 100 kg drug dispensed for each 1-unit rise in MME (p = 0.004). Linear regression of SAE/100 kg drug dispensed and drug potency identified that MME comprised 96% of the variation observed. In contrast, potency did not explain variation seen using other study denominators (prescriptions dispensed, dosage units dispensed, and the number of individuals filling a prescription). Potency of a prescription opioid analgesic demonstrates a significant, highly positive linear relationship with exposures resulting in SAEs per 100 kg drug dispensed reported to poison centers

  19. Toward a better understanding of the comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates in Utah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Ray M; Hilton, Sterling C; Wiggins, Charles L; Sturgeon, Jared D

    2003-04-29

    This study assesses whether comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among white men in Utah represent higher rates among members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or Mormons), who comprise about 70% of the state's male population, and considers the potential influence screening has on these rates. Analyses are based on 14,693 histologically confirmed invasive prostate cancer cases among men aged 50 years and older identified through the Utah Cancer Registry between 1985 and 1999. Cancer records were linked to LDS Church membership records to determine LDS status. Poisson regression was used to derive rate ratios of LDS to nonLDS prostate cancer incidence, adjusted for age, disease stage, calendar time, and incidental detection. LDS men had a 31% (95% confidence interval, 26%-36%) higher incidence rate of prostate cancer than nonLDS men during the study period. Rates were consistently higher among LDS men over time (118% in 1985-88, 20% in 1989-92, 15% in 1993-1996, and 13% in 1997-99); age (13% in ages 50-59, 48% in ages 60-69, 28% in ages 70-79, and 16% in ages 80 and older); and stage (36% in local/regional and 17% in unstaged). An age- and stage-shift was observed for both LDS and nonLDS men, although more pronounced among LDS men. Comparatively high prostate cancer incidence rates among LDS men in Utah are explained, at least in part, by more aggressive screening among these men.

  20. Experiments in a flighted conveyor comparing shear rates in compressed versus free surface flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlman, Nicholas; Higgins, Hannah; Krupiarz, Kamila; O'Connor, Ryan

    2017-11-01

    Uniformity of granular flow rate is critical in industry. Experiments in a flighted conveyor system aim to fill a gap in knowledge of achieving steady mass flow rate by correlating velocity profile data with mass flow rate measurements. High speed images were collected for uniformly-shaped particles in a bottom-driven flow conveyor belt system from which the velocity profiles can be generated. The correlation of mass flow rates from the velocity profiles to the time-dependent mass measurements will determine energy dissipation rates as a function of operating conditions. The velocity profiles as a function of the size of the particles, speed of the belt, and outlet size, will be compared to shear rate relationships found in past experiments that focused on gravity-driven systems. The dimension of the linear shear and type of decaying transition to the stationary bed may appear different due to the compression versus dilation space in open flows. The application of this research can serve to validate simulations in discrete element modeling and physically demonstrate a process that can be further developed and customized for industry applications, such as feeding a biomass conversion reactor. Sponsored by NIU's Office of Student Engagement and Experiential Learning.

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  2. Comparing fixation used for calcaneal displacement osteotomies: a look at removal rates and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Douglas E; Simpson, G Alex; Philbin, Terrence M

    2015-02-01

    The calcaneal displacement osteotomy is a procedure frequently used by foot and ankle surgeons for hindfoot angular deformity. Traditional techniques use compression screw fixation that can result in prominent hardware. While the results of the procedure are generally good, a common concern is the development of plantar heel pain related to prominent hardware. The primary purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare clinical outcomes of 2 fixation methods for the osteotomy. Secondarily a cost analysis will compare implant costs to hardware removal costs. Records were reviewed for patients who had undergone a calcaneal displacement osteotomy fixated with either lag screw or a locked lateral compression plate (LLCP). Neuropathy, previous ipsilateral calcaneus surgery, heel pad trauma, or incomplete radiographic follow-up were exclusionary. Thirty-two patients (19.4%) required hardware removal from the screw fixation group compared to 1 (1.6%) of the LLCP group, which is significant (P cost was remarkably different with screw fixation costing on average $247.12, compared to the LLCP costing $1175.59. Although the LLCP cost was significantly higher, cost savings were identified when the cost of removal and removal rates were included. This study demonstrates that this device provides adequate stabilization for healing in equivalent time to screw fixation. The LLCP required decreased rates of hardware removal with fewer postoperative visits over a shorter period of time. Significant savings were demonstrated in the LLCP group despite the higher implant cost. Therapeutic, Level III, Retrospective Comparative Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  3. Comparing the intraoperative complication rate of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery to traditional phacoemulsification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Chen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the complication rate of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS and traditional phacoemulsification for the first 18mo of FLACS use at a private surgical center in Hawaii. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted from January 2012 to June 2013. The first 273 consecutive eyes receiving FLACS and 553 eyes receiving traditional phacoemulsification were examined. All surgeries were performed at a single surgical center in Hawaii. The presence of intraoperative complications was used as the main outcome measure. Approval was obtained from the institutional review board of the University of Hawaii. RESULTS: The overall complication rate for FLACS was 1.8%, while that of the traditional procedure was 5.8% (PCONCLUSION: FLACS is comparable in safety, if not safer, than traditional cataract surgery when performed by qualified cataract surgeons on carefully selected patients.

  4. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate....

  5. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Dadaci; Bilsev Ince; Zeynep Altuntas; Ozan Bitik; Haldun Onuralp Kamburoglu; Hakan Uzun

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials a...

  6. Bias in Rating of Rodent Distress during Anesthesia Induction for Anesthesia Compared with Euthanasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Brittany A; Hickman, Debra L

    2018-03-01

    Selection of an appropriate method of euthanasia involves balancing the wellbeing of the animal during the procedure with the intended use of the animal after death and the physical and psychologic safety of the observer or operator. The recommended practices for anesthesia as compared with euthanasia are very disparate, despite the fact that all chemical methods of euthanasia are anesthetic overdoses. To explain this disparity, this study sought to determine whether perception bias is inherent in the discussion of euthanasia compared with anesthesia. In this study, participants viewed videorecordings of the anesthesia of either 4 rats or 4 mice, from induction to loss of consciousness. Half of the participants were told that they were observing anesthesia; the other half understood that they were observing euthanasia. Participants were asked to rate the distress of the animals by scoring escape behaviors, fear behaviors, respiratory distress, and other distress markers. For mice, the participants generally rated the distress as high when they were told that the mouse was being euthanized, as compared with the participants who were told that the mouse was being anesthetized. For rats, the effect was not as strong, and the distress was generally rated higher when participants were told they were watching anesthesia. Because the interpretation of distress showed bias in both species-even though the bias differed regarding the procedure that interpreted as distressing-this study demonstrates that laboratory animal professionals must consider the influence of potential perception bias when developing policies for euthanasia and anesthesia.

  7. Are Interpersonal Violence Rates Higher Among Young Women in College Compared With Those Never Attending College?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Ann L; Follingstad, Diane R; Bush, Heather M; Fisher, Bonnie S

    2016-05-01

    Estimates of sexual violence and partner violence rates among young women are generated primarily from college samples. Few studies have data to compare rates among similar-aged women attending college with those who never attended college. This study aims to estimate rates of partner violence by type (sexual, physical, and psychological) and severity (mild, moderate, severe), sexual harassment, and knowing or suspecting that someone put a drug in a drink (drugged drink) among a national sample of 959 young women aged 18 to 24 in an intimate relationship in the past 12 months who were either currently in college (college;n= 272) or never attended college (non-college;n= 687). After adjusting for demographic differences between these two groups, no significant differences were found in rates of sexual partner violence (28.4% non-college, 23.5% college), physical partner violence (27.9% non-college, 26.3% college), psychological partner violence (Mscore: 6.10 non-college, 5.59 college), sexual harassment (15.5% non-college, 14.1% college), or drugged drink (8.5% non-college, 7.8% college). Finding high rates of interpersonal violence among young women who are and are not currently attending college indicates the need to target all young adults with violence prevention interventions in educational, workplace, and other community-based settings. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Comparison of computational models for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose in rainbow trout from uptake of iodine-131 - Comparison of rainbow trout phantoms for estimation of whole body and organ radiation dose rates from uptake of iodine-131 in freshwater systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Nicole E. [Department of Environmental and Engineering Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina, 29634 (United States); Johnson, Thomas E.; Ruedig, Elizabeth; Pinder, John E. III [Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences, Colorado State University, 1681 Campus Delivery, Fort Collins, Colorado, 80523 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Internal radiation dose rates to biota are typically calculated utilizing dose conversion factors (DCF), which are values for absorbed dose rate per activity concentration (i.e. mGy d{sup -1} per Bq g{sup -1}). The current methodology employed by both the ICRP and within the ERICA Integrated Approach for calculating dose conversion coefficients is to use Monte Carlo modeling of a homogeneously distributed radionuclide within an ellipsoidal phantom chosen to represent a particular organism. It has been shown that for whole-body DCF, homogenous distribution is a reasonable assumption for electrons, and is associated with an uncertainty of less than 30% for photons. However, if a radionuclide has a specific tissue tropism (e.g. iodine-131 in thyroid) a much higher dose will be received by the organ or tissue than by the whole body. Internal organs are modeled generically as spheres within the ellipsoid phantom, due to the complex and variable nature of organ structure and arrangement within different types of organisms. Ratios of whole-body to organ mass offer conservative conversions of whole-body to organ specific DCF (Gomez-Ros et al 2008), but may considerably overestimate the organ dose; more accurate estimates can be made based on specific absorbed fractions and activity concentrations. Establishment of appropriate screening levels in the regulatory paradigm requires incorporation of sufficient knowledge of dose effects; the ICRP currently lists no derived consideration reference levels for organs, meaning that specific risks associated with organ dose rates are unavailable (ICRP 108). Model comparison and refinement is important in the process of determining both dose rates and dose effects, and here we develop and compare three models for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): the simple geometry described above, a more specific geometry employing anatomically relevant organ size and location, and voxel reconstruction of internal anatomy obtained from CT imaging

  9. COMPARATIVE ASPECTS OF EMPLOYMENT RATES BY EDUCATIONAL LEVEL IN SOUTH-WEST OLTENIA, ROMANIA AND EU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Zaharia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available South West Region includes the counties of Dolj, Gorj, Meheninţi, Olt and Valcea and together West Region make up the Macro 4. The geographical, economic and social structural changes in the last two decades, and the economic crisis have led to some peculiarities of labor market in this development region. This paper provides a comparative analysis of employment rates by level of education in the EU (27, some EU countries, as in Romania during 2000-2011. It also analyzes the structure of employment in South West Oltenia development region, by age, level of education, sex and area, in 2010 compared to the structure of employment in Macro 4 and in some cases, with that recorded in Western region. Compared to developments in Romania and Macro 4 level, the employment rates and the structure of employees have certain characteristics. Thus features occur in age groups 55-64 years and especially in the age group over 64 years, the South West region these represents 9.05% of total employment, compared to only 1.74% in the West region. Also, in rural areas, the percentage of employed population 25 to 64 years with low levels of education and medium education level, reach 96.8% of the total, which is a weakness of this region.

  10. Interatrial septum pacing decreases atrial dyssynchrony on strain rate imaging compared with right atrial appendage pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuoka, Yoshinori; Abe, Haruhiko; Umekawa, Seiko; Katsuki, Keiko; Tanaka, Norio; Araki, Ryo; Imanaka, Takahiro; Matsutera, Ryo; Morisawa, Daisuke; Kitada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Susumu; Noda, Yoshiki; Adachi, Hidenori; Sasaki, Tatsuya; Miyatake, Kunio

    2011-03-01

    Interatrial septum pacing (IAS-P) decreases atrial conduction delay compared with right atrial appendage pacing (RAA-P). We evaluate the atrial contraction with strain rate of tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) during sinus activation or with IAS-P or RAA-P. Fifty-two patients with permanent pacemaker for sinus node disease were enrolled in the study. Twenty-three subjects were with IAS-P and 29 with RAA-P. The time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate was measured and corrected with RR interval on electrocardiogram. It was defined as the time from end-diastole to peak end-diastolic strain rate (TSRc), and the balance between maximum and minimum TSRc at three sites (ΔTSRc) was compared during sinus activation and with pacing rhythm in each group. There were no significant differences observed in general characteristics and standard echocardiographic parameters except the duration of pacing P wave between the two groups. The duration was significantly shorter in the IAS-P group compared with the RAA-P group (95 ± 34 vs 138 ± 41; P = 0.001). TSRc was significantly different between sinus activation and pacing rhythm (36.3 ± 35.7 vs 61.6 ± 36.3; P = 0.003) in the RAA-P group, whereas no significant differences were observed in the IAS-P group (25.4 ± 12.1 vs 27.7 ± 14.7; NS). During the follow-up (mean 2.4 ± 0.7 years), the incidence of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) conversion to permanent AF was not significantly different between the two groups. IAS-P decreased the contraction delay on atrial TDI compared to RAA-P; however, it did not contribute to the reduction of AF incidence in the present study. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Comparing Background and Recent Erosion Rates in Degraded Areas of Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, N.; Bierman, P. R.; Sosa-Gonzalez, V.; Rood, D. H.; Fontes, R. L.; Santos, A. C.; Godoy, J. M.; Bhering, S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion is a major problem in northwestern Rio de Janeiro State where, during the last three centuries, major land-use changes took place, associated with the replacement of the original rainforest by agriculture and grazing. The combination of steep hillslopes, erodible soils, sparse vegetation, natural and human-induced fires, as well as downslope ploughing, led to an increase in surface runoff and surface erosion on soil-mantled hillslopes; together, these actions and responses caused a decline in soil productivity. In order to estimate changes in erosion rates over time, we compared erosion rates measured at different spatial and temporal scales, both background (natural) and short-term (human-induced during last few decades). Background long-term erosion rates were measured using in-situ produced cosmogenic 10Be in the sand fraction quartz of active river channel sediment in four basins in the northwestern portion of Rio de Janeiro State. In these basins, average annual precipitation varies from 1,200 to 1,300 mm, while drainage areas vary from 15 to 7,200 km2. Short-term erosion rates were measured in one of these basins from fallout 210Pb in soil samples collected along a hillslope transect located in an abandoned agriculture field. In this transect, 190 undisturbed soil samples (three replicates) were collected from the surface to 0.50 m depth (5 cm vertical intervals) in six soil pits. 10Be average background, basin-wide, erosion rates in the area are ~ 13 m/My; over the last decades, time-integrated (210Pb) average hillslope erosion rates are around 1450 m/Myr, with maximum values at the steepest portion of convex hillslopes of about 2000 m/Myr. These results suggest that recent hillslope erosion rates are about 2 orders of magnitude above background rates of sediment generation integrated over many millennia. This unsustainable rate of soil loss has severely decreased soil productivity eventually leading to the abandonment of farming activities in

  12. Comparative uptake of 67Ga and /sup 99m/Tc MDP in rabbits with a benign noninfected bone lesion (fracture)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushberg, J.T.; Hoffer, P.B.; Schreiber, G.J.; Lawson, A.J.; Lawson, J.P.; Lord, P.

    1985-01-01

    Mid-shaft fractures of the radius and ulna were produced in 3 to 4 kg New Zealand white rabbits and quantitative uptake of /sup 99m/Tc MDP and 67 Ga determined at 11, 18, 25, 32, 51, and 78 days following fracture. Two hundred microCi of 67 Ga was administered 24 hours prior to sacrifice and 1.5 mCi /sup 99m/Tc MDP 2 hours prior to sacrifice. Specific activity ratios (SARs) were determined between fracture and control sides for bone, muscle and skin. SARs for bone were surprisingly similar for /sup 99m/Tc MDP and 67 Ga, reaching peak values of 6.07 +/- 0.64 (/sup 99m/Tc 18 days); 6.58 +/- 0.90 ( 67 Ga 32 days), subsequently decreasing to minimum values at 78 days postfracture (/sup 99m/Tc MDP 2.25 +/- 0.14; 67 Ga 2.18 +/- 0.08). There was no statistically significant difference in SAR for /sup 99m/Tc MDP vs. 67 Ga in bone at any time after fracture. Whole sections of limb were resected on selected animals and activity ratios determined for these sections as a function of the contribution of activity from the various tissues in the volume of interest. Total activity ratios of 67 Ga were lower than bone SARs as a result of the contribution of activity from muscle and skin. Thus, the apparent lower activity ratios noted on 67 Ga images compared with /sup 99m/Tc MDP images in this fracture model were not due to differences in bone SARs but rather due to the higher soft tissue background activity contribution in the 67 Ga images

  13. Comparative study of perioperative complication rates of cervical laminoplasty performed by residents and teaching neurosurgeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niimura, Manabu; Takai, Keisuke; Taniguchi, Makoto

    2017-11-01

    Early surgical education is required for neurosurgical residents to learn many surgical procedures. However, the participation of less experienced residents may increase perioperative complication rates. Perioperative complication studies in the field of neurosurgery are being increasingly published; however, studies have not yet focused on cervical laminoplasty. The study population included 193 consecutive patients who underwent cervical laminoplasty in Tokyo Metropolitan Neurological Hospital between 2008 and 2014. Patient and surgeon background factors, as well as perioperative complication rates were retrospectively compared between resident and board-certified spine neurosurgeon groups. Deteriorated or newly developed neurological deficits and surgical site complications within 30days of cervical laminoplasty were defined as perioperative complications. Out of 193 patients, 123 (64%) were operated on by residents as the first operator and 70 (36%) by board-certified spine neurosurgeons. No significant differences were observed in patient and surgeon factors between the two groups, except for hyperlipidemia (13 vs 17, p=0.02). Furthermore, no significant differences were noted in perioperative complication rates between the two groups (7 [5.7%] vs 4 [5.7%], p=1). Cervical laminoplasty performed in a standardized manner by residents who received their surgical training in our hospital did not increase perioperative complication rates, and ensured the safety of patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Measuring Disability: Comparing the Impact of Two Data Collection Approaches on Disability Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Sabariego

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The usual approach in disability surveys is to screen persons with disability upfront and then ask questions about everyday problems. The objectives of this paper are to demonstrate the impact of screeners on disability rates, to challenge the usual exclusion of persons with mild and moderate disability from disability surveys and to demonstrate the advantage of using an a posteriori cut-off. Using data of a pilot study of the WHO Model Disability Survey (MDS in Cambodia and the polytomous Rasch model, metric scales of disability were built. The conventional screener approach based on the short disability module of the Washington City Group and the a posteriori cut-off method described in the World Disability Report were compared regarding disability rates. The screener led to imprecise rates and classified persons with mild to moderate disability as non-disabled, although these respondents already experienced important problems in daily life. The a posteriori cut-off applied to the general population sample led to a more precise disability rate and allowed for a differentiation of the performance and needs of persons with mild, moderate and severe disability. This approach can be therefore considered as an inclusive approach suitable to monitor the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.

  15. A Comparative Study of Dropout Rates and Causes for Two Different Distance Education Courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos Pierrakeas

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the results of a survey conducted to examine the root causes leading to student dropout at a Greek distance education university. Data was gathered from two different courses – an undergraduate course leading to a Bachelors degree in Informatics (characterized by high dropout rates, and a postgraduate course leading to a Masters degree in education (characterized by low dropout rates. A comparative analysis of these two different courses revealed important similarities in dropout percentages and the reasons cited by students for dropping out. Our analysis also revealed important differences as well. This paper presents the results of a survey designed to investigate the relationship between dropout with intrinsic (student-related factors such as sickness, work/ school conflict etc., and extrinsic (institutional-related factors such as study methods and materials, educational approach, and tutor influence.

  16. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  17. Comparing 30-day all-cause readmission rates between tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Robert K; Ferrandino, Rocco M; Hoffman, Ryan; Ndu, Anthony; Shaffer, Gene W

    2018-01-12

    End-stage ankle arthritis is a debilitating condition that negatively impacts patient quality of life. Tibiotalar fusion and total ankle replacement are treatment options for managing ankle arthritis. Few studies have examined short term readmission rates of these two procedures. The objective of this study was compare all-cause 30-day readmission rates between patients undergoing tibiotalar fusion vs. total ankle replacement. This study queried the Nationwide Readmission Database (NRD) from 2013-2014 and used international classification of disease, 9th revision (ICD-9) procedure codes to identify all patients who underwent a tibiotalar fusion or a total ankle replacement. Comorbidities, insurance status, hospital characteristics, and readmission rates were statistically compared between the two cohorts. Risk factors were then identified for 30-day readmission. A total of 5660 patients were analyzed with 2667 in the tibiotalar fusion cohort and 2993 in the total ankle replacement cohort. Univariate analysis revealed that the readmission rate after tibiotalar fusion (4.4%) was statistically greater than after total ankle replacement (1.4%). Multivariable regression analysis indicated that deficiency anemia (OR 2.18), coagulopathy (OR 3.51), renal failure (OR 2.83), other insurance relative to private (OR 3.40), and tibiotalar fusion (OR 2.51) were all statistically significant independent risk factors for having a readmission within 30-days. These findings suggest that during the short-term period following discharge from the hospital, patients who received a tibiotalar fusion are more likely to experience a 30-day readmission. These findings are important for decision making when a surgeon encounters a patient with end stage ankle arthritis. Level III, cohort study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. SU-F-T-271: Comparing IMRT QA Pass Rates Before and After MLC Calibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazza, A; Perrin, D; Fontenot, J [Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To compare IMRT QA pass rates before and after an in-house MLC leaf calibration procedure. Methods: The MLC leaves and backup jaws on four Elekta linear accelerators with MLCi2 heads were calibrated using the EPID-based RIT Hancock Test as the means for evaluation. The MLCs were considered to be successfully calibrated when they could pass the Hancock Test with criteria of 1 mm jaw position tolerance, and 1 mm leaf position tolerance. IMRT QA results were collected pre- and postcalibration and analyzed using gamma analysis with 3%/3mm DTA criteria. AAPM TG-119 test plans were also compared pre- and post-calibration, at both 2%/2mm DTA and 3%/3mm DTA. Results: A weighted average was performed on the results for all four linear accelerators. The pre-calibration IMRT QA pass rate was 98.3 ± 0.1%, compared with the post-calibration pass rate of 98.5 ± 0.1%. The TG-119 test plan results showed more of an improvement, particularly at the 2%/2mm criteria. The averaged results were 89.1% pre and 96.1% post for the C-shape plan, 94.8% pre and 97.1% post for the multi-target plan, 98.6% pre and 99.7% post for the prostate plan, 94.7% pre and 94.8% post for the head/neck plan. Conclusion: The patient QA results did not show statistically significant improvement at the 3%/3mm DTA criteria after the MLC calibration procedure. However, the TG-119 test cases did show significant improvement at the 2%/2mm level.

  19. Comparing avian and bat fatality rate estimates among North American wind energy projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallwood, Shawn

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Wind energy development has expanded rapidly, and so have concerns over bird and bat impacts caused by wind turbines. To assess and compare impacts due to collisions, investigators use a common metric, fatalities/MW/year, but estimates of fatality rates have come from various wind turbine models, tower heights, environments, fatality search methods, and analytical methods. To improve comparability and asses large-scale impacts, I applied a common set of assumptions and methods to data in fatality monitoring reports to estimate fatality rates of birds and bats at 71 wind projects across North America (52 outside the Altamont Pass Wind Resource Area, APWRA). The data were from wind turbines of 27 sizes (range 0.04-3.00 MW) and 28 tower heights (range 18.5-90 m), and searched at 40 periodic intervals (range 1-90 days) and out to 20 distances from turbines (range 30-126 m). Estimates spanned the years 1982 to 2010, and involved 1-1,345 turbines per unique combination of project, turbine size, tower height, and search methodology. I adjusted fatality rates for search detection rates averaged from 425 detection trials, and for scavenger removal rates based on 413 removal trials. I also adjusted fatality rates for turbine tower height and maximum search radius, based on logistic functions fit to cumulative counts of carcasses that were detected at 1-m distance intervals from the turbine. For each tower height, I estimated the distance at which cumulative carcass counts reached an asymptote, and for each project I calculated the proportion of fatalities likely not found due to the maximum search radius being short of the model-predicted distance asymptote. I used the same estimator in all cases. I estimated mean fatalities/MW/year among North American wind projects at 12.6 bats (80% CI: 8.1-17.1) and 11.1 birds (80% CI: 9.5-12.7), including 1.6 raptors (80% CI: 1.3-2.0), and excluding the Altamont Pass I estimated fatality rates at 17.2 bats (80% CI: 9

  20. A Comparative Study of Data Mining Algorithms for High Detection Rate in Intrusion Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nabeela Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the fast growth and tradition of the internet over the last decades, the network security problems are increasing vigorously. Humans can not handle the speed of processes and the huge amount of data required to handle network anomalies. Therefore, it needs substantial automation in both speed and accuracy. Intrusion Detection System is one of the approaches to recognize illegal access and rare attacks to secure networks. In this proposed paper, Naive Bayes, J48 and Random Forest classifiers are compared to compute the detection rate and accuracy of IDS. For experiments, the KDD_NSL dataset is used.

  1. Coupling nutrient uptake and energy flow in headwater streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fellows, Christine [Griffith University, Nathan, Queensland, Australia; Valett, H. Maurice [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Dahm, Cliff [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Thomas, Steve [University of Nebraska

    2006-08-01

    Nutrient cycling and energy flow in ecosystems are tightly linked through the metabolic processes of organisms. Greater uptake of inorganic nutrients is expected to be associated with higher rates of metabolism [gross primary production (GPP) and respiration (R)], due to assimilatory demand of both autotrophs and heterotrophs. However, relationships between uptake and metabolism should vary with the relative contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous sources of organic matter. To investigate the relationship between metabolism and nutrient uptake, we used whole-stream and benthic chamber methods to measure rates of nitrate-nitrogen (NO{sub 3}-N) uptake and metabolism in four headwater streams chosen to span a range of light availability and therefore differing rates of GPP and contributions of autochthonous carbon. We coupled whole-stream metabolism with measures of NO{sub 3}-N uptake conducted repeatedly over the same stream reach during both day and night, as well as incubating benthic sediments under both light and dark conditions. NO{sub 3}-N uptake was generally greater in daylight compared to dark conditions, and although day-night differences in whole-stream uptake were not significant, light-dark differences in benthic chambers were significant at three of the four sites. Estimates of N demand indicated that assimilation by photoautotrophs could account for the majority of NO{sub 3}-N uptake at the two sites with relatively open canopies. Contrary to expectations, photoautotrophs contributed substantially to NO{sub 3}-N uptake even at the two closed-canopy sites, which had low values of GPP/R and relied heavily on allochthonous carbon to fuel R.

  2. Phosphorus deficiency enhances molybdenum uptake by tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuwinkel, H.; Kirkby, E.A.; Le Bot, J.; Marschner, H.

    1992-01-01

    Water culture experiments are described which provide conclusive evidence that Mo uptake by tomato plants is markedly enhanced by P deficiency. In a longterm experiment, which ran for 11 days, in marked contrast to the uptake of other nutrients, a three fold higher Mo uptake rate was observed after only four days of withdrawal of P from the nutrient medium. In contrast to the gradual increase in pH of the nutrient medium of the plants supplied with P, the pH in the medium of the -P plants fell. Throughout the growth of these plants net H+ efflux could be accounted for by excess cation over anion uptake, indicating that organic acid extrusion plays no major role in the observed fall in pH. Further evidence that Mo uptake is enhanced in P deficient tomato plants is provided in short-term nutrient solution experiments (1h and 4h) using radioactive molybdenum (99Mo). Compared with P sufficient plants, the uptake rates of 99Mo by P deficient plants were three to five times higher after 1h and nine to twelve times higher after 4h. Resupplying P during the uptake periods to deficient plants reduced the uptake rate of 99Mo to values similar to those of P sufficient plants. It is concluded that the uptake of molybdate occurs via phosphate binding/ transporting sites at the plasma membrane of root cells. Further support for this conclusion comes from exchange experiments with non-labelled molybdenum, which show a much larger amount of 99Mo exchangeable from the roots of P deficient plants

  3. The association of Nursing Home Compare quality measures with market competition and occupancy rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Nicholas G; Liu, Darren; Engberg, John

    2008-01-01

    Since 2002, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services have reported quality measures on the Nursing Home Compare Web site. It has been assumed that nursing homes are able to make improvements on these measures. In this study researchers examined nursing homes to see whether they have improved their quality scores, after accounting for regression to the mean. Researchers also examined whether gains varied according to market competition or market occupancy rates. They identified some regression to the mean for the quality measure scores over time; nevertheless, they also determined that some nursing homes had indeed made small improvements in their quality measure scores. As would be predicted based on the market-driven mechanism underlying quality improvements using report cards, the greatest improvements occurred in the most competitive markets and in those with the Lowest average occupancy rates. As policies to promote more competition in Long-term care proceed, further reducing occupancy rates, further, albeit small, quality gains will likely be made in the future.

  4. Comparing Occupational Health and Safety Management System Programming with Injury Rates in Poultry Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autenrieth, Daniel A; Brazile, William J; Douphrate, David I; Román-Muñiz, Ivette N; Reynolds, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Effective methods to reduce work-related injuries and illnesses in animal production agriculture are sorely needed. One approach that may be helpful for agriculture producers is the adoption of occupational health and safety management systems. In this replication study, the authors compared the injury rates on 32 poultry growing operations with the level of occupational health and safety management system programming at each farm. Overall correlations between injury rates and programming level were determined, as were correlations between individual management system subcomponents to ascertain which parts might be the most useful for poultry producers. It was found that, in general, higher levels of occupational health and safety management system programming were associated with lower rates of workplace injuries and illnesses, and that Management Leadership was the system subcomponent with the strongest correlation. The strength and significance of the observed associations were greater on poultry farms with more complete management system assessments. These findings are similar to those from a previous study of the dairy production industry, suggesting that occupational health and safety management systems may hold promise as a comprehensive way for producers to improve occupational health and safety performance. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of such systems to reduce farm work injuries and illnesses. These results are timely given the increasing focus on occupational safety and health management systems.

