This article discusses examples of strategies employed by representatives of Russia's new social upper class to acquire social distinction. By the late 2000s many of the upper-class Russians included in this study distanced themselves from the conspicuous ostentation ascribed to the brutish 1990s. Instead, they strove to gain legitimacy for their social position by no longer aggressively displaying their wealth, but instead elaborating more refined and individualized tastes and manners and reviving a more cultured image and self-image. These changes found their expression in various modes of social distinction ranging from external signs, such as fashion and cars, to ostentation vicariously exercised through the people these upper-class Russians surrounded themselves with. The article will trace these interviewees' strategies for distinction in the late 2000s by discussing tastes in lifestyle and consumption as well as adornment through sartorial signs and through vicarious ostentation, as exemplified by their choice of female company. Changing attitudes towards vehicles and modes of transport, with special regards to the Moscow Metro, will serve as a further illustration of modes of distinction. Crucial for this discussion is the role of the Russian/Soviet intelligentsia, both for vicarious status assertion and elite distinction anchored in the interviewees' social backgrounds. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2014.
Dubois, David; Rucker, Derek D; Galinsky, Adam D
Are the rich more unethical than the poor? To answer this question, the current research introduces a key conceptual distinction between selfish and unethical behavior. Based on this distinction, the current article offers 2 novel findings that illuminate the relationship between social class and unethical behavior. First, the effects of social class on unethical behavior are not invariant; rather, the effects of social class are moderated by whether unethical behavior benefits the self or others. Replicating past work, social class positively predicted unethical behavior; however, this relationship was only observed when that behavior was self-beneficial. When unethical behavior was performed to benefit others, social class negatively predicted unethical behavior; lower class individuals were more likely than upper class individuals to engage in unethical behavior. Overall, social class predicts people's tendency to behave selfishly, rather than predicting unethical behavior per se. Second, individuals' sense of power drove the effects of social class on unethical behavior. Evidence for this relationship was provided in three forms. First, income, but not education level, predicted unethical behavior. Second, feelings of power mediated the effect of social class on unethical behavior, but feelings of status did not. Third, two distinct manipulations of power produced the same moderation by self-versus-other beneficiary as was found with social class. The current theoretical framework and data both synthesize and help to explain a range of findings in the social class and power literatures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Ruggera, Lucia; Barone, Carlo
This article assesses how processes of social closure enhance intergenerational immobility in the regulated professions and thus promote persistence at the top of the occupational hierarchy. We compare four European countries (GB, Germany, Denmark and Sweden) that differ considerably in their degree of professional regulation and in their broader institutional arrangements. We run log-linear and logistic regression models on a cumulative dataset based on three large-scale surveys with detailed and highly comparable information at the level of unit occupations. Our analyses indicate that children of licensed professionals are far more likely to inherit the occupation of their parents and that this stronger micro-class immobility translates into higher chances of persistence in the upper class. These results support social closure theory and confirm the relevance of a micro-class approach for the explanation of social fluidity and of its cross-national variations. Moreover, we find that, when children of professionals do not reproduce the micro-class of their parents, they still display disproportionate chances of persistence in professional employment. Hence, on the one hand, processes of social closure erect barriers between professions and fuel micro-class immobility at the top. On the other hand, the cultural proximity of different professional groups drives intense intergenerational exchanges between them. Our analyses indicate that these micro- and meso-class rigidities work as complementary routes to immobility at the top. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Caldas, Stephen J.; Cornigans, Linda
This study used structural equation modeling to conduct a first and second order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of a scale developed by McDonald and Moberg (2002) to measure three dimensions of social capital among a diverse group of middle- and upper-middle-class elementary school parents in suburban New York. A structural path model was…
. Although this social structure was ideal in nature and not equally confirmed in other genres of ancient and medieval literature, it has nevertheless had an immense impact on Indian society. The chapter presents an overview of the system with its three privileged classes, the Brahmins, the Kṣatriyas......The notions of class (varṇa) and caste (jāti) run through the dharmaśāstra literature (i.e. Hindu Law Books) on all levels. They regulate marriage, economic transactions, work, punishment, penance, entitlement to rituals, identity markers like the sacred thread, and social interaction in general...
A large body of research in Western cultures has demonstrated the psychological and health effects of social class. This review outlines a cultural psychological approach to social stratification by comparing psychological and health manifestations of social class across Western and East Asian cultures. These comparisons suggest that cultural meaning systems shape how people make meaning and respond to material/structural conditions associated with social class, thereby leading to culturally divergent manifestations of social class. Specifically, unlike their counterparts in Western cultures, individuals of high social class in East Asian cultures tend to show high conformity and other-orientated psychological attributes. In addition, cultures differ in how social class impacts health (i.e. on which bases, through which pathways, and to what extent). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
McGinn, Kathleen L; Oh, Eunsil
People in low-power positions, whether due to gender or class, tend to exhibit other-oriented rather than self-oriented behavior. Women's experiences at work and at home are shaped by social class, heightening identification with gender for relatively upper class women and identification with class for relatively lower class women, potentially mitigating, or even reversing, class-based differences documented in past research. Gender-class differences are reflected in women's employment beliefs and behaviors. Research integrating social class with gendered experiences in homes and workplaces deepens our understanding of the complex interplay between sources of power and status in society. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tablante, Courtney B.; Fiske, Susan T.
Discussing socioeconomic status in college classes can be challenging. Both teachers and students feel uncomfortable, yet social class matters more than ever. This is especially true, given increased income inequality in the United States and indications that higher education does not reduce this inequality as much as many people hope. Resources…
Benach, Joan; Amable, Marcelo
Social classes and poverty are two key social determinants fundamental to understand how disease and health inequalities are produced. During the 90's in Spain there has been a notable oscillation in the inequality and poverty levels, with an increase in the middle of the decade when new forms of social exclusion, high levels of unemployment and great difficulties in accessing the labour market, especially for those workers with less resources, emerged. Today society is still characterized by a clear social stratification and the existence of social classes with a predominance of high levels of unemployment and precarious jobs, and where poverty is an endemic social problem much worse than the EU average. To diminish health inequalities and to improve the quality of life will depend very much on the reduction of the poverty levels and the improvement of equal opportunities and quality of employment. To increase understanding of how social class and poverty affect public health, there is a need to improve the quality of both information and research, and furthermore planners and political decision makers must take into account those determinants when undertaking disease prevention and health promotion.
Sanchez Fajardo, Jose Antonio
The geographical proximity and socioeconomic dependence on the United States brought about a deep-rooted anglicization of the Cuban Spanish lexis and social strata, especially throughout the Neocolonial period (1902-1959). This study is based on the revision of a renowned newspaper of that time, "Diario de la Marina," and the…
Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher
Recent evidence suggests that perceptions of social class rank influence a variety of social cognitive tendencies, from patterns of causal attribution to moral judgment. In the present studies we tested the hypotheses that upper-class rank individuals would be more likely to endorse essentialist lay theories of social class categories (i.e., that social class is founded in genetically based, biological differences) than would lower-class rank individuals and that these beliefs would decrease support for restorative justice--which seeks to rehabilitate offenders, rather than punish unlawful action. Across studies, higher social class rank was associated with increased essentialism of social class categories (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and decreased support for restorative justice (Study 4). Moreover, manipulated essentialist beliefs decreased preferences for restorative justice (Study 3), and the association between social class rank and class-based essentialist theories was explained by the tendency to endorse beliefs in a just world (Study 2). Implications for how class-based essentialist beliefs potentially constrain social opportunity and mobility are discussed.
Kraus, Michael W; Côté, Stéphane; Keltner, Dacher
Recent research suggests that lower-class individuals favor explanations of personal and political outcomes that are oriented to features of the external environment. We extended this work by testing the hypothesis that, as a result, individuals of a lower social class are more empathically accurate in judging the emotions of other people. In three studies, lower-class individuals (compared with upper-class individuals) received higher scores on a test of empathic accuracy (Study 1), judged the emotions of an interaction partner more accurately (Study 2), and made more accurate inferences about emotion from static images of muscle movements in the eyes (Study 3). Moreover, the association between social class and empathic accuracy was explained by the tendency for lower-class individuals to explain social events in terms of features of the external environment. The implications of class-based patterns in empathic accuracy for well-being and relationship outcomes are discussed.
Toubøl, Jonas; Grau Larsen, Anton
This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus...
Yola Damayanti Gani
Full Text Available The portrayal of urban upper middle class American women's community in Sex and the City-SATC-is built upon constructed symbols related to the position of urban upper middle class American Women's community and how cosmopolitan the women are. The symbol's construction is characterized by singleness, upper middle class social status, well-established career, alienation, consumptiveness, independence, gender consciousness, and open mindedness in their sexual knowledge. Television has helped to fracture traditional conventions about how women should place themselves in the midst of their society and constructed urban upper middle class American women's image and identity.
Dunne, Mairead; Gazeley, Louise
Addressing the "the social class attainment gap" in education has become a government priority in England. Despite multiple initiatives, however, little has effectively addressed the underachievement of working-class pupils within the classroom. In order to develop clearer understandings of working-class underachievement at this level,…
Social class is a powerful and often unrecognized influence on student participation in the extracurriculum. Spontaneous student-created extracurricular experiences depend on students affiliating and interacting with each other; student social class is a powerful influence on student affiliations. Students tend to exercise consciousness of kind-…
Kraus, Michael W; Mendes, Wendy Berry
Social rank in human and nonhuman animals is signaled by a variety of behaviors and phenotypes. In this research, we examined whether a sartorial manipulation of social class would engender class-consistent behavior and physiology during dyadic interactions. Male participants donned clothing that signaled either upper-class (business-suit) or lower-class (sweatpants) rank prior to engaging in a modified negotiation task with another participant unaware of the clothing manipulation. Wearing upper-class, compared to lower-class, clothing induced dominance--measured in terms of negotiation profits and concessions, and testosterone levels--in participants. Upper-class clothing also elicited increased vigilance in perceivers of these symbols: Relative to perceiving lower-class symbols, perceiving upper-class symbols increased vagal withdrawal, reduced perceptions of social power, and catalyzed physiological contagion such that perceivers' sympathetic nervous system activation followed that of the upper-class target. Discussion focuses on the dyadic process of social class signaling within social interactions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Durante, Federica; Fiske, Susan T
Social class stereotypes support inequality through various routes: ambivalent content, early appearance in children, achievement consequences, institutionalization in education, appearance in cross-class social encounters, and prevalence in the most unequal societies. Class-stereotype content is ambivalent, describing lower-SES people both negatively (less competent, less human, more objectified), and sometimes positively, perhaps warmer than upper-SES people. Children acquire the wealth aspects of class stereotypes early, which become more nuanced with development. In school, class stereotypes advantage higher-SES students, and educational contexts institutionalize social-class distinctions. Beyond school, well-intentioned face-to-face encounters ironically draw on stereotypes to reinforce the alleged competence of higher-status people and sometimes the alleged warmth of lower-status people. Countries with more inequality show more of these ambivalent stereotypes of both lower-SES and higher-SES people. At a variety of levels and life stages, social-class stereotypes reinforce inequality, but constructive contact can undermine them; future efforts need to address high-status privilege and to query more heterogeneous samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
How do critical pedagogies promote undergraduate students' awareness of social class, social class identity, and social class inequalities in education? How do undergraduate students experience class consciousness-raising in the intergroup dialogue classroom? This qualitative study explores undergraduate students' class consciousness-raising in an…
Bates, Vincent C.
This article takes a practical look at social class in school music by exploring the manifestations and impact of three of its dimensions: financial resources, cultural practices, and social networks. Three suggestions are discussed: provide a free and equal music education for all students, understand and respect each student's cultural…
Kraus, Michael W; Horberg, E J; Goetz, Jennifer L; Keltner, Dacher
Lower-class individuals, because of their lower rank in society, are theorized to be more vigilant to social threats relative to their high-ranking upper-class counterparts. This class-related vigilance to threat, the authors predicted, would shape the emotional content of social interactions in systematic ways. In Study 1, participants engaged in a teasing interaction with a close friend. Lower-class participants--measured in terms of social class rank in society and within the friendship--more accurately tracked the hostile emotions of their friend. As a result, lower-class individuals experienced more hostile emotion contagion relative to upper-class participants. In Study 2, lower-class participants manipulated to experience lower subjective socioeconomic rank showed more hostile reactivity to ambiguous social scenarios relative to upper-class participants and to lower-class participants experiencing elevated socioeconomic rank. The results suggest that class affects expectations, perception, and experience of hostile emotion, particularly in situations in which lower-class individuals perceive their subordinate rank.
Van Doesum, Niels J.; Tybur, Joshua M.; Van Lange, Paul A.M.
Social class predicts numerous important life outcomes and social orientations. To date, literature has mainly examined how an individual's own class shapes interactions with others. But how prosocially do people treat others they perceive as coming from lower, middle, or higher social classes?
Rucker, Derek D; Galinsky, Adam D
This article offers a primer on social power and social class with respect to their theoretical importance, conceptual distinction, and empirical relationship. We introduce and define the constructs of social power, social class, and one's psychological sense of power. We next explore the complex relationship between social power and social class. Because social class can produce a sense of power within an individual, studies on social power can inform theory and research on social class. We conclude with a discussion of the current challenges and future opportunities for the study of social power and social class. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
L. V. Kozlova
The article considers the basic thesis of Maurice Halbwachs’s theory of social classes outlined in the “Social classes and morphology” (1942): the concept of class is revealed as the object of collective representation, the main characteristics of classes, the criteria for its selection and conditions for classes formation are analyzed.
Côté, Stéphane; Kraus, Michael W; Carpenter, Nichelle C; Piff, Paul K; Beermann, Ursula; Keltner, Dacher
Historically high levels of economic inequality likely have important consequences for relationships between people of the same and different social class backgrounds. Here, we test the prediction that social affiliation among same-class partners is stronger at the extremes of the class spectrum, given that these groups are highly distinctive and most separated from others by institutional and economic forces. An internal meta-analysis of 4 studies (N = 723) provided support for this hypothesis. Participant and partner social class were interactively, rather than additively, associated with social affiliation, indexed by affiliative behaviors and emotions during structured laboratory interactions and in daily life. Further, response surface analyses revealed that paired upper or lower class partners generally affiliated more than average-class pairs. Analyses with separate class indices suggested that these patterns are driven more by parental income and subjective social class than by parental education. The findings illuminate the dynamics of same- and cross-class interactions, revealing that not all same-class interactions feature the same degree of affiliation. They also reveal the importance of studying social class from an intergroup perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
McDowell, Teresa; Melendez-Rhodes, Tatiana; Althusius, Erin; Hergic, Sara; Sleeman, Gillian; Ton, Nicky Kieu My; Zimpfer-Bak, A J
Social class is not often discussed or examined in-depth in couple and family therapy research and literature even though social class shapes familial relationships and is considered an important variable in marital satisfaction. In this qualitative study, we explored the perceptions of eight couples who made lasting commitments across class lines by asking them about the impact of their social class backgrounds on their relationships. Three categories of themes emerged including: (a) differences and similarities in values and attitudes toward education, work, money, and class awareness/classism, (b) relationship issues involving families of origin, friends, and class-based couple conflict, and (c) differences in economic resources, social capital and privileges/opportunities. Implications for assessment and treatment of couples are included. © 2012 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.
