WorldWideScience

Sample records for upper tropospheric outflow

  1. Continental outflow from the US to the upper troposphere over the North Atlantic during the NASA INTEX-NA Airborne Campaign

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    S. Y. Kim

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A case of continental outflow from the United States (US was examined using airborne measurements from NASA DC-8 flight 13 during the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment – North America (INTEX-NA. Mixing ratios of methane (CH4 and carbon monoxide (CO at 8–11 km altitude over the North Atlantic were elevated to 1843 ppbv and 134 ppbv respectively, while those of carbon dioxide (CO2 and carbonyl sulfide (COS were reduced to 372.4 ppmv and 411 pptv respectively. In this region, urban and industrial influences were evidenced by elevated mixing ratios and good linear relationships between urban and industrial tracers compared to North Atlantic background air. Moreover, low mixing ratios and a good correlation between COS and CO2 showed a fingerprint of terrestrial uptake and minimal dilution during rapid transport over a 1–2 day time period. Analysis of synoptic conditions, backward trajectories, and photochemical aging estimates based on C3H8/C2H6 strongly suggested that elevated anthropogenic tracers in the upper troposphere of the flight region were the result of transport via convection and warm conveyor belt (WCB uplifting of boundary layer air over the southeastern US. This mechanism is supported by the similar slope values of linear correlations between long-lived (months anthropogenic tracers (e.g., C2Cl4 and CHCl3 from the flight region and the planetary boundary layer in the southeastern US. In addition, the aircraft measurements suggest that outflow from the US augmented the entire tropospheric column at mid-latitudes over the North Atlantic. Overall, the flight 13 data demonstrate a pervasive impact of US anthropogenic emissions on the troposphere over the North Atlantic.

  2. In situ measurements of tropical cloud properties in the West African Monsoon: upper tropospheric ice clouds, Mesoscale Convective System outflow, and subvisual cirrus

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    W. Frey

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In situ measurements of ice crystal size distributions in tropical upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS clouds were performed during the SCOUT-AMMA campaign over West Africa in August 2006. The cloud properties were measured with a Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe (FSSP-100 and a Cloud Imaging Probe (CIP operated aboard the Russian high altitude research aircraft M-55 Geophysica with the mission base in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. A total of 117 ice particle size distributions were obtained from the measurements in the vicinity of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS. Two to four modal lognormal size distributions were fitted to the average size distributions for different potential temperature bins. The measurements showed proportionately more large ice particles compared to former measurements above maritime regions. With the help of trace gas measurements of NO, NOy, CO2, CO, and O3 and satellite images, clouds in young and aged MCS outflow were identified. These events were observed at altitudes of 11.0 km to 14.2 km corresponding to potential temperature levels of 346 K to 356 K. In a young outflow from a developing MCS ice crystal number concentrations of up to (8.3 ± 1.6 cm−3 and rimed ice particles with maximum dimensions exceeding 1.5 mm were found. A maximum ice water content of 0.05 g m−3 was observed and an effective radius of about 90 μm. In contrast the aged outflow events were more diluted and showed a maximum number concentration of 0.03 cm−3, an ice water content of 2.3 × 10−4 g m−3, an effective radius of about 18 μm, while the largest particles had a maximum dimension of 61 μm.

    Close to the tropopause subvisual cirrus were encountered four times at altitudes of 15 km to 16.4 km. The mean ice particle number concentration of these encounters was 0.01 cm−3 with maximum particle sizes of 130

  3. Methyl chloride in the upper troposphere observed by the CARIBIC passenger aircraft observatory: Large-scale distributions and Asian summer monsoon outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umezawa, T.; Baker, A. K.; Oram, D.; Sauvage, C.; O'Sullivan, D.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Montzka, S. A.; Zahn, A.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A. M.

    2014-05-01

    We present spatial and temporal variations of methyl chloride (CH3Cl) in the upper troposphere (UT) observed mainly by the Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) passenger aircraft for the years 2005-2011. The CH3Cl mixing ratio in the UT over Europe was higher than that observed at a European surface baseline station throughout the year, indicative of a persistent positive vertical gradient at Northern Hemisphere midlatitudes. A series of flights over Africa and South Asia show that CH3Cl mixing ratios increase toward tropical latitudes, and the observed UT CH3Cl level over these two regions and the Atlantic was higher than that measured at remote surface sites. Strong emissions of CH3Cl in the tropics combined with meridional air transport through the UT may explain such vertical and latitudinal gradients. Comparisons with carbon monoxide (CO) data indicate that noncombustion sources in the tropics dominantly contribute to forming the latitudinal gradient of CH3Cl in the UT. We also observed elevated mixing ratios of CH3Cl and CO in air influenced by biomass burning in South America and Africa, and the enhancement ratios derived for CH3Cl to CO in those regions agree with previous observations. In contrast, correlations indicate a high CH3Cl to CO ratio of 2.9 ± 0.5 ppt ppb-1 in the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone and domestic biofuel emissions in South Asia are inferred to be responsible. We estimated the CH3Cl emission in South Asia to be 134 ± 23 Gg Cl yr-1, which is higher than a previous estimate due to the higher CH3Cl to CO ratio observed in this study.

  4. New Particle Formation in the Mid-Latitude Upper Troposphere

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    Axisa, Duncan

    Primary aerosol production due to new particle formation (NPF) in the upper troposphere and the impact that this might have on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration can be of sufficient magnitude to contribute to the uncertainty in radiative forcing. This uncertainty affects our ability to estimate how sensitive the climate is to greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, new particle formation must be accurately defined, parametrized and accounted for in models. This research involved the deployment of instruments, data analysis and interpretation of particle formation events during the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) campaign. The approach combined field measurements and observations with extensive data analysis and modeling to study the process of new particle formation and growth to CCN active sizes. Simultaneous measurements of O3, CO, ultrafine aerosol particles and surface area from a high-altitude research aircraft were used to study tropospheric-stratospheric mixing as well as the frequency and location of NPF. It was found that the upper troposphere was an active region in the production of new particles by gas-to-particle conversion, that nucleation was triggered by convective clouds and mixing processes, and that NPF occurred in regions with high relative humidity and low surface area. In certain cases, mesoscale and synoptic features enhanced mixing and facilitated the formation of new particles in the northern mid-latitudes. A modeling study of particle growth and CCN formation was done based on measured aerosol size distributions and modeled growth. The results indicate that when SO2 is of sufficient concentration NPF is a significant source of potential CCN in the upper troposphere. In conditions where convective cloud outflow eject high concentrations of SO2, a large number of new particles can form especially in the instance when the preexisting surface area is low. The fast growth of nucleated clusters produces a

  5. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

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    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  6. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

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    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  7. Stratospheric ozone transboundary transport to upper troposphere North Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ture, K

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available will identify the causes and sources of MOZAIC ozone enhancements at upper tropospheric North Africa (20-350 N). In addition the paper will address the modes of transport of ozone rich airmass sampled by MOZAIC at mid latitude and North Africa....

  8. Comparisons of Upper Tropospheric Humidity Retrievals from TOVS and METEOSAT

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    Escoffier, C.; Bates, J.; Chedin, A.; Rossow, W. B.; Schmetz, J.

    1999-01-01

    Two different methods for retrieving Upper Tropospheric Humidities (UTH) from the TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) instruments aboard NOAA polar orbiting satellites are presented and compared. The first one, from the Environmental Technology Laboratory, computed by J. Bates and D. Jackson (hereafter BJ method), estimates UTH from a simplified radiative transfer analysis of the upper tropospheric infrared water vapor channel at wavelength measured by HIRS (6.3 micrometer). The second one results from a neural network analysis of the TOVS (HIRS and MSU) data developed at, the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (hereafter the 3I (Improved Initialization Inversion) method). Although the two methods give very similar retrievals in temperate regions (30-60 N and S), an absolute bias up to 16% appears in the convective zone of the tropics. The two datasets have also been compared with UTH retrievals from infrared radiance measurements in the 6.3 micrometer channel from the geostationary satellite METEOSAT (hereafter MET method). The METEOSAT retrievals are systematically drier than the TOVS-based results by an absolute bias between 5 and 25%. Despite the biases, the spatial and temporal correlations are very good. The purpose of this study is to explain the deviations observed between the three datasets. The sensitivity of UTH to air temperature and humidity profiles is analysed as are the clouds effects. Overall, the comparison of the three retrievals gives an assessment of the current uncertainties in water vapor amounts in the upper troposphere as determined from NOAA and METEOSAT satellites.

  9. The Impact of Upper Tropospheric Humidity from Microwave Limb Sounder on the Midlatitude Greenhouse Effect

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    Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.

  10. Radon-222 in boundary layer and free tropospheric continental outflow events at three ACE-Asia sites

    OpenAIRE

    Zahorowski, Wlodek; Chambers, Scott; Wang, Tao; Kang, Chang-Hee; Uno, Itsushi; Poon, Steven; Oh, Sung-Nam; Werczynski, Sylvester; Kim, Jiyoung; Henderson-Sellers, Ann

    2011-01-01

    A 1-year record of hourly atmospheric radon-222 concentration observations at three ACE-Asia network sites—Hok Tsui (Hong Kong), Gosan (Jeju Island) and Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii)—is presented and discussed. The observations include the spring 2001 ACE-Asia intensive operation period. Site locations were chosen for the experimental characterization of both boundary layer (Hok Tsui, Gosan) and free tropospheric (Mauna Loa) continental outflow to the Pacific. A significant seasonal variabil...

  11. Acetylene C2H 2 retrievals from MIPAS data and regions of enhanced upper tropospheric concentrations in August 2003

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    V. P. Kanawade

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Acetylene (C2H2 volume mixing ratios (VMRs have been successfully retrieved from the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS Level 1B radiances during August 2003, providing the first global map of such data and ratios to CO in the literature. The data presented here contain most information between 300 hPa and 100 hPa with systematic errors less than 10% at the upper levels. Random errors per point are less than 15% at lower levels and are closer to 30% at 100 hPa. Global distributions of the C2H2 and C2H2/CO ratio confirm significant features associated with both the Asian monsoon anticyclone and biomass burning for this important hydrocarbon in a characteristic summer month (August 2003, showing tight correlations regionally, particularly at lower to medium values, but globally emphasising the differences between sources and lifetimes of CO and C2H2. The correlations are seen to be particularly disturbed in the regions of highest C2H2 concentrations, indicating variability in the surface emissions or fast processing. A strong isolation of C2H2 within the Asian monsoon anticyclone is observed, evidencing convective transport into the upper troposphere, horizontal advection within the anticyclone at 200 hPa, distinct gradients at the westward edge of the vortex and formation of a secondary dynamical feature from the eastward extension of the anticyclone outflow over the Asian Pacific. Ratios of C2H2/CO are consistent with the evidence from the cross-sections that the C2H2 is uplifted rapidly in convection. Observations are presented of enhanced C2H2 associated with the injection from biomass burning into the upper troposphere and the outflow from Africa at 200 hPa into both the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. In the biomass burning regions, C2H2 and CO are well correlated, but the uplift is less marked and peaks at lower altitudes compared to the strong effects observed in the Asian monsoon anticyclone. Ratios of C2H2/CO

  12. Observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS)

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    Tereszchuk, K. A.; Moore, D. P.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Park, M.; Remedios, J. J.; Randel, W. J.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-01-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3CO·O2NO2, abbreviated as PAN) is a trace molecular species present in the troposphere and lower stratosphere due primarily to pollution from fuel combustion and the pyrogenic outflows from biomass burning. In the lower troposphere, PAN has a relatively short life-time and is principally destroyed within a few hours through thermolysis, but it can act as a reservoir and carrier of NOx in the colder temperatures of the upper troposphere where UV photolysis becomes the dominant loss mechanism. Pyroconvective updrafts from large biomass burning events can inject PAN into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), providing a means for the long-range transport of NOx. Given the extended lifetimes at these higher altitudes, PAN is readily detectable via satellite remote sensing. A new PAN data product is now available for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) Version 3.0 data set. We report measurements of PAN in Boreal biomass burning plumes recorded during the Quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites (BORTAS) campaign. The retrieval method employed and errors analysis are described in full detail. The retrieved volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles are compared to coincident measurements made by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument on the European Space Agency (ESA) ENVIronmental SATellite (ENVISAT). Three ACE-FTS occultations containing measurements of Boreal biomass burning outflows, recorded during BORTAS, were identified as having coincident measurements with MIPAS. In each case, the MIPAS measurements demonstrated good agreement with the ACE-FTS VMR profiles for PAN. The ACE-FTS PAN data set is used to obtain zonal mean distributions of seasonal averages from ~5 to 20 km. A strong seasonality is clearly observed for PAN concentrations in the global UTLS. Since the

  13. Water vapour and ozone profiles in the midlatitude upper troposphere

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    G. Vaughan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an investigation of upper tropospheric humidity profiles measured with a standard radiosonde, the Vaisala RS80-A, and a commercial frost-point hygrometer, the Snow White. Modifications to the Snow White, to enable the mirror reflectivity and Peltier cooling current to be monitored during flight, were found to be necessary to determine when the instrument was functioning correctly; a further modification to prevent hydrometeors entering the inlet was also implemented. From 23 combined flights of an ozonesonde, radiosonde and Snow White between September 2001 and July 2002, clear agreement was found between the two humidity sensors, with a mean difference of <2% in relative humidity from 2 to 10km, and 2.2% between 10 and 13km. This agreement required a correction to the radiosonde humidity, as described by Miloshevich et al. (2001. Using this result, the dataset of 324 ozonesonde/RS80-A profiles measured from Aberystwyth between 1991 and 2002 was examined to derive statistics for the distribution of water vapour and ozone. Supersaturation with respect to ice was frequently seen at the higher levels - 24% of the time in winter between 8 and 10km. The fairly uniform distribution of relative humidity persisted to 120% in winter, but decreased rapidly above 100% in summer.

  14. Observational evidence for aerosols increasing upper tropospheric humidity

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    L. Riuttanen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol–cloud interactions are the largest source of uncertainty in the radiative forcing of the global climate. A phenomenon not included in the estimates of the total net forcing is the potential increase in upper tropospheric humidity (UTH by anthropogenic aerosols via changes in the microphysics of deep convection. Using remote sensing data over the ocean east of China in summer, we show that increased aerosol loads are associated with an UTH increase of 2.2 ± 1.5 in units of relative humidity. We show that humidification of aerosols or other meteorological covariation is very unlikely to be the cause of this result, indicating relevance for the global climate. In tropical moist air such an UTH increase leads to a regional radiative effect of 0.5 ± 0.4 W m−2. We conclude that the effect of aerosols on UTH should be included in future studies of anthropogenic climate change and climate sensitivity.

  15. Aqueous aerosol may build up large upper tropospheric ice supersaturation

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    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J.

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: ice supersaturation, upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, freezing of aqueous aerosol. Observations often reveal enhanced and persistent upper tropospheric (UT) ice supersaturation, Si up to 100%, independently of whether cirrus ice clouds are present or not (Krämer et al., 2009; Lawson et al., 2008). However, a water activity criterion (WAC) (Koop et al., 2000) does not allow the formation of Si > ~67% by the homogeneous freezing of aqueous droplets even at the lowest atmospheric temperature of ~185 K. For aqueous aerosol the WAC predicts the existence of a so called homogeneous ice nucleation threshold which, being expressed as Si, is between ~52 and 67% in the temperature range of ~220 - 185 K. The nature of the formation of large Si remains unclear. Since water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas it is important to know the nature of the accumulation and persistence of water vapor in the UT. We studied the freezing behavior of micrometer-scaled 3-, 4-, and 5-component droplets, which contain different weight fractions of H2O, H2SO4, HNO3, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)HSO4, NH4NO3, and (NH4)3H(SO4)2. The study was performed between 133 and 278 K at cooling rates of 3, 0.1, and 0.05 K/min using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (Bogdan and Molina, 2010). The cooling rates of 0.1 and 0.05 K/min (6 and 3 K/h) are similar to the smallest reported synoptic temperature change of ~2 K/h (Carslaw et al., 1998). Using the measured freezing temperature of ice, Ti, and the thermodynamic E-AIM model of the system of H+ - NH4+ - SO42-- NO3-- H2O (Clegg et al., 1998), we calculated the corresponding clear-sky Si which would be built up immediately prior to the formation of ice cirrus clouds by the homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosol of similar composition. We found that our calculated values of Si are both larger and smaller than the homogeneous ice nucleation threshold. For example, for the droplets of compositions of 15/10 and 20/10 wt % (NH4)3H(SO4)2/H2SO4, which

  16. Radon-222 in boundary layer and free tropospheric continental outflow events at three ACE-Asia sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahorowski, Wlodek; Chambers, Scott; Wang Tao

    2005-01-01

    A 1-year record of hourly atmospheric radon-222 concentration observations at three ACE-Asia network sites Hok Tsui (Hong Kong), Gosan (Jeju Island) and Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) is presented and discussed. The observations include the spring 2001 ACE-Asia intensive operation period. Site locations were chosen for the experimental characterization of both boundary layer (Hok Tsui, Gosan) and free tropospheric (Mauna Loa) continental outflow to the Pacific. A significant seasonal variability in background radon concentration is quantified at each site with the ratios of winter maximum to summer minimum background of 96, 15 and 3 for Hok Tsui, Gosan and Mauna Loa, respectively. Only during summer were background radon concentrations directly comparable with unperturbed marine values (20 mBq/m 3 ). The variability in radon signal was characterized at each site on diurnal to seasonal timescales. The seasonal variability in fetch regions for air masses experiencing the greatest and smallest terrestrial influence was characterized using 10-day back trajectories of air masses corresponding to radon concentrations higher (lower) than the 90th (10th) percentile value. The trajectory analyses for Hok Tsui and Gosan, as well as a direct analysis of the experimental results, further supports the previously postulated existence of a strong spatial heterogeneity in the radon source strength in East Asia. Back trajectories of free tropospheric air masses reaching Mauna Loa indicated source regions deep within the Asian continent primarily between 20 and 40 deg N. This fetch region is different from that influencing the Hok Tsui and Gosan sites. The radon concentration of air masses reaching Mauna Loa was shown to vary seasonally as well as with latitude of the predominant fetch region. Possible mechanisms of this phenomenon have been identified and include (a) seasonal variation in the radon source, (b) seasonal variation in the strength, frequency and/or efficiency of

  17. Aerosol characteristics and particle production in the upper troposphere over the Amazon Basin

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    Andreae, Meinrat O.; Afchine, Armin; Albrecht, Rachel; Amorim Holanda, Bruna; Artaxo, Paulo; Barbosa, Henrique M. J.; Borrmann, Stephan; Cecchini, Micael A.; Costa, Anja; Dollner, Maximilian; Fütterer, Daniel; Järvinen, Emma; Jurkat, Tina; Klimach, Thomas; Konemann, Tobias; Knote, Christoph; Krämer, Martina; Krisna, Trismono; Machado, Luiz A. T.; Mertes, Stephan; Minikin, Andreas; Pöhlker, Christopher; Pöhlker, Mira L.; Pöschl, Ulrich; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Sauer, Daniel; Schlager, Hans; Schnaiter, Martin; Schneider, Johannes; Schulz, Christiane; Spanu, Antonio; Sperling, Vinicius B.; Voigt, Christiane; Walser, Adrian; Wang, Jian; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Wendisch, Manfred; Ziereis, Helmut

    2018-01-01

    Airborne observations over the Amazon Basin showed high aerosol particle concentrations in the upper troposphere (UT) between 8 and 15 km altitude, with number densities (normalized to standard temperature and pressure) often exceeding those in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) by 1 or 2 orders of magnitude. The measurements were made during the German-Brazilian cooperative aircraft campaign ACRIDICON-CHUVA, where ACRIDICON stands for Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems and CHUVA is the acronym for Cloud Processes of the Main Precipitation Systems in Brazil: A Contribution to Cloud Resolving Modeling and to the GPM (global precipitation measurement), on the German High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO). The campaign took place in September-October 2014, with the objective of studying tropical deep convective clouds over the Amazon rainforest and their interactions with atmospheric trace gases, aerosol particles, and atmospheric radiation. Aerosol enhancements were observed consistently on all flights during which the UT was probed, using several aerosol metrics, including condensation nuclei (CN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentrations and chemical species mass concentrations. The UT particles differed sharply in their chemical composition and size distribution from those in the PBL, ruling out convective transport of combustion-derived particles from the boundary layer (BL) as a source. The air in the immediate outflow of deep convective clouds was depleted of aerosol particles, whereas strongly enhanced number concentrations of small particles ( 90 nm) particles in the UT, which consisted mostly of organic matter and nitrate and were very effective CCN. Our findings suggest a conceptual model, where production of new aerosol particles takes place in the continental UT from biogenic volatile organic material brought up by deep convection and converted to condensable

  18. Relationship between changes in the upper and lower tropospheric water vapor: A revisit

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    Yang, M.; Sun, D. Z.; Zhang, G. J.

    2017-12-01

    Upper tropospheric water vapor response to enhanced greenhouse gas forcing is as important as the lower tropospheric water vapor response in determining climate sensitivity. Early studies using older versions of climate models have suggested that the upper- and lower-troposphere water vapor changes are more strongly coupled in the climate models than in the observations. Here we reexamine this issue using a state-of-the-art climate model—the NCAR community model CAM5. Specifically, we have calculated the correlations between interannual variations of specific humidity in all levels of the troposphere with that at the surface in CAM5 and in the observations (as represented by the updated ERA-Interim and NCEP reanalysis). It is found that the previously noted biases in how strongly upper tropospheric water vapor and lower troposphere water vapor are linked still exist in CAM5—the change in the tropical averaged upper tropospheric water vapor is more strongly correlated with the change in the surface. However, this bias disappears in the averaged correlation obtained by averaging the point-by-point correlations over the tropics. The spatial pattern of the point-by-point correlations reveals that the better agreement between the model and the observations is related to the opposite model biases in different regions: the correlation is weaker in the model in the western Pacific, but stronger in the central and eastern Pacific. Further analysis of precipitation fields suggests that the weaker (stronger) coupling between tropospheric water vapor and surface moisture over western (central-eastern) Pacific in model is related to weaker (stronger) simulated convective activities in these regions. More specifically, during El Nino, the model has excessive deep convection in the central Pacific, but too littler deep convection in western Pacific. Implications of the results are discussed in the context of climate change as well as in the context of how to improve the model

  19. Hydrogen Radicals, Nitrogen Radicals, and the Production of O3 in the Upper Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, P. O.; Hanisco, T. F.; Jaegle, L.; Jacob, D. J.; Hintsa, E. J.; Lanzendorf, E. J.; Anderson, J. G.; Gao, R.-S.; Keim, E. R.; Donnelly, S. G.; hide

    1998-01-01

    The concentrations of the hydrogen radicals OH and HO2 in the middle and upper troposphere were measured simultaneously with those of NO, O3, CO, H2O, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and with the ultraviolet and visible radiation field. The data allow a direct examination of the processes that produce O3, in this region of the atmosphere. Comparison of the measured concentrations of OH and HO2 with calculations based on their production from water vapor, ozone, and methane demonstrate that these sources are insufficient to explain the observed radical concentrations in the upper troposphere. The photolysis of carbonyl and peroxide compounds transported to this region from the lower troposphere may provide the source of HO(x) required to sustain the measured abundances of these radical species. The mechanism by which NO affects the production of 03 is also illustrated by the measurements. In the upper tropospheric air masses sampled, the production rate for ozone (determined from the measured concentrations of HO2 and NO) is calculated to be about 1 part per billion by volume each day.This production rate is faster than previously thought and implies that anthropogenic activities that add NO to the upper troposphere, such as biomass burning and aviation, will lead to production of more 03 than expected.

  20. On the impact of aircraft emitted NO{sub x} on upper troposphere photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, A; Rohrer, F; Ehhalt, D H [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1998-12-31

    The enhanced nitrogen oxide concentrations influence the photochemical production of ozone as well as the steady state concentrations of hydroxyl radicals, OH, in the upper troposphere. That increase is small compared to the impact of NO{sub x} from fossil fuel combustion on boundary layer ozone. A simple quasi 2-D model was used for the latitude band 40 deg - 50 deg N to analyze the reasons for that. The model includes a simplified CH{sub 4} - CO chemistry and the salient sources of upper tropospheric NO{sub x}, namely lightning, stratospheric input, aircraft emissions and fast upward transport of surface emissions. It is shown that the maximum of net O{sub 3} production and OH concentrations occur at much lower NO{sub x} mixing ratios than in the lower troposphere. (author)

  1. On the impact of aircraft emitted NO{sub x} on upper troposphere photochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahner, A.; Rohrer, F.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    The enhanced nitrogen oxide concentrations influence the photochemical production of ozone as well as the steady state concentrations of hydroxyl radicals, OH, in the upper troposphere. That increase is small compared to the impact of NO{sub x} from fossil fuel combustion on boundary layer ozone. A simple quasi 2-D model was used for the latitude band 40 deg - 50 deg N to analyze the reasons for that. The model includes a simplified CH{sub 4} - CO chemistry and the salient sources of upper tropospheric NO{sub x}, namely lightning, stratospheric input, aircraft emissions and fast upward transport of surface emissions. It is shown that the maximum of net O{sub 3} production and OH concentrations occur at much lower NO{sub x} mixing ratios than in the lower troposphere. (author)

  2. Hydrogen Radicals, Nitrogen Radicals, and the Production of Ozone in the Middle and Upper Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T. P.

    1997-01-01

    The concentrations of hydrogen radicals, OH and HO2, in the middle and upper troposphere were measured simultaneously with those of NO, O3,CO, H20, CH4, non-methane hydrocarbons, and with the ultraviolet and visible radiation field.

  3. The role of chemistry in under-predictions of NO2 in the upper troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. H.; Pinder, R. W.; Goliff, W. S.; Stockwell, W. R.; Fahr, A.; Sarwar, G.; Hutzell, W. T.; Mathur, R.; Vizuete, W.; Cohen, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric models under-predict upper troposphere NO2 compared to satellite and aircraft observations. The upper tropospheric under-prediction of NO2 could be a function of emissions, transport, chemistry or some combination. Previous researchers have linked poor performance in the model to over-prediction of the OH and under-prediction of the HO2 by chemistry (Olson et al. 2006, Bertram et al. 2007). This study isolates upper tropospheric chemistry to evaluate the chemical contribution to NO2 under-predictions and to diagnose OH and HO2 discrepancies. We use a 0-dimensional time dependent model to evaluate seven chemical mechanisms. Because chamber data representing upper tropospheric conditions does not exist, we evaluate the predictions based against an observation-based aging model. Following Bertram et al (2007), we use the NOx:HNO3 ratio to categorize the chemical age of thousands of 10 second average observations between 8 and 10km. Measurements of 10 inorganics and 32 hydrocarbons are translated to model species for each of seven chemical mechanisms. We chose mechanisms ranging from condensed to semi-explicit. The seven mechanisms' design scopes range from urban to global scale. Results include simulations from Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART), Carbon Bond 05 (CB05), State Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC) 99, SAPRC 07, GEOS-Chem, Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism version 2, and the LEEDS Master Chemical Mechanism. Results from each chemical mechanism are compared to aircraft observations and to those obtained with other chemical mechanisms. Each mechanism is then further evaluated using integrated reaction rate analysis to identify sources of NO2 bias. We find that the largest contributors to the NO2 bias are over-predictions of PAN and HNO3. The formation of PAN is sensitive to the acetone photolysis rate. The conversion of NOx to HNO3 is most sensitive to hydroxyl radical concentrations. Hydroxyl

  4. Reanalysis comparisons of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric jets and multiple tropopauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Hegglin, Michaela I.; Lawrence, Zachary D.; Wargan, Krzysztof; Millán, Luis F.; Schwartz, Michael J.; Santee, Michelle L.; Lambert, Alyn; Pawson, Steven; Knosp, Brian W.; Fuller, Ryan A.; Daffer, William H.

    2017-09-01

    The representation of upper tropospheric-lower stratospheric (UTLS) jet and tropopause characteristics is compared in five modern high-resolution reanalyses for 1980 through 2014. Climatologies of upper tropospheric jet, subvortex jet (the lowermost part of the stratospheric vortex), and multiple tropopause frequency distributions in MERRA (Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications), ERA-I (ERA-Interim; the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, ECMWF, interim reanalysis), JRA-55 (the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis), and CFSR (the Climate Forecast System Reanalysis) are compared with those in MERRA-2. Differences between alternate products from individual reanalysis systems are assessed; in particular, a comparison of CFSR data on model and pressure levels highlights the importance of vertical grid spacing. Most of the differences in distributions of UTLS jets and multiple tropopauses are consistent with the differences in assimilation model grids and resolution - for example, ERA-I (with coarsest native horizontal resolution) typically shows a significant low bias in upper tropospheric jets with respect to MERRA-2, and JRA-55 (the Japanese 55-year Reanalysis) a more modest one, while CFSR (with finest native horizontal resolution) shows a high bias with respect to MERRA-2 in both upper tropospheric jets and multiple tropopauses. Vertical temperature structure and grid spacing are especially important for multiple tropopause characterizations. Substantial differences between MERRA and MERRA-2 are seen in mid- to high-latitude Southern Hemisphere (SH) winter upper tropospheric jets and multiple tropopauses as well as in the upper tropospheric jets associated with tropical circulations during the solstice seasons; some of the largest differences from the other reanalyses are seen in the same times and places. Very good qualitative agreement among the reanalyses is seen between the large-scale climatological features in UTLS jet and

  5. Transport of Formaldehyde to the Upper Troposphere In Deep Convective Storms During the 2012 DC3 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, A.; Weibring, P.; Richter, D.; Walega, J.; Olson, J. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Barth, M. C.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Bela, M. M.; Toon, O. B.; Blake, D. R.; Blake, N. J.; Luo, Z. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) campaign in the summer of 2012 provided an opportunity to study the impacts of deep convection on reactive and soluble precursors of ozone and HOx radicals, including CH2O, in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) over North America. Formaldehyde measurements were acquired in the inflow and outflow of numerous storms on the NASA DC-8 and NSF/NCAR GV-aircraft employing fast, sensitive, and accurate difference frequency generation infrared absorption spectrometers. Since our Fall 2013 AGU Meeting poster, we have developed an improved methodology based upon 3 independent approaches, to determine the amount of CH2O that is scavenged by deep convective storms. The first approach is based upon WRF-Chem model simulations, which provides greater confidence in the determination of CH2O scavenging efficiencies and allows the estimation of CH2O ice retention factors.The second approach is a modified mixing model employing 4 non-reactive passive tracers (n,i-butane, n,i-pentane) to estimate altitude-dependent lateral entrainment rates. This information is coupled with time-dependent measurements in the outflow of various storms, which when extrapolated to time zero in the storm core, results in estimates of CH2O scavenging efficiencies. This analysis includes estimates of photochemically produced CH2O in the storm core. A third approach is based upon CH2O/n-butane ratio comparisons in both the storm inflow and outflow. Results from various storms over Oklahoma, Colorado, and Alabama will be presented. However, the analysis will primarily focus on the May 29, 2012 supercell storm in Oklahoma. During this storm, the 4 passive tracers produced a very consistent lateral entrainment rate of 0.083 ± 0.008 km-1, a value that broadly agrees with entrainment rates determined previously from analyzing moist static energy profiles (Luo et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 2010). For this storm, the 3-independent approaches give CH2O

  6. A comparison of lightning and aircraft sources of NO{sub x} in the upper troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, J E; Walton, J J [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Physics; Bergmann, D J; Kinnison, D; Rotman, D [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Atmospheric Science Div.; Price, C [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences; Prather, M J [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science; Pickering, K E [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Meteorology; Baughcum, S L [Boeing Commerial Airplane Group, Seatlle, WA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Uncertainties in the assessment of the contribution of aircraft to upper tropospheric NO{sub x} arise from uncertainties in model treatment of transport, uncertainties in source strengths, and uncertainties in chemical rates and reactions determining the partitioning between NO{sub x} and NO{sub y}. Two different chemical transport models are used to examine the range of uncertainty in the contribution of aircraft to upper tropospheric NO{sub x} from model representations of transport. Uncertainties caused by uncertainties in the rate of production of NO{sub x} from lightning and uncertainties from the range of background concentrations of HNO{sub 3} are also examined. Uncertainties in the treatment of vertical transport and uncertainties in the source strength from lightning contribute to a large range in model results for background NO{sub x}. (author) 18 refs.

  7. A comparison of lightning and aircraft sources of NO{sub x} in the upper troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penner, J.E.; Walton, J.J. [Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Physics; Bergmann, D.J.; Kinnison, D.; Rotman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Atmospheric Science Div.; Price, C. [Tel Aviv Univ. (Israel). Dept. of Geophysics and Planetary Sciences; Prather, M.J. [California Univ., Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Earth System Science; Pickering, K.E. [Maryland Univ., College Park, MD (United States). Dept. of Meteorology; Baughcum, S.L. [Boeing Commerial Airplane Group, Seatlle, WA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Uncertainties in the assessment of the contribution of aircraft to upper tropospheric NO{sub x} arise from uncertainties in model treatment of transport, uncertainties in source strengths, and uncertainties in chemical rates and reactions determining the partitioning between NO{sub x} and NO{sub y}. Two different chemical transport models are used to examine the range of uncertainty in the contribution of aircraft to upper tropospheric NO{sub x} from model representations of transport. Uncertainties caused by uncertainties in the rate of production of NO{sub x} from lightning and uncertainties from the range of background concentrations of HNO{sub 3} are also examined. Uncertainties in the treatment of vertical transport and uncertainties in the source strength from lightning contribute to a large range in model results for background NO{sub x}. (author) 18 refs.

  8. Upper tropospheric cloud systems determined from IR Sounders and their influence on the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubenrauch, Claudia; Protopapadaki, Sofia; Feofilov, Artem; Velasco, Carola Barrientos

    2017-02-01

    Covering about 30% of the Earth, upper tropospheric clouds play a key role in the climate system by modulating the Earth's energy budget and heat transport. Infrared Sounders reliably identify cirrus down to an IR optical depth of 0.1. Recently LMD has built global cloud climate data records from AIRS and IASI observations, covering the periods from 2003-2015 and 2008-2015, respectively. Upper tropospheric clouds often form mesoscale systems. Their organization and properties are being studied by (1) distinguishing cloud regimes within 2° × 2° regions and (2) applying a spatial composite technique on adjacent cloud pressures, which estimates the horizontal extent of the mesoscale cloud systems. Convective core, cirrus anvil and thin cirrus of these systems are then distinguished by their emissivity. Compared to other studies of tropical mesoscale convective systems our data include also the thinner anvil parts, which make out about 30% of the area of tropical mesoscale convective systems. Once the horizontal and vertical structure of these upper tropospheric cloud systems is known, we can estimate their radiative effects in terms of top of atmosphere and surface radiative fluxes and by computing their heating rates.

  9. Surface measurements of upper tropospheric water vapor isotopic composition on the Chajnantor Plateau, Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galewsky, Joseph; Rella, Christopher; Sharp, Zachary; Samuels, Kimberly; Ward, Dylan

    2011-09-01

    Simultaneous, real-time measurements of atmospheric water vapor mixing ratio and isotopic composition (δD and δ18O) were obtained using cavity ringdown spectroscopy on the arid Chajnantor Plateau in the subtropical Chilean Andes (elevation 5080 m or 550 hPa; latitude 23°S) during July and August 2010. The measurements show surface water vapor mixing ratio as low as 215 ppmv, δD values as low as -540‰, and δ18O values as low as -68‰, which are the lowest atmospheric water vapor δ values reported from Earth's surface. The results are consistent with previous measurements from the base of the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) and suggest large-scale subsidence of air masses from the upper troposphere to the Earth's surface. The range of measurements is consistent with condensation under conditions of ice supersaturation and mixing with moister air from the lower troposphere that has been processed through shallow convection. Diagnostics using reanalysis data show that the extreme aridity of the Chajnantor Plateau is controlled by condensation in the upper tropical troposphere.

  10. Influence of isentropic transport on seasonal ozone variations in the lower stratosphere and subtropical upper troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, P.; Cunnold, D. M.; Yang, E.-S.; Wang, H.-J.

    2005-01-01

    The isentropic cross-tropopause ozone transport has been estimated in both hemispheres in 1999 based on the potential vorticity mapping of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment 11 ozone measurements and contour advection calculations using the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Global and Modeling Assimilation Office analysis. The estimated net isentropic stratosphere-to-troposphere ozone flux is approx.118 +/- 61 x 10(exp9)kg/yr globally within the layer between 330 and 370 K in 1999; 60% of it is found in the Northern Hemisphere, and 40% is found in the Southern Hemisphere. The monthly average ozone fluxes are strongest in summer and weakest in winter in both hemispheres. The seasonal variations of ozone in the lower stratosphere (LS) and upper troposphere (UT) have been analyzed using ozonesonde observations from ozonesonde stations in the extratropics and subtropics, respectively. It is shown that observed ozone levels increase in the UT over subtropical ozonesonde stations and decrease in the LS over extratropical stations in late spring/early summer and that the ozone increases in the summertime subtropical UT are unlikely to be explained by photochemical ozone production and diabatic transport alone. We conclude that isentropic transport is a significant contributor to ozone levels in the subtropical upper troposphere, especially in summer.

  11. Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere structure during convective systems using GPS radio occultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo

    The deep convective systems play a fundamental role in atmospheric circulation and climate. Thunderstorms and meso-scale convective systems produce fast vertical transport, redistributing water vapor and trace gases and influencing the thermal structure of the upper troposphere and lower...... stratosphere (UTLS) contributing to the troposphere-stratosphere transport and affecting the Earth global circulation and the climate changes. The Global Positioning System (GPS) Radio Occultation (RO) technique enables measurement of atmospheric density structure in any meteorological condition...... to the analysis of tropical storms for the future mission ACES will also be evaluated. Using data from the past and ongoing GPS RO missions we have defined an algorithm to detect the clouds top of the convective systems and their thermal structure. Other satellite and in-situ measurements co-located with GPS ROs...

  12. The Ozone Budget in the Upper Troposphere from Global Modeling Initiative (GMI)Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriquez, J.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Logan, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone concentrations in the upper troposphere are influenced by in-situ production, long-range tropospheric transport, and influx of stratospheric ozone, as well as by photochemical removal. Since ozone is an important greenhouse gas in this region, it is particularly important to understand how it will respond to changes in anthropogenic emissions and changes in stratospheric ozone fluxes.. This response will be determined by the relative balance of the different production, loss and transport processes. Ozone concentrations calculated by models will differ depending on the adopted meteorological fields, their chemical scheme, anthropogenic emissions, and treatment of the stratospheric influx. We performed simulations using the chemical-transport model from the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) with meteorological fields from (It)h e NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM), (2) the atmospheric GCM from NASA's Global Modeling and Assimilation Office(GMAO), and (3) assimilated winds from GMAO . These simulations adopt the same chemical mechanism and emissions, and adopt the Synthetic Ozone (SYNOZ) approach for treating the influx of stratospheric ozone -. In addition, we also performed simulations for a coupled troposphere-stratosphere model with a subset of the same winds. Simulations were done for both 4degx5deg and 2degx2.5deg resolution. Model results are being tested through comparison with a suite of atmospheric observations. In this presentation, we diagnose the ozone budget in the upper troposphere utilizing the suite of GMI simulations, to address the sensitivity of this budget to: a) the different meteorological fields used; b) the adoption of the SYNOZ boundary condition versus inclusion of a full stratosphere; c) model horizontal resolution. Model results are compared to observations to determine biases in particular simulations; by examining these comparisons in conjunction with the derived budgets, we may pinpoint

  13. Upper-tropospheric CO and O3 budget during the Asian summer monsoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barret

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available During the Asian summer monsoon, the circulation in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS is dominated by the Asian monsoon anticyclone (AMA. Pollutants convectively uplifted to the upper troposphere are trapped within this anticyclonic circulation that extends from the Pacific Ocean to the Eastern Mediterranean basin. Among the uplifted pollutants are ozone (O3 and its precursors, such as carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxides (NOx. Many studies based on global modeling and satellite data have documented the source regions and transport pathways of primary pollutants (CO, HCN into the AMA. Here, we aim to quantify the O3 budget by taking into consideration anthropogenic and natural sources. We first use CO and O3 data from the MetOp-A/IASI sensor to document their tropospheric distributions over Asia, taking advantage of the useful information they provide on the vertical dimension. These satellite data are used together with MOZAIC tropospheric profiles recorded in India to validate the distributions simulated by the global GEOS-Chem chemistry transport model. Over the Asian region, UTLS monthly CO and O3 distributions from IASI and GEOS-Chem display the same large-scale features. UTLS CO columns from GEOS-Chem are in agreement with IASI, with a low bias of 11 ± 9 % and a correlation coefficient of 0.70. For O3, the model underestimates IASI UTLS columns over Asia by 14 ± 26 % but the correlation between both is high (0.94. GEOS-Chem is further used to quantify the CO and O3 budget through sensitivity simulations. For CO, these simulations confirm that South Asian anthropogenic emissions have a more important impact on enhanced concentrations within the AMA (∼  25 ppbv than East Asian emissions (∼  10 ppbv. The correlation between enhanced emissions over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and monsoon deep convection is responsible for this larger impact. Consistently, South Asian anthropogenic NOx emissions also

  14. First detection of ammonia (NH3 in the Asian summer monsoon upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Höpfner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 has been detected in the upper troposphere by the analysis of averaged MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding infrared limb-emission spectra. We have found enhanced amounts of NH3 within the region of the Asian summer monsoon at 12–15 km altitude. Three-monthly, 10° longitude  ×  10° latitude average profiles reaching maximum mixing ratios of around 30 pptv in this altitude range have been retrieved, with a vertical resolution of 3–8 km and estimated errors of about 5 pptv. These observations show that loss processes during transport from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere within the Asian monsoon do not deplete the air entirely of NH3. Thus, ammonia might contribute to the so-called Asian tropopause aerosol layer by the formation of ammonium aerosol particles. On a global scale, outside the monsoon area and during different seasons, we could not detect enhanced values of NH3 above the actual detection limit of about 3–5 pptv. This upper bound helps to constrain global model simulations.

  15. Generation of layering in the upper arctic troposphere away from the jet stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karpetchko

    Full Text Available Ozone sounding databases for two stations, So-dankylä (67° N, 27° E and Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E were used in order to investigate the generation of layering in the upper and middle troposphere of the Arctic. We concentrated on dry, ozone-rich and stable layers observed below the thermal tropopause under light wind conditions. This condition ensures that the observed layer is not a tropopause fold, a well-known phenomenon that develops within frontal zones near the jet stream. Selection criteria for ozone, humidity and stability anomalies of the tropopause fold detection algorithm were used here to pick out for detailed studies the most pronounced examples of laminae. For all these cases the meteorological situations were investigated in order to establish the origin of the observed layers. We found that layers could be classified into two groups. Laminae of the first group were observed equatorward of the jet stream and those of a second group were observed poleward of the jet. The meteorological situation for the first group resembles that for equatorward stratospheric streamer propagation. It was found that this group accounts for only a small fraction of the layers observed at Sodankylä and for none of those observed at Ny-Ålesund during the period investigated. A large case-to-case variability in the synoptic situation was observed for the second group of laminae, which were detected northward of the jet stream. Nevertheless, in about half of the cases, streamers of tropospheric air were found in the vicinity of the stations on the isentropic surfaces just above the detected stratospheric layers. Back trajectory analyses showed that these layers originated in the vicinity of the polar jet stream. We suppose that laminae-like structures in the troposphere were caused, in both groups, by equatorward (poleward advection of the stratospheric (tropospheric air, together with differential vertical shear. Forward-trajectory calculations

  16. Generation of layering in the upper arctic troposphere away from the jet stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karpetchko

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Ozone sounding databases for two stations, So-dankylä (67° N, 27° E and Ny-Ålesund (79° N, 12° E were used in order to investigate the generation of layering in the upper and middle troposphere of the Arctic. We concentrated on dry, ozone-rich and stable layers observed below the thermal tropopause under light wind conditions. This condition ensures that the observed layer is not a tropopause fold, a well-known phenomenon that develops within frontal zones near the jet stream. Selection criteria for ozone, humidity and stability anomalies of the tropopause fold detection algorithm were used here to pick out for detailed studies the most pronounced examples of laminae. For all these cases the meteorological situations were investigated in order to establish the origin of the observed layers. We found that layers could be classified into two groups. Laminae of the first group were observed equatorward of the jet stream and those of a second group were observed poleward of the jet. The meteorological situation for the first group resembles that for equatorward stratospheric streamer propagation. It was found that this group accounts for only a small fraction of the layers observed at Sodankylä and for none of those observed at Ny-Ålesund during the period investigated. A large case-to-case variability in the synoptic situation was observed for the second group of laminae, which were detected northward of the jet stream. Nevertheless, in about half of the cases, streamers of tropospheric air were found in the vicinity of the stations on the isentropic surfaces just above the detected stratospheric layers. Back trajectory analyses showed that these layers originated in the vicinity of the polar jet stream. We suppose that laminae-like structures in the troposphere were caused, in both groups, by equatorward (poleward advection of the stratospheric (tropospheric air, together with differential vertical shear. Forward-trajectory calculations

  17. Commentary on using equivalent latitude in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Pan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the use of potential vorticity (PV based equivalent latitude (EqLat and potential temperature (θ coordinates in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS for chemical transport studies. The main objective is to provide a cautionary note on using EqLat-θ coordinates for aggregating chemical tracers in the UTLS. Several examples are used to show 3-D distributions of EqLat together with chemical constituents for a range of θ. We show that the use of PV-θ coordinates may not be suitable for several reasons when tropospheric processes are an important part of a study. Due to the different static stability structures between the stratosphere and troposphere, the use of θ as a vertical coordinate does not provide equal representations of the UT and LS. Since the θ surfaces in the troposphere often intersect the surface of the Earth, the θ variable does not work well distinguishing the UT from the boundary layer when used globally as a vertical coordinate. We further discuss the duality of PV/EqLat as a tracer versus as a coordinate variable. Using an example, we show that while PV/EqLat serves well as a transport tracer in the UTLS region, it may conceal the chemical structure associated with wave breaking when used as a coordinate to average chemical tracers. Overall, when choosing these coordinates, considerations need to be made not only based on the time scale of PV being a conservative tracer, but also the specific research questions to be addressed.

  18. submitter Technical Note: Using DEG-CPCs at upper tropospheric temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Wimmer, D; Nieminen, T; Duplissy, J; Ehrhart, S; Almeida, J; Rondo, L; Franchin, A; Kreissl, F; Bianchi, F; Manninen, H E; Kulmala, M; Curtius, J; Petäjä, T

    2015-01-01

    Over the last few years, several condensation particle counters (CPCs) capable of measuring in the sub-3 nm size range have been developed. Here we study the performance of CPCs based on diethylene glycol (DEG) at different temperatures during Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) measurements at CERN. The data shown here are the first set of verification measurements for sub-3 nm CPCs under upper tropospheric temperatures using atmospherically relevant aerosol particles. To put the results in perspective we calibrated the DEG-CPC at room temperature, resulting in a cut-off diameter of 1.4 nm. All diameters refer to mobility equivalent diameters in this paper. At upper tropospheric temperatures ranging from 246.15 K to 207.15 K, we found cut-off sizes relative to a particle size magnifier in the range of 2.5 to 2.8 nm. Due to low number concentration after size classification, the cut-off diameters have a high uncertainty (±0.3 nm) associated with them. Operating two laminar flow DEG-CPCs with different c...

  19. Observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN) in the upper troposphere by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tereszchuk, K. A.; Moore, D. P.; Harrison, J. J.; Boone, C. D.; Park, M.; Remedios, J. J.; Randel, W. J.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-06-01

    Peroxyacetyl nitrate (CH3CO·O2NO2, abbreviated as PAN) is a trace molecular species present in the troposphere and lower stratosphere due primarily to pollution from fuel combustion and the pyrogenic outflows from biomass burning. In the lower troposphere, PAN has a relatively short lifetime and is principally destroyed within a few hours through thermolysis, but it can act as a reservoir and carrier of NOx in the colder temperatures of the upper troposphere, where UV photolysis becomes the dominant loss mechanism. Pyroconvective updrafts from large biomass burning events can inject PAN into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), providing a means for the long-range transport of NOx. Given the extended lifetimes at these higher altitudes, PAN is readily detectable via satellite remote sensing. A new PAN data product is now available for the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) version 3.0 data set. We report observations of PAN in boreal biomass burning plumes recorded during the BORTAS (quantifying the impact of BOReal forest fires on Tropospheric oxidants over the Atlantic using Aircraft and Satellites) campaign (12 July to 3 August 2011). The retrieval method employed by incorporating laboratory-recorded absorption cross sections into version 3.0 of the ACE-FTS forward model and retrieval software is described in full detail. The estimated detection limit for ACE-FTS PAN is 5 pptv, and the total systematic error contribution to the ACE-FTS PAN retrieval is ~ 16%. The retrieved volume mixing ratio (VMR) profiles are compared to coincident measurements made by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) instrument on the European Space Agency (ESA) Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT). The MIPAS measurements demonstrated good agreement with the ACE-FTS VMR profiles for PAN, where the measured VMR values are well within the associated measurement errors for both instruments and comparative

  20. Evidence of a 50-year increase in tropospheric ozone in Upper Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schmidt

    Full Text Available In a series of ozone-sonde soundings at the Hohenpeißenberg observatory, starting in 1967, the most striking features are increases of sim2.2% per year in all tropospheric heights up to 8 km during the past 24 years. These facts have recently been published and discussed by several authors. In this paper, we present some evidence for the increase of tropospheric ozone concentrations during the past 50 years 1940-1990 in the territory of the northern edge of the Bavarian Alps, including the Hohenpeißenberg data. In December 1940 and August 1942, probably the first exact wet-chemical vertical soundings of ozone up to 9 km height were made by an aircraft in the region mentioned. These results were published in the earlier literature. We have converted the results of the flights on 4 days in December 1940 and on 6 days in August 1942 to modern units and have compared them with the Hohenpeißenberg ozone-sonde data of the December and August months. We also compared the data at the ground with the August results of Paris-Montsouris 1886-1898. Our results show an increase of ozone concentration at all tropospheric heights in Upper Bavaria during the past 50 years, compared with the Montsouris data in August during the past 105 years. In the recently published papers, the increases since 1967 were approximated linearly.Our results, extended to the past, show non-linear trends, with steeper increases since 1975-1979. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed. Quite recently (in case of the December months since 1986/87, the August months since 1990, the ozone mixing ratios at and above Hohenpeißenberg seem to have decreased.

  1. Evidence of a 50-year increase in tropospheric ozone in Upper Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schmidt

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available In a series of ozone-sonde soundings at the Hohenpeißenberg observatory, starting in 1967, the most striking features are increases of \\sim2.2% per year in all tropospheric heights up to 8 km during the past 24 years. These facts have recently been published and discussed by several authors. In this paper, we present some evidence for the increase of tropospheric ozone concentrations during the past 50 years 1940-1990 in the territory of the northern edge of the Bavarian Alps, including the Hohenpeißenberg data. In December 1940 and August 1942, probably the first exact wet-chemical vertical soundings of ozone up to 9 km height were made by an aircraft in the region mentioned. These results were published in the earlier literature. We have converted the results of the flights on 4 days in December 1940 and on 6 days in August 1942 to modern units and have compared them with the Hohenpeißenberg ozone-sonde data of the December and August months. We also compared the data at the ground with the August results of Paris-Montsouris 1886-1898. Our results show an increase of ozone concentration at all tropospheric heights in Upper Bavaria during the past 50 years, compared with the Montsouris data in August during the past 105 years. In the recently published papers, the increases since 1967 were approximated linearly.Our results, extended to the past, show non-linear trends, with steeper increases since 1975-1979. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed. Quite recently (in case of the December months since 1986/87, the August months since 1990, the ozone mixing ratios at and above Hohenpeißenberg seem to have decreased.

  2. CARIBIC observations of gaseous mercury in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slemr F.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A unique set of gaseous mercury measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS has been obtained during the monthly CARIBIC (www.caribic-atmospheric.com flights since May 2005. The passenger Airbus 340-600 of Lufthansa covered routes to the Far East, North America, India, and the southern hemisphere. The accompanying measurements of CO, O3, NOy, H2O, aerosols, halocarbons, hydrocarbons, greenhouse gases, and several other parameters as well as backward trajectories enable a detailed analysis of these measurements. Speciation tests have shown that the CARIBIC measurements represent a good approximation of total gaseous mercury (TGM concentrations. Above the tropopause TGM always decrease with increasing potential vorticity (PV and O3 which implies its conversion to particle bound mercury. The observation of the lowest TGM concentrations at the highest particle concentrations in the stratosphere provides further evidence for such conversion. We will show how a seasonally dependent conversion rate could be derived using concomitantly measured SF6 mixing ratios as a timer. Tropospheric mercury data suggest the existence of a decreasing trend in the northern hemisphere whose size is comparable with the trend derived from long-term measurements by ship cruises, at Cape Point (South Africa and Mace Head (Ireland.

  3. Large differences in reanalyses of diabatic heating in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

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    J. S. Wright

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We present the time mean heat budgets of the tropical upper troposphere (UT and lower stratosphere (LS as simulated by five reanalysis models: the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA, European Reanalysis (ERA-Interim, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR, Japanese 25-yr Reanalysis and Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System (JRA-25/JCDAS, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1. The simulated diabatic heat budget in the tropical UTLS differs significantly from model to model, with substantial implications for representations of transport and mixing. Large differences are apparent both in the net heat budget and in all comparable individual components, including latent heating, heating due to radiative transfer, and heating due to parameterised vertical mixing. We describe and discuss the most pronounced differences. Discrepancies in latent heating reflect continuing difficulties in representing moist convection in models. Although these discrepancies may be expected, their magnitude is still disturbing. We pay particular attention to discrepancies in radiative heating (which may be surprising given the strength of observational constraints on temperature and tropospheric water vapour and discrepancies in heating due to turbulent mixing (which have received comparatively little attention. The largest differences in radiative heating in the tropical UTLS are attributable to differences in cloud radiative heating, but important systematic differences are present even in the absence of clouds. Local maxima in heating and cooling due to parameterised turbulent mixing occur in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause.

  4. Large differences in reanalyses of diabatic heating in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. S.; Fueglistaler, S.

    2013-09-01

    We present the time mean heat budgets of the tropical upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) as simulated by five reanalysis models: the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), European Reanalysis (ERA-Interim), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), Japanese 25-yr Reanalysis and Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System (JRA-25/JCDAS), and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis 1. The simulated diabatic heat budget in the tropical UTLS differs significantly from model to model, with substantial implications for representations of transport and mixing. Large differences are apparent both in the net heat budget and in all comparable individual components, including latent heating, heating due to radiative transfer, and heating due to parameterised vertical mixing. We describe and discuss the most pronounced differences. Discrepancies in latent heating reflect continuing difficulties in representing moist convection in models. Although these discrepancies may be expected, their magnitude is still disturbing. We pay particular attention to discrepancies in radiative heating (which may be surprising given the strength of observational constraints on temperature and tropospheric water vapour) and discrepancies in heating due to turbulent mixing (which have received comparatively little attention). The largest differences in radiative heating in the tropical UTLS are attributable to differences in cloud radiative heating, but important systematic differences are present even in the absence of clouds. Local maxima in heating and cooling due to parameterised turbulent mixing occur in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause.

  5. Top-of-atmosphere radiative forcing affected by brown carbon in the upper troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhong; Forrister, Haviland; Liu, Jiumeng; Dibb, Jack; Anderson, Bruce; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Perring, Anne E.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Campuzano-Jost, Pedro; Wang, Yuhang; Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney J.

    2017-07-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols affect the global radiative balance by absorbing and scattering radiation, which leads to warming or cooling of the atmosphere, respectively. Black carbon is the main light-absorbing component. A portion of the organic aerosol known as brown carbon also absorbs light. The climate sensitivity to absorbing aerosols rapidly increases with altitude, but brown carbon measurements are limited in the upper troposphere. Here we present aircraft observations of vertical aerosol distributions over the continental United States in May and June 2012 to show that light-absorbing brown carbon is prevalent in the troposphere, and absorbs more short-wavelength radiation than black carbon at altitudes between 5 and 12 km. We find that brown carbon is transported to these altitudes by deep convection, and that in-cloud heterogeneous processing may produce brown carbon. Radiative transfer calculations suggest that brown carbon accounts for about 24% of combined black and brown carbon warming effect at the tropopause. Roughly two-thirds of the estimated brown carbon forcing occurs above 5 km, although most brown carbon is found below 5 km. The highest radiative absorption occurred during an event that ingested a wildfire plume. We conclude that high-altitude brown carbon from biomass burning is an unappreciated component of climate forcing.

  6. Multi-station synthesis of early twentieth century surface atmospheric electricity measurements for upper tropospheric properties

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    R. G. Harrison

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The vertical columnar current density in the global atmospheric electrical circuit depends on the local columnar resistance. A simple model for the columnar resistance is suggested, which separates the local boundary layer component from the upper troposphere cosmic ray component, and calculates the boundary layer component from a surface measurement of air conductivity. This theory is shown to provide reasonable agreement with observations. One application of the simple columnar model theory is to provide a basis for the synthesis of surface atmospheric electrical measurements made simultaneously at several European sites. Assuming the ionospheric potential to be common above all the sites, the theoretical air-earth current density present in the absence of a boundary layer columnar resistance can be found by extrapolation. This is denoted the free troposphere limit air-earth current density, J0. Using early surface data from 1909 when no ionospheric potential data are available for corroboration, J0 is found to be ~6 pA m−2, although this is subject to uncertainties in the data and limitations in the theory. Later (1966–1971 European balloon and surface data give J0=2.4 pA m−2.

  7. Quasi-biweekly oscillations of the South Asian monsoon and its co-evolution in the upper and lower troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Sebastián; Webster, Peter J.; Toma, Violeta; Chang, Hai-Ru

    2017-11-01

    The Upper Tropospheric Quasi-Biweekly Oscillation (UQBW) of the South Asian monsoon is studied using the potential vorticity field on the 370 K isentrope. The UQBW is shown to be a common occurrence in the upper troposphere during the monsoon, and its typical evolution is described. We suggest that the UQBW is a phenomenon of both the middle and tropical latitudes, owing its existence to the presence of the planetary-scale upper-tropospheric monsoon anticyclone. The UQBW is first identified as Rossby waves originating in the northern flank of the monsoon anticyclone. These Rossby waves break when reaching the Pacific Ocean, and their associated cyclonic PV anomalies move southward to the east of Asia and then westward across the Indian Ocean and Africa advected by the monsoon anticyclone. A strong correlation, or co-evolution, between the UQBW and quasi-biweekly oscillations in the lower troposphere (QBW) is also found. In particular, analysis of vertically-integrated horizontal moisture transport, 850 hPa geopotential, and outgoing long-wave radiation show that the UQBW is usually observed at the same time as, and co-evolves with, the lower tropospheric QBW over South Asia. We discuss the nature of the UQBW, and its possible physical link with the QBW.

  8. Oxalic acid as a heterogeneous ice nucleus in the upper troposphere and its indirect aerosol effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zobrist

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneous ice freezing points of aqueous solutions containing various immersed solid dicarboxylic acids (oxalic, adipic, succinic, phthalic and fumaric have been measured with a differential scanning calorimeter. The results show that only the dihydrate of oxalic acid (OAD acts as a heterogeneous ice nucleus, with an increase in freezing temperature between 2 and 5 K depending on solution composition. In several field campaigns, oxalic acid enriched particles have been detected in the upper troposphere with single particle aerosol mass spectrometry. Simulations with a microphysical box model indicate that the presence of OAD may reduce the ice particle number density in cirrus clouds by up to ~50% when compared to exclusively homogeneous cirrus formation without OAD. Using the ECHAM4 climate model we estimate the global net radiative effect caused by this heterogeneous freezing to result in a cooling as high as −0.3 Wm−2.

  9. Global distribution of upper tropospheric formic acid from the ACE-FTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. González Abad

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We present the first near global upper tropospheric distribution of formic acid (HCOOH observed from space using solar occultation measurements from the Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS on board the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE satellite. Using a new set of spectroscopic line parameters recently published for formic acid by Vander Auwera et al. (2007 and Perrin and Vander Auwera (2007, we have retrieved the concentrations of HCOOH between 5 km and the tropopause for ACE-FTS observations from February 2004 to September 2007. We observe a significant seasonal dependence for the HCOOH concentrations related to vegetation growth and biomass burning. We estimate an emission ratio of 0.0051±0.0015 for HCOOH relative to CO for tropical South American fires using a selected set of data for September 2004. Results from the balloon-borne MkIV Fourier transform spectrometer are also presented and compared with the ACE measurements.

  10. The Origins of Air Parcels Uplifted in a Two Dimensional Gravity Wave in the Tropical Upper Troposphere During the NASA Stratosphere Troposphere Exchange Project (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Pfister, Leonhard; Chan, K. Roland; Kritz, Mark; Kelly, Ken

    1989-01-01

    During January and February 1987, as part of the Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange Project, the NASA ER-2 made 11 flights from Darwin, Australia to investigate dehydration mechanisms in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause. After the monsoon onset in the second week of January, steady easterly flow of 15-25 ms (exp -1) was established in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over northern Australia and adjacent seas. Penetrating into this regime were elements of the monsoon convection such as overshooting convective turrets and extensive anvils including cyclone cloud shields. In cases of the latter, the resulting flow obstructions tended to produce mesoscale gravity waves. In several instances the ER- 2 meteorological and trace constituent measurements provide a detailed description of the structure of these gravity waves. Among these was STEP Flight 6, 22-23 January. It is of particular interest to STEP because of the close proximity of ice-laden and dehydrated air on the same isentropic surfaces. Convective events inject large amounts of ice into the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere which may not be completely removed by local precipitation processes. In the present instance, a gravity wave for removed from the source region appears to induce relativity rapid upward motion in the ice-laden air and subsequent dessication. Potential mechanisms for such a localized removal process are under investigation.

  11. On the Climate Impacts of Upper Tropospheric and Lower Stratospheric Ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yan; Huang, Yi; Hu, Yongyun

    2018-01-01

    The global warming simulations of the general circulation models (GCMs) are generally performed with different ozone prescriptions. We find that the differences in ozone distribution, especially in the upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric (UTLS) region, account for important model discrepancies shown in the ozone-only historical experiment of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). These discrepancies include global high cloud fraction, stratospheric temperature, and stratospheric water vapor. Through a set of experiments conducted by an atmospheric GCM with contrasting UTLS ozone prescriptions, we verify that UTLS ozone not only directly radiatively heats the UTLS region and cools the upper parts of the stratosphere but also strongly influences the high clouds due to its impact on relative humidity and static stability in the UTLS region and the stratospheric water vapor due to its impact on the tropical tropopause temperature. These consequences strongly affect the global mean effective radiative forcing of ozone, as noted in previous studies. Our findings suggest that special attention should be paid to the UTLS ozone when evaluating the climate effects of ozone depletion in the 20th century and recovery in the 21st century. UTLS ozone difference may also be important for understanding the intermodel discrepancy in the climate projections of the CMIP6 GCMs in which either prescribed or interactive ozone is used.

  12. Particulate sulfur in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere – sources and climate forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. G. Martinsson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is based on fine-mode aerosol samples collected in the upper troposphere (UT and the lowermost stratosphere (LMS of the Northern Hemisphere extratropics during monthly intercontinental flights at 8.8–12 km altitude of the IAGOS-CARIBIC platform in the time period 1999–2014. The samples were analyzed for a large number of chemical elements using the accelerator-based methods PIXE (particle-induced X-ray emission and PESA (particle elastic scattering analysis. Here the particulate sulfur concentrations, obtained by PIXE analysis, are investigated. In addition, the satellite-borne lidar aboard CALIPSO is used to study the stratospheric aerosol load. A steep gradient in particulate sulfur concentration extends several kilometers into the LMS, as a result of increasing dilution towards the tropopause of stratospheric, particulate sulfur-rich air. The stratospheric air is diluted with tropospheric air, forming the extratropical transition layer (ExTL. Observed concentrations are related to the distance to the dynamical tropopause. A linear regression methodology handled seasonal variation and impact from volcanism. This was used to convert each data point into stand-alone estimates of a concentration profile and column concentration of particulate sulfur in a 3 km altitude band above the tropopause. We find distinct responses to volcanic eruptions, and that this layer in the LMS has a significant contribution to the stratospheric aerosol optical depth and thus to its radiative forcing. Further, the origin of UT particulate sulfur shows strong seasonal variation. We find that tropospheric sources dominate during the fall as a result of downward transport of the Asian tropopause aerosol layer (ATAL formed in the Asian monsoon, whereas transport down from the Junge layer is the main source of UT particulate sulfur in the first half of the year. In this latter part of the year, the stratosphere is the clearly dominating source of

  13. On the origin of subvisible cirrus clouds in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reverdy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne lidar observations have recently revealed a previously undetected significant population of Subvisible Cirrus (SVC. We show them to be colder than −74 °, with an optical depth below 0.0015 on average. The formation and persistence over time of this new cloud population could be related to several atmospheric phenomena. In this paper, we investigate if these clouds follow the same formation mechanisms as the general tropical cirrus population (including convection and in-situ ice nucleation, or if specific nucleation sites and trace species play a role in their formation. The importance of three scenarios in the formation of the global SVC population is investigated through different approaches that include comparisons with data imaging from several spaceborne instruments and back-trajectories that document the history and behavior of air masses leading to the point in time and space where subvisible cirrus were detected. In order to simplify the study of their formation, we singled out SVC with coherent temperature histories (mean variance lower than 4 K according to back-trajectories along 5, 10 or 15 days (respectively 58, 25 and 11% of SVC. Our results suggest that external processes, including local increases in liquid and hygroscopic aerosol concentration (either through biomass burning or volcanic injection forming sulfate-based aerosols in the troposphere or the stratosphere have very limited short-term or mid-term impact on the SVC population. On the other hand, we find that ~20% of air masses leading to SVC formation interacted with convective activity 5 days before they led to cloud formation and detection, a number that climbs to 60% over 15 days. SVC formation appears especially linked to convection over Africa and Central America, more so during JJA than DJF. These results support the view that the SVC population observed by CALIOP is an extension of the general upper tropospheric ice clouds population with its extreme

  14. First airborne water vapor lidar measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and mid-latitudes lower stratosphere: accuracy evaluation and intercomparisons with other instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Schiller

    2008-09-01

    comparison conditions, the agreement with the in-situ hygrometers provides evidence of the excellent quality of FISH, FLASH and DIAL. Most DIAL profiles exhibit a smooth exponential decrease of water vapor mixing ratio in the tropical upper troposphere to lower stratosphere transition. The hygropause with a minimum mixing ratio of 2.5 µmol/mol is found between 15 and 17 km. A high-resolution (2 km horizontal, 0.2 km vertical DIAL cross section through the anvil outflow of tropical convection shows that the ambient humidity is increased by a factor of three across 100 km.