  5. A comparative analysis of signal processing methods for motion-based rate responsive pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, S E; Shreve, E A; Lau, C P

    1996-08-01

    Pacemakers that augment heart rate (HR) by sensing body motion have been the most frequently prescribed rate responsive pacemakers. Many comparisons between motion-based rate responsive pacemaker models have been published. However, conclusions regarding specific signal processing methods used for rate response (e.g., filters and algorithms) can be affected by device-specific features. To objectively compare commonly used motion sensing filters and algorithms, acceleration and ECG signals were recorded from 16 normal subjects performing exercise and daily living activities. Acceleration signals were filtered (1-4 or 15-Hz band-pass), then processed using threshold crossing (TC) or integration (IN) algorithms creating four filter/algorithm combinations. Data were converted to an acceleration indicated rate and compared to intrinsic HR using root mean square difference (RMSd) and signed RMSd. Overall, the filters and algorithms performed similarly for most activities. The only differences between filters were for walking at an increasing grade (1-4 Hz superior to 15-Hz) and for rocking in a chair (15-Hz superior to 1-4 Hz). The only differences between algorithms were for bicycling (TC superior to IN), walking at an increasing grade (IN superior to TC), and holding a drill (IN superior to TC). Performance of the four filter/algorithm combinations was also similar over most activities. The 1-4/IN (filter [Hz]/algorithm) combination performed best for walking at a grade, while the 15/TC combination was best for bicycling. However, the 15/TC combination tended to be most sensitive to higher frequency artifact, such as automobile driving, downstairs walking, and hand drilling. Chair rocking artifact was highest for 1-4/IN. The RMSd for bicycling and upstairs walking were large for all combinations, reflecting the nonphysiological nature of the sensor. The 1-4/TC combination demonstrated the least intersubject variability, was the only filter/algorithm combination

  6. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoglu, Haldun Onuralp; Uzun, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4%) survived. Ten (66.6%) of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2%) of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100%) and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%). Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%). The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.

  7. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Dadaci

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials and Methods: 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Results: Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4% survived. Ten (66.6% of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2% of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100% and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%. Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%. The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury.

  8. Direct risk standardisation: a new method for comparing casemix adjusted event rates using complex models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholl, Jon; Jacques, Richard M; Campbell, Michael J

    2013-10-29

    Comparison of outcomes between populations or centres may be confounded by any casemix differences and standardisation is carried out to avoid this. However, when the casemix adjustment models are large and complex, direct standardisation has been described as "practically impossible", and indirect standardisation may lead to unfair comparisons. We propose a new method of directly standardising for risk rather than standardising for casemix which overcomes these problems. Using a casemix model which is the same model as would be used in indirect standardisation, the risk in individuals is estimated. Risk categories are defined, and event rates in each category for each centre to be compared are calculated. A weighted sum of the risk category specific event rates is then calculated. We have illustrated this method using data on 6 million admissions to 146 hospitals in England in 2007/8 and an existing model with over 5000 casemix combinations, and a second dataset of 18,668 adult emergency admissions to 9 centres in the UK and overseas and a published model with over 20,000 casemix combinations and a continuous covariate. Substantial differences between conventional directly casemix standardised rates and rates from direct risk standardisation (DRS) were found. Results based on DRS were very similar to Standardised Mortality Ratios (SMRs) obtained from indirect standardisation, with similar standard errors. Direct risk standardisation using our proposed method is as straightforward as using conventional direct or indirect standardisation, always enables fair comparisons of performance to be made, can use continuous casemix covariates, and was found in our examples to have similar standard errors to the SMR. It should be preferred when there is a risk that conventional direct or indirect standardisation will lead to unfair comparisons.

  9. The mechanism of zinc uptake in excised roots and leaf discs of Phaseolus vulgaris L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van As, J.A.

    1991-03-01

    The mechanism and nature of zinc uptake was studied with the aid of 65 Zn. Uptake of zinc was also compared to that of potassium and phosphate, which are known to be ATP-dependent. Zinc uptake was characterized by a rapid initial uptake, followed by a slower linear phase. Decreasing the temperature from 25 to 2 deg C resulted in a decrease of only 30% in the rate of zinc uptake. Uptake of zinc was insensitive to DNP - possibly indicating the non-metabolic nature of the uptake process. A possible role for zinc in protein synthesis could not be demonstrated as CHI did not inhibit zinc uptake. Cyanide reduced zinc uptake to almost zero, possibly due to complexation of zinc by cyanide. Light had no effect on the accumulation of Zn, whereas dark incubation reduced potassium uptake substantially. The relative high rate of zinc uptake and the passive nature of the uptake process might be due to the high binding capacity of the free space for zinc ions. Transport of the zinc in the xylem and phloem of intact bean plants, as well as the metabolic dependence of the latter, was also investigated. The bulk of the zinc absorbed by bean plants remained in the roots and stems with only a very small fraction being translocated to shoots. Adsorption was the major uptake mechanism in roots and stems. In contrast to transport in the xylem, zinc was readily transported in the phloem. Loading and unloading of zinc in the phloem was not influenced by low temperature or DNP. Opposed to this, loading of potassium and phosphate was inhibited by DNP, while unloading was inhibited by low temperature. It can therefore be concluded that the uptake and transport of zinc is probably a passive process. 33 figs., 282 refs

  10. The Performance of a Mobile Phone Respiratory Rate Counter Compared to the WHO ARI Timer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heng Gan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare the accuracy and efficiency of the respiratory rate (RR RRate mobile application to the WHO ARI Timer. METHODS: Volunteers used both devices to measure RR from reference videos of infants and children. Measurements were compared using correlation, Bland-Altman analysis, error metrics and time taken. RESULTS: Measurements with either device were highly correlated to the reference (r = 0.991 and r = 0.982, and to each other (r = 0.973. RRate had a larger bias than the ARI Timer (0.6 vs. 0.04 br/min, but tighter limits of agreement (−4.5 to 3.3 br/min vs. −5.5 to 5.5 br/min. RRate was more accurate than the ARI Timer (percentage error 10.6% vs. 14.8%, root mean square error 2.1 vs. 2.8 br/min and normalized root mean square error 5.6% vs. 7.5%. RRate measurements were 52.7 seconds (95% CI 50.4 s to 54.9 s faster. CONCLUSION: During video observations, RRate measured RR quicker with a similar accuracy compared to the ARI Timer.

  11. Initial radioiodine remnant ablation success rates compared by diagnostic scan methods: I123 versus I131

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, W.; Choi, E.; Yoo, I.; Kim, S.; Han, E.; Lee, S.; Lee, W.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Objective: to see if diagnostic whole body scan (DxWBS) performed with I-131 prior diminishes the success rate of initial radioiodine remnant ablation (RRA) compared to I-123 DxWBS in differentiated thyroid cancer patients. Material and methods: consecutive thyroid cancer patients who received total thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid cancer and then high dose RRA (either 100 mCi or 150 mCi) within 6 months were included. DxWBSs were performed with I-123 or with I-131. Prior to the DxWBSs, all patients followed strict low iodine diet for 2 weeks and withdrew hormone to stimulate TSH above 30 mIU/l. Patients with extra-thyroidal extension of tumor, lymph node metastasis, or distant metastasis were excluded. The initial RRA was defined as successful if the next DxWBS done 6 months to 1 year later was negative and stimulated thyroglobulin level was below 2 ng/ml. Results: of 71 patients who had I-123 DxWBSs, 31 patients went on to receive RRA with 100 mCi and 40 patients received 150 mCi. Of 73 patients who had I-131 DxWBSs, 66 received 100 mCi and 7 patients received 150 mCi. The overall success rate was 79% for patients who had I-123 DxWBS prior to RRA (68% for 100 mCi and 86% for 150 mCi), and 68% for patient who had I-131 DxWBSs (68% for 100 mCi and 71% for 150 mCi). Conclusion: for patients who received 100 mCi, the RRA success rate was the same for I-123 DxWBS and I-131 DxWBS. For patients treated with 150 mCi, the success rate may be lower in patients who receive RRA following DxWBS with I-131 compared to DxWBS with I-123. (authors)

  12. A high 18F-FDOPA uptake is associated with a slow growth rate in diffuse Grade II-III gliomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isal, Sibel; Gauchotte, Guillaume; Rech, Fabien; Blonski, Marie; Planel, Sophie; Chawki, Mohammad B; Karcher, Gilles; Marie, Pierre-Yves; Taillandier, Luc; Verger, Antoine

    2018-04-01

    In diffuse Grade II-III gliomas, a high 3,4-dihydroxy-6-( 18 F)-fluoro-L-phenylalanine ( 18 F-FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) uptake, with a standardized uptake value (SUV max )/contralateral brain tissue ratio greater than 1.8, was previously found to be consistently associated with the presence of an isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutation, whereas this mutation is typically associated with a better prognosis. This pilot study was aimed to ascertain the prognostic value of this high 18 F-FDOPA uptake in diffuse Grade II-III gliomas with regard to the velocity of diameter expansion (VDE), which represents an established landmark of better prognosis when below 4 mm per year. 20 patients (42 ± 10 years, 10 female) with newly-diagnosed diffuse Grade II-III gliomas (17 with IDH mutation) were retrospectively included. All had a 18 F-FDOPA PET, quantified with SUV max ratio, along with a serial MRI enabling VDE determination. SUV max ratio was above 1.8 in 5 patients (25%) all of whom had a VDE VDE <4 mm/year in the overall population (45 vs 0%, p = 0.04) and also in the subgroup of patients with IDH mutation (45 vs 0%, p = 0.10). This pilot study shows that in diffuse Grade II-III gliomas, a high 18 F-FDOPA uptake would be predictive of low tumour growth, with a different prognostic significance than IDH mutation. Advances in knowledge: 18 F-FDOPA PET in a single session imaging could have prognostic value in initial diagnosis of diffuse Grade II-III gliomas.

  13. The Comparative Study of the Rate of Social Capital among Addicted and non-Addicted Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Heydarnejad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study aimed to compare the rate of social capital among addicted and non-addicted youth in Mashhad. Method: The samples included of 160 addicted and 160 non-addicted men selected by cluster random sampling. Both groups matched on age, and marital status. The social capital questionnaire designed by researcher administered among selected samples. Results: The results showed that social capital of young addicts was significantly lower than their counterparts. Also, results showed that the indicators of social capital, the idea of social participation, social trust, and social networks were significantly lower than their counterparts. Conclusion: With consideration of positive effects of social participation, social trust, social connection networks in addicted people, they should have appropriate conditions and headstock for tendency to involve to social events like developing of organizations, and voluntaries’ and non government societies should be more attended.

  14. A Comparative Analysis of the Financial Incentives of Two Distinct Experience-Rating Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompa, Emile; McLeod, Chris; Mustard, Cam

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the association between insurance premium incentives and claim outcomes in two different workers' compensation programs. Regression models were run for claim outcomes using data from two Canadian jurisdictions with different experience-rating programs-one with prospective (British Columbia) and another with retrospective (Ontario) adjustment of premiums. Key explanatory variables were past premium adjustments. For both programs, past premium adjustments were significantly associated with claim outcomes, suggesting adjustments provided incentives for claims reduction. The magnitudes of effects in the prospective program were smaller than the retrospective one, though relative persistence of effects over time was larger. Having large and immediate employer responses to incentives may appear desirable, but insurers should consider the time required for employers to improve and sustain good practices, and create incentives that parallel such time lines.

  15. Mortality Rates in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C and Cirrhosis Compared With the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallager, Sofie; Brehm Christensen, Peer; Ladelund, Steen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about mortality rates (MRs) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) with cirrhosis is limited. This study aimed to estimate all-cause MRs among patients with CHC with or without cirrhosis in Denmark compared with the general population. Methods: Patients registered...... in the Danish Database for Hepatitis B and C with CHC and a liver fibrosis assessment were eligible for inclusion. Liver fibrosis was assessed by means of liver biopsy, transient elastography, and clinical cirrhosis. Up to 20 sex- and age-matched individuals per patient were identified in the general population....... Data were extracted from nationwide registries. Results: A total of 3410 patients with CHC (1014 with cirrhosis), and 67 315 matched individuals were included. Adjusted MR ratios (MRRs) between patients with or without cirrhosis and their comparison cohorts were 5.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4...

  16. Comparing the Rates of Dopamine Hemodynamic Effect Onset after Infusion through Peripheral Veins in Three Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deokkyu Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background Dopamine is an inotropic agent that is often selected for continuous infusion. For hemodynamic stability, the rate of infusion is controlled in the range of 5-15 μg/kg/min. This study aimed to compare the time intervals from the administration of dopamine to the onset of its hemodynamic effects when dopamine was administered through three different peripheral veins (the cephalic vein [CV], the great saphenous vein [GSV], and the external jugular vein [EJV]. Methods Patients in group 1, group 2, and group 3 received dopamine infusions in the CV, GSV, and EJV, respectively. A noninvasive continuous cardiac output monitor (NICCOMO™, Medis, Ilmenau, Germany was used to assess cardiac output (CO and systemic vascular resistance (SVR. Six minutes after intubation, baseline heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, CO, and SVR values were recorded and dopamine infusion was initiated at a dose of 10 μg/kg/min. Hemodynamic changes at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 15 minutes postinfusion were recorded. Results No statistically significant differences were observed among the three groups with respect to the rate of hemodynamic change. In all groups, systolic BP, diastolic BP, MAP, and SVR tended to increase after decreasing for the first 4 minutes; in contrast, HR and CO decreased until 8 minutes, after which they tended to reach a plateau. Conclusions For patients under general anesthesia receiving dopamine at 10 μg/kg/min, there were no clinical differences in the effect of dopamine administered through three different peripheral veins.

  17. The Rate of Addiction in Parents of Children with Congenital Heart Disease Compared with Healthy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Boryri

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCongenital heart diseases (CHD are the most common congenital anomaly in children and also the leading cause of mortality from congenital anomalies. Various factors including smoking, drinking alcohol and addiction play role in development of congenital heart diseases. This study was conducted with the aim of investigation of the prevalence of addiction in parents of children with congenital heart disease compared with healthy children.Materials and MethodsThis was a case-control study conducted on 320 children with congenital heart disease aged 6 months to 16 years and 320 healthy children as control group. Children referring to Ali Asghar hospital or who were hospitalized in Imam Ali Hospital were included in the study and their demographic characteristics and their parents were collected. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.ResultsAverage age of diseased and healthy children was 4.08 ± 4.11 and 3.59 ± 2.36, respectively. The rate of addiction of father, mother and parents of children with congenital heart disease was higher than those of children in control group. The most common congenital heart disease was ventricular septal defect (VSD.ConclusionIn overall, this study showed addiction rate of parents in children with congenital heart disease was higher.

  18. Influence of the discount rate when comparing costs of different nuclear fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Dars, A.; Loaec, Ch.

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the methodology and technical economic results obtained by Cea in the DERECO project. This project was aimed at evaluating ground-breaking and intricate scenarios of the nuclear fuel cycle, and developed on the long term (150 years), in the context of France. All 5 scenarios studied assume that the reliance on nuclear energy will continue in order to satisfy the electricity demand. Despite uncertainties, the trends are breaking free from the analysis. It appears that the scenarios in which fourth generation fast reactors take part are globally more economical than the keeping to the present strategy of plutonium mono-recycling in PWR. The scenario in which fuel reprocessing is stopped has a total cost concerning the fuel cycle similar to that of the present strategy but the disposal cost is twice as high because of the necessity of disposing spent fuels directly in geological formations. The comparative costs of the different scenarios are set out and the influence of the discount rate is highlighted. One must keep in mind that the actualization theory entails a diminishing value for long term costs due to an unavoidable mechanical effect of the discount rate

  19. A Comparative Survey of Methods for Remote Heart Rate Detection From Frontal Face Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Remotely measuring physiological activity can provide substantial benefits for both the medical and the affective computing applications. Recent research has proposed different methodologies for the unobtrusive detection of heart rate (HR using human face recordings. These methods are based on subtle color changes or motions of the face due to cardiovascular activities, which are invisible to human eyes but can be captured by digital cameras. Several approaches have been proposed such as signal processing and machine learning. However, these methods are compared with different datasets, and there is consequently no consensus on method performance. In this article, we describe and evaluate several methods defined in literature, from 2008 until present day, for the remote detection of HR using human face recordings. The general HR processing pipeline is divided into three stages: face video processing, face blood volume pulse (BVP signal extraction, and HR computation. Approaches presented in the paper are classified and grouped according to each stage. At each stage, algorithms are analyzed and compared based on their performance using the public database MAHNOB-HCI. Results found in this article are limited on MAHNOB-HCI dataset. Results show that extracted face skin area contains more BVP information. Blind source separation and peak detection methods are more robust with head motions for estimating HR.

  20. Factors influencing the in vitro uptake of mercury vapour in blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudsk, F.N.

    1969-01-01

    The influence of a number of factors on the in vitro uptake of mercury vapour in blood has been investigated in order to clarify the mechanism by which mercury is oxidized in blood. The rate of mercury uptake in blood in a pure oxygen atmosphere is moderately increased, but somewhat decreased in a nitrogen atmosphere when compared with the rate of uptake in an atmospheric air phase. Increasing concentrations of methylene blue induce a very pronounced acceleration of the rate of mercury uptake in blood up to a maximum of about 10 times the normal uptake in an atmospheric air phase. Menadione shows a similar, but even more pronounced effect. The menadione-stimulated uptake is markedly inhibited by low concentrations of ethyl alcohol. Concentrations of potassium cyanide from 1/8 x 10/sup -3/ to 4 x 10/sup -3/ M cause a progressive inhibition of the mercury uptake in the blood up to a maximum of about 60%, which is very similar to the effect produced by ethyl alcohol. The investigations point to hydrogen peroxide and oxidized glutathione as agents of importance in the oxidation and uptake of mercury vapour in blood. The way in which ethyl alcohol inhibits the uptake is still unknown. Some possible mechanisms are discussed. 24 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake in two Idaho (USA) headwater wilderness streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jeffrey C; Minshall, G Wayne

    1999-05-01

    Nitrate and phosphate solutions were released into two reaches of two central Idaho streams to determine within- and between-stream variability in uptake lengths, uptake rates, and mass transfer coefficients. Physical and biotic stream characteristics and periphyton nitrate-uptake rates in recirculating chambers were measured to determine their influence on nutrient dynamics. Phosphate uptake length did not differ among the four reaches. There were no within-stream differences in nitrate uptake lengths but they did differ between the two streams. Long nitrate uptake lengths likely were due to instream concentrations above saturation but also may have been influenced by differences in active surface area and algal abundance. Nitrate and phosphate uptake lengths were longer, and uptake rates higher, than most other published values. However, mass transfer coefficients were comparable to measurements in other streams. Mass transfer coefficients may be a better parameter for temporal and spatial comparisons of instream nutrient dynamics, and for determining the underlying causes of variability in uptake length.

  2. Comparative analyses of basal rate of metabolism in mammals: data selection does matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genoud, Michel; Isler, Karin; Martin, Robert D

    2018-02-01

    Basal rate of metabolism (BMR) is a physiological parameter that should be measured under strictly defined experimental conditions. In comparative analyses among mammals BMR is widely used as an index of the intensity of the metabolic machinery or as a proxy for energy expenditure. Many databases with BMR values for mammals are available, but the criteria used to select metabolic data as BMR estimates have often varied and the potential effect of this variability has rarely been questioned. We provide a new, expanded BMR database reflecting compliance with standard criteria (resting, postabsorptive state; thermal neutrality; adult, non-reproductive status for females) and examine potential effects of differential selectivity on the results of comparative analyses. The database includes 1739 different entries for 817 species of mammals, compiled from the original sources. It provides information permitting assessment of the validity of each estimate and presents the value closest to a proper BMR for each entry. Using different selection criteria, several alternative data sets were extracted and used in comparative analyses of (i) the scaling of BMR to body mass and (ii) the relationship between brain mass and BMR. It was expected that results would be especially dependent on selection criteria with small sample sizes and with relatively weak relationships. Phylogenetically informed regression (phylogenetic generalized least squares, PGLS) was applied to the alternative data sets for several different clades (Mammalia, Eutheria, Metatheria, or individual orders). For Mammalia, a 'subsampling procedure' was also applied, in which random subsamples of different sample sizes were taken from each original data set and successively analysed. In each case, two data sets with identical sample size and species, but comprising BMR data with different degrees of reliability, were compared. Selection criteria had minor effects on scaling equations computed for large clades

  3. Dermal Uptake of Organic Vapors Commonly Found in Indoor Air

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W

    2014-01-01

    Transdermal uptake directly from air is a potentially important yet largely overlooked pathway for human exposure to organic vapors indoors. We recently reported (Indoor Air 2012, 22, 356) that transdermal uptake directly from air could be comparable to or larger than intake via inhalation for many......, formaldehyde, and acrolein. Analysis of published experimental data for human subjects for twenty different organic compounds substantiates these model predictions. However, transdermal uptake rates from air have not been measured for the indoor organics that have the largest modeled ratios of dermal......-to-inhalation uptake; for such compounds, the estimates reported here require experimental verification. In accounting for total exposure to indoor organic pollutants and in assessing potential health consequences of such exposures, it is important to consider direct transdermal absorption from air....

  4. Influenza Vaccine Uptake, Hand Hygiene Practices, and Perceived Barriers in Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stedman-Smith, Maggie; Kingsbury, Diana M; Dubois, Cathy L Z; Grey, Scott F

    2017-01-01

    The annual costs of influenza are in the billions of dollars, with employers bearing substantial burdens. Yet, influenza vaccine uptake is sub-optimal. A random survey was administered to employees at a Midwestern public university using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to identify the rate, characteristics, and barriers of self-reported flu vaccine uptake during March-April of 2012. The lowest uptake was among adults, ages 18 to 49 (29.8%), even though they are included in universal recommendations. Multiple regression analysis adjusted for demographic confounders showed an increase in self-identified protective hand hygiene behavior among those who reported influenza vaccine uptake compared with those who did not. Qualitative thematic analysis revealed contextual accounts of why vaccine uptake was declined including structural, perceptual, and knowledge barriers. Implementation and evaluation of novel multicomponent worksite vaccine interventions tailored to reach young and middle-aged employees including utilization of risk communication is needed to facilitate increased uptake.

  5. Comparing facility-level methane emission rate estimates at natural gas gathering and boosting stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Vaughn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Coordinated dual-tracer, aircraft-based, and direct component-level measurements were made at midstream natural gas gathering and boosting stations in the Fayetteville shale (Arkansas, USA. On-site component-level measurements were combined with engineering estimates to generate comprehensive facility-level methane emission rate estimates (“study on-site estimates (SOE” comparable to tracer and aircraft measurements. Combustion slip (unburned fuel entrained in compressor engine exhaust, which was calculated based on 111 recent measurements of representative compressor engines, accounts for an estimated 75% of cumulative SOEs at gathering stations included in comparisons. Measured methane emissions from regenerator vents on glycol dehydrator units were substantially larger than predicted by modelling software; the contribution of dehydrator regenerator vents to the cumulative SOE would increase from 1% to 10% if based on direct measurements. Concurrent measurements at 14 normally-operating facilities show relative agreement between tracer and SOE, but indicate that tracer measurements estimate lower emissions (regression of tracer to SOE = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.83–0.99, R2 = 0.89. Tracer and SOE 95% confidence intervals overlap at 11/14 facilities. Contemporaneous measurements at six facilities suggest that aircraft measurements estimate higher emissions than SOE. Aircraft and study on-site estimate 95% confidence intervals overlap at 3/6 facilities. The average facility level emission rate (FLER estimated by tracer measurements in this study is 17–73% higher than a prior national study by Marchese et al.

  6. Early detection of pharmacovigilance signals with automated methods based on false discovery rates: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ismaïl; Thiessard, Frantz; Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Haramburu, Françoise; Kreft-Jais, Carmen; Bégaud, Bernard; Tubert-Bitter, Pascale

    2012-06-01

    Improving the detection of drug safety signals has led several pharmacovigilance regulatory agencies to incorporate automated quantitative methods into their spontaneous reporting management systems. The three largest worldwide pharmacovigilance databases are routinely screened by the lower bound of the 95% confidence interval of proportional reporting ratio (PRR₀₂.₅), the 2.5% quantile of the Information Component (IC₀₂.₅) or the 5% quantile of the Gamma Poisson Shrinker (GPS₀₅). More recently, Bayesian and non-Bayesian False Discovery Rate (FDR)-based methods were proposed that address the arbitrariness of thresholds and allow for a built-in estimate of the FDR. These methods were also shown through simulation studies to be interesting alternatives to the currently used methods. The objective of this work was twofold. Based on an extensive retrospective study, we compared PRR₀₂.₅, GPS₀₅ and IC₀₂.₅ with two FDR-based methods derived from the Fisher's exact test and the GPS model (GPS(pH0) [posterior probability of the null hypothesis H₀ calculated from the Gamma Poisson Shrinker model]). Secondly, restricting the analysis to GPS(pH0), we aimed to evaluate the added value of using automated signal detection tools compared with 'traditional' methods, i.e. non-automated surveillance operated by pharmacovigilance experts. The analysis was performed sequentially, i.e. every month, and retrospectively on the whole French pharmacovigilance database over the period 1 January 1996-1 July 2002. Evaluation was based on a list of 243 reference signals (RSs) corresponding to investigations launched by the French Pharmacovigilance Technical Committee (PhVTC) during the same period. The comparison of detection methods was made on the basis of the number of RSs detected as well as the time to detection. Results comparing the five automated quantitative methods were in favour of GPS(pH0) in terms of both number of detections of true signals and

  7. A Comparative Risk Assessment of Extended Integrated Leak Rate Testing Intervals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Ji Yong; Hwang, Seok Won; Lee, Byung Sik [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents the risk impacts of extending the Integrated Leak Rate Testing (ILRT) intervals (from five years to ten years) of Yonggwang (YGN) Unit 1 and 2. These risk impacts depended on the annual variances of meteorological data and resident population. Main comparisons were performed between the initial risk assessment (2005) for the purpose of extending ILRT interval and risk reassessment (2009) where the changed plant internal configurations (core inventory and radioisotope release fraction) and plant external alterations (wind directions, rainfall and population distributions) were monitored. The reassessment showed that there was imperceptible risk increase when the ILRT interval was extended compared to the initial risk assessment. In addition, the increased value of the Large Early Release Frequency (LERF) also satisfied the acceptance guideline proposed on Reg. Guide 1.174. The MACCS II code was used for evaluating the offsite consequence analysis. The primary risk index were used as the Probabilistic Population Dose (PPD) by considering the early effects within 80 km. The Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of YGN 1 and 2 was applied to evaluate the accident frequency of each source term category and the used PSA scope was limited to internal event.

  8. A Comparative Study of Neural Networks and ANFIS for Forecasting Attendance Rate of Soccer Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Şahin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to develop and apply a neural network (NN approach and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS model for forecasting the attendance rates at soccer games. The models were designed based on the characteristics of the problem. Past real data was used. Training data was used for training the models, and the testing data was used for evaluating the performance of the forecasting models. The obtained forecasting results were compared to the actual data and to each other. To evaluate the performance of the models, two statistical indicators, Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD and mean absolute percent error (MAPE, were used. Based on the results, the proposed neural network approach and the ANFIS model were shown to be effective in forecasting attendance at soccer games. The neural network approach performed better than the ANFIS model. The main contribution of this study is to introduce two effective techniques for estimating attendance at sports games. This is the first attempt to use an ANFIS model for that purpose.

  9. Carbon Dioxide Insufflation Increases Colonoscopic Adenoma Detection Rate Compared With Air Insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Christopher D; McCamley, Chere; Swan, Michael P

    2018-03-07

    To determine the effect of carbon dioxide insufflation on the most important outcome measure of colonoscopic quality: adenoma detection rate (ADR). Bowel cancer is the second most common cause of cancer deaths in males and females in Australia. Carbon dioxide has in recent times become the insufflation methodology of choice for screening colonoscopy for bowel cancer, as this has been shown to have significant advantages when compared with traditional air insufflation. Endoscopies performed over a period of 9 months immediately before and after the implementation of carbon dioxide insufflation at endoscopy centers were eligible for inclusion. The difference in ADR between the carbon dioxide and air insufflation methods was statistically significant, with an increased ADR in the carbon dioxide group. The superiority of carbon dioxide insufflation was sustained with a logistic regression model, which showed ADR was significantly impacted by insufflation method. Carbon dioxide insufflation is known to reduce abdominal pain, postprocedural duration of abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and analgesic requirements. This study represents for the first time the beneficial effect of carbon dioxide insufflation upon the key quality colonoscopy indicator of ADR.

  10. Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Norvell, W.A.; Welch, R.M.; Sullivan, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars exhibit lower Zn efficiency than comparable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. To understand the physiological mechanism(s) that confers Zn efficiency, this study used 65Zn to investigate ionic Zn2+ root uptake, binding, and translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars. Time-dependent Zn2+ accumulation during 90 min was greater in roots of the bread wheat cultivar. Zn2+ cell wall binding was not different in the two cultivars. In each cultivar, concentration-dependent Zn2+ influx was characterized by a smooth, saturating curve, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. At very low solution Zn2+ activities, Zn2+ uptake rates were higher in the bread wheat cultivar. As a result, the Michaelis constant for Zn2+ uptake was lower in the bread wheat cultivar (2.3 micromolar) than in the durum wheat cultivar (3.9 micromolar). Low temperature decreased the rate of Zn2+ influx, suggesting that metabolism plays a role in Zn2+ uptake. Ca inhibited Zn2+ uptake equally in both cultivars. Translocation of Zn to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar, reflecting the higher root uptake rates. The study suggests that lower root Zn2+ uptake rates may contribute to reduced Zn efficiency in durum wheat varieties under Zn-limiting conditions

  11. 134cs uptake by plants from soil applying different absorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oncsik, M.