Varnum, Michael E W
Numerous studies have documented the effects of social class on psychological and behavioral variables. However, lay beliefs about how social class affects these dimensions have not been systematically tested. Studies 1 and 2 assessed lay beliefs about the association between social class and 8 variables (including psychological and behavioral tendencies and cognitive ability). Study 3 assessed lay beliefs about the Big five personality traits and social class, and study 4 reframed the 8 variables from study 1 in opposite terms and yielded similar results. Study 5 contained the variables framed as in both studies 1 and 4, and replicated those results suggesting that framing effects were not responsible for the effects observed. Interestingly, for the most part lay beliefs about social class did not differ as a function of participants' own social class. In general people held relatively accurate and consistent stereotypes about the relationship between social class and well-being, health, intelligence, and neuroticism. In contrast lay beliefs regarding social class and reasoning styles, as well as relational, social, and emotional tendencies were less consistent and coherent. This work suggests that on the whole people's beliefs about social class are not particularly accurate, and further that in some domains there are contradictory stereotypes about the consequences of social class.
Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun W
Social class ranks people on the social ladder of society, and in this research we examine how perceptions of economic standing shape the way that individuals evaluate the self. Given that reminders of one's own subordinate status in society are an indicator of how society values the self in comparison to others, we predicted that chronic lower perceptions of economic standing vis-à-vis others would explain associations between objective social class and negative self-evaluation, whereas situation-specific reminders of low economic standing would elicit negative self-evaluations, particularly in those from lower-class backgrounds. In Study 1, perceptions of social class rank accounted for the positive relationship between objective material resource measures of social class and self-esteem. In Study 2, lower-class individuals who received a low (versus equal) share of economic resources in an economic game scenario reported more negative self-conscious emotions-a correlate of negative self-evaluation-relative to upper-class individuals. Discussion focused on the implications of this research for understanding class-based cultural models of the self, and for how social class shapes self-evaluations chronically.
Michael W. Kraus
Full Text Available Social class ranks people on the social ladder of society, and in this research we examine how perceptions of economic standing shape the way that individuals evaluate the self. Given that reminders of one’s own subordinate status in society are an indicator of how society values the self in comparison to others, we predicted that chronic lower perceptions of economic standing rank vis-à-vis others would explain associations between objective social class and negative self-evaluation, whereas situation-specific reminders of low economic standing would elicit negative self-evaluations, particularly in those from lower-class backgrounds. In Study 1, perceptions of social class rank accounted for the positive relationship between objective material resource measures of social class and self-esteem. In Study 2, lower-class individuals who received a low (versus equal share of economic resources in an economic game scenario reported more negative self-conscious emotions relative to upper-class individuals. Discussion focused on the implications of this research for understanding class-based cultural models of the self, and for how social class shapes self-evaluations chronically.
In the United States, one is born into a family that can be identified as working class, middle class, or affluent--divisions that denote status and power, as defined by access to resources. This article explores the relationships between social class membership and a wide array of personal and social daily life experiences. It concludes with a…
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality. The problem of finding an upper dominating set is NP-hard for general graphs and in many restricted graph families. In the present paper, we study the computational complexity of this problem in monogenic classes of graphs (i.e. classes defined by a single forbidden induced subgraph) and show that the problem admits a dichotomy in this family. In particular, we prove that if the only forbidden induced subgraph is a P4 or a 2K2 (or any induced subgraph of these graphs), then the problem can be solved in polynomial time. Otherwise, it is NP-hard.
This paper is part of a wider project that investigates how organisational and individual factors within the workplace contribute to social class differences and inequality by examining the relative impact of objective and subjective indicators of social class on explicit (e.g. salary, promotions) and implicit (e.g. career satisfaction, quality of working life, stress and well-being) career and work outcomes. \\ud There is increasing recognition that social class differences play a crucial rol...
Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun Won
Individual agency accounts of social class persist in society and even in psychological science despite clear evidence for the role of social structures. This article argues that social class is defined by the structural dynamics of society. Specifically, access to powerful networks, groups, and institutions, and inequalities in wealth and other economic resources shape proximal social environments that influence how individuals express their internal states and motivations. An account of social class that highlights the means by which structures shape and are shaped by individuals guides our understanding of how people move up or down in the social class hierarchy, and provides a framework for interpreting neuroscience studies, experimental paradigms, and approaches that attempt to intervene on social class disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jones, Ian Rees
Research addressing social class and dementia has largely focused on measures of socioeconomic status as causal risk factors for dementia and in observed differences in diagnosis, treatment and care. This large body of work has produced important insights but also contains numerous problems and weaknesses. Research needs to take account of the ways in which ageing and social class have been transformed in tandem with the economic, social and cultural coordinates of late modernity. These changes have particular consequences for individual identities and social relations. With this in mind this article adopts a critical gaze on research that considers interactions between dementia and social class in three key areas: (i) epidemiological approaches to inequalities in risk (ii) the role of social class in diagnosis and treatment and (iii) class in the framing of care and access to care. Following this, the article considers studies of dementia and social class that focus on lay understandings and biographical accounts. Sociological insights in this field come from the view that dementia and social class are embedded in social relations. Thus, forms of distinction based on class relations may still play an important role in the lived experience of dementia. © 2017 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness.
Weis, Lois, Ed.; Dolby, Nadine, Ed.
"Social Class and Education: Global Perspectives" is the first empirically grounded volume to explore the intersections of class, social structure, opportunity, and education on a truly global scale. Fifteen essays from contributors representing the US, Europe, China, Latin America and other regions offer an unparralleled examination of…
Baron, Reuben M.; And Others
Investigated the role of disconfirming behavioral information and the limits on social class schema effects. Using a Bayesian model of social perception, it was found that unambiguous, relevant stimulus information influenced judgments. Although social class information did not affect relevant stimulus information, it did sway judgments in…
Kish-Gephart, Jennifer J
This paper reviews recent work regarding the link between one's societal ranking (or social class), and risk preferences and behavior. While the topic of social class and its relationship to risk has been studied only tentatively in psychology, preliminary evidence suggests that experiences with rank, access to resources, and movement between classes have a meaningful impact on people's risk preferences and behaviors. Yet, a clear pattern of results remains elusive. Some studies suggest that lower social class standing is related to risk aversion, while others suggest it is related to risk taking. These mixed results highlight the need for future research that examines when and why lower social class standing is related to more or less risky decisions. By shedding light on this important phenomenon, the hope is to offer intervention opportunities that influence policies and mitigate inequality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Social presence refers to the ability of students to project themselves as 'real people' in an online learning community. While it is difficult to create social presence in large classes, educational technologies can enhance the social dimension of online learning if educators relinquish the use of technology as an instrument of ...
The goal of this paper is to highlight how instructors may integrate the different social media into various marketing classes. The paper will address the major social networks, and then follow with discussions of microblogging, media sites, and social gaming. Given that there is a great deal of research highlighting the effectiveness of utilizing…
The task of studying the impact of social class on physical and mental health involves, among other things, the use of a conceptual toolbox that defines what social class is, establishes how to measure it, and sets criteria that help distinguish it from closely related concepts. One field that has recently witnessed a wealth of theoretical and conceptual research on social class is psychology, but geographers' and sociologists' attitude of diffidence toward this "positivistic" discipline has prevented them from taking advantage of this body of scholarship. This paper aims to highlight some of the most important developments in the psychological study of social class and social mobility that speak to the long-standing concerns of health geographers and sociologists with how social position, perceptions, social comparisons, and class-based identities impact health and well-being. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hunt, Carolyn S.; Seiver, Machele
In this conceptual literature review, the authors analyze research from the last 20 years to explore how social class discourses are reproduced, resisted, and appropriated within Kindergarten through Grade 12 classrooms in the United States. The findings challenge commonly held deficit discourses about students and families from economically…
Kraus, Michael W; Piff, Paul K; Keltner, Dacher
Lower social class is associated with diminished resources and perceived subordinate rank. On the basis of this analysis, the authors predicted that social class would be closely associated with a reduced sense of personal control and that this association would explain why lower class individuals favor contextual over dispositional explanations of social events. Across 4 studies, lower social class individuals, as measured by subjective socioeconomic status (SES), endorsed contextual explanations of economic trends, broad social outcomes, and emotion. Across studies, the sense of control mediated the relation between subjective SES and contextual explanations, and this association was independent of objective SES, ethnicity, political ideology, and self-serving biases. Finally, experimentally inducing a higher sense of control attenuated the tendency for lower subjective SES individuals to make more contextual explanations (Study 4). Implications for future research on social class as well as theoretical distinctions between objective SES and subjective SES are discussed.
Hardy, Clifford A.
Student attitudes toward current controversial problems (bussing for racial integration, legalization of abortion, and legalization of marijuana) were studied with regard to social class. The 1960 revision of the Purdue Master Attitude Scale was used. (LBH)
Merrild, Camilla Hoffmann; Risør, Mette Bech; Vedsted, Peter; Andersen, Rikke Sand
In recent years an extensive social gradient in cancer outcome has attracted much attention, with late diagnosis proposed as one important reason for this. Whereas earlier research has investigated health care seeking among cancer patients, these social differences may be better understood by looking at health care seeking practices among people who are not diagnosed with cancer. Drawing on long-term ethnographic fieldwork among two different social classes in Denmark, our aim in this article is to explore the relevance of class to health care seeking practices and illness concerns. In the higher middle class, we predominantly encountered health care seeking resembling notions of health consumerism, practices sanctioned and encouraged by the health care system. However, among people in the lower working class, health care seeking was often shaped by the inseparability of physical, political, and social dimensions of discomfort, making these practices difficult for the health care system to accommodate.
This is at once a playful text with a serious purpose: to provide the reader with the theoretical lenses to analyze the dynamics of social class. It will appeal to students, and indeed anyone interested in how class mediates relationships in higher education, both because of its engaging tone, and because it uses the college campus as a microcosm…
Tan, Jacinth J X; Kraus, Michael W
The economic conditions of one's life can profoundly and systematically influence health outcomes over the life course. Our present research demonstrates that rejecting the notion that social class categories are biologically determined-a nonessentialist belief-buffers lower-class individuals from poor self-rated health and negative affect, whereas conceiving of social class categories as rooted in biology-an essentialist belief-does not. In Study 1, lower-class individuals self-reported poorer health than upper-class individuals when they endorsed essentialist beliefs but showed no such difference when they rejected such beliefs. Exposure to essentialist theories of social class also led lower-class individuals to report greater feelings of negative self-conscious emotions (Studies 2 and 3), and perceive poorer health (Study 3) than upper-class individuals, whereas exposure to nonessentialist theories did not lead to such differences. Discussion considers how lay theories of social class potentially shape long-term trajectories of health and affect of lower-class individuals. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
This article asks why classical music in the UK, which is consumed and practiced by the middle and upper classes, is being used as a social action program for working-class children in British music education schemes inspired by El Sistema. Through exploring the discourse of the social benefits of classical music in the late nineteenth century, a…
Analytical concepts such as 'bounded consumption' or 'controlled loss of control' have been applied to characterise contemporary youth intoxication. This article argues that this kind of cultural diagnosis benefits from being related to a focus on differences in social class. It is shown that in ......Analytical concepts such as 'bounded consumption' or 'controlled loss of control' have been applied to characterise contemporary youth intoxication. This article argues that this kind of cultural diagnosis benefits from being related to a focus on differences in social class. It is shown...... people to construct social class-related identities: mainstream youngsters continually confirm their taken-for-granted normality, and mainstream breakers resist the mainstream hegemonic (school) culture which usually defies them. In conclusion, bounded consumption, corresponding with contemporary ideals...
Wohlfarth, T.; van den Brink, W.
The relationship between social class and substance use disorders (SUDs) is explored and compared to the relationship between SES and SUDs. Social class and SES are two different conceptualizations of socioeconomic inequality (SEI) which emanate from two different theoretical orientations in
Toubøl, Jonas; Larsen, Anton Grau
This article develops a new explorative method for deriving social class categories from patterns of occupational mobility. In line with Max Weber, our research is based on the notion that, if class boundaries do not inhibit social mobility then the class categories are of little value. Thus......, unlike dominant, theoretically defined class schemes, this article derives social class categories from observed patterns in a mobility network covering intra-generational mobility. The network is based on a mobility table of 109 occupational categories tied together by 1,590,834 job shifts on the Danish...... labour market 2001–2007. The number of categories are reduced from 109 to 34 by applying a new clustering algorithm specifically designed for the study of mobility tables (MONECA). These intra-generational social class categories are related to the central discussions of gender, income, education...
López-Gopar, Mario E.; Sughrua, William
This article explores social class in English-language education in Oaxaca, Mexico. To this end, first, we discuss social class in Mexico as related to coloniality; second, for illustration, the paper presents the authors' own social-class analysis as language educators in Oaxaca; third, we discuss how social class impacts English education…
D'Hooge, L.; Achterberg, P.H.J.; Reeskens, T.
The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans’ material and subjective social class do not coincide.
Gauthier, A.H.; Scott, Robert A.; Kosslyn, Stephen M.
This essay critically reviews the literature on social class differences in parental investment in children including differences in (i) parenting practices or behavior; (ii) parenting styles, logics, and strategies; and (iii) parenting values and ideologies. The essay reveals how structural and
NASA is making space exploration more affordable and viable by developing and utilizing innovative manufacturing technologies. Technology development efforts at NASA in propulsion are committed to continuous innovation of design and manufacturing technologies for rocket engines in order to reduce the cost of NASA's journey to Mars. The Low Cost Upper Stage-Class Propulsion (LCUSP) effort will develop and utilize emerging Additive Manufacturing (AM) to significantly reduce the development time and cost for complex rocket propulsion hardware. Benefit of Additive Manufacturing (3-D Printing) Current rocket propulsion manufacturing techniques are costly and have lengthy development times. In order to fabricate rocket engines, numerous complex parts made of different materials are assembled in a way that allow the propellant to collect heat at the right places to drive the turbopump and simultaneously keep the thrust chamber from melting. The heat conditioned fuel and oxidizer come together and burn inside the combustion chamber to provide thrust. The efforts to make multiple parts precisely fit together and not leak after experiencing cryogenic temperatures on one-side and combustion temperatures on the other is quite challenging. Additive manufacturing has the potential to significantly reduce the time and cost of making rocket parts like the copper liner and Nickel-alloy jackets found in rocket combustion chambers where super-cold cryogenic propellants are heated and mixed to the extreme temperatures needed to propel rockets in space. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) machine fuses 8,255 layers of copper powder to make a section of the chamber in 10 days. Machining an equivalent part and assembling it with welding and brazing techniques could take months to accomplish with potential failures or leaks that could require fixes. The design process is also enhanced since it does not require the 3D model to be converted to 2-D drawings. The design and fabrication process
Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intergenerational health-related mobility in explaining social-class inequalities in alcoholism among young men. Data on social class of origin and on risk factors in childhood and adolescence, e.g. risk use of alcohol, were collected for 49....... The increased relative risk could, to a considerable extent, be attributed to factors from childhood/adolescence. In this longitudinal study, it is shown that intergenerational social mobility associated with health-related factors, albeit not with illness itself, made a major contribution to explaining...... differences in alcoholism between social classes. Factors established in adolescence were important with regard to differences in alcoholism between social classes among young adults. But such adverse conditions did not seem to be well reflected by social class of origin....