  15. Retrieval of global upper tropospheric and stratospheric formaldehyde (H2CO distributions from high-resolution MIPAS-Envisat spectra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Stiller

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The Fourier transform spectrometer MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding on Envisat measures infrared emission of the Earth's atmosphere in a limb viewing mode. High spectral resolution measurements of MIPAS are sensitive to formaldehyde from the upper troposphere to the stratopause. Single profile retrievals of formaldehyde are dominated by a 60% noise error; however zonal mean values for 30 days of data during 8 September 2003 and 1 December 2003 reduces this error by a factor of 20 or more. The number of degrees of freedom for single profile retrieval ranges from 2 to 4.5 depending on latitude and number of cloud-free tangent altitudes. In the upper tropical troposphere zonal mean values of about 70 parts per trillion by volume (pptv were found, which have been attributed to biomass burning emissions. In the stratosphere, formaldehyde values are determined by photochemical reactions. In the upper tropical stratosphere, formaldehyde zonal mean maximum values can reach 130 pptv. Diurnal variations in this region can be up to 50 pptv. Comparisons with other satellite instruments show generally good agreement in the region of upper troposphere and lower stratosphere as well as in the upper stratosphere.

  16. Met UM Upper-tropospheric summer jet teleconnections: A model assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joao Carvalho, Maria; Rodriguez, Jose; Milton, Sean

    2017-04-01

    The upper tropospheric jet stream has been documented to act as a waveguide (Hoskins and Ambrizzi, 1993) and supporting quasi-stationary Rossby waves (Schubert et al. 2011). These have been associated with remote effects in surface level weather such as rainfall anomalies in the East Asian Summer Monsoon as well as extreme temperature events. The goal of this work was to analyse the intraseasonal to interannual upper level boreal summer jet variability and its coupling with low level atmospheric dynamics within the Met Office Unified Model using climate runs. Using the Wallace and Gutzler (1981) proposed approach to find teleconnection patterns on the 200 hPa level wind, lead-lag correlation and Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis on the upper-level jet and relating the results with surface weather variables as well as dynamical variables, it was found that the model presents too strong jet variability, particularly in the tropical region and. In addition, the model presents high teleconnectivity hotspots with higher importance in areas such as the Mediterranean and Caspian Sea which are important source areas for Rossby Waves. Further to this, the model was found to produce an area of teleconnectivity between the tropical Atlantic and western Africa which is not observed in the reanalysis but coexists with long lasting precipitation biases. As comparison for the model results, ERA-Interim circulation and wind data and the TRMM precipitation dataset were used. In order to assess the relative importance of relevant model parameters in the biases and process errors, work is currently underway using perturbed model parameter ensembles.

  17. Sulfur dioxide (SO2 from MIPAS in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere 2002–2012

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    M. Höpfner

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertically resolved distributions of sulfur dioxide (SO2 with global coverage in the height region from the upper troposphere to ~20 km altitude have been derived from observations by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat for the period July 2002 to April 2012. Retrieved volume mixing ratio profiles representing single measurements are characterized by typical errors in the range of 70–100 pptv and by a vertical resolution ranging from 3 to 5 km. Comparison with observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS revealed a slightly varying bias with altitude of −20 to 50 pptv for the MIPAS data set in case of volcanically enhanced concentrations. For background concentrations the comparison showed a systematic difference between the two major MIPAS observation periods. After debiasing, the difference could be reduced to biases within −10 to 20 pptv in the altitude range of 10–20 km with respect to ACE-FTS. Further comparisons of the debiased MIPAS data set with in situ measurements from various aircraft campaigns showed no obvious inconsistencies within a range of around ±50 pptv. The SO2 emissions of more than 30 volcanic eruptions could be identified in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. Emitted SO2 masses and lifetimes within different altitude ranges in the UTLS have been derived for a large part of these eruptions. Masses are in most cases within estimations derived from other instruments. From three of the major eruptions within the MIPAS measurement period – Kasatochi in August 2008, Sarychev in June 2009 and Nabro in June 2011 – derived lifetimes of SO2 for the altitude ranges 10–14, 14–18 and 18–22 km are 13.3 ± 2.1, 23.6 ± 1.2 and 32.3 ± 5.5 days respectively. By omitting periods with obvious volcanic influence we have derived background mixing ratio distributions of SO2. At 10 km altitude these indicate an annual

  18. A distribution law for relative humidity in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere derived from three years of MOZAIC measurements

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    K. Gierens

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available Data from three years of MOZAIC measurements made it possible to determine a distribution law for the relative humidity in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Data amounting to 13.5% of the total were obtained in regions with ice supersaturation. Troposphere and stratosphere are distinguished by an ozone concentration of 130 ppbv as threshold. The probability of measuring a certain amount of ice supersaturation in the troposphere decreases exponentially with the degree of ice supersaturation. The probability of measuring a certain relative humidity in the stratosphere (both with respect to water and ice decreases exponentially with the relative humidity. A stochastic model that naturally leads to the exponential distribution is provided. Mean supersaturation in the troposphere is about 15%, whereas ice nucleation requires 30% supersaturation on the average. This explains the frequency of regions in which aircraft induce persistent contrails but which are otherwise free of clouds. Ice supersaturated regions are 3-4 K colder and contain more than 50% more vapour than other regions in the upper troposphere. The stratospheric air masses sampled are dry, as expected, having mean relative humidity over water of 12% and over ice of 23%, respectively. However, 2% of the stratospheric data indicate ice supersaturation. As the MOZAIC measurements have been obtained on commercial flights mainly between Europe and North America, the data do not provide a complete global picture, but the exponential character of the distribution laws found is probably valid globally. Since water vapour is the most important greenhouse gas and since it might enhance the anthropogenic greenhouse effects via positive feedback mechanisms, it is important to represent its distribution correctly in climate models. The discovery of the distribution law of the relative humidity makes possible simple tests to show whether the hydrological cycle in climate models is

  19. Concentrations of ethane (C2H6) in the lower stratosphere and upper troposphere and acetylene (C2H2) in the upper troposphere deduced from Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy/Spacelab 3 spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Russell, J. M., III; Zander, R.; Farmer, C. B.; Norton, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the spectroscopic analysis of C2H6 and C2H2 absorption spectra obtained by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) instrument flown on the Shuttle as part of the Spacelab 3 mission. The spectra were recorded during sunset occultations occurring between 25 deg N and 31 deg N latitudes, yielding volume-mixing ratio profiles of C2H6 in the lower stratosphere and the upper troposphere, and an upper tropospheric profile of C2H2. These results compare well with previous in situ and remote sounding data obtained at similar latitudes and with model calculations. The results demonstrate the feasibility of the ATMOS instrument to sound the lower atmosphere from space.

  20. The representation of tropical upper tropospheric water in EC Earth V2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, M.S. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Goeteburg (Sweden); Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden); Eriksson, P.; Murtagh, D.P. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Goeteburg (Sweden); Eliasson, S. [Luleaa University of Technology, Department of Computer Science, Electrical and Space Engineering, Kiruna (Sweden); Jones, C.G. [Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden); Forbes, R.M. [ECMWF, Reading, Berkshire (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-15

    Tropical upper tropospheric humidity, clouds, and ice water content, as well as outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), are evaluated in the climate model EC Earth with the aid of satellite retrievals. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder and Microwave Limb Sounder together provide good coverage of relative humidity. EC Earth's relative humidity is in fair agreement with these observations. CloudSat and CALIPSO data are combined to provide cloud fractions estimates throughout the altitude region considered (500-100 hPa). EC Earth is found to overestimate the degree of cloud cover above 200 hPa and underestimate it below. Precipitating and non-precipitating EC Earth ice definitions are combined to form a complete ice water content. EC Earth's ice water content is below the uncertainty range of CloudSat above 250 hPa, but can be twice as high as CloudSat's estimate in the melting layer. CERES data show that the model underestimates the impact of clouds on OLR, on average with about 9 W m{sup -2}. Regionally, EC Earth's outgoing longwave radiation can be {proportional_to}20 W m{sup -2} higher than the observation. A comparison to ERA-Interim provides further perspectives on the model's performance. Limitations of the satellite observations are emphasised and their uncertainties are, throughout, considered in the analysis. Evaluating multiple model variables in parallel is a more ambitious approach than is customary. (orig.)

  1. Retrieval of water vapor vertical distributions in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Rozanov, A.; Weigel, K.; Bovensmann, H.; Dhomse, S.; Eichmann, K.-U.; Kivi, R.; Rozanov, V.; Vömel, H.; Weber, M.; Burrows, J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the retrieval of water vapor vertical distributions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) altitude range from space-borne observations of the scattered solar light made in limb viewing geometry. First results using measurements from SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY) aboard ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite) are presented here. In previous publications, the retrieval of water vapor vertical ...

  2. Summertime mid-to-upper tropospheric nitrous oxide over the Mediterranean as a footprint of Indian emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangah, Yannick; Ricaud, Philippe; Attié, Jean-Luc; Saitoh, Naoko; Hauglustaine, Didier; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Zbinden, Regina; Delon, Claire

    2016-04-01

    We used global scale thermal infrared measurements of mid-to-upper tropospheric nitrous oxide (N2O) from the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) and outputs from the 3D Chemical Transport Model LMDz-OR-INCA to assess the impact of the Indian subcontinent N2O emissions on the N2O field over the eastern Mediterranean Basin (MB) during summer. The use of nitrogen fertilizer coupled with high soil humidity during summer monsoon period produce high emissions of N2O in many south Asian countries and especially the Indian subcontinent. N2O is transported to the upper troposphere by updrafts associated to the monsoon and redistributed westward to the eastern Mediterranean via the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone. This summertime (June-July-August) enrichment in N2O in the eastern Mediterranean produces a maximum in the east-west difference of MB mid-to-upper tropospheric N2O anomaly representative for the period 2010-2013 with a maximum in July and a peak-to-peak amplitude of ~1.0 ± 0.3 ppbv observed by GOSAT consistently with LMDz-OR-INCA but less intense (~0.5 ppbv). This summertime enrichment of N2O over the eastern Mediterranean is consistent with the increase of the surface emissions and the convective precipitations over the Indian subcontinent during the summer monsoon period. N2O over the eastern Mediterranean can therefore be considered as a footprint of Indian summertime emissions.

  3. Towards a Model Climatology of Relative Humidity in the Upper Troposphere for Estimation of Contrail and Contrail-Induced Cirrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Manyin, M.; Ott, L.; Oman, L.; Benson, C.; Pawson, S.; Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.

    2011-01-01

    The formation of contrails and contrail cirrus is very sensitive to the relative humidity of the upper troposphere. To reduce uncertainty in an estimate of the radiative impact of aviation-induced cirrus, a model must therefore be able to reproduce the observed background moisture fields with reasonable and quantifiable fidelity. Here we present an upper tropospheric moisture climatology from a 26-year ensemble of simulations using the GEOS CCM. We compare this free-running model's moisture fields to those obtained from the MLS and AIRS satellite instruments, our most comprehensive observational databases for upper tropospheric water vapor. Published comparisons have shown a substantial wet bias in GEOS-5 assimilated fields with respect to MLS water vapor and ice water content. This tendency is clear as well in the GEOS CCM simulations. The GEOS-5 moist physics in the GEOS CCM uses a saturation adjustment that prevents supersaturation, which is unrealistic when compared to in situ moisture observations from MOZAIC aircraft and balloon sondes as we will show. Further, the large-scale satellite datasets also consistently underestimate super-saturation when compared to the in-situ observations. We place these results in the context of estimates of contrail and contrail cirrus frequency.

  4. Hydrogen Cyanide in the Upper Troposphere: GEM-AQ Simulation and Comparison with ACE-FTS Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, A.; Kaminski, J. W.; Neary, L.; McConnell, J. C.; Toyota, K.; Rinsland, C. P.; Bernath, P. F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Nagahama, Y.; hide

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in the upper troposphere through numerical simulations and comparison with observations from a space-based instrument. To perform the simulations, we used the Global Environmental Multiscale Air Quality model (GEM-AQ), which is based on the threedimensional Gobal multiscale model developed by the Meteorological Service of Canada for operational weather forecasting. The model was run for the period 2004-2006 on a 1.5deg x 1.5deg global grid with 28 hybrid vertical levels from the surface up to 10 hPa. Objective analysis data from the Canadian Meteorological Centre were used to update the meteorological fields every 24 h. Fire emission fluxes of gas species were generated by using year-specific inventories of carbon emissions with 8-day temporal resolution from the Global Fire Emission Database (GFED) version 2. The model output is compared with HCN profiles measured by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) instrument onboard the Canadian SCISAT-1 satellite. High values of up to a few ppbv are observed in the tropics in the Southern Hemisphere; the enhancement in HCN volume mixing ratios in the upper troposphere is most prominent in October. Low upper-tropospheric mixing ratios of less than 100 pptv are mostly recorded at middle and high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere in May-July. Mixing ratios in Northern Hemisphere peak in the boreal summer. The amplitude of the seasonal variation is less pronounced than in the Southern Hemisphere. The comparison with the satellite data shows that in the upper troposphere GEM-AQ perform7s well globally for all seasons, except at northern hi gh and middle latitudes in surnmer, where the model has a large negative bias, and in the tropics in winter and spring, where it exhibits large positive bias. This may reflect inaccurate emissions or possible inaccuracies in the emission profile. The model is able to

  5. The Effect of Cirrus Clouds on Water Vapor Transport in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, L.; McCormick, M. P.; Anderson, J.

    2017-12-01

    Water vapor plays an important role in the Earth's radiation budget and stratospheric chemistry. It is widely accepted that a large percentage of water vapor entering the stratosphere travels through the tropical tropopause and is dehydrated by the cold tropopause temperature. The vertical transport of water vapor is also affected by the radiative effects of cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause layer. This latter effect of cirrus clouds was investigated in this research. The work focuses on the tropical and mid-latitude region (50N-50S). Water vapor data from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) and cirrus cloud data from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) instruments were used to investigate the relationship between the water vapor and the occurrence of cirrus cloud. A 10-degree in longitude by 10-degree in latitude resolution was chosen to bin the MLS and CALIPSO data. The result shows that the maximum water vapor in the upper troposphere (below 146 hPa) is matched very well with the highest frequency of cirrus cloud occurrences. Maximum water vapor in the lower stratosphere (100 hPa) is partly matched with the maximum cirrus cloud occurrence in the summer time. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Interpolated Outgoing Longwave Radiation data and NCEP-DOE Reanalysis 2 wind data were used also to investigate the relationship between the water vapor entering the stratosphere, deep convection, and wind. Results show that maximum water vapor at 100 hPa coincides with the northern hemisphere summer-time anticyclone. The effects from both single-layer cirrus clouds and cirrus clouds above the anvil top on the water vapor entering the stratosphere were also studied and will be presented.

  6. Two-dimensional performance of MIPAS observation modes in the upper-troposphere/lower-stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Carlotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we analyze the performance of the three MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding observation modes that sound the Upper-Troposphere/Lower-Stratosphere (UT/LS region. The two-dimensional (2-D tomographic retrieval approach is assumed to derive the atmospheric field of geophysical parameters. For each observation mode we have calculated the 2-D distribution of the information load quantifier relative to the main MIPAS targets. The performance of the observation modes has been evaluated in terms of strength and spatial coverage of the information-load distribution along the full orbit. The indications of the information-load analysis has been validated with simulated retrievals based on the observational parameters of real orbits. In the simulation studies we have assessed the precision and the spatial (both horizontal and vertical resolution of the retrieval products. The performance of the three observation modes has been compared for the MIPAS main products in both the UT/LS and the extended altitude range. This study shows that the two observation modes that were specifically designed for the UT/LS region are actually competitive with the third one, designed for the whole stratosphere, up to altitudes that far exceed the UT/LS. In the UT/LS the performance of the two specific observation modes is comparable even if the best performance in terms of horizontal resolution is provided by the observation mode that was excluded by the European Space Agency (ESA from the current MIPAS duty cycle. This paper reports the first application of the information-load analysis and highlights the worthiness of this approach to make qualitative considerations about retrieval potential and selection of retrieval grid.

  7. NOAA Climate Data Record for Mean Layer Temperature (Upper Troposphere & Lower Stratosphere) from UCAR, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Temperatures of Troposphere / Stratosphere (TTS) (AMSU channel 7 and MSU channel 3) CDR is generated by using National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  8. Evaluation of Satellite-Based Upper Troposphere Cloud Top Height Retrievals in Multilayer Cloud Conditions During TC4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fu-Lung; Minnis, Patrick; Ayers, J. Kirk; McGill, Matthew J.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Smith, William L., Jr.; Yost, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Upper troposphere cloud top heights (CTHs), restricted to cloud top pressures (CTPs) less than 500 hPa, inferred using four satellite retrieval methods applied to Twelfth Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-12) data are evaluated using measurements during the July August 2007 Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (TC4). The four methods are the single-layer CO2-absorption technique (SCO2AT), a modified CO2-absorption technique (MCO2AT) developed for improving both single-layered and multilayered cloud retrievals, a standard version of the Visible Infrared Solar-infrared Split-window Technique (old VISST), and a new version of VISST (new VISST) recently developed to improve cloud property retrievals. They are evaluated by comparing with ER-2 aircraft-based Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) data taken during 9 days having extensive upper troposphere cirrus, anvil, and convective clouds. Compared to the 89% coverage by upper tropospheric clouds detected by the CPL, the SCO2AT, MCO2AT, old VISST, and new VISST retrieved CTPs less than 500 hPa in 76, 76, 69, and 74% of the matched pixels, respectively. Most of the differences are due to subvisible and optically thin cirrus clouds occurring near the tropopause that were detected only by the CPL. The mean upper tropospheric CTHs for the 9 days are 14.2 (+/- 2.1) km from the CPL and 10.7 (+/- 2.1), 12.1 (+/- 1.6), 9.7 (+/- 2.9), and 11.4 (+/- 2.8) km from the SCO2AT, MCO2AT, old VISST, and new VISST, respectively. Compared to the CPL, the MCO2AT CTHs had the smallest mean biases for semitransparent high clouds in both single-layered and multilayered situations whereas the new VISST CTHs had the smallest mean biases when upper clouds were opaque and optically thick. The biases for all techniques increased with increasing numbers of cloud layers. The transparency of the upper layer clouds tends to increase with the numbers of cloud layers.

  9. How predictable is the northern hemisphere summer upper-tropospheric circulation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, June-Yi; Wang, Bin [University of Hawaii/IPRC, International Pacific Research Center, Honolulu, HI (United States); Ding, Q. [University of Washington, Department of Earth and Space Sciences and Quaternary Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Ha, K.J.; Ahn, J.B. [Pusan National University, Division of Earth Environmental System, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kumar, A. [NCEP/CPC, Camp Springs, MD (United States); Stern, B. [Princeton University, NOAA/GFDL, Princeton, NJ (United States); Alves, O. [Bureau of Meteorology, Centre for Australia Weather and Climate Research (CAWCR), Melbourne, VIC (Australia)

    2011-09-15

    The retrospective forecast skill of three coupled climate models (NCEP CFS, GFDL CM2.1, and CAWCR POAMA 1.5) and their multi-model ensemble (MME) is evaluated, focusing on the Northern Hemisphere (NH) summer upper-tropospheric circulation along with surface temperature and precipitation for the 25-year period of 1981-2005. The seasonal prediction skill for the NH 200-hPa geopotential height basically comes from the coupled models' ability in predicting the first two empirical orthogonal function (EOF) modes of interannual variability, because the models cannot replicate the residual higher modes. The first two leading EOF modes of the summer 200-hPa circulation account for about 84% (35.4%) of the total variability over the NH tropics (extratropics) and offer a hint of realizable potential predictability. The MME is able to predict both spatial and temporal characteristics of the first EOF mode (EOF1) even at a 5-month lead (January initial condition) with a pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) skill of 0.96 and a temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill of 0.62. This long-lead predictability of the EOF1 comes mainly from the prolonged impacts of El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) as the EOF1 tends to occur during the summer after the mature phase of ENSO. The second EOF mode (EOF2), on the other hand, is related to the developing ENSO and also the interdecadal variability of the sea surface temperature over the North Pacific and North Atlantic Ocean. The MME also captures the EOF2 at a 5-month lead with a PCC skill of 0.87 and a TCC skill of 0.67, but these skills are mainly obtained from the zonally symmetric component of the EOF2, not the prominent wavelike structure, the so-called circumglobal teleconnection (CGT) pattern. In both observation and the 1-month lead MME prediction, the first two leading modes are accompanied by significant rainfall and surface air temperature anomalies in the continental regions of the NH extratropics. The MME

  10. Mid-upper tropospheric methane retrieval from IASI and its validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Xiong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Mid-upper tropospheric methane (CH4, as an operational product at NOAA's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS, has been retrieved from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI since 2008. This paper provides a description of the retrieval method and the validation using 596 CH4 vertical profiles from aircraft measurements by the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO program over the Pacific Ocean. The number of degrees of freedom for the CH4 retrieval is mostly less than 1.5, and it decreases under cloudy conditions. The retrievals show greatest sensitivity between 100–600 hPa in the tropics and 200–750 hPa in the mid- to high latitude. Validation is accomplished using aircraft measurements (convolved by applying the monthly mean averaging kernels collocated with all the retrieved profiles within 200 km and on the same day, and the results show that, on average, a larger error of CH4 occurs at 300–500 hPa. The bias in the trapezoid of 374–477 hPa is −1.74% with a residual standard deviation of 1.20%, and at layer 596–753 hPa the bias is −0.69% with a residual standard deviation of 1.07%. The retrieval error is relatively larger in the high northern latitude regions and/or under cloudy conditions. The main reasons for this negative bias include the uncertainty in the spectroscopy near the methane Q branch and/or the empirical bias correction, plus residual cloud contamination in the cloud-cleared radiances. It is expected for NOAA to generate the CH4 product for 20 + years using a similar algorithm from three similar thermal infrared sensors: Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS, IASI and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS. Such a unique product will provide a supplementary to the current ground-based observation network, particularly in the Arctic, for monitoring the CH4 cycle, its transport and trend associated with climate change.

  11. The Relative Importance of Random Error and Observation Frequency in Detecting Trends in Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Vermeesch, Kevin C.; Oman, Luke D.; Weatherhead, Elizabeth C.

    2011-01-01

    Recent published work assessed the amount of time to detect trends in atmospheric water vapor over the coming century. We address the same question and conclude that under the most optimistic scenarios and assuming perfect data (i.e., observations with no measurement uncertainty) the time to detect trends will be at least 12 years at approximately 200 hPa in the upper troposphere. Our times to detect trends are therefore shorter than those recently reported and this difference is affected by data sources used, method of processing the data, geographic location and pressure level in the atmosphere where the analyses were performed. We then consider the question of how instrumental uncertainty plays into the assessment of time to detect trends. We conclude that due to the high natural variability in atmospheric water vapor, the amount of time to detect trends in the upper troposphere is relatively insensitive to instrumental random uncertainty and that it is much more important to increase the frequency of measurement than to decrease the random error in the measurement. This is put in the context of international networks such as the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN) and the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC) that are tasked with developing time series of climate quality water vapor data.

  12. Inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign. Part I. Observations with collocated radars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, P.; Serafimovich, A.; Peters, D.; Latteck, R. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik, Kuehlungsborn (Germany); Dalin, P. [Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden); Goldberg, R. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2006-07-01

    During the MaCWAVE campaign, combined rocket, radiosonde and ground-based measurements have been performed at the Norwegian Andoeya rocket range (ARR) near Andenes and the Swedish rocket range (ESRANGE) near Kiruna in January 2003 to study gravity waves in the vicinity of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The investigations presented here are mainly based on the evaluation of continuous radar measurements with the ALWIN VHP radar in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere at Andenes (69.3 N, 16.0 E) and the ESRAD VHP radar near Kiruna (67.9 N, 21.9 E). Both radars are separated by about 260 km. Based on wavelet transformations of both data sets, the strongest activity of inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere has been detected during the first period from 24-26 January 2003 with dominant vertical wavelengths of about 4-5 km as well as with dominant observed periods of about 13-14 h for the altitude range between 5 and 8 km under the additional influence of mountain waves. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of {proportional_to}200 km moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with intrinsic periods in the order of {proportional_to}5 h and with horizontal wavelengths of 200 km, moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. From the derived downward energy propagation it is supposed, that these waves are likely generated by a jet streak in the upper troposphere. The parameters of the jet-induced gravity waves have been estimated at both sites separately. The identified gravity waves are coherent at both locations and show higher amplitudes on the east-side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge, as expected by the influence of mountains. (orig.)

  13. Stratosphere-troposphere exchange in a summertime extratropical low: analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Brioude

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ozone and carbon monoxide measurements sampled during two commercial flights in airstreams of a summertime midlatitude cyclone are analysed with a Lagrangian-based study (backward trajectories and a Reverse Domain Filling technique to gain a comprehensive understanding of transport effects on trace gas distributions. The study demonstrates that summertime cyclones can be associated with deep stratosphere-troposphere transport. A tropopause fold is sampled twice in its life cycle, once in the lower troposphere (O3≃100 ppbv; CO≃90 ppbv in the dry airstream of the cyclone, and again in the upper troposphere (O3≃200 ppbv; CO≃90 ppbv on the northern side of the large scale potential vorticity feature associated with baroclinic development. In agreement with the maritime development of the cyclone, the chemical composition of the anticyclonic portion of the warm conveyor belt outflow (O3≃40 ppbv; CO≃85 ppbv corresponds to the lowest mixing ratios of both ozone and carbon monoxide in the upper tropospheric airborne observations. The uncertain degree of confidence of the Lagrangian-based technique applied to a 100 km segment of upper level airborne observations with high ozone (200 ppbv and relatively low CO (80 ppbv observed northwest of the cyclone prevents identification of the ozone enrichment process of air parcels embedded in the cyclonic part of the upper level outflow of the warm conveyor belt. Different hypotheses of stratosphere-troposphere exchange are discussed.

  14. Distribution of tropical tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, De-Zheng; Lindzen, Richard S.

    1993-01-01

    Utilizing a conceptual model for tropical convection and observational data for water vapor, the maintenance of the vertical distribution of the tropical tropospheric water vapor is discussed. While deep convection induces large-scale subsidence that constrains the turbulent downgradient mixing to within the convective boundary layer and effectively dries the troposphere through downward advection, it also pumps hydrometeors into the upper troposphere, whose subsequent evaporation appears to be the major source of moisture for the large-scale subsiding motion. The development of upper-level clouds and precipitation from these clouds may also act to dry the outflow, thus explaining the low relative humidity near the tropopause. A one-dimensional model is developed to simulate the mean vertical structure of water vapor in the tropical troposphere. It is also shown that the horizontal variation of water vapor in the tropical troposphere above the trade-wind boundary layer can be explained by the variation of a moisture source that is proportional to the amount of upper-level clouds. Implications for the nature of water vapor feedback in global warming are discussed.

  15. A large impact of tropical biomass burning on CO and CO{sub 2} in the upper troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidekazu Matsueda; Shoichi Taguchi; Hisayuki Y; Inoue & Masao Ishii [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba-shi (Japan). Geochemical Research Department

    2002-07-01

    A large interannual variation of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia is associated with the ENSO events. During 1997/98 and 1994 El Nino years, uncontrolled wildfires of tropical rainforests and peat lands in Indonesia were enlarged due to a long drought. Enhanced CO injection into the upper troposphere from the intense Indonesian fires was clearly observed in the 8-year measurements from a regular flask sampling over the western Pacific using a JAL airliner between Australia and Japan. This airliner observation also revealed that upper tropospheric CO{sub 2} cycle largely changed during the 1997 El Nio year due partly to the biomass burning emissions. Widespread pollution from the biomass burnings in Southeast Asia was simulated using a CO tracer driven by a 3D global chemical transport model. This simulation indicates that tropical deep convections connected to rapid advection by the subtropical jet play a significant role in dispersing biomass-burning emissions from Southeast Asia on a global scale.

  16. An upper tropospheric ‘ozone river’ from Africa to India during the 2008 Asian post-monsoon season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flore Tocquer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We have used ozone data from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer to follow an event of ozone-enriched air-masses in the upper troposphere from eastern Africa to northern India. The ozone transport (hereafter called ‘ozone river’ or O3R occurred during the Asian post-monsoon season in 2008 and was associated with Rossby wave propagation. The persistence of the O3R in a narrow channel was confirmed by MOZAIC airborne data over the northwestern Indian coast. The regions of origin of the O3R were identified by a transport analysis based on the Lagrangian model FLEXPART. The Lagrangian simulations combined with potential vorticity fields indicate that stratospheric intrusions are not likely to be the most important contributor to the observed O3 enhancements. A high-resolution Eulerian model, Meso-NH, with tagged tracers was used to discriminate between African biomass burning, lightnings and Indian anthropogenic pollution as potential sources of precursors for the O3R. Lightning NOx emissions, associated with convective clouds over Africa, were found to be the principal contributor to the ozone enhancement over the Indian Ocean taking advantage of a northeastward jet. This case study illustrates African lightning emissions as an important source for enhanced O3 in the upper troposphere over the Indian Ocean region during the post-monsoon season.

  17. Carbon monoxide distributions from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere inferred from 4.7 μm non-local thermal equilibrium emissions measured by MIPAS on Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Funke

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We present global distributions of carbon monoxide (CO from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere observed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS on Envisat. Vertically resolved volume mixing ratio profiles have been retrieved from 4.7 μm limb emission spectra under consideration of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium. The precision of individual CO profiles is typically 5–30 ppbv (15–40% for altitudes greater than 40 km and lower than 15 km and 30–90% within 15–40 km. Estimated systematic errors are in the order of 8–15%. Below 60 km, the vertical resolution is 4–7 km. The data set which covers 54 days from September 2003 to March 2004 has been derived with an improved retrieval version including (i the retrieval of log(vmr, (ii the consideration of illumination-dependent vibrational population gradients along the instrument's line of sight, and (iii joint-fitted vmr horizontal gradients in latitudinal and longitudinal directions. A detailed analysis of spatially resolved CO distributions during the 2003/2004 Northern Hemisphere major warming event demonstrate the potential of MIPAS CO observations to obtain new information on transport processes during dynamical active episodes, particularly on those acting in the vertical. From the temporal evolution of zonally averaged CO abundances, we derived extraordinary polar winter descent velocities of 1200 m per day inside the recovered polar vortex in January 2004. Middle stratospheric CO abundances show a well established correlation with the chemical source CH4, particularly in the tropics. In the upper troposphere, a moderate CO decrease from September 2003 to March 2004 was observed. Upper tropospheric CO observations provide a detailed picture of long-range transport of polluted air masses and uplift events. MIPAS observations taken on 9–11 September 2003 confirm the trapping of convective outflow of polluted CO-rich air from

  18. Trend-outflow method for understanding interactions of surface water with groundwater and atmospheric water for eight reaches of the Upper Rio Grande

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Sheng, Zhuping

    2011-11-01

    SummaryAtmospheric water, surface water, and groundwater interact very actively through hydrologic processes such as precipitation, infiltration, seepage, irrigation, drainage, evaporation, and evapotranspiration in the Upper Rio Grande Basin. A trend-outflow method has been developed in this paper to gain a better understanding of the interactions based on cumulated inflow and outflow data for any river reaches of interest. A general trend-outflow equation was derived by associating the net interaction of surface water with atmospheric water as a polynomial of inflow and the net interaction of surface water with groundwater as a constant based on surface water budget. Linear and quadratic relations are probably two common trend-outflow types in the real world. It was found that trend-outflows of the Upper Rio Grande reaches, Española, Albuquerque, Socorro-Engle, Palomas, and Rincon are linear with inflow, while those of reaches, Belen, Mesilla and Hueco are quadratic. Reaches Belen, Mesilla and Hueco are found as water deficit reaches mainly for irrigated agriculture in extreme drought years.

  19. The impact of monsoon outflow from India and Southeast Asia in the upper troposphere over the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; Roelofs, GJ; Williams, J; Fischer, H; de Reus, M; de Gouw, JA; Warneke, C; Holzinger, R; Schlager, H; Klupfel, T; Bolder, M; van der Veen, C; Lawrence, M

    2003-01-01

    A major objective of the Mediterranean INtensive Oxidant Study (MINOS) was to investigate long-range transport of pollutants ( notably ozone precursor species). Here we present trace gas measurements from the DLR ( German Aerospace Organization) Falcon aircraft in the eastern Mediterranean

  20. Regular in situ measurements of HDO/H216O in the northern and southern hemispherical upper troposphere reveal tropospheric transport processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christner, Emanuel; Dyroff, Christoph; Sanati, Shahrokh; Brenninkmeijer, Carl; Zahn, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    influence of convection on the isotopic composition of water in the upper troposphere. This finding is consistent with the well-known regions of deep convection over Africa, Malaysia and South America.

  1. Sub-seasonal temperature variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere observed with GPS radio occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherllin-Pirscher, Barbara; Randel, William J.; Kim, Joowan

    2017-04-01

    We investigate sub-seasonal temperature variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region using daily gridded fields of GPS radio occultation measurements. The unprecedented vertical resolution (from about 100 m in the troposphere to about 1.5 km in the stratosphere) and high accuracy and precision (0.7 K to 1 K between 8 km and 25 km) make these data ideal for characterizing temperature oscillations with short vertical wavelengths. Long-term behavior of sub-seasonal temperature variability is investigated using the entire RO record from January 2002 to December 2014 (13 years of data). Transient sub-seasonal waves including eastward-propagating Kelvin waves (isolated with space-time spectral analysis) dominate large-scale zonal temperature variability in the tropical tropopause region and in the lower stratosphere. Above 20 km, Kelvin waves are strongly modulated by the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). Enhanced wave activity can be found during the westerly shear phase of the QBO. In the tropical tropopause region, however, sub-seasonal waves are highly transient in time. Several peaks of Kelvin-wave activity coincide with short-term fluctuations in tropospheric deep convection, but other episodes are not evidently related. Also, there are no obvious relationships with zonal winds or stability fields near the tropical tropopause. Further investigations of convective forcing and atmospheric background conditions along the waves' trajectories are needed to better understand sub-seasonal temperature variability near the tropopause. For more details, see Scherllin-Pirscher, B., Randel, W. J., and Kim, J.: Tropical temperature variability and Kelvin-wave activity in the UTLS from GPS RO measurements, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 17, 793-806, doi:10.5194/acp-17-793-2017, 2017. http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/17/793/2017/acp-17-793-2017.html

  2. Sources of HO x and production of ozone in the upper troposphere over the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jaeglé, L.; Jacob, Daniel James; Brune, W. H.; Tan, D.; Faloona, I. C.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Ridley, B. A.; Campos, T. L.; Sachse, G. W.

    1998-01-01

    The sources of HOx (OH+peroxy radicals) and the associated production of ozone at 8–12 km over the United States are examined by modeling observations of OH, HO2, NO, and other species during the SUCCESS aircraft campaign in April–May 1996. The HOx concentrations measured in SUCCESS are up to a factor of 3 higher than can be calculated from oxidation of water vapor and photolysis of acetone. The highest discrepancy was seen in the outflow of a convective storm. We show that convective injecti...

  3. Satellite observations and modeling of transport in the upper troposphere through the lower mesosphere during the 2006 major stratospheric sudden warming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Daffer

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available An unusually strong and prolonged stratospheric sudden warming (SSW in January 2006 was the first major SSW for which globally distributed long-lived trace gas data are available covering the upper troposphere through the lower mesosphere. We use Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS, Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS data, the SLIMCAT Chemistry Transport Model (CTM, and assimilated meteorological analyses to provide a comprehensive picture of transport during this event. The upper tropospheric ridge that triggered the SSW was associated with an elevated tropopause and layering in trace gas profiles in conjunction with stratospheric and tropospheric intrusions. Anomalous poleward transport (with corresponding quasi-isentropic troposphere-to-stratosphere exchange at the lowest levels studied in the region over the ridge extended well into the lower stratosphere. In the middle and upper stratosphere, the breakdown of the polar vortex transport barrier was seen in a signature of rapid, widespread mixing in trace gases, including CO, H2O, CH4 and N2O. The vortex broke down slightly later and more slowly in the lower than in the middle stratosphere. In the middle and lower stratosphere, small remnants with trace gas values characteristic of the pre-SSW vortex lingered through the weak and slow recovery of the vortex. The upper stratospheric vortex quickly reformed, and, as enhanced diabatic descent set in, CO descended into this strong vortex, echoing the fall vortex development. Trace gas evolution in the SLIMCAT CTM agrees well with that in the satellite trace gas data from the upper troposphere through the middle stratosphere. In the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere, the SLIMCAT simulation does not capture the strong descent of mesospheric CO and H2O values into the reformed vortex; this poor CTM performance in the upper stratosphere and lower mesosphere results

  4. A simple climatology of westerly jet streams in global reanalysis datasets part 1: mid-latitude upper tropospheric jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikus, Lawrie

    2018-04-01

    A simple closed contour object identification scheme has been applied to the zonal mean monthly mean zonal wind fields from nine global reanalysis data sets for 31 years of the satellite era (1979-2009) to identify objects corresponding to westerly jet streams. The results cluster naturally into six individual jet streams but only the mid-latitude upper-tropospheric jets are considered here. The time series of the jet properties from all reanalyses are decomposed into seasonal means and anomalies, and correlations between variables are evaluated, with the aim of identifying robust features which can form the basis of evaluation metrics for climate model simulations of the twentieth century. There is substantial agreement between all the reanalyses for all jet properties although there are some systematic differences with particular data sets. Some of the results from the object identification applied to the reanalyses are used in a simple example of a model evaluation score for the zonal mean jet seasonal cycle.

  5. A modelling study of the impact of cirrus clouds on the moisture budget of the upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fueglistaler

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a modelling study of the effect of cirrus clouds on the moisture budget of the layer wherein the cloud formed. Our framework simplifies many aspects of cloud microphysics and collapses the problem of sedimentation onto a 0-dimensional box model, but retains essential feedbacks between saturation mixing ratio, particle growth, and water removal through particle sedimentation. The water budget is described by two coupled first-order differential equations for dimensionless particle number density and saturation point temperature, where the parameters defining the system (layer depth, reference temperature, amplitude and time scale of temperature perturbation and inital particle number density, which may or may not be a function of reference temperature and cooling rate are encapsulated in a single coefficient. This allows us to scale the results to a broad range of atmospheric conditions, and to test sensitivities. Results of the moisture budget calculations are presented for a range of atmospheric conditions (T: 238–205 K; p: 325–180 hPa and a range of time scales τT of the temperature perturbation that induces the cloud formation. The cirrus clouds are found to efficiently remove water for τT longer than a few hours, with longer perturbations (τT≳10 h required at lower temperatures (T≲210 K. Conversely, we find that temperature perturbations of duration order 1 h and less (a typical timescale for e.g., gravity waves do not efficiently dehydrate over most of the upper troposphere. A consequence is that (for particle densities typical of current cirrus clouds the assumption of complete dehydration to the saturation mixing ratio may yield valid predictions for upper tropospheric moisture distributions if it is based on the large scale temperature field, but this assumption is not necessarily valid if it is based on smaller scale temperature fields.

  6. Large-scale upper tropospheric pollution observed by MIPAS HCN and C2H6 global distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatthor, N.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G. P.; Funke, B.; Koukouli, M. E.; Fischer, H.; Grabowski, U.; Höpfner, M.; Kellmann, S.; Linden, A.

    2009-12-01

    We present global upper tropospheric HCN and C2H6 amounts derived from MIPAS/ENVISAT limb emission spectra. HCN and C2H6 are retrieved in the spectral regions 715.5-782.7 cm-1 and 811.5-835.7 cm-1, respectively. The datasets consist of 54 days between September 2003 and March 2004. This period covers the peak and decline of the southern hemispheric biomass burning period and some months thereafter. HCN is a nearly unambiguous tracer of biomass burning with an assumed tropospheric lifetime of several months. Indeed, the most significant feature in the MIPAS HCN dataset is an upper tropospheric plume of enhanced values caused by southern hemispheric biomass burning, which in September and October 2003 extended from tropical South America over Africa, Australia to the Southern Pacific. The spatial extent of this plume agrees well with the MOPITT CO distribution of September 2003. Further there is good agreement with the shapes and mixing ratios of the southern hemispheric HCN and C2H6 fields measured by the ACE experiment between September and November 2005. The MIPAS HCN plume extended from the lowermost observation height of 8 km up to about 16 km altitude, with maximum values of 500-600 pptv in October 2003. It was still clearly visible in December 2003, but had strongly decreased by March 2004, confirming the assumed tropospheric lifetime. The main sources of C2H6 are production and transmission of fossil fuels, followed by biofuel use and biomass burning. The C2H6 distribution also clearly reflected the southern hemispheric biomass burning plume and its seasonal variation, with maximum amounts of 600-700 pptv. Generally there was good spatial overlap between the southern hemispheric distributions of both pollution tracers, except for the region between Peru and the mid-Pacific. Here C2H6was considerably enhanced, whereas the HCN amounts were low. Backward trajectory calculations suggested that industrial pollution was responsible for the elevated C2H6

  7. Large-scale upper tropospheric pollution observed by MIPAS HCN and C2H6 global distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Linden

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We present global upper tropospheric HCN and C2H6 amounts derived from MIPAS/ENVISAT limb emission spectra. HCN and C2H6 are retrieved in the spectral regions 715.5–782.7 cm−1 and 811.5–835.7 cm−1, respectively. The datasets consist of 54 days between September 2003 and March 2004. This period covers the peak and decline of the southern hemispheric biomass burning period and some months thereafter. HCN is a nearly unambiguous tracer of biomass burning with an assumed tropospheric lifetime of several months. Indeed, the most significant feature in the MIPAS HCN dataset is an upper tropospheric plume of enhanced values caused by southern hemispheric biomass burning, which in September and October 2003 extended from tropical South America over Africa, Australia to the Southern Pacific. The spatial extent of this plume agrees well with the MOPITT CO distribution of September 2003. Further there is good agreement with the shapes and mixing ratios of the southern hemispheric HCN and C2H6 fields measured by the ACE experiment between September and November 2005. The MIPAS HCN plume extended from the lowermost observation height of 8 km up to about 16 km altitude, with maximum values of 500–600 pptv in October 2003. It was still clearly visible in December 2003, but had strongly decreased by March 2004, confirming the assumed tropospheric lifetime. The main sources of C2H6 are production and transmission of fossil fuels, followed by biofuel use and biomass burning. The C2H6 distribution also clearly reflected the southern hemispheric biomass burning plume and its seasonal variation, with maximum amounts of 600–700 pptv. Generally there was good spatial overlap between the southern hemispheric distributions of both pollution tracers, except for the region between Peru and the mid-Pacific. Here C2H6was considerably enhanced, whereas the HCN amounts were low. Backward trajectory calculations suggested that industrial pollution was responsible

  8. Assessment of upper tropospheric and stratospheric water vapor and ozone in reanalyses as part of S-RIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sean M.; Hegglin, Michaela I.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Dragani, Rossana; Harada, Yayoi; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Long, Craig; Manney, Gloria L.; Nash, Eric R.; Potter, Gerald L.; Tegtmeier, Susann; Wang, Tao; Wargan, Krzysztof; Wright, Jonathon S.

    2017-10-01

    Reanalysis data sets are widely used to understand atmospheric processes and past variability, and are often used to stand in as "observations" for comparisons with climate model output. Because of the central role of water vapor (WV) and ozone (O3) in climate change, it is important to understand how accurately and consistently these species are represented in existing global reanalyses. In this paper, we present the results of WV and O3 intercomparisons that have been performed as part of the SPARC (Stratosphere-troposphere Processes and their Role in Climate) Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (S-RIP). The comparisons cover a range of timescales and evaluate both inter-reanalysis and observation-reanalysis differences. We also provide a systematic documentation of the treatment of WV and O3 in current reanalyses to aid future research and guide the interpretation of differences amongst reanalysis fields.The assimilation of total column ozone (TCO) observations in newer reanalyses results in realistic representations of TCO in reanalyses except when data coverage is lacking, such as during polar night. The vertical distribution of ozone is also relatively well represented in the stratosphere in reanalyses, particularly given the relatively weak constraints on ozone vertical structure provided by most assimilated observations and the simplistic representations of ozone photochemical processes in most of the reanalysis forecast models. However, significant biases in the vertical distribution of ozone are found in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in all reanalyses.In contrast to O3, reanalysis estimates of stratospheric WV are not directly constrained by assimilated data. Observations of atmospheric humidity are typically used only in the troposphere, below a specified vertical level at or near the tropopause. The fidelity of reanalysis stratospheric WV products is therefore mainly dependent on the reanalyses' representation of the physical drivers that

  9. Evaluating Lightning-generated NOx (LNOx) Parameterization based on Cloud Top Height at Resolutions with Partially-resolved Convection for Upper Tropospheric Chemistry Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J.; Barth, M. C.; Noone, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    Lightning-generated nitrogen oxides (LNOx) is an important precursor to tropospheric ozone production. With a meteorological time-scale variability similar to that of the ozone chemical lifetime, it can nonlinearly perturb tropospheric ozone concentration. Coupled with upper-air circulation patterns, LNOx can accumulate in significant amount in the upper troposphere with other precursors, thus enhancing ozone production (see attached figure). While LNOx emission has been included and tuned extensively in global climate models, its inclusions in regional chemistry models are seldom tested. Here we present a study that evaluates the frequently used Price and Rind parameterization based on cloud-top height at resolutions that partially resolve deep convection using the Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) over the contiguous United States. With minor modifications, the parameterization is shown to generate integrated flash counts close to those observed. However, the modeled frequency distribution of cloud-to-ground flashes do not represent well for storms with high flash rates, bringing into question the applicability of the intra-cloud/ground partitioning (IC:CG) formulation of Price and Rind in some studies. Resolution dependency also requires attention when sub-grid cloud-tops are used instead of the originally intended grid-averaged cloud-top. LNOx passive tracers being gathered by monsoonal upper tropospheric anticyclone.

  10. Viscous organic aerosol particles in the upper troposphere: diffusivity-controlled water uptake and ice nucleation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Lienhard

    2015-12-01

    secondary organic aerosol (SOA material produced by oxidation of α-pinene and in a number of organic/inorganic model mixtures (3-methylbutane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (3-MBTCA, levoglucosan, levoglucosan/NH4HSO4, raffinose are presented. These indicate that water diffusion coefficients are determined by several properties of the aerosol substance and cannot be inferred from the glass transition temperature or bouncing properties. Our results suggest that water diffusion in SOA particles is faster than often assumed and imposes no significant kinetic limitation on water uptake and release at temperatures above 220 K. The fast diffusion of water suggests that heterogeneous ice nucleation on a glassy core is very unlikely in these systems. At temperatures below 220 K, model simulations of SOA particles suggest that heterogeneous ice nucleation may occur in the immersion mode on glassy cores which remain embedded in a liquid shell when experiencing fast updraft velocities. The particles absorb significant quantities of water during these updrafts which plasticize their outer layers such that these layers equilibrate readily with the gas phase humidity before the homogeneous ice nucleation threshold is reached. Glass formation is thus unlikely to restrict homogeneous ice nucleation. Only under most extreme conditions near the very high tropical tropopause may the homogeneous ice nucleation rate coefficient be reduced as a consequence of slow condensed-phase water diffusion. Since the differences between the behavior limited or non limited by diffusion are small even at the very high tropical tropopause, condensed-phase water diffusivity is unlikely to have significant consequences on the direct climatic effects of SOA particles under tropospheric conditions.

  11. Does acetone react with HO2 in the upper-troposphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical calculations showed that reaction with HO2 could be an important sink for acetone (CH3C(OCH3 and source of acetic acid (CH3C(OOH in cold parts of the atmosphere (e.g. the tropopause region. This work details studies of HO2 + CH3C(OCH3 (CH32C(OHOO (R1 in laboratory-based and theoretical chemistry experiments; the atmospheric significance of Reaction (R1 was assessed in a global 3-D chemical model. Pulsed laser-kinetic experiments were conducted, for the first time, at the low-temperatures representative of the tropopause. Reaction with NO converted HO2 to OH for detection by laser induced fluorescence. Reduced yields of OH at T 2 by CH3C(OCH3 with a forward rate coefficient greater than 2 × 10−12 cm3 molecule−1 s−1. No evidence for Reaction (R1 was observed at T > 230 K, probably due to rapid thermal dissociation back to HO2 + CH3C(OCH3. Numerical simulations of the data indicate that these experiments were sensitive to only (R1a HO2-CH3C(OCH3 complex formation, the first step in (R1. Rearrangement (R1b of the complex to form peroxy radicals, and hence the atmospheric significance of (R1 has yet to be rigorously verified by experiment. Results from new quantum chemical calculations indicate that K1 is characterised by large uncertainties of at least an order of magnitude at T 3C(OCH3 near the tropopause, it cannot explain observations of CH3C(OOH throughout the troposphere.

  12. The influence of tropospheric static stability on upper-level frontogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Saute, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Upper-level frontogenesis in an inviscid, dry and adiabatic fluid forced by confluence is investigated by means of a two-dimensional semi-geostrophic model using the specific volume as an isentropic vertical coordinate. The initial conditions are specified given an analytical continuous potential vorticity field in the presence of a temperature contrast at the ground, the lower boundary condition requiring an appropriate treatment because the ground intersects the first levels of the model. T...

  13. Overview and sample applications of SMILES and Odin-SMR retrievals of upper tropospheric humidity and cloud ice mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eriksson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Retrievals of cloud ice mass and humidity from the Superconducting Submillimeter-Wave Limb-Emission Sounder (SMILES and the Odin-SMR (Sub-Millimetre Radiometer limb sounder are presented and example applications of the data are given. SMILES data give an unprecedented view of the diurnal variation of cloud ice mass. Mean regional diurnal cycles are reported and compared to some global climate models. Some improvements in the models regarding diurnal timing and relative amplitude were noted, but the models' mean ice mass around 250 hPa is still low compared to the observations. The influence of the ENSO (El Niño–Southern Oscillation state on the upper troposphere is demonstrated using 12 years of Odin-SMR data. The same retrieval scheme is applied for both sensors, and gives low systematic differences between the two data sets. A special feature of this Bayesian retrieval scheme, of Monte Carlo integration type, is that values are produced for all measurements but for some atmospheric states retrieved values only reflect a priori assumptions. However, this "all-weather" capability allows a direct statistical comparison to model data, in contrast to many other satellite data sets. Another strength of the retrievals is the detailed treatment of "beam filling" that otherwise would cause large systematic biases for these passive cloud ice mass retrievals. The main retrieval inputs are spectra around 635/525 GHz from tangent altitudes below 8/9 km for SMILES/Odin-SMR, respectively. For both sensors, the data cover the upper troposphere between 30° S and 30° N. Humidity is reported as both relative humidity and volume mixing ratio. The vertical coverage of SMILES is restricted to a single layer, while Odin-SMR gives some profiling capability between 300 and 150 hPa. Ice mass is given as the partial ice water path above 260 hPa, but for Odin-SMR ice water content, estimates are also provided. Besides a smaller contrast between most dry and wet

  14. An Aircraft-Based Upper Troposphere Lower Stratosphere O3, CO, and H2O Climatology for the Northern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilmes, S.; Pan, L. L.; Hoor, P.; Atlas, E.; Avery, M. A.; Campos, T.; Christensen, L. E.; Diskin, G. S.; Gao, R.-S.; Herman, R. L.; hide

    2010-01-01

    We present a climatology of O3, CO, and H2O for the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), based on a large collection of high ]resolution research aircraft data taken between 1995 and 2008. To group aircraft observations with sparse horizontal coverage, the UTLS is divided into three regimes: the tropics, subtropics, and the polar region. These regimes are defined using a set of simple criteria based on tropopause height and multiple tropopause conditions. Tropopause ]referenced tracer profiles and tracer ]tracer correlations show distinct characteristics for each regime, which reflect the underlying transport processes. The UTLS climatology derived here shows many features of earlier climatologies. In addition, mixed air masses in the subtropics, identified by O3 ]CO correlations, show two characteristic modes in the tracer ]tracer space that are a result of mixed air masses in layers above and below the tropopause (TP). A thin layer of mixed air (1.2 km around the tropopause) is identified for all regions and seasons, where tracer gradients across the TP are largest. The most pronounced influence of mixing between the tropical transition layer and the subtropics was found in spring and summer in the region above 380 K potential temperature. The vertical extent of mixed air masses between UT and LS reaches up to 5 km above the TP. The tracer correlations and distributions in the UTLS derived here can serve as a reference for model and satellite data evaluation

  15. Ozone sonde cell current measurements and implications for observations of near-zero ozone concentrations in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Vömel

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory measurements of the Electrochemical Concentration Cell (ECC ozone sonde cell current using ozone free air as well as defined amounts of ozone reveal that background current measurements during sonde preparation are neither constant as a function of time, nor constant as a function of ozone concentration. Using a background current, measured at a defined timed after exposure to high ozone may often overestimate the real background, leading to artificially low ozone concentrations in the upper tropical troposphere, and may frequently lead to operator dependent uncertainties. Based on these laboratory measurements an improved cell current to partial pressure conversion is proposed, which removes operator dependent variability in the background reading and possible artifacts in this measurement. Data from the Central Equatorial Pacific Experiment (CEPEX have been reprocessed using the improved background treatment based on these laboratory measurements. In the reprocessed data set near-zero ozone events no longer occur. At Samoa, Fiji, Tahiti, and San Cristóbal, nearly all near-zero ozone concentrations occur in soundings with larger background currents. To a large extent, these events are no longer observed in the reprocessed data set using the improved background treatment.

  16. A Laser-Induced Fluorescence Instrument for Aircraft Measurements of Sulfur Dioxide in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Andrew W.; Thornberry, Troy D.; Ciciora, Steven J.; McLaughlin, Richard J.; Watts, Laurel A.; Hanisco, Thomas F.; Baumann, Esther; Giorgetta, Fabrizio R.; Bui, Thaopaul V.; Fahey, David W.

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the development and testing of a new instrument for in situ measurements of sulfur dioxide (SO2) on airborne platforms in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS). The instrument is based on the laser-induced fluorescence technique and uses the fifth harmonic of a tunable fiber-amplified semiconductor diode laser system at 1084.5 nm to excite SO2 at 216.9 nm. Sensitivity and background checks are achieved in flight by additions of SO2 calibration gas and zero air, respectively. Aircraft demonstration was performed during the NASA Volcano Plume Investigation Readiness and Gas-Phase and Aerosol Sulfur (VIRGAS) experiment, which was a series of flights using the NASA WB-57F during October 2015 based at Ellington Field and Harlingen, Texas. During these flights, the instrument successfully measured SO2 in the UTLS at background (non-volcanic) conditions with a precision of 2 ppt at 10 s and an overall uncertainty determined primarily by instrument drifts of +/- (16% + 0.9 ppt).

  17. Observed OH and HO2 concentrations in the upper troposphere inside and outside of Asian monsoon influenced air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marno, D. R.; Künstler, C.; Hens, K.; Tatum Ernest, C.; Broch, S.; Fuchs, H.; Martinez, M.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Williams, J.; Holland, F.; Hofzumahaus, A.; Tomsche, L.; Fischer, H.; Klausner, T.; Schlager, H.; Eirenschmalz, L.; Stratmann, G.; Stock, P.; Ziereis, H.; Roiger, A.; Bohn, B.; Zahn, A.; Wahner, A.; Lelieveld, J.; Harder, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Asian monsoon convectively transports pollutants like volatile organic compounds (VOCs), NOx, and SO2 from the boundary layer over South Asia into the upper troposphere where they can potentially enter the stratosphere, or be dispersed globally. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the oxidizing capacity of this system regarding the rate of aerosol formation, and conversion of pollutants into compounds that have much shorter atmospheric lifetimes. OH plays a central role in this oxidation process. During the OMO-ASIA campaign in the summer of 2015, OH and HO2 were measured onboard the High Altitude Long-Range (HALO) Research Aircraft. Two laser-induced fluorescence instruments based on the fluorescence assay by gas expansion technique (LIF-FAGE) had been deployed, the AIR-LIF instrument from Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH and the HORUS instrument from the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, Mainz. To measure the chemical background of OH potentially produced inside the HORUS instrument from highly oxidized VOCs, atmospheric OH is scavenged by an Inlet Pre-injector (IPI) system. This was the first time an IPI system was implemented within an airborne LIF-FAGE instrument measuring OH and HO2. Throughout this campaign OH and HO2 were measured at 12 to 15km within the Asian monsoon anticyclone. These measurements have been contrasted by probing air outside the anticyclone in air masses influenced by North American emissions, and in very clean air masses originated from the southern hemisphere.

  18. Retrieval of water vapor vertical distributions in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere from SCIAMACHY limb measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rozanov

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the retrieval of water vapor vertical distributions in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS altitude range from space-borne observations of the scattered solar light made in limb viewing geometry. First results using measurements from SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY aboard ENVISAT (Environmental Satellite are presented here. In previous publications, the retrieval of water vapor vertical distributions has been achieved exploiting either the emitted radiance leaving the atmosphere or the transmitted solar radiation. In this study, the scattered solar radiation is used as a new source of information on the water vapor content in the UTLS region. A recently developed retrieval algorithm utilizes the differential absorption structure of the water vapor in 1353–1410 nm spectral range and yields the water vapor content in the 11–25 km altitude range. In this study, the retrieval algorithm is successfully applied to SCIAMACHY limb measurements and the resulting water vapor profiles are compared to in situ balloon-borne observations. The results from both satellite and balloon-borne instruments are found to agree typically within 10 %.

  19. Nitric acid particles in cold thick ice clouds observed at global scale: Link with lightning, temperature, and upper tropospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepfer, H.; Minnis, P.; Dubuisson, P.; Chiriaco, M.; Sun-Mack, S.; RivièRe, E. D.

    2007-03-01

    Signatures of nitric acid particles (NAP) in cold thick ice clouds have been derived from satellite observations. Most NAP are detected in the tropics (9 to 20% of clouds with T < 202.5 K). Higher occurrences were found in the rare midlatitudes very cold clouds. NAP occurrence increases as cloud temperature decreases, and NAP are more numerous in January than July. Comparisons of NAP and lightning distributions show that lightning seems to be the main source of the NOx, which forms NAP in cold clouds over continents. Qualitative comparisons of NAP with upper tropospheric humidity distributions suggest that NAP may play a role in the dehydration of the upper troposphere when the tropopause is colder than 195 K.

  20. MIPAS measurements of upper tropospheric C2H6 and O3 during the southern hemispheric biomass burning season in 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Steck

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Under cloud free conditions, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS provides measurements of spectrally resolved limb radiances down to the upper troposphere. These are used to infer global distributions of mixing ratios of atmospheric constituents in the upper troposphere and the stratosphere. From 21 October to 12 November 2003, MIPAS observed enhanced amounts of upper tropospheric C2H6 (up to about 400 pptv and ozone (up to about 80 ppbv. The absolute values of C2H6, however, may be systematically low by about 30% due to uncertainties of the spectroscopic data used. By means of trajectory calculations, the enhancements observed in the southern hemisphere are, at least partly, attributed to a biomass burning plume, which covers wide parts of the Southern hemisphere, from South America, the Atlantic Ocean, Africa, the Indian Ocean to Australia. The chemical composition of the part of the plume-like pollution belt associated with South American fires, where rainforest burning is predominant appears different from the part of the plume associated with southern African savanna burning. In particular, African savanna fires lead to a larger ozone enhancement than equatorial American fires. In this analysis, MIPAS observations of high ozone were disregarded where low CFC-11 (below 245 pptv was observed, because this hints at a stratospheric component in the measured signal. Different type of vegetation burning (flaming versus smouldering combustion has been identified as a candidate explanation for the different plume compositions.

  1. Observations of HO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO. NO{sub x} control of the photochemical production and removal of ozone in the upper troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennberg, P O; Hanisco, T F; Lanzendorf, E L; Jaegle, L Y; Jacob, D J; Cohen, R C; Anderson, J G [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; [Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Fahey, D W; Gao, R S; Keim, E R [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; others, and

    1998-12-31

    In-situ measurements from the NASA ER2 aircraft provide the first observations of the odd-hydrogen radicals in the upper troposphere. A new photochemical model was constructed to explain the observations. Based on the model, the way of NO{sub x} influence on the photochemistry of ozone was determined. The measurements also explain why high NO{sub x}/NO{sub y} ratios are sustained in the upper troposphere. (R.P.)

  2. Observations of HO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, NO{sub y}, and CO. NO{sub x} control of the photochemical production and removal of ozone in the upper troposphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wennberg, P.O.; Hanisco, T.F.; Lanzendorf, E.L.; Jaegle, L.Y.; Jacob, D.J.; Cohen, R.C.; Anderson, J.G. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Dept. of Earth and Planetary Sciences; Fahey, D.W.; Gao, R.S.; Keim, E.R. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Boulder, CO (United States). Aeronomy Lab.; and others

    1997-12-31

    In-situ measurements from the NASA ER2 aircraft provide the first observations of the odd-hydrogen radicals in the upper troposphere. A new photochemical model was constructed to explain the observations. Based on the model, the way of NO{sub x} influence on the photochemistry of ozone was determined. The measurements also explain why high NO{sub x}/NO{sub y} ratios are sustained in the upper troposphere. (R.P.)

  3. The effects of deep convection on the concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles within the upper troposphere: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yan; Chen, Qian; Jin, Lianji; Chen, Baojun; Zhu, Shichao; Zhang, Xiaopei

    2012-11-01

    A cloud resolving model coupled with a spectral bin microphysical scheme was used to investigate the effects of deep convection on the concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles within the upper troposphere. A deep convective storm that occurred on 1 December, 2005 in Darwin, Australia was simulated, and was compared with available radar observations. The results showed that the radar echo of the storm in the developing stage was well reproduced by the model. Sensitivity tests for aerosol layers at different altitudes were conducted in order to understand how the concentration and size distribution of aerosol particles within the upper troposphere can be influenced by the vertical transport of aerosols as a result of deep convection. The results indicated that aerosols originating from the boundary layer can be more efficiently transported upward, as compared to those from the mid-troposphere, due to significantly increased vertical velocity through the reinforced homogeneous freezing of droplets. Precipitation increased when aerosol layers were lofted at different altitudes, except for the case where an aerosol layer appeared at 5.4-8.0 km, in which relatively more efficient heterogeneous ice nucleation and subsequent Wegener-Bergeron-Findeisen process resulted in more pronounced production of ice crystals, and prohibited the formation of graupel particles via accretion. Sensitivity tests revealed, at least for the cases considered, that the concentration of aerosol particles within the upper troposphere increased by a factor of 7.71, 5.36, and 5.16, respectively, when enhanced aerosol layers existed at 0-2.2 km, 2.2-5.4 km, and 5.4-8.0 km, with Aitken mode and a portion of accumulation mode (0.1-0.2μm) particles being the most susceptible to upward transport.

  4. ATom observations of new particle formation in the tropical upper troposphere. The role of convection and nucleation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupc, A.; Williamson, C.; Hodshire, A. L.; Pierce, J. R.; Ray, E. A.; Froyd, K. D.; Richardson, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Dollner, M.; Erdesz, F.; Bui, T. V.; Diskin, G. S.; Brock, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of size distributions during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) reveal high number concentrations (>>1000 cm-3) of nucleation mode particles at high altitudes in the tropics and subtropics under low condensation sink conditions and are associated with upwelling in convective clouds. The broad spatial extent of these newly formed particles shows that the upper free troposphere (FT) of the tropics and subtropics is a globally significant source. In this study, we investigate the link between convection and new particle formation (NPF) by exploring the processes that govern NPF and growth in the tropical and subtropical FT of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. We use measurements of the size distributions made with a suite of fast-response instruments on board of a NASA DC-8 aircraft during ATom mission. ATom maps the remote atmosphere over the Pacific and Atlantic basins ( 80 °N and 65 °S) in continuous ascents and descents (0.2 and 13 km), providing the latitudinal and vertical information on the greenhouse gases, reactive and tracer species and aerosol properties and their seasonal variability. We couple measurements of size distributions between 0.003 and 4.8 µm and potential aerosol precursor vapors measured on ATom (August 2016 and February 2017) with calculated air mass back trajectories and the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) box model. The back trajectories identify air masses potentially influenced by recent convection. We then use TOMAS to model particle nucleation, condensation and coagulation along that trajectory to investigate the link between convection and NPF. Through TOMAS, we explore the influence of different nucleation mechanisms (such as binary, ternary or the one with organics) and gas-phase aerosol precursors (such as sulfur dioxide) on observed particle size distributions. We discuss similarities and differences in NPF over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and their relationship to convection, examine particle

  5. Seasonality of Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using the MIPAS-E instrument

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Moore

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding onboard ENVISAT (MIPAS–E offers the opportunity to detect and spectrally resolve many atmospheric minor constituents affecting atmospheric chemistry. In this paper, we retrieve global, seasonal PAN volume mixing ratio (vmr data from MIPAS-E measurements made in January, March, August and October 2003 and present results from this scheme between approximately 300 and 150 hPa. The total error on a single PAN retrieval is better than 20% outside the tropics and better than 50% in the tropics where uncertainties in water vapor dominate the total error budget. We observe clear differences in the seasonal cycle of PAN in our data, linked closely to biomass burning regions and growing seasons. Highest Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude PAN vmrs were observed in August (300–600 pptv on average compared with the January and October data (less than 250 pptv on average. In the March 2003 data we observe highest PAN vmrs in the tropics with evidence of vmrs between 600 and 1000 pptv over Eastern Asia and over the Central Pacific at 333 hPa. The vertical distribution of PAN as a function of latitude (i.e. the zonal mean highlights the strong inter-annual variability of PAN in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS, most pronounced poleward of 40° N (up to 400 pptv over the year. The variability of PAN in the tropical UTLS is also significant and we derive a variability of up to 250 pptv in the averages between January and October 2003. These results represent the first seasonal observations of PAN in the UTLS.

  6. Transport pathways for Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific: Interannual and seasonal variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Sachse, Glen W.

    2003-10-01

    The meteorological pathways contributing to Asian pollution outflow over the Pacific are examined with a global three-dimensional model analysis of CO observations from the Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) aircraft mission (February-April 2001). The model is used also to place the TRACE-P observations in an interannual (1994-2001) and seasonal context. The major process driving Asian pollution outflow in spring is frontal lifting ahead of southeastward-moving cold fronts (the leading edge of cold surges) and transport in the boundary layer behind the cold fronts. Orographic lifting over central and eastern China combines with the cold fronts to promote the transport of Chinese pollution to the free troposphere. Outflow of seasonal biomass burning in Southeast Asia during spring takes place mostly by deep convection but also by northeastward transport and frontal lifting, mixing with the anthropogenic outflow. Boundary layer outflow over the western Pacific is largely devoid of biomass burning influence. European and African (biomass burning) plumes in Asian outflow during TRACE-P were weak (pollution signal. Spring 2001 (La Niña) was characterized by unusually frequent cold surge events in the Asian Pacific rim and strong convection in Southeast Asia, leading to unusually strong boundary layer outflow of anthropogenic emissions and convective outflow of biomass burning emissions in the upper troposphere. The Asian outflow flux of CO to the Pacific is found to vary seasonally by a factor of 3-4 (maximum in March and minimum in summer). The March maximum results from frequent cold surge events and seasonal biomass burning emissions.