    1998-01-01

    A study of isotope uptake by plants using different zeolite clay minerals (montmorillonite, mordenite, clinoptilolite) was started with a view to reducing the rate of isotope uptake by plants by applying additives given to the soil. In pot experiments, the 134 Cs activity of green peas was reduced by 16% in average as compared to the control in the soils enriched with zeolite (mordenite type). Under field conditions, the radioactivity of millet and carrot yields were investigated in soils ameliorated with montmorillonite clay mineral. The radioactive contamination of the yield in soil treated with zeolite was in average 10% lower for millet and 24% for carrot roots as compared to the control

  12. HIGHER PRECISION OF HEART RATE COMPARED WITH VO2 TO PREDICT EXERCISE INTENSITY IN ENDURANCE-TRAINED RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Reis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the precision of oxygen uptake with heart rate regression during track running in highly-trained runners. Twelve national and international level male long-distance road runners (age 30.7 ± 5.5 yrs, height 1.71 ± 0.04 m and mass 61.2 ± 5.8 kg with a personal best on the half marathon of 62 min 37 s ± 1 min 22 s participated in the study. Each participant performed, in an all-weather synthetic track five, six min bouts at constant velocity with each bout at an increased running velocity. The starting velocity was 3.33 m·s-1 with a 0.56 m·s-1 increase on each subsequent bout. VO2 and heart rate were measured during the runs and blood lactate was assessed immediately after each run. Mean peak VO2 and mean peak heart rate were, respectively, 76.2 ± 9.7 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 181 ± 13 beats·min-1. The linearity of the regressions between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 were all very high (r > 0.99 with small standard errors of regression (i.e. Sy.x < 5% at the velocity associated with the 2 and 4 mmol·L-1 lactate thresholds. The strong relationships between heart rate, running velocity and VO2 found in this study show that, in highly trained runners, it is possible to have heart rate as an accurate indicator of energy demand and of the running speed. Therefore, in this subject cohort it may be unnecessary to use VO2 to track changes in the subjects' running economy during training periods.

  13. A Comparative Study on Fetal Heart Rates Estimated from Fetal Phonography and Cardiotocography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate that fetal heart rates (fHR extracted from fetal phonocardiography (fPCG could convey similar information of fHR from cardiotocography (CTG. Four-channel fPCG sensors made of low cost (<$1 ceramic piezo vibration sensor within 3D-printed casings were used to collect abdominal phonogram signals from 20 pregnant mothers (>34 weeks of gestation. A novel multi-lag covariance matrix-based eigenvalue decomposition technique was used to separate maternal breathing, fetal heart sounds (fHS and maternal heart sounds (mHS from abdominal phonogram signals. Prior to the fHR estimation, the fPCG signals were denoised using a multi-resolution wavelet-based filter. The proposed source separation technique was first tested in separating sources from synthetically mixed signals and then on raw abdominal phonogram signals. fHR signals extracted from fPCG signals were validated using simultaneous recorded CTG-based fHR recordings.The experimental results have shown that the fHR derived from the acquired fPCG can be used to detect periods of acceleration and deceleration, which are critical indication of the fetus' well-being. Moreover, a comparative analysis demonstrated that fHRs from CTG and fPCG signals were in good agreement (Bland Altman plot has mean = −0.21 BPM and ±2 SD = ±3 with statistical significance (p < 0.001 and Spearman correlation coefficient ρ = 0.95. The study findings show that fHR estimated from fPCG could be a reliable substitute for fHR from the CTG, opening up the possibility of a low cost monitoring tool for fetal well-being.

  14. Cadmium, zinc and the uptake of calcium by two crabs, Carcinus maenas and Eriocheir sinensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainbow, P.S.; Black, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    The uptake of dissolved cadmium and zinc by crustaceans can usually be explained by the passive process of facilitated diffusion involving a transport protein in the membranes of permeable surfaces. Cadmium ions will also enter via uptake routes for calcium, given the similar size of the two free ions. This study has investigated the interaction of cadmium (and comparatively zinc) and calcium uptake in two crabs that show different permeability responses to changes in salinity, with consequently different effects on the uptake of cadmium and zinc with salinity change. Ca uptake rates in Carcinus maenas decreased in reduced salinity (33-15) with the decreased Ca concentration of the medium and increased if the Ca concentration was increased at salinity 20. It is concluded that Ca uptake over the salinity range 33-15 is via apical Ca channels in gill ionocytes, passively down an electrochemical gradient. The Ca uptake rate of Eriocheir sinensis showed no significant decrease over the salinity range 33-10 (probably because of the small differences in an already low Ca uptake rate in this crab against a background of inter-individual variability), but decreased significantly at salinity 5. Added calcium increased the Ca uptake rate of E. sinensis at salinities 15 and 5, supporting the interpretation that Ca uptake in gills is typically passive via apical Ca channels. Cadmium (but not zinc) inhibited calcium uptake in both crabs at 15 salinity, indicating sharing of Ca channels by Cd, but not at salinity 5 (E. sinensis only) when Ca may be taken up into gill ionocytes by another (active?) physiological process

  15. Importance of Passive Diffusion in the Uptake of Polychlorinated Biphenyls by Phagotrophic Protozoa†

    OpenAIRE

    Kujawinski, Elizabeth B.; Farrington, John W.; Moffett, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments we...

  16. Relation of oxygen uptake to work rate in prepubertal healthy children - reference for VO2/W-slope and effect on cardiorespiratory fitness assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompuri, Tuomo; Lintu, Niina; Laitinen, Tomi; Lakka, Timo A

    2017-08-09

    Exercise testing by cycle ergometer allows to observe the interaction between oxygen uptake (VO 2 ) and workload (W), and VO 2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. Respectively, peak oxygen uptake (VO 2 PEAK ) can be estimated by maximal workload. We aim to determine reference for VO 2 /W-slope among prepubertal children and define agreement between estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK . A total of 38 prepubertal children (20 girls) performed a maximal cycle ergometer test with respiratory gas analysis. VO 2 /W-slopes were computed using linear regression. Agreement analysis by Bland and Altman for estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK was carried out including limits of agreement (LA). Determinants for VO 2 /W-slopes and estimation bias were defined. VO2/W-slope was in both girls and boys ≥9·4 and did not change with exercise level, but the oxygen cost of exercise was higher among physically more active children. Estimated VO 2 PEAK had 6·4% coefficient of variation, and LA varied from 13% underestimation to 13% overestimation. Bias had a trend towards underestimation along lean mass proportional VO 2 PEAK . The primary determinant for estimation bias was VO2/W-slope (β = -0·65; PW-slope among healthy prepubertal children were similar to those published for adults and among adolescents. Estimated and measured VO 2 PEAK should not be considered to be interchangeable because of the variation in the relationship between VO 2 and W. On other hand, variation in the relationship between VO 2 and W enables that VO 2 /W-slope can be used as a diagnostic tool. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A model-independent comparison of the rates of uptake and short term retention of 47Ca and 85Sr by the skeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, J; Hesp, R

    1976-12-22

    1. A method has been devised for comparing the impulse response functions of the skeleton for two or more boneseeking tracers, and for estimating the contribution made by measurement errors to the differences between any pair of impulse response functions. 2. Comparisons were made between the calculated impulse response functions for 47Ca and 85Sr obtained in simultaneous double tracer studies in sixteen subjects. Collectively the differences between the 47Ca and 85Sr functions could be accounted for entirely by measurement errors. 3. Because the calculation of an impulse response function requires fewer a priori assumptions than other forms of mathematical analysis, and automatically corrects for differences induced by recycling of tracer and non-identical rates of excretory plasma clearance of tracer, it is concluded that differences shown in previous in vivo studies between the fluxes of Ca and Sr into bone can be fully accounted for by undetermined oversimplifications in the various mathematical models used to analyse the results of those studies. 85Sr is therefore an adequate tracer for bone calcium in most in vivo studies.

  18. Comparing methods for measuring the rate of spread of invading populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius Gilbert; Andrew. Liebhold

    2010-01-01

    Measuring rates of spread during biological invasions is important for predicting where and when invading organisms will spread in the future as well as for quantifying the influence of environmental conditions on invasion speed. While several methods have been proposed in the literature to measure spread rates, a comprehensive comparison of their accuracy when applied...

  19. Comparability of the Social Skills Improvement System to the Social Skills Rating System: A Norwegian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamst-Klaussen, Thor; Rasmussen, Lene-Mari P.; Svartdal, Frode; Strømgren, Børge

    2016-01-01

    The Social Skills Improvement System-Rating Scales (SSIS-RS) is a multi-informant instrument assessing social skills and problem behavior in children and adolescents. It is a revised version of the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS). A Norwegian translation of the SSRS has been validated, but this has not yet been done for the Norwegian…

  20. A comparative study of United States and China exchange rate behavior: A co integration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuram Shafi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Exchange rates always affect the prices of the imports and export of products and services in which countries are trading with other parts of the world. Therefore, exchange rate calculation is one of the essential issues for making appropriate policies. This research investigates the determinants of trade, i.e. import, export, industrial growth, consumption level and oil prices fluctuation, which bring changes in exchange rate and their influence eventually on balance of payments. Data of defined variables was collected on yearly basis for China and USA for thirty one years. By applying cointegration, it is estimated that there existed a long run relationship in both countries. USA and China had significant and correct signs on the short run dynamic and some of the factors did not. Exchange rate did not granger cause balance of payment and balance of payment did not granger cause exchange rate. In conclusion, we found that determinants of balance of trade could affect the exchange rates, also, these rates had considerable effect (positive or negative on balance of payments. In this twofold study, we found relationship of exchange rate with selected determinants of trade, and also examined their bilateral effect, and then made contrast of both countries.

  1. Effect of barbiturates on radiosensitivity of cells: a comparative study of electrophoretic mobility, colony forming ability and thymidine uptake on human amnion cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalwani, N.D.; Chaubal, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    Suspensions of human amnion cells were 60 Co γ-irradiated in the presence of phenobarbital or thiobarbital (50 μg/ml). The barbiturates protected the cells against the dose-dependent reduction in electrophoretic mobility (EPM) observed 4 hours after irradiation of untreated cells, although there was an initial decrease in the EPM of treated cells followed by recovery. Treated irradiated cells exhibited greater colony-forming ability than the untreated cells. Pentobarbital and phenobarbital had similar effects, but thiobarbital was not so effective. 3 H-TdR uptake increased within 4 hours of irradiation for the treated cells. The reproductive capacity of the cells was retained at doses as high as 500 rad. The results are discussed with reference to the effects of anaesthetics on cell membranes. (U.K.)

  2. Accelerating finite-rate chemical kinetics with coprocessors: Comparing vectorization methods on GPUs, MICs, and CPUs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Christopher P.; Alferman, Andrew T.; Niemeyer, Kyle E.

    2018-05-01

    Accurate and efficient methods for solving stiff ordinary differential equations (ODEs) are a critical component of turbulent combustion simulations with finite-rate chemistry. The ODEs governing the chemical kinetics at each mesh point are decoupled by operator-splitting allowing each to be solved concurrently. An efficient ODE solver must then take into account the available thread and instruction-level parallelism of the underlying hardware, especially on many-core coprocessors, as well as the numerical efficiency. A stiff Rosenbrock and a nonstiff Runge-Kutta ODE solver are both implemented using the single instruction, multiple thread (SIMT) and single instruction, multiple data (SIMD) paradigms within OpenCL. Both methods solve multiple ODEs concurrently within the same instruction stream. The performance of these parallel implementations was measured on three chemical kinetic models of increasing size across several multicore and many-core platforms. Two separate benchmarks were conducted to clearly determine any performance advantage offered by either method. The first benchmark measured the run-time of evaluating the right-hand-side source terms in parallel and the second benchmark integrated a series of constant-pressure, homogeneous reactors using the Rosenbrock and Runge-Kutta solvers. The right-hand-side evaluations with SIMD parallelism on the host multicore Xeon CPU and many-core Xeon Phi co-processor performed approximately three times faster than the baseline multithreaded C++ code. The SIMT parallel model on the host and Phi was 13%-35% slower than the baseline while the SIMT model on the NVIDIA Kepler GPU provided approximately the same performance as the SIMD model on the Phi. The runtimes for both ODE solvers decreased significantly with the SIMD implementations on the host CPU (2.5-2.7 ×) and Xeon Phi coprocessor (4.7-4.9 ×) compared to the baseline parallel code. The SIMT implementations on the GPU ran 1.5-1.6 times faster than the baseline

  3. Event rates, hospital utilization, and costs associated with major complications of diabetes: a multicountry comparative analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip M Clarke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes imposes a substantial burden globally in terms of premature mortality, morbidity, and health care costs. Estimates of economic outcomes associated with diabetes are essential inputs to policy analyses aimed at prevention and treatment of diabetes. Our objective was to estimate and compare event rates, hospital utilization, and costs associated with major diabetes-related complications in high-, middle-, and low-income countries.Incidence and history of diabetes-related complications, hospital admissions, and length of stay were recorded in 11,140 patients with type 2 diabetes participating in the Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease (ADVANCE study (mean age at entry 66 y. The probability of hospital utilization and number of days in hospital for major events associated with coronary disease, cerebrovascular disease, congestive heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, and nephropathy were estimated for three regions (Asia, Eastern Europe, and Established Market Economies using multiple regression analysis. The resulting estimates of days spent in hospital were multiplied by regional estimates of the costs per hospital bed-day from the World Health Organization to compute annual acute and long-term costs associated with the different types of complications. To assist, comparability, costs are reported in international dollars (Int$, which represent a hypothetical currency that allows for the same quantities of goods or services to be purchased regardless of country, standardized on purchasing power in the United States. A cost calculator accompanying this paper enables the estimation of costs for individual countries and translation of these costs into local currency units. The probability of attending a hospital following an event was highest for heart failure (93%-96% across regions and lowest for nephropathy (15%-26%. The average numbers of days in hospital given at least one admission were greatest for stroke (17-32 d across

  4. Uptake of trace elements in adult and suckling rat lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Ito, Yoshimasa; Minami, Takeshi; Hirunuma, Rieko; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    The uptake of trace elements in the lens was compared in adult and suckling rat lenses. Multitracers, including 15 trace elements, As, Be, Co, Fe, Mn, Rb, Rh, Ru, Sc, Se, Sr, Y, V, Zn, and Zr, were incubated with the lenses for 4 hr and their concentrations in the lens were measured. A high uptake rate of Zn was observed in the lenses of both adult and suckling rats in comparison with those of the other elements, and the Zn concentration in the lens of suckling rats was higher than that of adult rats. The uptake rate of Sr was higher in adult rats than in suckling rats. On the other contrary, Rb and Se concentrations in the lens were higher in suckling rats than in adult rats. The present study suggests that the different mechanisms depending on development serve to transport trace elements into the lens. (author)

  5. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, $\

  6. Efficacy and satisfaction rate comparing endometrial ablation by rollerball electrocoagulation to uterine balloon thermal ablation in a randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zon-Rabelink, I.A.A. van; Vleugels, M.P.; Merkus, J.M.W.M.; Graaf, R.M. de

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare two methods of endometrial ablation, hysteroscopic rollerball electrocoagulation (RBE) and non-hysteroscopic uterine balloon thermal ablation (Thermachoice trade mark ), regarding efficacy for reducing dysfunctional uterine bleeding and patients satisfaction rate. METHODS: A

  7. Comparative influence of dose rate and radiation nature, on lethality after big mammals irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destombe, C.; Le Fleche, Ph.; Grasseau, A.; Reynal, A.

    1997-01-01

    For the same dose and the 30 days lethality as biological criterion, the dose rate influence is more important than the radiation nature on the results of an big mammals total body irradiation. (authors)

  8. Comparative investigation of three dose rate meters for their viability in pulsed radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotz, M; Karsch, L; Pawelke, J

    2015-01-01

    Pulsed radiation fields, characterized by microsecond pulse duration and correspondingly high pulse dose rates, are increasingly used in therapeutic, diagnostic and research applications. Yet, dose rate meters which are used to monitor radiation protection areas or to inspect radiation shielding are mostly designed, characterized and tested for continuous fields and show severe deficiencies in highly pulsed fields. Despite general awareness of the problem, knowledge of the specific limitations of individual instruments is very limited, complicating reliable measurements. We present here the results of testing three commercial dose rate meters, the RamION ionization chamber, the LB 1236-H proportional counter and the 6150AD-b scintillation counter, for their response in pulsed radiation fields of varied pulse dose and duration. Of these three the RamION proved reliable, operating in a pulsed radiation field within its specifications, while the other two instruments were only able to measure very limited pulse doses and pulse dose rates reliably. (paper)

  9. A comparative analysis of carbon dioxide displacement rates for euthanasia of the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Dawn C; Parmer, Amanda; Shelton, Larry J; Sheets, James T

    2008-02-01

    Though carbon dioxide asphyxiation is a common method of euthanasia for laboratory animals, species-specific guidelines have not been established for this procedure in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). The authors investigated the efficacy and stress effects of carbon dioxide euthanasia in 24 ferrets that had participated in previous experimental protocols. They euthanized ferrets by placing them in cages that were either prefilled with carbon dioxide or gradually filled at a displacement rate of 10%, 20% or 50% of the cage volume per min. Blinded observers subjectively evaluated ferret distress. Prefilling the cage or filling it at a rate of 50% volume per min resulted in less time to recumbency and to last breath than did filling the cage at a slower displacement rate. Slower carbon dioxide displacement rates also caused an increase in ferret blood glucose concentrations, which may indicate distress. Overall, observers found that prefilling the euthanasia cage caused the least stress to ferrets.

  10. Dynamic structure of stock communities: a comparative study between stock returns and turnover rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Li-Ling; Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Li, Sai-Ping; Zhong, Li-Xin; Ren, Fei

    2017-07-01

    The detection of community structure in stock market is of theoretical and practical significance for the study of financial dynamics and portfolio risk estimation. We here study the community structures in Chinese stock markets from the aspects of both price returns and turnover rates, by using a combination of the PMFG and infomap methods based on a distance matrix. An empirical study using the overall data set shows that for both returns and turnover rates the largest communities are composed of specific industrial or conceptional sectors and the correlation inside a sector is generally larger than the correlation between different sectors. However, the community structure for turnover rates is more complex than that for returns, which indicates that the interactions between stocks revealed by turnover rates may contain more information. This conclusion is further confirmed by the analysis of the changes in the dynamics of community structures over five sub-periods. Sectors like banks, real estate, health care and New Shanghai take turns to comprise a few of the largest communities in different sub-periods, and more interestingly several specific sectors appear in the communities with different rank orders for returns and turnover rates even in the same sub-period. To better understand their differences, a comparison between the evolution of the returns and turnover rates of the stocks from these sectors is conducted. We find that stock prices only had large changes around important events while turnover rates surged after each of these events relevant to specific sectors, which shows strong evidence that the turnover rates are more susceptible to exogenous shocks than returns and its measurement for community detection may contain more useful information about market structure.

  11. 47 CFR 54.316 - Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Rates, Price Indices, and Expenditures for Telephone Service published by the Wireline Competition... areas served by non-rural carriers. 54.316 Section 54.316 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS... High Cost Areas § 54.316 Rate comparability review and certification for areas served by non-rural...

  12. Planned home compared with planned hospital births: Mode of delivery and Perinatal mortality rates, an observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooy, J. (Jacoba); E. Birnie (Erwin); S. Denktaş (Semiha); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); G.J. Bonsel (Gouke)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: To compare the mode of delivery between planned home versus planned hospital births and to determine if differences in intervention rates could be interpreted as over- or undertreatment. Methods: Intervention and perinatal mortality rates were obtained for 679,952 low-risk

  13. Comparison of the rate of uptake and biologic effects of retinol added to human keratinocytes either directly to the culture medium or bound to serum retinol-binding protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodam, J.R.; St Hilaire, P.; Creek, K.E.

    1991-01-01

    Retinol circulates in the plasma bound to retinol-binding protein (RBP), but the mechanism by which retinol is transferred from RBP to target cells is not known. To study retinol delivery, human keratinocytes (HKc) were incubated with [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP and the uptake of [3H]retinol was determined at various times. During the first hour of incubation, the rate of [3H]retinol accumulation by HKc was about 40 times greater when the vitamin was added directly to the media rather than bound to RBP. Although maximal uptake of [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium occurred at 3 h, the uptake of [3H]retinol from RBP was linear with time for at least 72 h. By 57 h, cell-associated [3H]retinol was the same whether it was added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP. Excess unlabeled retinol or pretreatment of HKc with retinol had no effect on the uptake of [3H]retinol added directly to the culture medium or bound to RBP. Apo- but not holo-RBP was capable of competing with HKc for the uptake of [3H]retinol from RBP. No specific or saturable binding of 125I-labeled RBP to HKc cultured in the absence or the presence of retinol was found. The dose response of retinol inhibition of cholesterol sulfate synthesis and phorbol ester-induced ornithine decarboxylase activity or retinol modulation of keratin expression was the same whether the retinol was delivered to HKc bound to RBP or added directly to the medium. Our data support a mechanism for retinol delivery from RBP to HKc that does not involve cell-surface RBP receptors but instead suggest that the vitamin is first slowly released from RBP and then becomes cell-associated from the aqueous phase. This mechanism is consistent with the finding that HKc respond identically to retinol whether or not it is delivered to them bound to RBP

  14. Toward a transport-based analysis of nutrient spiraling and uptake in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runkel, Robert L.

    2007-01-01

    Nutrient addition experiments are designed to study the cycling of nutrients in stream ecosystems where hydrologic and nonhydrologic processes determine nutrient fate. Because of the importance of hydrologic processes in stream ecosystems, a conceptual model known as nutrient spiraling is frequently employed. A central part of the nutrient spiraling approach is the determination of uptake length (SW), the average distance traveled by dissolved nutrients in the water column before uptake. Although the nutrient spiraling concept has been an invaluable tool in stream ecology, the current practice of estimating uptake length from steady-state nutrient data using linear regression (called here the "SW approach") presents a number of limitations. These limitations are identified by comparing the exponential SW equation with analytical solutions of a stream solute transport model. This comparison indicates that (1) SW, is an aggregate measure of uptake that does not distinguish between main channel and storage zone processes, (2) SW, is an integrated measure of numerous hydrologie and nonhydrologic processes-this process integration may lead to difficulties in interpretation when comparing estimates of SW, and (3) estimates of uptake velocity and areal uptake rate (Vf and U) based on S W, are not independent of system hydrology. Given these findings, a transport-based approach to nutrient spiraling is presented for steady-state and time-series data sets. The transport-based approach for time-series data sets is suggested for future research on nutrient uptake as it provides a number of benefits, including the ability to (1) separately quantify main channel and storage zone uptake, (2) quantify specific hydrologic and nonhydrologic processes using various model parameters (process separation), (3) estimate uptake velocities and areal uptake rates that are independent of hydrologic effects, and (4) use short-term, non-plateau nutrient additions such that the effects of

  15. Assessing conflict communication in couples: comparing the validity of self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Keith

    2010-04-01

    This study of married couples investigated the short-term predictive validity of the partner-report and self-report scales of the Conflict Communication Inventory and compared the validity of these scales with the validity of observer ratings. A sample of 83 married couples completed two problem-solving conversations. Self-report, partner-report, and observer ratings from Conversation 1 were used to predict behavior in Conversation 2, as rated by a separate panel of observers. The short-term predictive validity of partner-report ratings was extremely high and indistinguishable from the validity of observer ratings. Self-report ratings also demonstrated good validity, albeit slightly lower than other methods. Both partner-report and self-report scores explained a substantial amount of variance in concurrent observer ratings of communication after controlling for relationship satisfaction. 2010 APA, all rights reserved

  16. Comparative organochlorine accumulation in two ecologically similar shark species (Carcharodon carcharias and Carcharhinus obscurus) with divergent uptake based on different life history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudry, Marina C; Hussey, Nigel E; McMeans, Bailey C; McLeod, Anne M; Wintner, Sabine P; Cliff, Geremy; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Fisk, Aaron T

    2015-09-01

    Trophic position and body mass are traits commonly used to predict organochlorine burdens. Sharks, however, have a variety of feeding and life history strategies and metabolize lipid uniquely. Because of this diversity, and the lipid-association of organochlorines, the dynamics of organochlorine accumulation in sharks may be predicted ineffectively by stable isotope-derived trophic position and body mass, as is typical for other taxa. The present study compared ontogenetic organochlorine profiles in the dusky shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) and white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), which differ in metabolic thermoregulation and trophic position throughout their ontogeny. Although greater organochlorine concentrations were observed in the larger bodied and higher trophic position white shark (e.g., p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene: 20.2 ± 2.7 ng/g vs 9.3 ± 2.2 ng/g in the dusky shark), slopes of growth-dilution corrected concentrations with age were equal to those of the dusky shark. Similar ontogenetic trophic position increases in both species, less frequent white shark seal predation than previously assumed, or inaccurate species-specific growth parameters are possible explanations. Inshore habitat use (indicated by δ(13)C values) and mass were important predictors in white and dusky sharks, respectively, of both overall compound profiles and select organochlorine concentrations. The present study clarified understanding of trophic position and body mass as reliable predictors of interspecific organochlorine accumulation in sharks, whereas regional endothermy and diet shifting were shown to have less impact on overall rates of accumulation. © 2015 SETAC.

  17. Comparative evaluation of heart rate-based monitors: Apple Watch vs Fitbit Charge HR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Hibbing, Paul; Mantis, Constantine; Welk, Gregory J

    2018-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the validity of energy expenditure (EE), steps, and heart rate measured with the Apple Watch 1 and Fitbit Charge HR. Thirty-nine healthy adults wore the two monitors while completing a semi-structured activity protocol consisting of 20 minutes of sedentary activity, 25 minutes of aerobic exercise, and 25 minutes of light intensity physical activity. Criterion measures were obtained from an Oxycon Mobile for EE, a pedometer for steps, and a Polar heart rate strap worn on the chest for heart rate. For estimating whole-trial EE, the mean absolute percent error (MAPE) from Fitbit Charge HR (32.9%) was more than twice that of Apple Watch 1 (15.2%). This trend was consistent for the individual conditions. Both monitors accurately assessed steps during aerobic activity (MAPE Apple : 6.2%; MAPE Fitbit : 9.4%) but overestimated steps in light physical activity. For heart rate, Fitbit Charge HR produced its smallest MAPE in sedentary behaviors (7.2%), followed by aerobic exercise (8.4%), and light activity (10.1%). The Apple Watch 1 had stronger validity than the Fitbit Charge HR for assessing overall EE and steps during aerobic exercise. The Fitbit Charge HR provided heart rate estimates that were statistically equivalent to Polar monitor.

  18. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E.; Guo, Xianfeng; Visser, De Pieter H.B.; Marcelis, Leo F.M.

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of

  19. A comparative study of different methods for calculating electronic transition rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananenka, Alexei A.; Sun, Xiang; Schubert, Alexander; Dunietz, Barry D.; Geva, Eitan

    2018-03-01

    We present a comprehensive comparison of the following mixed quantum-classical methods for calculating electronic transition rates: (1) nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule, (2) mixed quantum-classical Liouville method, (3) mean-field (Ehrenfest) mixed quantum-classical method, and (4) fewest switches surface-hopping method (in diabatic and adiabatic representations). The comparison is performed on the Garg-Onuchic-Ambegaokar benchmark charge-transfer model, over a broad range of temperatures and electronic coupling strengths, with different nonequilibrium initial states, in the normal and inverted regimes. Under weak to moderate electronic coupling, the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule rates are found to be in good agreement with the rates obtained via the mixed quantum-classical Liouville method that coincides with the fully quantum-mechanically exact results for the model system under study. Our results suggest that the nonequilibrium Fermi's golden rule can serve as an inexpensive yet accurate alternative to Ehrenfest and the fewest switches surface-hopping methods.

  20. Altmetrics for the Humanities: Comparing Goodreads reader ratings with citations to history books

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Verleysen, Frederik; Cornacchia, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    for the subset of 997 books indicated a similar weak correlation (0.190). Further correlations between citations, reader ratings, written reviews, and library holdings indicate that a reader rating was more likely to be given to a book on Goodreads if the book was held in an international library, including both...... public and academic libraries. Originality/Value: Altmetrics research has focused almost exclusively on scientific journal articles appearing on social media services (e.g., Twitter, Facebook). In this paper we show the potential of Goodreads reader ratings to identify the impact of books beyond academia....... As a unique altmetric tool Goodreads can allow scholarly authors from the social sciences and humanities to measure the wider impact of their books....

  1. What Hides Behind an Umemployment Rate: Comparing Portuguese and U.S. Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Blanchard; Pedro Portugal

    1998-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, Portugal and the United States have had the same average unemployment rate, about 6.5%. But behind these similar rates hide two very different labor markets. Unemployment duration in Portugal is more than three times that of the United States. Symmetrically, the flow of workers into unemployment in Portugal is, in proportion to the labor force, less than a third of what it is in the United States. Relying on evidence from Portuguese and U.S. micro data sets, we show th...

  2. The comparative uptake and interaction of several radionuclides in the trophic levels surrounding the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) waste water ponds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the uptake, distribution, and interaction of five activation products (Co-57, Be-7, Cs-134, Rb-83, and Mn-54) within the biotic and abiotic components surrounding the waste treatment lagoons of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The study attempted to ascertain where, and what specific interactions were taking place among the isotopes and the biotic/abiotic components. A statistical approach, utilizing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), was conducted testing the radioisotopic concentrations by (1) the trophic levels (TROPLVL) in each position sampled on the grid, (2) where sampled on the grid (TRAN), (3) where sampled with-in each grid line (PLOT), and (4) the side with which sampled (SIDE). This provided both the dependent and independent variables that would be tested. The Null Hypothesis (Ho) tested the difference in the mean values of the isotopes within/between each of the four independent variables. The Rb-83 statistic indicated an accumulation within the TRAN and PLOT variables within the sampled area. The Co-57 test statistic provided a value which indicated that accumulation of this isotope within TROPLVL was taking place. Mn-54 test values indicated that accumulation was also taking place at the higher trophic levels within the PLOT, TRAN, and SIDE positions. Cs-134 was found to accumulate to third level in this trophic level structure (TROPLVL-(vegetation)), and then decrease from there. The Be-7 component provided no variance from known compartmental transfers. 210 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. The comparative uptake and interaction of several radionuclides in the trophic levels surrounding the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) waste water ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, G.H. Jr.