D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James
This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classification scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classification schemes...... is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was first collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......-Goldthorpe classification system, raising doubts about the statistical validity of occupational classification systems in general. We also estimate regression models of occupational earnings, household earnings, and educational attainment using family background variables as covariates controlling for unobservables...
D. Munk, Martin; McIntosh, James
This research examines the various approaches taken by economists and sociologists for analyzing intergenerational mobility. Social mobility models based on social classes arising from an occupational classi.cation scheme are analyzed. A test for the statistical validity of classi.cation schemes...... is proposed and tested using Danish sample survey data that was .rst collected in 1976 and augmented in 2000. This is referred to as a homogeneity test and is a likelihood ratio test of a set of linear restrictions which define social classes. For Denmark it is shown that this test fails for an Erikson......-Goldthorpe classi.cation system, raising doubts about the statistical validity of occupational classication systems in general. We also estimate regression models of occupational earnings, household earnings, and educational attainment using family background variables as covariates controlling for unobservables...
The present research investigated different types of social class identification as moderators of the negative relation between social class and mental health problems. Psychology undergraduates (N = 355) completed an online survey that included measures of social class, mental health and well-being, and three aspects of social class identification: importance of identity, salience of identity, and perceived self-class similarity. Perceived self-class similarity buffered the negative associat...
Nettelbladt, P; Uddenberg, N; Englesson, I
Sex-role patterns, the father's rearing attitude and the child's intellectual and emotional development in different social classes were studied in a randomly selected sample of 58 Swedish unbroken families of a small child. Working class men and women married younger and the women were more often house-wives. Working class men had more often been reared in an "authoritarian" way and more often reared their children in the same way. Upper middle class men had taken a more active part in the care of the child. Working class children scored lower on the intelligence tests, especially the verbal ones and were more often estimated as socially immature.
AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Hussain, Shahid; Lozin, Vadim V.; Monnot, Jé rô me; Ries, Bernard
An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality. The problem of finding an upper dominating set is NP-hard for general graphs and in many restricted graph families. In the present
Goudeau, Sébastien; Croizet, Jean-Claude
Three studies conducted among fifth and sixth graders examined how school contexts disrupt the achievement of working-class students by staging unfair comparison with their advantaged middle-class peers. In regular classrooms, differences in performance among students are usually showcased in a way that does not acknowledge the advantage (i.e., higher cultural capital) experienced by middle-class students, whose upbringing affords them more familiarity with the academic culture than their working-class peers have. Results of Study 1 revealed that rendering differences in performance visible in the classroom by having students raise their hands was enough to undermine the achievement of working-class students. In Studies 2 and 3, we manipulated students' familiarity with an arbitrary standard as a proxy for social class. Our results suggest that classroom settings that make differences in performance visible undermine the achievement of the students who are less familiar with academic culture. In Study 3, we showed that being aware of the advantage in familiarity with a task restores the performance of the students who have less familiarity with the task.
Rubin, Mark; Stuart, Rebecca
The present research investigated different types of social class identification as moderators of the negative relation between social class and mental health problems. Psychology undergraduates (N = 355) completed an online survey that included measures of social class, mental health and well-being, and three aspects of social class identification: importance of identity, salience of identity, and perceived self-class similarity. Perceived self-class similarity buffered the negative association between social class and depressive symptoms. However, importance and salience of social class identity amplified the associations between social class and anxiety and life satisfaction. These findings contribute to a more sophisticated understanding of the way in which social identification may operate as a social cure.
Bowman, Nicholas A; Kitayama, Shinobu; Nisbett, Richard E
Although U.S. culture strongly sanctions the ideal of independence, the specific ways in which independence is realized may be variable depending, among other factors, on social class. Characterized by relative scarcity of social and material resources, working-class (WC) Americans were expected to strongly value self-reliance. In contrast, with choices among abundant resources, middle-class (MC) Americans were expected to value personal control and social expansiveness. In support of this analysis, relative to their WC counterparts, MC Americans reported more support from friends and greater likelihood of giving and receiving advice but less self-reliance (Study 1). Furthermore, we found evidence that this social difference has cognitive consequences: College students with MC backgrounds were more likely than their WC counterparts were to endorse situational attributions for others' behavior (Studies 2a and 2b) as well as to show holistic visual attention (Study 3).
Reports that 73% of 66 elementary school (primary) teachers interviewed in the Aberdeen, Scotland, area operated using moderate policies of class control, rather than the permissive policies commonly found in small rural schools or the more traditional restrictive policies. (SB)
Since language is an influential tool in social interaction, the relationship of speech and social factors, such as social class, gender, even age is worth studying. People employ different linguistic variables to imply their social class, status and iden-tity in the social interaction. Thus the linguistic variation involves vocabulary, sounds, grammatical constructions, dialects and so on. As a result, a classification of social class draws people’s attention. Linguistic variable in speech interactions indicate the social relationship between people. This paper attempts to illustrate three main linguistic variables which influence the social class, and further sociolinguistic studies need to be more concerned about.
Clingerman, Forrest; O'Brien, Kevin J.
The undergraduate study of religion is predominantly undertaken by non-majors who are meeting a general education requirement. This means that, while curricular discussions make important distinctions between the work of lower- and upper-division courses, many religion and theology faculty are teaching hybrid courses that we call…
Fisher, Oliver; O'Donnell, S Casey; Oyserman, Daphna
Attainments often fall short of aspirations to lead lives of meaning, health, happiness and success. Identity-based motivation theory highlights how social class and cultural contexts affect likelihood of shortfalls: Identities influence the strategies people are willing to use to attain their goals and the meaning people make of experienced ease and difficulty. Though sensitive to experienced ease and difficulty, people are not sensitive to the sources of these experiences. Instead, people make culturally-tuned inferences about what their experiences imply for who they are and could become and what to do about it. American culture highlights personal and shadows structural causes of ease and difficulty, success and failure. As a result, people infer that class-based outcomes are deserved reflections of character. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farkas, Jerneja; Pahor, Majda; Zaletel-Kragelj, Lijana
Self-rated health can be influenced by several characteristics of the social environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between self-rated health and self-assessed social class in Slovenian adult population. The study was based on the Countrywide Integrated Non-communicable Diseases Intervention Health Monitor database. During 2004, 8,741/15,297 (57.1%) participants aged 25-64 years returned posted self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to determine unadjusted and adjusted estimates of association between poor self-rated health and self-assessed social class. Poor self-rated health was reported by 9.6% of participants with a decrease from lower to upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class (35.9 vs. 3.7%). Logistic regression showed significant association between self-rated health and all self-assessed social classes. In an adjusted model, poor self-rated health remained associated with self-assessed social class (odds ratio for lower vs. upper-middle/upper self-assessed social class 4.23, 95% confidence interval 2.46-7.25; P social classes. Participants from lower self-assessed social class reported poor self-rated health most often and should comprise the focus of multisectoral interventions.
Diemer, Matthew A.; Ali, Saba Rasheed
Although social class plays a salient and significant role in career development and occupational attainment, social class is underrepresented in vocational psychology theory, scholarship, and practice. Vocational psychologists are in a unique position to meet the career development needs of persons from all social classes by integrating a fuller…
Reynolds, John R; Parrish, Michael
Natural mentors provide advice, moral support, and assistance to adolescents who aspire to obtain a postsecondary degree, but past studies of the benefits of having an informal adult mentor have yet to resolve several issues. Our analyses of a national sample of high school graduates test three hypotheses: (H1) natural mentoring increases the odds of college attendance and completion, (H2) guidance and career advice are more important for college success than encouragement or role modeling, and (H3) students from poor and working-class families benefit more from mentoring than students from middle- and upper-class families. Hypotheses 1 and 3 are clearly supported when examining the odds of attending college, while Hypothesis 2 was not supported-encouragement and role modeling boost attendance, not advice or practical help. None of the hypotheses is supported when predicting degree completion among those who matriculated. As natural mentors do not appreciably increase the odds of completing college, we conclude past studies have overstated the postsecondary educational benefits of natural mentors. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.
In this essay I take seriously Max Weber's astonishingly neglected claim that class situation may be defined, not in categorial terms, but probabilistically. I then apply this idea to another equally neglected claim made by Weber that the boundaries of social classes may be determined by the degree of social mobility within such classes. Taking these two ideas together I develop the idea of a non-categorial boundary 'surface' between classes and of a social class 'corridor' made up of all those people who are still to be found within the boundaries of the social class into which they were born. I call social mobility within a social class 'intra-class social mobility' and social mobility between classes 'inter-class social mobility'. I also claim that this distinction resolves the dispute between those sociologists who claim that late industrial societies are still highly class bound and those who think that this is no longer the case. Both schools are right I think, but one is referring to a high degree of intra-class social mobility and the other to an equally high degree of inter-class mobility. Finally I claim that this essay provides sociology with only one example among many other possible applications of how probability theory might usefully be used to overcome boundary problems generally in sociology.
Abuan, M. V.; Galingan, Z. D.
Urban open spaces are created to be used by people. It is a place of convergence and social activity. However, these places have transformed into places of divergence. When spaces become dehumanized, it separates social classes. As a result, underused spaces contribute to urban decay. Particularly an urban edge, the JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is the center of this paper. The JP Rizal Makati Waterfront Area is a waterfront development situated along the banks of one of Metro Manila’s major water thoroughfare --- Pasig River. The park and its physical form, urban design and landscape tend to deteriorate over time --- creating a further division of social convergence. Social hostility, crime, negligent maintenance and poor urban design are contributing factors to this sprawling decay in what used to be spaces of bringing people together. Amidst attempts to beautify and renew this portion of Makati City’s edge, the urban area still remains misspent.This paper attempts to re-humanize the waterfront development. It uses the responsive environment design principles to be able to achieve this goal.
Piff, Paul K; Moskowitz, Jake P
Is higher social class associated with greater happiness? In a large nationally representative U.S. sample (N = 1,519), we examined the association between social class (household income) and self-reported tendencies to experience 7 distinct positive emotions that are core to happiness: amusement, awe, compassion, contentment, enthusiasm, love, and pride. Consistent with past research indicating that social class underlies differential patterns of attending to the self versus orienting to others, higher social class was associated with greater self-oriented feelings of contentment and pride, and with greater amusement. In contrast, lower social class was associated with more other-oriented feelings of compassion and love, and with greater awe. There were no class differences in enthusiasm. We discuss that individuals from different social class backgrounds may exhibit different patterns of emotional responding due to their distinct social concerns and priorities. Whereas self-oriented emotions may follow from, foster, and reinforce upper class individuals' desire for independence and self-sufficiency, greater other-oriented emotion may enable lower class individuals to form more interdependent bonds to cope with their more threatening environments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.
Working-class students tend to be less socially integrated at university than middle-class students. The present research investigated two potential reasons for this working-class social exclusion effect. First, working-class students may have fewer finances available to participate in social activities. Second, working-class students tend to be…
Piff, Paul K; Robinson, Angela R
This review synthesizes research on social class and prosocial behavior. Individuals of lower social class display increased attention to others and greater sensitivity to others' welfare compared to individuals of higher social class, who exhibit more self-oriented patterns of social cognition. As a result, lower-class individuals are more likely to engage in other-beneficial prosocial behavior, whereas higher-class individuals are more prone to engage in self-beneficial behavior. Although the extant evidence indicates that higher social class standing may tend to undermine prosocial impulses, we propose that the effects of social class on prosocial behavior may also depend on three crucial factors: motivation, identity, and inequality. We discuss how and why these factors may moderate class differences in prosociality and offer promising lines of inquiry for future research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Fabricius, Anne H.
Social class has recently re-emerged strongly within academic sociology in the UK, and I argue in this paper that sociolinguists benefit from an awareness of these currents in our work with speakers and communities in the UK setting. The discussion will elaborate on the approaches to social class...... ideological construct within British society all have ramifications for the resonance of social class in sociolinguistics and real-time corpus work. I will look at several research traditions of social class analysis and examine their potential contributions to sociolinguistic research. The importance of fine...
Kozar, Joy M.; Connell, Kim Y. Hiller
Utilizing a sample of undergraduate students and survey research methods, this study examined knowledge on issues of social responsibility within the apparel and textiles industry, comparing the sophistication among upper- versus lower-classmen. The study also investigated the differences between students in their socially responsible apparel…
Although social class impacts the assumptions, values, and normative practices of Religious Education, the lack of public discourse on class diminishes awareness of and critical reflection on this impact. This article describes social class as a largely unarticulated and embodied performance of identity inflected through hierarchical practices of…
O'Donoghue, Brian; Fanning, Felicity; Lyne, John; Renwick, Laoise; Madigan, Kevin; Kinsella, Anthony; Lane, Abbie; Turner, Niall; O'Callaghan, Eadbhard; Clarke, Mary
Individuals with psychotic disorders are represented more in the lower social classes, yet there is conflicting evidence to whether these individuals drift into the lower social classes or whether lower social class is a risk factor for developing psychosis. The aim of this study was to examine whether the social class at birth is a risk factor for developing psychosis. We included individuals with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) whose social class at birth was determined from birth records. We employed a case-control study design and also compared the distribution of the social classes at birth of the cases to that of the general population. A total of 380 individuals with an FEP and 760 controls were included in the case-control study. The odds ratio for developing an FEP associated with social class (low vs high) was .62 (95% confidence interval (CI): .46-.85, p social class at birth have a reduced risk of psychosis. Individuals born between 1961 and 1980 with an FEP were more likely to be from a higher social class at birth compared to the general population (60.8% vs 36.7%, χ(2) = 60.85, df = 1, p social class at birth is associated with a greater risk for developing a psychotic disorder; however, this effect may show temporal variation. © The Author(s) 2015.