  7. Observations of fine-scale transport structure in the upper troposphere from the High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Kenneth P.; Pan, Laura L.; Campos, Teresa; Gao, Rushan

    2007-09-01

    The Progressive Science Mission in December 2005 was the first research use of the new NCAR High-performance Instrumented Airborne Platform for Environmental Research (HIAPER) aircraft. The Stratosphere-Troposphere Analyses of Regional Transport (START) component of the mission was designed to investigate the dynamical and chemical structure of the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Flight 5 of the Progressive Science mission was a START flight that sampled near the tropopause in an area between the main jet stream and a large, quasi-stationary, cutoff low. The large-scale flow in this region was characterized by a hyperbolic (saddle) point. In this study the in situ measurements by HIAPER are combined with flow analyses and satellite data to investigate the quasi-isentropic stirring of trace species in the upper troposphere. As expected from theoretical considerations, strong stretching and folding deformation of the flow near the hyperbolic point resulted in rapid filamentation of air masses and sharp gradients of constituents. Calculations of the stirring using operational meteorological analyses from the NCEP Global Forecast System model produced excellent agreement with HIAPER and satellite observations of trace species. Back trajectories indicate that elevated ozone levels in some filaments likely came from a large stratospheric intrusion that occurred upstream in the jet over the north Pacific Ocean. The methods presented here can be used with operational forecasts for future flight planning.

  8. Interrelated variations of O3, CO and deep convection in the tropical/subtropical upper troposphere observed by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS during 2004–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Froidevaux

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interrelated geographic and temporal variability seen in more than seven years of tropical and subtropical upper tropospheric (215 hPa ozone, carbon monoxide and cloud ice water content (IWC observations by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS are presented. Observed ozone abundances and their variability (geographic and temporal agree to within 10–15 ppbv with records from sonde observations. MLS complements these (and other observations with global coverage and simultaneous measurements of related parameters. Previously-reported phenomena such as the ozone "wave one" feature are clearly seen in the MLS observations, as is a double peak in ozone abundance over tropical East Africa, with enhanced abundances in both May to June and September to November. While repeatable seasonal cycles are seen in many regions, they are often accompanied by significant interannual variability. Ozone seasonal cycles in the southern tropics and subtropics tend to be more distinct (i.e., annually repeatable than in the northern. By contrast, carbon monoxide shows distinct seasonal cycles in many northern subtropical regions, notably from India to the Eastern Pacific. Deep convection (as indicated by large values of IWC is typically associated with reductions in upper tropospheric ozone. Convection over polluted regions is seen to significantly enhance upper tropospheric carbon monoxide. While some regions show statistically significant correlations among ozone, carbon monoxide and IWC, simple correlations fall well short of accounting for the observed variability. The observed interrelated variations and metrics of annual and interannual variability described here represent a new resource for validation of atmospheric chemistry models.

  9. The Vertical Structure of Relative Humidity and Ozone in the Tropical Upper Troposphere: Intercomparisons Among In Situ Observations, A-Train Measurements and Large-Scale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, Henry B.; Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne R.; Oman, Luke; Pawson, Steven; Ott, Lesley; Benson, Craig; Stolarski, Richard

    2010-01-01

    In situ measurements in the tropics have shown that in regions of active convection, relative humidity with respect to ice in the upper troposphere is typically close to saturation on average, and supersaturations greater than 20% are not uncommon. Balloon soundings with the cryogenic frost point hygrometer (CFH) at Costa Rica during northern summer, for example, show this tendency to be strongest between 11 and 15.5 km (345-360 K potential temperature, or approximately 250-120 hPa). this is the altitude range of deep convective detrainment. Additionally, simultaneous ozonesonde measurements show that stratospheric air (O3 greater than 150 ppbv) can be found as low as approximately 14 km (350 K/150 hPa). In contrast, results from northern winter show a much drier upper troposphere and little penetration of stratospheric air below the tropopause at 17.5 km (approximately 383 K). We show that these results are consistent with in situ measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and water vapor by Airbus In-service airCraft (MOZAIC) program which samples a wider, though still limited, range of tropical locations. To generalize to the tropics as a whole, we compare our insitu results to data from two A-Train satellite instruments, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aqua and Aura satellites respectively. Finally, we examine the vertical structure of water vapor, relative humidity and ozone in the NASA Goddard MERRA analysis, an assimilation dataset, and a new version of the GEOS CCM, a free-running chemistry-climate model. We demonstrate that conditional probability distributions of relative humidity and ozone are a sensitive diagnostic for assessing the representation of deep convection and upper troposphere/lower stratosphere mixing processes in large-scale analyses and climate models.

  10. Inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign – Part I: Observations with collocated radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hoffmann

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available During the {MaCWAVE} campaign, combined rocket, radiosonde and ground-based measurements have been performed at the Norwegian Andøya Rocket Range (ARR near Andenes and the Swedish Rocket Range (ESRANGE near Kiruna in January 2003 to study gravity waves in the vicinity of the Scandinavian mountain ridge. The investigations presented here are mainly based on the evaluation of continuous radar measurements with the ALWIN VHF radar in the upper troposphere/ lower stratosphere at Andenes (69.3° N, 16.0° E and the ESRAD VHF radar near Kiruna (67.9° N, 21.9° E. Both radars are separated by about 260 km. Based on wavelet transformations of both data sets, the strongest activity of inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere has been detected during the first period from 24–26 January 2003 with dominant vertical wavelengths of about 4–5 km as well as with dominant observed periods of about 13–14 h for the altitude range between 5 and 8 km under the additional influence of mountain waves. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of ~200 km moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia gravity waves with intrinsic periods in the order of ~5 h and with horizontal wavelengths of 200 km, moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind. From the derived downward energy propagation it is supposed, that these waves are likely generated by a jet streak in the upper troposphere. The parameters of the jet-induced gravity waves have been estimated at both sites separately. The identified gravity waves are coherent at both locations and show higher amplitudes on the east-side of the Scandinavian mountain ridge, as expected by the influence of mountains.

  11. Correction Technique for Raman Water Vapor Lidar Signal-Dependent Bias and Suitability for Water Wapor Trend Monitoring in the Upper Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Cadirola, M.; Venable, D.; Calhoun, M.; Miloshevich, L; Vermeesch, K.; Twigg, L.; Dirisu, A.; Hurst, D.; Hall, E.; hide

    2012-01-01

    The MOHAVE-2009 campaign brought together diverse instrumentation for measuring atmospheric water vapor. We report on the participation of the ALVICE (Atmospheric Laboratory for Validation, Interagency Collaboration and Education) mobile laboratory in the MOHAVE-2009 campaign. In appendices we also report on the performance of the corrected Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements during the campaign, on a new radiosonde based calibration algorithm that reduces the influence of atmospheric variability on the derived calibration constant, and on other results of the ALVICE deployment. The MOHAVE-2009 campaign permitted the Raman lidar systems participating to discover and address measurement biases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The ALVICE lidar system was found to possess a wet bias which was attributed to fluorescence of insect material that was deposited on the telescope early in the mission. Other sources of wet biases are discussed and data from other Raman lidar systems are investigated, revealing that wet biases in upper tropospheric (UT) and lower stratospheric (LS) water vapor measurements appear to be quite common in Raman lidar systems. Lower stratospheric climatology of water vapor is investigated both as a means to check for the existence of these wet biases in Raman lidar data and as a source of correction for the bias. A correction technique is derived and applied to the ALVICE lidar water vapor profiles. Good agreement is found between corrected ALVICE lidar measurments and those of RS92, frost point hygrometer and total column water. The correction is offered as a general method to both quality control Raman water vapor lidar data and to correct those data that have signal-dependent bias. The influence of the correction is shown to be small at regions in the upper troposphere where recent work indicates detection of trends in atmospheric water vapor may be most robust. The correction shown here holds promise for permitting useful upper

  12. Inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign. Part II. Radar investigations and modelling studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serafimovich, A.; Zuelicke, C.; Hoffmann, P.; Peters, D.; Singer, W. [Leibniz-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik, Kuehlungsborn (Germany); Dalin, P. [Swedish Inst. of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden)

    2006-07-01

    We present an experimental and modelling study of a strong gravity wave event in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere near the Scandinavian mountain ridge. Continuous VHP radar measurements during the MaCWAVE rocket and ground-based measurement campaign were performed at the Norwegian Andoya rocket range (ARR) near Andenes (69.3 N, 16 E) in January 2003. Detailed gravity wave investigations based on PSU/NCAR fifth-generation mesoscale model (MM5) data have been used for comparison with experimentally obtained results. The model data show the presence of a mountain wave and of an inertia gravity wave generated by a jet streak near the tropopause region. Temporal and spatial dependencies of jet induced inertia gravity waves with dominant observed periods of about 13 h and vertical wavelengths of {proportional_to}4.5-5 km are investigated with wavelet transform applied on radar measurements and model data. The jet induced wave packet is observed to move upstream and downward in the upper troposphere. The model data agree with the experimentally obtained results fairly well. Possible reasons for the observed differences, e.g. in the time of maximum of the wave activity, are discussed. Finally, the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum are estimated with different methods and provide similar amplitudes. We found indications that the derived positive vertical flux of the horizontal momentum corresponds to the obtained parameters of the jet-induced inertia gravity wave, but only at the periods and heights of the strongest wave activity. (orig.)

  13. Comparison of direct outflow calculated by modified SCS-CN methods for mountainous and highland catchments in upper Vistula Basin, Poland and lowland catchment in South Carolina, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Walega; A. Cupak; D.M. Amatya; E. Drozdzal

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to compare direct outflow from storm events estimated using modifications of original SCS-CN procedure. The study was conducted in a mountainous catchment of Kamienica River and a highland catchment draining Stobnica River located in Upper Vistula water region, both in Poland, and a headwater lowland watershed WS80 located at the Santee...

  14. Upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx-impacted convection: Smoke ingestion case study from the DC3 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Hills, A. J.; Blake, N. J.; Barth, M. C.; Weinheimer, A.; Cantrell, C.; Rutledge, S. A.; Basarab, B.; Crawford, J.; Diskin, G.; Homeyer, C. R.; Campos, T.; Flocke, F.; Fried, A.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W.; Pollack, I.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Crounse, J. D.; Wisthaler, A.; Mikoviny, T.; Huey, G.; Heikes, B.; O'Sullivan, D.; Riemer, D. D.

    2015-03-01

    As part of the Deep Convective Cloud and Chemistry (DC3) experiment, the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Gulfstream-V (GV) and NASA DC-8 research aircraft probed the chemical composition of the inflow and outflow of two convective storms (north storm, NS, south storm, SS) originating in the Colorado region on 22 June 2012, a time when the High Park wildfire was active in the area. A wide range of trace species were measured on board both aircraft including biomass burning (BB) tracers hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and acetonitrile (ACN). Acrolein, a much shorter lived tracer for BB, was also quantified on the GV. The data demonstrated that the NS had ingested fresh smoke from the High Park fire and as a consequence had a higher VOC OH reactivity than the SS. The SS lofted aged fire tracers along with other boundary layer ozone precursors and was more impacted by lightning NOx (LNOx) than the NS. The NCAR master mechanism box model was initialized with measurements made in the outflow of the two storms. The NS and SS were predicted to produce 11 and 14 ppbv of O3, respectively, downwind of the storm over 2 days. Sensitivity tests revealed that the ozone production potential of the SS was highly dependent on LNOx. Normalized excess mixing ratios, ΔX/ΔCO, for HCN and ACN were determined in both the fire plume and the storm outflow and found to be 7.0 ± 0.5 and 2.3 ± 0.5 pptv ppbv-1, respectively, and 1.4 ± 0.3 pptv ppbv-1 for acrolein in the outflow only.

  15. Potential impact of carbonaceous aerosol on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) and precipitation during Asian summer monsoon in a global model simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Fadnavis, Suvarna

    2017-09-28

    Recent satellite observations show efficient vertical transport of Asian pollutants from the surface to the upper-level anticyclone by deep monsoon convection. In this paper, we examine the transport of carbonaceous aerosols, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), into the monsoon anticyclone using of ECHAM6-HAM, a global aerosol climate model. Further, we investigate impacts of enhanced (doubled) carbonaceous aerosol emissions on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS), underneath monsoon circulation and precipitation from sensitivity simulations. The model simulation shows that boundary layer aerosols are transported into the monsoon anticyclone by the strong monsoon convection from the Bay of Bengal, southern slopes of the Himalayas and the South China Sea. Doubling of emissions of both BC and OC aerosols over Southeast Asia (10° S–50° N, 65–155° E) shows that lofted aerosols produce significant warming (0.6–1 K) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) near 400–200 hPa and instability in the middle/upper troposphere. These aerosols enhance radiative heating rates (0.02–0.03 K day−1) near the tropopause. The enhanced carbonaceous aerosols alter aerosol radiative forcing (RF) at the surface by −4.74 ± 1.42 W m−2, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) by +0.37 ± 0.26 W m−2 and in the atmosphere by +5.11 ± 0.83 W m−2 over the TP and Indo-Gangetic Plain region (15–35° N, 80–110° E). Atmospheric warming increases vertical velocities and thereby cloud ice in the upper troposphere. Aerosol induced anomalous warming over the TP facilitates the relative strengthening of the monsoon Hadley circulation and increases moisture inflow by strengthening the cross-equatorial monsoon jet. This increases precipitation amounts over India (1–4 mm day−1) and eastern China (0.2–2 mm day−1). These results are significant at the 99 % confidence level.

  16. The chemical effects on the summertime ozone in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau and the South Asian monsoon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yixuan; Liao, Hong; Xu, Jianming; Zhou, Guangqiang

    2018-01-01

    We use the global three-dimensional Goddard Earth Observing System chemical transport model with the Universal tropospheric-stratospheric Chemistry eXtension mechanism to examine the contributions of the chemical processes to summertime O3 in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) over the Tibetan Plateau and the South Asian monsoon region (TP/SASM). Simulated UTLS O3 concentrations are evaluated by comparisons with Microwave Limb Sounder products and net chemical production of O3 (NPO3) are evaluated by comparisons with model results in previous studies. Simulations show that the chemical processes lead to an increase in O3 concentration, which is opposite to the effect of O3 transport in the UTLS over the TP/SASM region throughout the boreal summer. NPO3 in UTLS over the TP/SASM region is the largest in summer. Elevated values (0.016-0.020 Tg year-1) of the seasonal mean NPO3 are simulated to locate at 100 hPa in the TP/SASM region, where the mixing ratios of O3 are low and those of O3 precursors (NO x , VOCs, and CO) are high. The high concentrations of O3 precursors (NO x , VOCs, and CO) together with the active photochemical reactions of NO2 in the UTLS over the TP/SASM region during summertime could be important reasons for the enhancement of {NP}_{{{O}3 }} over the studied region.

  17. Potential impact of carbonaceous aerosol on the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) and precipitation during Asian summer monsoon in a global model simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Fadnavis, Suvarna; Kalita, Gayatry; Kumar, K. Ravi; Gasparini, Blaž; Li, Jui-Lin Frank

    2017-01-01

    The model simulation shows that boundary layer aerosols are transported into the monsoon anticyclone by the strong monsoon convection from the Bay of Bengal, southern slopes of the Himalayas and the South China Sea. Doubling of emissions of both BC and OC aerosols over Southeast Asia (10° S–50° N, 65–155° E) shows that lofted aerosols produce significant warming (0.6–1 K) over the Tibetan Plateau (TP) near 400–200 hPa and instability in the middle/upper troposphere. These aerosols enhance radiative heating rates (0.02–0.03 K day−1) near the tropopause. The enhanced carbonaceous aerosols alter aerosol radiative forcing (RF) at the surface by −4.74 ± 1.42 W m−2, at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) by +0.37 ± 0.26 W m−2 and in the atmosphere by +5.11 ± 0.83 W m−2 over the TP and Indo-Gangetic Plain region (15–35° N, 80–110° E). Atmospheric warming increases vertical velocities and thereby cloud ice in the upper troposphere. Aerosol induced anomalous warming over the TP facilitates the relative strengthening of the monsoon Hadley circulation and increases moisture inflow by strengthening the cross-equatorial monsoon jet. This increases precipitation amounts over India (1–4 mm day−1) and eastern China (0.2–2 mm day−1). These results are significant at the 99 % confidence level.

  18. NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Graduate Student Program. [FIRE CIRRUS-II examination of coupling between an upper tropospheric cloud system and synoptic-scale dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Thomas P.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of synoptic-scale dynamics associated with a middle and upper tropospheric cloud event that occurred on 26 November 1991 is examined. The case under consideration occurred during the FIRE CIRRUS-II Intensive Field Observing Period held in Coffeyville, KS during Nov. and Dec., 1991. Using data from the wind profiler demonstration network and a temporally and spatially augmented radiosonde array, emphasis is given to explaining the evolution of the kinematically-derived ageostrophic vertical circulations and correlating the circulation with the forcing of an extensively sampled cloud field. This is facilitated by decomposing the horizontal divergence into its component parts through a natural coordinate representation of the flow. Ageostrophic vertical circulations are inferred and compared to the circulation forcing arising from geostrophic confluence and shearing deformation derived from the Sawyer-Eliassen Equation. It is found that a thermodynamically indirect vertical circulation existed in association with a jet streak exit region. The circulation was displaced to the cyclonic side of the jet axis due to the orientation of the jet exit between a deepening diffluent trough and building ridge. The cloud line formed in the ascending branch of the vertical circulation with the most concentrated cloud development occurring in conjunction with the maximum large-scale vertical motion. The relationship between the large scale dynamics and the parameterization of middle and upper tropospheric clouds in large-scale models is discussed and an example of ice water contents derived from a parameterization forced by the diagnosed vertical motions and observed water vapor contents is presented.

  19. Inertia gravity waves in the upper troposphere during the MaCWAVE winter campaign – Part II: Radar investigations and modelling studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Serafimovich

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available We present an experimental and modelling study of a strong gravity wave event in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere near the Scandinavian mountain ridge. Continuous VHF radar measurements during the MaCWAVE rocket and ground-based measurement campaign were performed at the Norwegian Andoya Rocket Range (ARR near Andenes (69.3° N, 16° E in January 2003. Detailed gravity wave investigations based on PSU/NCAR Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5 data have been used for comparison with experimentally obtained results. The model data show the presence of a mountain wave and of an inertia gravity wave generated by a jet streak near the tropopause region. Temporal and spatial dependencies of jet induced inertia gravity waves with dominant observed periods of about 13 h and vertical wavelengths of ~4.5–5 km are investigated with wavelet transform applied on radar measurements and model data. The jet induced wave packet is observed to move upstream and downward in the upper troposphere. The model data agree with the experimentally obtained results fairly well. Possible reasons for the observed differences, e.g. in the time of maximum of the wave activity, are discussed. Finally, the vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum are estimated with different methods and provide similar amplitudes. We found indications that the derived positive vertical flux of the horizontal momentum corresponds to the obtained parameters of the jet-induced inertia gravity wave, but only at the periods and heights of the strongest wave activity.

  20. Investigation of inertia-gravity waves in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere over Northern Germany observed with collocated VHF/UHF radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Serafimovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study to investigate the properties of inertia-gravity waves in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere has been carried out over Northern Germany during the occurrence of an upper tropospheric jet in connection with a poleward Rossby wave breaking event from 17-19 December 1999. The investigations are based on the evaluation of continuous radar measurements with the OSWIN VHF radar at Kühlungsborn (54.1 N, 11.8 E and the 482 MHz UHF wind profiler at Lindenberg (52.2 N, 14.1 E. Both radars are separated by about 265 km. Based on wavelet transformations of both data sets, the dominant vertical wavelengths of about 2-4 km for fixed times as well as the dominant observed periods of about 11 h and weaker oscillations with periods of  6 h for the altitude range between 5 and 8 km are comparable. Gravity wave parameters have been estimated at both locations separately and by a complex cross-spectral analysis of the data of both radars. The results show the appearance of dominating inertia-gravity waves with characteristic horizontal wavelengths of  300 km moving in the opposite direction than the mean background wind and a secondary less pronounced wave with a horizontal wavelength in the order of about 200 km moving with the wind. Temporal and spatial differences of the observed waves are discussed.

  1. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. G. Lawrence

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ, located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale

  2. Atmospheric pollutant outflow from southern Asia: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, M. G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2010-11-01

    Southern Asia, extending from Pakistan and Afghanistan to Indonesia and Papua New Guinea, is one of the most heavily populated regions of the world. Biofuel and biomass burning play a disproportionately large role in the emissions of most key pollutant gases and aerosols there, in contrast to much of the rest of the Northern Hemisphere, where fossil fuel burning and industrial processes tend to dominate. This results in polluted air masses which are enriched in carbon-containing aerosols, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons. The outflow and long-distance transport of these polluted air masses is characterized by three distinct seasonal circulation patterns: the winter monsoon, the summer monsoon, and the monsoon transition periods. During winter, the near-surface flow is mostly northeasterly, and the regional pollution forms a thick haze layer in the lower troposphere which spreads out over millions of square km between southern Asia and the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), located several degrees south of the equator over the Indian Ocean during this period. During summer, the heavy monsoon rains effectively remove soluble gases and aerosols. Less soluble species, on the other hand, are lifted to the upper troposphere in deep convective clouds, and are then transported away from the region by strong upper tropospheric winds, particularly towards northern Africa and the Mediterranean in the tropical easterly jet. Part of the pollution can reach the tropical tropopause layer, the gateway to the stratosphere. During the monsoon transition periods, the flow across the Indian Ocean is primarily zonal, and strong pollution plumes originating from both southeastern Asia and from Africa spread across the central Indian Ocean. This paper provides a review of the current state of knowledge based on the many observational and modeling studies over the last decades that have examined the southern Asian atmospheric pollutant outflow and its large scale effects. An outlook

  3. Mercury Plumes in the Global Upper Troposphere Observed during Flights with the CARIBIC Observatory from May 2005 until June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz Slemr

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric sections of flights with the CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrumented Container observatory from May 2005 until June 2013, are investigated for the occurrence of plumes with elevated Hg concentrations. Additional information on CO, CO2, CH4, NOy, O3, hydrocarbons, halocarbons, acetone and acetonitrile enable us to attribute the plumes to biomass burning, urban/industrial sources or a mixture of both. Altogether, 98 pollution plumes with elevated Hg concentrations and CO mixing ratios were encountered, and the Hg/CO emission ratios for 49 of them could be calculated. Most of the plumes were found over East Asia, in the African equatorial region, over South America and over Pakistan and India. The plumes encountered over equatorial Africa and over South America originate predominantly from biomass burning, as evidenced by the low Hg/CO emission ratios and elevated mixing ratios of acetonitrile, CH3Cl and particle concentrations. The backward trajectories point to the regions around the Rift Valley and the Amazon Basin, with its outskirts, as the source areas. The plumes encountered over East Asia and over Pakistan and India are predominantly of urban/industrial origin, sometimes mixed with products of biomass/biofuel burning. Backward trajectories point mostly to source areas in China and northern India. The Hg/CO2 and Hg/CH4 emission ratios for several plumes are also presented and discussed.

  4. Methane from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Vivienne; Worden, John; Kulawik, Susan; Frankenberg, Christian; Bowman, Kevin; Wecht, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    TES V5 CH4 captures latitudinal gradients, regional variability and interannual variation in the free troposphere. V5 joint retrievals offer improved sensitivity to lower troposphere. Time series extends from 2004 to present. V5 reprocessing in progress. Upper tropospheric bias. Mitigated by N2O correction. Appears largely spatially uniform, so can be corrected. How to relate free-tropospheric values to surface emissions.

  5. Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere from a high altitude aircraft: Modelling and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, J. A.; Letros, D.; Zawada, D.; Bourassa, A.; Degenstein, D.; Solheim, B.

    2018-04-01

    A spatial heterodyne spectrometer (SHS) has been developed to measure the vertical distribution of water vapour in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere with a high vertical resolution (∼500 m). The Spatial Heterodyne Observations of Water (SHOW) instrument combines an imaging system with a monolithic field-widened SHS to observe limb scattered sunlight in a vibrational band of water (1363 nm-1366 nm). The instrument has been optimized for observations from NASA's ER-2 aircraft as a proof-of-concept for a future low earth orbit satellite deployment. A robust model has been developed to simulate SHOW ER-2 limb measurements and retrievals. This paper presents the simulation of the SHOW ER-2 limb measurements along a hypothetical flight track and examines the sensitivity of the measurement and retrieval approach. Water vapour fields from an Environment and Climate Change Canada forecast model are used to represent realistic spatial variability along the flight path. High spectral resolution limb scattered radiances are simulated using the SASKTRAN radiative transfer model. It is shown that the SHOW instrument onboard the ER-2 is capable of resolving the water vapour variability in the UTLS from approximately 12 km - 18 km with ±1 ppm accuracy. Vertical resolutions between 500 m and 1 km are feasible. The along track sampling capability of the instrument is also discussed.

  6. EOF analysis of COSMIC observations on the global zonal mean temperature structure of the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere from 2007 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Cornelius Csar Jude H.; Chang, Loren C.

    2018-06-01

    This work presents the results of a Conventional Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis on daily global zonal mean temperature profiles in the Upper Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere (15-35 km), as measured by the FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC mission from January 2007 to June 2013. For validation, results were compared with ERA-Interim reanalysis. Results show that, the leading global EOF mode (27%) from COSMIC is consistent with temperature anomalies due to the tropical cooling associated with boreal winter Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSW). The second global EOF mode from COSMIC (15.3%) is consistent with temperature anomalies due to the Quasi-biennial Oscillation (QBO). The third global mode from COSMIC (10.9%) is consistent with temperature anomalies due to the El Nino Southern Oscillation. This work also shows that the second northern hemisphere EOF mode from COSMIC (16.8%) is consistent with temperature anomalies due Rossby-wave breaking (RWB) which is expected to only be resolved by a high vertical and temporal resolution dataset like COSMIC. Our work concludes that the use of a high vertical and temporal resolution dataset like COSMIC yields non-seasonal EOF modes that are consistent with relatively more intricate temperature anomalies due to the SSW, QBO, ENSO and RWB.

  7. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyngarden, A L; Pérez-Montaño, S; Bui, J V H; Li, E S W; Nelson, T E; Ha, K T; Leong, L; Iraci, L T

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1 H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal

  8. Parameterization of the middle and upper tropospheric water vapor from ATOVS observations over a tropical climate region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makama, Ezekiel Kaura; Lim, Hwee San; Abdullah, Khiruddin

    2018-01-01

    Precipitable water vapor (PWV) is a highly variable, but important greenhouse gas that regulates the radiation budget of the earth. Its variability in time and space makes it difficult to quantify. Knowledge of its vertical distribution, in particular, is crucial for many reasons. In this study, empirical relationships between isobaric layers of PWV over Peninsular Malaysia are examined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique on Advanced Television and Infrared Observation Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) observations, from 2005 to 2011, has been used to propose a relationship of the form, W=α(WL)β for the middle (MW) and upper (UW) layers PWV. W is either MW or UW with α and β as regression coefficients, which are functions of latitude. Coefficients of determination (R2) and root mean square error (RMSE) of respective values between 0.75-0.86 and 1.65-2.38 mm, across the zones, were obtained for both the MW and UW predictions, with a mean bias (MB) below ±1 mm.The predicted and observed PWV presented a better agreement northerly. Initial predictability test for each model was done on two independent data sets: ATOVS (2012-2015), and radiosonde (2010-2011) at Penang, Kuantan and Sepang stations, with very good outcomes. The results of the tests revealed remarkable performances, when compared with two previously reported models. The inclusion of variable regression coefficients, and the utilization of satellite-derived data, which provide soundings of data-void regions between radiosonde networks, proved to have optimized the results.

  9. A new cavity ring-down instrument for airborne monitoring of N2O5, NO3, NO2 and O3 in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruth, Albert A.; Brown, Steven S.; Dinesan, Hemanth; Dubé, William P.; Goulette, Marc; Hübler, Gerhard; Orphal, Johannes; Zahn, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The chemistry of NO3 and N2O5 is important to the regulation of both tropospheric and stratospheric ozone. In situ detection of NO3 and N2O5 in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere (UTLS) represents a new scientific direction as the only previous measurements of these species in this region of the atmosphere has been via remote sensing techniques. Because both the sources and the sinks for NO3 and N2O5 are potentially stratified spatially, their mixing ratios, and their influence on nitrogen oxide and ozone transport and loss at night can show large variability as a function of altitude. Aircraft-based measurements of heterogeneous N2O5 uptake in the lower troposphere have uncovered a surprising degree of variability in the uptake coefficient [1], but there are no corresponding high altitude measurements.The UTLS is routinely sampled by the IAGOS-CARIBIC program (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container, www.caribic-atmospheric.com), a European infrastructural program with the aim of studying the chemistry and transport across this part of the atmosphere. An airfreight container with 15 different automated instruments from 8 European research partners is utilized on board a commercial Lufthansa airbus 340-600 to monitor ~ 100 atmospheric species (trace gases and aerosol parameters) in the UTLS. The instrumentation in the CARIBIC container is now to be supplemented by a new cavity ring-down device for monitoring nitrogen oxides, jointly developed by researchers from Cork (Ireland), Boulder (USA) and Karlsruhe (Germany). The compact and light-weight instrument is designed to monitor not only NO3 and N2O5, but also NO2 and O3. The detection is based on 4 high-finesse optical cavities (cavity length ~ 44 cm). Two cavities are operated at 662 nm (maximum absorption of NO3), the other two at 405 nm (maximum absorption of NO2). The inlet to one of the (662)-cavities is heated in order to thermally decompose N2O5

  10. Trace gas composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia: Examining the influence of long-range transport and convection of local pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. K.; Traud, S.; Brenninkmeijer, C. A.; Hoor, P. M.; Neumaier, M.; Oram, D.; Rauthe-Schöch, A.; Schloegl, S.; Sprung, D.; Slemr, F.; van Velthoven, P.; Wernli, H.; Zahn, A.; Ziereis, H.

    2013-12-01

    Between May 2005 and March 2008 the CARIBIC observatory (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) was deployed to make atmospheric observations during 21 round-trip flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Manila, the Philippines with a stopover in Guangzhou, China. This nearly 3 year flight series provides us with information about atmospheric composition in the free and upper troposphere over Asia during all seasons and was used to investigate seasonal and regional differences in trace gas distributions and the relative influences of long range transport and convected local air masses on composition. The flight route was separated into three different regions having unique characteristics in transport and composition; these were Western Asia (5°E to 70°E), Central Asia (70°E to 100°E) and East Asia (100°E to 125°E). The region over Western Asia was heavily influenced by long range transport of air masses from North America and had elevated levels of NOy and acetone, while the region over East Asia was mostly influenced by convected local (South East Asian) pollution, particularly from biomass/biofuel burning as indicated by high levels of acetonitrile and carbon monoxide. Air masses over Central Asia were found to be influenced by both recently convected air masses from the Indian subcontinent and mid-range transport from Eastern Europe and the Middle East. Elevated levels of propane and other non-methane hydrocarbons, both with and without concommitant elevations in other trace gases (i.e. carbon monoxide, acetonitrile) were a persisent feature of this region in all seasons except summer, and were particularly prominent in fall. Influences on composition over Central Asia were investigated more thoroughly in a case study from a series of flights in October 2006, and elevated levels of pollutants were found to be the result of convective transport of both biomass/biofuel burning and urban emissions from

  11. Airborne differential absorption lidar for water vapour measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the spectral region around 940 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poberaj, G.

    2000-07-01

    Two all-solid-state laser systems were developed and studied in detail to optimise their performance for an airborne water vapour differential absorption lidar (DIAL). Their special features are high average output powers and excellent spectral properties in the 940-nm spectral region relevant for monitoring very low water vapour contents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. One system is an injection-seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire ring laser with a spectral bandwidth of 105 MHz and an average power of 1.1 W. The other system is an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in a ring configuration. Using KTP as nonlinear crystal, a signal output with a spectral bandwidth of 140 MHz and an average power of 1.2 W was achieved. Both systems, the Ti:sapphire ring laser and the KTP OPO, possess spectral purity values higher than 99%. The pump source for these systems is a frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. The KTP OPO system has been used as a transmitter in a new airborne water vapour DIAL instrument. For the first time, measurements of two-dimensional water vapour distributions with a high vertical (500 m) and horizontal (20 km) resolution across several potential vorticity streamers were performed. Very low water vapour mixing ratios (10-50 ppmv) and strong gradients were observed in the tropopause region. The sensitivity of the DIAL instrument in the centre of a stratospheric intrusion ranges from 3% in the near field to 12% in the far field (4 km). The first comparison experiments with in situ measuring instruments show a good agreement. Considerable differences are found between DIAL measurements and data obtained from the ECMWF operational analyses and a mesoscale numerical model. (orig.)

  12. Measurement of low-ppm mixing ratios of water vapor in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere using chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. D. Thornberry

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS instrument has been developed for the fast, precise, and accurate measurement of water vapor (H2O at low mixing ratios in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS. A low-pressure flow of sample air passes through an ionization volume containing an α-particle radiation source, resulting in a cascade of ion-molecule reactions that produce hydronium ions (H3O+ from ambient H2O. The production of H3O+ ions from ambient H2O depends on pressure and flow through the ion source, which were tightly controlled in order to maintain the measurement sensitivity independent of changes in the airborne sampling environment. The instrument was calibrated every 45 min in flight by introducing a series of H2O mixing ratios between 0.5 and 153 parts per million (ppm, 10−6 mol mol−1 generated by Pt-catalyzed oxidation of H2 standards while overflowing the inlet with dry synthetic air. The CIMS H2O instrument was deployed in an unpressurized payload area aboard the NASA WB-57F high-altitude research aircraft during the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX mission in March and April 2011. The instrument performed successfully during seven flights, measuring H2O mixing ratios below 5 ppm in the lower stratosphere at altitudes up to 17.7 km, and as low as 3.5 ppm near the tropopause. Data were acquired at 10 Hz and reported as 1 s averages. In-flight calibrations demonstrated a typical sensitivity of 2000 Hz ppm−1 at 3 ppm with a signal to noise ratio (2 σ, 1 s greater than 32. The total measurement uncertainty was 9 to 11%, derived from the uncertainty in the in situ calibrations.

  13. Transport pathways of CO in the African upper troposphere during the monsoon season: a study based upon the assimilation of spaceborne observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Barret

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The transport pathways of carbon monoxide (CO in the African Upper Troposphere (UT during the West African Monsoon (WAM is investigated through the assimilation of CO observations by the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS in the MOCAGE Chemistry Transport Model (CTM. The assimilation setup, based on a 3-D First Guess at Assimilation Time (3-D-FGAT variational method is described. Comparisons between the assimilated CO fields and in situ airborne observations from the MOZAIC program between Europe and both Southern Africa and Southeast Asia show an overall good agreement around the lowermost pressure level sampled by MLS (~215 hPa. The 4-D assimilated fields averaged over the month of July 2006 have been used to determine the main dynamical processes responsible for the transport of CO in the African UT. The studied period corresponds to the second AMMA (African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses aircraft campaign. At 220 hPa, the CO distribution is characterized by a latitudinal maximum around 5° N mostly driven by convective uplift of air masses impacted by biomass burning from Southern Africa, uplifted within the WAM region and vented predominantly southward by the upper branch of the winter hemisphere Hadley cell. Above 150 hPa, the African CO distribution is characterized by a broad maximum over northern Africa. This maximum is mostly controlled by the large scale UT circulation driven by the Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM and characterized by the Asian Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA centered at 30° N and the Tropical Easterly Jet (TEJ on the southern flank of the anticyclone. Asian pollution uplifted to the UT over large region of Southeast Asia is trapped within the AMA and transported by the anticyclonic circulation over Northeast Africa. South of the AMA, the TEJ is responsible for the tranport of CO-enriched air masses from India and Southeast Asia over Africa. Using the high time resolution provided by the 4-D assimilated fields, we give evidence

  14. Influence of corona discharge on the ozone budget in the tropical free troposphere: a case study of deep convection during GABRIEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C. L.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-02-01

    Convective redistribution of ozone and its precursors between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) influences photochemistry, in particular that of the middle and upper troposphere (UT). We present a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005. During a measurement flight on 12 October the inflow and outflow regions of a cumulonimbus cloud (Cb) have been characterized, providing evidence of convective transport. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, O3, HOx, acetone and acetonitrile. The elevated O3 contradicts the expectation that convective transport brings low ozone air from the boundary layer to the outflow region. The enhanced mixing ratio of ozone in the outflow was mainly of dynamical origin. Entrainment of ozone rich air at the outflow level into the convective outflow accounts for 62% (range: 33-91%) of the observed O3. Ozone is enhanced by only 5-6% by photochemical production in the outflow due to enhanced NO from lightning, based on steady state model calculations, using in-situ observations including the first reported HOx measurements over the tropical rainforest. The "excess" ozone in the outflow is most probably due to direct production by corona discharge associated with lightning. We deduce a production rate of 5.12 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1 (range: 9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1), which is at the upper limit of the range of the values reported previously.

  15. Sources of tropospheric ozone along the Asian Pacific Rim: An analysis of ozonesonde observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Chan, Lo Yin; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Harris, Joyce M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Martin, Randall V.

    2002-11-01

    The sources contributing to tropospheric ozone over the Asian Pacific Rim in different seasons are quantified by analysis of Hong Kong and Japanese ozonesonde observations with a global three-dimensional (3-D) chemical transport model (GEOS-CHEM) driven by assimilated meteorological observations. Particular focus is placed on the extensive observations available from Hong Kong in 1996. In the middle-upper troposphere (MT-UT), maximum Asian pollution influence along the Pacific Rim occurs in summer, reflecting rapid convective transport of surface pollution. In the lower troposphere (LT) the season of maximum Asian pollution influence shifts to summer at midlatitudes from fall at low latitudes due to monsoonal influence. The UT ozone minimum and high variability observed over Hong Kong in winter reflects frequent tropical intrusions alternating with stratospheric intrusions. Asian biomass burning makes a major contribution to ozone at pollution influence (pollution influence exceeds European influence in the UT-MT, reflecting the uplift from convection and the warm conveyor belts over the eastern seaboard of North America. African outflow makes a major contribution to ozone in the low-latitude MT-UT over the Pacific Rim during November-April. Lightning influence over the Pacific Rim is minimum in summer due to westward UT transport at low latitudes associated with the Tibetan anticyclone. The Asian outflow flux of ozone to the Pacific is maximum in spring and fall and includes a major contribution from Asian anthropogenic sources year-round.

  16. Influence of corona discharge on the ozone budget in the tropical free troposphere: a case study of deep convection during GABRIEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, H.; Fischer, H.; Gurk, C.; Schiller, C. L.; Parchatka, U.; Koenigstedt, R.; Stickler, A.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Kubistin, D.; Williams, J.; Eerdekens, G.; Lelieveld, J.

    2014-09-01

    Convective redistribution of ozone and its precursors between the boundary layer (BL) and the free troposphere (FT) influences photochemistry, in particular in the middle and upper troposphere (UT). We present a case study of convective transport during the GABRIEL campaign over the tropical rain forest in Suriname in October 2005. During one measurement flight the inflow and outflow regions of a cumulonimbus cloud (Cb) have been characterized. We identified a distinct layer between 9 and 11 km altitude with enhanced mixing ratios of CO, O3, HOx, acetone and acetonitrile. The elevated O3 contradicts the expectation that convective transport brings low-ozone air from the boundary layer to the outflow region. Entrainment of ozone-rich air is estimated to account for 62% (range: 33-91%) of the observed O3. Ozone is enhanced by only 5-6% by photochemical production in the outflow due to enhanced NO from lightning, based on model calculations using observations including the first reported HOx measurements over the tropical rainforest. The "excess" ozone in the outflow is most probably due to direct production by corona discharge associated with lightning. We deduce a production rate of 5.12 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1 (range: 9.89 × 1026-9.82 × 1028 molecules O3 flash-1), which is at the upper limit of the range reported previously.

  17. Impact of West African Monsoon convective transport and lightning NOx production upon the upper tropospheric composition: a multi-model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Schlager

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA, we investigate the impact of nitrogen oxides produced by lightning (LiNOx and convective transport during the West African Monsoon (WAM upon the composition of the upper troposphere (UT in the tropics. For this purpose, we have performed simulations with 4 state-of-the-art chemistry transport models involved within AMMA, namely MOCAGE, TM4, LMDz-INCA and p-TOMCAT. The model intercomparison is complemented with an evaluation of the simulations based on both spaceborne and airborne observations. The baseline simulations show important differences between the UT CO and O3 distributions simulated by each of the 4 models when compared to measurements from the MOZAIC program and fom the Aura/MLS spaceborne sensor. We show that such model discrepancies can be explained by differences in the convective transport parameterizations and, more particularly, the altitude reached by convective updrafts (ranging between ~200–125 hPa. Concerning UT O3, the models exhibit a good agreement with the main observed features. Nevertheless the majority of models simulate low O3 concentrations compared to both MOZAIC and Aura/MLS observations south of the equator, and rather high concentrations in the Northern Hemisphere. Sensitivity studies are performed to quantify the effect of deep convective transport and the influence of LiNOx production on the UT composition. These clearly indicate that the CO maxima and the elevated O3 concentrations south of the equator are due to convective uplift of air masses impacted by Southern African biomass burning, in agreement with previous studies. Moreover, during the WAM, LiNOx from Africa are responsible for the highest UT O3 enhancements (10–20 ppbv over the tropical Atlantic between 10° S–20° N. Differences between models are primarily due to the performance of the parameterizations used to simulate lightning activity which are evaluated using spaceborne

  18. The Role of Convection in Redistributing Formaldehyde to the Upper Troposphere Over North America and the North Atlantic during the Summer 2004 INTEX Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fried, Alan; Olson, Jennifer R.; Walega, Jim; Crawford, Jim H.; Chen, Gao; Weibring, Petter; Richter, Dirk; Roller, Chad; Tittel, Frank; Porter, Michael; hide

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of CH2O from a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) were acquired onboard the NASA DC-8 during the summer 2004 INTEX-NA (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment - North America) campaign to test our understanding of convection and production mechanisms in the upper troposphere (UT, 6-12-km) over continental North America and the North Atlantic Ocean. Point-by-point comparisons with box model calculations, when MHP (CH3OOH) measurements were available for model constraint, resulted in a median CH2O measurement/model ratio of 0.91 in the UT. Multiple tracers were used to arrive at a set of UT CH2O background and perturbed air mass periods, and 46% of the TDLAS measurements fell within the latter category. At least 66% to 73% of these elevated UT observations were caused by enhanced production from CH2O precursors rather than direct transport of CH2O from the boundary layer. This distinction is important, since the effects from the former can last for over a week or more compared to one day or less in the case of convective transport of CH2O itself. In general, production of CH2O from CH4 was found to be the dominant source term, even in perturbed air masses. This was followed by production from MHP, methanol, PAN type compounds, and ketones, in descending order of their contribution. In the presence of elevated NO from lightning and potentially from the stratosphere, there was a definite trend in the CH2O discrepancy, which for the highest NO mixing ratios produced a median CH2O measurement/model ratio of 3.9 in the 10-12-km range. Discrepancies in CH2O and HO2 in the UT with NO were highly correlated and this provided further information as to the possible mechanism(s) responsible. These discrepancies with NO are consistent with additional production sources of both gases involving CH3O2 + NO reactions, most likely caused by unmeasured hydrocarbons.

  19. Model study of the impacts of emissions, chemical and dynamical processes on the CO variability in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunxiao Wang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM is used to investigate the relative importance of CO emissions, chemical and dynamical processes on temporal variations of CO in the tropical upper troposphere (UT and the lower stratosphere (LS. The semi-annual oscillation (SAO in the tropical UT and the annual oscillation (AO in the tropical LS detected in the MLS CO observations can be well captured by the model. The model simulations reveal that the CO surface emissions explain most of the SAO signals in the tropical UT, with the remainder being attributed to dynamical and chemical processes. The CO AO in the LS primarily results from combined effects of dynamical and chemical processes while the dynamical and chemical processes make opposite contributions to the CO AO signals, consistent with the previous findings. Our analysis further reveals that CO surface emissions tend to weaken the amplitude of the CO annual cycle in the tropical LS, while the annual variations in the meridional component of the Brewer–Dobson (BD circulation can amplify the annual variations of CO above 30 hPa. The model simulations also indicate that the CO annual cycle in the LS has a mixed behaviour with the annual variations of tropical upwelling reflected in CO between ~70 and ~50 hPa and a standard tape-recorder signal above 50 hPa. Moreover, the AO signals of CO exist up to 10 hPa when the chemical processes are switched off. The temporal and spatial variations of CO in the UT and near the tropopause are mainly driven by the upward transport of CO by tropical deep convection and the Asian summer monsoon circulation. In the early stage of the South Asian summer monsoon over the Bay of Bengal and the South China in the late spring and early summer, the transport of the CO surface emissions over Southeast Asia by the South Asian summer monsoon leads to an increase in the tropical CO, but the horizontal transport from the extratropics into the tropics (termed in

  20. Effects of regional-scale and convective transports on tropospheric ozone chemistry revealed by aircraft observations during the wet season of the AMMA campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ancellet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA fourth airborne campaign was conducted in July–August 2006 to study the chemical composition of the middle and upper troposphere in West Africa with the major objective to better understand the processing of chemical emissions by the West African Monsoon (WAM and its associated regional-scale and vertical transports. In particular, the french airborne experiment was organized around two goals. The first was to characterize the impact of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs on the ozone budget in the upper troposphere and the evolution of the chemical composition of these convective plumes as they move westward toward the Atlantic Ocean. The second objective was to discriminate the impact of remote sources of pollution over West Africa, including transport from the middle east, Europe, Asia and from southern hemispheric fires. Observations of O3, CO, NOx, H2O and hydroperoxide above West Africa along repeated meridional transects were coupled with transport analysis based on the FLEXPART lagrangian model. The cross analysis of trace gas concentrations and transport pathways revealed 5 types of air masses: convective uplift of industrial and urban emissions, convective uplift of biogenic emissions, slow advection from Cotonou polluted plumes near the coast, meridional transport of upper tropospheric air from the subtropical barrier region, and meridional transport of Southern Hemisphere (SH biomass burning emissions. O3/CO correlation plots and the correlation plots of H2O2 with a OH proxy revealed not only a control of the trace gas variability by transport processes but also significant photochemical reactivity in the mid- and upper troposphere. The study of four MCSs outflow showed contrasted chemical composition and air mass origins depending on the MCSs lifetime and latitudinal position. Favorables conditions for ozone

  1. Chemical processes related to net ozone tendencies in the free troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozem, Heiko; Butler, Tim M.; Lawrence, Mark G.; Harder, Hartwig; Martinez, Monica; Kubistin, Dagmar; Lelieveld, Jos; Fischer, Horst

    2017-09-01

    Ozone (O3) is an important atmospheric oxidant, a greenhouse gas, and a hazard to human health and agriculture. Here we describe airborne in situ measurements and model simulations of O3 and its precursors during tropical and extratropical field campaigns over South America and Europe, respectively. Using the measurements, net ozone formation/destruction tendencies are calculated and compared to 3-D chemistry-transport model simulations. In general, observation-based net ozone tendencies are positive in the continental boundary layer and the upper troposphere at altitudes above ˜ 6 km in both environments. On the other hand, in the marine boundary layer and the middle troposphere, from the top of the boundary layer to about 6-8 km altitude, net O3 destruction prevails. The ozone tendencies are controlled by ambient concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx). In regions with net ozone destruction the available NOx is below the threshold value at which production and destruction of O3 balance. While threshold NO values increase with altitude, in the upper troposphere NOx concentrations are generally higher due to the integral effect of convective precursor transport from the boundary layer, downward transport from the stratosphere and NOx produced by lightning. Two case studies indicate that in fresh convective outflow of electrified thunderstorms net ozone production is enhanced by a factor 5-6 compared to the undisturbed upper tropospheric background. The chemistry-transport model MATCH-MPIC generally reproduces the pattern of observation-based net ozone tendencies but mostly underestimates the magnitude of the net tendency (for both net ozone production and destruction).

  2. Role of the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in the patterning of vestibular system influences on sympathetic nervous system outflow to the upper and lower body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yoichiro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yates, Bill J

    2011-05-01

    Research on animal models as well as human subjects has demonstrated that the vestibular system contributes to regulating the distribution of blood in the body through effects on the sympathetic nervous system. Elimination of vestibular inputs results in increased blood flow to the hindlimbs during vestibular stimulation, because it attenuates the increase in vascular resistance that ordinarily occurs in the lower body during head-up tilts. Additionally, the changes in vascular resistance produced by vestibular stimulation differ between body regions. Electrical stimulation of vestibular afferents produces an inhibition of most hindlimb vasoconstrictor fibers and a decrease in hindlimb vascular resistance, but an initial excitation of most upper body vasoconstrictor fibers accompanied by an increase in upper body vascular resistance. The present study tested the hypothesis that neurons in the principal vasomotor region of the brainstem, the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), whose projections extended past the T10 segment, to spinal levels containing sympathetic preganglionic neurons regulating lower body blood flow, respond differently to electrical stimulation of the vestibular nerve than RVLM neurons whose axons terminate rostral to T10. Contrary to our hypothesis, the majority of RVLM neurons were excited by vestibular stimulation, despite their level of projection in the spinal cord. These findings indicate that the RVLM is not solely responsible for establishing the patterning of vestibular-sympathetic responses. This patterning apparently requires the integration by spinal circuitry of labyrinthine signals transmitted from the brainstem, likely from regions in addition to the RVLM.

  3. Variability of cirrus clouds in a convective outflow during the Hibiscus campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierli, F.; di Donfrancesco, G.; Cairo, F.; Marécal, V.; Zampieri, M.; Orlandi, E.; Durry, G.

    2008-08-01

    Light-weight microlidar and water vapour measurements were taken on-board a stratospheric balloon during the HIBISCUS 2004 campaign, held in Bauru, Brazil (49° W, 22° S). Cirrus clouds were observed throughout the flight between 12 and 15 km height with a high mesoscale variability in optical and microphysical properties. It was found that the cirrus clouds were composed of different layers characterized by marked differences in height, thickness and optical properties. Simultaneous water vapour observations show that the different layers are characterized by different values of the saturation with respect to ice. A mesoscale simulation and a trajectory analysis clearly revealed that the clouds had formed in the outflow of a large and persistent convective region and that the observed variability of the optical properties and of the cloud structure is likely linked to the different residence times of the convectively-processed air in the upper troposphere.

  4. Oxygenated Organic Chemicals in the Pacific Troposphere: Distribution, Sources and Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Hanwant B.; Salas, L.; Chatfield, R.; Czech, E.; Fried, A.; Evans, M.; Jacob, D. J.; Blake, D.; Heikes, B.; Talbot, R.

    2003-01-01

    Airborne measurements of a large number of oxygenated organic chemicals (Oxorgs) were carried out in the Pacific troposphere (0.1-12 km) in the Spring of 2001 (Feb. 24-April 10). Specifically these measuremen ts included acetone, methylethyl ketone (MEK), methanol, ethanol, ace taldehyde, propionaldehyde, PANS, and organic nitrates. Complementary measurements of formaldehyde, organic peroxides, and tracers were al so available. Ox-orgs were abundant in the clean troposphere and were greatly enhanced in the outflow regions from Asia. Their mixing ratios were typically highest in the lower troposphere and declined toward s the upper troposphere and the lowermost stratosphere. Their total a bundance (Ox-orgs) significantly exceeded that of NMHC (C2-C8 NMHC). A comparison of these data with observations collected some seven yea rs earlier (Feb.-March, 1994), did not reveal any significant changes . Throughout the troposphere mixing ratios of Ox-orgs were strongly c orrelated with each other as well as with tracers of fossil and bioma sshiof'uel combustion. Analysis of the relative enhancement of selected Oxorgs with respect to CH3Cl and CO in twelve sampled plumes, origi nating from fires, is used to assess their primary and secondary sour ces from biomass combustion. The composition of these plumes also ind icates a large shift of reactive nitrogen into the PAN reservoir ther eby limiting ozone formation. The Harvard 3-D photochemical model, th at uses state of the art chemistry and source information, is used to compare simulated and observed mixing ratios of selected species. A 1 -D model is used to explore the chemistry of aldehydes. These results will be presented.

  5. Chemical and aerosol characterisation of the troposphere over West Africa during the monsoon period as part of AMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Reeves

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available During June, July and August 2006 five aircraft took part in a campaign over West Africa to observe the aerosol content and chemical composition of the troposphere and lower stratosphere as part of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA project. These are the first such measurements in this region during the monsoon period. In addition to providing an overview of the tropospheric composition, this paper provides a description of the measurement strategy (flights performed, instrumental payloads, wing-tip to wing-tip comparisons and points to some of the important findings discussed in more detail in other papers in this special issue.

    The ozone data exhibits an "S" shaped vertical profile which appears to result from significant losses in the lower troposphere due to rapid deposition to forested areas and photochemical destruction in the moist monsoon air, and convective uplift of ozone-poor air to the upper troposphere. This profile is disturbed, particularly in the south of the region, by the intrusions in the lower and middle troposphere of air from the southern hemisphere impacted by biomass burning. Comparisons with longer term data sets suggest the impact of these intrusions on West Africa in 2006 was greater than in other recent wet seasons. There is evidence for net photochemical production of ozone in these biomass burning plumes as well as in urban plumes, in particular that from Lagos, convective outflow in the upper troposphere and in boundary layer air affected by nitrogen oxide emissions from recently wetted soils. This latter effect, along with enhanced deposition to the forested areas, contributes to a latitudinal gradient of ozone in the lower troposphere. Biogenic volatile organic compounds are also important in defining the composition both for the boundary layer and upper tropospheric convective outflow.

    Mineral dust was found to be the most abundant and ubiquitous aerosol type in the

  6. Tropospheric Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseck, P. R.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2003-12-01

    It is widely believed that "On a clear day you can see forever," as proclaimed in the 1965 Broadway musical of the same name. While an admittedly beautiful thought, we all know that this concept is only figurative. Aside from Earth's curvature and Rayleigh scattering by air molecules, aerosols - colloidal suspensions of solid or liquid particles in a gas - limit our vision. Even on the clearest day, there are billions of aerosol particles per cubic meter of air.Atmospheric aerosols are commonly referred to as smoke, dust, haze, and smog, terms that are loosely reflective of their origin and composition. Aerosol particles have arisen naturally for eons from sea spray, volcanic emissions, wind entrainment of mineral dust, wildfires, and gas-to-particle conversion of hydrocarbons from plants and dimethylsulfide from the oceans. However, over the industrial period, the natural background aerosol has been greatly augmented by anthropogenic contributions, i.e., those produced by human activities. One manifestation of this impact is reduced visibility (Figure 1). Thus, perhaps more than in other realms of geochemistry, when considering the composition of the troposphere one must consider the effects of these activities. The atmosphere has become a reservoir for vast quantities of anthropogenic emissions that exert important perturbations on it and on the planetary ecosystem in general. Consequently, much recent research focuses on the effects of human activities on the atmosphere and, through them, on the environment and Earth's climate. For these reasons consideration of the geochemistry of the atmosphere, and of atmospheric aerosols in particular, must include the effects of human activities. (201K)Figure 1. Impairment of visibility by aerosols. Photographs at Yosemite National Park, California, USA. (a) Low aerosol concentration (particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm, PM2.5=0.3 μg m-3; particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter less than 10

  7. The behaviour of stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone in high and mid latitudes; the role of ozone as a climate gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyroe, M.; Rummukainen, M.; Kivi, R.; Turunen, T.; Karhu, J. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland); Taalas, P. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    During the past few years, the dual role that ozone plays in climate change has been becoming increasingly obvious. First, continuous thinning of the ozone layer has been evident, even in the high and middle latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Secondly, ozone is also a greenhouse gas, affecting radiative transfer. Increases in tropospheric ozone have a positive forcing, whereas decreases in stratospheric ozone cause a negative forcing. During the last six years, measurements on total ozone and the vertical distribution of ozone have been performed at the Sodankylae Observatory. At Jokioinen Observatory, measurements on total ozone have been performed since 1990 and measurements on the vertical distribution of ozone since 1993. The overall project has focused on extending the national data series on total ozone and the vertical distribution of ozone. At the same time, the study has contributed to the study of interannual variability of the ozone layer. This SILMU project took part in the large-scale research activities, in addition to performing national studies. The results confirm that there has been fast chemical ozone destruction in the high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. This was particularly evident in the last two winters, 1994/95 and 1995/96. The new data also allows better trend analyses to be made on ozone in high and mid latitudes

  8. The behaviour of stratospheric and upper tropospheric ozone in high and mid latitudes; the role of ozone as a climate gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyroe, M; Rummukainen, M; Kivi, R; Turunen, T; Karhu, J [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Sodankylae (Finland); Taalas, P [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    During the past few years, the dual role that ozone plays in climate change has been becoming increasingly obvious. First, continuous thinning of the ozone layer has been evident, even in the high and middle latitudes in the northern hemisphere. Secondly, ozone is also a greenhouse gas, affecting radiative transfer. Increases in tropospheric ozone have a positive forcing, whereas decreases in stratospheric ozone cause a negative forcing. During the last six years, measurements on total ozone and the vertical distribution of ozone have been performed at the Sodankylae Observatory. At Jokioinen Observatory, measurements on total ozone have been performed since 1990 and measurements on the vertical distribution of ozone since 1993. The overall project has focused on extending the national data series on total ozone and the vertical distribution of ozone. At the same time, the study has contributed to the study of interannual variability of the ozone layer. This SILMU project took part in the large-scale research activities, in addition to performing national studies. The results confirm that there has been fast chemical ozone destruction in the high latitudes in the northern hemisphere. This was particularly evident in the last two winters, 1994/95 and 1995/96. The new data also allows better trend analyses to be made on ozone in high and mid latitudes

  9. In-situ BrO measurements in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere. Validation of the ENVISAT satellite measurements and photochemical model studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrechanyy, S.

    2007-04-15

    and SCOUT-O3 in the 15-20 km altitude regime are at the low side of comparable DOAS measurements a CLaMS study of the evolution of Bry from the source gases has been carried out. For this purpose an ensemble of trajectories rising from the lower troposphere to the TTL within 6 to more than 90 days were initialized with observed mixing ratios in the boundary layer of all important organic bromine source gases and the free-up of Bry by chemical and photochemical reactions was simulated. Bromoform, CHBr3, was found to be the main source of inorganic bromine at the tropopause. The derived tropospheric lifetime of bromoform is 33 days. The modelled BrO mixing ratio at the tropopause (less than 2.5 pptv) is consistent with HALOX measurements which do not detect significant amounts of BrO there (<1-2 pptv). Therefore measurements of more than 4 pptv (as retrieved from SCIAMACHY) can only be explained trough processes not included in the model. (orig.)

  10. Mid-infrared spectroscopy of Uranus from the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer: 1. Determination of the mean temperature structure of the upper troposphere and stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn S.; Fletcher, Leigh N.; Moses, Julianne I.; Mainzer, Amy K.; Hines, Dean; Hammel, Heidi B.; Martin-Torres, F. Javier; Burgdorf, Martin; Merlet, Cecile; Line, Michael R.

    2014-11-01

    On 2007 December 16-17, spectra were acquired of the disk of Uranus by the Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS), ten days after the planet's equinox, when its equator was close to the sub-Earth point. This spectrum provides the highest-resolution broad-band spectrum ever obtained for Uranus from space, allowing a determination of the disk-averaged temperature and molecule composition to a greater degree of accuracy than ever before. The temperature profiles derived from the Voyager radio occultation experiment by Lindal et al. (Lindal, G.F., Lyons, J.R., Sweetnam, D.N., Eshleman, V.R., Hinson, D.P. [1987]. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 14987-15001) and revisions suggested by Sromovsky et al. (Sromovsky, L.A., Fry, P.A., Kim, J.H. [2011]. Icarus 215, 292-312) that match these data best are those that assume a high abundance of methane in the deep atmosphere. However, none of these model profiles provides a satisfactory fit over the full spectral range sampled. This result could be the result of spatial differences between global and low-latitudinal regions, changes in time, missing continuum opacity sources such as stratospheric hazes or unknown tropospheric constituents, or undiagnosed systematic problems with either the Voyager radio-occultation or the Spitzer IRS data sets. The spectrum is compatible with the stratospheric temperatures derived from the Voyager ultraviolet occultations measurements by Herbert et al. (Herbert, F. et al. [1987]. J. Geophys. Res. 92, 15093-15109), but it is incompatible with the hot stratospheric temperatures derived from the same data by Stevens et al. (Stevens, M.H., Strobel, D.F., Herbert, F.H. [1993]. Icarus 101, 45-63). Thermospheric temperatures determined from the analysis of the observed H2 quadrupole emission features are colder than those derived by Herbert et al. at pressures less than ∼1 μbar. Extrapolation of the nominal model spectrum to far-infrared through millimeter wavelengths shows that the spectrum arising solely from H2

  11. Studies of Quasar Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arav, Nahum

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this research program is to determine the ionization equilibrium and abundances in quasar outflows. Especially in the broad absorption line QSO PG 0946+301. We find that the outflow's metalicity is consistent with being solar, while the abundance ratio of phosphorus to other metals is at least ten times solar. These findings are based on diagnostics that are not sensitive to saturation and partial covering effects in the BALs (Broad Adsorption Lines), which considerably weakened previous claims for enhanced metalicity. Ample evidence for these effects is seen in the spectrum.

  12. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    carbon, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, and sulphur dioxide) that are collected from India Meteo- rological Department .... and the upper troposphere is not only able to absorb ... lar traffic, thermal power plants, very busy ports, small and ...

  13. A tropospheric ozone maximum over the equatorial Southern Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We examine the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone (O3 from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS and the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem. MLS and TES observations of tropospheric O3 during 2005 to 2009 reveal a distinct, persistent O3 maximum, both in mixing ratio and tropospheric column, in May over the Equatorial Southern Indian Ocean (ESIO. The maximum is most pronounced in 2006 and 2008 and less evident in the other three years. This feature is also consistent with the total column O3 observations from the Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS. Model results reproduce the observed May O3 maximum and the associated interannual variability. The origin of the maximum reflects a complex interplay of chemical and dynamic factors. The O3 maximum is dominated by the O3 production driven by lightning nitrogen oxides (NOx emissions, which accounts for 62% of the tropospheric column O3 in May 2006. We find the contribution from biomass burning, soil, anthropogenic and biogenic sources to the O3 maximum are rather small. The O3 productions in the lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America both peak in May and are directly responsible for the O3 maximum over the western ESIO. The lightning outflow from Equatorial Asia dominates over the eastern ESIO. The interannual variability of the O3 maximum is driven largely by the anomalous anti-cyclones over the southern Indian Ocean in May 2006 and 2008. The lightning outflow from Central Africa and South America is effectively entrained by the anti-cyclones followed by northward transport to the ESIO.

  14. GALAXY OUTFLOWS WITHOUT SUPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sur, Sharanya [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, 2nd Block, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Scannapieco, Evan [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, P.O. Box 876004, Tempe-85287 (United States); Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: sharanya.sur@iiap.res.in, E-mail: sharanya.sur@asu.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    High surface density, rapidly star-forming galaxies are observed to have ≈50–100 km s{sup −1} line of sight velocity dispersions, which are much higher than expected from supernova driving alone, but may arise from large-scale gravitational instabilities. Using three-dimensional simulations of local regions of the interstellar medium, we explore the impact of high velocity dispersions that arise from these disk instabilities. Parametrizing disks by their surface densities and epicyclic frequencies, we conduct a series of simulations that probe a broad range of conditions. Turbulence is driven purely horizontally and on large scales, neglecting any energy input from supernovae. We find that such motions lead to strong global outflows in the highly compact disks that were common at high redshifts, but weak or negligible mass loss in the more diffuse disks that are prevalent today. Substantial outflows are generated if the one-dimensional horizontal velocity dispersion exceeds ≈35 km s{sup −1}, as occurs in the dense disks that have star-formation rate (SFR) densities above ≈0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These outflows are triggered by a thermal runaway, arising from the inefficient cooling of hot material coupled with successive heating from turbulent driving. Thus, even in the absence of stellar feedback, a critical value of the SFR density for outflow generation can arise due to a turbulent heating instability. This suggests that in strongly self-gravitating disks, outflows may be enhanced by, but need not caused by, energy input from supernovae.

  15. Relativistic Outflows from ADAFs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Peter; Subramanian, Prasad; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2001-04-01

    Advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) have a positive Bernoulli parameter, and are therefore gravitationally bound. The Newtonian ADAF model has been generalized recently to obtain the ADIOS model that includes outflows of energy and angular momentum, thereby allowing accretion to proceed self-consistently. However, the utilization of a Newtonian gravitational potential limits the ability of this model to describe the inner region of the disk, where any relativistic outflows are likely to originate. In this paper we modify the ADIOS scenario to incorporate a seudo - Newtonian potential, which approximates the effects of general relativity. The analysis yields a unique, self - similar solution for the structure of the coupled disk/wind system. Interesting features of the new solution include the relativistic character of the outflow in the vicinity of the radius of marginal stability, which represents the inner edge of the quasi-Keplerian disk in our model. Our self - similar model may therefore help to explain the origin of relativistic jets in active galaxies. At large distances the radial dependence of the accretion rate approachs the unique form dot M ∝ r^1/2, with an associated density variation given by ρ ∝ r-1. This density variation agrees with that implied by the dependence of the X-ray hard time lags on the Fourier frequency for a number of accreting galactic black hole candidates. While intriguing, the results of our self-similar model need to be confirmed in the future by incorporating a detailed physical description of the energization mechanism that drives the outflow, which is likely to be powered by the shear of the underlying accretion disk.

  16. UPPER TROPOSPHERIC ND STR TOSPHERIC OZONE OVER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-03-26

    Mar 26, 2015 ... site free of anthropogenic emissions, can be representative ... et al., 2009).The reduction in production of ... over Nairobi are small, light instruments attached on a .... pollutants from the city of Nairobi. The ... transport. Figure 9 ...