    1989-08-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the uptake, distribution, and interaction of five activation products (Co-57, Be-7, Cs-134, Rb-83, and Mn-54) within the biotic and abiotic components surrounding the waste treatment lagoons of the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The study attempted to ascertain where, and what specific interactions were taking place among the isotopes and the biotic/abiotic components. A statistical approach, utilizing Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA), was conducted testing the radioisotopic concentrations by (1) the trophic levels (TROPLVL) in each position sampled on the grid, (2) where sampled on the grid (TRAN), (3) where sampled with-in each grid line (PLOT), and (4) the side with which sampled (SIDE). This provided both the dependent and independent variables that would be tested. The Null Hypothesis (Ho) tested the difference in the mean values of the isotopes within/between each of the four independent variables. The Rb-83 statistic indicated an accumulation within the TRAN and PLOT variables within the sampled area. The Co-57 test statistic provided a value which indicated that accumulation of this isotope within TROPLVL was taking place. Mn-54 test values indicated that accumulation was also taking place at the higher trophic levels within the PLOT, TRAN, and SIDE positions. Cs-134 was found to accumulate to third level in this trophic level structure [TROPLVL-(vegetation)], and then decrease from there. The Be-7 component provided no variance from known compartmental transfers. 210 refs., 17 figs., 4 tabs

  4. The Rate of Return to Educational Investment in China: A Comparative Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengliang; Zhao, Yandong; Morgan, W. John

    2011-01-01

    This article comments on several features of the rate of return (ROR) to educational investment in China: first, the ROR to educational investment has increased with the expansion of educational provision since the 1980s. Second, the greater the educational provision, the greater the ROR. Third, the ROR in urban areas is more than that in rural…

  5. Comparative evaluation of quantitative glomerular filtration rate measured by isotopic and nonisotopic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balachandran, S.; Toguri, A.G.; Petrusick, T.W.; Abbott, L.C.

    1981-01-01

    Good correlation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measured isotopically from plasma disappearance of Tc-99m-DTPA (Sn) was shown with inulin clearance, creatinine clearance, and graded radionuclide imaging. The isotopic GFR is a simple, urineless technique not requiring continuous infusion that enables one to perform simultaneous renal imaging with one radiotracer

  6. International Ranking of Infant Mortality Rates: Taiwan Compared with European Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-Wen Liang

    2016-08-01

    Conclusion: The ranking of Taiwan was similar (11th vs. 12th according the two definitions. However, after consideration of the confidence interval, only six countries (Sweden, Finland, Czech Republic, Belgium, Austria, and Germany had infant mortality rates statistically significantly lower than those of Taiwan in 2004.

  7. Complex ion kinetics. Reaction rates on ion-exchange resins compared to those in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liss, I.B.; Murmann, R.K.

    1975-01-01

    A comparison has been made between the rates in water and on an ion-exchange resin for the aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ and for the 18 O isotopic exchange of water with [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ and ReO 4 - . The rate of water exchange on [(NH 3 ) 5 Co(OH 2 )] 3+ was not changed by association with Dowex 50W resins. Aquation of [(NH 3 ) 5 CoOReO 3 ] 2+ and water exchange on ReO 4 - had modified pH dependencies when associated with a resin. With the cobalt complex the rates were faster on the resin in the acidic region and slower on the resin in the basic region. A new term in the rate equation was observed when ReO 4 - was on the resin, first order in H + , while the other terms appear to be unchanged. Aquation of [(H 2 O) 5 CrCl] 2+ was much slower when it was absorbed on the resin. This was related to the known ionic strength effect of the reaction. (auth)

  8. Investigation of Bias in Job Evaluation Ratings of Comparable Worth Study Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mount, Michael K.; Ellis, Rebecca A.

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the effects of knowledge of current pay levels and perceived job gender on subsequent job evaluations. Confirmed the hypothesis that jobs with high pay levels would receive higher evaluations than jobs with low pay levels. Found evidence of a pro-female bias in the job evaluation ratings of 53 job evaluators. (Author/ABB)

  9. Measuring Creative Capacity in Gifted Students: Comparing Teacher Ratings and Student Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kettler, Todd; Bower, Janessa

    2017-01-01

    Creativity and giftedness are frequently associated, and schools may use measures of creativity for identifying gifted and talented students. The researchers examined three aspects of elementary student creativity: (a) the relationship between a teacher's rating of student creativity and rubric-scored student writing samples, (b) group differences…

  10. A comparison of methods of predicting maximum oxygen uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Grant, S; Corbett, K; Amjad, A M; Wilson, J; Aitchison, T

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the results from a Cooper walk run test, a multistage shuttle run test, and a submaximal cycle test with the direct measurement of maximum oxygen uptake on a treadmill. Three predictive tests of maximum oxygen uptake--linear extrapolation of heart rate of VO2 collected from a submaximal cycle ergometer test (predicted L/E), the Cooper 12 min walk, run test, and a multi-stage progressive shuttle run test (MST)--were performed by 22 young healthy males (mean...

  11. Comparing Digital Flood Insurance Rate Maps (DFIRMs) to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damron, James J

    2000-01-01

    .... IFSAR Digital Elevation Model (DEM) and Ortho-Rectified Image (ORI), referred to as a magnitude image, were used to compare the data accuracy and content of the DFIRMs. This study will provide timely information needed for future DFIRM production.

  12. Diselenolane-mediated cellular uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuard, Nicolas; Poblador-Bahamonde, Amalia I; Zong, Lili; Bartolami, Eline; Hildebrandt, Jana; Weigand, Wolfgang; Sakai, Naomi; Matile, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    The emerging power of thiol-mediated uptake with strained disulfides called for a move from sulfur to selenium. We report that according to results with fluorescent model substrates, cellular uptake with 1,2-diselenolanes exceeds uptake with 1,2-dithiolanes and epidithiodiketopiperazines with regard to efficiency as well as intracellular localization. The diselenide analog of lipoic acid performs best. This 1,2-diselenolane delivers fluorophores efficiently to the cytosol of HeLa Kyoto cells, without detectable endosomal capture as with 1,2-dithiolanes or dominant escape into the nucleus as with epidithiodiketopiperazines. Diselenolane-mediated cytosolic delivery is non-toxic (MTT assay), sensitive to temperature but insensitive to inhibitors of endocytosis (chlorpromazine, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, wortmannin, cytochalasin B) and conventional thiol-mediated uptake (Ellman's reagent), and to serum. Selenophilicity, the extreme CSeSeC dihedral angle of 0° and the high but different acidity of primary and secondary selenols might all contribute to uptake. Thiol-exchange affinity chromatography is introduced as operational mimic of thiol-mediated uptake that provides, in combination with rate enhancement of DTT oxidation, direct experimental evidence for existence and nature of the involved selenosulfides.

  13. Using poisson regression to compare rates of unsatisfactory pap smears among gynecologists and to evaluate a performance improvement plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachtel, Mitchell S; Hatley, Warren G; de Riese, Cornelia

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate impact of a performance improvement (PI) plan implemented after initial analysis, comparing 7 gynecologists working in 2 clinics. From January to October 2005, unsatisfactory rates for gynecologists and clinics were calculated. A PI plan was instituted at the end of the first quarter of 2006. Unsatisfactory rates for each quarter of 2006 and the first quarter of 2007 were calculated. Poisson regression analyzed results. A total of 100 ThinPrep Pap smears initially deemed unsatisfactory underwent reprocessing and revaluation. The study's first part evaluated 2890 smears. Clinic unsatisfactory rates, 2.7% and 2.6%, were similar (p > 0.05). Gynecologists' unsatisfactory rates were 4.8-0.6%; differences between each of the highest 2 and lowest rates were significant (p improvement. Reprocessing ThinPrep smears is an important means of reducing unsatisfactory rates but should not be a substitute for attention to quality in sampling.

  14. Importance of passive diffusion in the uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by phagotrophic protozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kujawinski, E.B.; Farrington, J.W.; Moffett, J.W.

    2000-05-01

    Unicellular protozoan grazers represent a size class of organisms where a transition in the mechanism of chlorobiphenyl (CB) introduction, from diffusion through surface membranes to ingestion of contaminated prey, could occur. This study compares the relative importance of these two processes in the overall uptake of polychlorinated biphenyls by protists. Uptake rates and steady-state concentrations were compared in laboratory cultures of grazing and nongrazing protozoa. These experiments were conducted with a 10-{micro}m marine scuticociliate (Uronema sp.), bacterial prey (Halomonas halodurans), and a suite of 21 CB congeners spanning a range of aqueous solubilities. The dominant pathway of CB uptake by both grazing and nongrazing protozoa was diffusion. Organic-carbon-normalized CB concentrations (in the protozoan cell) were equivalent in grazing and nongrazing protozoa for all congeners studied. Rate constants for uptake into and loss from the protozoan cell were independently determined by using [3,3{prime}, 4,4{prime}-{sup 14}C]tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC no. 77), 0.38 {+-} 0.03 min{sup {minus}1} and (1.1 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup {minus}5} (g of organic carbon){minus}{sup {minus}1} min{sup {minus}1}, respectively. Magnitudes of the uptake and loss processes were calculated and compared by using a numerical model. The model result was consistent with data from the bioaccumulation experiment and supported the hypothesis that diffusive uptake is faster than ingestive uptake in phagotrophic unicellular protozoa.

  15. Comparative Advantage, Exchange Rates, and Sectoral Trade Balances of Major Industrial Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen S. Golub

    1994-01-01

    This paper uses a Ricardian framework to clarify the role of microeconomic and macroeconomic factors governing the time-series and cross-sectional behavior of sectoral trade balances. Unit labor costs and trade balances are calculated for several sectors for the seven major industrial countries. The time-series and cross-sectional variation in sectoral unit labor costs is decomposed into relative productivity, wage differentials, and exchange rate variations. The main findings are that change...

  16. Conventional to Cloud: Detailed survey and comparative study of multimedia streaming rate Adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Selvaraj Kesavan; Jayakumar J

    2014-01-01

    Infotainment and telecommunication industry is fast evolving towards personalized network connectivity and newer applications services ranging from music playback to ever changing telephony applications. Streaming is the key services which enables the users to view real time multimedia content on-the-go anywhere and everywhere. In streaming, quality of service is a major concern in the increasing network traffic and high user demand. Rate adaptation is crucial process to dynamically evaluate,...

  17. Comparative Study of Inguinal Hernia Repair Rates After Radical Prostatectomy or External Beam Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lughezzani, Giovanni; Sun, Maxine; Perrotte, Paul; Alasker, Ahmed; Jeldres, Claudio; Isbarn, Hendrik; Budaeus, Lars; Lattouf, Jean-Baptiste; Valiquette, Luc; Benard, Francois; Saad, Fred; Graefen, Markus; Montorsi, Francesco; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that patients treated for localized prostate cancer with radical prostatectomy (RP) have a higher risk of requiring an inguinal hernia (IH) repair than their counterparts treated with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Methods and Materials: Within the Quebec Health Plan database, we identified 6,422 men treated with RP and 4,685 men treated with EBRT for localized prostate cancer between 1990 and 2000, in addition to 6,933 control patients who underwent a prostate biopsy. From among that population, we identified patients who underwent a unilateral or bilateral hernia repair after either RP or EBRT. Kaplan-Meier plots showed IH repair-free survival rates. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models tested the predictors of IH repair after RP or EBRT. Covariates consisted of age, year of surgery, and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results: IH repair-free survival rates at 1, 2, 5, and 10 years were 96.8, 94.3, 90.5, and 86.2% vs. 98.9, 98.0, 95.4, and 92.2%, respectively, in RP vs. EBRT patients (log-rank test, p < 0.001). IH repair-free survival rates in the biopsy population were 98.3, 97.1, 94.9, and 90.2% at the same four time points. In multivariable Cox regression models, RP predisposed to a 2.3-fold higher risk of IH repair than EBRT (p < 0.001). Besides therapy type, patient age (p < 0.001) represented the only other independent predictor of IH repair. Conclusions: RP predisposes to a higher rate of IH repair relative to EBRT. This observation should be considered at informed consent.

  18. Comparing Sexual Assult Survey Prevalence Rates at Military Service Academies and U.S. Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-15

    and Weitzman, L. (1988). The incidence and dimensions of sexual harassment in academia and the workplace . Journal of Vocational Behavior, 32, 152...nonconforming,” or as something not listed on the survey. This group had high rates of being victims of nonconsensual sexual contact and harassment . However...physical harm or promised rewards, or 4) failure to obtain affirmative consent. The study also collected data on sexual harassment , stalking, and

  19. Thermodynamic and structural models compared with the initial dissolution rates of SON glass samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovena, I.; Advocat, T.; Ghaleb, D.; Vernaz, E.

    1993-01-01

    The experimentally determined initial dissolution rate R 0 of nuclear glass was correlated with thermodynamic parameters and structural parameters. The initial corrosion rates of six ''R7T7'' glass samples measured at 100 deg C in a Soxhlet device were correlated with the glass free hydration energy and the glass formation enthalpy. These correlations were then tested with a group of 26 SON glasses selected for their wide diversity of compositions. The thermodynamic models provided a satisfactory approximation of the initial dissolution rate determined under Soxhlet conditions for SON glass samples that include up to 15 wt% of boron and some alumina. Conversely, these models are inaccurate if the boron concentration exceeds 15 wt% and the glass contains no alumina. Possible correlations between R 0 and structural parameters, such as the boron coordination number and the number of nonbridging oxygen atoms, were also investigated. The authors show that R 0 varies inversely with the number of 4-coordinate boron atoms; conversely, the results do not substantiate published reports of a correlation between R 0 and the number of nonbridging oxygen atoms. (authors). 13 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Comparing Response Times and Error Rates in a Simultaneous Masking Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hermens

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In simultaneous masking, performance on a foveally presented target is impaired by one or more flanking elements. Previous studies have demonstrated strong effects of the grouping of the target and the flankers on the strength of masking (e.g., Malania, Herzog & Westheimer, 2007. These studies have predominantly examined performance by measuring offset discrimination thresholds as a measure of performance, and it is therefore unclear whether other measures of performance provide similar outcomes. A recent study, which examined the role of grouping on error rates and response times in a speeded vernier offset discrimination task, similar to that used by Malania et al. (2007, suggested a possible dissociation between the two measures, with error rates mimicking threshold performance, but response times showing differential results (Panis & Hermens, 2014. We here report the outcomes of three experiments examining this possible dissociation, and demonstrate an overall similar pattern of results for error rates and response times across a broad range of mask layouts. Moreover, the pattern of results in our experiments strongly correlates with threshold performance reported earlier (Malania et al., 2007. Our results suggest that outcomes in a simultaneous masking paradigm do not critically depend on the outcome measure used, and therefore provide evidence for a common underlying mechanism.

  1. Comparing Computer Game and Traditional Lecture Using Experience Ratings from High and Low Achieving Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, Michael; Green, Richard; Nilsen, Trond; Thompson, David

    2012-01-01

    Computer games are purported to be effective instructional tools that enhance motivation and improve engagement. The aim of this study was to investigate how tertiary student experiences change when instruction was computer game based compared to lecture based, and whether experiences differed between high and low achieving students. Participants…

  2. Relationship between nitrate reductase and nitrate uptake in phytoplankton in the Peru upwelling region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasco, D.; MacIsaac, J.J.; Packard, T.T.; Dugdale, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and 15 NO 3 - uptake in phytoplankton were compared under different environmental conditions on two cruises in the upwelling region off Peru. The NR activity and NO 3 - uptake rates responded differently to light and nutrients and the differences led to variations in the uptake: reductase ratio. Analysis of these variations suggests that the re-equilibration time of the two processes in response to environmental perturbation is an important source of variability. The nitrate uptake system responds faster than the nitrate reductase system. Considering these differences in response time the basic differences in the two processes, and the differences in their measurement, the authors conclude that the Nr activity measures the current nitrate-reducing potential, which reflects NO 3 - assimilation before the sampling time, while 15 NO 3 - uptake measures NO 3 - assimilation in the 6-h period following sampling

  3. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn: dimensionless input rates from plasma sources within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative significance for a planetary magnetosphere of plasma sources associated with a moon of the planet can be assessed only by expressing the plasma mass input rate in dimensionless form, as the ratio of the actual mass input to some reference value. Traditionally, the solar wind mass flux through an area equal to the cross-section of the magnetosphere has been used. Here I identify another reference value of mass input, independent of the solar wind and constructed from planetary parameters alone, which can be shown to represent a mass input sufficiently large to prevent corotation already at the source location. The source rate from Enceladus at Saturn has been reported to be an order of magnitude smaller (in absolute numbers than that from Io at Jupiter. Both reference values, however, are also smaller at Saturn than at Jupiter, by factors ~40 to 60; expressed in dimensionless form, the estimated mass input from Enceladus may be larger than that from Io by factors ~4 to 6. The magnetosphere of Saturn may thus, despite a lower mass input in kg s−1, intrinsically be more heavily mass-loaded than the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  4. Comparing Jupiter and Saturn: dimensionless input rates from plasma sources within the magnetosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliūnas

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The quantitative significance for a planetary magnetosphere of plasma sources associated with a moon of the planet can be assessed only by expressing the plasma mass input rate in dimensionless form, as the ratio of the actual mass input to some reference value. Traditionally, the solar wind mass flux through an area equal to the cross-section of the magnetosphere has been used. Here I identify another reference value of mass input, independent of the solar wind and constructed from planetary parameters alone, which can be shown to represent a mass input sufficiently large to prevent corotation already at the source location. The source rate from Enceladus at Saturn has been reported to be an order of magnitude smaller (in absolute numbers than that from Io at Jupiter. Both reference values, however, are also smaller at Saturn than at Jupiter, by factors ~40 to 60; expressed in dimensionless form, the estimated mass input from Enceladus may be larger than that from Io by factors ~4 to 6. The magnetosphere of Saturn may thus, despite a lower mass input in kg s−1, intrinsically be more heavily mass-loaded than the magnetosphere of Jupiter.

  5. Explaining Dutch fertility Rates in a Comparative European perspective: The role of economy, social policy and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Rijken, Arieke J.; Knijn, Trudie

    2008-01-01

    This article contributes to the search for explanations of the cross-national variation in fertility rates by studying the influence of social policy, economic and cultural factors on fertility in the former EU15, while giving special attention to one case: The Netherlands. This country lacks good social policy for supporting parents to combine work and care and nevertheless has a relatively high fertility rate. This article addresses the backgrounds of that phenomenon, using comparative macr...

  6. Uptake of [14C]nicotinic acid and [14C]nicotinamide by Bordetella pertussis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPheat, W.L.; Wardlaw, A.C.

    1980-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis has an absolute requirement for either nicotinic acid (NA) or nicotinamide (ND), both being equally effective in supporting growth. The results of an investigation to compare the rates of uptake of NA and ND, to determine the influence of factors such as energy source and temperature on uptake, and to measure the Ksub(m) and Vsub(max) values are reported. (Auth.)

  7. A comparative review of estimates of the proportion unchanged genes and the false discovery rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broberg Per

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the analysis of microarray data one generally produces a vector of p-values that for each gene give the likelihood of obtaining equally strong evidence of change by pure chance. The distribution of these p-values is a mixture of two components corresponding to the changed genes and the unchanged ones. The focus of this article is how to estimate the proportion unchanged and the false discovery rate (FDR and how to make inferences based on these concepts. Six published methods for estimating the proportion unchanged genes are reviewed, two alternatives are presented, and all are tested on both simulated and real data. All estimates but one make do without any parametric assumptions concerning the distributions of the p-values. Furthermore, the estimation and use of the FDR and the closely related q-value is illustrated with examples. Five published estimates of the FDR and one new are presented and tested. Implementations in R code are available. Results A simulation model based on the distribution of real microarray data plus two real data sets were used to assess the methods. The proposed alternative methods for estimating the proportion unchanged fared very well, and gave evidence of low bias and very low variance. Different methods perform well depending upon whether there are few or many regulated genes. Furthermore, the methods for estimating FDR showed a varying performance, and were sometimes misleading. The new method had a very low error. Conclusion The concept of the q-value or false discovery rate is useful in practical research, despite some theoretical and practical shortcomings. However, it seems possible to challenge the performance of the published methods, and there is likely scope for further developing the estimates of the FDR. The new methods provide the scientist with more options to choose a suitable method for any particular experiment. The article advocates the use of the conjoint information

  8. A Comparative Study of Suicide Rates among 10–19-Year-Olds in 29 OECD Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Beop-Rae; Jung, Eun Hee; Hong, Hyun Ju

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study had two main objectives: to compare current suicide rates in OECD countries among 10–19-year-olds and to identify patterns of suicide rates based on age, gender and time. Furthermore we investigated the main dimensions that contributed to the variation in child and adolescent suicide rates across countries. Methods We combined the WHO mortality data and the population data released by OECD to calculate the suicide rates in 29 OECD countries. A self-organizing map (SOM), k-means clustering analysis, and multi-dimensional scaling were used to classify countries based on similarities in suicide rate structure and to identify the important dimensions accounting for differences among groups. Results We identified significant differences in suicide rates depending on age, sex, country, and time period. Late adolescence and male gender were universal risk factors for suicide, and we observed a general trend of declining suicide rates in OECD countries. The SOM analysis yielded eight types of countries. Most countries showed gender gaps in suicide rates of similar magnitudes; however, there were outliers in which the gender gap was particularly large or small. Conclusion Significant variation exists with respect to suicide rates and their associated gender gaps in OECD countries. PMID:29486551

  9. Mg and Mg alloys: how comparable are in vitro and in vivo corrosion rates? A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Sanchez, Adela Helvia; Luthringer, Bérengère J C; Feyerabend, Frank; Willumeit, Regine

    2015-02-01

    Due to their biodegradability, magnesium and magnesium-based alloys could represent the third generation of biomaterials. However, their mechanical properties and time of degradation have to match the needs of applications. Several approaches, such as choice of alloying elements or tailored microstructure, are employed to tailor corrosion behaviour. Due to the high electrochemical activity of Mg, numerous environmental factors (e.g. temperature and surrounding ion composition) influence its corrosion behaviour, making it unpredictable. Nevertheless, the need of reliable in vitro model(s) to predict in vivo implant degradation is increasing. In an attempt to find a correlation between in vitro and vivo corrosion rates, this review presents a systematic literature survey, as well as an attempt to correlate the different results. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparative study of oxygen transmission rates through polymer films based on fluorescence quenching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siró, Istvan; Plackett, David; Sommer-Larsen, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Information on oxygen permeability through polymer films is essential for some applications, especially in food packaging where the control of oxygen levels can be critical in avoiding food spoilage. A permeability testing device using fluorescence-based optical oxygen sensing was developed...... as a potential new instrument for measuring the oxygen permeability of packaging films. The fluorescence-based permeability tester was validated against two existing commercial oxygen permeability measuring devices, the Mocon Ox-Tran 2/20 and PBI-Dansensor OPT-5000. Oxygen transmission rates (OTR) of polylactide...... (PLA) and nanoclay-reinforced PLA films, as well as polyethylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PE/PET) and polypropylene/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PP/PET) laminated films were determined at 23°C and 50% relative humidity using each of these instruments. No significant differences were observed...

  11. Comparative Study of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate after Aminoglycoside and Aminocyclitol Treatment in Goats (Capra hircus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toncho DINEV

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to follow up the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR in healthy female goats during and after 5-day parenteral treatment with amikacin (10 mg/kg, tobramycin (5 mg/kg, apramycin (20 mg/kg, gentamicin (4 mg/kg, kanamycin (10 mg/kg and spectinomycin (20 mg/kg. Gentamicin and tobramycin caused an initial increase followed by a significant decrease of ESR on the 5th day for gentamicin and the 10th day for tobramycin, respectively, followed by recovery after the treatment. Reversely, amikacin and especially spectinomycin produced an increase of ESR without recovery several days post treatment. Kanamycin caused decrease of ESR on the 5th day without recovery in the subsequent days. Only apramycin did not give rise to increasing of ESR. In conclusion the aminoglycosides, especially tobramycin and gentamicin, caused more severe alterations of ESR than the aminocyclitols.

  12. Heart rate, blood pressure and repolarization effects of an energy drink as compared to coffee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, R Matthew; Christmas, Kevin M; Patik, Jordan C; Bhella, Paul S

    2017-11-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the impact of energy drinks on haemodynamic and cardiac physiology. Comparisons were made to coffee as well as water consumption. In Protocol #1 the caffeine content was normalized to body weight to represent a controlled environment. Heart rate, blood pressure and cardiac QTc interval were assessed in 15 participants, on 4 days, prior to and for 6·5 h postconsumption of (i) energy drink (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight; low dose), (ii) energy drink (3 mg caffeine per kg body weight; medium dose), (iii) coffee (2 mg caffeine per kg body weight) and (iv) 250 ml water. In Protocol #2, the beverages were consumed in volumes that they are purchased to represent real-life conditions. The aforementioned measurements were repeated in 15 participants following (i) 1 16 oz can of energy drink (16 oz Monster), (ii) 1 24 oz can of energy drink (24 oz Monster), (iii) 1 packet of Keurig K-Cup Starbucks coffee (coffee) and (iv) 250 ml water. The order of the beverages was performed in a randomized double-blinded fashion. For both protocols, QTc interval, heart rate and systolic blood pressure were unchanged in any condition (P>0·05). Diastolic blood pressure and mean blood pressure were slightly elevated in Protocol #1 (P0·05). These findings suggest that acute consumption of these commonly consumed beverages has no negative effect on cardiac QTc interval. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Relationships between coastal bacterioplankton growth rates and biomass production: comparison of leucine and thymidine uptake with single-cell physiological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Vidal, Leticia; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2011-02-01

    Specific growth rates of heterotrophic bacterioplankton have been frequently estimated from in situ bacterial production (BP) to biomass (BB) ratios, using a series of assumptions that may result in serious discrepancies with values obtained from predator-free cultures. Here, we used both types of approaches together with a comprehensive assessment of single-cell physiological characteristics (membrane integrity, nucleic acid content, and active respiration) of coastal bacterioplankton during a complete annual cycle (February 2007-January 2008) in the southern Bay of Biscay off Xixón, Spain. Both leucine and thymidine incorporation rates were used in conjunction with empirical tracer to carbon or cells conversion factors (eCFs) to accurately derive BP. Leu and TdR incorporation rates covaried year-round, as did the corresponding eCFs at 0 and 50 m depth. eCFs peaked in autumn, with mean annual values close to the theoretical ones (3.4 kg C mol Leu(-1) and 2.0 × 10(18) cells mol TdR(-1)). Bacterial abundance (0.2-1.5 × 10(6) cells L(-1)) showed a bimodal distribution with maxima in May and October and minima in March. Live (membrane-intact) cells dominated year-round (79-97%), with high nucleic acid cells (42-88%) and actively respiring bacteria (CTC+, 1-16%) showing distinct surface maxima in April and July, respectively. BB (557-1,558 mg C m(-2)) and BP (7-139 mg C m(-2) day(-1)) presented two distinct peaks in spring and autumn, both of similar size due to a strong upwelling event observed in September. Specific growth rates (0.35-3.8 day(-1)) were one order of magnitude higher in predator-free incubations than bacterial turnover rates derived from integrated BP:BB ratios (0.01-0.16 and 0.01-0.09 day(-1), for Leu and TdR, respectively) and were not correlated, probably due to a significant contribution of low activity cells to total standing stocks. The Leu:TdR molar ratio averaged for the water column (6.6-25.5) decreased significantly with higher integrated

  14. COMPAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuefner, K.

    1976-01-01

    COMPAR works on FORTRAN arrays with four indices: A = A(i,j,k,l) where, for each fixed k 0 ,l 0 , only the 'plane' [A(i,j,k 0 ,l 0 ), i = 1, isub(max), j = 1, jsub(max)] is held in fast memory. Given two arrays A, B of this type COMPAR has the capability to 1) re-norm A and B ind different ways; 2) calculate the deviations epsilon defined as epsilon(i,j,k,l): =[A(i,j,k,l) - B(i,j,k,l)] / GEW(i,j,k,l) where GEW (i,j,k,l) may be chosen in three different ways; 3) calculate mean, standard deviation and maximum in the array epsilon (by several intermediate stages); 4) determine traverses in the array epsilon; 5) plot these traverses by a printer; 6) simplify plots of these traverses by the PLOTEASY-system by creating input data blocks for this system. The main application of COMPAR is given (so far) by the comparison of two- and three-dimensional multigroup neutron flux-fields. (orig.) [de

  15. The relation of putamen nucleus 6-[18F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine uptake to total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchy, R.

    2002-01-01

    The contribution of dopaminergic deficiency in the striatum to the severity of locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease has been consistently shown with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA in positron emission tomography. Recently, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine, an alternative tracer with similar distribution kinetics has been used to facilitate data analysis. Locomotor disability in Parkinson's disease can be measured using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale was used in conjunction with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine -PET to clinically examine a group of five Parkinson's disease patients. An inverse relation similar to that previously demonstrated with 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA was found between the putamen nucleus 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine influx constant and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score. This finding suggests that like 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-m-tyrosine can be used to accurately measure the degree of locomotor disability caused by Parkinson's disease. (author)

  16. Perinatal mortality rate in the Netherlands compared to other European countries: a secondary analysis of Euro-PERISTAT data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jonge, Ank; Baron, Ruth; Westerneng, Myrte; Twisk, Jos; Hutton, Eileen K

    2013-08-01

    the poor perinatal mortality ranking of the Netherlands compared to other European countries has led to questioning the safety of primary care births, particularly those at home. Primary care births are only planned at term. We therefore examined to which extent the perinatal mortality rate at term in the Netherlands contributes to its poor ranking. secondary analyses using published data from the Euro-PERISTAT study. women that gave birth in 2004 in the 29 European regions and countries called 'countries' included in the Euro-PERISTAT study (4,328,441 women in total and 1,940,977 women at term). odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated for the comparison of perinatal mortality rates between European countries and the Netherlands, through logistic regression analyses using summary country data. combined perinatal mortality rates overall and at term. Perinatal deaths below 28 weeks, between 28 and 37 weeks and from 37 weeks onwards per 1000 total births. compared to the Netherlands, perinatal mortality rates at term were significantly higher for Denmark and Latvia and not significantly different compared to seven other countries. Eleven countries had a significantly lower rate, and for eight the term perinatal mortality rate could not be compared. The Netherlands had the highest number of perinatal deaths before 28 weeks per 1000 total births (4.3). the relatively high perinatal mortality rate in the Netherlands is driven more by extremely preterm births than births at term. Although the PERISTAT data cannot be used to show that the Dutch maternity care system is safe, neither should they be used to argue that the system is unsafe. The PERISTAT data alone do not support changes to the Dutch maternity care system that reduce the possibility for women to choose a home birth while benefits of these changes are uncertain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Uptake of technetium from seawater by red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, R.B.