English language educators are often advocates for social justice and often focus on learners' identities, such as their race, gender, and ethnicity; however, they tend not to employ a social class lens in analyzing students, teachers, classrooms, and institutions. Yet social class plays a significant, if unacknowledged, role in the field.…
D'Hooge, Lorenzo; Achterberg, Peter; Reeskens, Tim
The traditional approach to class voting has largely ignored the question whether material class positions coincide with subjective class identification. Following Sosnaud et al. (2013), this study evaluates party preferences when Europeans' material and subjective social class do not coincide. Seminal studies on voting behavior have suggested that members of lower classes are more likely to vote for the economic left and cultural right and that higher classes demonstrate the opposite pattern. Yet, these studies have on the one hand overlooked the possibility that there is a mismatch between the material class people can be classified in and the class they think they are part of, and on the other hand the consequences of this discordant class identification on voting behavior. Analyzing the 2009 wave of the European Elections Study, we find that the majority of the Europeans discordantly identify with the middle class, whereas only a minority of the lower and higher classes concordantly identify with their material social class. Further, material class only seems to predict economic voting behavior when it coincides with subjective class; for instance, individuals who have an inflated class identification are more likely to vote for the economic left, even when they materially can be classified as middle or high class. We conclude this paper with a discussion on scholarly debates concerning class and politics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Exposição, discussão e refutação das principais tentativas de atualizar a teoria marxista de classes e posterior reavaliação dessa teoria à luz da transformação da ciência em fator de produção e da possível perda de centralidade do trabalho no processo produtivo, tendo por base as interpretações lógicas da obra de Marx feitas por Ruy Fausto.Exposition, discussion and refutation of the main attempts of actualizing marxist class theory and a posterior reevaluation of this theory taking into account the transformation of Science into a factor of production and of the possible centrality-loss of work in the productive process, based on the logic interpretations of Marx's work made by Ruy Fausto.
Fouad, Nadya A.; Fitzpatrick, Mary E.
In this reaction to Diemer and Ali's article, "Integrating Social Class Into Vocational Psychology: Theory and Practice Implications," the authors point out concerns with binary schema of social class, highlight the contribution of social class to the social cognitive career theory, argue for a more nuanced look at ways that work…
Krzyżanowska, Monika; Mascie-Taylor, C G Nicholas
Positive assortative mating for education and social position has been widely reported in a number of countries, but very few studies have tested whether or not educational or social class homogamy is related to differential fertility. This study examined the relationship between educational and social class assortative mating and fertility in a British national cohort. The analyses were based on 7452 husband-wife pairs from the British National Child Development Study (NCDS). The mean fertility was 3.22 children per couple; the number of children significantly increased from higher to lower social classes and from the more educated to the less educated. The extent of assortative mating for social class and educational level was related to fertility; as educational assortative mating decreased so did the average number of children, whereas the opposite trend was observed for social class. When assortative mating for education and social class were considered together, educational assortative mating was the more significant predictor of the number of children and educationally homogamous couples had higher fertility independent of their social class assortative mating. The relationship between assortative mating and fertility for education and social class appeared to be acting in the opposite direction.
Larger classes are often associated with lower student achievement. The author tested the hypothesis that the introduction of personal response systems significantly improves scores in a 250-seat classroom, through the channels of improved attendance and engagement. She focused on how continuous participation with the technology could change…
Hall, David; Jones, Lisa
This article focuses upon the classed and early professional experiences of middle-class novice teachers in England experiencing and contemplating working in schools serving socio-economically disadvantaged communities. Through an examination of the visibility and invisibility of social class in education set within an increasingly unequal and…
Treager Huber, Carey
Issues surrounding social class are often overlooked and rarely discussed in higher education; however, they affect students and institutions in critical ways. Although research has demonstrated that social class is a predictor of access to college, retention, academic performance, overall undergraduate and graduate experience, and college…
Valtonen, Teemu; Kontkanen, Sini; Dillon, Patrick; Kukkonen, Jari; Väisänen, Pertti
This study focuses on upper secondary and vocational level teachers as users of social software i.e. what software they use during their leisure and work and for what purposes they use software in teaching. The study is theorised within a technological pedagogical content knowledge framework, the emphasis is especially on technological knowledge…
Park, Ju-Hee; Kwon, Young In
In order to understand how mothers develop their parenting styles under rapidly changing cultural contexts, this study examines and compares Korean upper-middle-class mothers' parental goals and real parenting practices as they reported. For this purpose, face-to-face in-depth interviews with 20 Korean mothers were conducted. By analyzing the…
Lapour, Anne Scott; Heppner, Mary J.
This qualitative study examined the perceived career options of 10 White adolescent young women who experienced social class privilege in their families of origin. The model of contextual privilege and career selection for adolescent White women emerged from the data, and it describes how social class privilege, gender, achievement expectations,…
This article adopts Pierre Bourdieu's cultural-structuralist approach to conceptualizing and identifying social classes in social space and seeks to identify health effects of class in one Canadian province. Utilizing data from an original questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults from 25 communities in British Columbia, social (class) groupings defined by cultural tastes and dispositions, lifestyle practices, social background, educational capital, economic capital, social capital and occupational categories are presented in visual mappings of social space constructed by use of exploratory multiple correspondence analysis techniques. Indicators of physical and mental health are then situated within this social space, enabling speculations pertaining to health effects of social class in British Columbia.
Cohen, Dov; Shin, Faith; Liu, Xi; Ondish, Peter; Kraus, Michael W
We examined changes over four decades and between ethnic groups in how people define their social class. Changes included the increasing importance of income, decreasing importance of occupational prestige, and the demise of the "Victorian bargain," in which poor people who subscribed to conservative sexual and religious norms could think of themselves as middle class. The period also saw changes (among Whites) and continuity (among Black Americans) in subjective status perceptions. For Whites (and particularly poor Whites), their perceptions of enhanced social class were greatly reduced. Poor Whites now view their social class as slightly but significantly lower than their poor Black and Latino counterparts. For Black respondents, a caste-like understanding of social class persisted, as they continued to view their class standing as relatively independent of their achieved education, income, and occupation. Such achievement indicators, however, predicted Black respondents' self-esteem more than they predicted self-esteem for any other group.
Passengers' chances of surviving the sinking of the S.S. Titanic were related to their sex and their social class: females were more likely to survive than males, and the chances of survival declined with social class as measured by the class in which the passenger travelled. The probable reasons for these differences in rates of survival are discussed as are the reasons accepted by the Mersey Committee of Inquiry into the sinking.
Bjornsdottir, R Thora; Rule, Nicholas O
Social class meaningfully impacts individuals' life outcomes and daily interactions, and the mere perception of one's socioeconomic standing can have significant ramifications. To better understand how people infer others' social class, we therefore tested the legibility of class (operationalized as monetary income) from facial images, finding across 4 participant samples and 2 stimulus sets that perceivers categorized the faces of rich and poor targets significantly better than chance. Further investigation showed that perceivers categorize social class using minimal facial cues and employ a variety of stereotype-related impressions to make their judgments. Of these, attractiveness accurately cued higher social class in self-selected dating profile photos. However, only the stereotype that well-being positively relates to wealth served as a valid cue in neutral faces. Indeed, neutrally posed rich targets displayed more positive affect relative to poor targets and perceivers used this affective information to categorize their social class. Impressions of social class from these facial cues also influenced participants' evaluations of the targets' employability, demonstrating that face-based perceptions of social class may have important downstream consequences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
There are large social class inequalities in educational achievement in the UK. This paper quantifies the contribution of one mechanism to the production of these inequalities: social class differences in school "effectiveness," where "effectiveness" refers to a school's impact on pupils' educational achievement (relative to…
Full Text Available Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivision malocclusion case with bilateral congenitally missing upper lateral incisors.
Siddharth Mehta; Ashima Valiathan; Arun Urala
Orthodontic treatment for patients with unilateral or bilateral congenitally missing lateral incisor poses a challenge mainly with regard to treatment planning. The use of a diagnostic setup is one of the most important aids in the decision-making process. Two alternatives, orthodontic space closure or space opening for prosthetic replacement exist. The present case report shows use of the microimplant for unilateral upper molar distalization and space closure in a Class-II division 1 subdivi...
Howard, Adam; Swalwell, Katy; Adler, Karlyn
Background/Context: Though there has been attention to how class differences impact children's experiences in schools and how young people perceive racial and gender differences, very little research to date has examined how young people make sense of social class differences. Purpose: In this article, the authors examine young children's…
Haymaker, Christopher; Cadick, Amber; Seavey, Allison
Social class and privilege are hidden variables that impact the physician-patient relationship and health outcomes. This article presents a sample of activities from three programs utilized in the community health curriculum to teach resident physicians about patients within context, including how social class and privilege impact physician-patient relationships and patient health. These activities address resident physicians' resistance to discussion of privilege, social class, and race by emphasizing direct experience and active learning rather than traditional didactic sessions. The group format of these activities fosters flexible discussion and personal engagement that provide opportunities for reflection. Each activity affords opportunities to develop a vocabulary for discussing social class and privilege with compassion and to adopt therapeutic approaches that are more likely to meet patients where they are.
van den Bos, Wouter; Crone, Eveline A; Meuwese, Rosa; Güroğlu, Berna
Adolescence is a key period of social development at the end of which individuals are expected to take on adult social roles. The school class, as the most salient peer group, becomes the prime environment that impacts social development during adolescence. Using social network analyses, we investigated how individual and group level features are related to prosocial behavior and social capital (generalized trust). We mapped the social networks within 22 classrooms of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (N = 611), and collected data on social behaviors towards peers. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality show both higher levels of prosocial behavior and relational aggression. Importantly, greater social cohesion in the classroom was associated with (1) reduced levels of antisocial behavior towards peers and (2) increased generalized trust. These results provide novel insights in the relationship between social structure and social behavior, and stress the importance of the school environment in the development of not only intellectual but also social capital.
Golden, Mark; And Others
In a longitudinal study of 89 black children from different social classes, while there were no significant SES differences on the Cattell Infant Intelligence Scale at 18 and 24 months of age, there was a highly significant 23 point Mean IQ difference between children from welfare and middle class black families on the Stanford-Binet at 3 years of…
Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy
Young people's perceptions may offer an insight into the complex associations between language, education and social class. However, little research has asked young people what they think of their own talking. Forty-two British adolescents aged between 14 and 15 years were interviewed: 21 attended a school in a working class area; 21 attended…
Greenhalgh-Spencer, Heather; Castro, Michelle; Bulut, Ergin; Goel, Koeli; Lin, Chunfeng; McCarthy, Cameron
This article draws on ethnographic research that examines the contemporary articulation of class identity in the postcolonial elite school setting of Old College high school in Barbados. From the qualitative data derived from this study, we argue that social class is better conceived as a series of flows, mutations, performances and performatives.…
Ostrove, Joan M.; Stewart, Abigail J.; Curtin, Nicola L.
We examined the role that social class background plays in graduate students' career goals. Class background was significantly related to the extent to which students struggled financially in graduate school, which related to their sense of belonging in graduate school. Sense of belonging related to academic self-concept, which predicted students'…
30 working-class and 33 upper-middle-class mothers were videotaped in dyadic interaction with their 18-29-month-old children in 4 settings--mealtime, dressing, book reading, and toy play. Samples of the mothers' adult-directed speech also were collected. There were significant social class differences in the mothers' child-directed speech and some parallel social class differences in the mothers' adult-directed speech. These findings suggested that some social class differences in child-directed speech may be instances of more general class differences in language use. There also were main effects of communicative setting on mothers' child-directed speech and interaction effects in which setting moderated the size of the class differences in maternal speech. These findings suggested that the amount of time mothers spend interacting with their children in different contexts may be at least as important an influence on children's linguistic experience as are average characteristics of their mothers' speech.
Flemmen, Magne; Jarness, Vegard; Rosenlund, Lennart
In this article, we address whether and how contemporary social classes are marked by distinct lifestyles. We assess the model of the social space, a novel approach to class analysis pioneered by Bourdieu's Distinction. Although pivotal in Bourdieu's work, this model is too often overlooked in later research, making its contemporary relevance difficult to assess. We redress this by using the social space as a framework through which to study the cultural manifestation of class divisions in lifestyle differences in contemporary Norwegian society. Through a Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) of unusually rich survey data, we reveal a structure strikingly similar to the model in Distinction, with a primary dimension of the volume of capital, and a secondary dimension of the composition of capital. While avoiding the substantialist fallacy of predefined notions of 'highbrow' and 'lowbrow' tastes, we explore how 168 lifestyle items map onto this social space. This reveals distinct classed lifestyles according to both dimensions of the social space. The lifestyles of the upper classes are distinctly demanding in terms of resources. Among those rich in economic capital, this manifests itself in a lifestyle which involves a quest for excitement, and which is bodily oriented and expensive. For their counterparts rich in cultural capital, a more ascetic and intellectually oriented lifestyle manifests itself, demanding of resources in the sense of requiring symbolic mastery, combining a taste for canonized, legitimate culture with more cosmopolitan and 'popular' items. In contrast to many studies' descriptions of the lower classes as 'disengaged' and 'inactive', we find evidence of distinct tastes on their part. Our analysis thus affirms the validity of Bourdieu's model of social class and the contention that classes tend to take the form of status groups. We challenge dominant positions in cultural stratification research, while questioning the aptness of the metaphor of
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960 and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990 was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24,659 from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 person-years and relative risks (RR by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate. The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. RESULTS: The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class. Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. CONCLUSIONS: Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility.
Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M
This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24,659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100,000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility.
Tiikkaja, Sanna; Sandin, Sven; Malki, Ninoa; Modin, Bitte; Sparén, Pär; Hultman, Christina M.
Objectives This study explored how adult social class and social mobility between parental and own adult social class is related to psychiatric disorder. Material and Methods In this prospective cohort study, over 1 million employed Swedes born in 1949-1959 were included. Information on parental class (1960) and own mid-life social class (1980 and 1990) was retrieved from the censuses and categorised as High Non-manual, Low Non-manual, High Manual, Low Manual and Self-employed. After identifying adult class, individuals were followed for psychiatric disorder by first admission of schizophrenia, alcoholism and drug dependency, affective psychosis and neurosis or personality disorder (N=24 659) from the Swedish Patient Register. We used Poisson regression analysis to estimate first admission rates of psychiatric disorder per 100 000 person-years and relative risks (RR) by adult social class (treated as a time-varying covariate). The RRs of psychiatric disorder among the Non-manual and Manual classes were also estimated by magnitude of social mobility. Results The rate of psychiatric disorder was significantly higher among individuals belonging to the Low manual class as compared with the High Non-manual class. Compared to High Non-manual class, the risk for psychiatric disorder ranged from 2.07 (Low Manual class) to 1.38 (Low Non-manual class). Parental class had a minor impact on these estimates. Among the Non-manual and Manual classes, downward mobility was associated with increased risk and upward mobility with decreased risk of psychiatric disorder. In addition, downward mobility was inversely associated with the magnitude of social mobility, independent of parental class. Conclusions Independently of parental social class, the risk of psychiatric disorder increases with increased downward social mobility and decreases with increased upward mobility. PMID:24260104
Darvin, Ron; Norton, Bonny
A necessary component of the neoliberal mechanisms of globalization, migration addresses the economic and labor needs of postindustrial countries while producing new modes of social fragmentation and inequality (Crompton, 2008). As migrant students insert themselves into segmented spaces, their countries of origin are themselves implicated in a…
Sparks, Sarah D.
Generally, boys and girls become more polarized through their first years in school. Now, researchers have started to explore how to span that sex divide and are finding that more-equitable coed classrooms can have social and academic benefits for boys and girls alike. While children of both sexes play together as toddlers, by the end of…
Bates, Vincent C.