  17. Lagrangian Photochemical Box-Model Calculations of Asian Pacific Rim Outflow During TRACE-P

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, A.; Crawford, J.; Olson, J.; Avery, M.; Sachse, G.; Barrick, J.; Blake, D.; Tan, D.; Sandholm, S.; Kondo, Y.; Singh, H.; Eisele, F.; Zondlo, M.; Flocke, F.; Talbot, R.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's TRACE-P (TRAnsport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific) mission was conducted over the northwestern Pacific February-April, 2001. During two transit flights across the Pacific, extensive pollution was observed from an Asian outflow event that split into two branches over the central Pacific, one subsiding and moving southward over the central Pacific and the other continuing eastward in the upper troposphere. The subsiding branch was observed as a widespread stagnant pollution layer between 2 and 4 km over the central Pacific during transit flights from Kona, HI to Guam. In this region, high levels of O3 (70 ppbv), CO (217 ppbv), and NOx (114 pptv) were well in excess of typical values observed during TRACE-P along the Asian coast. Evidence suggests that the subsiding branch experienced extensive photochemical processing compared to the branch that remained at altitude. To examine the processes controlling the chemical evolution of ozone and its precursors in this outflow event, data collected during the TRACE-P mission have been combined with lagrangian photochemical box model calculations. One of the largest sources of uncertainty in these calculations was associated with predicted water vapor levels along the transport trajectories calculated using the HYSPLIT model. Water vapor levels predicted by HYSPLIT trajectory calculations in the subsiding layer ranged from 3390 to 4880 ppm, while the median level observed in the pollution layer was only 637 ppm. Simulations of ozone production and associated radical chemistry differed dramatically when using water vapor levels based on trajectory calculations versus observed water vapor levels. Levels of PAN and HO2NO2, NOx reservoir species, are also influenced by uncertainties in temperature along the trajectories. These results highlight the importance of accurately representing the humidification and warming of subsiding air masses in 3-D chemical- transport models.

  18. Reactive Nitrogen, Ozone and Ozone Production in the Arctic Troposphere and the Impact of Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Rodriquez, J. M.; Douglass, A. R.; Crawford, J. H.; Apel, E.; Bian, H.; Blake, D. R.; Brune, W.; Chin, M.; Colarco, P. R.; hide

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the aircraft observations obtained during the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellite (ARCTAS) mission together with the GEOS-5 CO simulation to examine O3 and NOy in the Arctic and sub-Arctic region and their source attribution. Using a number of marker tracers and their probability density distributions, we distinguish various air masses from the background troposphere and examine their contribution to NOx, O3, and O3 production in the Arctic troposphere. The background Arctic troposphere has mean O3 of approximately 60 ppbv and NOx of approximately 25 pptv throughout spring and summer with CO decreases from approximately 145 ppbv in spring to approximately 100 ppbv in summer. These observed CO, NOx and O3 mixing ratios are not notably different from the values measured during the 1988 ABLE-3A and the 2002 TOPSE field campaigns despite the significant changes in the past two decades in processes that could have changed the Arctic tropospheric composition. Air masses associated with stratosphere-troposphere exchange are present throughout the mid and upper troposphere during spring and summer. These air masses with mean O3 concentration of 140-160 ppbv are the most important direct sources of O3 in the Arctic troposphere. In addition, air of stratospheric origin is the only notable driver of net O3 formation in the Arctic due to its sustainable high NOx (75 pptv in spring and 110 pptv in summer) and NOy (approximately 800 pptv in spring and approximately 1100 pptv in summer) levels. The ARCTAS measurements present observational evidence suggesting significant conversion of nitrogen from HNO3 to NOx and then to PAN (a net formation of approximately 120 pptv PAN) in summer when air of stratospheric origin is mixed with tropospheric background during stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. These findings imply that an adequate representation of stratospheric O3 and NOy input are essential in accurately simulating O3

  19. Molecular outflows in protostellar evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Y.; Iwata, T.; Mizuno, A.; Ogawa, H.; Kawabata, K.; Sugitani, K.

    1989-01-01

    Molecular outflow is an energetic mass-ejection phenomenon associated with very early stage of stellar evolution. The large kinetic energy involved in the phenomenon indicates that outflow may play an essential role in the process of star formation, particularly by extracting angular momentum. Most of the previous searches have been strongly biased toward optical or near-infrared signposts of star formation. They are not able, therefore, to provide the complete database necessary for a statistical study of the evolutionary status of molecular outflow. To overcome this difficulty, it is of vital importance to make an unbiased search of single molecular clouds for molecular outflows; here we report the final result of such a survey of the Lynds 1641 dark cloud. We show that molecular outflows are characterized by a total luminosity significantly greater than that of T Tauri stars. This indicates that molecular outflow corresponds to the main accretion phase of protostellar evolution, in which the luminosity excess is due to the gravitational energy released by dynamical mass accretion onto the protostellar core. (author)

  20. Relationships between lower tropospheric stability, low cloud cover, and water vapor isotopic composition in the subtropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galewsky, J.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the processes that govern the relationships between lower tropospheric stability and low-cloud cover is crucial for improved constraints on low-cloud feedbacks and for improving the parameterizations of low-cloud cover used in climate models. The stable isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapor is a sensitive recorder of the balance of moistening and drying processes that set the humidity of the lower troposphere and may thus provide a useful framework for improving our understanding low-cloud processes. In-situ measurements of water vapor isotopic composition collected at the NOAA Mauna Loa Observatory in Hawaii, along with twice-daily soundings from Hilo and remote sensing of cloud cover, show a clear inverse relationship between the estimated inversion strength (EIS) and the mixing ratios and water vapor δ -values, and a positive relationship between EIS, deuterium excess, and Δ δ D, defined as the difference between an observation and a reference Rayleigh distillation curve. These relationships are consistent with reduced moistening and an enhanced upper-tropospheric contribution above the trade inversion under high EIS conditions and stronger moistening under weaker EIS conditions. The cloud fraction, cloud liquid water path, and cloud-top pressure were all found to be higher under low EIS conditions. Inverse modeling of the isotopic data for the highest and lowest terciles of EIS conditions provide quantitative constraints on the cold-point temperatures and mixing fractions that govern the humidity above the trade inversion. The modeling shows the moistening fraction between moist boundary layer air and dry middle tropospheric air 24±1.5% under low EIS conditions is and 6±1.5% under high EIS conditions. A cold-point (last-saturation) temperature of -30C can match the observations for both low and high EIS conditions. The isotopic composition of the moistening source as derived from the inversion (-114±10‰ ) requires moderate

  1. Effect of tropical cyclones on the stratosphere–troposphere exchange observed using satellite observations over the north Indian Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Venkat Ratnam

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Tropical cyclones play an important role in modifying the tropopause structure and dynamics as well as stratosphere–troposphere exchange (STE processes in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS region. In the present study, the impact of cyclones that occurred over the north Indian Ocean during 2007–2013 on the STE processes is quantified using satellite observations. Tropopause characteristics during cyclones are obtained from the Global Positioning System (GPS radio occultation (RO measurements, and ozone and water vapour concentrations in the UTLS region are obtained from Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS satellite observations. The effect of cyclones on the tropopause parameters is observed to be more prominent within 500 km of the centre of the tropical cyclone. In our earlier study, we observed a decrease (increase in the tropopause altitude (temperature up to 0.6 km (3 K, and the convective outflow level increased up to 2 km. This change leads to a total increase in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL thickness of 3 km within 500 km of the centre of cyclone. Interestingly, an enhancement in the ozone mixing ratio in the upper troposphere is clearly noticed within 500 km from the cyclone centre, whereas the enhancement in the water vapour in the lower stratosphere is more significant on the south-east side, extending from 500 to 1000 km away from the cyclone centre. The cross-tropopause mass flux for different intensities of cyclones is estimated and it is found that the mean flux from the stratosphere to the troposphere for cyclonic storms is 0.05 ± 0.29 × 10−3 kg m−2, and for very severe cyclonic storms it is 0.5 ± 1.07 × 10−3 kg m−2. More downward flux is noticed on the north-west and south-west side of the cyclone centre. These results indicate that the cyclones have significant impact in effecting the tropopause structure, ozone and water vapour budget, and

  2. The governing processes and timescales of stratosphere-to-troposphere transport and its contribution to ozone in the Arctic troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Douglass, A. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Stolarski, R. S.; Witte, J. C.

    2009-05-01

    We used the seasonality of a combination of atmospheric trace gases and idealized tracers to examine stratosphere-to-troposphere transport and its influence on tropospheric composition in the Arctic. Maximum stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of CFCs and O3 occurs in April as driven by the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) occurs predominantly between 40° N to 80° N with stratospheric influx in the mid-latitudes (30-70° N) accounting for 67-81% of the air of stratospheric origin in the Northern Hemisphere extratropical troposphere. Transport from the lower stratosphere to the lower troposphere (LT) takes three months on average, one month to cross the tropopause, the second month to travel from the upper troposphere (UT) to the middle troposphere (MT), and the third month to reach the LT. During downward transport, the seasonality of a trace gas can be greatly impacted by wet removal and chemistry. A comparison of idealized tracers with varying lifetimes suggests that when initialized with the same concentrations and seasonal cycles at the tropopause, trace gases that have shorter lifetimes display lower concentrations, smaller amplitudes, and earlier seasonal maxima during transport to the LT. STE contributes to O3 in the Arctic troposphere directly from the transport of O3 and indirectly from the transport of NOy. Direct transport of O3 from the stratosphere accounts for 78% of O3 in the Arctic UT with maximum contributions occurring from March to May. The stratospheric contribution decreases significantly in the MT/LT (20-25% of total O3) and shows a very weak March-April maximum. Our NOx budget analysis in the Arctic UT shows that during spring and summer, the stratospheric injection of NOy-rich air increases NOx concentrations above the 20 pptv threshold level, thereby shifting the Arctic UT from a regime of net photochemical ozone loss to one of net production with rates as high as +16 ppbv/month.

  3. Knowledge Outflows from Foreign Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perri, Alessandra; Andersson, Ulf

    This paper analyzes the MNC subsidiaries’ trade-off between the need for knowledge creation and the need for knowledge protection, and relates it to the extent of knowledge outflows generated within the host location. Combining research in International Business with Social Theory, we find...... the value of the subsidiary’s knowledge stock is very high, the need for knowledge protection restrains reciprocity mechanisms in knowledge exchanges, thus reducing the extent of knowledge outflows to the host location. This study contributes to the literature on the firm-level antecedents of FDI...... that subsidiaries that extensively draw on external knowledge sources are also more likely to generate knowledge outflows to local firms. We argue that this may be explained by the subsidiaries’ willingness to build the trust that facilitates the establishment of reciprocal knowledge linkages. However, when...

  4. Molecular Outflows: Explosive versus Protostellar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zapata, Luis A.; Rodríguez, Luis F.; Palau, Aina; Loinard, Laurent [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apdo. Postal 3-72 (Xangari), 58089 Morelia, Michoacán, México (Mexico); Schmid-Burgk, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121, Bonn (Germany)

    2017-02-10

    With the recent recognition of a second, distinctive class of molecular outflows, namely the explosive ones not directly connected to the accretion–ejection process in star formation, a juxtaposition of the morphological and kinematic properties of both classes is warranted. By applying the same method used in Zapata et al., and using {sup 12}CO( J = 2-1) archival data from the Submillimeter Array, we contrast two well-known explosive objects, Orion KL and DR21, to HH 211 and DG Tau B, two flows representative of classical low-mass protostellar outflows. At the moment, there are only two well-established cases of explosive outflows, but with the full availability of ALMA we expect that more examples will be found in the near future. The main results are the largely different spatial distributions of the explosive flows, consisting of numerous narrow straight filament-like ejections with different orientations and in almost an isotropic configuration, the redshifted with respect to the blueshifted components of the flows (maximally separated in protostellar, largely overlapping in explosive outflows), the very-well-defined Hubble flow-like increase of velocity with distance from the origin in the explosive filaments versus the mostly non-organized CO velocity field in protostellar objects, and huge inequalities in mass, momentum, and energy of the two classes, at least for the case of low-mass flows. Finally, all the molecular filaments in the explosive outflows point back to approximately a central position (i.e., the place where its “exciting source” was located), contrary to the bulk of the molecular material within the protostellar outflows.

  5. A Raman lidar at La Reunion (20.8° S, 55.5° E for monitoring water vapour and cirrus distributions in the subtropical upper troposphere: preliminary analyses and description of a future system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Hoareau

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A ground-based Rayleigh lidar has provided continuous observations of tropospheric water vapour profiles and cirrus cloud using a preliminary Raman channels setup on an existing Rayleigh lidar above La Reunion over the period 2002–2005. With this instrument, we performed a first measurement campaign of 350 independent water vapour profiles. A statistical study of the distribution of water vapour profiles is presented and some investigations concerning the calibration are discussed. Analysis regarding the cirrus clouds is presented and a classification has been performed showing 3 distinct classes. Based on these results, the characteristics and the design of a future lidar system, to be implemented at the new Reunion Island altitude observatory (2200 m for long-term monitoring, is presented and numerical simulations of system performance have been realised to compare both instruments.

  6. Tropospheric Ozone as a Short-lived Chemical Climate Forcer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.

    2012-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is the third most important greenhouse gas according to the most recent IPCC assessment. However, tropospheric ozone is highly variable in both space and time. Ozone that is located in the vicinity of the tropopause has the greatest effect on climate forcing. Nitrogen oxides (NOx) are the most important precursors for ozone In most of the troposphere. Therefore, pollution that is lofted upward in thunderstorm updrafts or NOx produced by lightning leads to efficient ozone production in the upper troposphere, where ozone is most important climatically. Global and regional model estimates of the impact of North American pollution and lightning on ozone radiative forcing will be presented. It will be shown that in the Northern Hemisphere summer, the lightning effect on ozone radiative forcing can dominate over that of pollution, and that the radiative forcing signal from North America extends well into Europe and North Africa. An algorithm for predicting lightning flash rates and estimating lightning NOx emissions is being incorporated into the NASA GEOS-5 Chemistry and Climate Model. Changes in flash rates and emissions over an ENSO cycle and in future climates will be assessed, along with the resulting changes in upper tropospheric ozone. Other research on the production of NOx per lightning flash and its distribution in the vertical based on cloud-resolving modeling and satellite observations will be presented. Distributions of NO2 and O3 over the Middle East from the OMI instrument on NASA's Aura satellite will also be shown.

  7. Origins of Tropospheric Ozone Interannual Variation (IAV) over Reunion: A Model Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junhua; Rodriguez, Jose M.; Thompson, Anne M.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Douglass, Anne R.; Olsen, Mark A.; Steenrod, Stephen D.; Posny, Francoise

    2016-01-01

    Observations from long-term ozonesonde measurements show robust variations and trends in the evolution of ozone in the middle and upper troposphere over Reunion Island (21.1 degrees South Latitude, 55.5 degrees East Longitude) in June-August. Here we examine possible causes of the observed ozone variation at Reunion Island using hindcast simulations by the stratosphere-troposphere Global Modeling Initiative chemical transport model for 1992-2014, driven by assimilated Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) meteorological fields. Reunion Island is at the edge of the subtropical jet, a region of strong stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. Our analysis implies that the large interannual variation (IAV) of upper tropospheric ozone over Reunion is driven by the large IAV of the stratospheric influence. The IAV of the large-scale, quasi-horizontal wind patterns also contributes to the IAV of ozone in the upper troposphere. Comparison to a simulation with constant emissions indicates that increasing emissions do not lead to the maximum trend in the middle and upper troposphere over Reunion during austral winter implied by the sonde data. The effects of increasing emission over southern Africa are limited tothe lower troposphere near the surface in August-September.

  8. Troposphere - ionosphere interaction during tropospheric MCC events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzano, J.R.; Zossi Artigas, M.M. de; Filippi Manzano, A.N. de; Cosio Ragone, A.H. de

    1995-09-01

    The present paper describes the investigation of possible effects of the type of large meteorological events known as Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCC) on the F-region of the ionosphere over Argentina. These warm-season weather systems of huge size are present in the United States (Maddox, 1980) and in South Americal (Velasco and Fritsch, 1987). Their extension can be as large as 1,300,000 Km 2 and they tend to move in different directions over the earth surface. It is expected that these meteorological events should leave its signature in the upper region of the atmosphere. 13 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  9. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOWS IN L1340

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walawender, Josh [W. M. Keck Observatory, 65-1120 Mamalahoa Hwy, Kamuela, HI 96743 (United States); Wolf-Chase, Grace [Astronomy Department, Adler Planetarium, 1300 South Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Smutko, Michael [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics (CIERA) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); OLinger-Luscusk, JoAnn [California Institute of Technology, 1200 E California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Moriarty-Schieven, Gerald, E-mail: jmwalawender@keck.hawaii.edu [National Research Council—Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5017 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC, V9E 2E7 (Canada)

    2016-12-01

    We have searched the L1340 A, B, and C clouds for shocks from protostellar outflows using the H{sub 2} 2.122 μ m near-infrared line as a shock tracer. Substantial outflow activity has been found in each of the three regions of the cloud (L1340 A, L1340 B, and L1340 C). We find 42 distinct shock complexes (16 in L1340 A, 11 in L1340 B, and 15 in L1340 C). We were able to link 17 of those shock complexes into 12 distinct outflows and identify candidate source stars for each. We examine the properties ( A {sub V}, T {sub bol}, and L {sub bol}) of the source protostars and compare them to the properties of the general population of Class 0/I and flat spectral energy distribution protostars and find that there is an indication, albeit at low statistical significance, that the outflow-driving protostars are drawn from a population with lower A {sub V}, higher L {sub bol}, and lower T {sub bol} than the general population of protostars.

  10. Tropospheric NO2 over China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A, van der R.J.; Peters, D.H.M.U.; Kuenen, J.J.P.; Eskes, H.J.; Boersma, K.F.; Roozendael, Van M.; Smedt, de I.; Zhang, P.; Kelder, H.M.; Lacoste, H.; Ouwehand, L.

    2006-01-01

    The results are presented of a study to tropospheric NO2 over China, based on measurements from the satellite instruments GOME and SCIAMACHY. A data set of 10 year tropospheric NO2 has been processed from GOME and SCIAMACHY observations using a combined retrieval/assimilation approach. This approach

  11. Relative outflow enhancements during major geomagnetic storms – Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schillings

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The rate of ion outflow from the polar ionosphere is known to vary by orders of magnitude, depending on the geomagnetic activity. However, the upper limit of the outflow rate during the largest geomagnetic storms is not well constrained due to poor spatial coverage during storm events. In this paper, we analyse six major geomagnetic storms between 2001 and 2004 using Cluster data. The six major storms fulfil the criteria of Dst  < −100 nT or Kp  > 7+. Since the shape of the magnetospheric regions (plasma mantle, lobe and inner magnetosphere are distorted during large magnetic storms, we use both plasma beta (β and ion characteristics to define a spatial box where the upward O+ flux scaled to an ionospheric reference altitude for the extreme event is observed. The relative enhancement of the scaled outflow in the spatial boxes as compared to the data from the full year when the storm occurred is estimated. Only O+ data were used because H+ may have a solar wind origin. The storm time data for most cases showed up as a clearly distinguishable separate peak in the distribution toward the largest fluxes observed. The relative enhancement in the outflow region during storm time is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher compared to less disturbed time. The largest relative scaled outflow enhancement is 83 (7 November 2004 and the highest scaled O+ outflow observed is 2  ×  1014 m−2 s−1 (29 October 2003.

  12. Tropospheric Halogen Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Glasow, R.; Crutzen, P. J.

    2003-12-01

    Halogens are very reactive chemicals that are known to play an important role in anthropogenic stratospheric ozone depletion chemistry, first recognized by Molina and Rowland (1974). However, they also affect the chemistry of the troposphere. They are of special interest because they are involved in many reaction cycles that can affect the oxidation power of the atmosphere indirectly by influencing the main oxidants O3 and its photolysis product OH and directly, e.g., by reactions of the Cl radical with hydrocarbons (e.g., CH4).Already by the middle of the nineteenth century, Marchand (1852) reported the presence of bromine and iodine in rain and other natural waters. He also mentions the benefits of iodine in drinking water through the prevention of goitres and cretinism. In a prophetic monograph "Air and Rain: The Beginnings of a Chemical Climatology," Smith (1872) describes measurements of chloride in rain water, which he states to originate partly from the oceans by a process that he compares with the bursting of "soap bubbles" which produces "small vehicles" that transfer small spray droplets of seawater to the air. From deviations of the sulfate-to-chloride ratio in coastal rain compared to seawater, Smith concluded that chemical processes occur once the particles are airborne.For almost a century thereafter, however, atmospheric halogens received little attention. One exception was the work by Cauer (1939), who reported that iodine pollution has been significant in Western and Central Europe due to the inefficient burning of seaweed, causing mean gas phase atmospheric concentrations as high as or greater than 0.5 μg m-3. In his classical textbook Air Chemistry and Radioactivity, Junge (1963) devoted less than three pages to halogen gas phase chemistry, discussing chlorine and iodine. As reviewed by Eriksson (1959a, b), the main atmospheric source of halogens is sea salt, derived from the bursting of bubbles of air which are produced by ocean waves and other

  13. Lidar investigations on the optical and dynamical properties of cirrus clouds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere regions at a tropical station, Gadanki, India (13.5°N, 79.2°E)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnakumar, Vasudevannair; Satyanarayana, Malladi; Radhakrishnan, Soman R.; Dhaman, Reji K.; Jayeshlal, Glory Selvan; Motty, Gopinathan Nair S.; Pillai, Vellara P. Mahadevan; Raghunath, Karnam; Ratnam, Madineni Venkat; Rao, Duggirala Ramakrishna; Sudhakar, Pindlodi

    2014-01-01

    High altitude cirrus clouds are composed mainly of ice crystals with a variety of sizes and shapes. They have a large influence on Earth's energy balance and global climate. Recent studies indicate that the formation, dissipation, life time, optical, and micro-physical properties are influenced by the dynamical conditions of the surrounding atmosphere like background aerosol, turbulence, etc. In this work, an attempt has been made to quantify some of these characteristics by using lidar and mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar. Mie lidar and 53 MHz MST radar measurements made over 41 nights during the period 2009 to 2010 from the tropical station, Gadanki, India (13.5°N, 79.2°E). The optical and microphysical properties along with the structure and dynamics of the cirrus are presented as observed under different atmospheric conditions. The study reveals the manifestation of different forms of cirrus with a preferred altitude of formation in the 13 to 14 km altitude. There are considerable differences in the properties obtained among 2009 and 2010 showing significant anomalous behavior in 2010. The clouds observed during 2010 show relatively high asymmetry and large multiple scattering effects. The anomalies found during 2010 may be attributed to the turbulence noticed in the surrounding atmosphere. The results show a clear correlation between the crystal morphology in the clouds and the dynamical conditions of the prevailing atmosphere during the observational period.

  14. Study on the regional and global rise in NO{sub x} and non-methane hydrocarbon concentrations in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere as a consequence of airplane emissions. Final report; Untersuchungen zur regionalen und globalen Erhoehung der NO{sub x}- und Nichtmethankohlenwasserstoff-Konzentrationen in der oberen Troposphaere und der unteren Stratosphaere infolge Flugzeugemissionen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F

    1996-01-05

    In this project a chemical mechanism was developed for the upper troposphere which permits examining the photochemical formation of ozone. Using this mechanism it was found that at medium latitudes (at 10 km altitude in June) hydroxyl radical concentration and the rate of photochemical ozone formation to which it is coupled depend on NO{sub x} concentrations in a strongly non-linear manner, peaking at 110 ppt NO{sub x} and 200 pp NO{sub x}, respectively. Regarding the assessment of the effects of air traffic it was thus shown that in attempting to forecast changes in ozone concentration one must not only take aviation-related changes in NO{sub x} concentrations into account but also the forecasted absolute concentrations of NO{sub x}. The measured data were interpreted by combining a simplified model of NO{sub x} reactions with an existing three-dimensional transport model and comparing the measured and the calculated vertical NO profiles. It can be said that the 3D chemical transport model supplies realistic tropospheric NO{sub x} ratios at least for medium latitudes (49 to 56 N) in the months of May, June, July, December, and January. At these latitudes the tropospheric NO{sub x} budget is mainly governed by anthropogenic emissions. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] In diesem Projekt wurde ein Chemiemechanismus fuer die obere Troposphaere entwickelt, der es erlaubt, die photochemische Ozonbildung zu untersuchen. Mit diesem Mechanismus konnte fuer mittlere noerdliche Breiten (fuer 10 km Hoehe, Juni) gezeigt werden, dass die Hydroxylradikalkonzentration und die damit gekoppelte photochemische Ozonbildungsrate in stark nichtlinearer Weise von der Stickoxidkonzentration abhaengen und bei etwa 110 ppt NO{sub x} (bezw. 200 ppt NO{sub x} fuer die Ozonbildungsrate) ein Maximum durchlaufen. Fuer die Beurteilung der Auswirkungen des Flugverkehrs konnte deswegen gezeigt werden, dass die Voraussagen ueber Ozonveraenderungen nicht nur von der Aenderung der Stickoxidkonzentration durch den

  15. Thermodynamic constraint on the depth of the global tropospheric circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David W J; Bony, Sandrine; Li, Ying

    2017-08-01

    The troposphere is the region of the atmosphere characterized by low static stability, vigorous diabatic mixing, and widespread condensational heating in clouds. Previous research has argued that in the tropics, the upper bound on tropospheric mixing and clouds is constrained by the rapid decrease with height of the saturation water vapor pressure and hence radiative cooling by water vapor in clear-sky regions. Here the authors contend that the same basic physics play a key role in constraining the vertical structure of tropospheric mixing, tropopause temperature, and cloud-top temperature throughout the globe. It is argued that radiative cooling by water vapor plays an important role in governing the depth and amplitude of large-scale dynamics at extratropical latitudes.

  16. Massive Outflows Associated with ATLASGAL Clumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, A. Y.; Thompson, M. A.; Urquhart, J. S.; Tian, W. W.

    2018-03-01

    We have undertaken the largest survey for outflows within the Galactic plane using simultaneously observed {}13{CO} and {{{C}}}18{{O}} data. Out of a total of 919 ATLASGAL clumps, 325 have data suitable to identify outflows, and 225 (69% ± 3%) show high-velocity outflows. The clumps with detected outflows show significantly higher clump masses ({M}clump}), bolometric luminosities ({L}bol}), luminosity-to-mass ratios ({L}bol}/{M}clump}), and peak H2 column densities ({N}{{{H}}2}) compared to those without outflows. Outflow activity has been detected within the youngest quiescent clump (i.e., 70 μ {{m}} weak) in this sample, and we find that the outflow detection rate increases with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, {L}bol}/{M}clump}, and {N}{{{H}}2}, approaching 90% in some cases (UC H II regions = 93% ± 3%; masers = 86% ± 4%; HC H II regions = 100%). This high detection rate suggests that outflows are ubiquitous phenomena of massive star formation (MSF). The mean outflow mass entrainment rate implies a mean accretion rate of ∼ {10}-4 {M}ȯ {yr}}-1, in full agreement with the accretion rate predicted by theoretical models of MSF. Outflow properties are tightly correlated with {M}clump}, {L}bol}, and {L}bol}/{M}clump} and show the strongest relation with the bolometric clump luminosity. This suggests that outflows might be driven by the most massive and luminous source within the clump. The correlations are similar for both low-mass and high-mass outflows over 7 orders of magnitude, indicating that they may share a similar outflow mechanism. Outflow energy is comparable to the turbulent energy within the clump; however, we find no evidence that outflows increase the level of clump turbulence as the clumps evolve. This implies that the origin of turbulence within clumps is fixed before the onset of star formation.

  17. Variability of Atmospheric CO2 over the western North Pacific: Influence of Asian outflow during March-April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vay, S. A.; Woo, J.; Anderson, B. E.; Thornhill, K. L.; Kiley, C.; Avery, M. A.; Sachse, G. W.; Blake, D. R.; Streets, D. G.; Nolf, S. R.

    2002-12-01

    We report here tropospheric CO2 measurements made as part of the airborne component of NASA's Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P) Mission during March and April in 2001. CO2 mixing ratios, sampled in the subtropics (23.5-45.5° N) west of 150° E, exhibited a decreasing trend with height (0.5-12 km), were highly correlated with latitude showing a distinct north to south gradient, and peaked between 35-40° N within the planetary boundary layer. Near the Asian continent, discrete plumes encountered below 4 km contained up to 393.6 ppmv CO2 and were augmented with the combustion and industrial tracers CO, C2H6, C3H8, CH3Cl, C2Cl4, and C6H6. A chemically based air mass classification scheme using the combustion products CO and C2H2 as tracers of continental source emissions was employed in this analysis. Results show an excellent positive correlation for CO2 (r2=0.98) with respect to this ratio in the lower to mid free troposphere (4-8 km) providing evidence of continental outflow. South of the Tropic of Cancer, mean and median CO2 values derived from samples obtained below 8 km are less than those calculated for the subtropics. However, within the upper troposphere (UT) of both regions, similar values were determined and enhancements in combustion-derived species in the 8-12 km altitude range were observed. The relationship revealed between CO2 and the C2H2/CO ratio, particularly for the tropics, suggests recent inputs from the surface to the UT. In order to elucidate the processes determining the variations of CO2 in the Asian Pacific rim region during TRACE-P, a CO2 emissions data base developed for Asia was examined in conjunction with the chemistry and 5 day backward trajectories in an attempt to link CO2 enhancements observed in pollution plumes to source regions. From these data acquired downwind of the Asian continent when CO2 concentrations at the surface were approaching their seasonal maximum, we estimate a net export flux on the

  18. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES focuses on the troposphere, the layer of atmosphere that stretches from the ground to the altitude at which airplanes fly. With very high spectral resolution,...

  19. Physics of the tropospheric radiopropagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajayi, G.O.

    1989-02-01

    The physics of the tropospheric radiopropagation is presented considering the atmospheric radio refractive index and taking into account the influence of precipitation and the attenuation due to the atmospheric gases. 35 refs, 20 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Observing Tropospheric Ozone From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack

    2000-01-01

    The importance of tropospheric ozone embraces a spectrum of relevant scientific issues ranging from local environmental concerns, such as damage to the biosphere and human health, to those that impact global change questions, Such is climate warming. From an observational perspective, the challenge is to determine the tropospheric ozone global distribution. Because its lifetime is short compared with other important greenhouse gases that have been monitored over the past several decades, the distribution of tropospheric ozone cannot be inferred from a relatively small set of monitoring stations. Therefore, the best way to obtain a true global picture is from the use of space-based instrumentation where important spatial gradients over vast ocean expanses and other uninhabited areas can be properly characterized. In this paper, the development of the capability to measure tropospheric ozone from space over the past 15 years is summarized. Research in the late 1980s successfully led to the determination of the climatology of tropospheric ozone as a function of season; more recently, the methodology has improved to the extent where regional air pollution episodes can be characterized. The most recent modifications now provide quasi-global (50 N) to 50 S) maps on a daily basis. Such a data set would allow for the study of long-range (intercontinental) transport of air pollution and the quantification of how regional emissions feed into the global tropospheric ozone budget. Future measurement capabilities within this decade promise to offer the ability to provide Concurrent maps of the precursors to the in situ formation of tropospheric ozone from which the scientific community will gain unprecedented insight into the processes that control global tropospheric chemistry

  1. Source attribution of tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, T. M.

    2015-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone is a harmful pollutant with adverse effects on human health and ecosystems. As well as these effects, tropospheric ozone is also a powerful greenhouse gas, with an anthropogenic radiative forcing one quarter of that of CO2. Along with methane and atmospheric aerosol, tropospheric ozone belongs to the so-called Short Lived Climate forcing Pollutants, or SLCP. Recent work has shown that efforts to reduce concentrations of SLCP in the atmosphere have the potential to slow the rate of near-term climate change, while simultaneously improving public health and reducing crop losses. Unlike many other SLCP, tropospehric ozone is not directly emitted, but is instead influenced by two distinct sources: transport of air from the ozone-rich stratosphere; and photochemical production in the troposphere from the emitted precursors NOx (oxides of nitrogen), CO (Carbon Monoxide), and VOC (volatile organic compounds, including methane). Better understanding of the relationship between ozone production and the emissions of its precursors is essential for the development of targeted emission reduction strategies. Several modeling methods have been employed to relate the production of tropospheric ozone to emissions of its precursors; emissions perturbation, tagging, and adjoint sensitivity methods all deliver complementary information about modelled ozone production. Most studies using tagging methods have focused on attribution of tropospheric ozone production to emissions of NOx, even though perturbation methods have suggested that tropospheric ozone is also sensitive to VOC, particularly methane. In this study we describe the implementation into a global chemistry-climate model of a scheme for tagging emissions of NOx and VOC with an arbitrary number of labels, which are followed through the chemical reactions of tropospheric ozone production in order to perform attribution of tropospehric ozone to its emitted precursors. Attribution is performed to both

  2. The Governing Processes and Timescales of Stratosphere-to-Troposphere Transport and its Contribution to Ozone in the Arctic Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Q.; Douglass, A. R.; Duncan, B. N.; Stolarski, R. S.; Witte, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    We used the seasonality of a combination of atmospheric trace gases and idealized tracers to examine stratosphere-to-troposphere transport and its influence on tropospheric composition in the Arctic. Maximum stratosphere-to-troposphere transport of CFCs and O3 occurs in April as driven by the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) occurs predominantly between 40 deg N to 80 deg N with stratospheric influx in the mid-latitudes (30-70 deg N) accounting for 67.81 percent of the air of stratospheric origin in the Northern Hemisphere extratropical troposphere. Transport from the lower stratosphere to the lower troposphere (LT) takes three months on average, one month to cross the tropopause, the second month to travel from the upper troposphere (UT) to the middle troposphere (MT), and the third month to reach the LT. During downward transport, the seasonality of a trace gas can be greatly impacted by wet removal and chemistry. A comparison of idealized tracers with varying lifetimes suggests that when initialized with the same concentrations and seasonal cycles at the tropopause, trace gases that have shorter lifetimes display lower concentrations, smaller amplitudes, and earlier seasonal maxima during transport to the LT. STE contributes to O3 in the Arctic troposphere directly from the transport of O3 and indirectly from the transport of NOy . Direct transport of O3 from the stratosphere accounts for 78 percent of O3 in the Arctic UT with maximum contributions occurring from March to May. The stratospheric contribution decreases significantly in the MT/LT (20.25 percent of total O3) and shows a very weak March.April maximum. Our NOx budget analysis in the Arctic UT shows that during spring and summer, the stratospheric injection of NO y-rich air increases NOx concentrations above the 20 pptv threshold level, thereby shifting the Arctic UT from a regime of net photochemical ozone loss to one of net production with rates as high as +16 ppbv/month.

  3. Geometry of anisotropic CO outflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liseau, R.; Sandell, G.; Helsinki Univ., Observatory, Finland)

    1986-01-01

    A simple geometrical model for the space motions of the bipolar high-velocity CO outflows in regions of recent, active star formation is proposed. It is assumed that the velocity field of the neutral gas component can be represented by large-scale uniform motions. From observations of the spatial distribution and from the characteristics of the line shape of the high-velocity molecular gas emission the geometry of the line-emitting regions can be inferred, i.e., the direction in space and the collimating angle of the flow. The model has been applied to regions where a check on presently obtained results is provided by independent optical determinations of the motions of Herbig-Haro objects associated with the CO flows. These two methods are in good agreement and, furthermore, the results obtained provide convincingly strong evidence for the physical association of CO outflows and Herbig-Haro objects. This also supports the common view that a young stellar central source is responsible for the active phenomena observed in its environmental neighborhood. It is noteworthy that within the framework of the model the determination of the flow geometry of the high-velocity gas from CO measurements is independent of the distance to the source and, furthermore, can be done at relatively low spatial resolution. 32 references

  4. Tropospheric ozone annual variation and possible troposphere-stratosphere coupling in the Arctic and Antarctic as derived from ozone soundings at Resolute and Amundsen-Scott stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruzdev, A.N.; Sitnov, S.A. (Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. of Atmospheric Physics)

    1993-01-01

    The tropospheric ozone annual variation in the northern and southern polar regions is analyzed from ozone sounding data obtained at Resolute during a 15-year period and Amundsen-Scott during a 7-year period. The phase of ozone annual variation above Resolute changes (increases) gradually from the stratosphere across the tropopause to the middle troposphere. Unlike this, the phase of the Antarctic ozone annual harmonic has a discontinuity in the layer of the changing tropopause level, so that the annual harmonic in the upper troposphere, lower stratosphere is 4-to-5 months out of phase (earlier) to that above and beneath. Above both the Arctic and Antarctic stations, the ozone mixing ratio and its vertical gradient evolve in a similar manner in the wide layer from the lower stratosphere to the middle troposphere. This likely points out that ozone in this layer is controlled from above. An indication of the stratospheric-tropospheric ozone exchange above Resolute is noted from mid-winter to spring. The analysis of columnar tropospheric ozone changes gives a lower estimate of the cross-tropopause ozone flux up to 5x10[sup 10] mol cm[sup -2] s[sup -1]. Above the South Pole, the cross-tropopause ozone flux is not usually large. There is also some evidence that early in the spring, when the stratospheric ozone 'hole' is developed, the stratospheric-tropospheric exchange conducts the influence of the 'hole' into the upper troposphere, where the integrated ozone destruction is estimated to be 8x10[sup 10] mol cm[sup -2] s[sup -1]. Correlation analysis gives no ozone-tropopause correlation in the Antarctic in winter, while in other seasons as well as during all seasons in the Arctic, there are negative correlation peaks just above the tropopause. (19 refs., 6 figs.).

  5. Remote sensed and in situ constraints on processes affecting tropical tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sauvage

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We use a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem to evaluate the consistency of satellite measurements of lightning flashes and ozone precursors with in situ measurements of tropical tropospheric ozone. The measurements are tropospheric O3, NO2, and HCHO columns from the GOME satellite instrument, lightning flashes from the OTD and LIS satellite instruments, profiles of O3, CO, and relative humidity from the MOZAIC aircraft program, and profiles of O3 from the SHADOZ ozonesonde network. We interpret these multiple data sources with our model to better understand what controls tropical tropospheric ozone. Tropical tropospheric ozone is mainly affected by lightning NOx and convection in the upper troposphere and by surface emissions in the lower troposphere. Scaling the spatial distribution of lightning in the model to the observed flashes improves the simulation of O3 in the upper troposphere by 5–20 ppbv versus in situ observations and by 1–4 Dobson Units versus GOME retrievals of tropospheric O3 columns. A lightning source strength of 6±2 Tg N/yr best represents in situ observations from aircraft and ozonesonde. Tropospheric NO2 and HCHO columns from GOME are applied to provide top-down constraints on emission inventories of NOx (biomass burning and soils and VOCs (biomass burning. The top-down biomass burning inventory is larger than the bottom-up inventory by a factor of 2 for HCHO and alkenes, and by a factor of 2.6 for NOx over northern equatorial Africa. These emissions increase lower tropospheric O3 by 5–20 ppbv, improving the simulation versus aircraft observations, and by 4 Dobson Units versus GOME observations of tropospheric O3 columns. Emission factors in the a posteriori inventory are more consistent with a recent compilation from in situ measurements. The ozone simulation using two different dynamical schemes (GEOS-3 and GEOS-4 is evaluated versus observations; GEOS-4 better represents O3 observations by 5–15 ppbv

  6. Ozone in the Tropical Troposphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Wouter

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the research presented here is to acquire knowledge of the past, present, and future composition, stability, sensitivity, and variability of the troposphere. We focus mostly on the tropical regions because it has received little attention so far, measurements here are scarce, and large

  7. Martian outflow channels: How did their source aquifers form, and why did they drain so rapidly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J Alexis P; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Baker, Victor R; Gulick, Virginia C; Berman, Daniel C; Fairén, Alberto G; Linares, Rogelio; Zarroca, Mario; Yan, Jianguo; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Glines, Natalie

    2015-09-08

    Catastrophic floods generated ~3.2 Ga by rapid groundwater evacuation scoured the Solar System's most voluminous channels, the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels. Based on Viking Orbiter data analysis, it was hypothesized that these outflows emanated from a global Hesperian cryosphere-confined aquifer that was infused by south polar meltwater infiltration into the planet's upper crust. In this model, the outflow channels formed along zones of superlithostatic pressure generated by pronounced elevation differences around the Highland-Lowland Dichotomy Boundary. However, the restricted geographic location of the channels indicates that these conditions were not uniform. Furthermore, some outflow channel sources are too high to have been fed by south polar basal melting. Using more recent mission data, we argue that during the Late Noachian fluvial and glacial sediments were deposited into a clastic wedge within a paleo-basin located in the southern circum-Chryse region, which at the time was completely submerged under a primordial northern plains ocean [corrected]. Subsequent Late Hesperian outflow channels were sourced from within these geologic materials and formed by gigantic groundwater outbursts driven by an elevated hydraulic head from the Valles Marineris region. Thus, our findings link the formation of the southern circum-Chryse outflow channels to ancient marine, glacial, and fluvial erosion and sedimentation.

  8. Influence of the Gulf Stream on the troposphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minobe, Shoshiro; Kuwano-Yoshida, Akira; Komori, Nobumasa; Xie, Shang-Ping; Small, Richard Justin

    2008-03-13

    The Gulf Stream transports large amounts of heat from the tropics to middle and high latitudes, and thereby affects weather phenomena such as cyclogenesis and low cloud formation. But its climatic influence, on monthly and longer timescales, remains poorly understood. In particular, it is unclear how the warm current affects the free atmosphere above the marine atmospheric boundary layer. Here we consider the Gulf Stream's influence on the troposphere, using a combination of operational weather analyses, satellite observations and an atmospheric general circulation model. Our results reveal that the Gulf Stream affects the entire troposphere. In the marine boundary layer, atmospheric pressure adjustments to sharp sea surface temperature gradients lead to surface wind convergence, which anchors a narrow band of precipitation along the Gulf Stream. In this rain band, upward motion and cloud formation extend into the upper troposphere, as corroborated by the frequent occurrence of very low cloud-top temperatures. These mechanisms provide a pathway by which the Gulf Stream can affect the atmosphere locally, and possibly also in remote regions by forcing planetary waves. The identification of this pathway may have implications for our understanding of the processes involved in climate change, because the Gulf Stream is the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, which has varied in strength in the past and is predicted to weaken in response to human-induced global warming in the future.

  9. A model study of ozone in the eastern Mediterranean free troposphere during MINOS (August 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Roelofs

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A coupled tropospheric chemistry-climate model is used to analyze tropospheric ozone distributions observed during the MINOS campaign in the eastern Mediterranean region (August, 2001. Modeled ozone profiles are generally in good agreement with the observations. Our analysis shows that the atmospheric dynamics in the region are strongly influenced by the occurrence of an upper tropospheric anti-cyclone, associated with the Asian summer monsoon and centered over the Tibetan Plateau. The anti-cyclone affects the chemical composition of the upper troposphere, where ozone concentrations of about 50 ppbv were measured, through advection of boundary layer air from South-East Asia. A layer between 4-6 km thickness was present beneath, containing up to 120 ppbv of ozone with substantial contributions by transport from the stratosphere and through lightning NOx. Additionally, pollutant ozone from North America was mixed in. Ozone in the lower troposphere originated mainly from the European continent. The stratospheric influence may be overestimated due to too strong vertical diffusion associated with the relatively coarse vertical resolution. The estimated tropospheric ozone column over the eastern Mediterranean is ~50 DU in summer, to which ozone from recent stratospheric origin contributes about 30%, ozone from lightning 13%, and from South-East Asia, North America and Europe about 7%, 8% and 14%, respectively, adding to a long-term hemispheric background of 25% of the column.

  10. Evidence for ultrafast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs - III. Location and energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-05-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photoionization modelling of blueshifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this Letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval ˜0.0003-0.03 pc (˜ 102-104rs) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disc winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between ˜0.01 and 1 M⊙ yr-1, corresponding to >rsim5-10 per cent of the accretion rates. The average lower/upper limits on the mechanical power are log? 42.6-44.6 erg s-1. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs are indeed capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN cosmological feedback, in agreement with theoretical expectations and the recent observation of interactions between AGN outflows and the interstellar medium in several Seyfert galaxies.

  11. Evidence for Ultra-Fast Outflows in Radio-Quiet AGNs: III - Location and Energetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-01-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photo-ionization modelling of blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultrafast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval approx.0.0003-0.03pc (approx.10(exp 2)-10(exp 4)tau(sub s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is expected for accretion disk winds/outflows. The mass outflow rates are constrained between approx.0.01- 1 Stellar Mass/y, corresponding to approx. or >5-10% of the accretion rates. The average lower-upper limits on the mechanical power are logE(sub K) approx. or = 42.6-44.6 erg/s. However, the minimum possible value of the ratio between the mechanical power and bolometric luminosity is constrained to be comparable or higher than the minimum required by simulations of feedback induced by winds/outflows. Therefore, this work demonstrates that UFOs are indeed capable to provide a significant contribution to the AGN r.osmological feedback, in agreement with theoretical expectations and the recent observation of interactions between AGN outflows and the interstellar medium in several Seyferts galaxies .

  12. Fading AGN Candidates: AGN Histories and Outflow Signatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Lintott, Chris J. [Astrophysics, Oxford University and Adler Planetarium, 1300 S. Lakeshore Drive, Chicago, IL 60605 (United States); Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi [Physics Department, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA 93407 (United States); Chojnowski, S. Drew [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 30001, MSC 4500, Las Cruces, NM 88003-8001 (United States); Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina [Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Arkhyz, 369167 (Russian Federation); Schawinski, Kevin; Sartori, Lia F. [Institute for Astronomy, ETH Zürich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Straße 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Urry, C. Megan [Department of Physics, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Pancoast, Anna [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Schirmer, Mischa, E-mail: wkeel@ua.edu [Gemini Observatory, La Serena (Chile)

    2017-02-01

    We consider the energy budgets and radiative history of eight fading active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified from an energy shortfall between the requirements to ionize very extended (radius > 10 kpc) ionized clouds and the luminosity of the nucleus as we view it directly. All show evidence of significant fading on timescales of ≈50,000 yr. We explore the use of minimum ionizing luminosity Q {sub ion} derived from photoionization balance in the brightest pixels in H α at each projected radius. Tests using presumably constant Palomar–Green QSOs, and one of our targets with detailed photoionization modeling, suggest that we can derive useful histories of individual AGNs, with the caveat that the minimum ionizing luminosity is always an underestimate and subject to uncertainties about fine structure in the ionized material. These consistency tests suggest that the degree of underestimation from the upper envelope of reconstructed Q {sub ion} values is roughly constant for a given object and therefore does not prevent such derivation. The AGNs in our sample show a range of behaviors, with rapid drops and standstills; the common feature is a rapid drop in the last ≈2×10{sup 4} yr before the direct view of the nucleus. The e -folding timescales for ionizing luminosity are mostly in the thousands of years, with a few episodes as short as 400 yr. In the limit of largely obscured AGNs, we find additional evidence for fading from the shortfall between even the lower limits from recombination balance and the maximum luminosities derived from far-infrared fluxes. We compare these long-term light curves, and the occurrence of these fading objects among all optically identified AGNs, to simulations of AGN accretion; the strongest variations over these timespans are seen in models with strong and local (parsec-scale) feedback. We present Gemini integral-field optical spectroscopy, which shows a very limited role for outflows in these ionized structures. While rings and

  13. Fading AGN Candidates: AGN Histories and Outflow Signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keel, William C.; Maksym, W. Peter; Lintott, Chris J.; Bennert, Vardha N.; Scott, Bryan; Showley, Charles; Flatland, Kelsi; Chojnowski, S. Drew; Moiseev, Alexei; Smirnova, Aleksandrina; Schawinski, Kevin; Sartori, Lia F.; Urry, C. Megan; Pancoast, Anna; Schirmer, Mischa

    2017-01-01

    We consider the energy budgets and radiative history of eight fading active galactic nuclei (AGNs), identified from an energy shortfall between the requirements to ionize very extended (radius > 10 kpc) ionized clouds and the luminosity of the nucleus as we view it directly. All show evidence of significant fading on timescales of ≈50,000 yr. We explore the use of minimum ionizing luminosity Q ion derived from photoionization balance in the brightest pixels in H α at each projected radius. Tests using presumably constant Palomar–Green QSOs, and one of our targets with detailed photoionization modeling, suggest that we can derive useful histories of individual AGNs, with the caveat that the minimum ionizing luminosity is always an underestimate and subject to uncertainties about fine structure in the ionized material. These consistency tests suggest that the degree of underestimation from the upper envelope of reconstructed Q ion values is roughly constant for a given object and therefore does not prevent such derivation. The AGNs in our sample show a range of behaviors, with rapid drops and standstills; the common feature is a rapid drop in the last ≈2×10 4 yr before the direct view of the nucleus. The e -folding timescales for ionizing luminosity are mostly in the thousands of years, with a few episodes as short as 400 yr. In the limit of largely obscured AGNs, we find additional evidence for fading from the shortfall between even the lower limits from recombination balance and the maximum luminosities derived from far-infrared fluxes. We compare these long-term light curves, and the occurrence of these fading objects among all optically identified AGNs, to simulations of AGN accretion; the strongest variations over these timespans are seen in models with strong and local (parsec-scale) feedback. We present Gemini integral-field optical spectroscopy, which shows a very limited role for outflows in these ionized structures. While rings and loops of emission

  14. Large-Scale Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbert, E. J. M.; Baum, S. A.

    1995-12-01

    \\catcode`\\@=11 \\ialign{m @th#1hfil ##hfil \\crcr#2\\crcr\\sim\\crcr}}} \\catcode`\\@=12 Highly collimated outflows extend out to Mpc scales in many radio-loud active galaxies. In Seyfert galaxies, which are radio-quiet, the outflows extend out to kpc scales and do not appear to be as highly collimated. In order to study the nature of large-scale (>~1 kpc) outflows in Seyferts, we have conducted optical, radio and X-ray surveys of a distance-limited sample of 22 edge-on Seyfert galaxies. Results of the optical emission-line imaging and spectroscopic survey imply that large-scale outflows are present in >~{{1} /{4}} of all Seyferts. The radio (VLA) and X-ray (ROSAT) surveys show that large-scale radio and X-ray emission is present at about the same frequency. Kinetic luminosities of the outflows in Seyferts are comparable to those in starburst-driven superwinds. Large-scale radio sources in Seyferts appear diffuse, but do not resemble radio halos found in some edge-on starburst galaxies (e.g. M82). We discuss the feasibility of the outflows being powered by the active nucleus (e.g. a jet) or a circumnuclear starburst.

  15. Improvement of OMI Ozone Profile Retrievals in the Troposphere and Lower Troposphere by the Use of the Tropopause-Based Ozone Profile Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Juseon; Liu, X.; Wei, J.; Kim, J. H.; Chance, K.; Barnet, C.

    2011-01-01

    An advance algorithm based on the optimal estimation technique has beeen developed to derive ozone profile from GOME UV radiances and have adapted it to OMI UV radiances. OMI vertical resolution : 7-11 km in the troposphere and 10-14 km in the stratosphere. Satellite ultraviolet measurements (GOME, OMI) contain little vertical information for the small scale of ozone, especially in the upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) where the sharp O3 gradient across the tropopause and large ozone variability are observed. Therefore, retrievals depend greatly on the a-priori knowledge in the UTLS

  16. Forecasting tropical cyclone recurvature with upper tropospheric winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Data from 17 tropical cyclones during the 1974 through 1979 hurricane seasons are used to investigate whether the high level winds far to the northwest, north and northeast of the hurricane center can be used to predict hurricane track recurvature. When the man 200-mb winds 1500 to 2000 km northwest and north of the storm center equal or exceed 20 m/s, 80 per cent of the storms recurved before traveling as much as 12 degrees of longitude farther west. The high winds were also used to predict change in direction of forward motion during the next 72 hours. The regression equations developed explain up to 41 per cent of the variance in future direction. In addition to the geostrophic winds used, winds were also obtained by tracking clouds with successive satellite imagery. The u-components of the satellite winds are highly correlated with the geostrophic winds at 200-mb and could probably be used instead of them when available. The v-components are less highly correlated.

  17. The Upshear Environment-Outflow Interface of a Sheared, Rapidly Intensifying Tropical Cyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryglicki, D.; Doyle, J. D.; Jin, Y.; Hodyss, D.; Viner, K.

    2017-12-01

    An idealized, simulated tropical cyclone (TC) which undergoes rapid intensification in moderate vertical wind shear is shown to exhibit structural similarities to observed TCs of this class. Due to a complex vortex tilt evolution, enhanced convection causes enhanced outflow from the TC which subsequently serves to block and to divert environmental flow around the TC. This allows for the TC to come back into vertical alignment and undergo rapid intensification. A trajectory analysis indicates that blocking is limited to a narrow range of heights, indicating that the vertical profile of environmental winds is a key factor for permitting this evolution. Satellite observations indicate the presence of upper-level arcs extending upshear beyond the TC. Synthetic satellite imagery of the simulated TC indicates this is the termination of the outflow. Using a Helmholtz decomposition, it is found that the divergent component of the outflow extends 1000 km upshear into the environment, potentially explaining the 1000-km clearing seen in satellite observations.

  18. Tropospheric ozone climatology at two Southern Hemisphere tropical/subtropical sites, (Reunion Island and Irene, South Africa from ozonesondes, LIDAR, and in situ aircraft measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Clain

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a climatology and trends of tropospheric ozone in the Southwestern Indian Ocean (Reunion Island and South Africa (Irene and Johannesburg. This study is based on a multi-instrumental dataset: PTU-O3 ozonesondes, DIAL LIDAR and MOZAIC airborne instrumentation.

    The seasonal profiles of tropospheric ozone at Reunion Island have been calculated from two different data sets: ozonesondes and LIDAR. The two climatological profiles are similar, except in austral summer when the LIDAR profiles show greater values in the free troposphere, and in the upper troposphere when the LIDAR profiles show lower values during all seasons. These results show that the climatological value of LIDAR profiles must be discussed with care since LIDAR measurements can be performed only under clear sky conditions, and the upper limit of the profile depends on the signal strength.

    In addition, linear trends have been calculated from ozonesonde data at Reunion and Irene. Considering the whole tropospheric column, the trend is slightly positive for Reunion, and more clearly positive for Irene. Trend calculations have also been made separating the troposphere into three layers, and separating the dataset into seasons. Results show that the positive trend for Irene is governed by the lower layer that is affected by industrial pollution and biomass burning. On the contrary, for Reunion Island, the strongest trends are observed in the upper troposphere, and in winter when stratosphere-troposphere exchange is more frequently expected.

  19. Evidence of a tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Bowdle, David A.; Vaughan, J. Michael; Post, Madison J.

    1989-01-01

    Vertical profiles of atmospheric aerosol backscatter coefficients at 10.6 microns obtained with airborne and ground-based lidar are compared. Both sets of profiles show a high frequency of occurrence of low backscatter over a limited range of values in the middle and upper troposphere. It is suggested that this narrow range indicates a ubiquitous background mode for atmospheric backscatter around the globe. Implications of such a mode for global scale aerosol models and for the design of satellite-borne lidar-based sensors are discussed.

  20. Tropospheric aerosol backscatter background mode at CO2 wavelengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothermel, Jeffry; Bowdle, David A.; Menzies, Robert T.; Post, Madison J.; Vaughan, J. Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made between three climatologies of backscatter measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere at CO2 wavelengths. These were obtained from several locations using ground-based and airborne lidar systems. All three measurement sets show similar features, specifically, a high frequency of occurrence of low backscatter over a limited range of values in the middle and upper atmosphere (the 'background mode'). This background mode is important for the design and performance simulation of the prospective satellite sensors that rely on atmospheric aerosols as scattering targets.

  1. Evidence of Convective Redistribution of Carbon Monoxide in Aura Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne; Schoeberl, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Vertical convective transport is a key element of the tropospheric circulation. Convection lofts air from the boundary layer into the free troposphere, allowing surface emissions to travel much further, and altering the rate of chemical processes such as ozone production. This study uses satellite observations to focus on the convective transport of CO from the boundary layer to the mid and upper troposphere. Our hypothesis is that strong convection associated with high rain rate regions leads to a correlation between mid level and upper level CO amounts. We first test this hypothesis using the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) chemistry and transport model. We find the correlation is robust and increases as the precipitation rate (the strength of convection) increases. We next examine three years of CO profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Sounder (TES) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) instruments aboard EOS Aura. Rain rates are taken from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B-42 multi-satellite product. Again we find a correlation between mid-level and upper tropospheric CO, which increases with rain rate. Our result shows the critical importance of tropical convection in coupling vertical levels of the troposphere in the transport of trace gases. The effect is seen most clearly in strong convective regions such as the Inter-tropical Convergence Zone.

  2. Aerosol indirect effect on tropospheric ozone via lightning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, T.; Remer, L. A.; Bian, H.; Ziemke, J. R.; Albrecht, R. I.; Pickering, K. E.; Oreopoulos, L.; Goodman, S. J.; Yu, H.; Allen, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a pollutant and major greenhouse gas and its radiative forcing is still uncertain. The unresolved difference between modeled and observed natural background O3 concentrations is a key source of the uncertainty. Here we demonstrate remarkable sensitivity of lightning activity to aerosol loading with lightning activity increasing more than 30 times per unit of aerosol optical depth over our study area. We provide observational evidence that indicates the observed increase in lightning activity is caused by the influx of aerosols from a volcano. Satellite data analyses suggest O3 is increased as a result of aerosol-induced increase in lightning and lightning produced NOx. Model simulations with prescribed lightning change corroborate the satellite data analysis. This aerosol-O3 connection is achieved via aerosol increasing lightning and thus lightning produced nitrogen oxides. This aerosol-lightning-ozone link provides a potential physical mechanism that may account for a part of the model-observation difference in background O3 concentration. More importantly, O3 production increase from this link is concentrated in the upper troposphere, where O3 is most efficient as a greenhouse gas. Both of these implications suggest a stronger O3 historical radiative forcing. This introduces a new pathway, through which increasing in aerosols from pre-industrial time to present day enhances tropospheric O3 production. Aerosol forcing thus has a warming component via its effect on O3 production. Sensitivity simulations suggest that 4-8% increase of tropospheric ozone, mainly in the tropics, is expected if aerosol-lighting-ozone link is parameterized, depending on the background emission scenario. We note, however, substantial uncertainties remain on the exact magnitude of aerosol effect on tropospheric O3 via lightning. The challenges for obtaining a quantitative global estimate of this effect are also discussed. Our results have significant implications

  3. Cerebral venous outflow and cerebrospinal fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clive B. Beggs

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the impact of restricted cerebral venous outflow on the biomechanics of the intracranial fluid system is investigated. The cerebral venous drainage system is often viewed simply as a series of collecting vessels channeling blood back to the heart. However there is growing evidence that it plays an important role in regulating the intracranial fluid system. In particular, there appears to be a link between increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pulsatility in the Aqueduct of Sylvius and constricted venous outflow. Constricted venous outflow also appears to inhibit absorption of CSF into the superior sagittal sinus. The compliance of the cortical bridging veins appears to be critical to the behaviour of the intracranial fluid system, with abnormalities at this location implicated in normal pressure hydrocephalus. The compliance associated with these vessels appears to be functional in nature and dependent on the free egress of blood out of the cranium via the extracranial venous drainage pathways. Because constricted venous outflow appears to be linked with increased aqueductal CSF pulsatility, it suggests that inhibited venous blood outflow may be altering the compliance of the cortical bridging veins.

  4. OH outflows in star-forming regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabel, I.F.; Ruiz, A.; Rodriguez, L.F.; Canto, J.; Universidad de Puer; Universidad de Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City)

    1987-01-01

    The results from a survey for high-velocity OH in molecular outflows in star-forming regions are reported. High-velocity OH was detected in absorption in nine of these regions. When the telescope beam can resolve the outflows, they show similar anisotropic angular distribution as the redshifted and blueshifted CO. The OH transitions are markedly subthermal since for several sources it is found that the radiation that is being absorbed is a background continuum constituted by the cosmic component plus a small Galactic contribution. The absorbing OH appears to trace gas with higher velocities and lower densities than does the CO and, in some cases, provides information on the structure of the outflows at larger distances from the central source. At scales of 0.1 pc, the outflows are elongated in the direction of the steepest density gradient of the ambient cloud, suggesting that the large-scale collimation of the outflow is produced by the density structure of the ambient cloud. 29 references

  5. Active galactic nucleus outflows in galaxy discs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Tilman; Volonteri, Marta; Dashyan, Gohar

    2018-05-01

    Galactic outflows, driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs), play a crucial role in galaxy formation and in the self-regulated growth of supermassive black holes (BHs). AGN feedback couples to and affects gas, rather than stars, and in many, if not most, gas-rich galaxies cold gas is rotationally supported and settles in a disc. We present a 2D analytical model for AGN-driven outflows in a gaseous disc and demonstrate the main improvements, compared to existing 1D solutions. We find significant differences for the outflow dynamics and wind efficiency. The outflow is energy-driven due to inefficient cooling up to a certain AGN luminosity (˜1043 erg s-1 in our fiducial model), above which the outflow remains momentum-driven in the disc up to galactic scales. We reproduce results of 3D simulations that gas is preferentially ejected perpendicular to the disc and find that the fraction of ejected interstellar medium is lower than in 1D models. The recovery time of gas in the disc, defined as the free-fall time from the radius to which the AGN pushes the ISM at most, is remarkably short, of the order 1 Myr. This indicates that AGN-driven winds cannot suppress BH growth for long. Without the inclusion of supernova feedback, we find a scaling of the BH mass with the halo velocity dispersion of MBH ∝ σ4.8.

  6. Influence of stratospheric airmasses on tropospheric vertical O3 columns based on GOME (Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment measurements and backtrajectory calculation over the Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ladstätter-Weißenmayer

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite based GOME (Global Ozone Measuring experiment data are used to characterize the amount of tropospheric ozone over the tropical Pacific. Tropospheric ozone was determined from GOME data using the Tropospheric Excess Method (TEM. In the tropical Pacific a significant seasonal variation is detected. Tropospheric excess ozone is enhanced during the biomass burning season from September to November due to outflow from the continents. In September 1999 GOME data reveal an episode of increased excess ozone columns over Tahiti (18.0° S; 149.0° W (Eastern Pacific compared to Am. Samoa (14.23° S; 170.56° W and Fiji (18.13° S; 178.40° E, both situated in the Western Pacific. Backtrajectory calculations show that none of the airmasses arriving over the three locations experienced anthropogenic pollution (e. g. biomass burning. Consequently other sources of ozone have to be considered. One possible process leading to an increase of tropospheric ozone is stratosphere-troposphere-exchange. An analysis of the potential vorticity along trajectories arriving above each of the locations reveals that airmasses at Tahiti are subject to enhanced stratospheric influence, compared to Am. Samoa and Fiji. As a result this study shows clear incidents of transport of airmasses from the stratosphere into the troposphere.

  7. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z.; Young, S.E.; Becker, C.H.; Coggiola, M.J. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H. [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  8. Instrumentation for tropospheric aerosol characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Z; Young, S E; Becker, C H; Coggiola, M J [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Wollnik, H [Giessen Univ. (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    A new instrument has been developed that determines the abundance, size distribution, and chemical composition of tropospheric and lower stratospheric aerosols with diameters down to 0.2 {mu}m. In addition to aerosol characterization, the instrument also monitors the chemical composition of the ambient gas. More than 25.000 aerosol particle mass spectra were recorded during the NASA-sponsored Subsonic Aircraft: Contrail and Cloud Effects Special Study (SUCCESS) field program using NASA`s DC-8 research aircraft. (author) 7 refs.

  9. Analysis of the summertime buildup of tropospheric ozone abundances over the Middle East and North Africa as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Worden, John R.; Noone, David; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jay

    2009-03-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument in summer 2005. Observations from TES reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere (500-400 hPa) across North Africa and the Middle East. Observed ozone abundances in the middle troposphere are at a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter, consistent with the previously predicted summertime "Middle East ozone maximum." This summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian and Sahara anticyclones, centered over the Zagros and Atlas Mountains, respectively. These anticyclones isolate the middle troposphere over northeast Africa and the Middle East, with westerlies to the north and easterlies to the south, facilitating the buildup of ozone. Over the Middle East, we find that in situ production and transport from Asia provides comparable contributions of 30-35% to the ozone buildup. Over North Africa, in situ production is dominant (at about 20%), with transport from Asia, North America, and equatorial Africa each contributing about 10-15% to the total ozone. We find that although the eastern Mediterranean is characterized by strong descent in the middle and upper troposphere in summer, transport from the boundary layer accounts for about 25% of the local Middle Eastern contribution to the ozone enhancement in the middle troposphere. This upward transport of boundary layer air is associated with orographic lifting along the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water.

  10. Zooplankton in the Arctic outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, K. A.; Dritz, A. V.; Nikishina, A. B.

    2009-04-01

    Climate changes in the Arctic cause the changes in the current system that may have cascading effect on the structure of plankton community and consequently on the interlinked and delicately balanced food web. Zooplankton species are by definition incapable to perform horizontal moving. Their transport is connected with flowing water. There are zooplankton species specific for the definite water masses and they can be used as markers for the different currents. That allows us to consider zooplankton community composition as a result of water mixing in the studied area. Little is known however about the mechanisms by which spatial and temporal variability in advection affect dynamics of local populations. Ice conditions are also very important in the function of pelagic communities. Melting time is the trigger to all "plankton blooming" processes, and the duration of ice-free conditions determines the food web development in the future. Fram Strait is one of the key regions for the Arctic: the cold water outflow comes through it with the East Greenland Current and meets warm Atlantic water, the West Spitsbergen Current, producing complicated hydrological situation. During 2007 and 2008 we investigated the structure functional characteristics of zooplankton community in the Fram Strait region onboard KV "Svalbard" (April 2007, April and May 2008) and RV "Jan Mayen" (May 2007, August 2008). This study was conducted in frame of iAOOS Norway project "Closing the loop", which, in turn, was a part of IPY. During this cruises multidisciplinary investigations were performed, including sea-ice observations, CTD and ADCP profiling, carbon flux, nutrients and primary production measurements, phytoplankton sampling. Zooplankton was collected with the Hydro-Bios WP2 net and MultiNet Zooplankton Sampler, (mouth area 0.25 m2, mesh size 180 um).Samples were taken from the depth strata of 2000-1500, 1500-1000, 1000-500,500-200, 200-100, 100-60, 60-30, 30-0 m. Gut fluorescence

  11. The global warming potential of methane reassessed with combined stratosphere and troposphere chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, C. D.; Archibald, A. T.; Eastham, S. D.; Søvde, O. A.