    1975-01-01

    Technetium accumulation from seawater by the abalone Haliotis rufescens was studied with 95 Tc. Concentration factors, uptake rates, steady state concentrations, and biological half-lives were determined experimentally for whole-body uptake. Whole-body concentration factors ranged from 135 to 205; biological half-life was 60 days. Changes in concentration factors were determined for six tissues during the uptake period. The highest activities were in the order of: digestive gland>gill>kidneys>heart>gonad>columnar muscle. Dead shells accumulated little activity compared to shells of living abalone. Gills and digestive system appear to be the routes of entry. Autoradiography shows that of the muscular tissues the outer edge of the foot and epipodium are the most active and the edible columnar muscle the least active. (author)

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... uptake measurements are obtained at different times. For example, you may have uptake measurements at four to ... medicine procedures can be time consuming. It can take several hours to days for the radiotracer to ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of ... potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. ... eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and other metallic accessories should be left ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  4. Comparing interaction rate detectors for weakly interacting massive particles with annual modulation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copi, Craig J.; Krauss, Lawrence M.

    2003-01-01

    We compare the sensitivity of WIMP detection via direct separation of possible signal versus background to WIMP detection via detection of an annual modulation, in which signal and background cannot be separated on an event-by-event basis. In order to determine how the constraints from the two different types of experiments might be combined an adequate incorporation of uncertainties due to galactic halo models must be made. This issue is particularly timely in light of recent direct detection limits from Edelweiss and CDMS, which we now demonstrate cannot be made consistent with the most recent claimed DAMA annual modulation observation by including halo uncertainties for spin independent interactions. On the other hand, we demonstrate that a combination of these two techniques, in the event of any positive direct detection signal, could ultimately allow significant constraints on anisotropic halo models even without directional sensitivity in these detectors

  5. Comparative Study of Genome Divergence in Salmonids with Various Rates of Genetic Isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Shubina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is a comparative investigation of changes that certain genome parts undergo during speciation. The research was focused on divergence of coding and noncoding sequences in different groups of salmonid fishes of the Salmonidae (Salmo, Parasalmo, Oncorhynchus, and Salvelinus genera and the Coregonidae families under different levels of reproductive isolation. Two basic approaches were used: (1 PCR-RAPD with a 20–22 nt primer design with subsequent cloning and sequencing of the products and (2 a modified endonuclease restriction analysis. The restriction fragments were shown with sequencing to represent satellite DNA. Effects of speciation are found in repetitive sequences. The revelation of expressed sequences in the majority of the employed anonymous loci allows for assuming the adaptive selection during allopatric speciation in isolated char forms.

  6. Comparative rate and risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture during different surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective – to identify the major risk factors leading to worse results of surgical treatment in patients with urethral stricture.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and forty-eight patients with urethral stricture underwent different surgical interventions: internal optical urethrotomy (IOU for strictures of different portions of the urethra in 157 patients (the operation was made once in 121 patients, twice in 24 patients, and thrice or more in 12; replacement urethroplasty using a buccal mucosa graft for strictures of the anterior urethra in 46 patients; Turner-Warwick’s anastomotic urethroplasty modified by Webster for strictures (distraction defects of the posterior urethra in 45 patients. The results of surgical treatment were studied using urethrography, uroflowmetry, urethrocystoscopy, the international prostate symptom score, quality of life (QoL questionnaire, and the international index of erectile function (IIEF questionnaire. The role of risk factors for postoperative recurrent urethral stricture was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.Results. The rate of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU was 66.9 % (59.5, 87.5, and 100 % after the first, second, third or more subsequent operations, respectively; 12.1 % after all types of urethroplasty, 15.2 % after augmentation urethroplasty, and 8.9 % after anastomotic urethroplasty. The major risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU were recognized to be the location of urethral stricture in the penile or bulbomembranous portions, a urethral stricture length of > 1 cm, severe urethral lumen narrowing, and performance of 2 or more operations; those after augmentation urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, a stricture length of > 4 cm, lichen sclerosus, and smoking; those after anastomotic urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, smoking, and a stricture length of > 4 cm.Conclusion. The results of the investigation have shown that only

  7. Comparative rate and risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture during different surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yu. Pushkar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – to identify the major risk factors leading to worse results of surgical treatment in patients with urethral stricture.Subjects and methods. Two hundred and forty-eight patients with urethral stricture underwent different surgical interventions: internal optical urethrotomy (IOU for strictures of different portions of the urethra in 157 patients (the operation was made once in 121 patients, twice in 24 patients, and thrice or more in 12; replacement urethroplasty using a buccal mucosa graft for strictures of the anterior urethra in 46 patients; Turner-Warwick’s anastomotic urethroplasty modified by Webster for strictures (distraction defects of the posterior urethra in 45 patients. The results of surgical treatment were studied using urethrography, uroflowmetry, urethrocystoscopy, the international prostate symptom score, quality of life (QoL questionnaire, and the international index of erectile function (IIEF questionnaire. The role of risk factors for postoperative recurrent urethral stricture was assessed by univariate and multivariate analyses.Results. The rate of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU was 66.9 % (59.5, 87.5, and 100 % after the first, second, third or more subsequent operations, respectively; 12.1 % after all types of urethroplasty, 15.2 % after augmentation urethroplasty, and 8.9 % after anastomotic urethroplasty. The major risk factors of recurrent urethral stricture after IOU were recognized to be the location of urethral stricture in the penile or bulbomembranous portions, a urethral stricture length of > 1 cm, severe urethral lumen narrowing, and performance of 2 or more operations; those after augmentation urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, a stricture length of > 4 cm, lichen sclerosus, and smoking; those after anastomotic urethroplasty were previous ineffective treatment, smoking, and a stricture length of > 4 cm.Conclusion. The results of the investigation have shown that only

  8. Determination of uptake kinetics (sampling rates) by lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Orazio, C.E.; Lebo, J.A.; Clark, R.C.; Gibson, V.L.; Gala, W.R.; Echols, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (R(s)s; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery- corrected R(s) values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by significant changes (relative to this study) in water temperature, degree of biofouling, and current velocity- turbulence. Included in this paper is a discussion of the effects of temperature and octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)); the impacts of biofouling and hydrodynamics are reported separately. Overall, SPMDs responded proportionally to aqueous PAH concentrations; i.e., SPMD R(s) values and SPMD-water concentration factors were independent of aqueous concentrations. Temperature effects (10, 18, and 26 ??C) on Rs values appeared to be complex but were relatively small.The use of lipid-containing semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) is becoming commonplace, but very little sampling rate data are available for the estimation of ambient contaminant concentrations from analyte levels in exposed SPMDs. We determined the aqueous sampling rates (Rss; expressed as effective volumes of water extracted daily) of the standard (commercially available design) 1-g triolein SPMD for 15 of the priority pollutant (PP) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at multiple temperatures and concentrations. Under the experimental conditions of this study, recovery-corrected Rs values for PP PAHs ranged from ???1.0 to 8.0 L/d. These values would be expected to be influenced by

  9. Teen clinics: missing the mark? Comparing pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections rates among enrolled and non-enrolled adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Souradet Y; Metge, Colleen; Taylor, Carole; Chartier, Mariette; Charette, Catherine; Lix, Lisa; Santos, Rob; Sarkar, Joykrishna; Nickel, Nathan C; Burland, Elaine; Chateau, Dan; Katz, Alan; Brownell, Marni; Martens, Patricia J

    2016-06-21

    In Manitoba, Canada, school-based clinics providing sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents have been implemented to address high rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancies. The objectives of this population-based study were to compare pregnancy and STI rates between adolescents enrolled in schools with school-based clinics, those in schools without clinics, and those not enrolled in school. Data were from the PATHS Data Resource held in the Population Health Research Data Repository housed at the Manitoba Centre for Health Policy. Adolescents aged 14 to 19 between 2003 and 2009 were included in the study. Annualized rates of pregnancies and positive STI tests were estimated and Poisson regression models were used to test for differences in rates amongst the three groups. As a proportion, pregnancies among non-enrolled female adolescents accounted for 55 % of all pregnancies in this age group during the study period. Pregnancy rates were 2-3 times as high among non-enrolled female adolescents. Compared to adolescents enrolled in schools without school-based clinics, age-adjusted STI rates were 3.5 times (p pregnancies and STIs were observed among non-enrolled adolescents. Although provision of reproductive and health services to in-school adolescents should remain a priority, program planning and design should consider optimal strategies to engage out of school youth.

  10. Tracks FAQs: How Do Heart Attack Hospitalization Rates In My Community Compare With Other Counties Or States?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how to compare heart attack hospitalization rates in your community with other counties or states. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  12. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(bar nu) + p → ν(bar nu) + p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), bar nue + p → n + e+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of bar nue flux with the bar nux (x = μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  13. Low incidence rate of overt hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in an area with moderately low iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurberg, P; Bülow Pedersen, I; Pedersen, K M

    1999-01-01

    In areas with relatively high iodine intake, the incidence rate of hypothyroidism is several-fold higher than that of hyperthyroidism. Recently, we found a similarly high prevalence rate of subclinical hypothyroidism compared with hyperthyroidism in a high iodine intake area, while a relatively low...... prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism was observed in a low iodine intake area. In the present study we compared the incidence rate (newly diagnosed in primary care and at hospital) of overt hypothyroidism with that of hyperthyroidism in a well-defined geographical area in Jutland, Denmark, with an iodine...... intake around 60 microg/day. The number of personsxyears studied was 569,108. Data on hyperthyroidism have been published previously. The overall incidence of hypothyroidism was 13.5/100,000 per year (F/M 22.9/3.6), hyperthyroidism 38.7/100.000 per year (F/M 63.0/13.0). The incidence of hypothyroidism...

  14. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang; Lee, Fei-Fan; Lee, Feng-Shiuh; Lin, Guey-Lin; Liu, Tsung-Che; Yang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar_e+p→n+e"+, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar_e flux with the ν-bar_x (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  15. Stigma, medical mistrust, and perceived racism may affect PrEP awareness and uptake in black compared to white gay and bisexual men in Jackson, Mississippi and Boston, Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, Sean; Taylor, S Wade; Elsesser, Steven A; Mena, Leandro; Hickson, DeMarc; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2017-11-01

    Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men (MSM) account for more than two thirds of new HIV infections in the U.S., with Black MSM experiencing the greatest burden. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce MSM's vulnerability to HIV infection. Uptake of PrEP has been limited, particularly among racial and ethnic minority MSM. Four semi-structured focus groups with gay and bisexual men and other MSM at risk for HIV infection were convened in Boston and Jackson in late 2013. The analysis plan utilized a within-case, across-case approach to code and analyze emerging themes, and to compare results across the two cities. Participants recruited in Jackson were primarily Black gay men, while Boston participants were mostly non-Hispanic White gay men. Participants in both sites shared concerns about medication side effects and culturally insensitive health care for gay men. Jackson participants described stronger medical mistrust, and more frequently described experiences of anti-gay and HIV related stigma. Multiple addressable barriers to PrEP uptake were described. Information about side effects should be explicitly addressed in PrEP education campaigns. Providers and health departments should address medical mistrust, especially among Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM, in part by training providers in how to provide affirming, culturally competent care. Medicaid should be expanded in Mississippi to cover low-income young Black gay and bisexual men and other MSM.

  16. Comparative dosimetric study in the estimation of the dose rate of the Transelektro LGI-01 irradiator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrasco A, H.; Urena N, F.F.

    2004-01-01

    The 60 Co TRANSELEKTRO, model LGI-0 1, Hungarian, is similar to the Canadian Gamma cell. The evaluation of the dose ratio in the geometric center of the exposition chamber of the LGI-0 1 is presented in this paper. In order to do this two types of dosimeters were used: the alanine, and the L8-C 1 red acrylic (Canadian). Three dosimeters of each type were irradiated at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 h. The respective intensities and absorbencies were measured and used to determine the proper absorbed doses and the dose ratio. The results obtained with both dosimeters were compared with the ratio dose that was reported by the Secondary Laboratory of Dosimetric Calibration of the Metrology Department of the ININ, which used a ionization chamber for the calibration of the LGI-0 1. The alanine dosemeter showed a ± 1.3% dispersion while with the acrylic dosemeter the dispersion was of ± 3.2%, with respect to the value reported by the authorized Calibration Laboratory. This paper was also used to update the calibration table of the L8-C1 red acrylic. (Author)

  17. Influence of extreme pedal rates on pulmonary O(2) uptake kinetics during transitions to high-intensity exercise from an elevated baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Burnley, Mark; Bailey, Stephen J; Jones, Andrew M

    2009-10-31

    We used extreme pedal rates to investigate the influence of muscle fibre recruitment on pulmonary V(O)(2) kinetics during unloaded-to-moderate-intensity (U-->M), unloaded-to-high-intensity (U-->H), and moderate-intensity to high-intensity (M-->H) cycling transitions. Seven healthy men completed transitions to 60% of the difference between gas-exchange threshold and peak V(O)(2) from both an unloaded and a moderate-intensity (95% GET) baseline at cadences of 35 and 115rpm. Pulmonary gas exchange was measured breath-by-breath and iEMG of the m. vastus lateralis and m. gluteus maximus was measured during all tests. At 35rpm, the phase II time constant (tau(p)) values for U-->M, U-->H, and M-->H were 26+/-7, 31+/-7 and 36+/-8s with the value for M-->H being longer than for U-->M (PM, U-->H, and M-->H were 29+/-8, 48+/-16 and 53+/-20s with the value for U-->M being shorter than for the other two conditions (Pinfluenced by an interaction of exercise intensity and pedal rate and are consistent with the notion that changes in muscle fibre recruitment are responsible for slower phase II V(O)(2) kinetics during high-intensity and work-to-work exercise transitions.

  18. Reduced cardiac {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake in patients with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2: a comparative study with Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, Anna; De Leva, Maria Fulvia; Maddaluno, Gennaro; Filla, Alessandro; De Michele, Giuseppe [University Federico II, Department of Neurosciences and Reproductive and Odontostomatologic Sciences, Naples (Italy); Pappata, Sabina; Pellegrino, Teresa [National Council of Research, Institute of Biostructure and Bioimaging, Naples (Italy); Fiumara, Giovanni [Institute of Diagnostic and Nuclear Development, SDN Foundation, Naples (Italy); Carotenuto, Raffaella; Cuocolo, Alberto [University Federico II, Department of Advanced Biomedical Sciences, Naples (Italy); Petretta, Mario [University Federico II, Department of Translational Medical Sciences, Naples (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, and peripheral neuropathy. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is often present. This study evaluated the cardiac sympathetic function in patients with SCA2 using {sup 123}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) in comparison with patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and control subjects. Nine patients with SCA2, nine patients with PD, and nine control subjects underwent {sup 123}I-MIBG imaging studies from which early and late heart-to-mediastinum (H/M) ratios and myocardial washout rates were calculated. Early (F = 12.3, p < 0.0001) and late (F = 16.8, p < 0.0001) H/M ratios were significantly different among groups. In controls, early and late H/M ratios (2.2 {+-} 0.12 and 2.1 {+-} 0.20) were significantly higher than in patients with SCA2 (1.9 {+-} 0.23 and 1.8 {+-} 0.20, both p < 0.05) and with patients with PD (1.7 {+-} 0.29 and 1.4 {+-} 0.35, both p < 0.001). There was also a significant difference in washout rates among groups (F = 11.7, p < 0.0001). In controls the washout rate (19.9 {+-} 9.6 %) was significantly lower (p < 0.005) than in patients with PD (51.0 {+-} 23.7 %), but not different from that in SCA2 patients (19.5 {+-} 9.4 %). In SCA2 patients, in a multivariable linear regression analysis only the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia score was independently associated with early H/M ratio ({beta} = -0.12, p < 0.05). {sup 123}I-MIBG myocardial scintigraphy demonstrated an impairment of cardiac sympathetic function in patients with SCA2, which was less marked than in PD patients. These results suggest that {sup 123}I-MIBG cardiac imaging could become a useful tool for analysing the pathophysiology of SCA2. (orig.)

  19. An analytical means of comparing the rates of different agglomeration mechanisms, and its application to a PWR containment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, J.F.B.; Skyrme, G.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, agglomeration behaviour is described analytically and this quantitative description is used as a means of comparing the rates of different agglomeration mechanisms. The comparison depends on the average particle size but does not require detailed knowledge of the particle size distribution. The method is applied to the agglomeration of an aerosol suspended in the atmosphere of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) containment building. The rate of turbulent agglomeration in the PWR containment depends upon the degree of turbulence at each point in the fluid, expressed as the turbulent energy dissipation rate, ε. An approximate model of the containment flow is solved to obtain a satisfactory estimate of the functions of ε needed in evaluating turbulent agglomeration rates. (Author)

  20. Sudden increase in atmospheric concentration reveals strong coupling between shoot carbon uptake and root nutrient uptake in young walnut trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delaire, M.; Sigogne, M.; Beaujard, F.; Frak, E.; Adam, B.; Le Roux, X.

    2005-01-01

    Short-term effects of a sudden increase in carbon dioxide concentration on nutrient uptake by roots during vegetative growth was studied in young walnut trees. Rates of carbon dioxide uptake and water loss by individual trees were determined by a branch bag method from three days before and six days after carbon dioxide concentration was increased. Nutrient uptake rates were measured concurrently by a hydroponic recirculating nutrient solution system. Carbon dioxide uptake rates increased greatly with increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide; nutrient uptake rates were proportional to carbon dioxide uptake rates, except for the phosphorus ion. Daily water loss rates were only slightly affected by elevated carbon dioxide. Overall, it was concluded that in the presence of non-limiting supplies of water and nutrients, root nutrient uptake and shoot carbon assimilation are strongly coupled in the short term in young walnut trees despite the important carbon and nutrient storage capacities od woody species. 45 refs., 7 figs

  1. Comparative study on flow rate measurement by nuclear and conventional methods in selected rivers at Ulu Langat district, Selangor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan Mohamad Tahir, Wan Zakaria; Mohamad, Daud; Hamzah, Abdul Razak; Yusuf, Johari Mohamad; Aziz Wan Mohamad, Wan Abdul

    1986-06-01

    A radiotracer technique using Tc-99 to measure flows of small rivers was introduced in Malaysia. Three rivers in the Ulu Langat District were selected for a comparative study on flow rate determination by conventional and radioisotope methods. Radioisotopic approach, comprising injection procedures, calibration, mixing length and safety aspects are discussed. The results measured by radioisotope method are compared to the Drainage and Irrigation Department's (DID's) discharge curves data collected from 1980 to 1982 which is calibrated using a current meter. The results are comparable and fall within the range obtained by conventional method. Related to this study, a comprehensive work on stream gauging of moderate and high flow rates using both methods is proposed to be carried out directly.

  2. Atenolol Is Associated with Lower Day of Surgery Heart Rate as compared to Long and Short-acting Metoprolol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B.; Brandt, Cynthia; Feinleib, Jessica; Dai, Feng; Burg, Matthew M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We analyzed the association between outpatient beta-blocker type and day-of-surgery heart rate in ambulatory surgical patients. We further investigated whether differences in day of surgery heart rate between atenolol and metoprolol could be explained by once-daily versus twice-daily dosing regimens. Design Retrospective observational study. Setting VA Hospital Participants Ambulatory surgical patients on chronic atenolol or metoprolol. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Using a propensity-score matched cohort, we compared day of surgery heart rates of patients prescribed atenolol versus metoprolol. We then differentiated between once-daily and twice-daily metoprolol formulations and compared day of surgery heart rates within a general linear model. Day of surgery heart rates in patients prescribed atenolol vs. any metoprolol formulation were slower by a mean of 5.1 beats/min (66.6 vs. 71.7; 95% CI of difference 1.9 to 8.3, p=0.002), a difference that was not observed in preoperative primary care visits. The general linear model demonstrated that patients prescribed atenolol (typically QD dosing) had a mean day of surgery heart rate 5.6 beats/min lower compared to patients prescribed once-daily metoprolol succinate (68.9 vs. 74.5; 95% CI of difference: −8.6 to −2.6, p<0.001) and 3.8 beats/minute lower compared to patients prescribed twice-daily metoprolol tartrate (68.9 vs. 72.7; 95% CI of difference: −6.1 to −1.6, p<0.001). Day of surgery heart rates were similar between different formulations of metoprolol (95% CI of difference: −1.0 to +4.6, p=0.22). Conclusions Atenolol is associated with lower day of surgery heart rate vs. metoprolol. The heart rate difference is specific to the day of surgery and is not explained by once-daily versus twice-daily dosing regimens. PMID:22889605

  3. A music quality rating test battery for cochlear implant users to compare the FSP and HDCIS strategies for music appreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looi, Valerie; Winter, Philip; Anderson, Ilona; Sucher, Catherine

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a music quality rating test battery (MQRTB) and pilot test it by comparing appraisal ratings from cochlear implant (CI) recipients using the fine-structure processing (FSP) and high-definition continuous interleaved sampling (HDCIS) speech processing strategies. The development of the MQRTB involved three stages: (1) Selection of test items for the MQRTB; (2) Verification of its length and complexity with normally-hearing individuals; and (3) Pilot testing with CI recipients. Part 1 involved 65 adult listeners, Part 2 involved 10 normally-hearing adults, and Part 3 involved five adult MED-EL CI recipients. The MQRTB consisted of ten songs, with ratings made on scales assessing pleasantness, naturalness, richness, fullness, sharpness, and roughness. Results of the pilot study, which compared FSP and HDCIS for music, indicated that acclimatization to a strategy had a significant effect on ratings (p genre on ratings. Overall the results suggest that the use of FSP as the default strategy for MED-EL recipients would have a positive effect on music appreciation, and that the MQRTB is an effective tool for assessing music sound quality.

  4. The interrelation between aPKC and glucose uptake in the skeletal muscle during contraction and insulin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J M; Benite-Ribeiro, S A; Queiroz, G; Duarte, J A

    2014-12-01

    Contraction and insulin increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. While the insulin pathway, better characterized, requires activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and atypical protein kinase (aPKC), muscle contraction seems to share insulin-activated components to increase glucose uptake. This study aimed to investigate the interrelation between the pathway involved in glucose uptake evoked by insulin and muscle contraction. Isolated muscle of rats was treated with solvent (control), insulin, wortmannin (PI3K inhibitor) and the combination of insulin plus wortmannin. After treatment, muscles were electrically stimulated (contracted) or remained at rest. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) localization, glucose uptake and phospho-aPKC (aPKC activated form) were assessed. Muscle contraction and insulin increased glucose uptake in all conditions when compared with controls not stimulating an effect that was accompanied by an increase in GLUT4 and of phospho-aPKC at the muscle membrane. Contracted muscles treated with insulin did not show additive effects on glucose uptake or aPKC activity compared with the response when these stimuli were applied alone. Inhibition of PI3K blocked insulin effect on glucose uptake and aPKC but not in the contractile response. Thus, muscle contraction seems to stimulate aPKC and glucose uptake independently of PI3K. Therefore, aPKC may be a convergence point and a rate limit step in the pathway by which, insulin and contraction, increase glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Tumor uptake of radioruthenium compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Larson, S.M.; Grunbaum, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The use of ruthenium-97 as a scintigraphic agent, particularly for tumor localization, is investigated. The tumor uptake of ruthenium chloride and ruthenium-labelled transferrin is evaluated and their application as tumor-imagine agents is compared to gallium-67 citrate

  6. Planned home compared with planned hospital births: mode of delivery and Perinatal mortality rates, an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooy, Jacoba; Birnie, Erwin; Denktas, Semiha; Steegers, Eric A P; Bonsel, Gouke J

    2017-06-08

    To compare the mode of delivery between planned home versus planned hospital births and to determine if differences in intervention rates could be interpreted as over- or undertreatment. Intervention and perinatal mortality rates were obtained for 679,952 low-risk women from the Dutch Perinatal Registry (2000-2007). Intervention was defined as operative vaginal delivery and/or caesarean section. Perinatal mortality was defined as the intrapartum and early neonatal mortality rate up to 7 days postpartum. Besides adjustment for maternal and care factors, we included for additional casemix adjustment: presence of congenital abnormality, small for gestational age, preterm birth, or low Apgar score. The techniques used were nested multiple stepwise logistic regression, and stratified analysis for separate risk groups. An intention-to-treat like analysis was performed. The intervention rate was lower in planned home compared to planned hospital births (10.9% 95% CI 10.8-11.0 vs. 13.8% 95% CI 13.6-13.9). Intended place of birth had significant impact on the likelihood to intervene after adjustment (planned homebirth (OR 0.77 95% CI. 0.75-0.78)). The mortality rate was lower in planned home births (0.15% vs. 0.18%). After adjustment, the interaction term home- intervention was significant (OR1.51 95% CI 1.25-1.84). In risk groups, a higher perinatal mortality rate was observed in planned home births. The potential presence of over- or under treatment as expressed by adjusted perinatal mortality differs per risk group. In planned home births especially multiparous women showed universally lower intervention rates. However, the benefit of substantially fewer interventions in the planned home group seems to be counterbalanced by substantially increased mortality if intervention occurs.

  7. Comparing primary prevention with secondary prevention to explain decreasing coronary heart disease death rates in Ireland, 1985-2000.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kabir, Zubair

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate whether primary prevention might be more favourable than secondary prevention (risk factor reduction in patients with coronary heart disease(CHD)). METHODS: The cell-based IMPACT CHD mortality model was used to integrate data for Ireland describing CHD patient numbers, uptake of specific treatments, trends in major cardiovascular risk factors, and the mortality benefits of these specific risk factor changes in CHD patients and in healthy people without recognised CHD. RESULTS: Between 1985 and 2000, approximately 2,530 fewer deaths were attributable to reductions in the three major risk factors in Ireland. Overall smoking prevalence declined by 14% between 1985 and 2000, resulting in about 685 fewer deaths (minimum estimate 330, maximum estimate 1,285) attributable to smoking cessation: about 275 in healthy people and 410 in known CHD patients. Population total cholesterol concentrations fell by 4.6%, resulting in approximately 1,300 (minimum estimate 1,115, maximum estimate 1,660) fewer deaths attributable to dietary changes(1,185 in healthy people and 115 in CHD patients) plus 305 fewer deaths attributable to statin treatment (45 in people without CHD and 260 in CHD patients). Mean population diastolic blood pressure fell by 7.2%, resulting in approximately 170 (minimum estimate 105, maximum estimate 300) fewer deaths attributable to secular falls in blood pressure (140 in healthy people and 30 in CHD patients), plus approximately 70 fewer deaths attributable to antihypertensive treatments in people without CHD. Of all the deaths attributable to risk factor falls, some 1,715 (68%) occurred in people without recognized CHD and 815(32%) in CHD patients. CONCLUSION: Compared with secondary prevention, primary prevention achieved a two-fold larger reduction in CHD deaths. Future national CHD policies should therefore prioritize nationwide interventions to promote healthy diets and reduce smoking.

  8. Comparative investigations of the heavy-metal uptake of different culture plants from soils fertilized with sewage sludge and its forecasting by means of soil extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luebben, S.; Goettingen Univ.

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of a research programme sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Science and Technology entitled ''Impact of municipal wastes on soils, soil organisms and plants''. In field experiments or on samples from these fields (four partial projects), soil microbiological, soil zoological and other pedological investigations were carried through; furthermore, soil samples were taken in the areas of five other partial projects studying for many years the impact of municipal waste, in order to investigate heavy metal transfer from soil to plants in greater detail. As the evaluation of the rates of heavy metal elimination shows, the possibility of soil decontamination merely through heavy metal transfer to plants is practically excluded. In moderately contaminated areas those culture plants should be given priority whose useful parts take up relatively little heavy metal. By raising the pH-value the availability of cadmium, zinc and nickel can, moreover, be effectively reduced and the concentrations of these elements in the plants lowered. The conclusion from this study is that moderate recycling of low-heavy-metal sewage sludge in farming will be safe as long as, especially, cadmium concentrations are critically monitored and as long as the soils in question are mainly medium to heavy ones with pH values higher than 6.5. (orig./Vhe) [de

  9. How comparable are rates of malignancies in patients with rheumatoid arthritis across the world? A comparison of cancer rates, and means to optimise their comparability, in five RA registries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askling, Johan; Berglind, Niklas; Franzen, Stefan; Frisell, Thomas; Garwood, Christopher; Greenberg, Jeffrey D; Ho, Meilien; Holmqvist, Marie; Horne, Laura; Inoue, Eisuke; Michaud, Kaleb; Nyberg, Fredrik; Pappas, Dimitrios A; Reed, George; Tanaka, Eiichi; Tran, Trung N; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Wesby-van Swaay, Eveline; Symmons, Deborah

    2016-10-01

    The overall incidence of cancer in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is modestly elevated. The extent to which cancer rates in RA vary across clinical cohorts and patient subsets, as defined by disease activity or treatment is less known but critical for understanding the safety of existing and new antirheumatic therapies. We investigated comparability of, and means to harmonise, malignancy rates in five RA registries from four continents. Participating RA registries were Consortium of Rheumatology Researchers of North America (CORRONA) (USA), Swedish Rheumatology Quality of Care Register (SRR) (Sweden), Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) (UK), CORRONA International (several countries) and Institute of Rheumatology, Rheumatoid Arthritis (IORRA) (Japan). Within each registry, we analysed a main cohort of all patients with RA from January 2000 to last available data, and sensitivity analyses of sub-cohorts defined by disease activity, treatment change, prior comorbidities and restricted by calendar time or follow-up, respectively. Malignancy rates with 95% CIs were estimated, and standardised for age and sex, based on the distributions from a typical RA clinical trial programme population (fostamatinib). There was a high consistency in rates for overall malignancy excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), for malignant lymphomas, but not for all skin cancers, across registries, in particular following age/sex standardisation. Standardised rates of overall malignancy excluding NMSC varied from 0.56 to 0.87 per 100 person-years. Within each registry, rates were generally consistent across sensitivity analyses, which differed little from the main analysis. In real-world RA populations, rates of both overall malignancy and of lymphomas are consistent. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Adam John; Richter, Erik

    2005-01-01

    The increase in skeletal muscle glucose uptake during exercise results from a coordinated increase in rates of glucose delivery (higher capillary perfusion), surface membrane glucose transport, and intracellular substrate flux through glycolysis. The mechanism behind the movement of GLUT4...