This work of critical social theory explores how formal music education in modern capitalist societies mirrors the hierarchical, means-ends, one-dimensional structures of capitalism. So, rather than consistently or reliably empowering and emancipating children musically, school music can tend to marginalize, exploit, repress, and alienate. The…
Feb 1, 2018 ... Keywords: Social media, Class interaction, ODL system, Education, ... caused in both private and public working sectors ... The Role of Social Media in ODL Educational ... and others facilitate academic relationship .... who had also been yearning for education upgrading enrolled for their choice programs.
McLaughlin, Heather; Uggen, Christopher; Blackstone, Amy
Young disadvantaged workers are especially vulnerable to harassment due to their age and social class position. As young people enter the workforce, their experiences of, and reactions to, harassment may vary dramatically from those of older adult workers. Three case studies introduce theory and research on the relationship between social class…
Carlos, Villegas B; Giovanni, Oberti; Diego, Rey; Angela, Sierra; Baccetti, Tiziano
Pre-surgical orthodontic treatments have the objective of establishing harmony between the dental arches by moving the teeth to ideal positions in relation to their bony bases, in order to achieve adequate antero-posterior occlusal and transverse relationships at the moment of surgery. Among the typical requirements in terms of dental compensations presented by Class III patients that require surgery, the inclination of anterior teeth must be changed in most cases by proclination of the lower incisors and retroclination of upper incisors. To achieve the inclination of the upper incisors, many different alternatives have been proposed, such as inter-proximal reduction, extractions, or distalization of upper molars, which has not been widely reported in the literature as a means to decompensate Class III malocclusion prior to surgery. This article describes the Bone Supported Pendulum (BSP) as an efficient therapeutic option to distalize molars through the use of an appliance stabilized to the palate by mini-implants, thus avoiding extractions and providing good interdigitation and coordination of the dental arches.
Full Text Available Today’s political sociologists are once again interested in the study of the crisis of mass-based parties, anti-politics and anti-parliamentarism, crisis in the authority of the political class, prevailing corporate interests within republican institutions, and populism. Political sociology however, takes the party, as a construct of political sociology alone, without consideration upon its militancy and action, as the party, which objectifies the foundation of a State, and as a result the party becomes, simply an historical category. We approach the problem of the modern state from many angles; analysing the nature of a political party as such; the ideological dangers of determinism and spontaneism which a party necessarily must struggle with; the type of non-administrative internal regime which is necessary for a party to be effective and so on. The problem we seek to elaborate is the specific character of the collective action that makes possible the passage from a sectored, corporate and subordinate role of purely negative opposition, to a leading role of conscious action towards not merely a partial adjustment within the system, but posing the issue of the State in its entirety. In developing this theme – as a study of the real relations between the political party, the classes and the State – a two-fold consideration is devoted to the study of Machiavelli and Marx: first from the angle of the real relations between the two, as thinkers of revolutionary politics, of action; and secondly from a perspective which would derive from the Marxist doctrines an articulated system of contemporary politics, as found in The Prince.
Holstein, Bjørn E; Hansen, Ebba Holme; Due, Pernille
BACKGROUND: Little is known about social determinants of adolescents' medicine use. The objective was to analyse the association between the family's social class and adolescents' use of medicine for headache, stomachache, difficulties in getting to sleep, and nervousness. METHODS: Cross......, participation rate 88%, n=5,205. RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that medicine use for all four symptoms increased by decreasing social class, controlled for age and prevalence of the specific symptom for which the medicine was taken. Adjusted OR (95% CI) for medicine use among students from lower...... social classes were: medicine for headache 1.35 (1.11-1.65), medicine for stomachache 1.41 (1.08-1.84), medicine for difficulties in getting to sleep 2.00 (1.30-3.08), and medicine for nervousness 3.22 (1.87-5.56). CONCLUSION: Symptom-adjusted medicine use in a representative sample of Danish adolescents...
Yohanes Eko Rubiyanto
The writer conducts the research related to class conflict which is presented in Khaled Hosseini’s “The Kite Runner” novel. This qualitative research is written to analyze the conflicts that happen in Afghan society which is mainly caused by difference of social class. The research is conducted by using library research. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative method as the data are described in the form of sentences. The steps of collecting the data in this research are reading both the novel and the supporting theories related, analyzing, organizing and displaying the data to allow conclusions to be drawn. The results show that the society in the twentieth is fundamentally separated by two large groups namely Pashtun and Hazara. They are inhabit Afghanistan as told in The Kite Runner. The Pashtuns act as the dominant upper class and the Hazaras fill the society of the lower class which fits the theory of Marxism.
Neves, Barbara Barbosa; Fonseca, Jaime R S
This paper explores how Latent Class Models (LCM) can be applied in social research, when the basic assumptions of regression models cannot be validated. We examine the usefulness of this method with data collected from a study on the relationship between bridging social capital and the Internet. Social capital is defined here as the resources that are potentially available in one's social ties. Bridging is a dimension of social capital, usually related to weak ties (acquaintances), and a source of instrumental resources such as information. The study surveyed a stratified random sample of 417 inhabitants of Lisbon, Portugal. We used LCM to create the variable bridging social capital, but also to estimate the relationship between bridging social capital and Internet usage when we encountered convergence problems with the logistic regression analysis. We conclude by showing a positive relationship between bridging and Internet usage, and by discussing the potential of LCM for social science research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Middle class is a subject discussed by almost everyone, judging it in most cases from the visible living standard’s point of view: having the ownership of the dwelling, a car, making trips inside country or abroad, buying good quality and expensive goods or services and so on. But, at least in the case of our country, very often there is not a quantitative measurement of middle class, due to the fact that defining correct and reliable criteria to separate this social class from the others isn’t an easy task. Which are the “latent” factors which ensure each person’s capability to belong to the middle class? How much this affiliation depends on the individual characteristics and how much it depends on external factors like the characteristics of the society in which the persons are living in? A subtle definition of the middle class has to take into consideration several aspects, some of them more easily or more difficult to measure from the quantitative point of view. We are taking about some quantitative criteria like incomes or the number of endowment goods owned by a person, which are criteria relatively easy to estimate thought statistical methods, but also about aspects like wellbeing or social prestige, variables with a strong subjective specificity, on which there is very difficult to find an accord regarding methods of measurement between different specialists. This paper presents the results of an attempt to define social classes for Romania, in order to highlight the dimensions and the social importance of the middle class in our country. The elaboration of the methodology to build the social classes starts from the definition of 11 professional categories, based on the Classification of Occupation in Romania. By using the professional categories defined, which can be considered a first instrument (or a first step for the separation of middle class from the other ones, the present paper presents a first image of the middle
Pervez, T.; Anwar, M. S.
Objective: To find out the social class difference in relation to frequency of HBsAg and hepatocellular carcinoma in our population. Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted in Oncology Department, Services Hospital, Lahore from December 1997 to December 2000. Subjects and Methods: The HBsAg positive voluntary and apparently healthy blood donors were grouped into three, based on monthly income. Lower socioeconomic group and had monthly income less than 3,000 Pakistani rupees, middle socioeconomic group had monthly income between 3,000-10,000 rupees and upper socioeconomic group had income of more than 10,000 Pakistani rupees. On the same pattern patients suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma coming for treatment were also grouped. During this period, 1000 blood donors were screened for HBsAg and 95 biopsy proven liver cancer by causes were treated. Medical and demographic data of all subjects were recorded. HBsAg test was performed immuno-chromatographic technique using Daina Screen HBsAg kit manufactured by Dainabot Co. Ltd, Tokyo, Japan. Results: Patients from lower and middle social class had higher percentage (80% and 75%) of hepatocellular carcinoma as compared to higher social class (66.6%). In the healthy asymptomatic blood donors lower social class had higher (13.76%) HBsAg positively as compared to middle social class (11.25%) and higher social class (8.06%). Conclusion: Preventive measures should be taken in identifying and reducing factors predisposing high frequency of these conditions. (author)
Liu, William M.
This paper outlines a theory for understanding social class in men's lives, and argues that poverty and depression are a function of social class and internalized classism. It begins by defining poverty, then explains the Social Class Worldview Model, which is a subjective social class model, and the Modern Classism Theory, which allows clinicians…
Schwartz, Jana L.; Donovan, Jody; Guido-DiBrito, Florence
This study explores the meaning of social class in the lives of five self-identified Mexican male college students. Participants shared the significant influence social class has on their college experience. Intersections of social class and students' Mexican identity are illuminated throughout the findings. Themes include: social class rules and…
Van Galen, Jane
This essay outlines several ways in which educators might better prepare young people of all backgrounds to understand, enter, and eventually act upon the changing economic landscape. The contributors to this article, which presents perspectives on social class and education in the United States, suggest that one might learn some lessons from the…
Lai, Mee Ling
This article examines the relation between social class and language attitudes through a triangulated study that analyses the attitudes of 836 secondary school students from different socioeconomic backgrounds toward the 3 official spoken languages used in postcolonial Hong Kong (HK; i.e., Cantonese, English, and Putonghua). The respondents were…
Moulton, Vanessa; Flouri, Eirini; Joshi, Heather; Sullivan, Alice
Social class mobility from grandparent to grandchild is a relatively neglected topic. Grandparents today are often healthier and more active, and have longer relationships with their grandchildren than in previous generations. We used data from the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (n = 8570) to investigate the influence of maternal and paternal…
Frekko, Susan E.
Adult students of Catalan are worthy of study because they reveal complexities underlying taken-for-granted assumptions about Catalan speakers and Castilian speakers. Far from fitting into neat bundles aligning language of origin, social class, and national orientation, the students in this study exemplify the breakdown of boundaries traditionally…
Full Text Available After more than three decades of the implementation of the policies of structural adjustment in Chile, the middle classes increased their weight in the social structure and changed their economic sector, occupation and trajectories of social mobility. This article analyzes the perceptionof symbolic boundaries, which emerging of these macro-processes and shapes the subjectivity of middle class subjects into upward mobility processes and modifies their perceptions of inequality. Whit this objective the paper presents a qualitative analysis of cases in which discursive components like meritocracy, the effort and the idea of “barriers/obstacles” became a key discursive axis. This article is inscribed within the recent studies on middle classes for the Chilean case, which focus specially on the cultural aspects after reproduction of stratification and inequality in Chile.
Crone, Eveline A.; Meuwese, Rosa; Güroğlu, Berna
Adolescence is a key period of social development at the end of which individuals are expected to take on adult social roles. The school class, as the most salient peer group, becomes the prime environment that impacts social development during adolescence. Using social network analyses, we investigated how individual and group level features are related to prosocial behavior and social capital (generalized trust). We mapped the social networks within 22 classrooms of adolescents aged between 12 and 18 years (N = 611), and collected data on social behaviors towards peers. Our results indicate that individuals with high centrality show both higher levels of prosocial behavior and relational aggression. Importantly, greater social cohesion in the classroom was associated with (1) reduced levels of antisocial behavior towards peers and (2) increased generalized trust. These results provide novel insights in the relationship between social structure and social behavior, and stress the importance of the school environment in the development of not only intellectual but also social capital. PMID:29617405
Full Text Available In this article the Baptist is compared with the upper-class/literate millennialists behind the Psalms of Solomon, the Testament of Moses, the Similitudes of 1 Enoch, and the Qumran scrolls on the one hand, and with the lower-class/illiterate millennialist movements in Josephus on the other hand. The argument is developed in constant dialogue with the analyses of John Dominic Crossan. After an initial statement of historical facts about the Baptist, these are compared with the named groups in terms of each one’s (1 criticism of the social-political and religious status quo, (2 depiction of the imagined mediator through whom God was expected to intervene, (3 portrayal of the violent/non-violent intervention of God and the group respectively, and (4 social ethics. It is concluded that John shows closer resemblance to the literate than illiterate millennialists, and should therefore rather be considered as a dissident retainer.
A meta-analysis of 35 studies found that social class (socioeconomic status) is related to social integration among students in higher education: Working-class students are less integrated than middle-class students. This relation generalized across students' gender and year of study, as well as type of social class measure (parental education and…
van Rossem, R.; Vermande, M.; Volker, B.; Baerveldt, C.
Social capital is generally considered beneficial for students’ school adjustment. This paper argues that social relationships among pupils generate social capital at both the individual and the class levels, and that each has its unique effect on pupils’ performance and well-being. The sample in
Van Rossem, Ronan; Vermande, Marjolijn; Völker, Beate; Baerveldt, Chris
Social capital is generally considered beneficial for students' school adjustment. This paper argues that social relationships among pupils generate social capital at both the individual and the class levels, and that each has its unique effect on pupils' performance and well-being. The sample in this study consists of 1036 children in 60…
Pervez, T.; Anwar, M.S.
Objective: To find out the role of other etiological agents besides hepatitis B virus in the genesis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in our social classes. Design: A hospital-based observational study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in oncology department of services Hospital, Lahore from December 1997 to February 2001. Patients and Methods: One hundred patients of hepatocellular carcinoma ware divided into three groups based on monthly income. Lower socioeconomic group had monthly income less than 3,000 Pakistani rupees. Middle socioeconomic group had monthly income between 3,000-1,000 Pakistani rupees and upper socioeconomic group heard monthly income of more than 10,000 Pakistani rupees. Percentages of HCC patients positive for HbsAg in different socioeconomic groups in our population were compared to assess the social class difference, the possibility and correlation of other factors present in our classes for the formation of hepatocellular carcinoma besides hepatitis B virus. Results: We found that there was no significant difference in HbsAg positively in different classes. Conclusion: If HBV was only responsible for this disease than there should have been consistency in the outcome. But as there is a higher prevalence of HCC in poor class, this reflects that other etiological agents are also operating. This needs further evaluation. (author)
This article first looks at the complex conceptualization of Chinese learners' social-class identities with respect to a shifting Chinese class stratification. It then examines the link between social class and second-language learning in the Chinese context by reviewing several studies on Chinese learners' social-class backgrounds and their…
Christensen, Ulla; Krølner, Rikke; Nilsson, Charlotte Juul
To present the Danish Occupational Social Class (DOSC) measurement as a measure of socioeconomic position (SEP) applicable in a late midlife population, and to analyze associations of this measure with three aging-related outcomes in midlife, adjusting for education.......To present the Danish Occupational Social Class (DOSC) measurement as a measure of socioeconomic position (SEP) applicable in a late midlife population, and to analyze associations of this measure with three aging-related outcomes in midlife, adjusting for education....
da Silva, A A; Barbieri, M A; Bettiol, H; Dal Bó, C M; Mucillo, G; Gomes, U A
A survey was carried out in Ribeirão Preto, S. Paulo State, Brazil, between June 1978 and May 1979 with a view to studying the prevalence of low birth weight and its occurrence among different social classes. Data were collected from 8,878 singleton live births in eight maternity hospitals, accounting for 98% of all births in the area. Social classes were determinated by the use of a model proposed by Singer and modified for epidemiological purposes by Barros. Out of the 8,878 births, 660 (7.5%) were of low birth weight. The prevalence of deficient weight at birth (between 2,500 and 2,999 grams) was of 21.1%. Analysis indicated that 50.6% of children with low birth weight were at term and the majority of them suffered form intrauterine growth retardation. The prevalence of low birth weight according to social class was seen to be lower in the bourgeoisie classes (ranging from 2.8% to 3.9%) and higher in working classes (from 7% up to 9.5%). Low birth weight (defined as less than or equal to 2,500 grams) was used for purposes of comparison with other previous surveys. The percentage was lower in this study (8.3%) than that found in the Interamerican Investigation of Mortality in Childhood (8.7%), carried out in 1968-70. No statistically significant differences in the percentage of low birth weight were found in the case of Ribeirão Preto when these two surveys were compared.