    2017-12-01

    Methane is a direct and indirect greenhouse gas. The direct greenhouse effect comes from the radiation absorbed and emitted by methane itself. The indirect greenhouse effect comes from radiatively active gases that are produced during methane oxidation: principally O3, H2O, and CO2. Methane also suppresses tropospheric OH, which indirectly affects numerous greenhouses gases and aerosols. Traditionally, the methane global warming potential (GWP) has included the indirect effects on tropospheric O3 and OH and stratospheric H2O, with these effects estimated independently from unrelated tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry models and observations. Using this approach the CH4 is about 28 over 100 yr (without carbon cycle feedbacks, IPCC, 2013). Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the CH4 GWP in several 3-D global atmospheric models capable of simulating both tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry (GEOS-Chem, Oslo CTM3, UKCA). This enables us to include, for the first time, the indirect effects of CH4 on stratospheric O3 and stratosphere-troposphere coupling. We diagnose the GWP from paired simulations with and without a 5% perturbation to tropospheric CH4 concentrations. Including stratospheric chemistry nearly doubles the O3 contribution to CH4 GWP because of O3 production in the lower stratosphere and because CH4 inhibits Cl-catalyzed O3 loss in the upper stratosphere. In addition, stratosphere-troposphere coupling strengthens the chemical feedback on its own lifetime. In the stratosphere, this feedback operates by a CH4 perturbation thickening the stratospheric O3 layer, which impedes UV-driven OH production in the troposphere and prolongs the CH4 lifetime. We also quantify the impact of CH4-derived H2O on the stratospheric HOx cycles but these effects are small. Combining all of the above, these models suggest that the 100-yr GWP of CH4 is over 33.5, a 20% increase over the latest IPCC assessment.

  12. Secondary ozone peaks in the troposphere over the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ojha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Layers with strongly enhanced ozone concentrations in the middle–upper troposphere, referred to as secondary ozone peaks (SOPs, have been observed in different regions of the world. Here we use the global ECHAM5/MESSy atmospheric chemistry model (EMAC to (i investigate the processes causing SOPs, (ii explore both their frequency of occurrence and seasonality, and (iii assess their effects on the tropospheric ozone budget over the Himalayas. The vertical profiles of potential vorticity (PV and a stratospheric ozone tracer (O3s in EMAC simulations, in conjunction with the structure of SOPs, suggest that SOPs over the Himalayas are formed by stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT of ozone. The spatial distribution of O3s further shows that such effects are in general most pronounced in the northern part of India. Model simulated ozone distributions and backward air trajectories show that ozone rich air masses, associated with STT, originate as far as northern Africa and the North Atlantic Ocean, the Middle East, as well as in nearby regions in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and are rapidly (within 2–3 days transported to the Himalayas. Analysis of a 15-year (2000–2014 EMAC simulation shows that the frequency of SOPs is highest during the pre-monsoon season (e.g. 11 % of the time in May, while no intense SOP events are found during the July–October period. The SOPs are estimated to enhance the tropospheric column ozone (TCO over the central Himalayas by up to 21 %.

  13. Variations of tropospheric methane over Japan during 1988–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Umezawa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present observations of CH4 concentrations from the lower to upper troposphere (LT and UT over Japan during 1988–2010 based on aircraft measurements from the Tohoku University (TU. The analysis is aided by simulation results using an atmospheric chemistry transport model (i.e. ACTM. Tropospheric CH4 over Japan shows interannual and seasonal variations that are dependent on altitudes, primarily reflecting differences in air mass origins at different altitudes. The long-term trend and interannual variation of CH4 in the LT are consistent with previous reports of measurements at surface baseline stations in the northern hemisphere. However, those in the UT show slightly different features from those in the LT. In the UT, CH4 concentrations show a seasonal maximum in August due to efficient transport of air masses influenced by continental CH4 sources, while LT CH4 reaches its seasonal minimum during summer due to enhanced chemical loss. Vertical profiles of the CH4 concentrations also vary with season, reflecting the seasonal cycles at the respective altitudes. In summer, transport of CH4-rich air from Asian regions elevates UT CH4 levels, forming a uniform vertical profile above the mid-troposphere. On the other hand, CH4 decreases nearly monotonically with altitude in winter–spring. The ACTM simulations with different emission scenarios reproduce general features of the tropospheric CH4 variations over Japan. Tagged tracer simulations using the ACTM indicate substantial contributions of CH4 sources in South Asia and East Asia to the summertime high CH4 values observed in the UT. This suggests that our observations over Japan are highly sensitive to CH4 emission signals particularly from Asia.

  14. Evolution of the outflow activity of protostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontemps, Sylvain

    1996-01-01

    After a first part describing the formation of low-mass stars (sites of stellar formation, protostellar evolution) and matter outflows from young objects (molecular flows and their origin, optical and radio jets, outflow mechanisms), this research thesis discusses the evolution of molecular flows by reprinting a published article (Evolution of outflow activity around low-mass embedded young stellar objects), and by outlining some remaining issues (differences between clouds of stellar formation, morphological evolution of molecular flows). The author then discusses the continuous radio centimetre emission: origin, systematic search for Class 0 objects by using the VLA (Very Large Array radio interferometer), presentation of a new Class 0 protostar (HH24MMS). The author reports the study of H_2 emission in the infrared: generalities on protostellar shocks, infrared jet by HH24MMS, H_2 emission at 10 microns by using the ISOCAM camera [fr

  15. Wind influence on a coastal buoyant outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Michael M.; Garvine, Richard W.

    2005-03-01

    This paper investigates the interplay between river discharge and winds in forcing coastal buoyant outflows. During light winds a plume influenced by the Earth's rotation will flow down shelf (in the direction of Kelvin wave propagation) as a slender buoyancy-driven coastal current. Downwelling favorable winds augment this down-shelf flow, narrow the plume, and mix the water column. Upwelling favorable winds drive currents that counter the buoyancy-driven flow, spread plume waters offshore, and rapidly mix buoyant waters. Two criteria are developed to assess the wind influence on a buoyant outflow. The wind strength index (Ws) determines whether a plume's along-shelf flow is in a wind-driven or buoyancy-driven state. Ws is the ratio of the wind-driven and buoyancy-driven along-shelf velocities. Wind influence on across-shelf plume structure is rated with a timescale (ttilt) for the isopycnal tilting caused by wind-driven Ekman circulation. These criteria are used to characterize wind influence on the Delaware Coastal Current and can be applied to other coastal buoyant outflows. The Delaware buoyant outflow is simulated for springtime high-river discharge conditions. Simulation results and Ws values reveal that the coastal current is buoyancy-driven most of the time (∣Ws∣ Wind events, however, overwhelm the buoyancy-driven flow (∣Ws∣ > 1) several times during the high-discharge period. Strong upwelling events reverse the buoyant outflow; they constitute an important mechanism for transporting fresh water up shelf. Across-shelf plume structure is more sensitive to wind influence than the along-shelf flow. Values of ttilt indicate that moderate or strong winds persisting throughout a day can modify plume width significantly. Plume widening during upwelling events is accompanied by mixing that can erase the buoyant outflow.

  16. Tropospheric effects of energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derwent, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    The tropospheric concentrations of a number of trace gases are increasing due to man's activities. For some trace gases, their atmospheric life cycles are not fully understood and it is difficult to be certain about the role of man's activities. Emissions from the energy industries and energy conversion processes represent an important subset of source terms in these life cycles, along with agriculture, deforestation, cement manufacture, biomass burning, process industries and natural biospheric processes. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) allow the tropospheric effects of a range of climate forcing trace gases to be assessed on a comparable basis. If a short term view of the commitment to global warming is adopted then the contribution from other trace gases may approach and exceed that of carbon dioxide, itself. Over longer time horizons, the long atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide shows through as a major influence and the contributions from the other trace gases appear to be much smaller, representing an additional 13-18% contribution on top of that from CO 2 itself

  17. Explosive Outflows from Forming Massive Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Bally, J.; Ginsburg, A.; Kasliwal, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    AO imaging of the near IR [Fe ii] and H_2 lines and ALMA CO J = 2 − 1 data confirms the explosive nature of the BN/KL outflow in Orion. N-body interactions in compact groups may be responsible for the production of powerful, explosive protostellar outflows and luminous infrared flares. The Orion event may have been triggered by a protostellar merger. First results of a search for Orion-like events in 200 nearby galaxies with the SPitzer InfraRed Intensive Transients Survey (SPIRITS) are brief...

  18. Performance Evaluation of Blind Tropospheric Delay correction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lekky

    and Temperature 2 wet (GPT2w) models) for tropospheric delay correction, ... In practice, a user often employs a certain troposphere model based on the popularity ... comparisons between some of the models have been carried out in the past for .... prediction of meteorological parameter values, which are then used to ...

  19. Homepage for the Global Tropospheric Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Eugene

    1995-01-01

    The objective of my NASA summer research project was to create a homepage to describe and present results from the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE). The GTE is a major component of NASA's Tropospheric Chemistry Program and is managed in the Atmospheric Studies Branch, Atmospheric Sciences Division at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  20. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW EVOLUTION IN TURBULENT ENVIRONMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, Andrew J.; Frank, Adam; Carroll, Jonathan; Blackman, Eric G.; Quillen, Alice C.

    2009-01-01

    The link between turbulence in star-forming environments and protostellar jets remains controversial. To explore issues of turbulence and fossil cavities driven by young stellar outflows, we present a series of numerical simulations tracking the evolution of transient protostellar jets driven into a turbulent medium. Our simulations show both the effect of turbulence on outflow structures and, conversely, the effect of outflows on the ambient turbulence. We demonstrate how turbulence will lead to strong modifications in jet morphology. More importantly, we demonstrate that individual transient outflows have the capacity to re-energize decaying turbulence. Our simulations support a scenario in which the directed energy/momentum associated with cavities is randomized as the cavities are disrupted by dynamical instabilities seeded by the ambient turbulence. Consideration of the energy power spectra of the simulations reveals that the disruption of the cavities powers an energy cascade consistent with Burgers'-type turbulence and produces a driving scale length associated with the cavity propagation length. We conclude that fossil cavities interacting either with a turbulent medium or with other cavities have the capacity to sustain or create turbulent flows in star-forming environments. In the last section, we contrast our work and its conclusions with previous studies which claim that jets cannot be the source of turbulence.

  1. Alignment between Protostellar Outflows and Filamentary Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephens, Ian W.; Dunham, Michael M.; Myers, Philip C.; Pokhrel, Riwaj; Sadavoy, Sarah I.; Lee, Katherine I.; Goodman, Alyssa A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA (United States); Vorobyov, Eduard I. [Institute of Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer, TU Wien, Vienna, A-1060 (Austria); Tobin, John J. [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, 440 W. Brooks Street, Norman, OK 73019 (United States); Pineda, Jaime E. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, 85748 Garching (Germany); Offner, Stella S. R. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Kristensen, Lars E. [Centre for Star and Planet Formation, Niels Bohr Institute and Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen, Øster Voldgade 5-7, DK-1350 Copenhagen K (Denmark); Jørgensen, Jes K. [Niels Bohr Institute and Center for Star and Planet Formation, Copenhagen University, DK-1350 Copenhagen K. (Denmark); Bourke, Tyler L. [SKA Organization, Jodrell Bank Observatory, Lower Withington, Macclesfield, Cheshire SK11 9DL (United Kingdom); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Plunkett, Adele L., E-mail: ian.stephens@cfa.harvard.edu [European Southern Observatory, Av. Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago de Chile (Chile)

    2017-09-01

    We present new Submillimeter Array (SMA) observations of CO(2–1) outflows toward young, embedded protostars in the Perseus molecular cloud as part of the Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA (MASSES) survey. For 57 Perseus protostars, we characterize the orientation of the outflow angles and compare them with the orientation of the local filaments as derived from Herschel observations. We find that the relative angles between outflows and filaments are inconsistent with purely parallel or purely perpendicular distributions. Instead, the observed distribution of outflow-filament angles are more consistent with either randomly aligned angles or a mix of projected parallel and perpendicular angles. A mix of parallel and perpendicular angles requires perpendicular alignment to be more common by a factor of ∼3. Our results show that the observed distributions probably hold regardless of the protostar’s multiplicity, age, or the host core’s opacity. These observations indicate that the angular momentum axis of a protostar may be independent of the large-scale structure. We discuss the significance of independent protostellar rotation axes in the general picture of filament-based star formation.

  2. The Resolved Outflow from 3C 48

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Hsin-Yi; Stockton, Alan

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the properties of the high-velocity outflow driven by the young radio jet of 3C 48, a compact-steep-spectrum source. We use the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telecope to obtain (1) low-resolution UV and optical spectra and (2) multi-slit medium-resolution spectra of the ionized outflow. With supporting data from ground-based spectrographs, we are able to accurately measure the ratios of diagnostic emission lines such as [O III] λ5007, [O III] λ3727, [N II] λ6548, Hα, Hβ, [Ne V] λ3425, and [Ne III] λ3869. We fit the observed emission-line ratios using a range of ionization models, powered by active galactic nucleus (AGN) radiation and shocks, produced by the MAPPINGS code. We have determined that AGN radiation is likely the dominant ionization source. The outflow's density is estimated to be in the range n = 103-104 cm-3, the mass is ~6 × 106 M ⊙, and the metallicity is likely equal to or higher than solar. Compared with the typical outflows associated with more evolved radio jets, this young outflow is denser, less massive, and more metal rich. Multi-slit observations allow us to construct a two-dimensional velocity map of the outflow that shows a wide range of velocities with distinct velocity components, suggesting a wide-angle clumpy outflow. Based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with program GO-11574. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Some of the

  3. Tropospheric Ozone and Photochemical Smog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillman, S.

    2003-12-01

    emitted species, in a process that is driven by sunlight and is accelerated by warm temperatures. This smog is largely the product of gasoline-powered engines (especially automobiles), although coal-fired industry can also generate photochemical smog. The process of photochemical smog formation was first identified by Haagen-Smit and Fox (1954) in association with Los Angeles, a city whose geography makes it particularly susceptible to this type of smog formation. Sulfate aerosols and organic particulates are often produced concurrently with ozone, giving rise to a characteristic milky-white haze associated with this type of air pollution.Today ozone and particulates are recognized as the air pollutants that are most likely to affect human health adversely. In the United States, most major metropolitan areas have periodic air pollution events with ozone in excess of government health standards. Violations of local health standards also occur in major cities in Canada and in much of Europe. Other cities around the world (especially Mexico City) also experience very high ozone levels. In addition to urban-scale events, elevated ozone occurs in region-wide events in the eastern USA and in Western Europe, with excess ozone extending over areas of 1,000 km2 or more. Ozone plumes of similar extent are found in the tropics (especially in Central Africa) at times of high biomass burning (e.g., Jenkins et al., 1997; Chatfield et al., 1998). In some cases ozone associated with biomass burning has been identified at distances up to 104 km from its sources (Schultz et al., 1999).Ozone also has a significant impact on the global troposphere, and ozone chemistry is a major component of global tropospheric chemistry. Global background ozone concentrations are much lower than urban or regional concentrations during pollution events, but there is evidence that the global background has increased as a result of human activities (e.g., Wang and Jacob, 1998; Volz and Kley, 1988). A rise in

  4. The effect of clouds on photolysis rates and ozone formation in the unpolluted troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A. M.

    1984-01-01

    The photochemistry of the lower atmosphere is sensitive to short- and long-term meteorological effects; accurate modeling therefore requires photolysis rates for trace gases which reflect this variability. As an example, the influence of clouds on the production of tropospheric ozone has been investigated, using a modification of Luther's two-stream radiation scheme to calculate cloud-perturbed photolysis rates in a one-dimensional photochemical transport model. In the unpolluted troposphere, where stratospheric inputs of odd nitrogen appear to represent the photochemical source of O3, strong cloud reflectance increases the concentration of NO in the upper troposphere, leading to greatly enhanced rates of ozone formation. Although the rate of these processes is too slow to verify by observation, the calculation is useful in distinguishing some features of the chemistry of regions of differing mean cloudiness.

  5. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei, E-mail: gbmou@ustc.edu.cn [CAS Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Department of Astronomy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2017-07-20

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  6. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-01-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  7. Numerical Study on Outflows in Seyfert Galaxies I: Narrow Line Region Outflows in NGC 4151

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Guobin; Wang, Tinggui; Yang, Chenwei

    2017-07-01

    The origin of narrow line region (NLR) outflows remains unknown. In this paper, we explore the scenario in which these outflows are circumnuclear clouds driven by energetic accretion disk winds. We choose the well-studied nearby Seyfert galaxy NGC 4151 as an example. By performing 3D hydrodynamical simulations, we are able to reproduce the radial distributions of velocity, mass outflow rate, and kinetic luminosity of NLR outflows in the inner 100 pc deduced from spatial resolved spectroscopic observations. The demanded kinetic luminosity of disk winds is about two orders of magnitude higher than that inferred from the NLR outflows, but is close to the ultrafast outflows (UFO) detected in the X-ray spectrum and a few times lower than the bolometric luminosity of the Seyfert. Our simulations imply that the scenario is viable for NGC 4151. The existence of the underlying disk winds can be confirmed by their impacts on higher density ISM, e.g., shock excitation signs, and the pressure in NLR.

  8. Tropospheric radiowave propagation beyond the horizon

    CERN Document Server

    Du Castel, François

    1966-01-01

    Tropospheric Radiowave Propagation Beyond the Horizon deals with developments concerning the tropospheric propagation of ultra-short radio waves beyond the horizon, with emphasis on the relationship between the theoretical and the experimental. Topics covered include the general conditions of propagation in the troposphere; general characteristics of propagation beyond the horizon; and attenuation in propagation. This volume is comprised of six chapters and begins with a brief historical look at the various stages that have brought the technique of transhorizon links to its state of developmen

  9. A New Look at Speeding Outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-02-01

    The compact centers of active galaxies known as active galactic nuclei, or AGN are known for the dynamic behavior they exhibit as the supermassive black holes at their centers accrete matter. New observations of outflows from a nearby AGN provide a more detailed look at what happens in these extreme environments.Outflows from GiantsThe powerful radio jets of Cygnus A, which extend far beyond the galaxy. [NRAO/AUI]AGN consist of a supermassive black hole of millions to tens of billions of solar masses surrounded by an accretion disk of in-falling matter. But not all the material falling toward the black hole accretes! Some of it is flung from the AGN via various types of outflows.The most well-known of these outflows are powerful radio jets collimated and incredibly fast-moving streams of particles that blast their way out of the host galaxy and into space. Only around 10% of AGN are observed to host such jets, however and theres another outflow thats more ubiquitous.Fast-Moving AbsorbersPerhaps 30% of AGN both those with and without observed radio jets host wider-angle, highly ionized gaseous outflows known as ultra-fast outflows (UFOs). Ultraviolet and X-ray radiation emitted from the AGN is absorbed by the UFO, revealing the outflows presence: absorption lines appear in the ultraviolet and X-ray spectra of the AGN, blue-shifted due to the high speeds of the absorbing gas in the outflow.Quasar PG 1211+143, indicated by the crosshairs at the center of the image, in the color context of its surroundings. [SDSS/S. Karge]But what is the nature of UFOs? Are they disk winds? Or are they somehow related to the radio jets? And what impact do they have on the AGNs host galaxy?X-ray and Ultraviolet CooperationNew observations are now providing fresh information about one particular UFO. A team of scientists led by Ashkbiz Danehkar (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) recently used the Chandra and Hubble space telescopes to make the first simultaneous observations

  10. Stratospheric Ozone Distribution and Tropospheric General Circulation: Interconnections in the UTLS Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barodka, S.; Krasovsky, A.; Shalamyansky, A.

    2014-12-01

    The height of the tropopause, which divided the stratosphere and the troposphere, is a result of two rival categories of processes: the tropospheric vertical convection and the radiative heating of the stratosphere resulting from the ozone cycle. Hence, it is natural that tropospheric and stratospheric phenomena can have effect each other in manifold processes of stratosphere-troposphere interactions. In the present study we focus our attention to the "top-down" side of the interaction: the impact of stratospheric ozone distribution on the features of tropospheric circulation and the associated weather patterns and regional climate conditions. We proceed from analyzes of the observational data performed at the A.I. Voeikov Main Geophysical Observatory, which suggest a distinct correlation between stratospheric ozone distribution, synoptic formations and air-masses boundaries in the upper troposphere and the temperature field of the lower stratosphere [1]. Furthermore, we analyze local features of atmospheric general circulation and stratospheric ozone distribution from the atmospheric reanalyses and general circulation model data, focusing our attention to instantaneous positions of subtropical and polar stationary atmospheric fronts, which define regional characteristics of the general circulation cells in the troposphere and separate global tropospheric air-masses, correspond to distinct meteorological regimes in the TOC field [2, 3]. We assume that by altering the tropopause height, stratospheric ozone-related processes can have an impact on the location of the stationary atmospheric fronts, thereby exerting influence on circulation processes in troposphere and lower stratosphere. For midlatitudes, the tropopause height controls the position of the polar stationary front, which has a direct impact on the trajectory of motion of active vortices on synoptic tropospheric levels, thereby controlling weather patterns in that region and the regional climate. This

  11. An aircraft gas chromatograph–mass spectrometer System for Organic Fast Identification Analysis (SOFIA: design, performance and a case study of Asian monsoon pollution outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bourtsoukidis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are important for global air quality and oxidation processes in the troposphere. In addition to ground-based measurements, the chemical evolution of such species during transport can be studied by performing in situ airborne measurements. Generally, aircraft instrumentation needs to be sensitive, robust and sample at higher frequency than ground-based systems while their construction must comply with rigorous mechanical and electrical safety standards. Here, we present a new System for Organic Fast Identification Analysis (SOFIA, which is a custom-built fast gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS system with a time resolution of 2–3 min and the ability to quantify atmospheric mixing ratios of halocarbons (e.g. chloromethanes, hydrocarbons (e.g isoprene, oxygenated VOCs (acetone, propanal, butanone and aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene from sub-ppt to ppb levels. The relatively high time resolution is the result of a novel cryogenic pre-concentration unit which rapidly cools (∼ 6 °C s−1 the sample enrichment traps to −140 °C, and a new chromatographic oven designed for rapid cooling rates (∼ 30 °C s−1 and subsequent thermal stabilization. SOFIA was installed in the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO for the Oxidation Mechanism Observations (OMO campaign in August 2015, aimed at investigating the Asian monsoon pollution outflow in the tropical upper troposphere. In addition to a comprehensive instrument characterization we present an example monsoon plume crossing flight as a case study to demonstrate the instrument capability. Hydrocarbon, halocarbon and oxygenated VOC data from SOFIA are compared with mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO and methane (CH4, used to define the pollution plume. By using excess (ExMR and normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs the pollution could be attributed to two air masses of distinctly different origin, identified by back

  12. An aircraft gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer System for Organic Fast Identification Analysis (SOFIA): design, performance and a case study of Asian monsoon pollution outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourtsoukidis, Efstratios; Helleis, Frank; Tomsche, Laura; Fischer, Horst; Hofmann, Rolf; Lelieveld, Jos; Williams, Jonathan

    2017-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are important for global air quality and oxidation processes in the troposphere. In addition to ground-based measurements, the chemical evolution of such species during transport can be studied by performing in situ airborne measurements. Generally, aircraft instrumentation needs to be sensitive, robust and sample at higher frequency than ground-based systems while their construction must comply with rigorous mechanical and electrical safety standards. Here, we present a new System for Organic Fast Identification Analysis (SOFIA), which is a custom-built fast gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) system with a time resolution of 2-3 min and the ability to quantify atmospheric mixing ratios of halocarbons (e.g. chloromethanes), hydrocarbons (e.g isoprene), oxygenated VOCs (acetone, propanal, butanone) and aromatics (e.g. benzene, toluene) from sub-ppt to ppb levels. The relatively high time resolution is the result of a novel cryogenic pre-concentration unit which rapidly cools (˜ 6 °C s-1) the sample enrichment traps to -140 °C, and a new chromatographic oven designed for rapid cooling rates (˜ 30 °C s-1) and subsequent thermal stabilization. SOFIA was installed in the High Altitude and Long Range Research Aircraft (HALO) for the Oxidation Mechanism Observations (OMO) campaign in August 2015, aimed at investigating the Asian monsoon pollution outflow in the tropical upper troposphere. In addition to a comprehensive instrument characterization we present an example monsoon plume crossing flight as a case study to demonstrate the instrument capability. Hydrocarbon, halocarbon and oxygenated VOC data from SOFIA are compared with mixing ratios of carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH4), used to define the pollution plume. By using excess (ExMR) and normalized excess mixing ratios (NEMRs) the pollution could be attributed to two air masses of distinctly different origin, identified by back-trajectory analysis. This work

  13. A case study on the formation and evolution of ice supersaturation in the vicinity of a warm conveyor belt's outflow region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spichtinger

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A case study is presented on the formation and evolution of an ice-supersaturated region (ISSR that was detected by a radiosonde in NE Germany at 06:00 UTC 29 November 2000. The ISSR was situated in the vicinity of the outflow region of a warm conveyor belt associated with an intense event of cyclogenesis in the eastern North Atlantic. Using ECMWF analyses and trajectory calculations it is determined when the air parcels became supersaturated and later subsaturated again. In the case considered, the state of air parcel supersaturation can last for longer than 24h. The ISSR was unusually thick: while the mean vertical extension of ISSRs in NE Germany is about 500m, the one investigated here reached 3km. The ice-supersaturated region investigated was bordered both vertically and horizontally by strongly subsaturated air. Near the path of the radiosonde the ISSR was probably cloud free, as inferred from METEOSAT infrared images. However, at other locations within the ISSR it is probable that there were cirrus clouds. Relative humidity measurements obtained by the Lindenberg radiosonde are used to correct the negative bias of the ECMWF humidity and to construct two-dimensional maps of ice supersaturation over Europe during the considered period. A systematic backward trajectory analysis for the ISSRs on these maps shows that the ISSR air masses themselves experienced only a moderate upward motion during the previous days, whereas parts of the ISSRs were located just above strongly ascending air masses from the boundary layer. This indicates qualitatively that warm conveyor belts associated with mid-latitude cyclogenesis are disturbances that can induce the formation of ISSRs in the upper troposphere. The ISSR maps also lead us to a new perception of ISSRs as large dynamic regions of supersaturated air where cirrus clouds can be embedded at some locations while there is clear air at others.

  14. Silo outflow of soft frictionless spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashour, Ahmed; Trittel, Torsten; Börzsönyi, Tamás; Stannarius, Ralf

    2017-12-01

    Outflow of granular materials from silos is a remarkably complex physical phenomenon that has been extensively studied with simple objects like monodisperse hard disks in two dimensions (2D) and hard spheres in 2D and 3D. For those materials, empirical equations were found that describe the discharge characteristics. Softness adds qualitatively new features to the dynamics and to the character of the flow. We report a study of the outflow of soft, practically frictionless hydrogel spheres from a quasi-2D bin. Prominent features are intermittent clogs, peculiar flow fields in the container, and a pronounced dependence of the flow rate and clogging statistics on the container fill height. The latter is a consequence of the ineffectiveness of Janssen's law: the pressure at the bottom of a bin containing hydrogel spheres grows linearly with the fill height.

  15. Hot Accretion onto Black Holes with Outflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park Myeong-Gu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Classic Bondi accretion flow can be generalized to rotating viscous accretion flow. Study of hot accretion flow onto black holes show that its physical charateristics change from Bondi-like for small gas angular momentum to disk-like for Keperian gas angular momentum. Especially, the mass accretion rate divided by the Bondi accretion rate is proportional to the viscosity parameter alpha and inversely proportional to the gas angular momentum divided by the Keplerian angular momentum at the Bondi radius for gas angular momentum comparable to the Keplerian value. The possible presence of outflow will increase the mass inflow rate at the Bondi radius but decrease the mass accretion rate across the black hole horizon by many orders of magnitude. This implies that the growth history of supermassive black holes and their coevolution with host galaxies will be dramatically changed when the accreted gas has angular momentum or develops an outflow.

  16. The use of satellite data to determine the distribution of ozone in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Jack; Watson, Catherine E.; Brackett, Vincent G.; Fakhruzzaman, Khan; Veiga, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    Measurements from two independent satellite data sets have been used to derive the climatology of the integrated amount of ozone in the troposphere. These data have led to the finding that large amounts of ozone pollution are generated by anthropogenic activity originating from both the industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere and from the southern tropical regions of Africa. To verify the existence of this ozone anomaly at low latitudes, an ozonesonde capability has been established at Ascension Island (8 deg S, 15 deg W) since July 1990. According to the satellite analyses, Ascension Island is located downwind of the primary source region of this ozone pollution, which likely results from the photochemical oxidation of emissions emanating from the widespread burning of savannas and other biomass. These in situ measurements confirm the existence of large amounts of ozone in the lower atmosphere. A summary of these ozonesonde data to date will be presented. In addition, we will present some ozone profile measurements from SAGE II which can be used to provide upper tropospheric ozone measurements directly in the tropical troposphere. A preliminary comparison between the satellite observations and the ozonesonde profiles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere will also be presented.

  17. Concentration variations of the tropospheric carbon dioxide over the Antarctic region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shohei Murayama

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Aircraft measurements of the atmospheric CO_2 concentration have been made over Syowa Station, Antarctica since 1983. The minimum concentration of the average seasonal CO_2 cycle appears in March throughout the troposphere, while the maximum concentration occurs in mid-August in the upper troposphere and in late September in the middle and lower troposphere. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the seasonal cycle decreases with height. The CO_2 concentration increases with height during most of the year; however, this height dependency is larger from summer to early winter than in the remaining seasons. The average concentration difference between the upper troposphere and the ground surface is about 0.3ppmv. From comparisons with the results of the ground-based and aircraft measurements at southern middle and high latitudes and trajectory analysis, it is hypothesized that the seasonal cycle of height-dependent atmospheric transport processes could influence the seasonal cycle and the vertical distribution of the CO_2 concentration over Syowa Station.

  18. Model Calculations of Changes in Tropospheric Ozone Over Europe and the Role of Surface Sources and Aircraft Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hov, Oe [Bergen Univ. (Norway)

    1996-01-01

    This conference paper deals with a study of the impact of various sources of NO{sub x} on the ozone production in the free troposphere. A comprehensive two-dimensional zonally averaged chemistry/transport model and a three-dimensional meso-scale chemical transport (MCT) model are used in the study. Using the two-dimensional model, three surches of NO{sub x} in the upper troposphere were examined covering NO{sub x} produced by lightening, NO{sub x} (and NO{sub y}) brought to the upper troposphere from the planetary boundary layer by rapid vertical transport processes, and NO{sub x} emitted from aircraft. 4 refs.

  19. Outflow Kinematics Manifested by the Hα Line: Gas Outflows in Type 2 AGNs. IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Daeun; Woo, Jong-Hak; Bae, Hyun-Jin, E-mail: woo@astro.snu.ac.kr [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-20

    Energetic ionized gas outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGNs) have been studied as a key phenomenon related to AGN feedback. To probe the kinematics of the gas in the narrow-line region, [O iii] λ 5007 has been utilized in a number of studies showing nonvirial kinematic properties due to AGN outflows. In this paper, we statistically investigate whether the H α emission line is influenced by AGN-driven outflows by measuring the kinematic properties based on the H α line profile and comparing them with those of [O iii]. Using the spatially integrated spectra of ∼37,000 Type 2 AGNs at z < 0.3 selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7, we find a nonlinear correlation between H α velocity dispersion and stellar velocity dispersion that reveals the presence of the nongravitational component, especially for AGNs with a wing component in H α . The large H α velocity dispersion and velocity shift of luminous AGNs are clear evidence of AGN outflow impacts on hydrogen gas, while relatively smaller kinematic properties compared to those of [O iii] imply that the observed outflow effect on the H α line is weaker than the case of [O iii].

  20. Tropospheric ozone changes, radiative forcing and attribution to emissions in the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Stevenson

    2013-03-01

    : decreases in the tropical lower troposphere, associated with increases in water vapour; and increases in the sub-tropical to mid-latitude upper troposphere, associated with increases in lightning and stratosphere-to-troposphere transport. Climate change has relatively small impacts on global mean tropospheric ozone RF.

  1. Spatial variability of the structure of the lower troposphere over north western Indian Ocean during 1983 summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Michael, G.S.; Rao, L.V.G.

    The spatial variability of the structure of the lower troposphere over the north western Indian Ocean during the period 12th July to 2nd September, 1983 has been studied using the upper air data collected during the first scientific cruise of @i...

  2. Northern Winter Climate Change: Assessment of Uncertainty in CMIP5 Projections Related to Stratosphere-Troposphere Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzini, E.; Karpechko, A.Yu.; Anstey, J.; Shindell, Drew Todd; Baldwin, M.P.; Black, R.X.; Cagnazzo, C.; Calvo, N.; Charlton-Perez, A.; Christiansen, B.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Future changes in the stratospheric circulation could have an important impact on northern winter tropospheric climate change, given that sea level pressure (SLP) responds not only to tropospheric circulation variations but also to vertically coherent variations in troposphere-stratosphere circulation. Here we assess northern winter stratospheric change and its potential to influence surface climate change in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project-Phase 5 (CMIP5) multimodel ensemble. In the stratosphere at high latitudes, an easterly change in zonally averaged zonal wind is found for the majority of the CMIP5 models, under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario. Comparable results are also found in the 1% CO2 increase per year projections, indicating that the stratospheric easterly change is common feature in future climate projections. This stratospheric wind change, however, shows a significant spread among the models. By using linear regression, we quantify the impact of tropical upper troposphere warming, polar amplification, and the stratospheric wind change on SLP. We find that the intermodel spread in stratospheric wind change contributes substantially to the intermodel spread in Arctic SLP change. The role of the stratosphere in determining part of the spread in SLP change is supported by the fact that the SLP change lags the stratospheric zonally averaged wind change. Taken together, these findings provide further support for the importance of simulating the coupling between the stratosphere and the troposphere, to narrow the uncertainty in the future projection of tropospheric circulation changes.

  3. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S. [Australia Telescope National Facility, CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Lockman, F. J. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Dickey, J. M. [School of Physics and Mathematics, University of Tasmania, TAS 7001 (Australia); Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J., E-mail: naomi.mcclure-griffiths@csiro.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2013-06-10

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of {approx}14 km s{sup -1}, and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at {approx}200 km s{sup -1} in a Galactic wind.

  4. Iodine-131 monitoring in sewage plant outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGowan, D R; Crawley, M T; Pratt, B E; Hinton, P J; Peet, D J

    2014-01-01

    Three different hospital sites (Oxford, Sutton and Guildford) have performed sampling of their local sewage plant outflow to determine levels of radioactivity resulting from iodine-131 patients undergoing radionuclide therapies. It was found that a maximum of 20% of activity discharged from the hospitals was present in the sewage plant final effluent channel. This is significantly below the level predicted by mathematical models in current use. The results further show that abatement systems to reduce public exposure are unlikely to be warranted at hospital sites. (paper)

  5. New noninvasive treatment for prostate outflow obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, D.; Milroy, E.; Chapple, C.; Eldin, A.; Wallstein, H.

    1989-01-01

    Sixteen patients with prostatic outflow obstruction underwent implantation of the Wallstent endoprothesis, a woven mesh of fine stainless steel, mounted on a 9-F delivery system with an unconstrained diameter of 14 mm. The stent was inserted under local anesthesia, and placement was guided by linear transrectal US and flexible urethroscopy. In no patient was the distal sphincter mechanism compromised. In four, stent balloon dilation was needed. Urodynamic parameters (especially flow rate, voiding detrusor pressure, and postvoid residual) improved in all patients. Our experience showed the Wallstent endoprosthesis to be a safe, clinically acceptable, and minimally invasive alternative to prostatectomy

  6. Interferometric Mapping of Perseus Outflows with MASSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Ian; Dunham, Michael; Myers, Philip C.; MASSES Team

    2017-01-01

    The MASSES (Mass Assembly of Stellar Systems and their Evolution with the SMA) survey, a Submillimeter Array (SMA) large-scale program, is mapping molecular lines and continuum emission about the 75 known Class 0/I sources in the Perseus Molecular Cloud. In this talk, I present some of the key results of this project, with a focus on the CO(2-1) maps of the molecular outflows. In particular, I investigate how protostars inherit their rotation axes from large-scale magnetic fields and filamentary structure.

  7. ATOMIC HYDROGEN IN A GALACTIC CENTER OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClure-Griffiths, N. M.; Green, J. A.; Hill, A. S.; Lockman, F. J.; Dickey, J. M.; Gaensler, B. M.; Green, A. J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe a population of small, high-velocity, atomic hydrogen clouds, loops, and filaments found above and below the disk near the Galactic center. The objects have a mean radius of 15 pc, velocity widths of ∼14 km s –1 , and are observed at |z| heights up to 700 pc. The velocity distribution of the clouds shows no signature of Galactic rotation. We propose a scenario where the clouds are associated with an outflow from a central star-forming region at the Galactic center. We discuss the clouds as entrained material traveling at ∼200 km s –1 in a Galactic wind.

  8. Inferring Polar Ion Outflows from Topside Ionograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.; Rice, D. D.; Eccles, V.; Schunk, R. W.; David, M.; Benson, R. F.; James, H. G.

    2017-12-01

    The high-latitude topside ionosphere is dominated by O+ ions from the F-region peak around 300 km to over 1000 km altitude. The O+ profile shape provides information on the thermal structure, field aligned plasma dynamics, and outflows into the magnetosphere. Topside electron density profiles (EDP) are either obtained from topside sounders or Incoherent Scatter Radars. There is a large archive of topside sounder ionograms and hand scaled EDPs from the Alouette and ISIS satellites between 1962 and 1990. Recent NASA data enhancement efforts have augmented these EDP archives by producing digital topside ionograms both from the 7-track analog telemetry tapes and from 35 mm topside film ionograms. Rice et al [2017] in their 35 mm ionogram recovery emphasized high latitude ionograms taken during disturbed conditions. The figure below contrasts ISIS-II EDPs extracted from 35 mm films before and during a major storm (Dst -200nT) on 9 April 1972 (left panel: quiet period before the storm; right panel: during the peak of the storm). Both satellite passes used for these EDPs were centered on the Resolute Bay location that in 1972 was close to the magnetic pole. They begin at auroral latitudes around 2100 MLT and end on the dayside around 0900MLT. We will present results of how ionospheric models replicate both the quiet and disturbed conditions shown in the figure. Three types of models will be contrasted: an empirical ionosphere (IRI), a physics based ionospheric model (TDIM), and a fluid-based polar-wind model (PW). During the storm pass, when it is expected that substantial heating is present, the ISIS-II topside EDPs provide severe constraints on the usage of these models. These constraints enable estimates of the outflow fluxes as well as the heating that has occurred. The comparisons with the empirical model establish how well the pre-storm topside is modeled and identifies the challenges as the storm magnitude increases. The physics-based TDIM does have storm drivers

  9. GGD 37: AN EXTREME PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, J. D.; Watson, D. M.; Forrest, W. J.; Kim, K. H.; Bergin, E.; Maret, S.; Melnick, G.; Tolls, V.; Sonnentrucker, P.; Sargent, B. A.; Raines, S. N.

    2011-01-01

    We present the first Spitzer-IRS spectral maps of the Herbig-Haro flow GGD 37 detected in lines of [Ne III], [O IV], [Ar III], and [Ne V]. The detection of extended [O IV] (55 eV) and some extended emission in [Ne V] (97 eV) indicates a shock temperature in excess of 100,000 K, in agreement with X-ray observations, and a shock speed in excess of 200 km s -1 . The presence of an extended photoionization or collisional ionization region indicates that GGD 37 is a highly unusual protostellar outflow.

  10. Effects of 1997-1998 El Nino on Tropospheric Ozone and Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, S.; Ziemke, J. R.; Min, W.; Read, W. G.

    1998-01-01

    This paper analyzes the impact of the 1997-1998 El Nino on tropospheric column ozone and tropospheric water vapor derived respectively from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on Earth Probe and the Microwave Limb Scanning instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite. The 1997-1998 El Nino, characterized by an anomalous increase in sea-surface temperature (SST) across the eastern and central tropical Pacific Ocean, is one of the strongest El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events of the century, comparable in magnitude to the 1982-1983 episode. The major impact of the SST change has been the shift in the convection pattern from the western to the eastern Pacific affecting the response of rain-producing cumulonimbus. As a result, there has been a significant increase in rainfall over the eastern Pacific and a decrease over the western Pacific and Indonesia. The dryness in the Indonesian region has contributed to large-scale burning by uncontrolled wildfires in the tropical rainforests of Sumatra and Borneo. Our study shows that tropospheric column ozone decreased by 4-8 Dobson units (DU) in the eastern Pacific and increased by about 10-20 DU in the western Pacific largely as a result of the eastward shift of the tropical convective activity as inferred from National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) data. The effect of this shift is also evident in the upper tropospheric water vapor mixing ratio which varies inversely as ozone (O3). These conclusions are qualitatively consistent with the changes in atmospheric circulation derived from zonal and vertical wind data obtained from the Goddard Earth Observing System data assimilation analyses. The changes in tropospheric column O3 during the course of the 1997-1998 El Nino appear to be caused by a combination of large-scale circulation processes associated with the shift in the tropical convection pattern and surface/boundary layer processes associated with

  11. Compact binary merger and kilonova: outflows from remnant disc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tuan; Gu, Wei-Min; Liu, Tong; Kumar, Rajiv; Mu, Hui-Jun; Song, Cui-Ying

    2018-05-01

    Outflows launched from a remnant disc of compact binary merger may have essential contribution to the kilonova emission. Numerical calculations are conducted in this work to study the structure of accretion flows and outflows. By the incorporation of limited-energy advection in the hyper-accretion discs, outflows occur naturally from accretion flows due to imbalance between the viscous heating and the sum of the advective and radiative cooling. Following this spirit, we revisit the properties of the merger outflow ejecta. Our results show that around 10-3 ˜ 10-1 M⊙ of the disc mass can be launched as powerful outflows. The amount of unbound mass varies with the disc mass and the viscosity. The outflow-contributed peak luminosity is around 1040 ˜ 1041 erg s-1. Such a scenario can account for the observed kilonovae associated with short gamma-ray bursts, including the recent event AT2017gfo (GW170817).

  12. Upper-Level Waves of Synoptic Scale at Midlatitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivest, Chantal

    1990-01-01

    Upper-level waves of synoptic scale are important dynamical entities at midlatitudes. They often induce surface cyclogenesis (cf. Peterssen and Smebye, 1971), and their life duration is typically longer than time scales for disruption by the ambient shear (Sanders, 1988). The objectives of the present thesis are to explain the maintenance and genesis of upper-level synoptic-scale waves in the midlatitude flow. We develop an analytical model of waves on generalized Eady basic states that have uniform tropospheric and stratospheric potential vorticity, but allow for the decay of density with height. The Eady basic state represents the limiting case of infinite stratospheric stability and constant density. We find that the Eady normal mode characteristics hold in the presence of realistic tropopause and stratosphere. In particular, the basic states studied support at the synoptic scale upper-level normal modes. These modes provide simple models for the dynamics of upper-level synoptic-scale waves, as waves supported by the large latitudinal gradients of potential vorticity at the tropopause. In the presence of infinitesimal positive tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity, the upper-level normal mode solutions no longer exist, as was demonstrated in Green (1960). Disappearance of the normal mode solution when a parameter changes slightly represents a dilemma that we seek to understand. We examine what happens to the upper-level normal modes in the presence of tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity in a series of initial -value experiments. Our results show that the normal modes become slowly decaying quasi-modes. Mathematically the quasi-modes consist of a superposition of singular modes sharply peaked in the phase speed domain, and their decay proceeds as the modes interfere with one another. We repeat these experiments in basic states with a smooth tropopause in the presence of tropospheric and stratospheric gradients, and similar results are obtained

  13. Tropospheric VOC measurements by PTR-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansel, A.; Wisthaler, A.; Graus, M.; Grabmer, W.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: O 3 is formed photochemically from the photolysis of NO 2 , and because O 3 reacts rapidly with NO these reactions result in a photoequilibrium between NO, NO 2 with no net formation or loss of O 3 , However, in the presence of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), the degradation reactions of VOCs lead to the formation of intermediate peroxy radicals which react with NO, converting NO to NO 2 , which then photolyze to form O 3 . Thus, in order to understand quantitatively tropospheric ozone chemistry, it is necessary to know the VOC distribution within the troposphere as well as VOC fluxes from individual sources. Examples will be presented how the use of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) has enhanced our understanding of anthropogenic VOC emissions, biosphere-atmosphere exchange processes, and photochemical processing of both anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs in the troposphere. (author)

  14. Misalignment of Magnetic Fields and Outflows in Protostellar Cores

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erika; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of λ1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with ~2."5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of ~1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the protostars. Rather, the data are consistent with scenarios where outflows and magnetic fields are preferentially misaligned (perpendicular), or where they are randomly aligned. If one assumes that outflows emerge along the rotati...

  15. Molecular outflows in the L1641 region of Orion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    Little is known about the interaction between molecular outflows associated with young stellar objects and the parent molecular cloud that produced them. This is because molecular outflows are a recently discovered phenomenon and, so, have not had their global properties studied in great detail and molecular clouds were not mapped to sufficiently high spatial resolution to resolve the interaction. The interaction between molecular outflows and the L1641 molecular cloud is addressed by both identifying and mapping all the molecular outflows as well as the detailed structure of the cloud. Candidate molecular outflows were found from single point 12-CO observations of young stellar objects identified from the IRAS survey data. The candidate sources were then mapped to confirm their molecular outflow nature. From these maps, molecular outflow characteristics such as their morphology, orientation, and energetics were determined. In addition, the Orion molecular cloud was mapped to compare directly with the molecular outflows. The molecular outflows identified were found to have rising infrared spectra, radio continuum emission that suggests a stellar wind or optically thick H II region, and molecular line strengths that indicate that they are embedded within a very dense environment. The lack of an optical counterpart for many molecular outflows suggests that they occur at the earliest stages of stellar evolution. The lack of an optical counterpart for many molecular outflows suggest that they occur at the earliest stages of stellar evolution. The orientations of the molecular outflows appear to lie in no preferred direction and they have shapes that indicate that the molecular cloud is responsible for determining their direction and collimation

  16. Studying the outflow-core interaction with ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yichen; Arce, Hector G.; Mardones, Diego; Dunham, Michael; Garay, Guido; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Corder, Stuartt; Offner, Stella; Cabrit, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    We present ALMA Cycle 1 observations of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow which is driven by a low-mass Class 0/I protostar. Previous ALMA Cycle 0 12CO observation showed outflow cavities produced by the entrainment of ambient gas by the protostellar jet and wide-angle wind. Here we present analysis of observation of 12CO, 13CO, C18O and other species using combined 12m array and ACA observations. The improved angular resolution and sensitivity allow us to detect details of the outflow structure. Specially, we see that the outflow cavity wall is composed of two or more layers of outflowing gas, which separately connect to different shocked regions along the outflow axis inside the cavity, suggesting the outflow cavity wall is composed of multiple shells entrained by a series of jet bow-shock events. The new 13CO and C18O data also allow us to trace relatively denser and slower outflow material than that traced by the 12CO. These species are only detected within about 1 to 2 km/s from the cloud velocity, tracing the outflow to lower velocities than what is possible using only the 12CO emission. Interestingly, the cavity wall of the red lobe appears at very low outflow velocities (as low as ~0.2 km/s). In addition, 13CO and C18O allow us to correct for the CO optical depth, allowing us to obtain more accurate estimates of the outflow mass, momentum and kinetic energy. Applying the optical depth correction significantly increases the previous mass estimate by a factor of 14. The outflow kinetic energy distribution shows that even though the red lobe is mainly entrained by jet bow-shocks, most of the outflow energy is being deposited into the cloud at the base of the outflow cavity rather than around the heads of the bow shocks. The estimated total mass, momentum, and energy of the outflow indicate that the outflow has the ability to disperse the parent core. We found possible evidence for a slowly moving rotating outflow in CS. Our 13CO and C18O observations also trace a

  17. DISCOVERY OF RELATIVISTIC OUTFLOW IN THE SEYFERT GALAXY Ark 564

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, A.; Mathur, S.; Krongold, Y.; Nicastro, F.

    2013-01-01

    We present Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectra of the narrow-line Seyfert-1 galaxy Ark 564. The spectrum shows numerous absorption lines which are well modeled with low-velocity outflow components usually observed in Seyfert galaxies. There are, however, some residual absorption lines which are not accounted for by low-velocity outflows. Here, we present identifications of the strongest lines as Kα transitions of O VII (two lines) and O VI at outflow velocities of ∼0.1c. These lines are detected at 6.9σ, 6.2σ, and 4.7σ, respectively, and cannot be due to chance statistical fluctuations. Photoionization models with ultra-high velocity components improve the spectral fit significantly, providing further support for the presence of relativistic outflow in this source. Without knowing the location of the absorber, its mass and energy outflow rates cannot be well constrained; we find E-dot (outflow)/L bol lower limit of ≥0.006% assuming a bi-conical wind geometry. This is the first time that absorption lines with ultra-high velocities are unambiguously detected in the soft X-ray band. The presence of outflows with relativistic velocities in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with Seyfert-type luminosities is hard to understand and provides valuable constraints to models of AGN outflows. Radiation pressure is unlikely to be the driving mechanism for such outflows and magnetohydrodynamic may be involved

  18. The energetics of AGN radiation pressure-driven outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, W.; Fabian, A. C.; Maiolino, R.

    2018-05-01

    The increasing observational evidence of galactic outflows is considered as a sign of active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback in action. However, the physical mechanism responsible for driving the observed outflows remains unclear, and whether it is due to momentum, energy, or radiation is still a matter of debate. The observed outflow energetics, in particular the large measured values of the momentum ratio (\\dot{p}/(L/c) ˜ 10) and energy ratio (\\dot{E}_k/L ˜ 0.05), seems to favour the energy-driving mechanism; and most observational works have focused their comparison with wind energy-driven models. Here, we show that AGN radiation pressure on dust can adequately reproduce the observed outflow energetics (mass outflow rate, momentum flux, and kinetic power), as well as the scalings with luminosity, provided that the effects of radiation trapping are properly taken into account. In particular, we predict a sublinear scaling for the mass outflow rate (\\dot{M} ∝ L^{1/2}) and a superlinear scaling for the kinetic power (\\dot{E}_k ∝ L^{3/2}), in agreement with the observational scaling relations reported in the most recent compilation of AGN outflow data. We conclude that AGN radiative feedback can account for the global outflow energetics, at least equally well as the wind energy-driving mechanism, and therefore both physical models should be considered in the interpretation of future AGN outflow observations.

  19. ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE HH 46/47 MOLECULAR OUTFLOW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arce, Héctor G.; Mardones, Diego; Garay, Guido; Corder, Stuartt A.; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Raga, Alejandro C.

    2013-01-01

    The morphology, kinematics, and entrainment mechanism of the HH 46/47 molecular outflow were studied using new ALMA Cycle 0 observations. Results show that the blue and red lobes are strikingly different. We argue that these differences are partly due to contrasting ambient densities that result in different wind components having a distinct effect on the entrained gas in each lobe. A 29 point mosaic, covering the two lobes at an angular resolution of about 3'', detected outflow emission at much higher velocities than previous observations, resulting in significantly higher estimates of the outflow momentum and kinetic energy than previous studies of this source, using the CO(1-0) line. The morphology and the kinematics of the gas in the blue lobe are consistent with models of outflow entrainment by a wide-angle wind, and a simple model describes the observed structures in the position-velocity diagram and the velocity-integrated intensity maps. The red lobe exhibits a more complex structure, and there is evidence that this lobe is entrained by a wide-angle wind and a collimated episodic wind. Three major clumps along the outflow axis show velocity distribution consistent with prompt entrainment by different bow shocks formed by periodic mass ejection episodes which take place every few hundred years. Position-velocity cuts perpendicular to the outflow cavity show gradients where the velocity increases toward the outflow axis, inconsistent with outflow rotation. Additionally, we find evidence for the existence of a small outflow driven by a binary companion

  20. Applications of Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, Paul S.; Beirle, Steffen

    A striking feature of the field of tropospheric composition is the sheer number of chemical species that have been detected and measured with satellite instruments. The measurements have found application both in atmospheric chemistry itself, providing evidence, for example, of unexpected cryochemistry in the Arctic regions, and also in environmental monitoring with, for example, the observed growth in NO2 emissions over eastern Asia. Chapter 8 gives an overview of the utility of satellite observations for measuring tropospheric composition, dealing with each of the many compounds seen in detail. A comprehensive compound by compound table of the many studies performed is a most useful feature.

  1. Impact of climate variability on tropospheric ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grewe, Volker

    2007-01-01

    A simulation with the climate-chemistry model (CCM) E39/C is presented, which covers both the troposphere and stratosphere dynamics and chemistry during the period 1960 to 1999. Although the CCM, by its nature, is not exactly representing observed day-by-day meteorology, there is an overall model's tendency to correctly reproduce the variability pattern due to an inclusion of realistic external forcings, like observed sea surface temperatures (e.g. El Nino), major volcanic eruption, solar cycle, concentrations of greenhouse gases, and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation. Additionally, climate-chemistry interactions are included, like the impact of ozone, methane, and other species on radiation and dynamics, and the impact of dynamics on emissions (lightning). However, a number of important feedbacks are not yet included (e.g. feedbacks related to biogenic emissions and emissions due to biomass burning). The results show a good representation of the evolution of the stratospheric ozone layer, including the ozone hole, which plays an important role for the simulation of natural variability of tropospheric ozone. Anthropogenic NO x emissions are included with a step-wise linear trend for each sector, but no interannual variability is included. The application of a number of diagnostics (e.g. marked ozone tracers) allows the separation of the impact of various processes/emissions on tropospheric ozone and shows that the simulated Northern Hemisphere tropospheric ozone budget is not only dominated by nitrogen oxide emissions and other ozone pre-cursors, but also by changes of the stratospheric ozone budget and its flux into the troposphere, which tends to reduce the simulated positive trend in tropospheric ozone due to emissions from industry and traffic during the late 80s and early 90s. For tropical regions the variability in ozone is dominated by variability in lightning (related to ENSO) and stratosphere-troposphere exchange (related to Northern Hemisphere Stratospheric

  2. Characterization of non-methane hydrocarbons in Asian summer monsoon outflow observed by the CARIBIC aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Baker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between April and December 2008 the CARIBIC commercial aircraft conducted monthly measurement flights between Frankfurt, Germany and Chennai, India. These flights covered the period of the Asian summer monsoon (June–September, during which enhancements in a number of atmospheric species were observed in the upper troposphere over southwestern Asia. In addition to in situ measurements of trace gases and aerosols, whole air samples were collected during the flights, and these were subsequently analyzed for a suite of trace gases that included a number of C2–C8 non-methane hydrocarbons. Non-methane hydrocarbons are relatively short-lived compounds and the large enhancements in their mixing ratios in the upper troposphere over southwestern Asia during the monsoon, sometimes more than double their spring and fall means, provides qualitative evidence for the influence of convectively uplifted boundary layer air. The particularly large enhancements of the combustion tracers benzene and ethyne, along with the similarity of their ratios with carbon monoxide and emission ratios from the burning of household biofuels, indicate a strong influence of biofuel burning to NMHC emissions in this region. Conversely, the ratios of ethane and propane to carbon monoxide, along with the ratio between i-butane and n-butane, indicate a significant source of these compounds from the use of fossil fuels, and comparison to previous campaigns suggests that this source could be increasing. Photochemical aging patterns of NMHCs showed that the CARIBIC samples were collected in two distinctly different regions of the monsoon circulation: a southern region where air masses had been recently influenced by low level contact and a northern region, where air parcels had spent substantial time in transit in the upper troposphere before being probed. Estimates of age using ratios of individual NMHCs have ranges of 3–6 days in the south and 9–12 days in

  3. Stratospheric ozone intrusion events and their impacts on tropospheric ozone in the Southern Hemisphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Greenslade

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Stratosphere-to-troposphere transport (STT provides an important natural source of ozone to the upper troposphere, but the characteristics of STT events in the Southern Hemisphere extratropics and their contribution to the regional tropospheric ozone budget remain poorly constrained. Here, we develop a quantitative method to identify STT events from ozonesonde profiles. Using this method we estimate the seasonality of STT events and quantify the ozone transported across the tropopause over Davis (69° S, 2006–2013, Macquarie Island (54° S, 2004–2013, and Melbourne (38° S, 2004–2013. STT seasonality is determined by two distinct methods: a Fourier bandpass filter of the vertical ozone profile and an analysis of the Brunt–Väisälä frequency. Using a bandpass filter on 7–9 years of ozone profiles from each site provides clear detection of STT events, with maximum occurrences during summer and minimum during winter for all three sites. The majority of tropospheric ozone enhancements owing to STT events occur within 2.5 and 3 km of the tropopause at Davis and Macquarie Island respectively. Events are more spread out at Melbourne, occurring frequently up to 6 km from the tropopause. The mean fraction of total tropospheric ozone attributed to STT during STT events is  ∼ 1. 0–3. 5 % at each site; however, during individual events, over 10 % of tropospheric ozone may be directly transported from the stratosphere. The cause of STTs is determined to be largely due to synoptic low-pressure frontal systems, determined using coincident ERA-Interim reanalysis meteorological data. Ozone enhancements can also be caused by biomass burning plumes transported from Africa and South America, which are apparent during austral winter and spring and are determined using satellite measurements of CO. To provide regional context for the ozonesonde observations, we use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, which is too coarsely

  4. Spectropolarimetric Measurements of Scattered Sunlight in the Huggins Bands: Retrieval of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, D.; Sander, S. P.; Stutz, J.; Pongetti, T. J.; Yung, Y. L.; Wong, M.; Natraj, V.; Li, K.; Shia, R.

    2009-12-01

    Ozone concentrations in the troposphere have increased over the past century as a result of anthropogenic emissions of NOx and volatile organic compounds. In addition to being harmful to human health and plant life, ozone is an important greenhouse gas, especially in the middle and upper troposphere. Therefore, accurate monitoring of tropospheric ozone vertical distributions is crucial for a better understanding of air quality and climate change. Simulations of vector radiative transfer in the near ultraviolet region have shown that tropospheric ozone profiles can be retrieved using polarization measurements. However, to date there has been no experimental test of this method. A new compact, portable spectropolarimeter has been built for atmospheric remote sensing. The first comprehensive description of the configuration and performance of this instrument for ground-based operation is provided and sample atmospheric scattered sunlight spectra are shown. Using optimal estimation retrieval theory we study the information content of polarization spectra in the Huggins band and uncertainties in the retrieval associated with the measurement parameters, such as aerosol scattering.

  5. Measurement of Outflow Facility Using iPerfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M Sherwood

    Full Text Available Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is the predominant risk factor for glaucoma, and reducing IOP is the only successful strategy to prevent further glaucomatous vision loss. IOP is determined by the balance between the rates of aqueous humour secretion and outflow, and a pathological reduction in the hydraulic conductance of outflow, known as outflow facility, is responsible for IOP elevation in glaucoma. Mouse models are often used to investigate the mechanisms controlling outflow facility, but the diminutive size of the mouse eye makes measurement of outflow technically challenging. In this study, we present a new approach to measure and analyse outflow facility using iPerfusion™, which incorporates an actuated pressure reservoir, thermal flow sensor, differential pressure measurement and an automated computerised interface. In enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice, the flow-pressure relationship is highly non-linear and is well represented by an empirical power law model that describes the pressure dependence of outflow facility. At zero pressure, the measured flow is indistinguishable from zero, confirming the absence of any significant pressure independent flow in enucleated eyes. Comparison with the commonly used 2-parameter linear outflow model reveals that inappropriate application of a linear fit to a non-linear flow-pressure relationship introduces considerable errors in the estimation of outflow facility and leads to the false impression of pressure-independent outflow. Data from a population of enucleated eyes from C57BL/6J mice show that outflow facility is best described by a lognormal distribution, with 6-fold variability between individuals, but with relatively tight correlation of facility between fellow eyes. iPerfusion represents a platform technology to accurately and robustly characterise the flow-pressure relationship in enucleated mouse eyes for the purpose of glaucoma research and with minor modifications, may be applied

  6. Tropospheric Ozone from the TOMS TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) Technique During SAFARI-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, J. B.; Thompson, A. M.; Frolov, A. D.; Hudson, R. D.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    There are a number of published residual-type methods for deriving tropospheric ozone from TOMS (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer). The basic concept of these methods is that within a zone of constant stratospheric ozone, the tropospheric ozone column can be computed by subtracting stratospheric ozone from the TOMS Level 2 total ozone column, We used the modified-residual method for retrieving tropospheric ozone during SAFARI-2000 and found disagreements with in-situ ozone data over Africa in September 2000. Using the newly developed TDOT (TOMS-Direct-Ozone-in-Troposphere) method that uses TOMS radiances and a modified lookup table based on actual profiles during high ozone pollution periods, new maps were prepared and found to compare better to soundings over Lusaka, Zambia (15.5 S, 28 E), Nairobi and several African cities where MOZAIC aircraft operated in September 2000. The TDOT technique and comparisons are described in detail.

  7. Performance Evaluation of Blind Tropospheric Delay correction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report represents an appraisal of the performance of the GPT2w and UNB3M models with accurate International GNSS Service (IGS)- tropospheric estimations for fifteen IGS stations over a period of 1 year on the Africa continent. Both models perform significantly better at low latitudes than higher latitudes. There was ...

  8. Tropospheric ozone. Formation, properties, effects. Expert opinion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elstner, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The formation and dispersion of tropospheric ozone are discussed only marginally in this expert opinion; the key interest is in the effects of ground level ozone on plants, animals, and humans. The expert opinion is based on an analysis of the available scientific publications. (orig./MG) [de

  9. TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOL PROGRAM, PROGRAM PLAN, MARCH 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SCHWARTZ,S.E.; LUNN,P.

    2001-03-01

    The goal of Tropospheric Aerosol Program (TAP) will be to develop the fundamental scientific understanding required to construct tools for simulating the life cycle of tropospheric aerosols--the processes controlling their mass loading, composition, and microphysical properties, all as a function of time, location, and altitude. The TAP approach to achieving this goal will be by conducting closely linked field, modeling, laboratory, and theoretical studies focused on the processes controlling formation, growth, transport, and deposition of tropospheric aerosols. This understanding will be represented in models suitable for describing these processes on a variety of geographical scales; evaluation of these models will be a key component of TAP field activities. In carrying out these tasks TAP will work closely with other programs in DOE and in other Federal and state agencies, and with the private sector. A forum to directly work with our counterparts in industry to ensure that the results of this research are translated into products that are useful to that community will be provided by NARSTO (formerly the North American Research Strategy on Tropospheric Ozone), a public/private partnership, whose membership spans government, the utilities, industry, and university researchers in Mexico, the US, and Canada.

  10. Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs: III - location and energetics

    OpenAIRE

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Braito, V.

    2012-01-01

    Using the results of a previous X-ray photo-ionization modelling of blue-shifted Fe K absorption lines on a sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton, in this letter we estimate the location and energetics of the associated ultra-fast outflows (UFOs). Due to significant uncertainties, we are essentially able to place only lower/upper limits. On average, their location is in the interval ~0.0003-0.03pc (~10^2-10^4 r_s) from the central black hole, consistent with what is exp...

  11. Simulation of Breach Outflow for Earthfill Dam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razad, Azwin Zailti Abdul; Muda, Rahsidi Sabri; Sidek, Lariyah Mohd; Azia, Intan Shafilah Abdul; Mansor, Faezah Hanum; Yalit, Ruzaimei

    2013-01-01

    Dams have been built for many reasons such as irrigation, hydropower, flood mitigation, and water supply to support development for the benefit of human. However, the huge amount of water stored behind the dam can seriously pose adverse impacts to the downstream community should it be released due to unwanted dam break event. To minimise the potential loss of lives and property damages, a workable Emergency Response Plan is required to be developed. As part of a responsible dam owner and operator, TNB initiated a study on dam breach modelling for Cameron Highlands Hydroelectric Scheme to simulate the potential dam breach for Jor Dam. Prediction of dam breach parameters using the empirical equations of Froehlich and Macdonal-Langridge-Monopolis formed the basis of the modelling, coupled with MIKE 11 software to obtain the breach outflow due to Probable Maximum Flood (PMF). This paper will therefore discuss the model setup, simulation procedure and comparison of the prediction with existing equations.

  12. Enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations and ion outflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. R. E. Forme

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available A number of observations showing enhanced ion acoustic echoes observed by means of incoherent scatter radars have been reported in the literature. The received power is extremely enhanced by up to 1 or 2 orders of magnitude above usual values, and it is mostly contained in one of the two ion acoustic lines. This spectral asymmetry and the intensity of the received signal cannot be resolved by the standard analysis procedure and often causes its failure. As a result, and in spite of a very clear spectral signature, the analysis is unable to fit the plasma parameters inside the regions of ion acoustic turbulence. We present European Incoherent Scatter radar (EISCAT observations of large ion outflows associated with the simultaneous occurrence of enhanced ion acoustic echoes. The ion fluxes can reach 1014 m-2 s-1 at 800 km altitude. From the very clear spectral signatures of these echoes, a method is presented to extract estimates of the electron temperature and the ion drift within the turbulent regions. It is shown that the electron gas is strongly heated up to 11 000 K. Also electron temperature gradients of about 0.02 K/m exist. Finally, the estimates of the electron temperature and of the ion drift are used to study the possible implications for the plasma transport inside turbulent regions. It is shown that strong electron temperature gradients cause enhancement of the ambipolar electric field and can account for the observed ion outflows.Key words. Ionosphere (auroral ionosphere; ionosphere · magnetosphere interactions; plasma waves and instabilities.

  13. The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland

    OpenAIRE

    LASTOVETSKA ROKSOLANA ORESTIVNA

    2015-01-01

    The impact of remittances outflows on the economy of Poland is analyzed in the article. Based on historical data the vector autoregression model (VAR) was built to examine the effects of the sharp rise in the volume of remittances outflows. The model results are presented for the next macroeconomic indicators: GDP, inflation, interest rate and exchange rate.