  11. Hg uptake in ureteral obstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desgrez, J.P.; Bourguignon, M.; Raynaud, C.; CEA, 91 - Orsay

    1976-01-01

    In the presence of a total obstruction the results obtained with the Hg uptake test, as indeed with other functional tests, inform on the value of the kidney function at the time but have no prognostic value where repair possibilities are concerned. Some preliminary results seem to show however that very soon after the obstacle is removed, by the 10th or 15th day perhaps, quantitative functional tests may once more be used to evaluate the functional prognosis. This would mean that by waiting about two weeks after the disappearance of a total obstruction the Hg uptake test may again be used in all confidence. In order to check this deduction, which is based on slender evidence but which nevertheless has important practical implications, the measurement of the Hg uptake rate during the days following removal of the obstacle appears essential. In long-standing partial obstructions the Hg uptake rate gives an accurate assessment of the functional balance and helps considerably in the choice of therapy [fr

  12. Tc-99m Hydroxymethylene Diphosphonate (HMDP) Renal Uptake as a Surrogate Marker of Postoperative Impairment of the Glomerular Filtration Rate in Renal Tumor Patients Following Nephron-Sparing Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hongyoon; Lee, Won Woo; So, Young; Ha, Seunggyun; Byun, Seok-Soo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2014-12-01

    We investigated Tc-99m hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HMDP) scintigraphy findings in renal tumor patients from the perspective of postoperative renal dysfunction following nephron-sparing surgery (NSS). Forty-three renal tumor patients (M:F = 28:15, age 53.9 ± 12.5 years) who had undergone Tc-99m HMDP scintigraphy after NSS were enrolled. The patients were divided into HMDP(+) or HMDP(-) groups by visual assessment, and the asymmetric index (ASI) was calculated using a region-of-interest analysis. In 16 patients, the total and split glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was assessed using Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) scintigraphy at baseline and at 3 and 6 months post-NSS. High Tc-99m HMDP uptake was observed in the operated kidneys, but this did not persist later than 7 days post-NSS. Split GFR of the operated kidneys at baseline (58.5 ± 9.3 ml/min) was significantly reduced at 6 months post-NSS (40.1 ± 5.9 ml/min, p Tc-99m HMDP. Declines in both total GFR (p = 0.010 and p = 0.002 for 3 and 6 months, respectively) and split GFR of the operated kidneys (p Tc-99m HMDP in the operated kidneys. The ASI was negatively correlated with %change in the split GFR of these operated kidneys at 6 months post-NSS (rho =-0.578, p = 0.0304). Tc-99m HMDP uptake within 1 week following NSS is a surrogate marker of GFR impairment over 6 months post-NSS.

  13. A prospective analysis of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in patients with uveal melanoma: comparison between metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) and standardized uptake value (SUV) and correlations with histopathological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calcagni, Maria Lucia; Mattoli, Maria Vittoria; Rufini, Vittoria; Giordano, Alessandro [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Roma (Italy); Blasi, Maria Antonietta; Sammarco, Maria Grazia [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Institute of Ophthalmology, Roma (Italy); Petrone, Gianluigi; Mule, Antonino [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Department of Pathology, Roma (Italy); Indovina, Luca [Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Physics Unit, Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    To evaluate whether standardized uptake value (SUV) and/or metabolic rate of glucose (MRglu) are different among epithelioid, mixed, and spindle cell uveal melanomas, as well as between low and high risk melanomas; to correlate ultrasonographic data and metabolic parameters with histopathological features; and to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for evaluating prognosis. Of 34 eligible patients prospectively enrolled with clinical suspicion of medium/large uveal melanoma, 26 (15 men, mean age 62.8 {+-} 11.8 years) were evaluated. All patients underwent metastatic work-up, 3-D dynamic brain and whole-body {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT, and surgery. Of the 26 ocular lesions, 23 showed {sup 18}F-FDG uptake, with a sensitivity of 88 %. MRglu was significantly higher in the epithelioid cell melanomas than in the spindle cell melanomas, as well as in high-risk lesions than in low-risk lesions (p = 0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). SUV and MRglu were correlated with histopathological features while ultrasonographic data were not. MRglu is useful for distinguishing the different cell types in uveal melanoma, as well as high-risk from low-risk lesions, while SUV is not. MRglu provides a more accurate evaluation of glucose consumption, whereas SUV provides only an estimation. In addition, the metabolic parameters correlate with histopathological features, well also reflecting cellular behaviour in ocular malignancy. A longer follow-up is needed to assess the role of {sup 18}F-FDG in evaluating prognosis. (orig.)

  14. Addition of sodium bicarbonate to either 1 or 2 feedings of colostrum replacer: effect on uptake and rate of absorption of immunoglobulin G in neonatal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, R G; Kent, E J; Haines, D M; Erickson, P S

    2012-06-01

    Forty Holstein dairy calves were blocked by birth date and sex, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments within each block to elucidate the effect of feeding regimen and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO₃) supplementation on absorption of IgG from colostrum replacer (CR). Calves received CR containing 191.4 g of IgG fed either in 1 feeding at 0 h (within 45 min of birth), with or without 30 g of NaHCO₃, or in 2 feedings (127.6 g of IgG at 0 h, with or without 20 g of NaHCO₃, and 63.8 g of IgG at 6 h, with or without 10 g of NaHCO₃). The treatments were (1) 1 feeding of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; (2) 1 feeding of CR+30 g of NaHCO₃; (3) 2 feedings of CR+0 g of NaHCO₃; and (4) 2 feedings of CR+30 g total of NaHCO₃. Only calves born with no dystocia were used on this study. Blood samples were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24h postpartum and were analyzed for IgG using a radial immunoassay. Results indicated that, individually, feeding regimen and NaHCO₃ treatments had no effect. However, the interaction was significant for 24-h IgG and area under the curve, and showed a trend for apparent efficiency of absorption. Absorption rate data indicated that, for calves fed within 45 min of birth, most IgG absorption occurred in the first 6 h after birth. From 6 to 12 h postpartum, IgG absorption started to decrease; however, IgG absorption remained higher for calves fed in a single feeding than in 2 feedings. These data indicated that NaHCO₃ may increase IgG absorption when calves are fed colostrum in a single feeding but is not beneficial when colostrum is fed in 2 feedings. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, Kevin; Howman-Giles, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV max , and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV max with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  16. Normal cerebral FDG uptake during childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    London, Kevin [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Discipline of Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [The Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney, NSW (Australia); University of Sydney, Disciplines of Imaging and Paediatrics and Child Health, Sydney Medical School, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2014-04-15

    Current understanding of cerebral FDG uptake during childhood originates from a small number of studies in patients with neurological abnormalities. Our aim was to describe cerebral FDG uptake in a dataset of FDG PET scans in children more likely to represent a normal population. We reviewed cerebral FDG PET scans in children up to 16 years of age with suspected/proven extracranial malignancies and the following exclusions: central nervous system metastases, previous malignancies, previous chemotherapy or radiotherapy, development of cerebral metastases during therapy, neurological conditions, taking antiepileptic medication or medications likely to interfere with cerebral metabolism, and general anaesthesia within 24 h. White matter, basal ganglia, thalamus and the cerebellar cortex were analysed using regional SUV{sub max}, and the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus and cerebellum were analysed using a regional relative uptake analysis in comparison to maximal cortical uptake. Scans from 30 patients (age range 11 months to 16 years, mean age 10 years 5 months) were included. All regions showed increasing SUV{sub max} with age. The parietal, occipital, lateral temporal and medial temporal lobes showed lower rates of increasing FDG uptake causing changing patterns of regional FDG uptake during childhood. The cortical regions showing the most intense uptake in early childhood were the parietal and occipital lobes. At approximately 7 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the frontal lobes and at approximately 10 years of age these regions had relatively less uptake than the thalamus. Relative FDG uptake in the brain has not reached an adult pattern by 1 year of age, but continues to change up to 16 years of age. The changing pattern is due to different regional rates of increasing cortical FDG uptake, which is less rapid in the parietal, occipital and temporal lobes than in the frontal lobes. (orig.)

  17. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T. A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); Walton, B. T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and 14C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of 14C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the 14C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

  18. Comparative plant uptake and microbial degradation of trichloroethylene in the rhizospheres of five plant species-- implications for bioremediation of contaminated surface soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, T.A. (Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)); Walton, B.T. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this study was to collect data that would provide a foundation for the concept of using vegetation to enhance in situ bioremediation of contaminated surface soils. Soil and vegetation (Lespedeza cuneata, Paspalum notatum, Pinus taeda, and Solidago sp.) samples from the Miscellaneous Chemicals Basin (MCB) at the Savannah River Site were used in tests to identify critical plant and microbiological variables affecting the fate of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the root zone. Microbiological assays including phospholipid acid analyses, and {sup 14}C-acetate incorporation were conducted to elucidate differences in rhizosphere and nonvegetated soil microbial communities from the MCB. The microbial activity, biomass, and degradation of TCE in rhizosphere soils were significantly greater than corresponding nonvegetated soils. Vegetation had a positive effect on microbial degradation of {sup 14}C-TCE in whole-plant experiments. Soils from the MCB containing Lespedeza cuneata, Pinus taeda, and Glycine max mineralized greater than 25% of the {sup 14}C- TCE added compared with less than 20% in nonvegetated soils. Collectively, these results provide evidence for the positive role of vegetation in enhancing biodegradation.

  19. Time-trends in method-specific suicide rates compared with the availability of specific compounds. The Danish experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Qin, Ping; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2006-01-01

    Restriction of means for suicide is an important part of suicide preventive strategies in different countries. All suicides in Denmark between 1970 and 2000 were examined with regard to method used for suicide. Overall suicide mortality and method-specific suicide mortality was compared...... in the number of suicides by self-poisoning with these compounds. Restricted access occurred concomittantly with a 55% decrease in suicide rate...

  20. Tracks FAQs: How Do Heart Attack Hospitalization Rates In My Community Compare With Other Counties Or States?

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-09-01

    In this podcast, CDC Tracking experts discuss how to compare heart attack hospitalization rates in your community with other counties or states. Do you have a question for our Tracking experts? Please e-mail questions to trackingsupport@cdc.gov.  Created: 9/1/2011 by National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, Environmental Health Tracking Branch.   Date Released: 9/1/2011.

  1. Thallium and potassium uptake kinetics and competition differ between durum wheat and canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renkema, Heidi; Koopmans, Amy; Hale, Beverley; Berkelaar, Edward

    2015-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is very toxic to mammals but little is known about its accumulation by plants, and it would be useful if prediction of Tl accumulation could be done using potassium (K) accumulation models. The objectives of this study were to compare the uptake kinetics of Tl(+) and K(+), and to determine how readily K(+) can inhibit Tl(+) uptake. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L.) and spring canola (Brassica napus L.) were grown hydroponically and exposed to 0-75 μM Tl or 0-250 μM K for up to 150 min (kinetics experiment), or to 0.1 or 10 μM Tl with Tl to K ratios of 1:1 to 1:10,000 for up to 300 min (competition experiment). The rate of uptake of Tl(+) by canola was about three to five times faster than by wheat, while the rate of Tl(+) uptake in wheat was the same as the rate of K(+) uptake by either species. Uptake of Tl(+) was more readily suppressed by K(+) in wheat than in canola. When exposed to 0.1 uM Tl for 300 min with 100 or 1,000 uM K(+), Tl(+) uptake by wheat was reduced by 20 % and 50 %, respectively, while Tl(+) uptake by canola was not reduced. Our results suggest that predicting Tl accumulation using a K accumulation model with a correction factor may be possible for canola, but would be much more difficult for wheat, since uptake of Tl(+) is very sensitive to levels of K(.)

  2. Long-term mortality rates (>8-year) improve as compared to the general and obese population following bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D

    2015-03-01

    Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient

  3. The mechanism of zinc uptake in excised roots and leaf discs of Phaseolus vulgaris L. Die meganisme van sinkopname in blaarskyfies en wortelpunte van Phaseolus vulgaris L

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van As, J A

    1991-03-01

    The mechanism and nature of zinc uptake was studied with the aid of {sup 65}Zn. Uptake of zinc was also compared to that of potassium and phosphate, which are known to be ATP-dependent. Zinc uptake was characterized by a rapid initial uptake, followed by a slower linear phase. Decreasing the temperature from 25 to 2 deg C resulted in a decrease of only 30% in the rate of zinc uptake. Uptake of zinc was insensitive to DNP - possibly indicating the non-metabolic nature of the uptake process. A possible role for zinc in protein synthesis could not be demonstrated as CHI did not inhibit zinc uptake. Cyanide reduced zinc uptake to almost zero, possibly due to complexation of zinc by cyanide. Light had no effect on the accumulation of Zn, whereas dark incubation reduced potassium uptake substantially. The relative high rate of zinc uptake and the passive nature of the uptake process might be due to the high binding capacity of the free space for zinc ions. Transport of the zinc in the xylem and phloem of intact bean plants, as well as the metabolic dependence of the latter, was also investigated. The bulk of the zinc absorbed by bean plants remained in the roots and stems with only a very small fraction being translocated to shoots. Adsorption was the major uptake mechanism in roots and stems. In contrast to transport in the xylem, zinc was readily transported in the phloem. Loading and unloading of zinc in the phloem was not influenced by low temperature or DNP. Opposed to this, loading of potassium and phosphate was inhibited by DNP, while unloading was inhibited by low temperature. It can therefore be concluded that the uptake and transport of zinc is probably a passive process. 33 figs., 282 refs.

  4. Determination of maximum physiologic thyroid uptake and correlation with 24-hour RAI uptake value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duldulao, M.; Obaldo, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In hyperthyroid patients, thyroid uptake values are overestimated, sometimes approaching or exceeding 100%. This is physiologically and mathematically impossible. This study was undertaken to determine the maximum physiologic thyroid uptake value through a proposed simple method using a gamma camera. Methodology: Twenty-two patients (17 females and 5 males), with ages ranging from 19-61 y/o (mean age ± SD; 41 ± 12), with 24-hour uptake value of >50%, clinically hyperthyroid and referred for subsequent radioactive iodine therapy were studied. The computed maximum physiologic thyroid uptake was compared with the 24-hour uptake using the paired Student t-test and evaluated using linear regression analysis. Results: The computed physiologic uptake correlated poorly with the 24-hour uptake value. However, in the male subgroup, there was no statistically significant difference between the two (p=0.77). Linear regression analysis gives the following relationship: physiologic uptake (%) = 77.76 - 0.284 (24-hour RAI uptake value). Conclusion: Provided that proper regions of interest are applied with correct attenuation and background subtraction, determination of physiologic thyroid uptake may be obtained using the proposed method. This simple method may be useful prior to I-131 therapy for hyperthyroidism especially when a single uptake determination is performed. (author)

  5. Thyroid uptake test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganatra, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    The uptake of radioiodine by the thyroid gland is altered by the iodine content of diet or drugs. American diet has a high iodine content because each slice of the white bread contains nearly 150μg of iodine due to the bleaching process employed in the production of the bread. This carrier content of iodine reduces the uptake so much, that the normal American uptakes are usually three to four times lower than the uptakes in the developing countries. The other drawback of the thyroid uptake test is that it is affected by the iodine containing drugs. Anti-diarrhoea medications are quire common in the developing countries and many of them contain iodine moiety. Without a reliable drug history, a low thyroid uptake value may lead to a misleading conclusion

  6. [Is the rate of medical publication from Israel similar to other countries? A comparative study of three medical specialties].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zer, Matan; Lindner, Arie; Greenstein, Alexander; Leibovici, Dan

    2011-07-01

    Academic careers of individual doctors are commonly evaluated by examining the number and quality of authored publications. Similarly, the extent and quality of medical research may be assessed nationwide by measuring the number of publications originating from the country of interest over time. This in turn, may indicate on the quality of medicine practiced. To evaluate the extent and quality of IsraeLi publications we measured the rate and quality of medical publications originating from Israel for two decades in the fields of urology, cardiology and orthopedics, and compared the data to those of other countries. Leading journals in urology, cardiology, and orthopedics were selected. A Medline search (http://www.ncbi.ntm.nih.gov/sites/entrez] was conducted for all the publications originating in Israel between the years 1990-2009 in the selected journals. Data from Israel was compared to those from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey. The change in rate of publications was tested using Linear regression. The quality of publications was calculated by multiplying the number of publications by the relevant impact factor. While the urology publications rate in Israel increased by 32.7% in the second study decade as compared with the first, the urology publication rates during the same time period from Italy, France, Germany, Egypt and Turkey were 199%, 115%, 184%, 180% and 227% respectively. The regression coefficient for the urology publication rate was 0.51 for Israel, and 0.78, 0.95, 0.78, 0.87 and 0.97 for the other countries, respectively. The regression coefficient for the change in the quality of publications from Israel was 0.31 and 0.81, 0.75, 0.92, 0.73, and 0.92 for the other countries, respectively. In cardiology, the Israeli publication rate increased by 26% during the second study decade, whereas in the other countries the increments were 46%, 35%, 76%, 80% and 309% respectively. The regression coefficient for Israeli pubLication rate was 0.45, and

  7. Comparing the measured basal metabolic rates in patients with chronic disorders of consciousness to the estimated basal metabolic rate calculated from common predictive equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Guizhen; Xie, Qiuyou; He, Yanbin; Wang, Ziwen; Chen, Yan; Jiang, Mengliu; Ni, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Qinxian; Murong, Min; Guo, Yequn; Qiu, Xiaowen; Yu, Ronghao

    2017-10-01

    Accurately predicting the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of patients in a vegetative state (VS) or minimally conscious state (MCS) is critical to proper nutritional therapy, but commonly used equations have not been shown to be accurate. Therefore, we compared the BMR measured by indirect calorimetry (IC) to BMR values estimated using common predictive equations in VS and MCS patients. Body composition variables were measured using the bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) technique. BMR was measured by IC in 82 patients (64 men and 18 women) with VS or MCS. Patients were classified by body mass index as underweight (BMR was estimated for each group using the Harris-Benedict (H-B), Schofield, or Cunningham equations and compared to the measured BMR using Bland-Altman analyses. For the underweight group, there was a significant difference between the measured BMR values and the estimated BMR values calculated using the H-B, Schofield, and Cunningham equations (p BMR values estimated using the H-B and Cunningham equations were different significantly from the measured BMR (p BMR in the normal-weight group. The Schofield equation showed the best concordance (only 41.5%) with the BMR values measured by IC. None of the commonly used equations to estimate BMR were suitable for the VS or MCS populations. Indirect calorimetry is the preferred way to avoid either over or underestimate of BMR values. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Probing neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the charged-current and neutral-current interaction rates of supernova neutrinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Kwang-Chang [Center for General Education, Chang Gung University,Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, 333, Taiwan (China); Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Lee, Fei-Fan [Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lee, Feng-Shiuh [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Lin, Guey-Lin [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Institute of Physics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China); Liu, Tsung-Che [Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics (LeCosPA), National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106, Taiwan (China); Yang, Yi [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University,Hsinchu, 300, Taiwan (China)

    2016-07-22

    The neutrino mass hierarchy is one of the neutrino fundamental properties yet to be determined. We introduce a method to determine neutrino mass hierarchy by comparing the interaction rate of neutral current (NC) interactions, ν(ν-bar)+p→ν(ν-bar)+p, and inverse beta decays (IBD), ν-bar{sub e}+p→n+e{sup +}, of supernova neutrinos in scintillation detectors. Neutrino flavor conversions inside the supernova are sensitive to neutrino mass hierarchy. Due to Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the full swapping of ν-bar{sub e} flux with the ν-bar{sub x} (x=μ, τ) one occurs in the inverted hierarchy, while such a swapping does not occur in the normal hierarchy. As a result, more high energy IBD events occur in the detector for the inverted hierarchy than the high energy IBD events in the normal hierarchy. By comparing IBD interaction rate with the mass hierarchy independent NC interaction rate, one can determine the neutrino mass hierarchy.

  9. Uptake and elimination of some radionuclides by eggs and fry of rainbow trout, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Yuichiro; Honda, Yoshihide

    1977-01-01

    Comparative studies on the uptake and elimination of radionuclides, 60 Co, 131 I, 137 Cs, 144 Ce and 106 Ru by the advanced fry and the fingerlings of rainbow trout were conducted under laboratory conditions. The general patterns of uptake of 60 Co, 131 I, 144 Ce, 106 RuNO-nitro and -binuclear complexes by both the advanced fry and the fingerlings were similar to each other. On the other hand, the uptake of 137 Cs by the advanced fry was more rapid than that by the fingerlings although the uptake of 106 RuNO-nitro complex by the advanced fry was much slower. The remarkable differences in rate of uptake and turnover rate for 137 Cs and in turnover rate for 144 Ce were observed between the advanced fry and the fingerlings. The concentration factors for 60 Co and 137 Cs in the fry increased with growth of the fish. However, this trend was not necessarily observed for 131 I, 144 Ce and 106 RuNO complexes. In comparison of the tissue uptake of the radionuclides, the high concentration factor for 60 Co, 106 RuNO complexes and 144 Ce in visera including digestive tract were observed, while for 131 I in the gills. (auth.)

  10. The crime drop in comparative perspective: the impact of the economy and imprisonment on American and European burglary rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Richard; Messner, Steven F

    2009-09-01

    Influential statements on recent American crime reductions maintain that the crime drop was confined to the USA. Yet other research has revealed comparable crime decreases in Europe. We suggest that the USA and European crime declines occurred in tandem because they were both brought about by upturns in the economy. In light of US research showing crime reductions resulting from growth in imprisonment, we also examine the possibility that rising imprisonment rates reduced European crime rates. We test these hypotheses in a pooled cross-sectional time-series analysis of burglary rates in the USA and nine European nations between 1993 and 2006. The results indicate that burglary declines in the US and Europe were associated with rising consumer confidence. By contrast, imprisonment appears to be significantly related to burglary rates only after unusual policy interventions, such as Italy's 2006 clemency measure that dramatically reduced the size of its prison population. We interpret these findings as reflecting the structural similarity and economic integration of the world's developed nations and the uneven convergence in US and European punishment policies.

  11. Enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) in a voltage comparator which only utilizes complementary vertical NPN and PNP transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieg, J.F.; Titus, J.L.; Emily, D.; Gehlhausen, M.; Swonger, J.; Platteter, D.

    1999-01-01

    For the first time, enhanced low dose rate sensitivity (ELDRS) is reported in a vertical bipolar process. A radiation hardness assurance (RHA) test method was successfully demonstrated on a linear circuit, the HS139RH quad comparator, and its discrete transistor elements. This circuit only uses vertical NPN and PNP transistors. Radiation tests on the HS139RH were performed at 25 C using dose rates of 50 rd(Si)/s, 100 mrd(Si)/s and 10 mrd(Si)/s, and at 100 C using a dose rate of 10 rd(Si)/s. Tests at dose rates of 50 rd(Si)/s at 25 C and 10 rd(Si)/s at 100 C were performed on discrete vertical NPN and PNP transistor elements which comprise the HS139RH. Transistor and circuit responses were evaluated. The die's passivation overcoat layers were varied to examine the effect of removing a nitride layer and thinning a deposited SiO 2 (silox) layer

  12. Failure Rates of Orthodontic Fixed Lingual Retainers bonded with Two Flowable Light-cured Adhesives: A Comparative Prospective Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talic, Nabeel F

    2016-08-01

    This comparative prospective randomized clinical trial examined the in vivo failure rates of fixed mandibular and maxillary lingual retainers bonded with two light-cured flowable composites over 6 months. Consecutive patients were divided into two groups on a 1:1 basis. Two hundred fixed lingual retainers were included, and their failures were followed for 6 months. One group (n = 50) received retainers bonded with a nano-hybrid composite based on nano-optimized technology (Tetric-N-Flow, Ivoclar Vivadent). Another group (n = 50) received retainers bonded with a low viscosity (LV) composite (Transbond Supreme LV, 3M Unitek). There was no significant difference between the overall failure rates of mandibular retainers bonded with Transbond (8%) and those bonded with Tetric-N-Flow (18%). However, the odds ratio for failure using Tetric-N-flow was 2.52-fold greater than that of Transbond. The failure rate of maxillary retainers bonded with Transbond was higher (14%), but not significantly different, than that of maxillary retainers bonded with Tetric-N-flow (10%). There was no significant difference in the estimated mean survival times of the maxillary and mandibular retainers bonded with the two composites. Both types of composites tested in the current study can be used to bond fixed maxillary and mandibular lingual retainers, with low failure rates.

  13. Paying the full cost of power : an indicative comparative analysis of residential electricity rates across Canadian provinces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulding, A.J.; Sabatier, G.

    2005-01-01

    This study was commissioned to review electricity rates charged to residential consumers across Canada and to determine how the basics of ratemaking change from province to province. Rates in each province vary significantly due to differences in the industry structure and their resource base. It was noted that direct comparisons are difficult because some rates reflect the financing, fuel and opportunity costs of power. For that reason, a simple adjustment factor was developed for fair comparison between jurisdictions. This assessment compared the all-in cost to final consumers which includes power generation, transmission, distribution and all other charges, as calculated by Statistics Canada. It was revealed that Alberta is Canada's only province where prices to final consumers reflect the market value of the underlying commodity. Ratepayers have the advantage of not being responsible for bad investment choices in the power sector and there are no hidden subsidies due to provincial ownership of power resources. Another consumer advantage is that they receive appropriate price signals in terms of energy consumption and conservation. This report suggests that low electricity rates in other provinces can be expected to rise much more rapidly than those in Alberta in the coming decade as consumers may be charged the full value of the electricity they use. 18 refs., 9 figs

  14. Experience with and amount of postpartum maternity care: Comparing women who rated the care they received from the maternity care assistant as 'good' or 'less than good care'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baas, C I; Wiegers, T A; de Cock, T P; Erwich, J J H M; Spelten, E R; Hutton, E K

    2017-12-01

    The postpartum period is an important time in the lives of new mothers, their children and their families. The aim of postpartum care is 'to detect health problems of mother and/or baby at an early stage, to encourage breastfeeding and to give families a good start' (Wiegers, 2006). The Netherlands maternity care system aims to enable every new family to receive postpartum care in their home by a maternity care assistant (MCA). In order to better understand this approach, in this study we focus on women who experienced the postpartum care by the MCA as 'less than good' care. Our research questions are; among postpartum women in the Netherlands, what is the uptake of MCA care and what factors are significantly associated with women's rating of care provided by the MCA. Design and setting This study uses data from the 'DELIVER study', a dynamic cohort study, which was set up to investigate the organization, accessibility and quality of primary midwifery care in the Netherlands. Participants In the DELIVER population 95.6% of the women indicated that they had received postpartum maternity care by an MCA in their home. We included the responses of 3170 women. To assess the factors that were significantly associated with reporting 'less than good (postpartum) care' by the MCA, a full cases backward logistic regression model was built using the multilevel approach in Generalized Linear Mixed Models. The mean rating of the postpartum care by the MCA was 8.8 (on a scale from 1-10), and 444 women (14%) rated the postpartum maternity care by the MCA as 'less than good care'. In the full cases multivariable analysis model, odds of reporting 'less than good care' by the MCA were significantly higher for women who were younger (women 25-35 years had an OR 1.32, CI 0.96-1.81 and women 35 years), multiparous (OR 1.27, CI 1.01-1.60) and had a higher level of education (women with a middle level had an OR 1.84,CI 1.22-2.79, and women with a high level of education had an OR 2

  15. Micronucleus formation compared to the survival rate of human melanoma cells after X-ray and neutron irradiation and hyperthermia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Beuningen, D.; Streffer, C.; Bertholdt, G.

    1981-09-01

    After neutron and X-ray irradiation and combined X-ray irradiation and hyperthermia (3 hours, 42/sup 0/C), the survival rate of human melanoma cells was measured by means of the colony formation test and compared to the formation of micronuclei. Neutrons had a stronger effect on the formation of micronuclei than the combination of X-rays and hyperthermia. X-rays had the lowest effect. The dose effect curve showed a break at that dose level at which a reduction of cells was observed in the cultures. A good relation between survival rate and formation of micronuclei was found for the X-ray irradiation, but not for the neutron irradiation and the combined treatment. These observations are discussed. At least for X-rays, the micronucleus test has turned out to be a good screening method for the radiosensitivity of a biologic system.

  16. Sample size for comparing negative binomial rates in noninferiority and equivalence trials with unequal follow-up times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yongqiang

    2017-05-25

    We derive the sample size formulae for comparing two negative binomial rates based on both the relative and absolute rate difference metrics in noninferiority and equivalence trials with unequal follow-up times, and establish an approximate relationship between the sample sizes required for the treatment comparison based on the two treatment effect metrics. The proposed method allows the dispersion parameter to vary by treatment groups. The accuracy of these methods is assessed by simulations. It is demonstrated that ignoring the between-subject variation in the follow-up time by setting the follow-up time for all individuals to be the mean follow-up time may greatly underestimate the required size, resulting in underpowered studies. Methods are provided for back-calculating the dispersion parameter based on the published summary results.