Hemmingsson, T; Lundberg, I; Diderichsen, Finn
The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood and adolesce......The aim of this study was to analyse the role of differences in alcohol consumption and other risk factors for alcoholism established in late adolescence, for later differences in the distribution of alcoholism between social classes among young men. Data on risk factors in childhood...... factors for alcoholism, such as risk use of alcohol, psychiatric diagnosis at conscription, parental divorce, low emotional control and contact with police and child care authorities, seemed to be more common among those who were recruited to blue-collar occupations compared to those who were recruited...
Lei, Ryan F; Bodenhausen, Galen V
We investigated the racial content of perceivers' mental images of different socioeconomic categories. We selected participants who were either high or low in prejudice toward the poor. These participants saw 400 pairs of visually noisy face images. Depending on condition, participants chose the face that looked like a poor person, a middle income person, or a rich person. We averaged the faces selected to create composite images of each social class. A second group of participants rated the stereotypical Blackness of these images. They also rated the face images on a variety of psychological traits. Participants high in economic prejudice produced strongly class-differentiated mental images. They imagined the poor to be Blacker than middle income and wealthy people. They also imagined them to have less positive psychological characteristics. Participants low in economic prejudice also possessed images of the wealthy that were relatively White, but they represented poor and middle class people in a less racially differentiated way. We discuss implications for understanding the intersections of race and class in social perception.
Depuis son ascension à l'indépendance en 1960, voire avant, le Nigeria a connu plusieurs épisodes de conflits nationaux. L'analyse des classes sociales sur la base d'une critique du modèle de conflit ethnique prédominant, s'attache à démontrer que le Nigeria est capitaliste, et que le conflit national, est donc un conflit de ...
Gammage, Kimberley L; Drouin, Breanne; Lamarche, Larkin
The current study compared a single yoga group exercise class and a resistance group exercise class for their effects on state body satisfaction and social physique anxiety in women. A pretest-posttest design was used. Participants (N = 46) completed both a resistance exercise class and yoga class in a counterbalanced order. Measures of body satisfaction and social physique anxiety were completed immediately before and after each class. A 2 (time) × 2 (class type) repeatedmeasures multiple analysis of variance showed a significant overall Time × Class Type interaction (F 2,44 = 5.69, P class. After both classes, there was a significant decrease in social physique anxiety, but the magnitude of the change was larger after the yoga class than after the resistance class. Both types of exercise class were associated with improvements in body image, but there were greater improvements after the yoga class. This study provided evidence of the positive effects of yoga for reducing state social physique anxiety and increasing state body satisfaction, adding to correlational evidence suggesting that yoga is particularly beneficial for improving body image-related outcomes in women.
Rheinschmidt-Same, Michelle; Becker, Julia; Kraus, Michael
In the wake of the Great Recession, rising inequality has increased social class disparities between people in society. In this research, we examine how differences in social class shape unique patterns of cultural expression, and how these cultural expressions affirm ingroup beliefs. In Study 1 (N=113), we provide evidence that cultural expressions of social class on an online social network can signal the social class of targets: by simply viewing the cultural practices of individuals captu...
Smith, B.M.; Farrell, J.M.; Underwood, H.B.; Smith, S.J.
Variables associated with year-class formation in upper St. Lawrence River northern pike Esox lucius were examined to explore population trends. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model (PLS 1) was used to relate a year-class strength index (YCSI; 1974-1997) to explanatory variables associated with spawning and nursery areas (seasonal water level and temperature and their variability, number of ice days, and last day of ice presence). A second model (PLS 2) incorporated four additional ecological variables: potential predators (abundance of double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and yellow perch Perca flavescens), female northern pike biomass (as a measure of stock-recruitment effects), and total phosphorus (productivity). Trends in adult northern pike catch revealed a decline (1981-2005), and year-class strength was positively related to catch per unit effort (CPUE; R2 = 0.58). The YCSI exceeded the 23-year mean in only 2 of the last 10 years. Cyclic patterns in the YCSI time series (along with strong year-classes every 4-6 years) were apparent, as was a dampening effect of amplitude beginning around 1990. The PLS 1 model explained over 50% of variation in both explanatory variables and the dependent variable, YCSI first-order moving-average residuals. Variables retained (N = 10; Wold's statistic ??? 0.8) included negative YCSI associations with high summer water levels, high variability in spring and fall water levels, and variability in fall water temperature. The YCSI exhibited positive associations with high spring, summer, and fall water temperature, variability in spring temperature, and high winter and spring water level. The PLS 2 model led to positive YCSI associations with phosphorus and yellow perch CPUE and a negative correlation with double-crested cormorant abundance. Environmental variables (water level and temperature) are hypothesized to regulate northern pike YCSI cycles, and dampening in YCSI magnitude may be related to a
Mahault, Benoit; Saxena, Avadh; Nisoli, Cristiano
We propose a simple agent-based model on a network to conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant expectations at the interplay of power, frustration, and initiative. Concepts imported from the statistical physics of frustrated systems in and out of equilibrium allow us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from or lose wealth to anybody else invariably leads to a complete polarization of the distribution of wealth vs. opportunity. This picture is however dramatically ameliorated when hard constraints are imposed over agents in the form of a limiting network of transactions. There, an out of equilibrium dynamics of the networks, based on a competition between power and frustration in the decision-making of agents, leads to network coevolution. The ratio of power and frustration controls different dynamical regimes separated by kinetic transitions and characterized by drastically different values of equality. It also leads, for proper values of social initiative, to the emergence of three self-organized social classes, lower, middle, and upper class. Their dynamics, which appears mostly controlled by the middle class, drives a cyclical regime of dramatic social changes.
Firat, Rengin B; Hitlin, Steven; Magnotta, Vincent; Tranel, Daniel
A growing body of literature demonstrates that racial group membership can influence neural responses, e.g. when individuals perceive or interact with persons of another race. However, little attention has been paid to social class, a factor that interacts with racial inequalities in American society. We extend previous literature on race-related neural activity by focusing on how the human brain responds to racial out-groups cast in positively valued social class positions vs less valued ones. We predicted that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala would have functionally dissociable roles, with the vmPFC playing a more significant role within socially valued in-groups (i.e. the middle-class) and the amygdala having a more crucial role for socially ambivalent and threatening categories (i.e. upper and lower class). We tested these predictions with two complementary studies: (i) a neuropsychological experiment with patients with the vmPFC or amygdala lesions, contrasted with brain damaged and normal comparison participants, and (ii) a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment with 15 healthy adults. Our findings suggest that two distinct mechanisms underlie class-based racial evaluations, one engaging the vmPFC for positively identified in-group class and another recruiting the amygdala for the class groups that are marginalized or perceived as potential threats. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Schenk, N.; van Poppel, F.W.A.
This study uses data from a random sample of births in the Netherlands during the period 1850–1922 to examine the relationships between social class, social mobility and mortality at middle and old age. Population registers and personal cards covering the period from 1850 to 2004 for all Dutch
Strier, Roni; Feldman, Guy; Shdaimah, Corey
Social work introductory textbooks reflect myriad practical interests, pedagogical concerns, and theoretical considerations. However, they also present students with accepted views, dominant perspectives, and main discourses of knowledge. In light of this centrality, the present article examines the representation of the concept of "social class"…
Burgos, Enrique; Ceva, Horacio; Hernández, Laura; Perazzo, R P J; Devoto, Mariano; Medan, Diego
Bipartite graphs have received some attention in the study of social networks and of biological mutualistic systems. A generalization of a previous model is presented, that evolves the topology of the graph in order to optimally account for a given contact preference rule between the two guilds of the network. As a result, social and biological graphs are classified as belonging to two clearly different classes. Projected graphs, linking the agents of only one guild, are obtained from the original bipartite graph. The corresponding evolution of its statistical properties is also studied. An example of a biological mutualistic network is analyzed in detail, and it is found that the model provides a very good fitting of all the main statistical features. The model also provides a proper qualitative description of the same features observed in social webs, suggesting the possible reasons underlying the difference in the organization of these two kinds of bipartite networks.
Bonnefond, Céline; Clément, Matthieu
While a plethoric empirical literature addresses the relationship between socio-economic status and body weight, little is known about the influence of social class on nutritional outcomes, particularly in developing countries. The purpose of this article is to contribute to the analysis of the social determinants of adult body weight in urban China by taking into account the influence of social class. More specifically, we propose to analyse the position of the Chinese urban middle class in terms of being overweight or obese. The empirical investigations conducted as part of this research are based on a sample of 1320 households and 2841 adults from the China Health and Nutrition Survey for 2009. For the first step, we combine an economic approach and a sociological approach to identify social classes at household level. First, households with an annual per capita income between 10,000 Yuan and the 95th income percentile are considered as members of the middle class. Second, we strengthen the characterization of the middle class using information on education and employment. By applying clustering methods, we identify four groups: the elderly and inactive middle class, the old middle class, the lower middle class and the new middle class. For the second step, we implement an econometric analysis to assess the influence of social class on adult body mass index and on the probability of being overweight or obese. We use multinomial treatment regressions to deal with the endogeneity of the social class variable. Our results show that among the four subgroups of the urban middle class, the new middle class is the only one to be relatively well-protected against obesity. We suggest that this group plays a special role in adopting healthier food consumption habits and seems to be at a more advanced stage of the nutrition transition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lewis, Andrea D.
The intent of this study was to explore the perceptions of Black middle and upper class preservice teachers as they relate to teaching and learning in high poverty urban schools. Participants included 11 senior early childhood education preservice teachers at a historically Black college in the southeast region of the United States. The study was…
Hansen, Åse Marie; Andersen, Lars Louis; Skotte, Jørgen
The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women.......The objective of the present study is to analyze gender differences and social class gradients in physical functions; and to study whether the social class gradients in physical functions in midlife differed between men and women....
Luzmel Alexánder Pérez
Full Text Available This qualitative research study addresses issues of verbal and physical aggression among tenth grade students in a public school. Through a pedagogical intervention the participants worked collaboratively to reflect on social issues in their English language classes. Inquiry was a fundamental element in this study as it allowed students to explore, read, compare, and then reflect on issues that come from their own context and experiences (Giroux, 1988. Students’ reflections were collected through questionnaires, artifacts, and audio recorded interviews in order to gather information to reveal students’ social awareness of physical and verbal aggression in their school context. The findings revealed that students see violence as a need to avoid their partners´ abuse. Students´ reflections showed that students considered that parents and teachers paid more attention to academic concerns, rather than personal growth. The study demonstrated that inquiry along with writing about social issues in English allowed students to develop rationality and sensitivity towards violent acts, furthermore, inquiry about their social problems encouraged students to work collaboratively, to reflect about their social conditions and to apply the use of the English language in contextualized situations.
Martin, Georgianna L.
This qualitative study explores social class consciousness, salience, and values of White, low-income, first-generation college students. Overall, participants minimized the salience of social class as an aspect of their identity with many of them expressing that they did not want their social class to define them. Although participants largely…
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study patterns of alcohol consumption and prevalence of high-risk drinking. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in a sample of 2,302 adults in Salvador, Brazil. Cases of High-Risk Drinking (HRD were defined as those subjects who referred daily or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness and those who reported any use of alcoholic beverages but with frequent drunkenness (at least once a week. RESULTS: Fifty-six per cent of the sample acknowledged drinking alcoholic beverages. Overall consumption was significantly related with gender (male, marital status (single, migration (non-migrant, better educated (college level, and social class (upper. No significant differences were found regarding ethnicity, except for cachaça (Brazilian sugarcane liquor and other distilled beverages. Overall 12-month prevalence of high-risk drinking was 7%, six times more prevalent among males than females (almost 13% compared to 2.4%. A positive association of HRD prevalence with education and social class was found. No overall relationship was found between ethnicity and HRD. Male gender and higher socioeconomic status were associated with increased odds of HRD. Two-way stratified analyses yielded consistent gender effects throughout all strata of independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social and cultural elements determine local patterns of alcohol-drinking behavior. Additional research on long-term and differential effects of gender, ethnicity, and social class on alcohol use and misuse is needed in order to explain their role as sources of social health inequities.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study patterns of alcohol consumption and prevalence of high-risk drinking. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in a sample of 2,302 adults in Salvador, Brazil. Cases of High-Risk Drinking (HRD were defined as those subjects who referred daily or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness and those who reported any use of alcoholic beverages but with frequent drunkenness (at least once a week. RESULTS: Fifty-six per cent of the sample acknowledged drinking alcoholic beverages. Overall consumption was significantly related with gender (male, marital status (single, migration (non-migrant, better educated (college level, and social class (upper. No significant differences were found regarding ethnicity, except for cachaça (Brazilian sugarcane liquor and other distilled beverages. Overall 12-month prevalence of high-risk drinking was 7%, six times more prevalent among males than females (almost 13% compared to 2.4%. A positive association of HRD prevalence with education and social class was found. No overall relationship was found between ethnicity and HRD. Male gender and higher socioeconomic status were associated with increased odds of HRD. Two-way stratified analyses yielded consistent gender effects throughout all strata of independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social and cultural elements determine local patterns of alcohol-drinking behavior. Additional research on long-term and differential effects of gender, ethnicity, and social class on alcohol use and misuse is needed in order to explain their role as sources of social health inequities.
Haider, Adil H.; Sexton, Janel; Sriram, N.; Cooper, Lisa A.; Efron, David T.; Swoboda, Sandra; Villegas, Cassandra V.; Haut, Elliott R.; Bonds, Morgan; Pronovost, Peter J.; Lipsett, Pamela A.; Freischlag, Julie A.; Cornwell, Edward E.