  14. Momentum flux associated with gravity waves in the low-latitude troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Prabhakaran Nayar

    Full Text Available The vertical fluxes of horizontal momentum at tropospheric heights are calculated for four days, 25–28 August 1999. The mean zonal wind during these days show the presence of strong westward wind at the upper troposphere. Both the symmetric beam radar method and the power spectral method of evaluation of vertical flux of zonal and meridional momentum shows nearly the same result for quiet conditions. The temporal evolution of the momentum flux is estimated for a day with strong zonal shear and convection. These results indicate that on 28 August 1999, the strong downward vertical wind in the lower altitude range is associated with upward vertical flux of zonal momentum, and strong upward vertical wind is associated with downward vertical flux. Similarly, the strong shear in zonal wind is associated with the increase in negative values in vertical flux in the upper troposphere. Analysis of the role of wave periods in the transport of momentum flux indicates that the vertical momentum flux magnitude is not evenly distributed in all wave periods, but instead it peaks at certain wave periods in the range 10 to 100 min.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (convective process; tropical meteorology; precipitation

  15. Characteristics of intercontinental transport of tropospheric ozone from Africa to Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Han; Liu, Jane; Yuan, Huiling; Zhuang, Bingliang; Zhu, Ye; Wu, Yue; Yan, Yuhan; Ding, Aijun

    2018-03-01

    In this study, we characterize the transport of ozone from Africa to Asia through the analysis of the simulations of a global chemical transport model, GEOS-Chem, from 1987 to 2006. The receptor region Asia is defined within 5-60° N and 60-145° E, while the source region Africa is within 35° S-15° N and 20° W-55° E and within 15-35° N and 20° W-30° E. The ozone generated in the African troposphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources is tracked through tagged ozone simulation. Combining this with analysis of trajectory simulations using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model, we find that the upper branch of the Hadley cell connects with the subtropical westerlies in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) to form a primary transport pathway from Africa to Asia in the middle and upper troposphere throughout the year. The Somali jet that runs from eastern Africa near the equator to the Indian subcontinent in the lower troposphere is the second pathway that appears only in NH summer. The influence of African ozone mainly appears over Asia south of 40° N. The influence shows strong seasonality, varying with latitude, longitude, and altitude. In the Asian upper troposphere, imported African ozone is largest from March to May around 30° N (12-16 ppbv) and lowest during July-October around 10° N ( ˜ 2 ppbv). In the Asian middle and lower troposphere, imported African ozone peaks in NH winter between 20 and 25° N. Over 5-40° N, the mean fractional contribution of imported African ozone to the overall ozone concentrations in Asia is largest during NH winter in the middle troposphere ( ˜ 18 %) and lowest in NH summer throughout the tropospheric column ( ˜ 6 %). This seasonality mainly results from the collective effects of the ozone precursor emissions in Africa and meteorology and chemistry in Africa, in Asia and along the transport pathways. The seasonal swing of the Hadley circulation and subtropical westerlies along the

  16. Satellite observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Payne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a description of the algorithm used to retrieve peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN concentrations from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES. We describe the spectral microwindows, error analysis, and the utilization of a priori and initial guess information provided by the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. The TES PAN retrievals contain up to one degree of freedom for signal. In general, the retrievals are most sensitive to PAN in the mid-troposphere. Estimated single-measurement uncertainties are on the order of 30 to 50%. The detection limit for a single TES measurement is dependent on the atmospheric and surface conditions as well as on the instrument noise. For observations where the cloud optical depth is less than 0.5, we find that the TES detection limit for PAN is in the region of 200 to 300 pptv. We show that PAN retrievals capture plumes associated with boreal burning. Retrievals over the Northern Hemisphere Pacific in springtime show spatial features that are qualitatively consistent with the expected distribution of PAN in outflow of Asian pollution.

  17. Galactic Outflows, Star Formation Histories, and Timescales in Starburst Dwarf Galaxies from STARBIRDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Heilman, Taryn N.; Mitchell, Noah P.; Kelley, Tyler

    2018-03-01

    Winds are predicted to be ubiquitous in low-mass, actively star-forming galaxies. Observationally, winds have been detected in relatively few local dwarf galaxies, with even fewer constraints placed on their timescales. Here, we compare galactic outflows traced by diffuse, soft X-ray emission from Chandra Space Telescope archival observations to the star formation histories derived from Hubble Space Telescope imaging of the resolved stellar populations in six starburst dwarfs. We constrain the longevity of a wind to have an upper limit of 25 Myr based on galaxies whose starburst activity has already declined, although a larger sample is needed to confirm this result. We find an average 16% efficiency for converting the mechanical energy of stellar feedback to thermal, soft X-ray emission on the 25 Myr timescale, somewhat higher than simulations predict. The outflows have likely been sustained for timescales comparable to the duration of the starbursts (i.e., 100's Myr), after taking into account the time for the development and cessation of the wind. The wind timescales imply that material is driven to larger distances in the circumgalactic medium than estimated by assuming short, 5-10 Myr starburst durations, and that less material is recycled back to the host galaxy on short timescales. In the detected outflows, the expelled hot gas shows various morphologies which are not consistent with a simple biconical outflow structure. The sample and analysis are part of a larger program, the STARBurst IRregular Dwarf Survey (STARBIRDS), aimed at understanding the lifecycle and impact of starburst activity in low-mass systems.

  18. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere to 8 km (in the upper troposphere and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model. We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  19. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; González, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; García, O. E.; Sepúlveda, E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lejeune, B.; Demoulin, P.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Robinson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water), long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere) to 8 km (in the upper troposphere) and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model). We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  20. Impact of uncertainties in inorganic chemical rate constants on tropospheric composition and ozone radiative forcing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Newsome

    2017-12-01

    regions such as the tropics, poles and upper troposphere are most uncertain. This chemical uncertainty is sufficiently large to suggest that rate constant uncertainty should be considered alongside other processes when model results disagree with measurement. Calculations for the pre-industrial simulation allow a tropospheric ozone radiative forcing to be calculated of 0.412 ± 0.062 W m−2. This uncertainty (13 % is comparable to the inter-model spread in ozone radiative forcing found in previous model–model intercomparison studies where the rate constants used in the models are all identical or very similar. Thus, the uncertainty of tropospheric ozone radiative forcing should expanded to include this additional source of uncertainty. These rate constant uncertainties are significant and suggest that refinement of supposedly well-known chemical rate constants should be considered alongside other improvements to enhance our understanding of atmospheric processes.

  1. Experimental particle formation rates spanning tropospheric sulfuric acid and ammonia abundances, ion production rates, and temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, Andreas; Almeida, Joao; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Dunne, Eimear M.; Duplissy, Jonathan; Williamson, Christina; Barmet, Peter; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Franchin, Alessandro; Gordon, Hamish; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Ickes, Luisa; Jokinen, Tuija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Onnela, Antti; Ortega, Ismael K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P.; Rondo, Linda; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Smith, James N.; Steiner, Gerhard; Stozhkov, Yuri; Tomé, António; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Wagner, Paul E.; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Ken; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Binary nucleation of sulfuric acid and water as well as ternary nucleation involving ammonia arethought to be the dominant processes responsible for new particle formation (NPF) in the cold temperaturesof the middle and upper troposphere. Ions are also thought to be important for particle nucleation inthese regions. However, global models presently lack experimentally measured NPF rates under controlledlaboratory conditions and so at present must rely on theoretical or empirical parameterizations. Here withdata obtained in the European Organization for Nuclear Research CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets)chamber, we present the first experimental survey of NPF rates spanning free tropospheric conditions. Theconditions during nucleation cover a temperature range from 208 to 298 K, sulfuric acid concentrationsbet ween 5 × 105and 1 × 109cm3, and ammonia mixing ratios from zero added ammonia, i.e., nominally purebinary, to a maximum of ~1400 parts per trillion by volume (pptv). We performed nucleation s...

  2. Molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars. I. Correcting for underestimates when measuring outflow masses and dynamical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, Michael M. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, MS 78, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Arce, Héctor G. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Mardones, Diego [Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Matthews, Brenda C. [National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Astronomy and Astrophysics, 5071 W. Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada); Stutz, Amelia M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117, Heidelberg (Germany); Williams, Jonathan P., E-mail: mdunham@cfa.harvard.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    We present a survey of 28 molecular outflows driven by low-mass protostars, all of which are sufficiently isolated spatially and/or kinematically to fully separate into individual outflows. Using a combination of new and archival data from several single-dish telescopes, 17 outflows are mapped in {sup 12}CO (2-1) and 17 are mapped in {sup 12}CO (3-2), with 6 mapped in both transitions. For each outflow, we calculate and tabulate the mass (M {sub flow}), momentum (P {sub flow}), kinetic energy (E {sub flow}), mechanical luminosity (L {sub flow}), and force (F {sub flow}) assuming optically thin emission in LTE at an excitation temperature, T {sub ex}, of 50 K. We show that all of the calculated properties are underestimated when calculated under these assumptions. Taken together, the effects of opacity, outflow emission at low velocities confused with ambient cloud emission, and emission below the sensitivities of the observations increase outflow masses and dynamical properties by an order of magnitude, on average, and factors of 50-90 in the most extreme cases. Different (and non-uniform) excitation temperatures, inclination effects, and dissociation of molecular gas will all work to further increase outflow properties. Molecular outflows are thus almost certainly more massive and energetic than commonly reported. Additionally, outflow properties are lower, on average, by almost an order of magnitude when calculated from the {sup 12}CO (3-2) maps compared to the {sup 12}CO (2-1) maps, even after accounting for different opacities, map sensitivities, and possible excitation temperature variations. It has recently been argued in the literature that the {sup 12}CO (3-2) line is subthermally excited in outflows, and our results support this finding.

  3. Interpretation of TOMS Observations of Tropical Tropospheric Ozone with a Global Model and In Situ Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Randall V.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.; Staudt, Amanda C.; Fiore, Arlene M.; Duncan, Bryan N.; Liu, Hongyu; Ginoux, Paul

    2004-01-01

    We interpret the distribution of tropical tropospheric ozone columns (TTOCs) from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) by using a global three-dimensional model of tropospheric chemistry (GEOS-CHEM) and additional information from in situ observations. The GEOS-CHEM TTOCs capture 44% of the variance of monthly mean TOMS TTOCs from the convective cloud differential method (CCD) with no global bias. Major discrepancies are found over northern Africa and south Asia where the TOMS TTOCs do not capture the seasonal enhancements from biomass burning found in the model and in aircraft observations. A characteristic feature of these northern topical enhancements, in contrast to southern tropical enhancements, is that they are driven by the lower troposphere where the sensitivity of TOMS is poor due to Rayleigh scattering. We develop an efficiency correction to the TOMS retrieval algorithm that accounts for the variability of ozone in the lower troposphere. This efficiency correction increases TTOC's over biomass burning regions by 3-5 Dobson units (DU) and decreases them by 2-5 DU over oceanic regions, improving the agreement between CCD TTOCs and in situ observations. Applying the correction to CCD TTOCs reduces by approximately DU the magnitude of the "tropical Atlantic paradox" [Thompson et al, 2000], i.e. the presence of a TTOC enhancement over the southern tropical Atlantic during the northern African biomass burning season in December-February. We reproduce the remainder of the paradox in the model and explain it by the combination of upper tropospheric ozone production from lightning NOx, peristent subsidence over the southern tropical Atlantic as part of the Walker circulation, and cross-equatorial transport of upper tropospheric ozone from northern midlatitudes in the African "westerly duct." These processes in the model can also account for the observed 13-17 DU persistent wave-1 pattern in TTOCs with a maximum above the tropical Atlantic and a minimum

  4. AGN outflows as neutrino sources: an observational test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padovani, P.; Turcati, A.; Resconi, E.

    2018-04-01

    We test the recently proposed idea that outflows associated with Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) could be neutrino emitters in two complementary ways. First, we cross-correlate a list of 94 "bona fide" AGN outflows with the most complete and updated repository of IceCube neutrinos currently publicly available, assembled by us for this purpose. It turns out that AGN with outflows matched to an IceCube neutrino have outflow and kinetic energy rates, and bolometric powers larger than those of AGN with outflows not matched to neutrinos. Second, we carry out a statistical analysis on a catalogue of [O III] λ5007 line profiles using a sample of 23,264 AGN at z values (˜6 and 18 per cent respectively, pre-trial) for relatively high velocities and luminosities. Our results are consistent with a scenario where AGN outflows are neutrino emitters but at present do not provide a significant signal. This can be tested with better statistics and source stacking. A predominant role of AGN outflows in explaining the IceCube data appears in any case to be ruled out.

  5. Simulation of California's Major Reservoirs Outflow Using Data Mining Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, T.; Gao, X.; Sorooshian, S.

    2014-12-01

    The reservoir's outflow is controlled by reservoir operators, which is different from the upstream inflow. The outflow is more important than the reservoir's inflow for the downstream water users. In order to simulate the complicated reservoir operation and extract the outflow decision making patterns for California's 12 major reservoirs, we build a data-driven, computer-based ("artificial intelligent") reservoir decision making tool, using decision regression and classification tree approach. This is a well-developed statistical and graphical modeling methodology in the field of data mining. A shuffled cross validation approach is also employed to extract the outflow decision making patterns and rules based on the selected decision variables (inflow amount, precipitation, timing, water type year etc.). To show the accuracy of the model, a verification study is carried out comparing the model-generated outflow decisions ("artificial intelligent" decisions) with that made by reservoir operators (human decisions). The simulation results show that the machine-generated outflow decisions are very similar to the real reservoir operators' decisions. This conclusion is based on statistical evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe test. The proposed model is able to detect the most influential variables and their weights when the reservoir operators make an outflow decision. While the proposed approach was firstly applied and tested on California's 12 major reservoirs, the method is universally adaptable to other reservoir systems.

  6. Formation and spatial distribution of hypervelocity stars in AGN outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham

    2018-05-01

    We study star formation within outflows driven by active galactic nuclei (AGN) as a new source of hypervelocity stars (HVSs). Recent observations revealed active star formation inside a galactic outflow at a rate of ∼ 15M⊙yr-1 . We verify that the shells swept up by an AGN outflow are capable of cooling and fragmentation into cold clumps embedded in a hot tenuous gas via thermal instabilities. We show that cold clumps of ∼ 103 M⊙ are formed within ∼ 105 yrs. As a result, stars are produced along outflow's path, endowed with the outflow speed at their formation site. These HVSs travel through the galactic halo and eventually escape into the intergalactic medium. The expected instantaneous rate of star formation inside the outflow is ∼ 4 - 5 orders of magnitude greater than the average rate associated with previously proposed mechanisms for producing HVSs, such as the Hills mechanism and three-body interaction between a star and a black hole binary. We predict the spatial distribution of HVSs formed in AGN outflows for future observational probe.

  7. Density diagnostics of ionized outflows in active galacitc nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, J.; Kaastra, J.; Mehdipour, M.; Raassen, T.; Gu, L.

    2017-10-01

    Ionized outflows in Active Galactic Nuclei are thought to influence their nuclear and local galactic environment. However, the distance of outflows with respect to the central engine is poorly constrained, which limits our understanding of the kinetic power by the outflows. Therefore, the impact of AGN outflows on their host galaxies is uncertain. Given the density of the outflows, their distance can be immediately obtained by the definition of the ionization parameter. Here we carry out a theoretical study of density diagnostics of AGN outflows using absorption lines from metastable levels in Be-like to F-like ions. With the new self-consistent photoionization model (PION) in the SPEX code, we are able to calculate ground and metastable level populations. This enable us to determine under what physical conditions these levels are significantly populated. We then identify characteristic transitions from these metastable levels in the X-ray band. Firm detections of absorption lines from such metastable levels are challenging for current grating instruments. The next generation of spectrometers like X-IFU onboard Athena will certainly identify the presence/absence of these density- sensitive absorption lines, thus tightly constraining the location and the kinetic power of AGN outflows.

  8. Outflow and hot dust emission in broad absorption line quasars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Zhou, Hongyan [Polar Research Institute of China, 451 Jinqiao Road, Shanghai 200136 (China); Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Tinggui; Xing, Feijun; Jiang, Peng [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhang, Kai, E-mail: zhangshaohua@pric.gov.cn, E-mail: whywang@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2014-05-01

    We have investigated a sample of 2099 broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with z = 1.7-2.2 built from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release Seven and the Wide-field Infrared Survey. This sample is collected from two BAL quasar samples in the literature and is refined by our new algorithm. Correlations of outflow velocity and strength with a hot dust indicator (β{sub NIR}) and other quasar physical parameters—such as an Eddington ratio, luminosity, and a UV continuum slope—are explored in order to figure out which parameters drive outflows. Here β{sub NIR} is the near-infrared continuum slope, which is a good indicator of the amount of hot dust emission relative to the accretion disk emission. We confirm previous findings that outflow properties moderately or weakly depend on the Eddington ratio, UV slope, and luminosity. For the first time, we report moderate and significant correlations of outflow strength and velocity with β{sub NIR} in BAL quasars. It is consistent with the behavior of blueshifted broad emission lines in non-BAL quasars. The statistical analysis and composite spectra study both reveal that outflow strength and velocity are more strongly correlated with β{sub NIR} than the Eddington ratio, luminosity, and UV slope. In particular, the composites show that the entire C IV absorption profile shifts blueward and broadens as β{sub NIR} increases, while the Eddington ratio and UV slope only affect the high and low velocity part of outflows, respectively. We discuss several potential processes and suggest that the dusty outflow scenario, i.e., that dust is intrinsic to outflows and may contribute to the outflow acceleration, is most likely.

  9. Tropospheric Delay from VLBI and GNSS Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubanov, V. S.

    2018-02-01

    Using an updated version of the QUASAR software package developed at the Institute of Applied Astronomy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, we have processed the VLBI observations within the international CONT14 program (May 6-20, 2014), in which a global network of 17 stations was involved (a total of 250 000 observations). The package update concerned the optimization of data structure and the refinement of stochastic models for the random variations in wet tropospheric delay and atomic clock difference. The main goal of this paper is to compare the VLBI determinations of the tropospheric delay with its independent determinations using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). We show that both these determinations agree well between themselves only in the case of a global analysis of the VLBI observations, where the VLBI station coordinates are also refined, along with the tropospheric delay and the clock synchronization and Earth orientation parameters. If, alternatively, the station coordinates are insufficiently accurate and are not refined from VLBI observations, then it is appropriate not to determine the tropospheric delay from these observations, but to take it from the publicly accessible independent GNSS data. However, this requires that the VLBI and GNSS techniques operate simultaneously at a common observing site. We have established the shortcomings of the universally accepted method of stabilizing the global solution associated with the absence of a criterion for choosing reference stations and radio sources. Two ways of their elimination are proposed: (i) introducing a coordinated list of weight factors for the errors in the coordinates of such stations and sources into the stabilization algorithm and (ii) adopting a coordinated list of stations and sources the refinement of whose coordinates is not required at all for a certain time.

  10. Radon concentration inversions in the troposphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, E.B.

    1987-07-01

    Vertical concentrations of radon in the lower troposphere were obtained in Southern Brazil up to 7Km high and have shown unexpected inverted profiles. The presence of low pressure center systems southwest to the flight path suggested that inversions might have been originated by a vertical transport mechanism based on the large scale circulation of developing synoptic systems. A simple friction-driven circulation model was contructed and the transport equation was solved. (author) [pt

  11. Saturated Pool Boiling in Vertical Annulus with Reduced Outflow Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied extensively to design efficient heat transfer devices or to assure the integrity of safety related systems. However, knowledge on pool boiling heat transfer in a confined space is still quite limited. The confined nucleate boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Improved heat transfer might be attributed to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient due to vaporization from the thin liquid film on the heating surface or increased bubble activity. According to Cornwell and Houston, the bubbles sliding on the heated surface agitate environmental liquid. In a confined space a kind of pulsating flow due to the bubbles is created and, as a result very active liquid agitation is generated. The increase in the intensity of liquid agitation results in heat transfer enhancement. Sometimes a deterioration of heat transfer appears at high heat fluxes for confined boiling. The cause of the deterioration is suggested as active bubble coalescence. Recently, Kang published inflow effects on pool boiling heat transfer in a vertical annulus with closed bottoms. Kang regulated the gap size at the upper regions of the annulus and identified that effects of the reduced gaps on heat transfer become evident as the heat flux increases. This kind of geometry is found in an in-pile test section. Since more detailed analysis is necessary, effects of the outflow area on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer are investigated in this study. Up to the author's knowledge, no previous results concerning to this effect have been published yet

  12. ALMA Studies of the Disk-Jet-Outflow Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougados, Catherine; Louvet, F.; Mardones, D.; Cabrit, S.

    2017-06-01

    I will describe in this contribution recent results obtained with ALMA on the origin of the disk/jet/outflow connexion in T Tauri stars. I will first present ALMA observations of the disk associated with the jet source Th 28, which question previous jet rotation measurements in this source and the implications drawn from them. I will then discuss Cycle 2 ALMA observations of the disk and small scale CO outflow associated with the prototypical edge-on HH 30 source. The unprecedented angular resolution of this dataset brings new constraints on the origin of the CO outflows in young stars.

  13. Tropospheric radiative forcing of CH4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-04-01

    We have evaluated the tropospheric radiative forcing of CH 4 in the 0-3000 cm -1 wavenumber range and compared this with prior published calculations. The atmospheric test cases involved perturbed methane scenarios in both a McClatchey mid latitude, summer, clear sky approximation, model atmosphere, as well as a globally and seasonally averaged model atmosphere containing a representative cloud distribution. The scenarios involved pure CH 4 radiative forcing and CH 4 plus a mixture of H 2 O, CO 2 , O 3 , and N 2 O. The IR radiative forcing was calculated using a correlated k-distribution transmission model. The major purposes of this paper are to first, use the correlated k-distribution model to calculate the tropospheric radiative forcing for CH 4 , as the only radiatively active gas, and in a mixture with H 2 O, CO 2 , O 3 , and N 2 O, for a McClatchey mid-latitude summer, clear-sky model atmosphere, and to compare the results to those obtained in the studies mentioned above. Second, we will calculate the tropospheric methane forcing in a globally and annually averaged atmosphere with and without a representative cloud distribution in order to validate the conjecture given in IPCC (1990) that the inclusion of clouds in the forcing calculations results in forcing values which are approximately 20 percent less than those obtained using clear sky approximations

  14. Tropospheric Enhancement of Ozone over the UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Naveed Ali; Majeed, Tariq; Iqbal, Mazhar; Kaminski, Jacek; Struzewska, Joanna; Durka, Pawel; Tarasick, David; Davies, Jonathan

    2015-04-01

    We use the Global Environmental Multiscale - Air Quality (GEM-AQ) model to interpret the vertical profiles of ozone acquired with ozone sounding experiments at the meteorological site located at the Abu Dhabi airport. The purpose of this study is to gain insight into the chemical and dynamical structures in the atmosphere of this unique subtropical location (latitude 24.45N; longitude 54.22E). Ozone observations for years 2012 - 2013 reveal elevated ozone abundances in the range from 70 ppbv to 120 ppbv near 500-400 hPa during summer. The ozone abundances in other seasons are much lower than these values. The preliminary results indicate that summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian anticyclones centered over the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water. The model also shows considerable seasonal variation in the tropospheric ozone which is transported from the stratosphere by dynamical processes. The domestic production of ozone in the middle troposphere is estimated and compared GEM-AQ model. It is estimated that about 40-50% of ozone in the UAE is transported from the neighbouring petrochemical industries in the Gulf region. We will present ozone sounding data and GEM-AQ results including a discussion on the high levels of the tropospheric ozone responsible for contaminating the air quality in the UAE. This work is supported by National Research Foundation, UAE.

  15. Investigation of cerebral venous outflow in microgravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taibi, A; Gadda, G; Gambaccini, M; Menegatti, E; Sisini, F; Zamboni, P

    2017-10-31

    The gravitational gradient is the major component to face when considering the physiology of venous return, and there is a growing interest in understanding the mechanisms ensuring the heart filling, in the absence of gravity, for astronauts who perform long-term space missions. The purpose of the Drain Brain project was to monitor the cerebral venous outflow of a crew member during an experiment on the International Space Station (ISS), so as to study the compensatory mechanisms that facilitate this essential physiological action in subjects living in a microgravity environment. Such venous function has been characterized by means of a novel application of strain-gauge plethysmography which uses a capacitive sensor. In this contribution, preliminary results of our investigation have been presented. In particular, comparison of plethysmography data confirmed that long duration spaceflights lead to a redistribution of venous blood volume, and showed interesting differences in the amplitude of cardiac oscillations measured at the level of the neck veins. The success of the experiment has also demonstrated that thanks to its easy portability, non-invasiveness, and non-operator dependence, the proposed device can be considered as a novel tool for use aboard the ISS. Further trials are now under way to complete the investigation on the drainage function of the neck veins in microgravity.

  16. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoogman, P.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Pennington, W. F.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Hilton, B. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Newchurch, M. J.; Carr, J. L.; hide

    2016-01-01

    TEMPO (Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution) was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch between 2018 and 2021. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO observes from Mexico City, Cuba, and the Bahamas to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution (approximately 2.1 kilometers N/S by 4.4 kilometers E/W at 36.5 degrees N, 100 degrees W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry, as well as contributing to carbon cycle knowledge. Measurements are made hourly from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the high variability present in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry that are unobservable from current low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites that measure once per day. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde (H2CO), glyoxal (C2H2O2), bromine monoxide (BrO), IO (iodine monoxide),water vapor, aerosols, cloud parameters, ultraviolet radiation, and foliage properties. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides these near-real-time air quality products that will be made publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the

  17. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David E.; Al-Saadi, Jassim; Janz, Scott J.

    2014-06-01

    TEMPO, selected by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest-cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50 %. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO makes the first tropospheric trace gas measurements from GEO, by building on the heritage of five spectrometers flown in low-earth-orbit (LEO). These LEO instruments measure the needed spectra, although at coarse spatial and temporal resolutions, to the precisions required for TEMPO and use retrieval algorithms developed for them by TEMPO Science Team members and currently running in operational environments. This makes TEMPO an innovative use of a well-proven technique, able to produce a revolutionary data set. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement

  18. Cumulative neutrino background from quasar-driven outflows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiawei; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: xiawei.wang@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Quasar-driven outflows naturally account for the missing component of the extragalactic γ-ray background through neutral pion production in interactions between protons accelerated by the forward outflow shock and interstellar protons. We study the simultaneous neutrino emission by the same protons. We adopt outflow parameters that best fit the extragalactic γ-ray background data and derive a cumulative neutrino background of ∼ 10{sup −7} GeV cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} sr{sup −1} at neutrino energies E {sub ν} ∼> 10 TeV, which naturally explains the most recent IceCube data without tuning any free parameters. The link between the γ-ray and neutrino emission from quasar outflows can be used to constrain the high-energy physics of strong shocks at cosmological distances.

  19. Seasonal changes and driving forces of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhixin; Qiao, Fangli; Guo, Jingsong; Guo, Binghuo

    2018-02-01

    This work focuses on analyzing seasonal variation of inflow and outflow through the Bohai Strait that greatly affect the marine environment in the Bohai Sea, using observational data including sea bed mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler currents, CTD salinity data on deck, sea level anomalies of coastal tide gauge stations, and climatological monthly sea level anomalies from Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic data. Our results show three patterns of outflow and inflow through the Bohai Strait. The first is such that outflow and inflow occur respectively in the southern and northern parts of the strait, as in the traditional understanding. Our results suggest that this pattern occurs only in autumn and winter. Beginning in late September, Ekman currents driven by the northwesterly monsoon carry Bohai Sea water that piles up in the southern part of that sea and then exits eastward to the Yellow Sea. In this process, the pressure and current fields are continuously adjusted, until a quasi balance state between wind stress, Coriolis force and pressure gradient force is reached in winter. Inflow with a compensating property through the northern channel is close to the outflow through the southern channel in winter. The second pattern is a single inflow in spring, and the current and pressure fields are in adjustment. In early spring, the northwesterly monsoon ceases, Yellow Sea water enters the Bohai Sea under the pressure gradient force. With southeasterly monsoon establishment and strengthening, northern Yellow Sea water continually flows into the Bohai Sea and causes sea level rise northward. In the third pattern, outflow is much greater than inflow in summer. The currents run eastward in the central Bohai Sea and then enter the northern Yellow Sea through the northern channel and upper layer of the southern channel, while a westward current with a compensating property enters via the lower layer of the southern channel. Larger

  20. Characterization of molecular outflows in the substellar domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Dang-Duc, Cuong; Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P.; Li, Di

    2014-01-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M J , which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36°. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9 × 10 –6 M ☉ to 2.9 × 10 –5 M ☉ and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7 × 10 –9 M ☉ yr –1 to 4.1 × 10 –8 M ☉ yr –1 . These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M J in ρ Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M J in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with a duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

  1. Characterization of molecular outflows in the substellar domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phan-Bao, Ngoc; Dang-Duc, Cuong [Department of Physics, International University-Vietnam National University HCM, Block 6, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Lee, Chin-Fei; Ho, Paul T. P. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Li, Di, E-mail: pbngoc@hcmiu.edu.vn, E-mail: pbngoc@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Chaoyang District Datun Rd A20, Beijing (China)

    2014-11-01

    We report here our latest search for molecular outflows from young brown dwarfs and very low-mass stars in nearby star-forming regions. We have observed three sources in Taurus with the Submillimeter Array and the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy at 230 GHz frequency to search for CO J = 2 → 1 outflows. We obtain a tentative detection of a redshifted and extended gas lobe at about 10 arcsec from the source GM Tau, a young brown dwarf in Taurus with an estimated mass of 73 M {sub J}, which is right below the hydrogen-burning limit. No blueshifted emission around the brown dwarf position is detected. The redshifted gas lobe that is elongated in the northeast direction suggests a possible bipolar outflow from the source with a position angle of about 36°. Assuming that the redshifted emission is outflow emission from GM Tau, we then estimate a molecular outflow mass in the range from 1.9 × 10{sup –6} M {sub ☉} to 2.9 × 10{sup –5} M {sub ☉} and an outflow mass-loss rate from 2.7 × 10{sup –9} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} to 4.1 × 10{sup –8} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. These values are comparable to those we have observed in the young brown dwarf ISO-Oph 102 of 60 M {sub J} in ρ Ophiuchi and the very low-mass star MHO 5 of 90 M {sub J} in Taurus. Our results suggest that the outflow process in very low-mass objects is episodic with a duration of a few thousand years and the outflow rate of active episodes does not significantly change for different stages of the formation process of very low-mass objects. This may provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of brown dwarfs.

  2. Topographic control on the nascent Mediterranean outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Nash, J. D.; Peters, H.; García-Lafuente, J.

    2011-12-01

    Data collected during a 12-day cruise in July 2009 served to examine the structure of the nascent Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) immediately west of the Espartel Sill, the westernmost sill in the Strait of Gibraltar. The MOW is characterized by high salinities (>37.0 and reaching 38.3) and high velocities (exceeding 1 m s-1 at 100 m above the seafloor), and follows a submerged valley along a 30 km stretch, the natural western extension of the strait. It is approx. 150 m thick and 10 km wide, and experiences a substantial drop from 420 to 530 m over a distance of some 3 km between two relatively flat regions. Measurements indicate that the nascent MOW behaves as a gravity current with nearly maximal traveling speed; if this condition is maintained, then the maximum MOW velocity would decrease slowly with distance from the Espartel Sill, remaining significantly high until the gravity current excess density is only a small fraction of its original value. The sharp pycnocline between the Mediterranean and the overlying North Atlantic Central waters is dynamically unstable, particularly where the flow interacts with the 100 m decrease in bottom depth. Here, subcritical gradient Richardson numbers coincide with the development of large interfacial undulations and billows. The very energetic downslope flow is likely responsible for the development of a narrow V-shaped channel downstream of the seafloor drop along the axis of the submerged valley, this probably being the very first erosional scour produced by the nascent MOW. The coincidence of subcritical gradient Richardson numbers with relatively high turbidity values above the channel flanks suggests it may be undergoing upstream erosion.

  3. Quasar outflow energetics from broad absorption line variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, S. M.; Shields, J. C.; Hamann, F. W.; Capellupo, D. M.; Herbst, H.

    2018-03-01

    Quasar outflows have long been recognized as potential contributors to the co-evolution between supermassive black holes (SMBHs) and their host galaxies. The role of outflows in active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback processes can be better understood by placing observational constraints on wind locations and kinetic energies. We utilize broad absorption line (BAL) variability to investigate the properties of a sample of 71 BAL quasars with P V broad absorption. The presence of P V BALs indicates that other BALs like C IV are saturated, such that variability in those lines favours clouds crossing the line of sight. We use these constraints with measurements of BAL variability to estimate outflow locations and energetics. Our data set consists of multiple-epoch spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and MDM Observatory. We detect significant (4σ) BAL variations from 10 quasars in our sample over rest-frame time-scales between ≤0.2-3.8 yr. Our derived distances for the 10 variable outflows are nominally ≲ 1-10 pc from the SMBH using the transverse-motion scenario, and ≲ 100-1000 pc from the central source using ionization-change considerations. These distances, in combination with the estimated high outflow column densities (i.e. NH ≳ 1022 cm-2), yield outflow kinetic luminosities between ˜ 0.001 and 1 times the bolometric luminosity of the quasar, indicating that many absorber energies within our sample are viable for AGN feedback.

  4. The Mass Outflow Rate of the Milky Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    The balance between gaseous inflow and outflow regulates star formation in spiral galaxies. This paradigm can be tested in the Milky Way, but whereas the star formation rate and inflow rate have both been measured, the outflow rate has not. We propose an archival COS program to determine the Galactic outflow rate in cool gas ( 10^4 K) by surveying UV absorption line high-velocity clouds (HVCs). This project will make use of the newly updated Hubble Spectroscopic Legacy Archive, which contains a uniformly reduced sample of 233 COS G130M spectra of background AGN. The outflow rate will be determined by (1) searching for redshifted HVCs; (2) modeling the clouds with photoionization simulations to determine their masses and physical properties; (3) combining the cloud masses with their velocities and distances. We will measure how the outflow is distributed spatially across the sky, calculate its mass loading factor, and compare the line profiles to synthetic spectra extracted from new hydrodynamic simulations. The distribution of HVC velocities will inform us what fraction of the outflowing clouds will escape the halo and what fraction will circulate back to the disk, to better understand how and where gas enters and exits the Milky Way.

  5. Tropospheric Ozone Climatology over Irene, South Africa, From 1990-1994 and 1998-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diab, R. D.; Thompson, A. M.; Marl, K.; Ramsay, L.; Coetzee, G. J. R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes ozone profiles from sonde data during the period of NASA s TRACE-A and the more recent SHADOZ (Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes) period. The data were taken by the South African Weather Service at the Irene (25 deg.54 min S; 28 deg. 13 min. E) station near Pretoria, South Africa, an area that is a unique mixture of local industry, heavy biofuels use and importation of biomass burning ozone from neighboring countries to the north. The main findings are: (1) With its geographical position at the edge of the subtropical transition zone, mid- latitude dynamical influences are evident at Irene, predominantly in winter when upper tropospheric ozone is enhanced as a result of stratospheric-tropospheric exchange. (2) There has been an increase in the near-surface ozone amount between the early 1990s and a decade later, presumably due to an influx of rural population toward the Johannesburg-Pretoria area, as well as with industrial growth and development. (3) Most significant for developing approaches for satellite ozone profile climatologies, cluster analysis has enabled the delineation of a background and "most polluted" profile. Enhancements of at least 30% occur throughout the troposphere in spring and in certain layers increases of 100 % are observed.

  6. Tropospheric emissions: Monitoring of pollution (TEMPO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoogman, P.; Liu, X.; Suleiman, R. M.; Pennington, W. F.; Flittner, D. E.; Al-Saadi, J. A.; Hilton, B. B.; Nicks, D. K.; Newchurch, M. J.; Carr, J. L.; Janz, S. J.; Andraschko, M. R.; Arola, A.; Baker, B. D.; Canova, B. P.; Chan Miller, C.; Cohen, R. C.; Davis, J. E.; Dussault, M. E.; Edwards, D. P.; Fishman, J.; Ghulam, A.; González Abad, G.; Grutter, M.; Herman, J. R.; Houck, J.; Jacob, D. J.; Joiner, J.; Kerridge, B. J.; Kim, J.; Krotkov, N. A.; Lamsal, L.; Li, C.; Lindfors, A.; Martin, R. V.; McElroy, C. T.; McLinden, C.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D. O.; Nowlan, C. R.; O`Sullivan, E. J.; Palmer, P. I.; Pierce, R. B.; Pippin, M. R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Spurr, R. J. D.; Szykman, J. J.; Torres, O.; Veefkind, J. P.; Veihelmann, B.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Chance, K.

    2017-01-01

    TEMPO was selected in 2012 by NASA as the first Earth Venture Instrument, for launch between 2018 and 2021. It will measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO observes from Mexico City, Cuba, and the Bahamas to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution ( 2.1 km N/S×4.4 km E/W at 36.5°N, 100°W). TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry, as well as contributing to carbon cycle knowledge. Measurements are made hourly from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the high variability present in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry that are unobservable from current low-Earth orbit (LEO) satellites that measure once per day. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a commercial GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), formaldehyde (H2CO), glyoxal (C2H2O2), bromine monoxide (BrO), IO (iodine monoxide), water vapor, aerosols, cloud parameters, ultraviolet radiation, and foliage properties. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides these near-real-time air quality products that will be made publicly available. TEMPO will launch at a prime time to be the North American component of the global geostationary constellation of pollution monitoring

  7. Tropospheric Emissions: Monitoring of Pollution Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chance, Kelly; Liu, Xiong; Suleiman, Raid M.; Flittner, David; Al-Saadi, Jay; Janz, Scott

    2015-01-01

    TEMPO is now well into its implementation phase, having passed both its Key Decision Point C and the Critical Design Review (CDR) for the instrument. The CDR for the ground systems will occur in March 2016 and the CDR for the Mission component at a later date, after the host spacecraft has been selected. TEMPO is on schedule to measure atmospheric pollution for greater North America from space using ultraviolet and visible spectroscopy. TEMPO measures from Mexico City to the Canadian oil sands, and from the Atlantic to the Pacific, hourly and at high spatial resolution. TEMPO provides a tropospheric measurement suite that includes the key elements of tropospheric air pollution chemistry. Measurements are from geostationary (GEO) orbit, to capture the inherent high variability in the diurnal cycle of emissions and chemistry. The small product spatial footprint resolves pollution sources at sub-urban scale. Together, this temporal and spatial resolution improves emission inventories, monitors population exposure, and enables effective emission-control strategies. TEMPO takes advantage of a GEO host spacecraft to provide a modest cost mission that measures the spectra required to retrieve O3, NO2, SO2, H2CO, C2H2O2, H2O, aerosols, cloud parameters, and UVB radiation. TEMPO thus measures the major elements, directly or by proxy, in the tropospheric O3 chemistry cycle. Multi-spectral observations provide sensitivity to O3 in the lowermost troposphere, substantially reducing uncertainty in air quality predictions by 50 percent. TEMPO quantifies and tracks the evolution of aerosol loading. It provides near-real-time air quality products that will be made widely, publicly available. TEMPO provides much of the atmospheric measurement capability recommended for GEO-CAPE in the 2007 National Research Council Decadal Survey, Earth Science and Applications from Space: National Imperatives for the Next Decade and Beyond. Instruments from Europe (Sentinel 4) and Asia (GEMS) will

  8. Modeling jet and outflow feedback during star cluster formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federrath, Christoph [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, VIC 3800 (Australia); Schrön, Martin [Department of Computational Hydrosystems, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig (Germany); Banerjee, Robi [Hamburger Sternwarte, Gojenbergsweg 112, D-21029 Hamburg (Germany); Klessen, Ralf S., E-mail: christoph.federrath@monash.edu [Universität Heidelberg, Zentrum für Astronomie, Institut für Theoretische Astrophysik, Albert-Ueberle-Strasse 2, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Powerful jets and outflows are launched from the protostellar disks around newborn stars. These outflows carry enough mass and momentum to transform the structure of their parent molecular cloud and to potentially control star formation itself. Despite their importance, we have not been able to fully quantify the impact of jets and outflows during the formation of a star cluster. The main problem lies in limited computing power. We would have to resolve the magnetic jet-launching mechanism close to the protostar and at the same time follow the evolution of a parsec-size cloud for a million years. Current computer power and codes fall orders of magnitude short of achieving this. In order to overcome this problem, we implement a subgrid-scale (SGS) model for launching jets and outflows, which demonstrably converges and reproduces the mass, linear and angular momentum transfer, and the speed of real jets, with ∼1000 times lower resolution than would be required without the SGS model. We apply the new SGS model to turbulent, magnetized star cluster formation and show that jets and outflows (1) eject about one-fourth of their parent molecular clump in high-speed jets, quickly reaching distances of more than a parsec, (2) reduce the star formation rate by about a factor of two, and (3) lead to the formation of ∼1.5 times as many stars compared to the no-outflow case. Most importantly, we find that jets and outflows reduce the average star mass by a factor of ∼ three and may thus be essential for understanding the characteristic mass of the stellar initial mass function.

  9. OUTFLOW AND HOT DUST EMISSION IN HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huiyuan; Xing, Feijun; Wang, Tinggui; Zhou, Hongyan; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Shaohua

    2013-01-01

    Correlations of hot dust emission with outflow properties are investigated, based on a large z ∼ 2 non-broad absorption line quasar sample built from the Wide-field Infrared Survey and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data releases. We use the near-infrared slope and the infrared to UV luminosity ratio to indicate the hot dust emission relative to the emission from the accretion disk. In our luminous quasars, these hot dust emission indicators are almost independent of the fundamental parameters, such as luminosity, Eddington ratio and black hole mass, but moderately dependent on the blueshift and asymmetry index (BAI) and FWHM of C IV lines. Interestingly, the latter two correlations dramatically strengthen with increasing Eddington ratio. We suggest that, in high Eddington ratio quasars, C IV regions are dominated by outflows so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) can reliably reflect the general properties and velocity of outflows, respectively. In low Eddington ratio quasars, on the other hand, C IV lines are primarily emitted by virialized gas so the BAI and FWHM (C IV) become less sensitive to outflows. Therefore, the correlations for the highest Eddington ratio quasars are more likely to represent the true dependence of hot dust emission on outflows and the correlations for the entire sample are significantly diluted by the low Eddington ratio quasars. Our results show that an outflow with a large BAI or velocity can double the hot dust emission on average. We suggest that outflows either contain hot dust in themselves or interact with the dusty interstellar medium or torus

  10. Kinetics programs for simulation of tropospheric photochemistry on the global scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, S.; Kao, C.Y.J.; Turco, R.P.; Zhao, X.P.

    1993-08-01

    The study of tropospheric kinetics underlies global change because key greenhouse gases are photochemically active. Modeling of tropospheric chemistry on a global scale is essential because some indirect greenhouse gases are short-lived and interact in a non-linear fashion. It is also extremely challenging, however; the global change grid is extensive in both the physical and temporal domains, and critical lower atmospheric species include the organics and their oxidized derivatives, which are numerous. Several types of optimization may be incorporated into kinetics modules to enhance their ability to simulate the complete lower atmospheric gas phase chemical system. (1) The photochemical integrator can be accelerated by avoiding matrix and iterative solutions and by establishing families. Accuracy and mass conservation are sacrificed in the absence of iteration, but atom balancing is restorable post hoc. (2) Chemistry can be arranged upon the massive grid to exploit parallel processing, and solutions to its continuity equations can be automated to permit experimentation with species and reaction lists or family definitions. Costs in programming effort will be incurred in these cases. (3) Complex hydrocarbon decay sequences can be streamlined either through structural lumping methods descended from smog investigations, which require considerable calibration, or by defining surrogates for classes of compounds, with a loss in constituent detail. From among the available options, the most advantageous permutations will vary with the specific nature of any eventual global scale study, and there is likely to be demand for many approaches. Tracer transport codes serve as a foundation upon which tropospheric chemistry packages will be tested. Encroachment of the NO x sphere of influence upon tropical rain forests and the upper free troposphere are two examples of specific problems to which full three-dimensional chemical simulations might be applied

  11. Evaluating the lower-tropospheric COSMIC GPS radio occultation sounding quality over the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao; Xie, Feiqin; Ao, Chi O.

    2018-04-01

    Lower-tropospheric moisture and temperature measurements are crucial for understanding weather prediction and climate change. Global Positioning System radio occultation (GPS RO) has been demonstrated as a high-quality observation technique with high vertical resolution and sub-kelvin temperature precision from the upper troposphere to the stratosphere. In the tropical lower troposphere, particularly the lowest 2 km, the quality of RO retrievals is known to be degraded and is a topic of active research. However, it is not clear whether similar problems exist at high latitudes, particularly over the Arctic, which is characterized by smooth ocean surface and often negligible moisture in the atmosphere. In this study, 3-year (2008-2010) GPS RO soundings from COSMIC (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate) over the Arctic (65-90° N) show uniform spatial sampling with average penetration depth within 300 m above the ocean surface. Over 70 % of RO soundings penetrate deep into the lowest 300 m of the troposphere in all non-summer seasons. However, the fraction of such deeply penetrating profiles reduces to only about 50-60 % in summer, when near-surface moisture and its variation increase. Both structural and parametric uncertainties of GPS RO soundings were also analyzed. The structural uncertainty (due to different data processing approaches) is estimated to be within ˜ 0.07 % in refractivity, ˜ 0.72 K in temperature, and ˜ 0.05 g kg-1 in specific humidity below 10 km, which is derived by comparing RO retrievals from two independent data processing centers. The parametric uncertainty (internal uncertainty of RO sounding) is quantified by comparing GPS RO with near-coincident radiosonde and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA-Interim profiles. A systematic negative bias up to ˜ 1 % in refractivity below 2 km is only seen in the summer, which confirms the moisture impact on GPS RO quality.

  12. Effects of anthropogenic emissions on tropospheric ozone and its radiative forcing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntsen, T.; Isaksen, I.S.A.; Fuglestvedt, J.S.; Myhre, G.; Larsen, T. Alsvik; Stordal, F.; Freckleton, R.S.; Shine, K.P.

    1997-12-31

    As described in this report, changes in tropospheric ozone since pre-industrial times due to changes in emissions have been calculated by the University of Oslo global three-dimensional photochemical model. The radiative forcing caused by the increase in ozone has been calculated by means of two independent radiative transfer models: the University of Reading model (Reading), and the University of Oslo/Norwegian Institute for Air Research model (OsloRad). Significant increases in upper tropospheric ozone concentrations are found at northern mid-latitudes at about 10 km altitude. In the tropical regions the largest increase is found at about 15 km altitude. The increase is found to be caused mainly by enhanced in situ production due to transport of precursors from the boundary layer, with a smaller contribution from increased transport of ozone produced in the boundary layer. The lifetime of ozone in the troposphere decreased by about 35% as a result of enhanced concentrations of HO{sub 2}. The calculated increase in surface ozone in Europe is in good agreement with observations. The calculations of radiative forcing include the effect of clouds and allow for thermal adjustment in the stratosphere. The global and annual averaged radiative forcing at the tropopause from both models are in the lower part of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimated range. The calculated radiative forcing is similar in magnitude to the negative radiative forcing by sulfate aerosols, but displaced southward in source regions at northern mid-latitudes. The increase in tropospheric ozone is calculated to have cooled the lower stratosphere by up to 0.9 K, with possibly half of this cooling occurring in the past 2 to 3 decades. 76 refs., 16 figs., 9 tabs.

  13. The Orion Fingers: H2 Temperatures and Excitation in an Explosive Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngblood, Allison; France, Kevin; Ginsburg, Adam; Hoadley, Keri; Bally, John

    2018-04-01

    We measure H2 temperatures and column densities across the Orion Becklin-Neugebauer/Kleinmann-Low (BN/KL) explosive outflow from a set of 13 near-infrared (IR) H2 rovibrational emission lines observed with the TripleSpec spectrograph on Apache Point Observatory’s 3.5 m telescope. We find that most of the region is well characterized by a single temperature (∼2000–2500 K), which may be influenced by the limited range of upper-energy levels (6000–20,000 K) probed by our data set. The H2 column density maps indicate that warm H2 comprises 10‑5–10‑3 of the total H2 column density near the center of the outflow. Combining column density measurements for co-spatial H2 and CO at T = 2500 K, we measure a CO/H2 fractional abundance of 2 × 10‑3 and discuss possible reasons why this value is in excess of the canonical 10‑4 value, including dust attenuation, incorrect assumptions on co-spatiality of the H2 and CO emission, and chemical processing in an extreme environment. We model the radiative transfer of H2 in this region with ultraviolet (UV) pumping models to look for signatures of H2 fluorescence from H I Lyα pumping. Dissociative (J-type) shocks and nebular emission from the foreground Orion H II region are considered as possible Lyα sources. From our radiative transfer models, we predict that signatures of Lyα pumping should be detectable in near-IR line ratios given a sufficiently strong source, but such a source is not present in the BN/KL outflow. The data are consistent with shocks as the H2 heating source.

  14. Rapid increases in tropospheric ozone production and export from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verstraeten, W.W.; Neu, J.L.; Williams, J.E.; Bowman, K.W.; Worden, J.R.; Boersma, K.F.

    2015-01-01

    Rapid population growth and industrialization have driven substantial increases in Asian ozone precursor emissions over the past decade1, with highly uncertain impacts on regional and global tropospheric ozone levels. According to ozonesonde measurements2, 3, tropospheric ozone concentrations at two

  15. Cosmic ray driven outflows in an ultraluminous galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Akimi; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark

    2018-06-01

    In models of galaxy formation, feedback driven both by supernova (SN) and active galactic nucleus is not efficient enough to quench star formation in massive galaxies. Models of smaller galaxies have suggested that cosmic rays (CRs) play a major role in expelling material from the star-forming regions by diffusing SN energy to the lower density outskirts. We therefore run gas dynamical simulations of galactic outflows from a galaxy contained in a halo with 5 × 1012 M⊙ that resembles a local ultraluminous galaxy, including both SN thermal energy and a treatment of CRs using the same diffusion approximation as Salem & Bryan. We find that CR pressure drives a low-density bubble beyond the edge of the shell swept up by thermal pressure, but the main bubble driven by SN thermal pressure overtakes it later, which creates a large-scale biconical outflow. CRs diffusing into the disc are unable to entrain its gas in the outflows, yielding a mass-loading rate of only ˜ 0.1 per cent with varied CR diffusion coefficients. We find no significant difference in mass-loading rates in SN-driven outflows with or without CR pressure. Our simulations strongly suggest that it is hard to drive a heavily mass-loaded outflow with CRs from a massive halo potential, although more distributed star formation could lead to a different result.

  16. The influence of biogenic emissions from Africa on tropical tropospheric ozone during 2006: a global modeling study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Williams

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed simulations using a 3-D global chemistry-transport model to investigate the influence that biogenic emissions from the African continent exert on the composition of the troposphere in the tropical region. For this purpose we have applied two recently developed biogenic emission inventories provided for use in large-scale global models (Granier et al., 2005; Lathière et al., 2006 whose seasonality and temporal distribution for biogenic emissions of isoprene, other volatile organic compounds and NO is markedly different. The use of the 12 year average values for biogenic emissions provided by Lathière et al. (2006 results in an increase in the amount of nitrogen sequestrated into longer lived reservoir compounds which contributes to the reduction in the tropospheric ozone burden in the tropics. The associated re-partitioning of nitrogen between PAN, HNO3 and organic nitrates also results in a ~5% increase in the loss of nitrogen by wet deposition. At a global scale there is a reduction in the oxidizing capacity of the model atmosphere which increases the atmospheric lifetimes of CH4 and CO by ~1.5% and ~4%, respectively. Comparisons against a range of different measurements indicate that applying the 12 year average of Lathière et al. (2006 improves the performance of TM4_AMMA for 2006 in the tropics. By the use of sensitivity studies we show that the release of NO from soils in Africa accounts for between ~2–45% of tropospheric ozone in the African troposphere, ~10% in the upper troposphere and between ~5–20% of the tropical tropospheric ozone column over the tropical Atlantic Ocean. The subsequent reduction in OH over the source regions allows enhanced transport of CO out of the region. For biogenic volatile organic C1 to C3 species released from Africa, the effects on tropical tropospheric ozone are rather limited, although this source contributes to the global burden of VOC by between ~2–4% and

  17. Inversion Build-Up and Cold-Air Outflow in a Small Alpine Sinkhole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, Manuela; Whiteman, C. David; Dorninger, Manfred

    2017-06-01

    Semi-idealized model simulations are made of the nocturnal cold-air pool development in the approximately 1-km wide and 100-200-m deep Grünloch basin, Austria. The simulations show qualitatively good agreement with vertical temperature and wind profiles and surface measurements collected during a meteorological field expedition. A two-layer stable atmosphere forms in the basin, with a very strong inversion in the lowest part, below the approximate height of the lowest gap in the surrounding orography. The upper part of the stable layer is less strongly stratified and extends to the approximate height of the second-lowest gap. The basin atmosphere cools most strongly during the first few hours of the night, after which temperatures decrease only slowly. An outflow of air forms through the lowest gap in the surrounding orography. The outflow connects with a weak inflow of air through a gap on the opposite sidewall, forming a vertically and horizontally confined jet over the basin. Basin cooling shows strong sensitivity to surface-layer characteristics, highlighting the large impact of variations in vegetation and soil cover on cold-air pool development, as well as the importance of surface-layer parametrization in numerical simulations of cold-air-pool development.

  18. Plasma Outflows: Known Knowns, Known Unknowns, and The Unknown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, T. E.

    2012-01-01

    A brief summary is given of i) what we know from observing ionospheric outflows and ii) how outflow parameterizations are being used in global simulations to evaluate their effects on magnetospheric dynamics. Then, a list of unanswered questions and issues to be resolved is given, followed by a description of the known future mission plans expressed in the Heliophysics Roadmap, such as Origin of Near-Earth Plasmas (ONEP), and Ion-Neutral Coupling in the Atmosphere (INCA). Finally, a set of requirements for definitive plasma outflow observations are identified, along with possible methods for fulfilling them in future missions. Since results of the current Heliophysics Decadal Survey are expected soon, it is hoped that future plans can be summarized and discussed without speculation at the GEM 2012 meeting.

  19. Multi-phase outflows as probes of AGN accretion history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, Emanuele; Zubovas, Kastytis

    2018-05-01

    Powerful outflows with a broad range of properties (such as velocity, ionization, radial scale and mass loss rate) represent a key feature of active galactic nuclei (AGN), even more so since they have been simultaneously revealed also in individual objects. Here we revisit in a simple analytical framework the recent remarkable cases of two ultraluminous infrared quasars, IRAS F11119+3257 and Mrk 231, which allow us to investigate the physical connection between multi-phase AGN outflows across the ladder of distance from the central supermassive black hole (SMBH). We argue that any major deviations from the standard outflow propagation models might encode unique information on the past SMBH accretion history, and briefly discuss how this could help address some controversial aspects of the current picture of AGN feedback.

  20. The outflow speed of the coma of Halley's comet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combi, M.R.

    1989-01-01

    Data concerning the outflow speed of the coma of Comet Halley are studied in relation to a generalization of the coupled pure-gas-dynamic/Monte Carlo model of Combi and Smyth (1988) to include the dusty-gas dynamics of the inner coma. Measurements made by the Giotto neutral-gas spectrometer, IR water observations from the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, and Doppler radio line profiles of HCN and OH are used to examine the radial dependence of the outflow speed, the asymmetry in the outflow speed, and the overall heliocentric distance dependence of the Doppler profiles, respectively. The results suggest that the model makes it possible to understand the gross long-term behavior and radial structure of the dynamics of the cometary coma. 23 refs

  1. CORONAL MASS EJECTION INDUCED OUTFLOWS OBSERVED WITH HINODE/EIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, M.; Ding, M. D.; Chen, P. F.; Fang, C.; Imada, S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the outflows associated with two halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that occurred on 2006 December 13 and 14 in NOAA 10930, using the Hinode/EIS observations. Each CME was accompanied by an EIT wave and coronal dimmings. Dopplergrams in the dimming regions are obtained from the spectra of seven EIS lines. The results show that strong outflows are visible in the dimming regions during the CME eruption at different heights from the lower transition region to the corona. It is found that the velocity is positively correlated with the photospheric magnetic field, as well as the magnitude of the dimming. We estimate the mass loss based on height-dependent EUV dimmings and find it to be smaller than the CME mass derived from white-light observations. The mass difference is attributed partly to the uncertain atmospheric model, and partly to the transition region outflows, which refill the coronal dimmings.

  2. Efficient transport of tropospheric aerosol into the stratosphere via the Asian summer monsoon anticyclone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Pengfei; Rosenlof, Karen H.; Liu, Shang; Telg, Hagen; Thornberry, Troy D.; Rollins, Andrew W.; Portmann, Robert W.; Bai, Zhixuan; Ray, Eric A.; Duan, Yunjun; Pan, Laura L.; Toon, Owen B.; Bian, Jianchun; Gao, Ru-Shan

    2017-07-01

    An enhanced aerosol layer near the tropopause over Asia during the June-September period of the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) was recently identified using satellite observations. Its sources and climate impact are presently not well-characterized. To improve understanding of this phenomenon, we made in situ aerosol measurements during summer 2015 from Kunming, China, then followed with a modeling study to assess the global significance. The in situ measurements revealed a robust enhancement in aerosol concentration that extended up to 2 km above the tropopause. A climate model simulation demonstrates that the abundant anthropogenic aerosol precursor emissions from Asia coupled with rapid vertical transport associated with monsoon convection leads to significant particle formation in the upper troposphere within the ASM anticyclone. These particles subsequently spread throughout the entire Northern Hemispheric (NH) lower stratosphere and contribute significantly (˜15%) to the NH stratospheric column aerosol surface area on an annual basis. This contribution is comparable to that from the sum of small volcanic eruptions in the period between 2000 and 2015. Although the ASM contribution is smaller than that from tropical upwelling (˜35%), we find that this region is about three times as efficient per unit area and time in populating the NH stratosphere with aerosol. With a substantial amount of organic and sulfur emissions in Asia, the ASM anticyclone serves as an efficient smokestack venting aerosols to the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. As economic growth continues in Asia, the relative importance of Asian emissions to stratospheric aerosol is likely to increase.

  3. Multidecadal variations in the early Holocene outflow of Red Sea Water into the Arabian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, S. J. A.; Ganssen, G. M.; Davies, G. R.

    2001-12-01

    We present Holocene stable oxygen isotope data from the deep Arabian Sea off Somalia at a decadal time resolution as a proxy for the history of intermediate/upper deep water. These data show an overall δ18O reduction by 0.5‰ between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. superimposed upon short-term δ18O variations at a decadal-centennial timescale. The amplitude of the decadal variations is 0.3‰ prior, and up to 0.6‰ subsequent, to ˜8.1 kyr B.P. We conclude from modeling experiments that the short-term δ18O variations between 10 and ˜6.5 kyr B.P. most likely document changes in the evaporation-precipitation balance in the central Red Sea. Changes in water temperature and salinity cause the outflowing Red Sea Water to settle roughly 800 m deeper than today.

  4. Measuring tropospheric wind with microwave sounders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrigtsen, B.; Su, H.; Turk, J.; Hristova-Veleva, S. M.; Dang, V. T.

    2017-12-01

    In its 2007 "Decadal Survey" of earth science missions for NASA the U.S. National Research Council recommended that a Doppler wind lidar be developed for a three-dimensional tropospheric winds mission ("3D-Winds"). The technology required for such a mission has not yet been developed, and it is expected that the next Decadal Survey, planned to be released by the end of 2017, will put additional emphasis on the still pressing need for wind measurements from space. The first Decadal Survey also called for a geostationary microwave sounder (GMS) on a Precipitation and All-weather Temperature and Humidity (PATH) mission, which could be used to measure wind from space. Such a sounder, the Geostationary Synthetic Thinned Aperture Radiometer (GeoSTAR), has been developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The PATH mission has not yet been funded by NASA, but a low-cost subset of PATH, GeoStorm has been proposed as a hosted payload on a commercial communications satellite. Both PATH and GeoStorm would obtain frequent (every 15 minutes of better) measurements of tropospheric water vapor profiles, and they can be used to derive atmospheric motion vector (AMV) wind profiles, even in the presence of clouds. Measurement of wind is particularly important in the tropics, where the atmosphere is largely not in thermal balance and wind estimates cannot generally be derived from temperature and pressure fields. We report on simulation studies of AMV wind vectors derived from a GMS and from a cluster of low-earth-orbiting (LEO) small satellites (e.g., CubeSats). The results of two separate simulation studies are very encouraging and show that a ±2 m/s wind speed precision is attainable, which would satisfy WMO requirements. A GMS observing system in particular, which can be implemented now, would enable significant progress in the study of atmospheric dynamics. Copyright 2017 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged

  5. Does the X-ray outflow quasar PDS 456 have a UV outflow at 0.3c?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Fred; Chartas, George; Reeves, James; Nardini, Emanuele

    2018-05-01

    The quasar PDS 456 (at redshift ˜0.184) has a prototype ultra-fast outflow (UFO) measured in X-rays. This outflow is highly ionized with relativistic speeds, large total column densities log NH(cm-2) > 23, and large kinetic energies that could be important for feedback to the host galaxy. A UV spectrum of PDS 456 obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope in 2000 contains one well-measured broad absorption line (BAL) at ˜1346 Å (observed) that might be Ly α at v ≈ 0.06c or N V λ1240 at v ≈ 0.08c. However, we use photoionization models and comparisons to other outflow quasars to show that these BAL identifications are problematic because other lines that should accompany them are not detected. We argue that the UV BAL is probably C IV at v ≈ 0.30c. This would be the fastest UV outflow ever reported, but its speed is similar to the X-ray outflow and its appearance overall is similar to relativistic UV BALs observed in other quasars. The C IV BAL identification is also supported indirectly by the tentative detection of another broad C IV line at v ≈ 0.19c. The high speeds suggest that the UV outflow originates with the X-ray UFO crudely 20-30 rg from the central black hole. We speculate that the C IV BAL might form in dense clumps embedded in the X-ray UFO, requiring density enhancements of only ≳0.4 dex compared to clumpy structures already inferred for the soft X-ray absorber in PDS 456. The C IV BAL might therefore be the first detection of low-ionization clumps proposed previously to boost the opacities in UFOs for radiative driving.

  6. Compendium of NASA data base for the global tropospheric experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Gerald L.; Scott, A. Donald, Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-B (PEM West-B). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic/continental sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental and marine sulfur sources. The PEM West program encompassed two expeditions. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air was from mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) was modified by Asian outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum Asian outflow. Results from PEM West-A and B are public domain. PEM West-A data are summarized in NASA TM 109177 (published February 1995). Flight experiments were based at Guam, Hong Kong, and Japan. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The DAAC includes numerous other data such as meteorological and modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  7. Compendium of NASA data base for the Global Tropospheric Experiment's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, G. L.; Scott, A. D., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This compendium describes aircraft data that are available from NASA's Pacific Exploratory Mission West-A (PEM West-A). PEM West is a component of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry's (IGAC) East Asia/North Pacific Regional Study (APARE) project. The PEM- West program encompassed two expeditions to study contrasting meteorological regimes in the Pacific. Objectives of PEM West are to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of ozone over the northwest Pacific -- natural budgets and the impact of anthropogenic sources; and to investigate sulfur chemistry -- continental versus marine sulfur sources. PEM West-A was conducted in September 1991 during which the predominance of tropospheric air is from the mid-Pacific (marine) regions, but (at times) is modified/mixed with Asian continental outflow. PEM West-B was conducted during February 1994, a period characterized by maximum continental outflow. PEM-B data (not included) will become public domain during the Summer of 1995. PEM West-A flight experiments were based at Japan, Hong Kong, and Guam. This document provides a representation of NASA DC-8 aircraft data that are available from NASA Langley's Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), which include numerous data such as meteorological observations, modeling products, results from surface studies, satellite observations, and sonde releases.

  8. Photochemical ozone production in tropical squall line convection during NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Thompson, Anne M.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Scala, John R.

    1991-01-01

    The role of convection was examined in trace gas transport and ozone production in a tropical dry season squall line sampled on August 3, 1985, during NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment 2A (NASA GTE/ABLE 2A) in Amazonia, Brazil. Two types of analyses were performed. Transient effects within the cloud are examined with a combination of two-dimensional cloud and one-dimensional photochemical modeling. Tracer analyses using the cloud model wind fields yield a series of cross sections of NO(x), CO, and O3 distribution during the lifetime of the cloud; these fields are used in the photochemical model to compute the net rate of O3 production. At noon, when the cloud was mature, the instantaneous ozone production potential in the cloud is between 50 and 60 percent less than in no-cloud conditions due to reduced photolysis and cloud scavenging of radicals. Analysis of cloud inflows and outflows is used to differentiate between air that is undisturbed and air that has been modified by the storm. These profiles are used in the photochemical model to examine the aftereffects of convective redistribution in the 24-hour period following the storm. Total tropospheric column O3 production changed little due to convection because so little NO(x) was available in the lower troposphere. However, the integrated O3 production potential in the 5- to 13-km layer changed from net destruction to net production as a result of the convection. The conditions of the August 3, 1985, event may be typical of the early part of the dry season in Amazonia, when only minimal amounts of pollution from biomass burning have been transported into the region.

  9. Misalignment of magnetic fields and outflows in protostellar cores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hull, Charles L. H.; Plambeck, Richard L.; Bolatto, Alberto D.; Bower, Geoffrey C.; Carpenter, John M.; Crutcher, Richard M.; Fiege, Jason D.; Franzmann, Erica; Hakobian, Nicholas S.; Heiles, Carl; Houde, Martin; Hughes, A. Meredith; Jameson, Katherine; Kwon, Woojin; Lamb, James W.; Looney, Leslie W.; Matthews, Brenda C.; Mundy, Lee; Pillai, Thushara; Pound, Marc W.; Stephens, Ian W.; Tobin, John J.; Vaillancourt, John E.; Volgenau, N. H.; Wright, Melvyn C. H.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of lambda 1.3 mm dust-polarization observations toward 16 nearby, low-mass protostars, mapped with similar to 2 ''.5 resolution at CARMA. The results show that magnetic fields in protostellar cores on scales of similar to 1000 AU are not tightly aligned with outflows from the

  10. Cardiac outflow tract malformations in chick embryos exposed to homocysteine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Boot (Marit); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); R.E. Poelmann (Robert); L. van Iperen (Liesbeth); A.C. Gittenberger-De Groot (Adriana)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractIncreased homocysteine concentrations have been associated with cardiac outflow tract defects. It has been hypothesized that cardiac neural crest cells were the target cells in these malformations. Cardiac neural crest cells migrate from the neural tube and contribute to the condensed

  11. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  12. Standing Shocks around Black Holes and Estimation of Outflow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Abstract. We self-consistently obtain shock locations in an accretion flow by using an analytical method. One can obtain the spectral properties, quasi-periodic oscillation frequencies and the outflow rates when the inflow parameters are known. Since temperature of the CENBOL decides the spectral states of the black hole, ...

  13. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HEATING IN A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Li Huabai, E-mail: kwang@cfa.harvard.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here, we present the Expanded Very Large Array spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH{sub 3} (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H{sub 2}O and class I CH{sub 3}OH masers. Multiple NH{sub 3} transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH{sub 3} (3,3) emission features are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH{sub 3} (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may not be effective in suppressing fragmentation during the formation of massive cores.

  14. PROTOSTELLAR OUTFLOW HEATING IN A GROWING MASSIVE PROTOCLUSTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ke; Wu Yuefang; Zhang Huawei; Zhang Qizhou; Li Huabai

    2012-01-01

    The dense molecular clump P1 in the infrared dark cloud complex G28.34+0.06 harbors a massive protostellar cluster at its extreme youth. Our previous Submillimeter Array observations revealed several jet-like CO outflows emanating from the protostars, indicative of intense accretion and potential interaction with ambient natal materials. Here, we present the Expanded Very Large Array spectral line observations toward P1 in the NH 3 (J,K) = (1,1), (2,2), (3,3) lines, as well as H 2 O and class I CH 3 OH masers. Multiple NH 3 transitions reveal the heated gas widely spread in the 1 pc clump. The temperature distribution is highly structured; the heated gas is offset from the protostars, and morphologically matches the outflows very well. Hot spots of spatially compact, spectrally broad NH 3 (3,3) emission features are also found coincident with the outflows. A weak NH 3 (3,3) maser is discovered at the interface between an outflow jet and the ambient gas. These findings suggest that protostellar heating may not be effective in suppressing fragmentation during the formation of massive cores.