  17. Comparative Study About 4 and 5 Star Hotels in Antalya and Barcelona According to Tourist Ratings at Holidaycheck Web Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozan GÜNGÖR

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the intangibilty of tourism product, reviews and ratings at online review web sites where real consumers share their experiences, become the most important information sources. In this research, according to ratings at Holidaycheck web site which is used mainly by German speaking tourists, it is aimed to compare 4 and 5 star hotels in Barcelona and Antalya. Documents analysis was used to collect data, collected data were uploaded to SPSS 20.0 and non paramectric methods were used to test the hypotheses. The findings showed that tourists were more satisfied with staff service at hotels in Barcelona than hotels in Antalya. Plus, they were more satisfied with sports and entertaintment facilities at hotels in Antalya than hotels in Barcelona.

  18. Higher Rate of Tuberculosis in Second Generation Migrants Compared to Native Residents in a Metropolitan Setting in Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Florian M.; Fiebig, Lena; Hauer, Barbara; Brodhun, Bonita; Glaser-Paschke, Gisela; Haas, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Background In Western Europe, migrants constitute an important risk group for tuberculosis, but little is known about successive generations of migrants. We aimed to characterize migration among tuberculosis cases in Berlin and to estimate annual rates of tuberculosis in two subsequent migrant generations. We hypothesized that second generation migrants born in Germany are at higher risk of tuberculosis compared to native (non-migrant) residents. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted. All tuberculosis cases reported to health authorities in Berlin between 11/2010 and 10/2011 were eligible. Interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire including demographic data, migration history of patients and their parents, and language use. Tuberculosis rates were estimated using 2011 census data. Results Of 314 tuberculosis cases reported, 154 (49.0%) participated. Of these, 81 (52.6%) were first-, 14 (9.1%) were second generation migrants, and 59 (38.3%) were native residents. The tuberculosis rate per 100,000 individuals was 28.3 (95CI: 24.0–32.6) in first-, 10.2 (95%CI: 6.1–16.6) in second generation migrants, and 4.6 (95%CI: 3.7–5.6) in native residents. When combining information from the standard notification variables country of birth and citizenship, the sensitivity to detect second generation migration was 28.6%. Conclusions There is a higher rate of tuberculosis among second generation migrants compared to native residents in Berlin. This may be explained by presumably frequent contact and transmission within migrant populations. Second generation migration is insufficiently captured by the surveillance variables country of birth and citizenship. Surveillance systems in Western Europe should allow for quantifying the tuberculosis burden in this important risk group. PMID:26061733

  19. Uptakes of trace elements in Zn-deficient mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyama, T.; Yanaga, M.; Yoshida, T.; Maetsu, H.; Suganuma, H.; Omori, T.

    2002-01-01

    A multitracer technique was used to obtain uptake rates of essential trace elements in various organs and tissues in Zn-deficient mice. A multitracer solution, containing more than 20 radioisotopes, was injected intraperitoneally into Zn-deficient state mice and control ones. Uptake rates of the radioisotopes were compared with concentrations of trace elements determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) in order to study a specific metabolism of Zn and other essential trace elements, such as Mn, Co, Se, Rb, and Sr. The result suggests that Zn is supplied from bone to other organs and tissues and an increase in Co concentration in all organs and tissues depends on its chemical form, under the Z-deficient state. (author)

  20. {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatic resection: Patterns of uptake and differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peungjesada, Silanath [University New Mexico, Department of Radiology, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aloia, Thomas A. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Surgical Oncology, Unit 444, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Biostatistics, Unit 1411, Houston, TX (United States); Chasen, Beth [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Unit 1483, Houston, TX (United States); Shin, Sooyoung; Loyer, Evelyne M. [University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States); Baiomy, Ali [Cairo University, National Cancer Center, Cairo (Egypt)

    2015-08-15

    To evaluate the patterns of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake at the surgical margin after hepatectomy to identify features that may differentiate benign and malignant uptake. Patients who had undergone a PET/CT after hepatectomy were identified. Delay between resection and PET/CT, presence of uptake at the surgical margin, pattern of uptake, and maximal standardized value were recorded. The PET/CT findings were correlated with contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. There were 26 patients with increased 18F-FDG uptake; uptake was diffuse in seven and focal in 19. Diffuse uptake was due to inflammation in all cases. Focal uptake was due to recurrence in 12 and inflammation in seven cases. Defining a focal pattern only as a positive for malignancy yielded 100 % sensitivity, 87 % specificity, 37 % false positive rate. As expected, SUV{sub max} was significantly higher for recurrence than inflammation, but did overlap. Contrast-enhanced CT allowed differentiation between malignant and benign uptake in all cases. F-FDG uptake after hepatectomy does not equate to recurrence and yields a high false positive rate. Diffuse uptake did not require additional evaluation in our sample. Focal uptake, however, may be due to recurrence; differentiating benign and malignant nodular uptake relies on optimal contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. (orig.)

  1. Response of soil methane uptake to simulated nitrogen deposition and grazing management across three types of steppe in Inner Mongolia, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xianglan; He, Hong; Yuan, Wenping; Li, Linghao; Xu, Wenfang; Liu, Wei; Shi, Huiqiu; Hou, Longyu; Chen, Jiquan; Wang, Zhiping

    2018-01-15

    The response of soil methane (CH 4 ) uptake to increased nitrogen (N) deposition and grazing management was studied in three types of steppe (i.e., meadow steppe, typical steppe, and desert steppe) in Inner Mongolia, China. The experiment was designed with four simulated N deposition rates such as 0, 50, 100, and 200kgNha -1 , respectively, under grazed and fenced management treatments. Results showed that the investigated steppes were significant sinks for CH 4 , with an uptake flux of 1.12-3.36kgha -1 over the grass growing season and that the magnitude of CH 4 uptake significantly (Prates. The soil CH 4 uptake rates were highest in the desert steppe, moderate in the typical steppe, and lowest in the meadow steppe. Compared with grazed plots, fencing increased the CH 4 uptake by 4.7-40.2% with a mean value of 20.2% across the three different steppe types. The responses of soil CH 4 uptake to N deposition in the continental steppe varied depending on the N deposition rate, steppe type, and grazing management. A significantly positive correlation between CH 4 uptake and soil temperature was found in this study, whereas no significant relationship between soil moisture and CH 4 uptake occurred. Our results may contribute to the improvement of model parameterization for simulating biosphere-atmosphere CH 4 exchange processes and for evaluating the climate change feedback on CH 4 soil uptake. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Late change of normal tissue treated either by high dose rate or low dose rate interstitial brachytherapy. A retrospective comparative study on oral and oropharyngeal mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nose, Takayuki; Koizumi, Masahiko; Nishiyama, Kinji; Inoue, Toshihiko

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare late changes of normal tissue treated either by high dose rate (HDR) or low dose rate (LDR) interstitial brachytherapy. For HDR group, 22 oropharynx cancer patients who were treated by HDR Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy with/without external beam radiotherapy in Osaka (Osaka Medical Center for Cancer and Cardiovascular Diseases and Osaka University Hospital) during June 1994 through April 2000 and came to the follow-up clinics during July 2000 through December 2000 were studied. For LDR group, 26 oropharynx cancer patients who were treated by LDR Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy with/without external beam radiotherapy in Nancy (Centre Alexis Vautrin) during February 1989 through July 1998 and came to the follow-up clinics during April 1999 through July 1999 were studied. The standard HDR schedules were 54 Gy/9 fr/5-6 days for monotherapy and 18-24 Gy/3-4 fr/2-3 days following 45 Gy external beam radiotherapy. The standard LDR schedules were 65 Gy/5-6 days for monotherapy and 15-25 Gy/2-3 days following 50 Gy external beam radiotherapy. For evaluation of the late changes, we scored the mucosal and muscular changes inside the treated volume using the modified Dische score system and the RTOG/EORTC late radiation morbidity scoring scheme. For 6 items of the modified Dische score system, no significant difference was found between HDR and LDR groups. For the remaining 2 items (pallor, mobility impairment of faucial pillars), LDR group showed higher scores (p=0.010, 0.002). LDR group showed a trend toward higher scores for the RTOG/EORTC scheme (p=0.059). Some predict late effects by HDR interstitial brachytherapy to be severer than by LDR because no dose-rate effects can be expected. Our study, however, showed at least equivalent or even milder late changes by HDR. Appropriate fractionation schedule and extra geometrical sparing effects by optimized dose distribution of HDR group might result in milder late changes. With our

  3. Analysis of complications in a prospective randomized trial comparing two brachytherapy low dose rates in cervical carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-07-30

    The analysis of complications in a prospective randomized trial comparing two preoperative brachytherapy low-dose rates in early stage cervical cancer is presented. The objective of this trial was to determine the benefits, if any, of the higher-dose rate within the therapeutic aresenal for this patient population, in terms of survival, local control, and complications. Overall survival, 85% at 2 years and local control, 93% at 2 years, were similarly distributed between the two groups. Regardless of their nature and severity, 139 and 175 complications were observed among 63% and 75% of patients, in the 0.4 and 0.8 Gy/h dose rate groups respectively. Gynecologic and urinary complications were the most frequent (38% and 28% of all complications), followed by vascular (15%), digestive (10%), nervous (5%), and cutaneous (5%). A total of 14 and 17 severe complications (Grade 3) were observed in 7% and 13% of patients, respectively in the 0.4 and 0.8 Gy/h dose rate groups (p = 0.12) Nonparametric survival methods used to compare the time to the first complication did not show a significant difference between the two groups: 62% and 72% at 2 years (p = 0.27). When the first complication and its evolution were considered (early complications), the prevalence of complications was not significantly different between the two groups: 28% vs. 34% at 2 years (p = 0.31). In this prospective trial, patients were regularly followed-up and complications of varying nature and severity were observed in succession during follow-up. When successive complications and their evolution were taken into account, the prevalence of complications was significantly greater in the higher-dose rate group: 30% vs 45% at 2 years (p = 0.03). The results of this trial showed that long-term effects of treatment, when represented by prevalence of complications over time, were more frequent in the higher dose rate group. 33 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Comparing variation in hospital rates of cesarean delivery among low-risk women using 3 different measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Joanne C; Kozhimannil, Katy B; McDermott, Patricia; Saade, George R; Srinivas, Sindhu K

    2016-02-01

    This report describes the development of a measure of low-risk cesarean delivery by the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). Safely lowering the cesarean delivery rate is a priority for maternity care clinicians and health care delivery systems. Therefore, hospital quality assurance programs are increasingly tracking cesarean delivery rates among low-risk pregnancies. Two commonly used definitions of "low risk" are available, the Joint Commission (JC) and the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) measures, but these measures are not clinically comprehensive. We sought to refine the definition of the low-risk cesarean delivery rate to enhance the validity of the metric for quality measurement. We created this refined definition-called the SMFM definition-and compared it to the JC and AHRQ measures using claims-based data from the 2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample of >863,000 births in 612 hospitals. Using these definitions, we calculated means and interquartile ranges (25th-75th percentile range) for hospital low-risk cesarean delivery rates, stratified by hospital size, teaching status, urban/rural location, and payer mix. Across all hospitals, the mean low-risk cesarean delivery rate was lowest for the SMFM definition (12.65%), but not substantially different from the JC and AHRQ measures (13.12% and 13.29%, respectively). We empirically examined the SMFM definition to ensure its validity and utility. This refined definition performs similarly to existing measures and has the added advantage of clinical perspective, enhanced face validity, and ease of use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Increasing synthetic serum substitute (SSS) concentrations in P1 glucose/phosphate-free medium improves implantation rate: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, D; Yovel, I; Schwartz, T; Azem, F; Lessing, J B; Amit, A

    2001-11-01

    To assess the comparative efficacy of IVF medium (MediCult, with 5.2 mM glucose) and a glucose/phosphate-free medium, P1 (Irvine Scientific), and to investigate the influence of increasing the serum supplementation (synthetic serum substitute; SSS; Irvine Scientific) to P1 on embryo development and implantation. Patients were randomly assigned to IVF medium (Group 1, cycles n = 172) or P1 supplemented with 10% SSS (Group 2, cycles n = 229) according to the medium scheduled for use on the day of oocyte retrieval. Another 555 IVF consequent cycles (Group 3) were performed using increased SSS concentrations (20%) in P1 medium. In this large series of IVF cycles, we herein demonstrate that significantly higher pregnancy and implantation rates were found when embryos were cultured in glucose/phosphate-free medium P1 supplemented with 20% SSS compared to supplementation with the lower SSS concentration and with IVF medium.

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician ... of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  8. Racial Discipline Disproportionality in Montessori and Traditional Public Schools: A Comparative Study Using the Relative Rate Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie E. Brown

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Research from the past 40 years indicates that African American students are subjected to exclusionary discipline, including suspension and expulsion, at rates two to three times higher than their White peers (Children’s Defense Fund, 1975; Skiba, Michael, Nardo, & Peterson, 2002. Although this phenomenon has been studied extensively in traditional public schools, rates of racially disproportionate discipline in public Montessori schools have not been examined. The purpose of this study is to examine racial discipline disproportionality in Montessori public elementary schools as compared to traditional elementary schools. The Relative Rate Index (RRI is used as a measure of racially disproportionate use of out-of-school suspensions (Tobin & Vincent, 2011. Suspension data from the Office of Civil Rights Data Collection was used to generate RRIs for Montessori and traditional elementary schools in a large urban district in the Southeast. While statistically significant levels of racial discipline disproportionality are found in both the Montessori and traditional schools, the effect is substantially less pronounced in Montessori settings. These findings suggest that Montessori schools are not immune to racially disproportionate discipline and should work to incorporate more culturally responsive classroom management techniques. Conversely, the lower levels of racially disproportionate discipline in the Montessori schools suggests that further study of discipline in Montessori environments may provide lessons for traditional schools to promote equitable discipline.

  9. Comparability of Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory ratings by staff, significant others and people with acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malec, James F

    2004-06-01

    To determine the internal consistency, reliability and comparability of the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) and sub-scales completed by people with acquired brain injury (ABI), family and significant others (SO) and rehabilitation staff. 134 people with ABI consecutively seen for outpatient rehabilitation evaluation. MPAI-4 protocols based on independent ratings by the people with ABI undergoing evaluation, SO and rehabilitation staff were submitted to Rasch Facets analysis to determine the internal consistency of the overall measure and sub-scales (Ability, Adjustment and Participation indices) for each rater group and for a composite measure based on all rater groups. Rater agreement for individual items was also examined. Rasch indicators of internal consistency were entirely within acceptable limits for 3-rater composite full scale and sub-scale measures; these indicators were generally within acceptable limits for measures based on a single rater group. Item agreement was generally acceptable; disagreements suggested various sources of bias for specific rater groups. The MPAI-4 possesses satisfactory internal consistency regardless of rating source. A composite measure based on ratings made independently by people with ABI, SO and staff may serve as a 'gold standard' for research purposes. In the clinical setting, assessment of varying perspectives and biases may not only best represent outcome as evaluated by all parties involved but be essential to developing effective rehabilitation plans.

  10. Ocean carbon uptake and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilbrook, Bronte

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The ocean contains about 95% of the carbon in the atmosphere, ocean and land biosphere system, and is of fundamental importance in regulating atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. In the 1990s an international research effort involving Australia was established to determine the uptake and storage of anthropogenic C02 for all major ocean basins. The research showed that about 118 of the 244 + 20 billion tons of the anthropogenic carbon emitted through fossil fuel burning and cement production has been stored in the ocean since preindustrial times, thus helping reduce the rate of increase in atmospheric C02. The research also showed the terrestrial biosphere has been a small net source of C02 (39 ± 28 billion tons carbon) to the atmosphere over the same period. About 60% of the total ocean inventory of the anthropogenic C02 was found in the Southern Hemisphere, with most in the 30 0 S to 50 0 S latitude band. This mid-latitude band is where surface waters are subducted as Mode and Intermediate waters, which is a major pathway controlling ocean C02 uptake. High storage (23% of the total) also occurs in the North Atlantic, associated with deep water formation in that basin. The ocean uptake and storage is expected to increase in the coming decades as atmospheric C02 concentrations rise. However, a number of feedback mechanisms associated with surface warming, changes in circulation, and biological effects are likely to impact on the uptake capacity. The accumulation or storage-of the C02 in the ocean is also the major driver of ocean acidification with potential to disrupt marine ecosystems. This talk will describe the current understanding of the ocean C02 uptake and storage and a new international research strategy to detect how the ocean uptake and storage will evolve on interannual through decadal scales. Understanding the ocean response to increasing atmospheric C02 will be a key element in managing future C02 increases and establishing

  11. Body acceleration distribution and O2 uptake in humans during running and jumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Mccutcheon, E. P.; Shvartz, E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1980-01-01

    The distribution of body acceleration and associated oxygen uptake and heart rate responses are investigated in treadmill running and trampoline jumping. Accelerations in the +Gz direction were measured at the lateral ankle, lumbosacral region and forehead of eight young men during level treadmill walking and running at four speeds and trampoline jumping at four heights, together with corresponding oxygen uptake and heart rate. With increasing treadmill speed, peak acceleration at the ankle is found always to exceed that at the back and forehead, and acceleration profiles with higher frequency components than those observed during jumping are observed. Acceleration levels are found to be more uniformly distributed with increasing height in jumping, although comparable oxygen uptake and heat rates are obtained. Results indicate that the magnitude of the biomechanical stimuli is greater in trampoline jumping than in running, which finding could be of use in the design of procedures to avert deconditioning in persons exposed to weightlessness.

  12. Relationship between root water uptake and soil respiration: A modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodosio, Bertrand; Pauwels, Valentijn R. N.; Loheide, Steven P.; Daly, Edoardo

    2017-08-01

    Soil moisture affects and is affected by root water uptake and at the same time drives soil CO2 dynamics. Selecting root water uptake formulations in models is important since this affects the estimation of actual transpiration and soil CO2 efflux. This study aims to compare different models combining the Richards equation for soil water flow to equations describing heat transfer and air-phase CO2 production and flow. A root water uptake model (RWC), accounting only for root water compensation by rescaling water uptake rates across the vertical profile, was compared to a model (XWP) estimating water uptake as a function of the difference between soil and root xylem water potential; the latter model can account for both compensation (XWPRWC) and hydraulic redistribution (XWPHR). Models were compared in a scenario with a shallow water table, where the formulation of root water uptake plays an important role in modeling daily patterns and magnitudes of transpiration rates and CO2 efflux. Model simulations for this scenario indicated up to 20% difference in the estimated water that transpired over 50 days and up to 14% difference in carbon emitted from the soil. The models showed reduction of transpiration rates associated with water stress affecting soil CO2 efflux, with magnitudes of soil CO2 efflux being larger for the XWPHR model in wet conditions and for the RWC model as the soil dried down. The study shows the importance of choosing root water uptake models not only for estimating transpiration but also for other processes controlled by soil water content.

  13. Explaining low uptake for Down syndrome screening in the Netherlands : (and predicting utilisation of other programmes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crombag, NMTH

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, only a quarter of all pregnant women take part in the current Down syndrome screening(DSS) programme. Compared to other Northern European countries, Dutch uptake rates are very low. This thesis concentrates on the test-utilisation of DSS, in particular the factors impeding or

  14. Tritium uptake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): HTO and OBT-spiked feed exposures simultaneously

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.B.; Shultz, C.; Stuart, M.; Festarini, A.

    2015-01-01

    There is currently considerable interest in organically bound tritium (OBT) formation in edible fish. The major questions revolve around whether or not tritium can accumulate in fish after being released into aquatic environments. Since OBT formation rates in large, edible fish are poorly understood, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) studies, where fish were simultaneously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) and OBT-spiked feed over 130 days, were conducted to evaluate tritium uptake. The measured HTO activity concentrations in fish tissue confirmed that HTO in fish tissue equilibrates quickly with HTO in tank water. The data obtained also confirmed that OBT uptake is faster when fish are ingesting OBT-spiked feed compared to when fish are living in tritiated water (and consuming non-OBT-spiked feed). The difference between the two exposure types is such that the groups exposed to tritiated water and OBT-spiked feed simultaneously were showing the same uptake rates as OBT-spiked feed only exposures. Contrary to what was expected, the rate of OBT uptake (from OBT-spiked feed) seemed to be higher in slow growing fish compared to fast growing fish. Another observation from these studies was that OBT activity concentrations in all organs (viscera) had a tendency to be higher than OBT activity concentrations measured in fish flesh. - Highlights: • Edible size of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were simultaneously exposed to tritiated water (HTO) and OBT-spiked feed over 130 days. • OBT uptake is faster when fish are ingesting OBT-spiked feed compared to when fish are living in tritiated water (and consuming non-OBT-spiked feed). • The rate of OBT uptake (from OBT-spiked feed) seemed to be higher in slow growing fish compared to fast growing fish

  15. Comparative real-time study of cellular uptake of a formulated conjugated linolenic acid rich nano and conventional macro emulsions and their bioactivity in ex vivo models for parenteral applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debjyoti; Mukherjee, Sayani; Chakraborty, Rajarshi; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Dhar, Pubali

    2015-02-01

    The objective of the present study was to fabricate and monitor real-time, impact of a stable conjugated linolenic acid, α-eleostearic acid (ESA) rich nanoemulsion (NE) formulation (d ROS). Accordingly, stable nanoemulsion formulation of ESA was engineered with the aid of bitter melon seed oil and non-toxic excipients. Morphology and particle size of the emulsion formulations were studied to validate stability. The real-time rapid uptake of the ESA NE and its increased prophylactic efficacy against induced endogenous and exogenous ROS in terms of cell viability and membrane integrity was evaluated flow-cytometrically and with fluorescence microscopic analysis of different primary cells. It was found that the fabricated non-toxic ESA NE had stable parameters (hydrodynamic mean diameter, particle size distribution and zeta potential) for over 12 weeks. Further, ESA NE at a concentration of ∼ 70 μM exhibited maximum efficacy in protecting cells from oxidative damage against both endogenous and exogenous ROS in lymphocytes and hepatocytes as compared to its corresponding presence in the CE formulation. This study provides a real-time empirical evidence on the influence of nano formulation in enhancing bioavailability and antioxidative properties of ESA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Preliminary investigation comparing a detomidine continuous rate infusion combined with either morphine or buprenorphine for standing sedation in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Joanna J; MacFarlane, Paul D; Love, Emma J; Tremaine, Henry; Taylor, Polly M; Murrell, Joanna C

    2016-03-01

    To compare sedative and analgesic properties of buprenorphine or morphine for standing procedures combined with a detomidine continuous rate infusion (CRI). Blinded, prospective, randomized clinical pilot study. Ten horses presented for dental or sinus procedures. Horses received 0.02 mg kg(-1) acepromazine intravenously (IV), followed 30 minutes later by detomidine 10 μg kg(-1) IV. Five minutes later, buprenorphine 0.01 mg kg(-1) (n = 6) or morphine 0.1 mg kg(-1) (n = 4) was administered IV. Detomidine was administered by CRI (0.2 μg kg(-1) minute(-1)) and adjusted to maintain appropriate sedation. Heart rate, respiratory frequency, gastrointestinal motility and rectal temperature were measured; pain, ataxia and sedation were scored. Sedation, pain scores and ataxia scores were analysed using a mixed linear model. Detomidine dose and procedure success scores were compared using Wilcoxon's rank sum test. Complications between groups were analysed using Fisher's exact test. Two horses had incomplete data. Weights and ages were not different between groups (p = 0.15 and p = 0.42, respectively). The dose rate for detomidine was not different between groups (0.33 ± 0.02 μg kg(-1) minute(-1) in the buprenorphine group and 0.33 ± 0.05 μg kg(-1) minute(-1), in the morphine group p = 0.89). Intraoperative visual analogue scale scores were greater after buprenorphine than morphine (mean ± SD, buprenorphine 48 ± 4, morphine 40 ± 5, p = 0.0497). Procedure duration was not different between groups (buprenorphine 142 ± 33, morphine 140 ± 12 minutes). All horses treated with buprenorphine experienced complications compared with none in the morphine group (p = 0.0286). At the doses used, buprenorphine produced greater sedation but more post-operative complications than morphine. However, Type I or Type II errors cannot be excluded and larger studies are required to confirm these findings. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of

  17. Prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing adenoma detection rate in colonoscopy using water exchange, water immersion, and air insufflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsi; Tseng, Chih-Wei; Hu, Chi-Tan; Koo, Malcolm; Leung, Felix W

    2017-07-01

    Adenoma detection rate (ADR), defined as the proportion of patients with at least one adenoma of any size, is a quality indicator. We tested the hypothesis that water exchange (WE) improves ADR but water immersion (WI) has no adverse effect on ADR compared with air insufflation (AI). A prospective study was conducted at the Dalin Tzu Chi Hospital in southern Taiwan and the Hualien Tzu Chi Hospital in eastern Taiwan on patients randomly assigned to WE, WI, or AI with stratification by the 3 study colonoscopists. The primary outcome was ADR. From July 2013 to December 2015, 651 patients were recruited and randomized into 3 groups with a 1:1:1 ratio (217 patients per group). Overall, ADR met quality standards: WE 49.8% (95% CI, 43.2%-56.4%), AI 37.8% (95% CI, 31.6%-44.4%), and WI 40.6% (95% CI, 34.2%-47.2%). Compared with AI, WE significantly increased ADR (P = .016). There was no difference between WI and WE. ADRs of WI and AI were comparable. Compared with AI, WE confirmed a longer insertion time, higher cleanliness score, but similar adenoma per positive colonoscopy (APPC) and withdrawal time with polypectomy. Subgroup analysis found WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. Multivariate generalized linear mixed model analysis revealed that age ≥50 years, WE (vs AI), colonoscopy indication, no previous history of colonoscopy, and withdrawal time >8 minutes were significant predictors of increased ADR. Confirmation of prior reports showing WE, but not WI, increased ADR further strengthened the validity of our observations. WE significantly increased ADR in propofol-sedated patients. The outcome differences justify assessment of the role of WE in colorectal cancer prevention. Similar APPC and withdrawal times suggest that adequate inspection was performed on colonoscope withdrawal in each of the study arms. (Clinical trial registration number: NCT01894191.). Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. All rights reserved.

  18. Risk-free assets: Are they truly risk-free? A comparative study of South African rates and instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oosthuizen, A.V.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Determining the price of a financial instrument is something that happens every day in the financial markets. Every price starts off with a spot price adjusted for interest until maturity of the particular instrument. The interest is usually described as risk-free interest. The price so determined is the most basic price that an investor is willing to pay if not risk is involved. Risk-free assets, then, are securities of which the future rates of return are known with certainty. An exceptional degree of confidence in the issuer of the security brings about this certainty. Risk-free assets are normally in the fixed income securities (capital markets investment category or in the liquid money market instruments such as treasury bills, category. This study attempts to determine whether the risk-free rates used by treasury managers and traders in South Africa to formulate their bond yield curves and which are used in valuation models, may be deemed risk-free. The study specifies certain criteria that an asset must satisfy in order to be used as a risk-free asset. Short term and long term South African instruments are compared to the US counterpart instruments, to gain an understanding of the South African instruments relative to the US ones. The behaviour of the risk-free instruments used in South Africa is also compared to the FTSE/JSE All Share Index and gold spot prices, which are perceived to be a risky asset classes. To gain some understanding of the behaviour of these instruments, analyses were done from different angles. The standard deviations of the daily percentage changes of the R157 were significantly lower than that of the ALSI and the gold spot price change. Compared to the ALSI and gold spot price, therefore, the R157 may be deemed a “low risk” instrument. The JIBAR was even less volatile that the R157. Interestingly, the US instruments were substantially more risky than the SA instruments over the analysis period. Also the JIBAR

  19. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Meeting MTM Eligibility Criteria Based on Star Ratings Compared with the Medicare Modernization Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Christina A; Wang, Junling; Qiao, Yanru; Shih, Ya-Chen Tina; Wan, Jim Y; Kuhle, Julie; Dagogo-Jack, Samuel; Cushman, William C; Chisholm-Burns, Marie

    2018-02-01

    Previous research found racial and ethnic disparities in meeting medication therapy management (MTM) eligibility criteria implemented by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in accordance with the Medicare Modernization Act (MMA). To examine whether alternative MTM eligibility criteria based on the CMS Part D star ratings quality evaluation system can reduce racial and ethnic disparities. This study analyzed the Beneficiary Summary File and claims files for Medicare beneficiaries linked to the Area Health Resource File. Three million Medicare beneficiaries with continuous Parts A, B, and D enrollment in 2012-2013 were included. Proposed star ratings criteria included 9 existing medication safety and adherence measures developed mostly by the Pharmacy Quality Alliance. Logistic regression and the Blinder-Oaxaca approach were used to test disparities in meeting MMA and star ratings eligibility criteria across racial and ethnic groups. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine whether there was a disparity reduction by comparing individuals who were MTM-eligible under MMA but not under star ratings criteria and those who were MTM-eligible under star ratings criteria but not under the MMA. Concerning MMA-based MTM criteria, main and sensitivity analyses were performed to represent the entire range of the MMA eligibility thresholds reported by plans in 2009, 2013, and proposed by CMS in 2015. Regarding star ratings criteria, meeting any 1 of the 9 measures was examined as the main analysis, and various measure combinations were examined as the sensitivity analyses. In the main analysis, adjusted odds ratios for non-Hispanic blacks (backs) and Hispanics to non-Hispanic whites (whites) were 1.394 (95% CI = 1.375-1.414) and 1.197 (95% CI = 1.176-1.218), respectively, under star ratings. Blacks were 39.4% and Hispanics were 19.7% more likely to be MTM-eligible than whites. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to be MTM-eligible than whites in some

  20. DETERMINATION OF PROTEIN CATABOLIC RATE IN PATIENTS ON CHRONIC INTERMITTENT HEMODIALYSIS - UREA OUTPUT MEASUREMENTS COMPARED WITH DIETARY-PROTEIN INTAKE AND WITH CALCULATION OF UREA GENERATION RATE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGEMAN, CA; HUISMAN, RM; DEROUW, B; JOOSTEMA, A; DEJONG, PE

    We assessed the agreement between different methods of determining protein catabolic rate (PCR) in hemodialysis patients and the possible influence of postdialysis urea rebound and the length of the interdialytic interval on the PCR determination. Protein catabolic rate derived from measured total

  1. Comparing Cultural Differences in Two Quality Measures in Chinese Kindergartens: The Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised and the Kindergarten Quality Rating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bi Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the degrees of congruence between two early childhood evaluation systems on various quality concepts: the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ECERS-R) and Zhejiang's Kindergarten Quality Rating System (KQRS). Analysis of variance and post hoc least significant difference tests were employed to show the extent to…

  2. Sleep-Wake Differences in Relative Regional Cerebral Metabolic Rate for Glucose among Patients with Insomnia Compared with Good Sleepers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Daniel B.; Karim, Helmet T.; Soehner, Adriane M.; Hasler, Brant P.; Wilckens, Kristine A.; James, Jeffrey A.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Price, Julie C.; Rosario, Bedda L.; Kupfer, David J.; Germain, Anne; Hall, Martica H.; Franzen, Peter L.; Nofzinger, Eric A.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The neurobiological mechanisms of insomnia may involve altered patterns of activation across sleep-wake states in brain regions associated with cognition, self-referential processes, affect, and sleep-wake promotion. The objective of this study was to compare relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) in these brain regions across wake and nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep states in patients with primary insomnia (PI) and good sleeper controls (GS). Methods: Participants included 44 PI and 40 GS matched for age (mean = 37 y old, range 21–60), sex, and race. We conducted [18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography scans in PI and GS during both morning wakefulness and NREM sleep at night. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to test for group (PI vs. GS) by state (wake vs. NREM sleep) interactions in relative rCMRglc. Results: Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc were found in the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior/superior parietal lobules, left lingual/fusiform/occipital gyri, and right lingual gyrus. All clusters were significant at Pcorrected sleep and wakefulness. Significant group-by-state interactions in relative rCMRglc suggest that insomnia is associated with impaired disengagement of brain regions involved in cognition (left frontoparietal), self-referential processes (precuneus/posterior cingulate), and affect (left middle frontal, fusiform/lingual gyri) during NREM sleep, or alternatively, to impaired engagement of these regions during wakefulness. Citation: Kay DB, Karim HT, Soehner AM, Hasler BP, Wilckens KA, James JA, Aizenstein HJ, Price JC, Rosario BL, Kupfer DJ, Germain A, Hall MH, Franzen PL, Nofzinger EA, Buysse DJ. Sleep-wake differences in relative regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose among patients with insomnia compared with good sleepers. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1779–1794. PMID:27568812

  3. The logic of comparative life history studies for estimating key parameters, with a focus on natural mortality rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenig, John M; Then, Amy Y.-H.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Hall, Norman G.; Hewitt, David A.; Hesp, Sybrand A.