Context Studies involving physicians suggest that unconscious bias may be related to clinical decision making and may predict poor patient-physician interaction. The presence of unconscious race and social class bias and its association with clinical assessments or decision making among medical students is unknown. Objective To estimate unconscious race and social class bias among first-year medical students and investigate its relationship with assessments made during clinical vignettes. Design, Setting, and Participants A secure Web-based survey was administered to 211 medical students entering classes at Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, in August 2009 and August 2010. The survey included the Implicit Association Test (IAT) to assess unconscious preferences, direct questions regarding students’ explicit race and social class preferences, and 8 clinical assessment vignettes focused on pain assessment, informed consent, patient reliability, and patient trust. Adjusting for student demographics, multiple logistic regression was used to determine whether responses to the vignettes were associated with unconscious race or social class preferences. Main Outcome Measures Association of scores on an established IAT for race and a novel IAT for social class with vignette responses. Results Among the 202 students who completed the survey, IAT responses were consistent with an implicit preference toward white persons among 140 students (69%, 95% CI, 61%–75%). Responses were consistent with a preference toward those in the upper class among 174 students (86%, 95% CI, 80%–90%). Assessments generally did not vary by patient race or occupation, and multivariable analyses for all vignettes found no significant relationship between implicit biases and clinical assessments. Regression coefficient for the association between pain assessment and race IAT scores was −0.49 (95% CI, −1.00 to 0.03) and for social class, the coefficient was −0.04 (95% CI
Zhou, Bin; He, Zhe; Jiang, Luo-Luo; Wang, Nian-Xin; Wang, Bing-Hong
The bidirectional selection between two classes widely emerges in various social lives, such as commercial trading and mate choosing. Until now, the discussions on bidirectional selection in structured human society are quite limited. We demonstrated theoretically that the rate of successfully matching is affected greatly by individuals' neighborhoods in social networks, regardless of the type of networks. Furthermore, it is found that the high average degree of networks contributes to increasing rates of successful matches. The matching performance in different types of networks has been quantitatively investigated, revealing that the small-world networks reinforces the matching rate more than scale-free networks at given average degree. In addition, our analysis is consistent with the modeling result, which provides the theoretical understanding of underlying mechanisms of matching in complex networks.
Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.
The present research tested the hypotheses that (a) working-class students have fewer friends at university than middle-class students and (b) this social class difference occurs because working-class students tend to be older than middle-class students. A sample of 376 first-year undergraduate students from an Australian university completed an…
Full Text Available We use the China General Social Survey (2005 and the Home Office Citizenship Survey (2005 to study civic engagement and neighbourhood trust in China and Britain in this paper. We focus on class differences in participation in sports/recreation, religion, children's/adult education and public-welfare activities, and trust in the neighbours. We find higher levels of civic involvement in Britain but greater neighbourhood trust in China. This is mainly due to structural differences. China has a large proportion of peasants who have very low levels of civic involvement but very high levels of neighbourhood trust. Among the non-peasant population, the two countries have similar levels of class differences in civic (except religious involvement. There are small class differences in China on neighbourhood trust, but marked effects in Britain. Overall, there is a greater similarity than difference in class effects in both civic engagement and social trust in the two countries. While differences in demographic attributes (and China's specific institutional arrangement, the household registration system, or hukou account for some of the observed patterns, we also find more pronounced class than demographic effects in the two countries. Class plays a major role in the development of social capital.
Rita Barradas Barata
Full Text Available Discute-se a utilização do conceito de classe em pesquisas em saúde, as diferentes abordagens sociológicas de estratificação social e de estrutura de classes, o potencial explicativo do conceito em estudos de determinação social e desigualdades em saúde, os modelos de operacionalização elaborados para uso em pesquisas sociológicas, demográficas ou de saúde e os limites e possibilidades desses modelos. Foram destacados quatro modelos de operacionalização: de Singer para estudo da distribuição de renda no Brasil, adaptado por Barros para uso em pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Bronfman & Tuirán para o censo demográfico mexicano, adaptado por Lombardi et al para pesquisas epidemiológicas; de Goldthorpe para estudos socioeconômicos ingleses, adaptado pela Sociedade Espanhola de Epidemiologia; e o modelo de Wright para pesquisa em sociologia e ciência política, também usado em inquéritos populacionais em saúde. Em conclusão, conceitualmente cada um dos modelos apresentados é coerente com a concepção teórica que os embasam, mas não há como optar por qualquer deles, descartando os demais.
Na, Jinkyung; McDonough, Ian M; Chan, Micaela Y; Park, Denise C
The present research shows that, when making choices, working-class Americans are more affected by others' opinions than middle-class Americans due to differences in independent versus interdependent self-construal. Experiment 1 revealed that when working-class Americans made decisions to buy products, they were more influenced by the choices of others than middle-class Americans. In contrast, middle-class Americans were more likely to misremember others' choices to be consistent with their own choices. In other words, working-class Americans adjusted their choices to the preference of others, whereas middle-class Americans distorted others' preferences to fit their choices. Supporting our prediction that this social-class effect is closely linked to the independent versus interdependent self-construal, we showed that the differences in self-construal across cultures qualified the social-class effects on choices (Experiment 2). Moreover, when we experimentally manipulated self-construal in Experiment 3, we found that it mediated the corresponding changes in choices regardless of social class. © 2016 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Batista, Klaus Bsl; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Harrison, Jayne E; O'Brien, Kevin D
Prominent upper front teeth are a common problem affecting about a quarter of 12-year-old children in the UK. The condition develops when permanent teeth erupt. These teeth are more likely to be injured and their appearance can cause significant distress. Children are often referred to an orthodontist for treatment with dental braces to reduce the prominence of their teeth. If a child is referred at a young age, the orthodontist is faced with the dilemma of whether to treat the patient early or to wait and provide treatment in adolescence. To assess the effects of orthodontic treatment for prominent upper front teeth initiated when children are seven to 11 years old ('early treatment' in two phases) compared to in adolescence at around 12 to 16 years old ('late treatment' in one phase); to assess the effects of late treatment compared to no treatment; and to assess the effects of different types of orthodontic braces. Cochrane Oral Health's Information Specialist searched the following databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (to 27 September 2017), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2017, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 27 September 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 27 September 2017). The US National Institutes of Health Ongoing Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched for ongoing trials. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials of orthodontic treatments to correct prominent upper front teeth (Class II malocclusion) in children and adolescents. We included trials that compared early treatment in children (two-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces (removable, fixed, functional) or head-braces versus late treatment in adolescents (one-phase) with any type of orthodontic braces or head-braces, and trials that compared any
Lucas A. Keefer
Full Text Available While social class has recently become a prominent topic in social psychological research, much of this effort has focused on the psychological consequences of objective and subjective indices of class (e.g., income, perceived status. This approach sheds light on the consequences of social class itself, but overlooks a construct of central importance in earlier theorizing on class: class consciousness, or the extent to which individuals acknowledge and situate themselves within class relations. The current paper offers a psychological model of class consciousness comprised of five elements: awareness of social class, perceptions of class conflict, beliefs about the permeability of class groups, identification with a class group, and personal experience of being treated as a member of one’s class. We offer a measure assessing those central dimensions and assess differences in these dimensions by age, gender, indices of social class, political ideology, and among different class groups. Finally, we offer suggestions for how an awareness of class consciousness may enrich social psychology and ultimately foster political change.
Vagle, Mark D.; Jones, Stephanie
Using Maurice Merleau-Ponty's (1947/1964) phenomenological notion of the "threads of intentionality" that tie subject and object together meaningfully and Pierre Bourdieu's (1986, 2000; Bourdieu & Waquant, 1992) reflexive sociology and constructs of "habitus," "field," "capital," and "nomos," we theorize social class-sensitivity in literacy…
Collins, James W; Rankin, Kristin M; David, Richard J
A paucity of published data exists on the factors underlying the relatively poor birth outcome of non-Hispanic White women in the United States. To determine whether downward economic mobility is a risk factor for preterm birth (births of Chicago-born upper-class (defined by early-life residence in affluent neighborhoods) non-Hispanic White women. Upper class-born White women (n = 4,891) who did not experience downward economic mobility by the time of delivery had a PTB rate of 5.4 %. Those women who experienced slight (n = 5,112), moderate (n = 2,158), or extreme (n = 339) downward economic mobility had PTB rates of 6.5, 8.5, and 10.1 %, respectively; RR (95 % CI) = 1.2 (1.0-4.0), 1.6 (1.3-1.9), and 1.9 (1.3-2.6), respectively. Maternal downward economic mobility was also associated with an increased prevalence of biologic, medical, and behavioral risk factors. Interestingly, the relationship between moderate to extreme downward mobility and preterm birth was stronger among former low birth weight (birth for former LBW and non-LBW women who experienced any downward mobility (compared to those women with lifelong upper class status) equaled 2.4 (1.1-5.3) and 1.1 (1.0-1.1), respectively. Downward economic mobility is associated with an increased risk of preterm birth among upper class-born White urban women; this phenomenon is strongest among former low birth weight women.
Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Monney, Gregoire; Thorens, Gabriel; Dufour, Magali; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane
Online gambling has gained popularity in the last decade, leading to an important shift in how consumers engage in gambling and in the factors related to problem gambling and prevention. Indebtedness and loneliness have previously been associated with problem gambling. The current study aimed to characterize online gamblers in relation to indebtedness, loneliness, and several in-game social behaviors. The data set was obtained from 584 Internet gamblers recruited online through gambling websites and forums. Of these gamblers, 372 participants completed all study assessments and were included in the analyses. Questionnaires included those on sociodemographics and social variables (indebtedness, loneliness, in-game social behaviors), as well as the Gambling Motives Questionnaire, Gambling Related Cognitions Scale, Internet Addiction Test, Problem Gambling Severity Index, Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale. Social variables were explored with a latent class model. The clusters obtained were compared for psychological measures and three clusters were found: lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 1: 6.5%), not lonely not indebted gamblers (cluster 2: 75.4%), and not lonely indebted gamblers (cluster 3: 18%). Participants in clusters 1 and 3 (particularly in cluster 1) were at higher risk of problem gambling than were those in cluster 2. The three groups differed on most assessed variables, including the Problem Gambling Severity Index, the Short Depression-Happiness Scale, and the UPPS-P subscales (except the sensation seeking subscore). Results highlight significant between-group differences, suggesting that Internet gamblers are not a homogeneous group. Specific intervention strategies could be implemented for groups at risk.
Woehle, Ralph; Quinn, Andrew
This article describes a quasi-experimental comparison of two master's level social work classes delivering content on human behavior in the social environment. One class, delivered face-to-face, was largely synchronous. The other class, delivered using distance technologies, was more asynchronous than the first. The authors hypothesized that…
This paper draws on social capital theory to discuss the way social class plays out in the friendships of teenage students. Based on data from individual interviews and focus groups with 75 students in four London secondary schools, it is suggested that students tend to form friendships with people who belong to the same social-class background as…
Jones, Stephanie; Vagle, Mark D.
This essay describes a vision of social class-sensitive pedagogy aimed at disrupting endemic classism in schools. We argue persistent upward mobility discourses construct classist hierarchies in schools and classroom practice and are founded on misunderstandings of work, lived experiences of social class, and the broader social and economic…
Norris, Dawn R.
Simulation games can help overcome student resistance to thinking structurally about social class inequality, meritocracy, and mobility. Most inequality simulations focus solely on economic inequality and omit social and cultural capital, both of which contribute to social class reproduction. Using a pretest/posttest design, the current study…
Van de Werfhorst, Herman G; de Graaf, Nan Dirk
This paper studies the impact of social class and education on political orientation. We distinguish the 'old' middle class from a new class of social/cultural specialists. However, the difference in their political orientation may especially be related to the level and field of education; the new middle class is more highly educated and often in fields of study that extensively address social competencies, characteristics independently affecting political outcomes. Analyses on Dutch data showed that education is more important in the prediction of 'cultural' liberal issues than social class. Economically-oriented issues are more strongly affected by social class. This means that interests of the new middle class are served by liberal standpoints relating to a strong government and income redistribution policies, but not relating to cultural issues.
This article compares different proposals for the implementation of the concept of social class and analyzes the alternatives used in each proposal, considering previous epidemiological studies on this issue and the potential of such a concept as a central category in studies on social determination in the health/disease process. Seven basic differences were identified, pertaining to the following aspects: class structure; research objective; the social class concept as a reference; the decision as to which individual has his/her occupational activity taken as defining the family's social class; the class status of the unemployed, housewives, and the retired; class status of students; and criteria for distinguishing between the "bourgeoisie", "petty bourgeoisie", "new petty bourgeoisie", and "proletariat" and whether there is a specific flow in certain population groups. Given the observed differences and underlying theoretical models, this study discusses problems related to the fact that the use of a specific concept of social class can have various implementation models.
Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the number of latent classes of criminal social identity that exist among male recidivistic prisoners. Latent class analysis was used to identify homogeneous groups of criminal social identity. Multinomial logistic regression was used to interpret the nature of the latent classes, or groups, by estimating the associationsto number of police arrests, recidivism, and violent offending while controlling for current age. The best fitting latent class model was a five-class solution: ‘High criminal social identity’ (17%, ‘High Centrality, Moderate Affect, Low Ties’ (21.7%, ‘Low Centrality, Moderate Affect, High Ties’ (13.3%,‘Low Cognitive, High Affect, Low Ties’ (24.6%, and ‘Low criminal social identity’ (23.4%. Each of the latent classes was predicted by differing external variables. Criminal social identity is best explained by five homogenous classes that display qualitative and quantitative differences.
Nicassio, P M
A study was conducted to determine the way in which stereotypes of machismo and femininity are associated with family size and perceptions of family planning. A total of 144 adults, male and female, from a lower class and an upper middle class urban area in Colombia were asked to respond to photographs of Colombian families varying in size and state of completeness. The study illustrated the critical role of sex-role identity and sex-role organization as variables having an effect on fertility. The lower-class respondents described parents in the photographs as significantly more macho or feminine because of their children than the upper-middle-class subjects did. Future research should attempt to measure when this drive to sex-role identity is strongest, i.e., when men and women are most driven to reproduce in order to "prove" themselves. Both lower- and upper-middle-class male groups considered male dominance in marriage to be directly linked with family size. Perceptions of the use of family planning decreased linearly with family size for both social groups, although the lower-class females attributed more family planning to spouses of large families than upper-middle-class females. It is suggested that further research deal with the ways in which constructs of machismo and male dominance vary between the sexes and among socioeconomic groups and the ways in which they impact on fertility.
Shaker, Hamid Reza
if the system is controllable or observable, but also it is required to know the degree of controllability or observability of the system. Gramian matrices were introduced to address this issue by providing a quantitative measure for controllability and observability. In many applications, the information...... of uncertain systems. In this paper, we derive upper and lower bounds of frequency interval gramians under perturbations of an A-matrix in the state-space form. These bounds are obtained by solving algebraic Riccati equations. The results are further used to obtain upper and lower bounds of the frequency...
Leon, D A
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the influence of birth weight on the pronounced social class differences in infant mortality in Britain. DESIGN--Analysis of routine data on births and infant deaths. SETTING--England and Wales. SUBJECTS--All live births and infant deaths, 1983-5. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality in infants by social class, birth weight, and legitimacy according to birth and death certificates. RESULTS--Neonatal and postneonatal mortality (deaths/1000 births) increased with social class. Neonatal and postneonatal mortality was 4.2/1000 and 2.3/1000 respectively for social class I and 6.8/1000 and 5.6/1000 respectively for social class V. Mortality was lower among births registered within marriage (postneonatal 3.5/1000; neonatal 5.2/1000) than among those jointly registered outside marriage (5.1/1000; 6.4/1000); mortality was highest in those solely registered outside marriage (7.2/1000; 7.0/1000). For neonatal mortality the effect of social class varied with birth weight. Social class had little effect on neonatal mortality in low birthweight babies and increasing effect in heavier babies. For postneonatal mortality the effect of social class was similar for all birth weights and was almost as steep as for all birth weights combined. CONCLUSION--Birth weight mediates little of the effect of social class on postneonatal mortality. PMID:1954421
Xu, Zhun; Zhang, Wei
To explore the changing pattern of nutrition intake by social class in contemporary China. We defined social class in 2 ways. The first definition was based on employment, and the second definition was based on per capita household income levels. We used China Health and Nutrition Survey data from 1991 to 2011 to show the changes in the relation between social class and nutrition intake. The relation between social class and nutrition intake in China changed significantly within the 2 decades. For example, in the early 1990s, the lowest social class (defined by employment or income) had more caloric intake than did the highest social class; 20 years later, however, the relation reversed, and the lowest social class consumed significantly fewer calories. China has seen a great reversal in its social class-nutrition relationship since the early 1990s. Our study calls for wider recognition that insufficient consumption of food and nutrition is increasingly an issue for people in the lower social classes in China.