  15. Quenching of Star Formation in Molecular Outflow Host NGC 1266

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alatalo, K.; Nyland, K. E.; Graves, G.; Deustua, S.; Young, L. M.; Davis, T. A.; Crocker, A. F.; Bureau, M.; Bayet, E.; Blitz, L.; Bois, M.; Bournaud, F.; Cappellari, M.; Davies, R. L.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Emsellem, E.; Khochfar, S.; Krajnovic, D.; Kuntschner, H.; McDermid, R. M.; Morganti, R.; Naab, T.; Oosterloo, T.; Sarzi, M.; Scott, N.; Serra, P.; Weijmans, A.; Wong, Tony; Ott, Jürgen

    We detail the rich molecular story of NGC 1266, its serendipitous discovery within the ATLAS3D survey (Cappellari et al. 2011) and how it plays host to an AGN-driven molecular outflow, potentially quenching all of its star formation (SF) within the next 100 Myr. While major mergers appear to play a

  16. Reconstructing Global-scale Ionospheric Outflow With a Satellite Constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liemohn, M. W.; Welling, D. T.; Jahn, J. M.; Valek, P. W.; Elliott, H. A.; Ilie, R.; Khazanov, G. V.; Glocer, A.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Zou, S.

    2017-12-01

    The question of how many satellites it would take to accurately map the spatial distribution of ionospheric outflow is addressed in this study. Given an outflow spatial map, this image is then reconstructed from a limited number virtual satellite pass extractions from the original values. An assessment is conducted of the goodness of fit as a function of number of satellites in the reconstruction, placement of the satellite trajectories relative to the polar cap and auroral oval, season and universal time (i.e., dipole tilt relative to the Sun), geomagnetic activity level, and interpolation technique. It is found that the accuracy of the reconstructions increases sharply from one to a few satellites, but then improves only marginally with additional spacecraft beyond 4. Increased dwell time of the satellite trajectories in the auroral zone improves the reconstruction, therefore a high-but-not-exactly-polar orbit is most effective for this task. Local time coverage is also an important factor, shifting the auroral zone to different locations relative to the virtual satellite orbit paths. The expansion and contraction of the polar cap and auroral zone with geomagnetic activity influences the coverage of the key outflow regions, with different optimal orbit configurations for each level of activity. Finally, it is found that reconstructing each magnetic latitude band individually produces a better fit to the original image than 2-D image reconstruction method (e.g., triangulation). A high-latitude, high-altitude constellation mission concept is presented that achieves acceptably accurate outflow reconstructions.

  17. Impact of the new HNO3-forming channel of the HO2+NO reaction on tropospheric HNO3, NOx, HOx and ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kukui

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the impact of the recently observed reaction NO+HO2→HNO3 on atmospheric chemistry. A pressure and temperature-dependent parameterisation of this minor channel of the NO+HO2→NO2+OH reaction has been included in both a 2-D stratosphere-troposphere model and a 3-D tropospheric chemical transport model (CTM. Significant effects on the nitrogen species and hydroxyl radical concentrations are found throughout the troposphere, with the largest percentage changes occurring in the tropical upper troposphere (UT. Including the reaction leads to a reduction in NOx everywhere in the troposphere, with the largest decrease of 25% in the tropical and Southern Hemisphere UT. The tropical UT also has a corresponding large increase in HNO3 of 25%. OH decreases throughout the troposphere with the largest reduction of over 20% in the tropical UT. The mean global decrease in OH is around 13%, which is very large compared to the impact that typical photochemical revisions have on this modelled quantity. This OH decrease leads to an increase in CH4 lifetime of 5%. Due to the impact of decreased NOx on the OH:HO2 partitioning, modelled HO2 actually increases in the tropical UT on including the new reaction. The impact on tropospheric ozone is a decrease in the range 5 to 12%, with the largest impact in the tropics and Southern Hemisphere. Comparison with observations shows that in the region of largest changes, i.e. the tropical UT, the inclusion of the new reaction tends to degrade the model agreement. Elsewhere the model comparisons are not able to critically assess the impact of including this reaction. Only small changes are calculated in the minor species distributions in the stratosphere.

  18. Is tropospheric weather influenced by solar wind through atmospheric vertical coupling downward control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Paul; Tsukijihara, Takumi; Iwao, Koki; Muldrew, Donald B.; Bruntz, Robert; Rušin, Vojto; Rybanský, Milan; Turňa, Maroš; Šťastný, Pavel; Pastirčák, Vladimír

    2017-04-01

    More than four decades have passed since a link between solar wind magnetic sector boundary structure and mid-latitude upper tropospheric vorticity was discovered (Wilcox et al., Science, 180, 185-186, 1973). The link has been later confirmed and various physical mechanisms proposed but apart from controversy, little attention has been drawn to these results. To further emphasize their importance we investigate the occurrence of mid-latitude severe weather in the context of solar wind coupling to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (MIA) system. It is observed that significant snowstorms, windstorms and heavy rain, particularly if caused by low pressure systems in winter, tend to follow arrivals of high-speed solar wind. Previously published statistical evidence that explosive extratropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere tend to occur after arrivals of high-speed solar wind streams from coronal holes (Prikryl et al., Ann. Geophys., 27, 1-30, 2009; Prikryl et al., J. Atmos. Sol.-Terr. Phys., 149, 219-231, 2016) is corroborated for the southern hemisphere. A physical mechanism to explain these observations is proposed. The leading edge of high-speed solar wind streams is a locus of large-amplitude magneto-hydrodynamic waves that modulate Joule heating and/or Lorentz forcing of the high-latitude lower thermosphere generating medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves that propagate upward and downward through the atmosphere. Simulations of gravity wave propagation in a model atmosphere using the Transfer Function Model (Mayr et al., Space Sci. Rev., 54, 297-375, 1990) show that propagating waves originating in the thermosphere can excite a spectrum of gravity waves in the lower atmosphere. In spite of significantly reduced amplitudes but subject to amplification upon reflection in the upper troposphere, these gravity waves can provide a lift of unstable air to release instabilities in the troposphere thus initiating convection to form cloud/precipitation bands

  19. Photochemistry and transport of tropospheric ozone and its precursors in urban and remote environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel Craig

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) adversely affects human health, reduces crop yields, and contributes to climate forcing. To limit these effects, the processes controlling O3 abundance as well as that of its precursor molecules must be fully characterized. Here, I examine three facets of O 3 production, both in heavily polluted and remote environments. First, using in situ observations from the DISCOVER-AQ field campaign in the Baltimore/Washington region, I evaluate the emissions of the O 3 precursors CO and NOx (NOx = NO + NO2) in the National Emissions Inventory (NEI). I find that CO/NOx emissions ratios derived from observations are 21% higher than those predicted by the NEI. Comparisons to output from the CMAQ model suggest that CO in the NEI is accurate within 15 +/- 11%, while NOx emissions are overestimated by 51-70%, likely due to errors in mobile sources. These results imply that ambient ozone concentrations will respond more efficiently to NOx controls than current models suggest. I then investigate the source of high O3 and low H2O structures in the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP). A combination of in situ observations, satellite data, and models show that the high O3 results from photochemical production in biomass burning plumes from fires in tropical Southeast Asia and Central Africa; the low relative humidity results from large-scale descent in the tropics. Because these structures have frequently been attributed to mid-latitude pollution, biomass burning in the tropics likely contributes more to the radiative forcing of climate than previously believed. Finally, I evaluate the processes controlling formaldehyde (HCHO) in the TWP. Convective transport of near surface HCHO leads to a 33% increase in upper tropospheric HCHO mixing ratios; convection also likely increases upper tropospheric CH 3OOH to ~230 pptv, enough to maintain background HCHO at ~75 pptv. The long-range transport of polluted air, with NO four times the convectively controlled background

  20. Tropospheric mercury vertical profiles between 500 and 10 000 m in central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Weigelt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the vertical distribution of atmospheric mercury (Hg plays an important role in determining the transport and cycling of mercury. However, measurements of the vertical distribution are rare, because airborne measurements are expensive and labour intensive. Consequently, only a few vertical Hg profile measurements have been reported since the 1970s. Besides the Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC observations, the latest vertical profile over Europe was measured in 1996. Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS project, four vertical profiles were taken on board research aircraft (CASA-212 in August 2013 in background air over different locations in Slovenia and Germany. Each vertical profile consists of at least seven 5 min horizontal flight sections from 500 m above ground to 3000 m a.s.l. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and total gaseous mercury (TGM were measured with Tekran 2537X and Tekran 2537B analysers. In addition to the mercury measurements, SO2, CO, O3, NO, and NO2, basic meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, relative humidity have been measured. Additional ground-based mercury measurements at the GMOS master site in Waldhof, Germany and measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft were used to extend the profile to the ground and upper troposphere respectively. No vertical gradient was found inside the well-mixed boundary layer (variation of less than 0.1 ng m−3 at different sites, with GEM varying from location to location between 1.4 and 1.6 ng m−3 (standard temperature and pressure, STP: T  =  273.15 K, p  =  1013.25 hPa. At all locations GEM dropped to 1.3 ng m−3 (STP when entering the free troposphere and remained constant at higher altitudes. The combination of the vertical profile, measured on 21 August 2013 over Leipzig, Germany, with the CARIBIC measurements during ascent and descent to

  1. Outflow and Accretion Physics in Active Galactic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Sean Michael

    2016-09-01

    This dissertation focuses on placing observational constraints on outflows and accretion disks in active galactic nuclei (AGN) for the purpose of better understanding the physics of super-massive black holes (SMBHs) and their evolution with the host galaxy over cosmic time. Quasar outflows and their importance in SMBH-host galaxy co-evolution can be further understood by analyzing broad absorption lines (BALs) in rest-frame UV spectra that trace a range of wind conditions. We quantify the properties of the flows by conducting BAL variability studies using multiple-epoch spectra acquired primarily from MDM Observatory and from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Iron low-ionization BALs (FeLoBALs) are a rare type of outflow that may represent a transient phase in galaxy evolution, and we analyze the variations in 12 FeLoBAL quasars with redshifts between 0.7 ≤ z ≤ 1.9 and rest frame timescales between ˜10 d to 7.6 yr. We investigate BAL variability in 71 quasar outflows that exhibit P V absorption, a tracer of high column density gas (i.e. NH ≥ 1022 cm -2), in order to quantify the energies and momenta of the flows. We also characterize the variability patterns of 26 quasars with mini-BALs, an interesting class of absorbers that may represent a distinct phase in the evolution of outflows. Low-luminosity AGN (LLAGN) are important objects to study since their prominence in the local Universe suggest a possible evolution from the quasar era, and their low radiative outputs likely indicate a distinct mode of accretion onto the SMBH. We probe the accretion conditions in the LLAGN NGC 4203 by estimating the SMBH mass, which is obtained by modeling the 2-dimensional velocity field of the nebular gas using spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope. We detect significant BAL and mini-BAL variability in a subset of quasars from each of our samples, with measured rest-frame variability time-scales from days to years and over multiple years on average. Variable wavelength

  2. Uncertainty in the Future Distribution of Tropospheric Ozone over West Africa due to Variability in Anthropogenic Emissions Estimates between 2025 and 2050

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Williams

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Particle and trace gas emissions due to anthropogenic activity are expected to increase significantly in West Africa over the next few decades due to rising population and more energy intensive lifestyles. Here we perform 3D global chemistry-transport model calculations for 2025 and 2050 using both a “business-as-usual” (A1B and “clean economy” (B1 future anthropogenic emission scenario to focus on the changes in the distribution and uncertainties associated with tropospheric O3 due to the various projected emission scenarios. When compared to the present-day troposphere we find that there are significant increases in tropospheric O3 for the A1B emission scenario, with the largest increases being located in the lower troposphere near the source regions and into the Sahel around 15–20°N. In part this increase is due to more efficient NOx re-cycling related to increases in the background methane concentrations. Examining the uncertainty across different emission inventories reveals that there is an associated uncertainty of up to ~20% in the predicted increases at 2025 and 2050. For the upper troposphere, where increases in O3 have a more pronounced impact on radiative forcing, the uncertainty is influenced by transport of O3 rich air from Asia on the Tropical Easterly Jet.

  3. Ionized and Neutral Outflows in the QUEST QSOs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veilleux, Sylvain

    2011-10-01

    The role of galactic winds in gas-rich mergers is of crucial importance to understand galaxy and SMBH evolution. In recent months, our group has had three major scientific breakthroughs in this area: {1} The discovery with Herschel of massive molecular {OH-absorbing} outflows in several ULIRGs, including the nearest quasar, Mrk 231. {2} The independent discovery from mm-wave interferometric observations in the same object of a spatially resolved molecular {CO-emitting} wind with estimated mass outflow rate 3x larger than the star formation rate and spatially coincident with blueshifted neutral {Na ID-absorbing} gas in optical long-slit spectra. {3} The unambiguous determination from recent Gemini/IFU observations that the Na ID outflow in this object is wide-angle, thus driven by a QSO wind rather than a jet. This powerful outflow may be the long-sought "smoking gun" of quasar mechanical feedback purported to transform gas-rich mergers. However, our Herschel survey excludes all FIR-faint {UV-bright} "classic" QSOs by necessity. So here we propose a complementary FUV absorption-line survey of all FIR-bright -and- FIR-faint QSOs from the same parent sample. New {19 targets} and archival {11} spectra will be used to study, for the first time, the gaseous environments of QSOs as a function of host properties and age across the merger sequence ULIRG -> QSO. These data will allow us to distinguish between ionized & neutral quasar-driven outflows, starburst-driven winds, and tidal debris around the mergers. They will also be uniquely suited for a shallow but broad study of the warm & warm-hot intergalactic media, complementary to on-going surveys that are deeper but narrower.

  4. Atmospheric outflow of nutrients to the Bay of Bengal: Impact of anthropogenic sources..

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, B.; Sarin, M.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    outflow show pronounced temporal variability. The inorganic nitrogen (NH4 + -N: ~90% of NInorg) dominates the total soluble nitrogen (NTot). Although the contribution of organic nitrogen is not significant, the mass ratio of NOrg/NTotin the outflow varied...

  5. Vertical distribution and sources of tropospheric ozone over South China in spring 2004: Ozonesonde measurements and modeling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, H.; Crawford, J. H.; Considine, D. B.; Chan, C.; Scientific Team Of Tapto

    2010-12-01

    The Transport of Air Pollutant and Tropospheric Ozone over China (TAPTO-China) science initiative is a two-year (TAPTO 2004 and 2005) field measurement campaign to help improve our understanding of the physical and chemical processes that control the tropospheric ozone budget over the Chinese subcontinent (including the Asian Pacific rim) and its surrounding SE Asia. In this paper, we use two state-of-the-art 3-D global chemical transport models (GEOS-Chem and Global Modeling Initiative or GMI) to examine the characteristics of vertical distribution and quantify the sources of tropospheric ozone by analysis of TAPTO in-situ ozonesonde data obtained at five stations in South China during spring (April and May) 2004: Lin’an (30.30N, 119.75E), Tengchong (25.01N, 98.30E), Taipei (25.0N, 121.3E), Hong Kong (22.21N, 114.30E) and Sanya (18.21N, 110.31E). The observed tropospheric ozone concentrations show strong spatial and temporal variability, which is largely captured by the models. The models simulate well the observed vertical gradients of tropospheric ozone at higher latitudes but are too low at lower latitudes. Model tagged ozone simulations suggest that stratosphere has a large impact on the upper and middle troposphere (UT/MT) at Lin’an and Tengchong. Continental SE Asian biomass burning emissions are maximum in March but still contribute significantly to the photochemical production of tropopheric ozone in South China in early April. Asian anthropogenic emissions are the major contribution to lower tropospheric ozone at all stations. On the other hand, there are episodes of influence from European/North American anthropogenic emissions. For example, model tagged ozone simulations show that over Lin’an in April 2004, stratosphere contributes 20% (13 ppbv) at 5 km, Asian boundary layer contributes 70% (46 ppbv) to ozone in the boundary layer, European boundary layer contributes 5% (3-4 ppbv) at 1.2 km, and North American boundary layer contributes 4.5% (3

  6. Analysis of the tropospheric water distribution during FIRE 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, Douglas L.

    1993-01-01

    The Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model, as adapted for use at ARC, was used as a testbed for the development and validation of cloud models for use in General Circulation Models (GCM's). This modeling approach also allows us to intercompare the predictions of the various cloud schemes within the same dynamical framework. The use of the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model also allows us to compare our results with FIRE-II (First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project Regional Experiment) observations, instead of climate statistics. Though a promising approach, our work to date revealed several difficulties. First, the model by design is limited in spatial coverage and is only run for 12 to 48 hours at a time. Hence the quality of the simulation will depend heavily on the initial conditions. The poor quality of upper-tropospheric measurements of water vapor is well known and the situation is particularly bad for mid-latitude winter since the coupling with the surface is less direct than in summer so that relying on the model to spin-up a reasonable moisture field is not always successful. Though one of the most common atmospheric constituents, water vapor is relatively difficult to measure accurately, especially operationally over large areas. The standard NWS sondes have little sensitivity at the low temperatures where cirrus form and the data from the GOES 6.7 micron channel is difficult to quantify. For this reason, the goals of FIRE Cirrus II included characterizing the three-dimensional distribution of water vapor and clouds. In studying the data from FIRE Cirrus II, it was found that no single special observation technique provides accurate regional distributions of water vapor. The Raman lidar provides accurate measurements, but only at the Hub, for levels up to 10 km, and during nighttime hours. The CLASS sondes are more sensitive to moisture at low temperatures than are the NWS sondes, but the four stations only cover an area of two hundred kilometers on a side

  7. Variable influence on the equatorial troposphere associated with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sphere to the stratosphere due to the uneven land profile (Matsuno ... an impact of the North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere heat flux, Eurasian ... convective clouds in the stratosphere–troposphere dynamics ..... modeling benchmarks; J. Clim.

  8. Verification and Validation of Tropospheric Model/Database

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Junho, choi

    1998-01-01

    A verification and validation of tropospheric models and databases has been performed based on ray tracing algorithm, statistical analysis, test on real time system operation, and other technical evaluation process...

  9. MSU (Microwave Sounding Unit) Daily Troposphere Temperatures and Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of two MSU tropospheric temperatures levels and precipitation which are described in detail below. The NOAA satellites contributing to this...

  10. Derivation of Tropospheric Ozone Climatology and Trends from TOMS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newchurch, Michael J.; McPeters, Rich; Logan, Jennifer; Kim, Jae-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    This research addresses the following three objectives: (1) Derive tropospheric ozone columns from the TOMS instruments by computing the difference between total-ozone columns over cloudy areas and over clear areas in the tropics; (2) Compute secular trends in Nimbus-7 derived tropospheric Ozone column amounts and associated potential trends in the decadal-scale tropical cloud climatology; (3) Explain the occurrence of anomalously high ozone retrievals over high ice clouds.

  11. Impact of land convection on troposphere-stratosphere exchange in the tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ricaud

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of troposphere-stratosphere exchange in the tropics was investigated from space-borne observations of the horizontal distributions of tropospheric-origin long-lived species, nitrous oxide (N2O, methane (CH4 and carbon monoxide (CO, from 150 to 70 hPa in March-April-May by the ODIN/Sub-Millimeter Radiometer (SMR, the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS/Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and the TERRA/Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT instruments in 2002–2004, completed by recent observations of the AURA/Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS instrument during the same season in 2005. The vertical resolution of the satellite measurements ranges from 2 to 4 km. The analysis has been performed on isentropic surfaces: 400 K (lower stratosphere for all the species and 360 K (upper troposphere only for CO. At 400 K (and 360 K for CO, all gases show significant longitudinal variations with peak-to-trough values of ~5–11 ppbv for N2O, 0.07–0.13 ppmv for CH4, and ~10 ppbv for CO (~40 ppbv at 360 K. The maximum amounts are primarily located over Africa and, depending on the species, secondary more or less pronounced maxima are reported above northern South America and South-East Asia. The lower stratosphere over the Western Pacific deep convective region where the outgoing longwave radiation is the lowest, the tropopause the highest and the coldest, appears as a region of minimum concentration of tropospheric trace species. The possible impact on trace gas concentration at the tropopause of the inhomogeneous distribution and intensity of the sources, mostly continental, of the horizontal and vertical transports in the troposphere, and of cross-tropopause transport was explored with the MOCAGE Chemistry Transport Model. In the simulations, significant longitudinal variations were found on the medium-lived CO (2-month lifetime with peak-to-trough value of ~20 ppbv at 360 K and

  12. Generation of shockwave and vortex structures at the outflow of a boiling water jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, M. V.; Lezhnin, S. I.; Pribaturin, N. A.; Sorokin, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Results of numerical simulation for shock waves and generation of vortex structures during unsteady outflow of boiling liquid jet are presented. The features of evolution of shock waves and vortex structures formation during unsteady outflow of boiling water are compared with corresponding structures during unsteady gas outflow.

  13. (abstract) Tropospheric Calibration for the Mars Observer Gravity Wave Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.; Armstrong, John

    1994-01-01

    In spring 1993, microwave radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided for the Mars Observer gravitational wave search. The Doppler shifted X-band radio signals propagating between Earth and the Mars Observer satellite were precisely measured to determine path length variations that might signal passage of gravitational waves. Experimental sensitivity was restricted by competing sources of variability in signal transit time. Principally, fluctuations in the solar wind and ionospheric plasma density combined with fluctions in tropospheric refractivity determined the detection limit. Troposphere-induced path delay fluctions are dominated by refractive changes caused by water vapor inhomogeneities blowing through the signal path. Since passive microwave remote sensing techniques are able to determine atmospheric propagation delays, radiometer-based tropospheric calibration was provided at the Deep Space Network Uranus tracking site (DSS-15). Two microwave water vapor radiometers (WVRs), a microwave temperature profiler (MTP), and a ground based meterological station were deployed to determine line-of-sight vapor content and vertical temperature profile concurrently with Mars Observer tracking measurements. This calibration system provided the capability to correct Mars Observer Doppler data for troposphere-induced path variations. We present preliminary analysis of the Doppler and WVR data sets illustrating the utility of WVRs to calibrate Doppler data. This takes an important step toward realizing the ambitious system required to support future Ka-band Cassini satellite gravity wave tropospheric calibration system.

  14. Hydrological controls on the tropospheric ozone greenhouse gas effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Kuai

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the hydrological cycle in the greenhouse gas (GHG effect of tropospheric ozone (O3 is quantified in terms of the O3longwave radiative effect (LWRE, which is defined as the net reduction of top-of-atmosphere flux due to total tropospheric O3absorption. The O3LWRE derived from the infrared spectral measurements by Aura’s Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES show that the spatiotemporal variation of LWRE is relevant to relative humidity, surface temperature, and tropospheric O3column. The zonally averaged subtropical LWRE is ~0.2 W m-2higher than the zonally averaged tropical LWRE, generally due to lower water vapor concentrations and less cloud coverage at the downward branch of the Hadley cell in the subtropics. The largest values of O3LWRE over the Middle East (>1 W/m2 are further due to large thermal contrasts and tropospheric ozone enhancements from atmospheric circulation and pollution. Conversely, the low O3LWRE over the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (on average 0.4 W m-2 is due to strong water vapor absorption and cloudiness, both of which reduce the tropospheric O3absorption in the longwave radiation. These results show that changes in the hydrological cycle due to climate change could affect the magnitude and distribution of ozone radiative forcing.

  15. Climatology of tropospheric vertical velocity spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecklund, W. L.; Gage, K. S.; Balsley, B. B.; Carter, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Vertical velocity power spectra obtained from Poker Flat, Alaska; Platteville, Colorado; Rhone Delta, France; and Ponape, East Caroline Islands using 50-MHz clear-air radars with vertical beams are given. The spectra were obtained by analyzing the quietest periods from the one-minute-resolution time series for each site. The lengths of available vertical records ranged from as long as 6 months at Poker Flat to about 1 month at Platteville. The quiet-time vertical velocity spectra are shown. Spectral period ranging from 2 minutes to 4 hours is shown on the abscissa and power spectral density is given on the ordinate. The Brunt-Vaisala (B-V) periods (determined from nearby sounding balloons) are indicated. All spectra (except the one from Platteville) exhibit a peak at periods slightly longer than the B-V period, are flat at longer periods, and fall rapidly at periods less than the B-V period. This behavior is expected for a spectrum of internal waves and is very similar to what is observed in the ocean (Eriksen, 1978). The spectral amplitudes vary by only a factor of 2 or 3 about the mean, and show that under quiet conditions vertical velocity spectra from the troposphere are very similar at widely different locations.

  16. A new diagnostic for tropospheric ozone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Peter M.; Evans, Mathew J.

    2017-11-01

    Tropospheric ozone is important for the Earth's climate and air quality. It is produced during the oxidation of organics in the presence of nitrogen oxides. Due to the range of organic species emitted and the chain-like nature of their oxidation, this chemistry is complex and understanding the role of different processes (emission, deposition, chemistry) is difficult. We demonstrate a new methodology for diagnosing ozone production based on the processing of bonds contained within emitted molecules, the fate of which is determined by the conservation of spin of the bonding electrons. Using this methodology to diagnose ozone production in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, we demonstrate its advantages over the standard diagnostic. We show that the number of bonds emitted, their chemistry and lifetime, and feedbacks on OH are all important in determining the ozone production within the model and its sensitivity to changes. This insight may allow future model-model comparisons to better identify the root causes of model differences.

  17. A new diagnostic for tropospheric ozone production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Edwards

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is important for the Earth's climate and air quality. It is produced during the oxidation of organics in the presence of nitrogen oxides. Due to the range of organic species emitted and the chain-like nature of their oxidation, this chemistry is complex and understanding the role of different processes (emission, deposition, chemistry is difficult. We demonstrate a new methodology for diagnosing ozone production based on the processing of bonds contained within emitted molecules, the fate of which is determined by the conservation of spin of the bonding electrons. Using this methodology to diagnose ozone production in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model, we demonstrate its advantages over the standard diagnostic. We show that the number of bonds emitted, their chemistry and lifetime, and feedbacks on OH are all important in determining the ozone production within the model and its sensitivity to changes. This insight may allow future model–model comparisons to better identify the root causes of model differences.

  18. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerkeli, P.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Brinch, C.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Changing physical conditions in the vicinity of protostars allow for a rich and interesting chemistry to occur. Heating and cooling of the gas allows molecules to be released from and frozen out on dust grains. These changes in physics, traced by chemistry as well as the kinematical information, allows us to distinguish between different scenarios describing the infall of matter and the launching of molecular outflows and jets. Aims: We aim to determine the spatial distribution of different species that are of different chemical origin. This is to examine the physical processes in play in the observed region. From the kinematical information of the emission lines we aim to determine the nature of the infalling and outflowing gas in the system. We also aim to determine the physical properties of the outflow. Methods: Maps from the Submillimeter Array (SMA) reveal the spatial distribution of the gaseous emission towards IRAS 15398-3359. The line radiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of the system taking all relevant components and scales into account. Results: CO, HCO+, and N2H+ are detected and shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, the circumstellar envelope and the surrounding cloud also have a profound impact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ is detected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region, perhaps because of the competing reaction between CO and H3+ in the densest regions as well as the destruction of N2H+ by CO. N2D+ is detected in a ridge south-west of the protostellar condensation and is not associated with the outflow. The morphology and kinematics of the CO emission suggests that the source is younger than ~1000 years. The mass, momentum, momentum rate, mechanical luminosity, kinetic energy, and mass-loss rate are also all estimated to be low. A full 3D radiative transfer model of the system can explain all the kinematical and morphological features in the system.

  19. The Gaseous Environments of Quasars: Outflows, Feedback & Cold Mode Accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Hamann, Fred

    2018-06-01

    The early stages of massive galaxy evolution can involve galaxy-scale outflows driven by a starburst or a central quasar and cold-mode accretion (infall) that adds to the mass buildup in the galaxies. I will describe three related studies that use quasar absorption lines to measure outflows, infall, and the general gaseous environments of quasars across a range of spatial scales. The three studies are: 1) High-resolution spectroscopy with Keck-HIRES and VLT-UVES to study associated absorption lines (AALs) that have redshifts greater than the emission redshifts indicating infall and/or rich multi-component AAL complexes that might be interstellar clouds in the host galaxies that have been shredded and dispersed by a fast unseen quasar-driven wind. The data provide strong constraints on the gas kinematics, spatial structure, column densities, metallicities, and energetics. 2) A complete inventory of high-velocity CIV 1548,1550 mini-BAL outflows in quasars using high-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra in the public VLT-UVES and Keck-HIRES archives. This sensitive mini-BAL survey fills an important niche between previous work on narrow absorption lines (NALs) and the much-studied broad absorption lines (BALs) to build a more complete picture of quasar outflows. I will report of the mini-BAL statistics, the diversity of lines detected, and some tests for correlations with the quasar properties. We find, for example, that mini-BALs at v > 4000 km/s in at least 10% of 511 quasars studied, including 1% at v > 0.1 c. Finally, 3) Use the much larger database of NALs measured in 262,449 BOSS quasars by York et al. (in prep.) to study their potential relationships to the quasars and, specifically, their origins in quasar outflows. This involves primarily comparisons of the incidence and properties of NALs at different velocity shifts to other measured properties of the quasars such as BAL outflows, emission line characteristics, radio-loudness, and red colors. We find

  20. Sensitivity of stomatal conductance to soil moisture: implications for tropospheric ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anav

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Soil moisture and water stress play a pivotal role in regulating stomatal behaviour of plants; however, in the last decade, the role of water availability has often been neglected in atmospheric chemistry modelling studies as well as in integrated risk assessments, despite the fact that plants remove a large amount of atmospheric compounds from the lower troposphere through stomata. The main aim of this study is to evaluate, within the chemistry transport model CHIMERE, the effect of soil water limitation on stomatal conductance and assess the resulting changes in atmospheric chemistry testing various hypotheses of water uptake by plants in the rooting zone. Results highlight how dry deposition significantly declines when soil moisture is used to regulate the stomatal opening, mainly in the semi-arid environments: in particular, over Europe the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition in one year without considering any soil water limitation to stomatal conductance is about 8.5 TgO3, while using a dynamic layer that ensures that plants maximize the water uptake from soil, we found a reduction of about 10 % in the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition ( ∼  7.7 TgO3. Although dry deposition occurs from the top of canopy to ground level, it affects the concentration of gases remaining in the lower atmosphere, with a significant impact on ozone concentration (up to 4 ppb extending from the surface to the upper troposphere (up to 650 hPa. Our results shed light on the importance of improving the parameterizations of processes occurring at plant level (i.e. from the soil to the canopy as they have significant implications for concentration of gases in the lower troposphere and resulting risk assessments for vegetation or human health.

  1. Tropospheric weather influenced by solar wind through atmospheric vertical coupling downward control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Paul; Bruntz, Robert; Tsukijihara, Takumi; Iwao, Koki; Muldrew, Donald B.; Rušin, Vojto; Rybanský, Milan; Turňa, Maroš; Šťastný, Pavel

    2018-06-01

    Occurrence of severe weather in the context of solar wind coupling to the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (MIA) system is investigated. It is observed that significant snowfall, wind and heavy rain, particularly if caused by low pressure systems in winter, tend to follow arrivals of high-speed solar wind. Previously published statistical evidence that explosive extratropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere tend to occur within a few days after arrivals of high-speed solar wind streams from coronal holes (Prikryl et al., 2009, 2016) is corroborated for the southern hemisphere. Cases of severe weather events are examined in the context of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-atmosphere (MIA) coupling. Physical mechanism to explain these observations is proposed. The leading edge of high-speed solar wind streams is a locus of large-amplitude magneto-hydrodynamic waves that modulate Joule heating and/or Lorentz forcing of the high-latitude lower thermosphere generating medium-scale atmospheric gravity waves that propagate upward and downward through the atmosphere. Simulations of gravity wave propagation in a model atmosphere using the Transfer Function Model (Mayr et al., 1990) reveal that propagating waves originating in the lower thermosphere can excite a spectrum of gravity waves in the lower atmosphere. In spite of significantly reduced amplitudes but subject to amplification upon reflection in the upper troposphere, these gravity waves can provide a lift of unstable air to release instabilities in the troposphere and initiate convection to form cloud/precipitation bands. It is primarily the energy provided by release of latent heat that leads to intensification of storms. These results indicate that vertical coupling in the atmosphere exerts downward control from solar wind to the lower atmospheric levels influencing tropospheric weather development.

  2. Sensitivity of stomatal conductance to soil moisture: implications for tropospheric ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anav, Alessandro; Proietti, Chiara; Menut, Laurent; Carnicelli, Stefano; De Marco, Alessandra; Paoletti, Elena

    2018-04-01

    Soil moisture and water stress play a pivotal role in regulating stomatal behaviour of plants; however, in the last decade, the role of water availability has often been neglected in atmospheric chemistry modelling studies as well as in integrated risk assessments, despite the fact that plants remove a large amount of atmospheric compounds from the lower troposphere through stomata. The main aim of this study is to evaluate, within the chemistry transport model CHIMERE, the effect of soil water limitation on stomatal conductance and assess the resulting changes in atmospheric chemistry testing various hypotheses of water uptake by plants in the rooting zone. Results highlight how dry deposition significantly declines when soil moisture is used to regulate the stomatal opening, mainly in the semi-arid environments: in particular, over Europe the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition in one year without considering any soil water limitation to stomatal conductance is about 8.5 TgO3, while using a dynamic layer that ensures that plants maximize the water uptake from soil, we found a reduction of about 10 % in the amount of ozone removed by dry deposition ( ˜ 7.7 TgO3). Although dry deposition occurs from the top of canopy to ground level, it affects the concentration of gases remaining in the lower atmosphere, with a significant impact on ozone concentration (up to 4 ppb) extending from the surface to the upper troposphere (up to 650 hPa). Our results shed light on the importance of improving the parameterizations of processes occurring at plant level (i.e. from the soil to the canopy) as they have significant implications for concentration of gases in the lower troposphere and resulting risk assessments for vegetation or human health.

  3. Highly resolved global distribution of tropospheric NO2 using GOME narrow swath mode data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Beirle

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME allows the retrieval of tropospheric vertical column densities (VCDs of NO2 on a global scale. Regions with enhanced industrial activity can clearly be detected, but the standard spatial resolution of the GOME ground pixels (320x40km2 is insufficient to resolve regional trace gas distributions or individual cities. Every 10 days within the nominal GOME operation, measurements are executed in the so called narrow swath mode with a much better spatial resolution (80x40km2. We use this data (1997-2001 to construct a detailed picture of the mean global tropospheric NO2 distribution. Since - due to the narrow swath - the global coverage of the high resolution observations is rather poor, it has proved to be essential to deseasonalize the single narrow swath mode observations to retrieve adequate mean maps. This is done by using the GOME backscan information. The retrieved high resolution map illustrates the shortcomings of the standard size GOME pixels and reveals an unprecedented wealth of details in the global distribution of tropospheric NO2. Localised spots of enhanced NO2 VCD can be directly associated to cities, heavy industry centers and even large power plants. Thus our result helps to check emission inventories. The small spatial extent of NO2 'hot spots' allows us to estimate an upper limit of the mean lifetime of boundary layer NOx of 17h on a global scale. The long time series of GOME data allows a quantitative comparison of the narrow swath mode data to the nominal resolution. Thus we can analyse the dependency of NO2 VCDs on pixel size. This is important for comparing GOME data to results of new satellite instruments like SCIAMACHY (launched March 2002 on ENVISAT, OMI (launched July 2004 on AURA or GOME II (to be launched 2005 with an improved spatial resolution.

  4. Water distribution in shocked regions of the NGC 1333-IRAS 4A protostellar outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santangelo, G.; Nisini, B.; Codella, C.; Lorenzani, A.; Yıldız, U. A.; Antoniucci, S.; Bjerkeli, P.; Cabrit, S.; Giannini, T.; Kristensen, L. E.; Liseau, R.; Mottram, J. C.; Tafalla, M.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2014-08-01

    Context. Water is a key molecule in protostellar environments because its line emission is very sensitive to both the chemistry and the physical conditions of the gas. Observations of H2O line emission from low-mass protostars and their associated outflows performed with HIFI onboard the Herschel Space Observatory have highlighted the complexity of H2O line profiles, in which different kinematic components can be distinguished. Aims: The goal is to study the spatial distribution of H2O, in particular of the different kinematic components detected in H2O emission, at two bright shocked regions along IRAS 4A, one of the strongest H2O emitters among the Class 0 outflows. Methods: We obtained Herschel-PACS maps of the IRAS 4A outflow and HIFI observations of two shocked positions. The largest HIFI beam of 38'' at 557 GHz was mapped in several key water lines with different upper energy levels, to reveal possible spatial variations of the line profiles. A large velocity gradient (LVG) analysis was performed to determine the excitation conditions of the gas. Results: We detect four H2O lines and CO (16-15) at the two selected shocked positions. In addition, transitions from related outflow and envelope tracers are detected. Different gas components associated with the shock are identified in the H2O emission. In particular, at the head of the red lobe of the outflow, two distinct gas components with different excitation conditions are distinguished in the HIFI emission maps: a compact component, detected in the ground-state water lines, and a more extended one. Assuming that these two components correspond to two different temperature components observed in previous H2O and CO studies, the LVG analysis of the H2O emission suggests that the compact (about 3'', corresponding to about 700 AU) component is associated with a hot (T ~ 1000 K) gas with densities nH2 ~ (1-4) × 105 cm-3, whereas the extended (10''-17'', corresponding to 2400-4000 AU) one traces a warm (T ~ 300

  5. Character and dynamics of the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Amy S.; Hunt, Heather D.; Price, James F.

    2000-03-01

    Historical hydrographic data and a numerical plume model are used to investigate the initial transformation, dynamics, and spreading pathways of Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflow waters where they enter the Indian Ocean. The annual mean transport of these outflows is relatively small (outflows in that they flow over very shallow sills (depth Red Sea outflow exhibits strong seasonal variability in transport. The four main results of this study are as follows. First, on the basis of observed temperature-salinity (T-S) characteristics of the outflow source and product waters we estimate that the Red Sea and Persian Gulf outflows are diluted by factors of ˜2.5 and 4, respectively, as they descend from sill depth to their depth of neutral buoyancy. The high-dilution factor for the Persian Gulf outflow results from the combined effects of large initial density difference between the outflow source water and oceanic water and low outflow transport. Second, the combination of low latitude and low outflow transport (and associated low outflow thickness) results in Ekman numbers for both outflows that are O(1). This indicates that they should be thought of as frictional density currents modified by rotation rather than geostrophic density currents modified by friction. Third, different mixing histories along the two channels that direct Red Sea outflow water into the open ocean result in product waters with significantly different densities, which probably contributes to the multilayered structure of the Red Sea product waters. In both outflows, seasonal variations in source water and oceanic properties have some effect on the T-S of the product waters, but they have only a minor impact on equilibrium depth. Fourth, product waters from both outflows are advected away from the sill region in narrow boundary currents, at least during part of the year. At other times, the product water appears more in isolated patches.

  6. Measurements of upper atmosphere water vapor made in situ with a new moisture sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chleck, D.

    1979-01-01

    A new thin-film aluminum oxide sensor, Aquamax II, has been developed for the measurement of stratospheric and upper tropospheric water vapor levels. The sensor is briefly described with attention given to its calibration and performance. Data obtained from six balloon flights are presented; almost all the results show a constant water vapor mixing ratio, in agreement with other data from midlatitude regions.

  7. A young bipolar outflow from IRAS 15398-3359

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerkeli, Per; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; Brinch, Christian

    2016-01-01

    emission towards IRAS 15398-3359. The lineradiative transfer code LIME is used to construct a full 3D model of thesystem taking all relevant components and scales into account. Results: CO, HCO+, and N2H+ aredetected and shown to trace the motions of the outflow. For CO, thecircumstellar envelope...... and the surrounding cloud also have a profoundimpact on the observed line profiles. N2H+ isdetected in the outflow, but is suppressed towards the central region,perhaps because of the competing reaction between CO andH3+ in the densest regions as well as thedestruction of N2H+ by CO.N2D+ is detected in a ridge south...

  8. Acetone in theGlobal Troposphere: Its Possible Role as a Global Source of PAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, H. B.; Kanakidou, M.

    1994-01-01

    Oxygenated hydrocarbons are thought to be important components of the atmosphere but, with the exception of formaldehyde, very little about their distribution and fate is known. Aircraft measurements of acetone (CH3COCH3), PAN (CH3CO3NO2) and other organic species (e. g. acetaldehyde, methanol and ethanol) have been performed over the Pacific, the southern Atlantic, and the subarctic atmospheres. Sampled areas extended from 0 to 12 km altitude over latitudes of 70 deg N to 40 deg S. All measurements are based on real time in-situ analysis of cryogenically preconcentrated air samples. Substantial concentrations of these oxygenated species (10-2000 ppt) have been observed at all altitudes and geographical locations in the troposphere. Important sources include, emissions from biomass burning, plant and vegetation, secondary oxidation of primary non-methane hydrocarbons, and man-made emissions. Direct measurements within smoke plumes have been used to estimate the biomass burning source. Photochemistry studies are used to suggest that acetone could provide a major source of peroxyacetyl radicals in the atmosphere and play an important role in sequestering reactive nitrogen. Model calculations show that acetone photolysis contributes significantly to PAN formation in the middle and upper troposphere.

  9. Thermal structure of the TTL and its relation to stratospheric-tropospheric exchange of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Torre Juárez, M.; Ao, C. O.; Schr\\O der, T. M.; Hermann, R.

    2004-12-01

    The annual cycle of the TTL fine scale thermal structure is described as captured by GPS radio occultation and the pressure levels of the ECMWF weather analysis. This annual cycle is compared to the annual cycle in water concentrations at the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere measured by HALOE. It is found that the saturation mixing ratios at the Cold Point Tropopause temperatures are consistent and sligthly below HALOE values with some temporal lag. This suggests that if dehydration mechanisms other than those associated with slow vertical asscent are working effectively, they must be counterbalanced by other hydration mechanisms. A comparison between saturation mixing ratios at the temperatures captured by GPS radio occultation and HALOE concentrations of water vapor show an annual cycle dominated by supersaturation in the boreal winter months, when the upward mass fluxes are larger, and subsaturation in the summer. The longitudinal dependence of these cycles is discussed and so is its possible implication for the seasonality of statospheric-tropospheric exchange of water.

  10. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT OUTFLOWS FROM CHINA AND INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    K. C. FUNG; ALICIA GARCIA-HERRERO

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the determinants of Indian and Chinese FDI outflows. There are three sets of results. First, Chinese investment is attracted to more corrupt countries, while India is attracted to economies with better rule of law. Further analysis suggests that our result of China investing in more corrupt destinations is mostly driven by Chinese investment in the sub-sample of African countries. While we do not conduct economic welfare analysis, several studies in the literature re...

  11. Effects of Energetic Ion Outflow on Magnetospheric Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, L. M.; Mouikis, C.; Lund, E. J.; Menz, A.; Nowrouzi, N.

    2016-12-01

    There are two dominant regions of energetic ion outflow: the nightside auroral region and the dayside cusp. Processes in these regions can accelerate ions up to keV energies. Outflow from the nightside has direct access to the plasma sheet, while outflow from the cusp is convected over the polar cap and into the lobes. The cusp population can enter the plasma sheet from the lobe, with higher energy ions entering further down the tail than lower energy ions. During storm times, the O+ enhanced plasma sheet population is convected into the inner magnetosphere. The plasma that does not get trapped in the inner magnetosphere convects to the magnetopause where reconnection is taking place. An enhanced O+ population can change the plasma mass density, which may have the effect of decreasing the reconnection rate. In addition O+ has a larger gyroradius than H+ at the same velocity or energy. Because of this, there are larger regions where the O+ is demagnetized, which can lead to larger acceleration because the O+ can move farther in the direction of the electric field. In this talk we will review results from Cluster, Van Allen Probes, and MMS, on how outflow from the two locations affects magnetospheric dynamics. We will discuss whether enhanced O+ from either population has an effect on the reconnection rate in the tail or at the magnetopause. We will discuss how the two populations impact the inner magnetosphere during storm times. And finally, we will discuss whether either population plays a role in triggering substorms, particularly during sawtooth events.

  12. The Role of Ionospheric Outflow Preconditioning in Determining Storm Geoeffectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welling, D. T.; Liemohn, M. W.; Ridley, A. J.

    2012-12-01

    It is now well accepted that ionospheric outflow plays an important role in the development of the plasma sheet and ring current during geomagnetic storms. Furthermore, even during quiet times, ionospheric plasma populates the magnetospheric lobes, producing a reservoir of hydrogen and oxygen ions. When the Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) turns southward, this reservoir is connected to the plasma sheet and ring current through magnetospheric convection. Hence, the conditions of the ionosphere and magnetospheric lobes leading up to magnetospheric storm onset have important implications for storm development. Despite this, there has been little research on this preconditioning; most global simulations begin just before storm onset, neglecting preconditioning altogether. This work explores the role of preconditioning in determining the geoeffectiveness of storms using a coupled global model system. A model of ionospheric outflow (the Polar Wind Outflow Model, PWOM) is two-way coupled to a global magnetohydrodynamic model (the Block-Adaptive Tree Solar wind Roe-type Upwind Scheme, BATS-R-US), which in turn drives a ring current model (the Ring current Atmosphere interactions Model, RAM). This unique setup is used to simulate an idealized storm. The model is started at many different times, from 1 hour before storm onset to 12 hours before. The effects of storm preconditioning are examined by investigating the total ionospheric plasma content in the lobes just before onset, the total ionospheric contribution in the ring current just after onset, and the effects on Dst, magnetic elevation angle at geosynchronous, and total ring current energy density. This experiment is repeated for different solar activity levels as set by F10.7 flux. Finally, a synthetic double-dip storm is constructed to see how two closely spaced storms affect each other by changing the preconditioning environment. It is found that preconditioning of the magnetospheric lobes via ionospheric

  13. MULTIPLE OUTFLOWS IN THE GIANT ERUPTION OF A MASSIVE STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, Roberta M.; Gordon, Michael S.; Jones, Terry J. [Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church St. SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Martin, John C., E-mail: roberta@umn.edu [University of Illinois Springfield, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    The supernova impostor PSN J09132750+7627410 in NGC 2748 reached a maximum luminosity of ≈−14 mag. It was quickly realized that it was not a true supernova, but another example of a nonterminal giant eruption. PSN J09132750+7627410 is distinguished by multiple P Cygni absorption minima in the Balmer emission lines that correspond to outflow velocities of −400, −1100, and −1600 km s{sup −1}. Multiple outflows have been observed in only a few other objects. In this paper we describe the evolution of the spectrum and the P Cygni profiles for 3 months past maximum, the post-maximum formation of a cool, dense wind, and the identification of a possible progenitor. One of the possible progenitors is an infrared source. Its pre-eruption spectral energy distribution suggests a bolometric luminosity of −8.3 mag and a dust temperature of 780 K. If it is the progenitor, it is above the AGB limit, unlike the intermediate-luminosity red transients. The three P Cygni profiles could be due to ejecta from the current eruption, the wind of the progenitor, or previous mass-loss events. We suggest that they were all formed as part of the same high-mass-loss event and are due to material ejected at different velocities or energies. We also suggest that multiple outflows during giant eruptions may be more common than reported.

  14. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-González, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A.; Reid, M. J.; Moscadelli, L.; Rygl, K. L. J.

    2012-01-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M ☉ . This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s –1 ) and perhaps a lower-velocity (∼10 km s –1 ) wind with an opening angle of about 20° from the jet axis.

  15. CLUSTERED STAR FORMATION AND OUTFLOWS IN AFGL 2591

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanna, A.; Carrasco-Gonzalez, C.; Menten, K. M.; Brunthaler, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, 53121 Bonn (Germany); Reid, M. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Moscadelli, L. [INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, Largo E. Fermi 5, 50125 Firenze (Italy); Rygl, K. L. J., E-mail: asanna@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de [IFSI-INAF, Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    We report on a detailed study of the water maser kinematics and radio continuum emission toward the most massive and young object in the star-forming region AFGL 2591. Our analysis shows at least two spatial scales of multiple star formation, one projected across 0.1 pc on the sky and another one at about 2000 AU from a ZAMS star of about 38 M{sub Sun }. This young stellar object drives a powerful jet- and wind-driven outflow system with the water masers associated to the outflow walls, previously detected as a limb-brightened cavity in the NIR band. At about 1300 AU to the north of this object a younger protostar drives two bow shocks, outlined by arc-like water maser emission, at 200 AU either side of the source. We have traced the velocity profile of the gas that expands along these arc-like maser structures and compared it with the jet-driven outflow model. This analysis suggests that the ambient medium around the northern protostar is swept up by a jet-driven shock (>66 km s{sup -1}) and perhaps a lower-velocity ({approx}10 km s{sup -1}) wind with an opening angle of about 20 Degree-Sign from the jet axis.

  16. Physical Processes for Driving Ionospheric Outflows in Global Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Thomas Earle; Strangeway, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    We review and assess the importance of processes thought to drive ionospheric outflows, linking them as appropriate to the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field, and to the spatial and temporal distribution of their magnetospheric internal responses. These begin with the diffuse effects of photoionization and thermal equilibrium of the ionospheric topside, enhancing Jeans' escape, with ambipolar diffusion and acceleration. Auroral outflows begin with dayside reconnexion and resultant field-aligned currents and driven convection. These produce plasmaspheric plumes, collisional heating and wave-particle interactions, centrifugal acceleration, and auroral acceleration by parallel electric fields, including enhanced ambipolar fields from electron heating by precipitating particles. Observations and simulations show that solar wind energy dissipation into the atmosphere is concentrated by the geomagnetic field into auroral regions with an amplification factor of 10-100, enhancing heavy species plasma and gas escape from gravity, and providing more current carrying capacity. Internal plasmas thus enable electromagnetic driving via coupling to the plasma, neutral gas and by extension, the entire body " We assess the Importance of each of these processes in terms of local escape flux production as well as global outflow, and suggest methods for their implementation within multispecies global simulation codes. We complete 'he survey with an assessment of outstanding obstacles to this objective.

  17. VY Canis Majoris: Observational Studies of the Outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwit, M.

    2001-12-01

    A number of recent studies carried out with the Infrared Space Observatory, ISO, and the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite, SWAS, provide new information on the chemical composition of the dust and the geometry of the outflow. With ISO, we have obtained a near-, mid-, and far-infrared spectrum of VY CMa that shows the strong preponderance of amorphous, as contrasted to crystalline, silicates. The sharp spectral slope in the near-infrared suggests the presence also of iron grains. While an excellent theoretical fit to the data is obtained, we emphasize that this is far from unique. A resolution of ambiguities will require a self-consistent model that considers not only radiative transfer, but also plausible elemental abundances, laboratory studies of chemical condensation sequences, and gas dynamics. With SWAS we have obtained a high-resolution spectrum of the 557GHz ground state transition of ortho-water. The spectral profile enables us to rule out a number of outflow geometries proposed in the literature. With ISO we also obtained the intensities and velocity structure of several other spectral lines of water. Most of these lines must be optically thick but effectively thin, a circumstance that permits us to make use of recent gas-dynamic models to locate the radial position in the outflow where individual lines are emitted.

  18. Large sea ice outflow into the Nares Strait in 2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwok, R.; Pedersen, L.T.; Gudmandsen, Preben

    2010-01-01

    Sea ice flux through the Nares Strait is most active during the fall and early winter, ceases in mid- to late winter after the formation of ice arches along the strait, and re-commences after breakup in summer. In 2007, ice arches failed to form. This resulted in the highest outflow of Arctic sea...... at Fram Strait. Clearly, the ice arches control Arctic sea ice outflow. The duration of unobstructed flow explains more than 84% of the variance in the annual area flux. In our record, seasonal stoppages are always associated with the formation of an arch near the same location in the southern Kane Basin...... ice in the 13-year record between 1997 and 2009. The 2007 area and volume outflows of 87 x 10(3) km(2) and 254 km(3) are more than twice their 13-year means. This contributes to the recent loss of the thick, multiyear Arctic sea ice and represents similar to 10% of our estimates of the mean ice export...

  19. Ultrafast outflows disappear in high-radiation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, C.; Alston, W.; Parker, M. L.; Fabian, A. C.; Gallo, L. C.; Buisson, D. J. K.; Walton, D. J.; Kara, E.; Jiang, J.; Lohfink, A.; Reynolds, C. S.

    2018-05-01

    Ultrafast outflows (UFOs) are the most extreme winds launched by active galactic nuclei (AGN) due to their mildly relativistic speeds (˜0.1-0.3c) and are thought to significantly contribute to galactic evolution via AGN feedback. Their nature and launching mechanism are however not well understood. Recently, we have discovered the presence of a variable UFO in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 IRAS 13224-3809. The UFO varies in response to the brightness of the source. In this work we perform flux-resolved X-ray spectroscopy to study the variability of the UFO and found that the ionization parameter is correlated with the luminosity. In the brightest states the gas is almost completely ionized by the powerful radiation field and the UFO is hardly detected. This agrees with our recent results obtained with principal component analysis. We might have found the tip of the iceberg: the high ionization of the outflowing gas may explain why it is commonly difficult to detect UFOs in AGN and possibly suggest that we may underestimate their actual feedback. We have also found a tentative correlation between the outflow velocity and the luminosity, which is expected from theoretical predictions of radiation-pressure-driven winds. This trend is rather marginal due to the Fe XXV-XXVI degeneracy. Further work is needed to break such degeneracy through time-resolved spectroscopy.

  20. Fluid outflows from Venus impact craters - Analysis from Magellan data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimow, Paul D.; Wood, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Many impact craters on Venus have unusual outflow features originating in or under the continuous ejecta blankets and continuing downhill into the surrounding terrain. These features clearly resulted from flow of low-viscosity fluids, but the identity of those fluids is not clear. In particular, it should not be assumed a priori that the fluid is an impact melt. A number of candidate processes by which impact events might generate the observed features are considered, and predictions are made concerning the rheological character of flows produce by each mechanism. A sample of outflows was analyzed using Magellan images and a model of unconstrained Bingham plastic flow on inclined planes, leading to estimates of viscosity and yield strength for the flow materials. It is argued that at least two different mechanisms have produced outflows on Venus: an erosive, channel-forming process and a depositional process. The erosive fluid is probably an impact melt, but the depositional fluid may consist of fluidized solid debris, vaporized material, and/or melt.

  1. Performance analysis of NOAA tropospheric signal delay model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Hassan E; El-Rabbany, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Tropospheric delay is one of the dominant global positioning system (GPS) errors, which degrades the positioning accuracy. Recent development in tropospheric modeling relies on implementation of more accurate numerical weather prediction (NWP) models. In North America one of the NWP-based tropospheric correction models is the NOAA Tropospheric Signal Delay Model (NOAATrop), which was developed by the US National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Because of its potential to improve the GPS positioning accuracy, the NOAATrop model became the focus of many researchers. In this paper, we analyzed the performance of the NOAATrop model and examined its effect on ionosphere-free-based precise point positioning (PPP) solution. We generated 3 year long tropospheric zenith total delay (ZTD) data series for the NOAATrop model, Hopfield model, and the International GNSS Services (IGS) final tropospheric correction product, respectively. These data sets were generated at ten IGS reference stations spanning Canada and the United States. We analyzed the NOAATrop ZTD data series and compared them with those of the Hopfield model. The IGS final tropospheric product was used as a reference. The analysis shows that the performance of the NOAATrop model is a function of both season (time of the year) and geographical location. However, its performance was superior to the Hopfield model in all cases. We further investigated the effect of implementing the NOAATrop model on the ionosphere-free-based PPP solution convergence and accuracy. It is shown that the use of the NOAATrop model improved the PPP solution convergence by 1%, 10% and 15% for the latitude, longitude and height components, respectively

  2. Free-tropospheric BrO investigations based on GOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post, P.; van Roozendael, M.; Backman, L.; Damski, J.; Thölix, L.; Fayt, C.; Taalas, P.

    2003-04-01

    Bromine compounds contribute significantly to the stratospheric ozone depletion. However measurements of most bromine compounds are sparse or non-existent, and experimental studies essentially rely on BrO observations. The differences between balloon and ground based measurements of stratospheric BrO columns and satellite total column measurements are too large to be explained by measurement uncertainties. Therefore, it has been assumed that there is a concentration of BrO in the free troposphere of about 1-3 ppt. In a previous work, we have calculated the tropospheric BrO abundance as the difference between total BrO and stratospheric BrO columns. The total vertical column densities of BrO are extracted from GOME measurements using IASB-BIRA algorithms. The stratospheric amount has been calculated using chemical transport models (CTM). Results from SLIMCAT and FinROSE simulations are used for this purpose. SLIMCAT is a widely used 3D CTM that has been tested against balloon measurements. FinROSE is a 3D CTM developed at FMI. We have tried several different tropospheric BrO profiles. Our results show that a profile with high BrO concentrations in the boundary layer usually gives unrealistically high tropospheric column values over areas of low albedo (like oceans). This suggests that the tropospheric BrO would be predominantly distributed in the free troposphere. In this work, attempts are made to identify the signature of a free tropospheric BrO content when comparing cloudy and non-cloudy scenes. The possible impact of orography on measured BrO columns is also investigated.

  3. Determinants of Foreign Direct Investments Outflow From a Developing Country: the Case of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokhan Onder

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Foreign direct investments (FDI outflows of Turkey have remarkably been raising over the last decade. This rapid increase brings about the need for questioning the determinants of FDI outflows. The aim of this paper is to estimate the factors affecting outflow FDI from Turkey from 2002 to 2011 by using Prais-Winsten regression analysis. According to estimation results, population, infrastructure, percapita gross domestic product of the host country, and home country exports to the host country are the factors having positive effects on outflow FDI. We found, on the other hand, that the annual inflation rate of the host country, its tax rate collected from commercial profit, and its distance from Turkey have a negative relation with investment outflows. Moreover our results show that while investment outflows to developed countries are in the form of horizontal investments, investment outflows to developing countries are in the form of vertical investments.

  4. An assessment of 10-year NOAA aircraft-based tropospheric ozone profiling in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mark; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; Lin, Meiyun; McClure-Begley, Audra; Johnson, Bryan J.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Tarasick, David

    2017-06-01

    The Global Greenhouse Gas Reference Network Aircraft Program at NOAA has sampled ozone and other atmospheric trace constituents in North America for over a decade (2005-present). The method to derive tropospheric ozone climatology from the light aircraft measurements equipped with the 2B Technology instruments is described in this paper. Since ozone instruments at most of aircraft locations are flown once a month, this raises the question of whether the sampling frequency allows for deriving a climatology that can adequately represent ozone seasonal and vertical variability over various locations. Here we interpret the representativeness of the tropospheric ozone climatology derived from these under-sampled observations using hindcast simulations conducted with the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory chemistry-climate model (GFDL-AM3). We first focus on ozone measurements from monthly aircraft profiles over the Front Range of Colorado and weekly ozonesondes launched in Boulder, Colorado. The climatology is presented as monthly values separated in 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th percentiles, and averaged at three vertical layers: lower (1.6-3 km), middle (3-6 km), and upper (6-8 km) troposphere. The aircraft-based climatology is compared to the climatology derived from the nearest located ozonesondes launched from Boulder, Colorado, from GFDL-AM3 co-sampled in time with in-situ observations, and from GFDL-AM3 continuous 3-h samples. Based on these analyses, we recommend the sampling frequency to obtain adequate representation of ozone climatology in the free troposphere. The 3-h sampled AM3 model is used as a benchmark reference for the under-sampled time series. We find that the minimal number of soundings required per month for the all altitude bins (1.6-3, 3-6, and 6-8 km) to sufficiently match the 95% confidence level of the fully sampled monthly ozone means vary between 3 and 5 sounding per month, except in August with a minimum of 6 soundings per month. The

  5. Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on European tropospheric composition: an observational and modelling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, R.; Chipperfield, M.

    2017-12-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) has a strong influence on winter-time North Atlantic and European circulation patterns. Under the positive phase of the NAO (NAO+), intensification of the climatological Icelandic low and Azores high pressure systems results in strong westerly flow across the Atlantic into Europe. Under the NAO negative phase (NAO-), there is a weakening of this meridional pressure gradient resulting in a southerly shift in the westerlies flow towards the sub-tropical Atlantic. Therefore, NAO+ and NAO- introduce unstable stormy and drier stable conditions into Europe, respectively. Under NAO+ conditions, the strong westerlies tend to enhance transport of European pollution (e.g. nitrogen oxides) away from anthropogenic source regions. While during NAO-, the more stable conditions lead to a build up of pollutants. However, secondary pollutants (i.e. tropospheric ozone) show the opposite signal where NAO+, while transporting primary pollutants away, introduces Atlantic ozone enriched air into Europe. Here ozone can form downwind of pollution from continental North America and be transported into Europe via the westerly flow. Under NAO-, this westerly ozone transport is reduced yielding lower European ozone concentrations also depleted further by ozone loss through the reaction with NOx, which has accumulated over the continent. Peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN), observed in the upper troposphere - lower stratosphere (UTLS) by satellite, peaks over Iceland/Southern Greenland in NAO-, between 200-100 hPa, consistent with trapping by an anticyclone at this altitude. During NAO+, PAN is enhanced over the sub-tropical Atlantic and Arctic. Model simulations show that enhanced PAN over Iceland/Southern Greenland in NAO- is associated with vertical transport from the troposphere into the UTLS, while peak Arctic PAN in NAO+ is its accumulation given the strong northerly meridional transport in the UTLS. UTLS ozone spatial anomalies, relative to the winter

  6. Magnetic Topology and Ion Outflow in Mars' Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. L.; Xu, S.; McFadden, J. P.; Hara, T.; Luhmann, J. G.; Mazelle, C. X.; Andersson, L.; DiBraccio, G. A.; Connerney, J. E. P.

    2017-12-01

    Planetary ion outflow down the Martian magnetotail could be an important atmospheric loss mechanism. This process depends on magnetic connectivity to the day-side ionosphere and on acceleration of ions to escape velocity. The Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MAVEN) mission has obtained comprehensive ion, electron, and magnetic field data in Mars' magnetotail. The spacecraft is in a 75°-inclination, elliptical orbit that samples altitudes from 150 to 6200 km. As the orbit precesses, it sweeps through the tail at a variety of altitudes in this range. Data from the Solar Wind Electron Analyzer (SWEA) and Magnetometer (MAG) are used to determine the magnetic field topology in the tail at high cadence (every 2-4 seconds), and in particular whether field lines are open, closed, or draped, and if open whether they have access to the day-side or night-side ionosphere. Simultaneous observations by the Supra-Thermal and Thermal Ion Composition (STATIC) instrument and the Langmuir Probe and Waves (LPW) experiment are used to measure the density, composition, and velocity of planetary plasma on these field lines. We find that magnetic topology in the tail is complex and variable, and is influenced by the IMF polarity and the orientation of Mars' crustal magnetic fields with respect to the Sun. We find that planetary ion outflow occurs on both open and draped field lines. On open field lines, outflow tends to occur parallel to the field line, with colder, denser, and slower outflow on field lines connected to the day-side ionosphere (Fig. 1). On these same field lines (after correction for the spacecraft potential) a shift in the position of the He-II photoelectron feature indicates a 1-Volt parallel electric potential directed away from the planet. Except for H+ and occasionally O+, this potential is insufficient by itself to accelerate planetary ions to escape velocity. Outflow is warmer, less dense, and faster moving on draped field lines. In this case, the ion bulk

  7. New capability for ozone dial profiling measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair, Johnathan; Hostetler, Chris; Cook, Anthony; Harper, David; Notari, Anthony; Fenn, Marta; Newchurch, Mike; Wang, Lihua; Kuang, Shi; Knepp, Travis; Burton, Sharon; Ferrare, Richard; Butler, Carolyn; Collins, Jim; Nehrir, Amin

    2018-04-01

    Recently, we successfully demonstrated a new compact and robust ozone DIAL lidar for smaller aircraft such as the NASA B200 and the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. This is the first NASA airborne lidar to incorporate advanced solid-state lasers to produce the required power at the required ultraviolet wavelengths, and is compact and robust enough to operate nearly autonomously on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. This technology development resulted in the first new NASA airborne ozone DIAL instrument in more than 15 years. The combined ozone, aerosol, and clouds measurements provide valuable information on the chemistry, radiation, and dynamics of the atmosphere. In particular, from the ER-2 it offers a unique capability to study the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  8. On the effect of moisture on the detection of tropospheric turbulence from in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Wilson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the detection of turbulence based on the Thorpe (1977 method applied to an atmosphere where saturation of water vapor occurs. The detection method proposed by Thorpe relies on the sorting in ascending order of a measured profile of a variable conserved through adiabatic processes, (e.g. potential temperature. For saturated air, the reordering should be applied to a moist-conservative potential temperature, θm, which is analogous to potential temperature for a dry (subsaturated atmosphere. Here, θm is estimated from the Brunt–Väisälä frequency derived by Lalas and Einaudi (1974 in a saturated atmosphere. The application to balloon data shows that the effective turbulent fraction of the troposphere can dramatically increase when saturation is taken into account. Preliminary results of comparisons with data simultaneously collected from the VHF Middle and Upper atmosphere radar (MUR, Japan seem to give credence to the proposed approach.

  9. New capability for ozone dial profiling measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere from aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hair Johnathan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, we successfully demonstrated a new compact and robust ozone DIAL lidar for smaller aircraft such as the NASA B200 and the ER-2 high-altitude aircraft. This is the first NASA airborne lidar to incorporate advanced solid-state lasers to produce the required power at the required ultraviolet wavelengths, and is compact and robust enough to operate nearly autonomously on the high-altitude ER-2 aircraft. This technology development resulted in the first new NASA airborne ozone DIAL instrument in more than 15 years. The combined ozone, aerosol, and clouds measurements provide valuable information on the chemistry, radiation, and dynamics of the atmosphere. In particular, from the ER-2 it offers a unique capability to study the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  10. Carbon monoxide and methane in the North American Arctic and Subarctic troposphere - July-August 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harriss, R.C.; Sachse, G.W.; Hill, G.F.; Wade, L.; Bartlett, K.B.; Collins, J.E.; Steele, L.P.; Novelli, P.C. (New Hampshire Univ., Durham (United States) NASA, Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States) Lockheed Engineering Sciences Co., Hampton, VA (United States) Science and Technology Corp., Hampton, VA (United States) Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences, Boulder, CO (United States))

    1992-10-01

    Enhanced concentrations of CH4 in the unpolluted atmospheric mixed layer over both Arctic and subarctic tundra landscapes are documented here using data from the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The CH4 concentration gradients were determined mainly by interactions of biogenic emission from wet tundra and turbulent mixing proceses. The gradient were most frequently associated with intrusion of upper tropospheric or stratospheric air into the midtroposphere, emissions from forest and tundra fires, and long-range transport of enhanced concentration of these gases from unidentified sources. Summertime haze layers exhibited midtropospheric enhancements of CH4 similar to those measured in winter Arctic events. The observations confirm the importance of Arctic and Subarctic wetland environments as a regional source of global atmospheric CH4. 33 refs.