    2016-01-01

    There are a number of key parameters in population dynamics that are difficult to estimate, such as natural mortality rate, intrinsic rate of population growth, and stock-recruitment relationships. Often, these parameters of a stock are, or can be, estimated indirectly on the basis of comparative life history studies. That is, the relationship between a difficult to estimate parameter and life history correlates is examined over a wide variety of species in order to develop predictive equations. The form of these equations may be derived from life history theory or simply be suggested by exploratory data analysis. Similarly, population characteristics such as potential yield can be estimated by making use of a relationship between the population parameter and bio-chemico–physical characteristics of the ecosystem. Surprisingly, little work has been done to evaluate how well these indirect estimators work and, in fact, there is little guidance on how to conduct comparative life history studies and how to evaluate them. We consider five issues arising in such studies: (i) the parameters of interest may be ill-defined idealizations of the real world, (ii) true values of the parameters are not known for any species, (iii) selecting data based on the quality of the estimates can introduce a host of problems, (iv) the estimates that are available for comparison constitute a non-random sample of species from an ill-defined population of species of interest, and (v) the hierarchical nature of the data (e.g. stocks within species within genera within families, etc., with multiple observations at each level) warrants consideration. We discuss how these issues can be handled and how they shape the kinds of questions that can be asked of a database of life history studies.

  4. Underdiagnosis and Lower Rates of Office Visits for Overweight/Obese Pediatric Patients in Rural Compared with Urban Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SanGiovanni, Christine; McElligott, James; Morella, Kristen; Basco, William

    2017-07-01

    This study compared the number of children enrolled in Medicaid in rural and urban areas of South Carolina with an overweight/obesity diagnosis and the mean rates of office visits with overweight/obesity diagnosed. Medicaid claims data from 2012 for children in three South Carolina counties, categorized as urban, rural high resource, and rural low resource, were used to identify those who had been diagnosed as being overweight/obese during any encounter. Logistic and Poisson regressions were performed to predict whether overweight/obese children in each county would receive an overweight/obesity visit diagnosis and to calculate the mean rate of total office visits with an overweight/obesity diagnosis in each county. A total of 1233 children enrolled in Medicaid were diagnosed as being overweight/obese at any encounter in the designated counties. Well visits with overweight/obesity diagnosed varied significantly, with 42.6%, 28%, and 11% in urban, rural high-resource counties, and rural low-resource counties, respectively ( P overweight/obese at a well visit. All of the children had a low number of total office visits with overweight/obesity diagnosed. When comparing the counties, urban children (1.22 visits per year) had more visits than rural low-resource children (0.75 visits per year, P Overweight/obesity is underdiagnosed in rural children enrolled in Medicaid in South Carolina, which affects the number of children who receive help to manage their weight. Interventions to overcome barriers of diagnosis and management are necessary to address childhood obesity properly.

  5. Comparing sensitivity and count rate performance of small-bore DOI-PET scanners by computer simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Hisashi; Yamaya, Taiga; Murayama, Hideo; Kitamura, Keishi; Hasegawa, Tomoyuki; Suga, Mikio

    2006-01-01

    In the development of a dedicated small-bore DOI-PET scanner for small animals (jPET-RD), we performed Monte Carlo simulations using the GATE based on Geant4 and investigated the influence of the proximity of the detectors to the target object on the sensitivity and count rate performance. The jPET-RD is based on a large-size depth-of-interaction (DOI) block detector that consists of a 4-layered array of 32 x 32 LSO crystals (1.4 mm x 1.4 mm x 4.5 mm) and a 256-ch flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube. In this work, three detector geometries were simulated: two rings of six detector blocks arranged in a hexagonal pattern (FOV 85 mm in diameter) and four detector blocks arranged in a tetragonal pattern (FOV 49 mm in diameter) and in an overlapped tetragonal pattern (FOV 38 mm in diameter). The simulation results showed that the smaller bore geometry can provide higher sensitivity because of its larger solid angle. Although it clearly affected the noise equivalent count rate (NECR) due to its high dead-time, parallel readout with appropriate anode segmentation improved the NECR at 20 MBq by a factor of 1.1 to 1.4 compared with the case of 256-ch anodes read out by one front-end circuit. (author)

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about your thyroid’s size, shape, position and function that is often unattainable using other imaging procedures. ... thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... When radiotracer is taken by mouth, in either liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up ... radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. It is a measurement of thyroid function, but does ... they offer the potential to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ... small hand-held device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... its radioactivity over time. It may also pass out of your body through your urine or stool ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... procedures within the last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you ... a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a ...

  20. Does video-assisted mediastinoscopy offer lower false-negative rates for subcarinal lymph nodes compared with standard cervical mediastinoscopy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citak, Necati; Buyukkale, Songul; Kok, Abdulaziz; Celikten, Alper; Metin, Muzaffer; Sayar, Adnan; Gurses, Atilla

    2014-10-01

    Theoretically, video-assisted mediastinoscopy (VAM) offers improved staging of subcarinal lymph nodes (LNs) compared with standard cervical mediastinoscopy (SCM). Materials and Between 2006 and 2011, 553 patients (SCM, n = 293; VAM, n = 260) with non-small cell lung carcinoma who underwent mediastinoscopy were investigated. Mediastinoscopy was performed only in select patients based on computed tomography (CT) or positron emission tomography CT scans in our center. The mean number of LNs and stations sampled per case was significantly higher with VAM (n = 7.65 ± 1.68 and n = 4.22 ± 0.83) than with SCM (n = 6.91 ± 1.65 and 3.92 ± 86.4; p < 0.001). The percentage of patients sampled in station 7 was significantly higher with VAM (98.8%) than with SCM (93.8%; p = 0.002). Mediastinal LN metastasis was observed in 114 patients by mediastinoscopy. The remaining 439 patients (203 patients in VAM and 236 in SCM) underwent thoracotomy and systematic mediastinal lymphadenectomy (SML). SML showed mediastinal nodal disease in 23 patients (false-negative [FN] rate, 5.2%). The FN rate was higher with SCM (n = 14, 5.9%) than with VAM (n = 9, 4.4%), although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.490). Station 7 was the most predominant station for FN results (n = 15). The FN rate of station 7 was found to be higher with SCM (n = 9, 3.8%) than with the VAM group (n = 6, 2.9%; p = 0.623). FN were more common in mediastinoscopy of subcarinal LNs. VAM allows higher rates of sampling of mediastinal LN stations and station 7, although it did not improve staging of subcarinal LNs. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Comparative evolution history of SINEs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea: evidence for a high rate of SINE loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, A; Pélissier, T; Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Deragon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana belong to the Brassicaceae(Cruciferae) family and diverged 16 to 19 million years ago. Although the genome size of B. oleracea (approximately 600 million base pairs) is more than four times that of A. thaliana (approximately 130 million base pairs), their gene content is believed to be very similar with more than 85% sequence identity in the coding region. Therefore, this important difference in genome size is likely to reflect a different rate of non-coding DNA accumulation. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a major fraction of non-coding DNA in plant species. A different rate in TE accumulation between two closely related species can result in significant genome size variations in a short evolutionary period. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retroposons that have invaded the genome of most eukaryote species. Several SINE families are present in B. oleracea and A. thaliana and we found that two of them (called RathE1 and RathE2) are present in both species. In this study, the tempo of evolution of RathE1 and RathE2 SINE families in both species was compared. We observed that most B. oleracea RathE2 SINEs are "young" (close to the consensus sequence) and abundant while elements from this family are more degenerated and much less abundant in A. thaliana. However, the situation is different for the RathE1 SINE family for which the youngest elements are found in A. thaliana. Surprisingly, no SINE was found to occupy the same (orthologous) genomic locus in both species suggesting that either these SINE families were not amplified at a significant rate in the common ancestor of the two species or that older elements were lost and only the recent (lineage-specific) insertions remain. To test this latter hypothesis, loci containing a recently inserted SINE in the A. thaliana col-0 ecotype were selected and characterized in several other A. thaliana ecotypes. In addition to the expected SINE containing

  2. Examination of anonymous canine faecal samples provides data on endoparasite prevalence rates in dogs for comparative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinney, Barbara; Gottwald, Michaela; Moser, Jasmine; Reicher, Bianca; Schäfer, Bhavapriya Jasmin; Schaper, Roland; Joachim, Anja; Künzel, Frank

    2017-10-15

    Several endoparasites of dogs cannot only be detrimental to their primary host but might also represent a threat to human health because of their zoonotic potential. Due to their high dog population densities, metropolitan areas can be highly endemic for such parasites. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of endoparasites in dogs in the Austrian capital of Vienna by examining a representative number of canine faecal samples and to compare the prevalences with two neighbouring peri-urban and rural regions. In addition we analysed whether the density of dog populations and cleanliness of dog zones correlated with parasite occurrence. We collected 1001 anonymous faecal samples from 55 dog zones from all 23 districts of the federal state of Vienna, as well as 480 faecal samples from the Mödling district and Wolkersdorf with a peri-urban and rural character, respectively. Faeces were examined by flotation and by Baermann technique. Additionally we evaluated 292 Viennese, 102 peri-urban and 50 rural samples for Giardia and Cryptosporidium by GiardiaFASTest ® and CryptoFASTest ® . Samples from "clean" dog zones were compared to samples from "dirty" zones. The infection rate of Toxocara was surprisingly low, ranging from 0.6% to 1.9%. Trichuris was the most frequent helminth (1.8-7.5%) and Giardia the most frequent protozoan (4.0-10.8%). Ancylostomatidae, Crenosoma, Capillaria, Taeniidae, Cystoisospora and Sarcocystis were found in 1.8-2.2%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.9%, 0-0.6%, 0.3-3.1% and 0-0.6% of the samples, respectively. Samples from "dirty" dog zones in Vienna showed a significantly higher rate of parasites overall (p=0.003) and of Trichuris (p=0.048) compared to samples from "clean" dog zones. There were no statistically significant differences in densely vs. less densely populated areas of Vienna. Samples from the rural region of Wolkersdorf had significantly higher overall parasite, Trichuris and Cystoisospora prevalences than the peri-urban Mödling district and Vienna (p

  3. Factors influencing intracellular uptake and radiosensitization by 2-nitroimidazoles in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.M.; Gonzalez-Mendez, R.; Brown, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    In this study it is shown that the radiosensitization of hypoxic Chinese hamster ovary (HA-1) cells in vitro by misonidazole (MIS) and other 1-substituted 2-nitroimidazoles depends on the rate and extent of intracellular uptake of these radiosensitizers, which in turn is governed by their lipophilicity [expressed as the octanol:water partition coefficient (P)]. As the lipophilicity of the compounds decreased, the rate of drug entry into the cells was slower, and below P values of approximately 0.05, peak intracellular drug concentrations were found to be lower than that of MIS (P=0.43). In addition, the number of hydroxyl groups on the side chain of the nitroimidazole molecule influenced the uptake of drug into the cells. For compounds of similar P, but differing in the number of side-chain hydroxyl groups, the addition of a single hydroxyl group to the molecule decreased the amount of drug entering the cell by a factor of approximately 2. These compounds enter the cell by nonmediated passive diffusion since altering the energy (ATP) capacity of the cell by 2-deoxyglucose did not affect uptake. It is also shown that increases in temperature or decreases in pH can increase the intracellular uptake of MIS. For example, equal intracellular and extracellular concentrations (100% uptake) of MIS were obtained if cells were heated to 44-45 0 C for 15 min compared to 20-40% uptake at 37 0 C. Increases in MIS uptake by factors of 2 to 3 could be demonstrated within 30 min when cells were incubated in Hanks' balanced salt solution at pH between 6.0 and 6.3 without loss of cell viability. In addition, MIS uptake in aerobic cultured cells varied from 15 to 60% depending on the cell line and culure conditions used

  4. Phosphorus uptake by decomposing leaf detritus: effect of microbial biomass and activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulholland, P J; Elwood, J W; Newbold, J D; Webster, J R; Ferren, L A; Perkins, R E

    1984-12-01

    The dominant energy source in small woodland streams is the allochthonous input of leaves. Utilization of this energy source by stream biota establishes the patterns of secondary productivity and nutrient uptake in these ecosystems. Although leaf inputs support much of the production of macroinvertebrates and higher consumers in streams, microbes are the critical link between these organisms and the leaf resource, much of which is undigestible by higher organisms. A number of studies have indicated that stream macroinvertebrates preferentially select leaves with greater levels of microbial activity. Rates of microbial activity associated with decomposing leaves were shown to be dependent on the supply of P in one woodland stream. In other streams, leaf decomposition has been shown to be nutrient limited as well. Thus, as in many other ecosystems, maintenance of high levels of production in streams is dependent on retention and efficient recycling of nutrients. Uptake of P by microbes colonizing leaves is an important mechanism for nutrient retention in small woodland streams. In these systems, numerous debris collections efficiently retard downstream movement of particulate materials, especially decomposing leaves. Uptake of dissolved, easily transportable forms of P by microbes attached to decomposing leaves increases P retention in streams. The more rapid the rate of P uptake onto decomposing leaves for a given P supply, the shorter the P uptake length and the more times an atom of P is utilized within a given stream reach. In this study the authors examined the temporal patterns of P uptake during the early stages of leaf decomposition in streams. Patterns of P uptake were compared to patterns of other measurements of microbial activity to identify the effect of microbial succession or conditioning of leaves on P uptake. 22 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  5. The use of crowdsourcing for dietary self-monitoring: crowdsourced ratings of food pictures are comparable to ratings by trained observers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Helander, Elina E; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Perez-Macias, Jose Maria; Korhonen, Ilkka

    2015-04-01

    Crowdsourcing dietary ratings for food photographs, which uses the input of several users to provide feedback, has potential to assist with dietary self-monitoring. This study assessed how closely crowdsourced ratings of foods and beverages contained in 450 pictures from the Eatery mobile app as rated by peer users (fellow Eatery app users) (n = 5006 peers, mean 18.4 peer ratings/photo) using a simple 'healthiness' scale were related to the ratings of the same pictures by trained observers (raters). In addition, the foods and beverages present in each picture were categorized and the impact on the peer rating scale by food/beverage category was examined. Raters were trained to provide a 'healthiness' score using criteria from the 2010 US Dietary Guidelines. The average of all three raters' scores was highly correlated with the peer healthiness score for all photos (r = 0.88, pcrowdsourcing holds potential to provide basic feedback on overall diet quality to users utilizing a low burden approach. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Electric propulsion reliability: Statistical analysis of on-orbit anomalies and comparative analysis of electric versus chemical propulsion failure rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Joseph Homer; Geng, Fan; Ku, Michelle; Walker, Mitchell L. R.

    2017-10-01

    With a few hundred spacecraft launched to date with electric propulsion (EP), it is possible to conduct an epidemiological study of EP's on orbit reliability. The first objective of the present work was to undertake such a study and analyze EP's track record of on orbit anomalies and failures by different covariates. The second objective was to provide a comparative analysis of EP's failure rates with those of chemical propulsion. Satellite operators, manufacturers, and insurers will make reliability- and risk-informed decisions regarding the adoption and promotion of EP on board spacecraft. This work provides evidence-based support for such decisions. After a thorough data collection, 162 EP-equipped satellites launched between January 1997 and December 2015 were included in our dataset for analysis. Several statistical analyses were conducted, at the aggregate level and then with the data stratified by severity of the anomaly, by orbit type, and by EP technology. Mean Time To Anomaly (MTTA) and the distribution of the time to (minor/major) anomaly were investigated, as well as anomaly rates. The important findings in this work include the following: (1) Post-2005, EP's reliability has outperformed that of chemical propulsion; (2) Hall thrusters have robustly outperformed chemical propulsion, and they maintain a small but shrinking reliability advantage over gridded ion engines. Other results were also provided, for example the differentials in MTTA of minor and major anomalies for gridded ion engines and Hall thrusters. It was shown that: (3) Hall thrusters exhibit minor anomalies very early on orbit, which might be indicative of infant anomalies, and thus would benefit from better ground testing and acceptance procedures; (4) Strong evidence exists that EP anomalies (onset and likelihood) and orbit type are dependent, a dependence likely mediated by either the space environment or differences in thrusters duty cycles; (5) Gridded ion thrusters exhibit both

  7. Standardized uptake values of fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose: the value of different normalization procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schomburg, A.; Bender, H.; Reichel, C.; Sommer, T.; Ruhlmann, J.; Kozak, B.; Biersack, H.J.

    1996-01-01

    While the evident advantages of absolute metabolic rate determinations cannot be equalled by static image analysis of fluorine-18 fluorodexyglucose positron emission tomographic (FDG PET) studies, various algorithms for the normalization of static FDG uptake values have been proposed. This study was performed to compare different normalization procedures in terms of dependency on individual patient characteristics. Standardized FDG uptake values (SUVs) were calculated for liver and lung tissue in 126 patients studied with whole-body FDG PET. Uptake values were normalized for total body weight, lean body mass and body surface area. Ranges, means, medians, standard deviations and variation coefficients of these SUV parameters were calculated and their interdependency with total body weight, lean body mass, body surface area, patient height and blood sugar levels was calculated by means of regression analysis. Standardized FDG uptake values normalized for body surface area were clearly superior to SUV parameters normalized for total body weight or lean body mass. Variation and correlation coefficients of body surface area-normalized uptake values were minimal when compared with SUV parameters derived from the other normalization procedures. Normalization for total body weight resulted in uptake values still dependent on body weight and blood sugar levels, while normalization for lean body mass did not eliminate the positive correlation with lean body mass and patient height. It is concluded that normalization of FDG uptake values for body surface area is less dependent on the individual patient characteristics than are FDG uptake values normalized for other parameters, and therefore appears to be preferable for FDG PET studies in oncology. (orig.)

  8. Pregnancy rate of gonadotrophin therapy and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery in polycystic ovary syndrome resistant to clomiphene citrate: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghafarnegad M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a common cause of ovulation insufficiency and then infertility. Therapeutic options to induce ovulation in anovulatory PCOS patients are clomiphene citrate, metformin, tamoxifen, dopamine agonists (bromocriptin, Gonadotrophin and laparoscopic ovarian electrocautery (LOE. Gonadotrophin and LOE are important options in anovulatory clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS. Literature data regarding compare of the efficacy of these two treatments are few. Therefore we aimed to study the pregnancy rates of these treatments in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS."n"nMethods: A randomized clinical trial study was carried out in infertile clomiphene citrate-resistant patients with PCOS, referred to infertility clinic of Mirza Koochackhan Hospital of Tehran University of Medical Science in Tehran, Iran, between 2003 and 2008."n"nResults: A total of 100 patients women were randomly allocated in two groups. There were no differences in age and pimary and secondary infertility duration. In LOE treatment group, eight cases (16% were pregnant and all delivered at term. in gonadotrophin treatment 14 cases (28% were pregnant, 10 cases (20% delivered at term

  9. Uptake, absorption efficiency and elimination of DDT in marine phytoplankton, copepods and fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xinhong; Wang Wenxiong

    2005-01-01

    Uptake, absorption efficiency and elimination of DDT were measured in marine phytoplankton, copepods (Acartia erythraea) and fish (mangrove snappers Lutjanus argentimaculatus). The uptake rate constant of DDT from water decreased with increasing trophic level. The dietary absorption efficiency (AE) of DDT was 10-29% in copepods and 72-99% in fish. Food concentration did not significantly affect the AEs of DDT, but the AEs varied considerably among the different food diets. The elimination rate constants of DDT by the copepods were comparable following uptake from the diet and from the water. Elimination of DDT from the fish was exceedingly low. Both aqueous and dietary uptake are equally important for DDT accumulation in the copepods. In fish, dissolved exposure is a more significant route than intake from the diet. The predicted trophic transfer factors in the copepods and the fish are consistent with the field measurements in marine zooplankton and fish. -Biomagnification and exposure of DDT in a marine food chain is demonstrated by measurements of uptake and elimination rates and kinetic modeling

  10. Implications of abnormal right ventricular thallium uptake in acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestico, P.F.; Hakki, A.H.; Felsher, J.; Heo, J.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    The correlates of abnormal right ventricular (RV) thallium uptake were examined in 116 patients with documented acute myocardial infarction (AMI) who underwent predischarge thallium-201 scintigraphy at rest, radionuclide angiography and 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiography. The patients were separated into 2 groups: patients group 1 (n = 31) had increased RV thallium uptake and those in group 2 (n = 85) had no such uptake. The 2 groups were comparable in age, type and site of AMI, peak creatine kinase level, systolic blood pressure and heart rate. However, compared with group 2, group 1 had a lower mean left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (33 +/- 15% vs 39 +/- 14%, p less than 0.05), higher prevalence of increased lung thallium uptake (45% vs 22%, p less than 0.02), more extensive LV perfusion defects (4.4 +/- 2.9 vs 3.0 +/- 3.0 segments, p less than 0.03) and more complex ventricular arrhythmias (55% vs 35%, p less than 0.05). At a mean follow-up of 6 months, 17 patients (8 in group 1 and 9 in group 2) died from cardiac causes. Actuarial life-table analysis showed that the survival rate was better in group 2 than in group 1 (Mantel-Cox statistics = 4.62, p = 0.03). Thus, patients with AMI and abnormal RV thallium uptake have worse LV function, more complex ventricular arrhythmias and worse prognosis

  11. Comparative response of dogs and monkeys to sublethal acute and continuous low dose-rate gamma-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, J.F.; Holland, L.M.; Johnson, O.S.; LaBauve, P.M.; London, J.E.; Prine, J.R.; Vigil, E.A.

    1977-02-01

    Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and dogs (beagle) were given thirteen 100-rad gamma-ray doses at 28-day intervals. The comparative response (injury and recovery) of the hematopoietic system of the two species was observed at 7-day intervals during the exposure regime. At 84 days after the thirteenth gamma-ray dose, the 1300-rad conditioned and control dogs and monkeys were challenged continuously with 35 R/day until death to determine the amount of radiation-induced injury remaining in conditioned animals as a reduction in mean survival time. Dogs (50 percent) and monkeys (8 percent) died from injury incurred during the conditioning exposures. Thus, the comparative response of dogs and monkeys to dose protraction by acute dose fractionation was similar to what might be expected from a single acute dose. Mean survival times for nonconditioned dogs and monkeys during continuous exposure at 35 R/day were the same (approximately 1400 h). Thus, hematopoietic response of the two species by this method of dose protraction was not significantly different. Mean survival times of conditioned dogs and monkeys during the continuous 35 R/day gamma-ray challenge exposure were greater than for their control counterparts. Thus, the long-term radiation-induced injury was not measurable by this method. Conditioning doses of more than four times the acute LD 50 - 30 in dogs and approximately two times that of monkeys served only to increase both mean survival time and variance in a gamma-ray stress environment with a dose rate of 35 R/day

  12. Heart Rate Variability in Obstetricians Working 14-Hour Call Compared to 24-Hour Call in Labour and Delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Robin H; Yoon, Eugene; Murphy, Kellie E; Windrim, Rory; Farrugia, M Michéle

    2017-12-01

    Obstetricians have stressful and demanding jobs that may impact their health. A physiological measurement of cardiac function which varies with stress is heart rate variability (HRV). By measuring the cyclic variations in R-R intervals, or beat-to-beat differences, HRV reflects the continuous interplay of the controlling forces in the autonomic nervous system. Studies have shown HRV to be reduced during periods of work-induced stress, including 24-hour shifts. Our study aimed to determine if there was a correlation between length of shift worked and HRV. We hypothesised that working for a full 24-hour period is more stressful than a shorter, nighttime-only period, and HRV analyses were used to measure this objectively. Obstetricians wore an HRV monitor for 24 hours during both a regular day followed by a 14-hour night shift and a continuous 24-hour shift in labour and delivery. The 24-hour samples were analysed using standard HRV measurements. HRV measurements obtained from each physician were then compared according to shift type, with each physician acting as his or her own comparator. There were no statistically significant differences in the most important measures of HRV between 24-hour periods which included either a 14-hour overnight shift or a continuous 24-hour shift on labour and delivery. We found no significant differences in key HRV measures in obstetricians working 14 hours versus 24 hours in labour and delivery. An anecdotal increase in physician awareness of his/her own health related to working conditions was noted during the study. Future studies should attempt to control for the hours prior to a night shift, assess associated endocrine variations, and focus upon HRV in the post-shift period. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Uptake of rare earth elements by dryopteris erythrosora (autumn fern)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozaki, Takuo; Enomoto, Shuichi

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of uptake of rare earth elements (REEs) were investigated, particularly those by REE accumulator species (autumn fern). Rare earth elements are practically insoluble under natural conditions, suggesting some unknown mechanisms in REE accumulator species. In the present investigation, two notable phenomena were observed. (1) Concerning the ionic-radius dependence of REE uptake by leaves, nonaccumulator species showed an extremely high uptake for Y compared with the adjacent-ionic-radius REEs in the multitracer, while accumulator species showed no anomaly. (2) REE uptake by autumn fern was influenced by the addition of chelating chemical reagents in the uptake solution, while no effect was observed for nonaccumulator species. (author)

  14. Visualising variation in mortality rates across the life course and by sex, USA and comparator states, 1933-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbloemen, Laura; Dorling, Danny; Minton, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Previous research showed that younger adult males in the USA have, since the 1950s, died at a faster rate than females of the same age. In this paper, we quantify this difference, and explore possible explanations for the differences at different ages and in different years. Using data from the Human Mortality Database (HMD), the number of additional male deaths per 10 000 female deaths was calculated for each year from 1933 to 2010, and for each year of age from 0 to 60 years, for the USA, and a number of other countries for comparison. The data were explored visually using shaded contour plots. Gender differences in excess mortality have increased. Coming of age (between the ages of 15 and 25 years of age) is especially perilous for men relative to women now compared with the past in the USA; the visualisations highlight this change as important. Sex differences in mortality risks at various ages are not static. While women may today have an advantage when it comes to life expectancy, in the USA, this has greatly increased since the 1930s. Just as young adulthood for women has been made safer through safer antenatal and childbirth practices, changes in public policy can make the social environment safer for men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Comparable cortisol, heart rate and milk let-down in nurse sows and non-nurse sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdi, C.; Moustsen, V. A.; Oxholm, L. C.

    2017-01-01

    Increasing litter size in hyperprolific sows has led to the need for management systems for surplus piglets, one of which is the use of nurse sows. The aim of this study was to investigate physiological changes in salivary cortisol, heart rate and number of milk let-downs in nurse sows compared...... to non-nurse sows. Sows were divided into three treatments: 1) control (non-nurse) sows nursed their own piglets until weaning at 26 days of age; 2) nurse1 sows had their own piglets removed and replaced with newborn piglets (between 6−24 h old) at Day 7, these were weaned at Day 33 of the sow......'s lactation period and 3) nurse2 sows weaned their own piglets at Day 21 and received a litter of 7 day old piglets from a nurse1 sow. These new piglets were weaned at Day 40 of the nurse2 sow's lactation period. Saliva samples were collected for cortisol analyses and the sows were fitted with pulse belts...

  16. Comparing different technologies for wireless real-time dose rate monitoring for on- and offsite emergency management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dielmann, R.

    2004-01-01

    At a nuclear disaster the efficiency of emergency management on-site as well as off-site is closely connected to the quality and reliability of the actual status information. Reliability and short response time of the data communication path are important in the early phase. In order to protect investment and minimize TCO (Total Cost of Ownership) the dose rate measurement systems should also be adequate for the later phase emergency