  11. Carbon monoxide and methane in the North American Arctic and Subarctic troposphere - July-August 1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harriss, Robert C.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, Gerald F.; Wade, Larry; Bartlett, Karen B.; Collins, James E.; Steele, L. P.; Novelli, Paul C.

    1992-01-01

    Enhanced concentrations of CH4 in the unpolluted atmospheric mixed layer over both Arctic and subarctic tundra landscapes are documented here using data from the NASA Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition (ABLE 3A). The CH4 concentration gradients were determined mainly by interactions of biogenic emission from wet tundra and turbulent mixing proceses. The gradient were most frequently associated with intrusion of upper tropospheric or stratospheric air into the midtroposphere, emissions from forest and tundra fires, and long-range transport of enhanced concentration of these gases from unidentified sources. Summertime haze layers exhibited midtropospheric enhancements of CH4 similar to those measured in winter Arctic events. The observations confirm the importance of Arctic and Subarctic wetland environments as a regional source of global atmospheric CH4.

  12. Applying Kalman filtering to investigate tropospheric effects in VLBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Benedikt; Nilsson, Tobias; Karbon, Maria; Heinkelmann, Robert; Liu, Li; Lu, Cuixian; Andres Mora-Diaz, Julian; Raposo-Pulido, Virginia; Xu, Minghui; Schuh, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) currently provides results, e.g., estimates of the tropospheric delays, with a delay of more than two weeks. In the future, with the coming VLBI2010 Global Observing System (VGOS) and increased usage of electronic data transfer, it is planned that the time between observations and results is decreased. This may, for instance, allow the integration of VLBI-derived tropospheric delays into numerical weather prediction models. Therefore, future VLBI analysis software packages need to be able to process the observational data autonomously in near real-time. For this purpose, we have extended the Vienna VLBI Software (VieVS) by a Kalman filter module. This presentation describes the filter and discusses its application for tropospheric studies. Instead of estimating zenith wet delays as piece-wise linear functions in a least-squares adjustment, the Kalman filter allows for more sophisticated stochastic modeling. We start with a random walk process to model the time-dependent behavior of the zenith wet delays. Other possible approaches include the stochastic model described by turbulence theory, e.g. the model by Treuhaft and Lanyi (1987). Different variance-covariance matrices of the prediction error, depending on the time of the year and the geographic latitude, have been tested. In winter and closer to the poles, lower variances and covariances are appropriate. The horizontal variations in tropospheric delays have been investigated by comparing three different strategies: assumption of a horizontally stratified troposphere, using north and south gradients modeled, e.g., as Gauss-Markov processes, and applying a turbulence model assuming correlations between observations in different azimuths. By conducting Monte-Carlo simulations of current standard VLBI networks and of future VGOS networks, the different tropospheric modeling strategies are investigated. For this purpose, we use the simulator module of VieVS which takes into

  13. Impact of selected troposphere models on Precise Point Positioning convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Jakub; Rzepecka, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) absolute method is currently intensively investigated in order to reach fast convergence time. Among various sources that influence the convergence of the PPP, the tropospheric delay is one of the most important. Numerous models of tropospheric delay are developed and applied to PPP processing. However, with rare exceptions, the quality of those models does not allow fixing the zenith path delay tropospheric parameter, leaving difference between nominal and final value to the estimation process. Here we present comparison of several PPP result sets, each of which based on different troposphere model. The respective nominal values are adopted from models: VMF1, GPT2w, MOPS and ZERO-WET. The PPP solution admitted as reference is based on the final troposphere product from the International GNSS Service (IGS). The VMF1 mapping function was used for all processing variants in order to provide capability to compare impact of applied nominal values. The worst case initiates zenith wet delay with zero value (ZERO-WET). Impact from all possible models for tropospheric nominal values should fit inside both IGS and ZERO-WET border variants. The analysis is based on data from seven IGS stations located in mid-latitude European region from year 2014. For the purpose of this study several days with the most active troposphere were selected for each of the station. All the PPP solutions were determined using gLAB open-source software, with the Kalman filter implemented independently by the authors of this work. The processing was performed on 1 hour slices of observation data. In addition to the analysis of the output processing files, the presented study contains detailed analysis of the tropospheric conditions for the selected data. The overall results show that for the height component the VMF1 model outperforms GPT2w and MOPS by 35-40% and ZERO-WET variant by 150%. In most of the cases all solutions converge to the same values during first

  14. Tropospheric ozone observations - How well can we assess tropospheric ozone changes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasick, D. W.; Galbally, I. E.; Ancellet, G.; Leblanc, T.; Wallington, T. J.; Ziemke, J. R.; Steinbacher, M.; Stähelin, J.; Vigouroux, C.; Hannigan, J. W.; García, O. E.; Foret, G.; Zanis, P.; Liu, X.; Weatherhead, E. C.; Petropavlovskikh, I. V.; Worden, H. M.; Osman, M.; Liu, J.; Lin, M.; Cooper, O. R.; Schultz, M. G.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Thompson, A. M.; Cuesta, J.; Dufour, G.; Thouret, V.; Hassler, B.; Trickl, T.

    2017-12-01

    Since the early 20th century, measurements of ozone in the free troposphere have evolved and changed. Data records have different uncertainties and biases, and differ with respect to coverage, information content, and representativeness. Almost all validation studies employ ECC ozonesondes. These have been compared to UV-absorption measurements in a number of intercomparison studies, and show a modest ( 1-5%) high bias in the troposphere, with an uncertainty of 5%, but no evidence of a change over time. Umkehr, lidar, FTIR, and commercial aircraft all show modest low biases relative to the ECCs, and so -- if the ECC biases are transferable -- all agree within 1σ with the modern UV standard. Relative to the UV standard, Brewer-Mast sondes show a 20% increase in sensitivity from 1970-1995, while Japanese KC sondes show an increase of 5-10%. Combined with the shift of the global ozonesonde network to ECCs, this can induce a false positive trend, in analyses based on sonde data. Passive sounding methods -- Umkehr, FTIR and satellites -- have much lower vertical resolution than active methods, and this can limit the attribution of trends. Satellite biases are larger than those of other measurement systems, ranging between -10% and +20%, and standard deviations are large: about 10-30%, versus 5-10% for sondes, aircraft, lidar and ground-based FTIR. There is currently little information on measurement drift for satellite measurements of tropospheric ozone. This is an evident area of concern if satellite retrievals are used for trend studies. The importance of ECC sondes as a transfer standard for satellite validation means that efforts to homogenize existing records, by correcting for known changes and by adopting strict standard operating procedures, should continue, and additional research effort should be put into understanding and reducing sonde uncertainties. Representativeness is also a potential source of large errors, which are difficult to quantify. The global

  15. Retrieval of tropospheric carbon monoxide for the MOPITT experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Liwen; Gille, John C.; Edwards, David P.; Bailey, Paul L.; Rodgers, Clive D.

    1998-12-01

    A retrieval method for deriving the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) profile and column amount under clear sky conditions has been developed for the Measurements of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument, scheduled for launch in 1998 onboard the EOS-AM1 satellite. This paper presents a description of the method along with analyses of retrieval information content. These analyses characterize the forward measurement sensitivity, the contribution of a priori information, and the retrieval vertical resolution. Ensembles of tropospheric CO profiles were compiled both from aircraft in situ measurements and from chemical model results and were used in retrieval experiments to characterize the method and to study the sensitivity to different parameters. Linear error analyses were carried out in parallel with the ensemble experiments. Results of these experiments and analyses indicate that MOPITT CO column measurements will have better than 10% precision, and CO profile measurement will have approximately three pieces of independent information that will resolve 3-5 tropospheric layers to approximately 10% precision. These analyses are important for understanding MOPITT data, both for application of data in tropospheric chemistry studies and for comparison with in situ measurements.

  16. Sulfate Aerosols from Non-Explosive Volcanoes: Chemical-Radiative Effects in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pitari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available SO2 and H2S are the two most important gas-phase sulfur species emitted by volcanoes, with a global amount from non-explosive emissions of the order 10 Tg-S/yr. These gases are readily oxidized forming SO42− aerosols, which effectively scatter the incoming solar radiation and cool the surface. They also perturb atmospheric chemistry by enhancing the NOx to HNO3 heterogeneous conversion via hydrolysis on the aerosol surface of N2O5 and Br-Cl nitrates. This reduces formation of tropospheric O3 and the OH to HO2 ratio, thus limiting the oxidation of CH4 and increasing its lifetime. In addition to this tropospheric chemistry perturbation, there is also an impact on the NOx heterogeneous chemistry in the lower stratosphere, due to vertical transport of volcanic SO2 up to the tropical tropopause layer. Furthermore, the stratospheric O3 formation and loss, as well as the NOx budget, may be slightly affected by the additional amount of upward diffused solar radiation and consequent increase of photolysis rates. Two multi-decadal time-slice runs of a climate-chemistry-aerosol model have been designed for studying these chemical-radiative effects. A tropopause mean global net radiative flux change (RF of −0.23 W·m−2 is calculated (including direct and indirect aerosol effects with a 14% increase of the global mean sulfate aerosol optical depth. A 5–15 ppt NOx decrease is found in the mid-troposphere subtropics and mid-latitudes and also from pole to pole in the lower stratosphere. The tropospheric NOx perturbation triggers a column O3 decrease of 0.5–1.5 DU and a 1.1% increase of the CH4 lifetime. The surface cooling induced by solar radiation scattering by the volcanic aerosols induces a tropospheric stabilization with reduced updraft velocities that produce ice supersaturation conditions in the upper troposphere. A global mean 0.9% decrease of the cirrus ice optical depth is calculated with an indirect RF of −0.08 W·m−2.

  17. Monitoring the response of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere to a greenhouse gas scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Cox, S.K.

    1992-01-01

    During the past two years a system has been under development to contribute to this monitoring process by making measurement of the downwelling infrared radiance field at moderate spectral resolution. Sensitivity of the measurements to the presence of cirrus cloudiness, and effective particle size in cirrus clouds has been demonstrated. Sensitivity of the measurements to concentration of C0 2 and to the gross temperature structure of a 2CO 2 atmosphere have been modeled, and measurements have been made at various locations to provide a data base for further system evaluation. A temperature retrieval algorithm has been acquired and examined concerning its potential for monitoring temperature and gaseous concentration profiles. A continue research program is described herein that may be divided into three parts. First, continued system development must be pursued. This includes continued attention to the absolute accuracy of the measurements, and implementation of the Path Characterization Algorithm (retrieval code). Second, the value of long term deployment of the system at a site of considerable elevation is necessary. Third, inclusion of a solar transmission capability at moderate resolution is proposed

  18. Diurnal variations of humidity and ice water content in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Eriksson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Observational results of diurnal variations of humidity from Odin-SMR and AURA-MLS, and cloud ice mass from Odin-SMR and CloudSat are presented for the first time. Comparisons show that the retrievals of humidity and cloud ice from these two satellite combinations are in good agreement. The retrieved data are combined from four almost evenly distributed times of the day allowing mean values, amplitudes and phases of the diurnal variations around 200 hpa to be estimated. This analysis is applied to six climatologically distinct regions, five located in the tropics and one over the subtropical northern Pacific Ocean. The strongest diurnal cycles are found over tropical land regions, where the amplitude is ~7 RHi for humidity and ~50% for ice mass. The greatest ice mass for these regions is found during the afternoon, and the humidity maximum is observed to lag this peak by ~6 h. Over tropical ocean regions the variations are smaller and the maxima in both ice mass and humidity are found during the early morning. Observed results are compared with output from three climate models (ECHAM, EC-EARTH and CAM3. Direct measurement-model comparisons were not possible because the measured and modelled cloud ice masses represent different quantities. To make a meaningful comparison, the amount of snow had to be estimated from diagnostic parameters of the models. There is a high probability that the models underestimate the average ice mass (outside the 1-σ uncertainty. The models also show clear deficiencies when it comes to amplitude and phase of the regional variations, but to varying degrees.

  19. Upper atmosphere tidal oscillations due to latent heat release in the tropical troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Forbes

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Latent heat release associated with tropical deep convective activity is investigated as a source for migrating (sun-synchronous diurnal and semidiurnal tidal oscillations in the 80–150-km height region. Satellite-based cloud brightness temperature measurements made between 1988 and 1994 and averaged into 3-h bins are used to determine the annual- and longitude-average local-time distribution of rainfall rate, and hence latent heating, between ±40° latitude. Regional average rainfall rates are shown to be in good agreement with climatological values derived from surface rain gauge data. A global linearized wave model is used to estimate the corresponding atmospheric perturbations in the mesosphere/lower thermosphere (80–150 km resulting from upward-propagating tidal components excited by the latent heating. The annual-average migrating diurnal and semidiurnal components achieve velocity and temperature amplitudes of order 10–20 m s–1 and 5–10 K, respectively, which represent substantial contributions to the dynamics of the region. The latent heat forcing also shifts the phase (local solar time of maximum of the semidiurnal surface pressure oscillation from 0912 to 0936 h, much closer to the observed value of 0944 h.

  20. Monitoring the response of the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere to a greenhouse gas scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.M.; Cox, S.K.

    1991-01-01

    The emission interferometer system deployed at a high elevation site in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Spectra and atmospheric soundings were collected under various sky conditions. Spectra were collected at different observation zenith angles to investigate those portions of the spectrum most sensitive to changes in atmospheric path. The stability of the 60 degrees/O degrees radiance ratios have been evaluated for the small number of clear sky spectra collected to date. Initial results indicate that the ratio is constant to about 0.5% (excluding large variations in the temperature structure) for clear sky cases. The ratio also shows sensitivity even to thin cloudiness. Examination of the spectra in the atmospheric window region shows that the slope of the floor of the spectra is sensitive even to near sub-visual cirrus conditions. A temperature and gaseous concentration retrieval algorithm has been acquired to investigate the more conventional inversion to the current problem. A high speed computer workstation has been acquired to facilitate this phase of the research. 1 ref., 5 figs

  1. Transport of biomass burning smoke to the upper troposphere by deep convection in the equatorial region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreae, M. O.; Artaxo, P.; Fischer, H.; Freitas, S. R.; Grégoire, J.-M.; Hansel, A.; Hoor, P.; Kormann, R.; Krejci, R.; Lange, L.; Lelieveld, J.; Lindinger, W.; Longo, K.; Peters, W.; de Reus, M.; Scheeren, B.; Silva Dias, M. A. F.; Ström, J.; van Velthoven, P. F. J.; Williams, J.

    2001-01-01

    During LBA-CLAIRE-98, we found atmospheric layers with aged biomass smoke at altitudes >10 km over Suriname. CO, CO2, acetonitrile, methyl chloride, hydrocarbons, NO, O3, and aerosols were strongly enhanced in these layers. We estimate that 80-95% of accumulation mode aerosols had been removed

  2. What controls the low ice number concentration in the upper troposphere?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cirrus clouds in the tropical tropopause play a key role in regulating the moisture entering the stratosphere through their dehydrating effect. Low ice number concentrations ( <  200 L−1 and high supersaturations (150–160 % have been observed in these clouds. Different mechanisms have been proposed to explain these low ice number concentrations, including the inhibition of homogeneous freezing by the deposition of water vapour onto pre-existing ice crystals, heterogeneous ice formation on glassy organic aerosol ice nuclei (IN, and limiting the formation of ice number from high-frequency gravity waves. In this study, we examined the effect from three different representations of updraft velocities, the effect from pre-existing ice crystals, the effect from different water vapour deposition coefficients (α  =  0.1 or 1, and the effect of 0.1 % of the total secondary organic aerosol (SOA particles acting as IN. Model-simulated ice crystal numbers are compared against an aircraft observational dataset.Including the effect from water vapour deposition on pre-existing ice particles can effectively reduce simulated in-cloud ice number concentrations for all model setups. A larger water vapour deposition coefficient (α  =  1 can also efficiently reduce ice number concentrations at temperatures below 205 K, but less so at higher temperatures. SOA acting as IN is most effective at reducing ice number concentrations when the effective updraft velocities are moderate ( ∼  0.05–0.2 m s−1. However, the effects of including SOA as IN and using (α  =  1 are diminished when the effect from pre-existing ice is included.When a grid-resolved large-scale updraft velocity ( <  0.1 m s−1 is used, the ice nucleation parameterization with homogeneous freezing only or with both homogeneous freezing and heterogeneous nucleation is able to generate low ice number concentrations in good agreement with observations for temperatures below 205 K as long as the pre-existing ice effect is included. For the moderate updraft velocity ( ∼  0.05–0.2 m s−1, simulated ice number concentrations in good agreement with observations at temperatures below 205 K can be achieved if effects from pre-existing ice, a larger water vapour deposition coefficient (α  =  1, and SOA IN are all included. Using the sub-grid-scale turbulent kinetic energy (TKE-based updraft velocity ( ∼  0–2 m s−1 always overestimates the ice number concentrations at temperatures below 205 K but compares well with observations at temperatures above 205 K when the pre-existing ice effect is included.

  3. Assessment of atmospheric processes driving ozone variations in the subtropical North Atlantic free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Cuevas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of the 22-yr ozone (O3 series (1988–2009 at the subtropical high mountain Izaña~station (IZO; 2373 m a.s.l., representative of free troposphere (FT conditions, is presented. Diurnal and seasonal O3 variations as well as the O3 trend (0.19 ± 0.05 % yr−1 or 0.09 ppbv yr−1, are assessed. A climatology of O3 transport pathways using backward trajectories shows that higher O3 values are associated with air masses travelling above 4 km altitude from North America and North Atlantic Ocean, while low O3 is transported from the Saharan continental boundary layer (CBL. O3 data have been compared with PM10, 210Pb, 7Be, potential vorticity (PV and carbon monoxide (CO. A clear negative logarithmic relationship was observed between PM10 and surface O3 for all seasons. A similar relationship was found between O3 and 210Pb. The highest daily O3 values (90th percentile are observed in spring and in the first half of summer time. A positive correlation between O3 and PV, and between O3 and 7Be is found throughout the year, indicating that relatively high surface O3 values at IZO originate from the middle and upper troposphere. We find a good correlation between O3 and CO in winter, supporting the hypothesis of long-range transport of photochemically generated O3 from North America. Aged air masses, in combination with sporadic inputs from the upper troposphere, are observed in spring, summer and autumn. In summer time high O3 values seem to be the result of stratosphere-to-troposphere (STT exchange processes in regions neighbouring the Canary Islands. Since 1995–1996, the North Atlantic Oscillation has changed from a predominantly high positive phase to alternating between negative

  4. Aerosol indirect effects on lightning in the generation of induced NOx and tropospheric ozone over an Indian urban metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Upal; Maitra, Animesh; Talukdar, Shamitaksha; Jana, Soumyajyoti

    increase in lightning activity is caused by the indirect influx of aerosols, especially in the upper troposphere. This is due to the warming-effect of aerosol forcing via its effect on tropospheric ozone production. Due to the increased production of O3 by lightning-induced NOx and high aerosol loading in the pre-monsoon and monsoon months, the positive climate feedback indicates a warmer climate. As a consequence, convective activity as well as lightning flashes may increase due to this indirect effect of AOD over the region. The generation of induced NOx has a positive correlation (r = 0.723) with the LFR during 2001-2012 over Kolkata. Thus, our results have significant implications for understanding the tropospheric ozone forcing by investigating the coupled aerosol-cloud-chemistry system on the generation of lightning and lightning-induced NOx over the urban metropolis.

  5. Diurnal variation of tropospheric temperature at a tropical station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Revathy

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The vertical velocity in the troposphere-lower stratosphere region measured using MST radar has been utilized to evaluate the temperature profile in the region. The diurnal variation of the tropospheric temperature on one day in August 1998 at the tropical station Gadanki (13.5° N, 79.2° E has been studied using the MST radar technique. The diurnal variation of the temperature revealed a prominent diurnal variation with the peak in the afternoon hours increasingly delayed in altitude. The tropopause temperature and altitude exhibited a clear diurnal cycle.Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere - composition and chemistry; instruments and technique

  6. Impact of North America on the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. García

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the AEROATLAN project we study the composition of aerosols collected over  ∼  5 years at Izaña Observatory (located at  ∼  2400 m a.s.l. in Tenerife, the Canary Islands under the prevailing westerly airflows typical of the North Atlantic free troposphere at subtropical latitudes and midlatitudes. Mass concentrations of sub-10 µm aerosols (PM10 carried by westerly winds to Izaña, after transatlantic transport, are typically within the range 1.2 and 4.2 µg m−3 (20th and 80th percentiles. The main contributors to background levels of aerosols (PM10 within the 1st–50th percentiles  =  0.15–2.54 µg m−3 are North American dust (53 %, non-sea-salt sulfate (14 % and organic matter (18 %. High PM10 events (75th–95th percentiles  ≈  4.0–9.0 µg m−3 are prompted by dust (56 %, organic matter (24 % and non-sea-salt sulfate (9 %. These aerosol components experience a seasonal evolution explained by (i their spatial distribution in North America and (ii the seasonal shift of the North American outflow, which migrates from low latitudes in winter (∼  32° N, January–March to high latitudes in summer (∼  52° N, August–September. The westerlies carry maximum loads of non-sea-salt sulfate, ammonium and organic matter in spring (March–May, of North American dust from midwinter to mid-spring (February–May and of elemental carbon in summer (August–September. Our results suggest that a significant fraction of organic aerosols may be linked to sources other than combustion (e.g. biogenic; further studies are necessary for this topic. The present study suggests that long-term evolution of the aerosol composition in the North Atlantic free troposphere will be influenced by air quality policies and the use of soils (potential dust emitter in North America.

  7. Water mass characteristic in the outflow region of the Indonesian throughflow during and post 2016 negative Indian ocean dipole event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayhaqi, A.; Iskandar, I.; Surinati, D.; Budiman, A. S.; Wardhana, A. K.; Dirhamsyah; Yuan, D.; Lestari, D. O.

    2018-05-01

    Strong El Niño and positive Indian Ocean Dipole (pIOD) events in 2015/2016 followed by relatively strong negative Indian Ocean Dipole (nIOD) and weak La Niña in 2016 events have affected hydrography conditions in the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) region. Two research cruises were conducted using RV Baruna Jaya VIII in August and November 2016. These cruises aim to evaluate possible impact of those two climate mode events on the water mass characteristic in the outflow region of the ITF. Hydrographic data from those two cruises were combined with the sea surface temperature (SST) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and surface wind data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The results showed that in the 2016 anomaly year, the cooler sea surface temperature was observed during the negative IOD (nIOD) event while the warmer temperature was found in the post of nIOD event. The observed water mass characteristics in the outflow region of the ITF revealed that the upper layer was dominated by the Indian Ocean water mass, while the Pacific Ocean water mass was observed in the deeper layer. The observed current data across the Sumba Strait showed that the South Java Coastal Current (SJCC) was observed in the upper layer, propagating eastward toward the Savu Sea. A few days later, the observed currents in the upper layer of the Ombai Strait revealed the ITF flow towards the Indian Ocean. Meanwhile, the lower layer showed an eastward flow towards the Ombai Strait.

  8. Airborne measurement of peroxy radicals in the lower troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés Hernández, Maria Dolores; Horstjann, Markus; Kartal, Deniz; Krebsbach, Marc; Linke, Christian; Lichtenstern, Michael; Andrey, Javier; Burrows, John P.

    2013-04-01

    The importance of peroxy radicals in the tropospheric chemistry is well recognized in the scientific literature. Hydroxy- and organic peroxy radicals (HO2 and RO2, R being an organic chain) are key intermediates in the OH radical initiated oxidation of CO and SO2, of volatile organic compounds (VOC), in the ozonolysis of alkenes and photo-oxidation of carbonyl species. Peroxy radicals are responsible for the ozone production in the troposphere, the formation of peroxides and other oxidants. Although radical chemistry in the troposphere has been subject of intensive research in the past three decades, it is still very few known about the vertical distribution of peroxy radicals. Airborne observations are scarce in spite of their particular importance to improve the understanding of the tropospheric chemistry and the oxidising capacity of the atmosphere at different altitudes. In situ trace gas measurements were carried out in summer 2010 on board of the INTA (Instituto Nacional de Técnicas Aeroespaciales) C212 aircraft over Spain in the frame of the EUFAR project VERDRILLT (VERtical Distribution of Radicals In the Lower Layers of the Troposphere), and in cooperation with the DLR (Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt), the University of Wuppertal, the CEAM (Centro de Estudios Ambientales del Mediterráneo) and the UPV-EHU University in Bilbao. VERDRILLT aimed at getting a deeper understanding of the vertical distribution of peroxy radicals in the lower layers of the troposphere. Measurements were taken over urban areas and extensions of different vegetation under meteorological conditions favouring active photochemistry and convection from the ground into close atmospheric layers. Results and main findings will be presented and discussed.

  9. The Potential of Tropospheric Gradients for Regional Precipitation Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisits, Janina; Möller, Gregor; Wittmann, Christoph; Weber, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Changes of temperature and humidity in the neutral atmosphere cause variations in tropospheric path delays and tropospheric gradients. By estimating zenith wet delays (ZWD) and gradients using a GNSS reference station network the obtained time series provide information about spatial and temporal variations of water vapour in the atmosphere. Thus, GNSS-based tropospheric parameters can contribute to the forecast of regional precipitation events. In a recently finalized master thesis at TU Wien the potential of tropospheric gradients for weather prediction was investigated. Therefore, ZWD and gradient time series at selected GNSS reference stations were compared to precipitation data over a period of six months (April to September 2014). The selected GNSS stations form two test areas within Austria. All required meteorological data was provided by the Central Institution for Meteorology and Geodynamics (ZAMG). Two characteristics in ZWD and gradient time series can be anticipated in case of an approaching weather front. First, an induced asymmetry in tropospheric delays results in both, an increased magnitude of the gradient and in gradients pointing towards the weather front. Second, an increase in ZWD reflects the increased water vapour concentration right before a precipitation event. To investigate these characteristics exemplary test events were processed. On the one hand, the sequence of the anticipated increase in ZWD at each GNSS station obtained by cross correlation of the time series indicates the direction of the approaching weather front. On the other hand, the corresponding peak in gradient time series allows the deduction of the direction of movement as well. To verify the results precipitation data from ZAMG was used. It can be deduced, that tropospheric gradients show high potential for predicting precipitation events. While ZWD time series rather indicate the orientation of the air mass boundary, gradients rather indicate the direction of movement

  10. Lidar Profiling In the lower Troposphere: experience from PECAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoz, Belay B.; Delgado, Ruben; Caroll, Brian; Vermeesch, Kevin; Whiteman, David N.; Sakai, Ricardo; Tesfay, Sium; Cooper, Lorenza

    2018-04-01

    Results from the PECAN (Plains Elevated Convection at Night) campaign are discussed. In particular, the utility of simple backscatter lidars/ceilometers in quantifying atmospheric dynamics parameters and variables as well as evolution of the lower tropospheric dynamics are made. Cases of bore wave dynamics and the potential of these events in lofting of low level, moist, airmass and its consequence in thunderstorm initiation are made. A suite of thermodynamic profiling instruments are combined and compared to describe and visualize lower tropospheric dynamic evolution.

  11. Lidar Profiling In the lower Troposphere: experience from PECAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demoz Belay B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Results from the PECAN (Plains Elevated Convection at Night campaign are discussed. In particular, the utility of simple backscatter lidars/ceilometers in quantifying atmospheric dynamics parameters and variables as well as evolution of the lower tropospheric dynamics are made. Cases of bore wave dynamics and the potential of these events in lofting of low level, moist, airmass and its consequence in thunderstorm initiation are made. A suite of thermodynamic profiling instruments are combined and compared to describe and visualize lower tropospheric dynamic evolution.

  12. Tropospheric ozone and biomass burning in intertropical Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cros, B.; Nganga, D.; Delmas, R.A.; Fontan, J.

    1991-01-01

    To obtain a better understanding of tropospheric ozone's behavior in the equatorial belt of Africa, surface ozone measurements were made in the northern Congo (forest region) and on the other side of the equator in a savanna area. The data show a seasonal cycle with maximum values during the dry season: January and February in the northern tropics and June to October in the southern ones. Satellite data are needed to explain the eventual disappearance or non-appearance of a maximum of total tropospheric ozone during the northern dry season

  13. ERUPTIVE VARIABLE STARS AND OUTFLOWS IN SERPENS NW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Astronomisches Institut, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability, and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star-forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser), and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broadband K and in a narrowband filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of H{sub 2} allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify an H{sub 2} jet emerging from the cometary nebula EC 53. The star illuminating EC 53 is periodically variable with a period of 543 days and has a close-by, non-variable companion at a projected distance of 92 AU. We argue that the periodic variability is the result of accretion instabilities triggered by another very close, not directly observable, binary companion and that EC 53 can be understood in the model of a multiple system developing into a hierarchical configuration.

  14. DENSE CLUMPS AND CANDIDATES FOR MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS IN W40

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoikura, Tomomi; Dobashi, Kazuhito [Department of Astronomy and Earth Sciences, Tokyo Gakugei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Fumitaka; Hara, Chihomi; Kawabe, Ryohei [National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Tanaka, Tomohiro [Department of Physical Science, Osaka Prefecture University, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Shimajiri, Yoshito [Laboratoire AIM, CEA/DSM-CNRS-Université Paris Diderot, IRFU/Service d’Astrophysique, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Sugitani, Kouji, E-mail: ikura@u-gakugei.ac.jp [Graduate School of Natural Sciences, Nagoya City University, Mizuho-ku, Nagoya 467-8501 (Japan)

    2015-06-20

    We report the results of the {sup 12}CO (J = 3−2) and HCO{sup +} (J = 4−3) observations of the W40 H ii region with the Atacama Submillimeter Telescope Experiment (ASTE) 10 m telescope (HPBW ≃ 22″) to search for molecular outflows and dense clumps. We found that the velocity field in the region is highly complex, consisting of at least four distinct velocity components at V{sub LSR} ≃ 3, 5, 7, and 10 km s{sup −1}. The ∼7 km s{sup −1} component represents the systemic velocity of cold gas surrounding the entire region, and causes heavy absorption in the {sup 12}CO spectra over the velocity range 6 ≲ V{sub LSR} ≲ 9 km s{sup −1}. The ∼5 and ∼10 km s{sup −1} components exhibit high {sup 12}CO temperature (≳40 K) and are found mostly around the H ii region, suggesting that these components are likely to be tracing dense gas interacting with the expanding shell around the H ii region. Based on the {sup 12}CO data, we identified 13 regions of high velocity gas, which we interpret as candidate outflow lobes. Using the HCO{sup +} data, we also identified six clumps and estimated their physical parameters. On the basis of the ASTE data and near-infrared images from 2MASS, we present an updated three-dimensional model of this region. In order to investigate molecular outflows in W40, the SiO (J = 1−0, v = 0) emission line and some other emission lines at 40 GHz were also observed with the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory, but they were not detected at the present sensitivity.

  15. The Retrograde Transvenous Push-Through Method: A Novel Treatment of Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with Dominant Venous Outflow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wohlgemuth, Walter A.; Müller-Wille, René; Teusch, Veronika I.; Dudeck, Oliver; Cahill, Anne M.; Alomari, Ahmad I.; Uller, Wibke

    2015-01-01

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel retrograde transvenous embolization technique of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent transvenous retrograde Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow over a 29-month period. The embolization is aimed at retrograde filling of the nidus after building a solid plug in the dominant venous outflow (push-through). Classification, clinical signs, technical aspects, clinical and technical success rates, and complications were recorded. Short-term outcome was assessed.Results11 Symptomatic patients (8 female; mean age 31.4 years) were treated at our Vascular Anomalies Center with this method between January 2012 and May 2014. The AVMs were located on the upper extremity (n = 3), pelvis (n = 2), buttock (n = 2), and lower extremity (n = 4). Retrograde embolization was successfully carried out after preparatory transarterial-flow reduction in eight cases (73 %) and venous-flow reduction with Amplatzer Vascular Plugs in four cases (36 %). Complete devascularization (n = 10; 91 %) or 95 % devascularization (n = 1; 9 %) led to complete resolution (n = 8; 73 %) or improvement of clinical symptoms (n = 3; 27 %). One minor complication occurred (pain and swelling). During a mean follow-up time of 8 months, one clinically asymptomatic recurrence of AVM was detected.ConclusionInitial results suggest that retrograde transvenous Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow is a safe and effective novel technique with a low complication rate

  16. The Retrograde Transvenous Push-Through Method: A Novel Treatment of Peripheral Arteriovenous Malformations with Dominant Venous Outflow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlgemuth, Walter A., E-mail: walter.wohlgemuth@ukr.de; Müller-Wille, René, E-mail: Rene.Mueller-Wille@ukr.de; Teusch, Veronika I., E-mail: Veronika.Teusch@gmx.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany); Dudeck, Oliver, E-mail: Oliver.Dudeck@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Cahill, Anne M., E-mail: Cahill@email.chop.edu [Perelman School of Medicine of the University of Pennsylvania, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (United States); Alomari, Ahmad I., E-mail: Ahmad.Alomari@childrens.harvard.edu [Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Vascular and Interventional Radiology (United States); Uller, Wibke, E-mail: Wibke.Uller@ukr.de [University Medical Center Regensburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeTo evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel retrograde transvenous embolization technique of peripheral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) using Onyx.Materials and MethodsWe conducted a retrospective analysis of all patients who underwent transvenous retrograde Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow over a 29-month period. The embolization is aimed at retrograde filling of the nidus after building a solid plug in the dominant venous outflow (push-through). Classification, clinical signs, technical aspects, clinical and technical success rates, and complications were recorded. Short-term outcome was assessed.Results11 Symptomatic patients (8 female; mean age 31.4 years) were treated at our Vascular Anomalies Center with this method between January 2012 and May 2014. The AVMs were located on the upper extremity (n = 3), pelvis (n = 2), buttock (n = 2), and lower extremity (n = 4). Retrograde embolization was successfully carried out after preparatory transarterial-flow reduction in eight cases (73 %) and venous-flow reduction with Amplatzer Vascular Plugs in four cases (36 %). Complete devascularization (n = 10; 91 %) or 95 % devascularization (n = 1; 9 %) led to complete resolution (n = 8; 73 %) or improvement of clinical symptoms (n = 3; 27 %). One minor complication occurred (pain and swelling). During a mean follow-up time of 8 months, one clinically asymptomatic recurrence of AVM was detected.ConclusionInitial results suggest that retrograde transvenous Onyx embolization of peripheral AVMs with dominant venous outflow is a safe and effective novel technique with a low complication rate.

  17. Troc: a proposed tropospheric sounder for chemistry and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camy-Peyret, C.

    TROC has been submitted to ESA in the last call for proposals of the Earth Explorer Opportunity Missions and its focus is on tropospheric composition and chemistry-climate interactions. The mission objectives of TROC cover four research subjects. Global tropospheric chemistry: perform global measurements from space of tropospheric composition in order to improve our understanding and to constrain models of tropospheric chemistry with emphasis on tropospheric ozone. Pollution: establish the impact of mega cities of industrialised or developing countries by monitoring their pollution plumes. Biomass burning: monitor the chemical species and aerosols injected in the free troposphere during major burning episodes in the intertropical region as well as by major forest fires at other latitudes. Chemistry-climate interactions: quantify on a global scale the distributions and the sources of greenhouse gases like CO2, CH4, O3, N2O and the CFCs. Contribute to demonstration studies for monitoring from space how Montreal and Kyoto protocols are enforced as far as human impacts on atmospheric chemistry and climate are concerned. To fulfil these objectives, passive remote sensing of the troposphere has been selected as the best compromise between technical maturity and multi-species coverage. The main elements of TROC are a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) instrument and an ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrometer, both operating in the downward-looking geometry with a 10 km diameter footprint at nadir. An ``intelligent'' pointing mirror coupled to an infrared imager is used to optimise day/night sounding down to the surface. The FTIR instrument covers at 0.1 cm-1 apodised spectral resolution 3 bands from 14 to 3.3 μ m in thermal emission and one band in solar reflected light around 2.3 μ m. The UV-vis instrument covers the regions 290-490 nm (1 nm resolution) and 520-1030 nm (2.5 nm resolution) with 43 array detectors (2 bands × 2 polarizations) in reflected

  18. Negative and Positive Outflow-Feedback in Nearby (U)LIRGs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazzoli, Sara, E-mail: sara@iaa.es [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Granada (Spain)

    2017-12-15

    The starburst-AGN coexistence in local (U)LIRGs makes these galaxies excellent laboratories for the study of stellar and AGN outflows and feedback. Outflows regulate star formation and AGN activity, redistributing gas, dust and metals over large scales in the interstellar and intergalactic media (negative feedback) being also considered to be able to undergo vigorous star formation (positive feedback). In this contribution, I will summarize the results from a search for outflows in a sample of nearby 38 local (U)LIRG systems observed with VIMOS/VLT integral field unit. For two galaxies of the sample I will detail the outflow properties and discuss the observational evidence for negative and positive outflow-feedback. The assessment of both negative and positive feedback effects represent a novel approach toward a comprehensive understanding of the impact of outflow feedback in the galaxy evolution.

  19. THE TURBULENT ORIGIN OF OUTFLOW AND SPIN MISALIGNMENT IN MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Arce, Héctor G.; Fielding, Drummond B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Dunham, Michael M., E-mail: soffner@astro.umass.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-08-10

    The protostellar outflows of wide-separation forming binaries frequently appear misaligned. We use magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the alignment of protostellar spin and molecular outflows for forming binary pairs. We show that the protostellar pairs, which form from turbulent fragmentation within a single parent core, have randomly oriented angular momentum. Although the pairs migrate to closer separations, their spins remain partially misaligned. We produce {sup 12}CO(2-1) synthetic observations of the simulations and characterize the outflow orientation in the emission maps. The CO-identified outflows exhibit a similar random distribution and are also statistically consistent with the observed distribution of molecular outflows. We conclude that the observed misalignment provides a clear signature of binary formation via turbulent fragmentation. The persistence of misaligned outflows and stellar spins following dynamical evolution may provide a signature of binary origins for more evolved multiple star systems.

  20. THE TURBULENT ORIGIN OF OUTFLOW AND SPIN MISALIGNMENT IN MULTIPLE STAR SYSTEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offner, Stella S. R.; Lee, Katherine I.; Arce, Héctor G.; Fielding, Drummond B.; Dunham, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The protostellar outflows of wide-separation forming binaries frequently appear misaligned. We use magneto-hydrodynamic simulations to investigate the alignment of protostellar spin and molecular outflows for forming binary pairs. We show that the protostellar pairs, which form from turbulent fragmentation within a single parent core, have randomly oriented angular momentum. Although the pairs migrate to closer separations, their spins remain partially misaligned. We produce 12 CO(2-1) synthetic observations of the simulations and characterize the outflow orientation in the emission maps. The CO-identified outflows exhibit a similar random distribution and are also statistically consistent with the observed distribution of molecular outflows. We conclude that the observed misalignment provides a clear signature of binary formation via turbulent fragmentation. The persistence of misaligned outflows and stellar spins following dynamical evolution may provide a signature of binary origins for more evolved multiple star systems.

  1. The digital aqueous humor outflow meter: an alternative tool for screening of the human eye outflow facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassilios P Kozobolis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Vassilios P Kozobolis, Eleftherios I Paschalis, Nikitas C Foudoulakis, Stavrenia C Koukoula, Georgios LabirisDepartment of Ophthalmology and Eye Institute of Thrace, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreecePurpose: To develop, characterize, and validate a prototype digital aqueous humor outflow tonographer (DAHOM.Material and methods: The DAHOM was developed, characterized, and validated in three phases. Phase 1 involved construction of the sensor. This was broadly based on the fundamental design of a typical Schiotz tonographer with a series of improvements, including corneal indentation, which was converted to an electrical signal via a linear variable differential transducer, an analog signal which was converted to digital via ADC circuitry, and digital data acquisition and processing which was made possible by a serial port interface. Phase 2 comprised development of software for automated assessment of the outflow facility. Automated outflow facility assessment incorporated a series of fundamental improvements in comparison with traditional techniques, including software-based filtering of ripple noise and extreme variations, rigidity impact analysis, and evaluation of the impact of patient age, central corneal thickness, and ocular axial length. Phase 3 comprised characterization and validation of DAHOM, for which we developed an experimental setup using porcine cadaver eyes. DAHOM’s repeatability was evaluated by means of Cronbach’s alpha and intraclass correlation coefficient. The level of agreement with a standard Schiotz tonographer was evaluated by means of paired t-tests and Bland-Altman analysis in human eyes.Results: The experimental setup provided the necessary data for the characterization of DAHOM. A fourth order polynomial equation provided excellent fit (R square >0.999. DAHOM demonstrated high repeatability (Cronbach’s alpha ≥0.997; intraclass correlation coefficient ≥0.987 and an adequate level of

  2. Driving Roles of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Thermal Anomalies in Intensification and Persistence of the Arctic Superstorm in 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Wei; Zhang, Jing; Fu, Yunfei; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2017-10-01

    Intense synoptic-scale storms have been more frequently observed over the Arctic during recent years. Specifically, a superstorm hit the Arctic Ocean in August 2012 and preceded a new record low Arctic sea ice extent. In this study, the major physical processes responsible for the storm's intensification and persistence are explored through a series of numerical modeling experiments with the Weather Research and Forecasting model. It is found that thermal anomalies in troposphere as well as lower stratosphere jointly lead to the development of this superstorm. Thermal contrast between the unusually warm Siberia and the relatively cold Arctic Ocean results in strong troposphere baroclinicity and upper level jet, which contribute to the storm intensification initially. On the other hand, Tropopause Polar Vortex (TPV) associated with the thermal anomaly in lower stratosphere further intensifies the upper level jet and accordingly contributes to a drastic intensification of the storm. Stacking with the enhanced surface low, TPV intensifies further, which sustains the storm to linger over the Arctic Ocean for an extended period.

  3. Changes to Saturn's zonal-mean tropospheric thermal structure after the 2010-2011 northern hemisphere storm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achterberg, R. K.; Hesman, B. E. [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Gierasch, P. J.; Conrath, B. J. [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Fletcher, L. N. [Atmospheric Oceanic and Planetary Physics, University of Oxford, Clarenden Laboratory, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Bjoraker, G. L.; Flasar, F. M., E-mail: Richard.K.Achterberg@nasa.gov [Planetary Systems Laboratory NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2014-05-10

    We use far-infrared (20-200 μm) data from the Composite Infrared Spectrometer on the Cassini spacecraft to determine the zonal-mean temperature and hydrogen para-fraction in Saturn's upper troposphere from observations taken before and after the large northern hemisphere storm in 2010-2011. During the storm, zonal mean temperatures in the latitude band between approximately 25°N and 45°N (planetographic latitude) increased by about 3 K, while the zonal mean hydrogen para-fraction decreased by about 0.04 over the same latitudes, at pressures greater than about 300 mbar. These changes occurred over the same latitude range as the disturbed cloud band seen in visible images. The observations are consistent with low para-fraction gas being brought up from the level of the water cloud by the strong convective plume associated with the storm, while being heated by condensation of water vapor, and then advected zonally by the winds near the plume tops in the upper troposphere.

  4. The Red Sea outflow regulated by the Indian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiki, Hidenori; Takahashi, Keiko; Yamagata, Toshio

    2006-08-01

    To investigate why the Red Sea water overflows less in summer and more in winter, we have developed a locally high-resolution global OGCM with transposed poles in the Arabian peninsula and India. Based on a series of sensitivity experiments with different sets of idealized atmospheric forcing, the present study shows that the summer cessation of the strait outflow is remotely induced by the monsoonal wind over the Indian Ocean, in particular that over the western Arabian Sea. During the southwest monsoon (May-September), thermocline in the Gulf of Aden shoals as a result of coastal Ekman upwelling induced by the predominantly northeastward wind in the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea. Because this shoaling is maximum during the southwest summer monsoon, the Red Sea water is blocked at the Bab el Mandeb Strait by upwelling of the intermediate water of the Gulf of Aden in late summer. The simulation also shows the three-dimensional evolution of the Red Sea water tongue at the mid-depths in the Gulf of Aden. While the tongue meanders, the discharged Red Sea outflow water (RSOW) (incoming Indian Ocean intermediate water (IOIW)) is always characterized by anticyclonic (cyclonic) vorticity, as suggested from the potential vorticity difference.

  5. Ultrafast Outflows: Galaxy-scale Active Galactic Nucleus Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  6. Device for preventing coolant outflow in a reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemoto, Kiyomitsu; Mochizuki, Keiichi.

    1975-01-01

    Object: To prevent outflow of coolant from a reactor vessel even in an occurrence of leaking trouble at a low position in a primary cooling system or the like in the reactor vessel. Structure: An inlet at the foremost end of a coolant inlet pipe inserted into a reactor vessel is arranged at a level lower than a core, and a check valve is positioned at a level higher than the core in a rising portion of the inlet. In normal condition, the check valve is pushed up by discharge pressure of a main circulating pump and remains closed, and hence, producing no flow loss of coolant, sodium. However, when a trouble such as rupture occurs at the lower position in the primary cooling system, the attractive force for allowing the coolant to back-flow outside the reactor vessel and the load force of the coolant within the reactor vessel cause the check valve to actuate, as a consequence of which a liquid level of the coolant downwardly moves to the position of the check valve to intake the cover gases into a gas intake, thereby cutting off a flow passage of the coolant to stop outflow thereof. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M. [Center for Computational Sciences, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8577 (Japan); Bicknell, G. V., E-mail: ayw@ccs.tsukuba.ac.jp [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, ACT 2611 (Australia)

    2013-01-20

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  8. ULTRAFAST OUTFLOWS: GALAXY-SCALE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, A. Y.; Umemura, M.; Bicknell, G. V.

    2013-01-01

    We show, using global three-dimensional grid-based hydrodynamical simulations, that ultrafast outflows (UFOs) from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) result in considerable feedback of energy and momentum into the interstellar medium (ISM) of the host galaxy. The AGN wind interacts strongly with the inhomogeneous, two-phase ISM consisting of dense clouds embedded in a tenuous, hot, hydrostatic medium. The outflow floods through the intercloud channels, sweeps up the hot ISM, and ablates and disperses the dense clouds. The momentum of the UFO is primarily transferred to the dense clouds via the ram pressure in the channel flow, and the wind-blown bubble evolves in the energy-driven regime. Any dependence on UFO opening angle disappears after the first interaction with obstructing clouds. On kpc scales, therefore, feedback by UFOs operates similarly to feedback by relativistic AGN jets. Negative feedback is significantly stronger if clouds are distributed spherically rather than in a disk. In the latter case, the turbulent backflow of the wind drives mass inflow toward the central black hole. Considering the common occurrence of UFOs in AGNs, they are likely to be important in the cosmological feedback cycles of galaxy formation.

  9. Screen Channel Liquid Acquisition Device Outflow Tests in Liquid Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Jason W.; Chato, David J.; McQuillen, J. B.; Vera, J.; Kudlac, M. T.; Quinn, F. D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents experimental design and test results of the recently concluded 1-g inverted vertical outflow testing of two 325x2300 full scale liquid acquisition device (LAD) channels in liquid hydrogen (LH2). One of the channels had a perforated plate and internal cooling from a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) to enhance performance. The LADs were mounted in a tank to simulate 1-g outflow over a wide range of LH2 temperatures (20.3 - 24.2 K), pressures (100 - 350 kPa), and flow rates (0.010 - 0.055 kg/s). Results indicate that the breakdown point is dominated by liquid temperature, with a second order dependence on mass flow rate through the LAD. The best performance is always achieved in the coldest liquid states for both channels, consistent with bubble point theory. Higher flow rates cause the standard channel to break down relatively earlier than the TVS cooled channel. Both the internal TVS heat exchanger and subcooling the liquid in the propellant tank are shown to significantly improve LAD performance.

  10. The sacral autonomic outflow is parasympathetic: Langley got it right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, John P

    2018-04-01

    A recent developmental study of gene expression by Espinosa-Medina, Brunet and colleagues sparked controversy by asserting a revised nomenclature for divisions of the autonomic motor system. Should we re-classify the sacral autonomic outflow as sympathetic, as now suggested, or does it rightly belong to the parasympathetic system, as defined by Langley nearly 100 years ago? Arguments for rejecting Espinosa-Medina, Brunet et al.'s scheme subsequently appeared in e-letters and brief reviews. A more recent commentary in this journal by Brunet and colleagues responded to these criticisms by labeling Langley's scheme as a historical myth perpetuated by ignorance. In reaction to this heated exchange, I now examine both sides to the controversy, together with purported errors by the pioneers in the field. I then explain, once more, why the sacral outflow should remain known as parasympathetic, and outline suggestions for future experimentation to advance the understanding of cellular identity in the autonomic motor system.

  11. Advection-dominated Inflow/Outflows from Evaporating Accretion Disks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turolla; Dullemond

    2000-03-01

    In this Letter we investigate the properties of advection-dominated accretion flows (ADAFs) fed by the evaporation of a Shakura-Sunyaev accretion disk (SSD). In our picture, the ADAF fills the central cavity evacuated by the SSD and extends beyond the transition radius into a coronal region. We find that, because of global angular momentum conservation, a significant fraction of the hot gas flows away from the black hole, forming a transsonic wind, unless the injection rate depends only weakly on radius (if r2sigma&d2;~r-xi, xiBernoulli number of the inflowing gas is negative if the transition radius is less, similar100 Schwarzschild radii, so matter falling into the hole is gravitationally bound. The ratio of inflowing to outflowing mass is approximately 1/2, so in these solutions the accretion rate is of the same order as in standard ADAFs and much larger than in advection-dominated inflow/outflow models. The possible relevance of evaporation-fed solutions to accretion flows in black hole X-ray binaries is briefly discussed.

  12. Two separate outflows in the dual supermassive black hole system NGC 6240.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Sánchez, F; Nevin, R; Comerford, J M; Davies, R I; Privon, G C; Treister, E

    2018-04-01

    Theoretical models and numerical simulations have established a framework of galaxy evolution in which galaxies merge and create dual supermassive black holes (with separations of one to ten kiloparsecs), which eventually sink into the centre of the merger remnant, emit gravitational waves and coalesce. The merger also triggers star formation and supermassive black hole growth, and gas outflows regulate the stellar content 1-3 . Although this theoretical picture is supported by recent observations of starburst-driven and supermassive black hole-driven outflows 4-6 , it remains unclear how these outflows interact with the interstellar medium. Furthermore, the relative contributions of star formation and black hole activity to galactic feedback remain unknown 7-9 . Here we report observations of dual outflows in the central region of the prototypical merger NGC 6240. We find a black-hole-driven outflow of [O III] to the northeast and a starburst-driven outflow of Hα to the northwest. The orientations and positions of the outflows allow us to isolate them spatially and study their properties independently. We estimate mass outflow rates of 10 and 75 solar masses per year for the Hα bubble and the [O III] cone, respectively. Their combined mass outflow is comparable to the star formation rate 10 , suggesting that negative feedback on star formation is occurring.

  13. Burst Activity and Heart Rhythm Modulation in the Sympathetic Outflow to the Heart

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baselli, G

    2001-01-01

    In 13 decerebrate, artificially ventilated cats preganglionic sympathetic outflow to the heart was recorded with ECG and ventilation signal, A novel algorithm was implemented that extracts weighted...

  14. Satellite observations of tropospheric nitrogen dioxide : retrieval, interpretation, and modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, K.F.

    2005-01-01

    The research questions set out in Chapter 1 that guided the investigation in this thesis are repeated here. The answers to these questions contain the most important conclusions of the various chapters and are given below. 1. How can we retrieve accurate information on total and tropospheric NO2

  15. Spectrograph dedicated to measuring tropospheric trace gas constituents from space

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J. de; Laan, E.C.; Deutz, A.F.; Escudero-Sanz, I.; Bokhove, H.; Hoegee, J.; Aben, I.; Jongma, R.; Landgraf, J.; Hasekamp, O.P.; Houweling, S.; Weele, M. van; Oss, R. van; Oord, G. van den; Levelt, P.

    2005-01-01

    Several organizations in the Netherlands are cooperating to develop user requirements and instrument concepts in the line of SCIAMACHY and OMI but with an increased focus on measuring tropospheric constituents from space. The concepts use passive spectroscopy in dedicated wavelength sections in the

  16. Solitary Rossby waves in the lower tropical troposphere | Lenouo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weakly nonlinear approximation is used to study the theoretical comportment of large-scale disturbances around the inter-tropical mid-tropospheric jet. We show here that the Korteweg de Vries (KdV) theory is appropriated to describe the structure of the streamlines around the African easterly jet (AEJ) region.

  17. Spatial Variability of Wet Troposphere Delays Over Inland Water Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehran, Ali; Clark, Elizabeth A.; Lettenmaier, Dennis P.

    2017-11-01

    Satellite radar altimetry has enabled the study of water levels in large lakes and reservoirs at a global scale. The upcoming Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) satellite mission (scheduled launch 2020) will simultaneously measure water surface extent and elevation at an unprecedented accuracy and resolution. However, SWOT retrieval accuracy will be affected by a number of factors, including wet tropospheric delay—the delay in the signal's passage through the atmosphere due to atmospheric water content. In past applications, the wet tropospheric delay over large inland water bodies has been corrected using atmospheric moisture profiles based on atmospheric reanalysis data at relatively coarse (tens to hundreds of kilometers) spatial resolution. These products cannot resolve subgrid variations in wet tropospheric delays at the spatial resolutions (of 1 km and finer) that SWOT is intended to resolve. We calculate zenith wet tropospheric delays (ZWDs) and their spatial variability from Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) numerical weather prediction model simulations at 2.33 km spatial resolution over the southwestern U.S., with attention in particular to Sam Rayburn, Ray Hubbard, and Elephant Butte Reservoirs which have width and length dimensions that are of order or larger than the WRF spatial resolution. We find that spatiotemporal variability of ZWD over the inland reservoirs depends on climatic conditions at the reservoir location, as well as distance from ocean, elevation, and surface area of the reservoir, but that the magnitude of subgrid variability (relative to analysis and reanalysis products) is generally less than 10 mm.

  18. On the impact of temperature on tropospheric ozone concentration ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The influence of temperature on tropospheric ozone (O3)concentrations in urban and photochemically polluted areas in the greater Athens region are investigated in the present study.Hourly values of the ambient air temperature used for studying the urban heat island effect in Athens were recorded at twenty-three ...

  19. RIVM Tropospheric ozone LIDAR Measurements during TROLIX'91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apituley A

    1991-01-01

    For the intercomparison of several LIDAR systems for the vertical profiling of tropospheric ozone developed in the EUREKA/EUROTRAC subproject TESLAS a field campaign was held at the RIVM site in Bilthoven, the Netherlands, during the period from June 10 to June 28, 1991. In this report an overview

  20. Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Effect of some climatic parameters on tropospheric and total ozone column over Alipore (22.52°N, 88.33°E), India ... insolation obtained from Solar Geophysical Data Book and El-ñ index collected from National Climatic Data Center, US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, USA.

  1. The structure of high altitude O+ energization and outflow: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nilsson

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi-spacecraft observations from the CIS ion spectrometers on board the Cluster spacecraft have been used to study the structure of high-altitude oxygen ion energization and outflow. A case study taken from 12 April 2004 is discussed in more detail. In this case the spacecraft crossed the polar cap, mantle and high-altitude cusp region at altitudes between 4RE and 8RE and 2 of the spacecraft provided data. The oxygen ions were seen as a beam with narrow energy distribution, and increasing field-aligned velocity and temperature at higher altitude further in the upstream flow direction. The peak O+ energy was typically just above the highest energy of observed protons. The observed energies reached the upper limit of the CIS ion spectrometer, i.e. 38keV. Moment data from the spacecraft have been cross-correlated to determine cross-correlation coefficients, as well as the phase delay between the spacecraft. Structures in ion density, temperature and field-aligned flow appear to drift with the observed field-perpendicular drift. This, together with a velocity dispersion analysis, indicates that much of the structure can be explained by transverse heating well below the spacecraft. However, temperature isotropy and the particle flux as a function of field-aligned velocity are inconsistent with a single altitude Maxwellian source. Heating over extended altitude intervals, possibly all the way up to the observation point, seem consistent with the observations.

  2. The outflow of radionuclides from Novaya Zemlya bays. Modeling and monitoring strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, I.H.; Povinec, P.P.

    1999-01-01

    Hydrodynamic model results are used to evaluate possible monitoring strategies for a continuous survey of underwater dump sites. The Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM) is applied to Abrosimov Bay and forced with realistic, transient wind fields and air temperatures. The three-dimensional circulation model is coupled to a dynamic-thermodynamic ice model that accounts for surface heat fluxes, fractional ice cover and ice thickness. Model results show significant variations in the bay circulation due to a pronounced seasonality in the wind forcing and the ice cover. The circulation is weakest in early summer when wind speeds are low and the ice still covers most parts of the bay. In autumn, circulation and flushing of the bay is most enhanced, due to increasing wind speeds and the absence of an ice cover. Dispersion scenarios were carried out assuming a leakage at dumped objects. During most of the year the obtained tracer concentrations in the bay are higher in the upper layers than close to the bottom, indicating an outflow at the surface and a compensatory inflow below. This general pattern is only reversed during spring and early summer, when the wind directions change. Since ice problems make it almost impossible to monitor surface waters or even the whole water column in a shallow bay, the only way to install a monitoring system, is at the bottom of the bay, as close as possible to dumped objects. Data transmission via satellite or radio could be realized from a small station located on the bay's edge

  3. The outflow of radionuclides from Novaya Zemlya bays--modeling and monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, I H; Povinec, P P

    1999-09-30

    Hydrodynamic model results are used to evaluate possible monitoring strategies for a continuous survey of underwater dump sites. The Hamburg Shelf Ocean Model (HAMSOM) is applied to Abrosimov Bay and forced with realistic, transient wind fields and air temperatures. The three-dimensional circulation model is coupled to a dynamic-thermodynamic ice model that accounts for surface heat fluxes, fractional ice cover and ice thickness. Model results show significant variations in the bay circulation due to a pronounced seasonality in the wind forcing and the ice cover. The circulation is weakest in early summer when wind speeds are low and the ice still covers most parts of the bay. In autumn, circulation and flushing of the bay is most enhanced, due to increasing wind speeds and the absence of an ice cover. Dispersion scenarios were carried out assuming a leakage at dumped objects. During most of the year the obtained tracer concentrations in the bay are higher in the upper layers than close to the bottom, indicating an outflow at the surface and a compensatory inflow below. This general pattern is only reversed during spring and early summer, when the wind directions change. Since ice problems make it almost impossible to monitor surface waters or even the whole water column in a shallow bay, the only way to install a monitoring system, is at the bottom of the bay, as close as possible to dumped objects. Data transmission via satellite or radio could be realized from a small station located on the bay's edge.

  4. Radiative forcing for changes in tropospheric O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, A.S.; Wuebbles, D.J.; Grant, K.E.

    1994-06-01

    We have evaluated the radiative forcing for assumed changes in tropospheric O 3 in the 500-1650 cm -1 wavenumber range. The radiative forcing calculations were performed as a function of latitude as well as for a globally and seasonally averaged model atmosphere, both in a clear sky approximation and in a model containing a representative cloud distribution. The scenarios involved radiative forcing calculations for O 3 at normal atmospheric abundance and at a tropospheric abundance depleted by 25 ppbv, at each altitude, for all northern hemisphere latitudes. Normal abundances of H 2 O, CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O were included in the calculations. The IR radiative forcing was calculated using a correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model. The tropospheric radiative forcing values are compared to the IPCC formulae for ozone tropospheric forcing as well as other published values to determine the validity of the correlated k-distribution approach to the radiative forcing calculations. The results for the global average atmosphere show agreement with previous results to the order of 10 percent. We conclude that the O 3 forcing is linear in the background abundance and that the radiative forcing for ozone for the globally averaged atmosphere and the latitude averaged radiative forcing in the clear sky approximation are in agreement to within 10 percent. For the case of an atmosphere in which the tropospheric ozone has been depleted by 25 ppbv at all altitudes in the northern hemisphere, the mid latitude zone contributes ∼50 percent of the forcing, tropic zone contributes ∼37 percent of the forcing and the polar zone contributes ∼13 percent of the total forcing

  5. Sensitivity of airborne radio occultation to tropospheric properties over ocean and land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xie

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Airborne radio occultation (ARO measurements collected during a ferry flight at the end of the PRE-Depression Investigation of Cloud-systems in the Tropics (PREDICT field campaign from the Virgin Islands to Colorado are analyzed. The large contrast in atmospheric conditions along the flight path from the warm and moist Caribbean Sea to the much drier and cooler continental conditions provides a unique opportunity to address the sensitivity of ARO measurements to the tropospheric temperature and moisture changes. This long flight at nearly constant altitude (∼ 13 km provided an optimal configuration for simultaneous high-quality ARO measurements from two high-gain side-looking antennas, as well as one relatively lower gain zenith (top antenna. The omnidirectional top antenna has the advantage of tracking robustly more occulting satellites in all direction as compared to the limited-azimuth tracking of the side-looking antennas. Two well-adapted radio-holographic bending angle retrieval methods, full-spectrum inversion (FSI and phase matching (PM, were compared with the standard geometric-optics (GO retrieval method. Comparison of the ARO retrievals from the top antenna with the near-coincident ECMWF reanalysis-interim (ERA-I profiles shows only a small root-mean-square (RMS refractivity difference of ∼ 0.3 % in the drier upper troposphere from ∼ 5 to ∼ 11.5 km over both land and ocean. Both the FSI and PM methods improve the ARO retrievals in the moist lower troposphere and reduce the negative bias found in the GO retrieval due to atmospheric multipath. In the lowest layer of the troposphere, the ARO refractivity derived using FSI shows a negative bias of about −2 %. The increase of the refractivity bias occurs below 5 km over the ocean and below 3.5 km over land, corresponding to the approximate altitude of large vertical moisture gradients above the ocean and land surface, respectively. In comparisons to

  6. The Radiative Role of Free Tropospheric Aerosols and Marine Clouds over the Central North Atlantic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzoleni, Claudio [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Kumar, Sumit [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Wright, Kendra [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Kramer, Louisa [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Mazzoleni, Lynn [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Owen, Robert [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States); Helmig, Detlev [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-12-09

    microscope – were often very compacted, suggesting cloud processing and exhibiting different optical properties from fresh emissions. In addition, black carbon was found to be sometimes mixed with mineral dust, affecting its optical properties and potential forcing. c) Some aerosols collected at PMO acted as ice nuclei, potentially contributing to cirrus cloud formation during their transport in the upper free troposphere. Identified good ice nuclei were often mineral dust particles. d) The free tropospheric aerosols studied at PMO have relevance to low level marine clouds due, for example, to synoptic subsidence entraining free tropospheric aerosols into the marine boundary layer. This has potentially large consequences on cloud condensation nuclei concentrations and compositions in the marine boundary layer; therefore, having an effect on the marine stratus clouds, with potentially important repercussions on the radiative forcing. The scientific products of this project currently include contributions to two papers published in the Nature Publishing group (Nature Communications and Scientific Reports), one paper under revision for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, one in review in Geophysical Research Letters and one recently submitted to Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussion. In addition, four manuscripts are in advanced state of preparation. Finally, twenty-eight presentations were given at international conferences, workshops and seminars.

  7. Winter- and summertime continental influences on tropospheric O3 and CO observed by TES over the western North Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Talbot

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The distributions of tropospheric ozone (O3 and carbon monoxide (CO, and the synoptic factors regulating these distributions over the western North Atlantic Ocean during winter and summer were investigated using profile retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES for 2004–2006. Seasonal composites of TES retrievals, reprocessed to remove the influence of the a priori on geographical and seasonal structure, exhibited strong seasonal differences. At the 681 hPa level during winter months of December, January and February (DJF the composite O3 mixing ratios were uniformly low (~45 ppbv, but continental export was evident in a channel of enhanced CO (100–110 ppbv flowing eastward from the US coast. In summer months June, July, and August (JJA O3 mixing ratios were variable (45–65 ppbv and generally higher due to increased photochemical production. The summer distribution also featured a channel of enhanced CO (95–105 ppbv flowing northeastward around an anticyclone and exiting the continent over the Canadian Maritimes around 50° N. Offshore O3-CO slopes were generally 0.15–0.20 mol mol−1 in JJA, indicative of photochemical O3 production. Composites for 4 predominant synoptic patterns or map types in DJF suggested that export to the lower free troposphere (681 hPa level was enhanced by the warm conveyor belt airstream of mid-latitude cyclones while stratospheric intrusions increased TES O3 levels at 316 hPa. A major finding in the DJF data was that offshore 681 hPa CO mixing ratios behind cold fronts could be enhanced up to >150 ppbv likely by lofting from the surface via shallow convection resulting from rapid destabilization of cold air flowing over much warmer ocean waters. In JJA composites for 3 map types showed that the general export pattern of the seasonal composites was associated with a synoptic pattern featuring the Bermuda High. However, weak cyclones and frontal troughs could enhance offshore 681 hPa CO

  8. Dust plume formation in the free troposphere and aerosol size distribution during the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment in North Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Basit Ali

    2015-11-27

    Dust particles mixed in the free troposphere have longer lifetimes than airborne particles near the surface. Their cumulative radiative impact on earth’s meteorological processes and climate might be significant despite their relatively small contribution to total dust abundance. One example is the elevated dust-laden Saharan Air Layer (SAL) over the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic, which cools the sea surface. To understand the formation mechanisms of a dust layer in the free troposphere, this study combines model simulations and dust observations collected during the first stage of the Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-I), which sampled dust events that extended from Morocco to Portugal, and investigated the spatial distribution and the microphysical, optical, chemical, and radiative properties of Saharan mineral dust. The Weather Research Forecast model coupled with the Chemistry/Aerosol module (WRF-Chem) is employed to reproduce the meteorological environment and spatial and size distributions of dust. The model domain covers northwest Africa and adjacent water with 5 km horizontal grid spacing and 51 vertical layers. The experiments were run from 20 May to 9 June 2006, covering the period of the most intensive dust outbreaks. Comparisons of model results with available airborne and ground-based observations show that WRF-Chem reproduces observed meteorological fields as well as aerosol distribution across the entire region and along the airplane’s tracks. Several mechanisms that cause aerosol entrainment into the free troposphere are evaluated and it is found that orographic lifting, and interaction of sea breeze with the continental outflow are key mechanisms that form a surface-detached aerosol plume over the ocean. The model dust emission scheme is tuned to simultaneously fit the observed total optical depth and the ratio of aerosol optical depths generated by fine and coarse dust modes. Comparisons of simulated dust size distributions with

  9. Dust plume formation in the free troposphere and aerosol