Social Security Administration — The DATA Act Information Model Schema Reporting Submission Specification File B. File B includes the agency object class and program activity detail obligation and...
Aggleton, Peter J.; Whitty, Geoff
A study of upper-middle-class college students in England who responded with "resistance" to their schooling showed that the students' challenges do not constitute effective resistances to prevailing patterns of class or gender relations, i.e., their challenges are not transformative. (RM)
Trautmann, S.T.; van de Kuilen, G.; Zeckhauser, R.J.
Differences in ethical behavior between members of the upper and lower classes have been at the center of civic debates in recent years. In this article, we present a framework for understanding how class affects ethical standards and behaviors. We apply the framework using data from a large Dutch
Liu Bo; Chu Tianguang; Wang Long; Wang Zhanfeng
This paper considers a class of social foraging swarms with a nutrient profile (or an attractant/repellent) and an attraction-repulsion coupling function, which is chosen to guarantee collision avoidance between individuals. The paper also studies non-identical interaction ability or efficiency among different swarm individuals for different profiles. The swarm behavior is a result of a balance between inter-individual interplays as well as the interplays of the swarm individuals (agents) with their environment. It is proved that the individuals of a quasi-reciprocal swarm will aggregate and eventually form a cohesive cluster of finite size for different profiles. It is also shown that the swarm system is completely stable, that is, every solution converges to the set of equilibrium points of the system. Moreover, all the swarm individuals will converge to more favorable areas of the profile under certain conditions. For general non-reciprocal swarms, numerical simulations show that more complex self-organized rotation may occur in the swarms
Güveli, Ayse; Need, Ariana; De Graaf, Nan Dirk
The employment structure of The Netherlands and other advanced countries is evolving from industrial to postindustrial. Yet existing social class schemata, like the well-known Erikson, Goldthorpe and Portocarero (EGP) class schema, were constructed for an industrial employment structure. In this
Martin, Sean R; Innis, Benjamin D; Ward, Ray G
The consideration of social class in leadership research presents many exciting directions for research. In this review, we describe and summarize how social class research has been applied to the study of leaders and the leadership process, noting that while evidence suggests those from higher social classes are more likely to occupy formal leader roles in organizations, there is little evidence suggesting that they are more effective in these roles than those from lower social classes. We conclude with a discussion of important, unanswered theoretical questions about how social class relates to the process of leadership-most notably, whether those from different classes internalize different beliefs and expectations about how people in leader and follower roles should act, and how matches or mismatches in those beliefs and expectations shape leader-follower interactions and outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Korndörfer, Martin; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C.
Does being from a higher social class lead a person to engage in more or less prosocial behavior? Psychological research has recently provided support for a negative effect of social class on prosocial behavior. However, research outside the field of psychology has mainly found evidence for positive or u-shaped relations. In the present research, we therefore thoroughly examined the effect of social class on prosocial behavior. Moreover, we analyzed whether this effect was moderated by the kind of observed prosocial behavior, the observed country, and the measure of social class. Across eight studies with large and representative international samples, we predominantly found positive effects of social class on prosociality: Higher class individuals were more likely to make a charitable donation and contribute a higher percentage of their family income to charity (32,090 ≥ N ≥ 3,957; Studies 1–3), were more likely to volunteer (37,136 ≥N ≥ 3,964; Studies 4–6), were more helpful (N = 3,902; Study 7), and were more trusting and trustworthy in an economic game when interacting with a stranger (N = 1,421; Study 8) than lower social class individuals. Although the effects of social class varied somewhat across the kinds of prosocial behavior, countries, and measures of social class, under no condition did we find the negative effect that would have been expected on the basis of previous results reported in the psychological literature. Possible explanations for this divergence and implications are discussed. PMID:26193099
Korndörfer, Martin; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C
Does being from a higher social class lead a person to engage in more or less prosocial behavior? Psychological research has recently provided support for a negative effect of social class on prosocial behavior. However, research outside the field of psychology has mainly found evidence for positive or u-shaped relations. In the present research, we therefore thoroughly examined the effect of social class on prosocial behavior. Moreover, we analyzed whether this effect was moderated by the kind of observed prosocial behavior, the observed country, and the measure of social class. Across eight studies with large and representative international samples, we predominantly found positive effects of social class on prosociality: Higher class individuals were more likely to make a charitable donation and contribute a higher percentage of their family income to charity (32,090 ≥ N ≥ 3,957; Studies 1-3), were more likely to volunteer (37,136 ≥N ≥ 3,964; Studies 4-6), were more helpful (N = 3,902; Study 7), and were more trusting and trustworthy in an economic game when interacting with a stranger (N = 1,421; Study 8) than lower social class individuals. Although the effects of social class varied somewhat across the kinds of prosocial behavior, countries, and measures of social class, under no condition did we find the negative effect that would have been expected on the basis of previous results reported in the psychological literature. Possible explanations for this divergence and implications are discussed.
Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.
Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…
Na, Jinkyung; Chan, Micaela Y; Lodi-Smith, Jennifer; Park, Denise C
A consistent/stable sense of the self is more valued in middle-class contexts than working-class contexts; hence, we predicted that middle-class individuals would have higher self-concept clarity than working-class individuals. It is further expected that self-concept clarity would be more important to one's well-being among middle-class individuals than among working-class individuals. Supporting these predictions, self-concept clarity was positively associated with higher social class. Moreover, although self-concept clarity was associated with higher life satisfaction and better mental health, the association significantly attenuated among working-class individuals. In addition, self-concept clarity was not associated with physical health and its association with physical health did not interact with social class.
Full Text Available In this paper, we illustrate the successful implementation of pre-class reading assignments through a social learning platform that allows students to discuss the reading online with their classmates. We show how the platform can be used to understand how students are reading before class. We find that, with this platform, students spend an above average amount of time reading (compared to that reported in the literature and that most students complete their reading assignments before class. We identify specific reading behaviors that are predictive of in-class exam performance. We also demonstrate ways that the platform promotes active reading strategies and produces high-quality learning interactions between students outside class. Finally, we compare the exam performance of two cohorts of students, where the only difference between them is the use of the platform; we show that students do significantly better on exams when using the platform.
Full Text Available The article views the current financial crisis from the background of long term socio-economic changes in advanced industrial societies. Central points are the rise of middle classes, the accumulation of financial wealth in the upper strata of middle classes in combination with an increasing concentration of financial assets at the level of the top rich, and the advance of pension and investment funds as collective actors at financial markets. The paper analyses the interconnections between these developments in the framework of a multilevel model, culminating in the thesis of a collective “Buddenbrooks”-effect: a structural upward mobility of society will lead to an increasing imbalance at capital markets because a strongly rising volume of financial assets searching profitable investment opportunities will go parallel with a decline of the social reservoir of solvent entrepreneurial debtors. Therefore, advanced industrial economies are faced with chronic excess liquidity and export surpluses at capital markets, leading to the build-up of speculative bubbles and subsequent crashes. The author argues that the present crisis cannot be understood properly without taking account of these backgrounds.
Nisoli, Cristiano; Mahault, Benoit; Saxena, Avadh
We introduce a minimal agent-based model to qualitatively conceptualize the allocation of limited wealth among more abundant opportunities. There the interplay of power, satisfaction and frustration determines the distribution, concentration, and inequality of wealth. Our framework allows us to compare subjective measures of frustration and satisfaction to collective measures of fairness in wealth distribution, such as the Lorenz curve and the Gini index. We find that a completely libertarian, law-of-the-jungle setting, where every agent can acquire wealth from, or lose wealth to, anybody else invariably leads to large inequality. The picture is however dramatically modified when hard constraints are imposed over agents, and they are limited to share wealth with neighbors on a network. We address dynamical societies via an out of equilibrium coevolution of the network, driven by a competition between power and frustration. The ratio between power and frustration controls different dynamical regimes separated by kinetic transitions and characterized by drastically different values of the indices of equality. In particular, it leads to the emergence of three self-organized social classes, lower, middle, and upper class, whose interactions drive a cyclical regime.
Wang, Junhua; Wang, Hua
Recent scholarship on global online courses points to the need to examine the issue of social context in an online global learning environment. To explore global learners' cultural perspectives on the social climate of an online class, we first review the social presence theory--which can be used to examine the social climate in an online…
In this paper, I report on my experience in teaching a 3rd-year undergraduate physics class at the University of Trento during the Spring 2014 semester. I address questions relating to the application of active-learning techniques, usage of English language in the classroom, and student reactions to an innovative style of pedagogy.
Wanzek, Jeanne; Kent, Shawn C.; Vaughn, Sharon; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Haynes, Martha
The authors examined the effects of team-based learning (TBL) implemented in Grade 8 social studies classes on student content acquisition. Twenty-four classes were randomly assigned to treatment or comparison blocking on teacher. In the treatment classes teachers integrated TBL practices in the content instruction. The authors examined teacher…
Aliakbari, Mohammad; Allahmoradi, Nazal
Basil Bernstein (1971) introduced the notion of the Restricted and the Elaborated code, claiming that working-class speakers have access only to the former but middle-class members to both. In an attempt to test this theory in the Iranian context and to investigate the effect of social class on the quality of students language use, we examined the…
Through a pedagogical lens, this literature review highlights how social class, as a primary analytical construct for understanding identity in English language learner instruction, interacts with teacher class identity while creating implications for teaching and learning. In the past two decades, race, class, and gender have been the foci in…
Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.
Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…
The impact of social class backgrounds on young children's educational experiences has attracted increasing attention in early childhood research. However, few longitudinal studies related to social class and parental involvement in young children's education are available, especially in East Asian contexts. In this longitudinal qualitative study,…
Mistry, Rashmita S.; Brown, Christia S.; White, Elizabeth S.; Chow, Kirby A.; Gillen-O'Neel, Cari
The current study examined children's identification and reasoning about their subjective social status (SSS), their beliefs about social class groups (i.e., the poor, middle class, and rich), and the associations between the two. Study participants were 117 10- to 12-year-old children of diverse racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic backgrounds…
Jean Anyon's (1981) "Social Class and School Knowledge" was a landmark work in North American educational research. It provided a richly detailed qualitative description of differential, social class-based constructions of knowledge and epistemological stance. This essay situates Anyon's work in two parallel traditions of critical educational…
Weston, Peter J.; Mednick, Martha T.
Based on senior author's M.A thesis in Psychology at Howard University. Examines race and social class differences in the expression of fear of success (termed M-s) in college women. Hypothesis that black women would show less M-s than white women was supported. Social class differences not found. (RJ)
Soria, Krista M.
This study examined the relationships between undergraduate students' social class background and variables theorized to affect students' social integration in higher education, including students' perception of campus climate, frequency of faculty interactions, frequency of involvement in campus activities, and sense of belonging.…
Wang, Gang; He, XiRan; Ishuga, Carolyne Isigi
With the rapid development of information technology, scientific social networks (SSNs) have become the fastest and most convenient way for researchers to communicate with each other. Many published papers are shared via SSNs every day, resulting in the problem of information overload. How to appropriately recommend personalized and highly valuable papers for researchers is becoming more urgent. However, when recommending papers in SSNs, only a small amount of positive instances are available, leaving a vast amount of unlabelled data, in which negative instances and potential unseen positive instances are mixed together, which naturally belongs to One-Class Collaborative Filtering (OCCF) problem. Therefore, considering the extreme data imbalance and data sparsity of this OCCF problem, a hybrid approach of Social and Content aware One-class Recommendation of Papers in SSNs, termed SCORP, is proposed in this study. Unlike previous approaches recommended to address the OCCF problem, social information, which has been proved playing a significant role in performing recommendations in many domains, is applied in both the profiling of content-based filtering and the collaborative filtering to achieve superior recommendations. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed SCORP approach, a real-life dataset from CiteULike was employed. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed approach is superior to all of the compared approaches, thus providing a more effective method for recommending papers in SSNs.
Thompson, Mindi; Diestelmann, Jacob; Cole, Odessa; Keller, Abiola; Minami, Takuya
A vignette-based study assessed the influence of social class attributions toward a hypothetical client's difficulty. 188 licensed mental health professionals who were recruited through professional listservs completed an online survey after reviewing one of two versions of a vignette describing a hypothetical client that varied based on social class cues. As expected, this sample of licensed mental health practitioners detected social class differences based on the descriptors of the hypothetical client across the two vignettes. These perceived social class differences, however, did not impact participants' attributions toward the client for causing or solving her problems, level of Global Assessment of Functioning score ascribed to the client, or willingness to work with the client. There was no evidence that participants differentially ascribed attributions based on social class. Implications and directions for future research are provided.
Guy, Rebecca F.; Allen, Donald E.
In order to test the hypothesis that middle-class subjects will spend more time on a difficult task than will working class subjects, 40 adult white married females were randomly selected from two small towns in north-central Oklahoma and given independently and in random order a logico-manipulative task and a motor-manipulative task. (Author/JM)
Carey, Rebecca M; Markus, Hazel Rose
Social class shapes relational realities, which in turn situate and structure different selves and their associated psychological tendencies. We first briefly review how higher class contexts tend to foster independent models of self and lower class contexts tend to foster interdependent models of self. We then consider how these independent and interdependent models of self are situated in and adapted to different social class-driven relational realities. We review research demonstrating that in lower social class contexts, social networks tend to be small, dense, homogenous and strongly connected. Ties in these networks provide the bonding capital that is key for survival and that promotes the interdependence between self and other(s). In higher social class contexts, social networks tend to be large, far-reaching, diverse and loosely connected. Ties in these networks provide the bridging capital that is key for achieving personal goals and that promotes an independence of self from other. We conclude that understanding and addressing issues tied to social class and inequality requires understanding the form and function of relationships across class contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The aim of this study is to determine the separate effects of social class, income, education and area of residence on psychological distress. The study also assesses whether the association between prevalence of high score on the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 12) and social class is independent of other variables. Psychological distress was assessed by means of the GHQ 12. The study covered 1,092 adults aged 15 years or more living in two different quarters of Antalya. Social class status was defined by occupational position, with income, education and area of residence treated as confounders. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the data. Large inequalities in psychological distress by all variables were observed. Psychological distress was significantly associated with class status, after adjusting for income, education, area of residence and other potential confounders (age, sex and marital status). Class inequalities in psychological distress were observed between blue-collar workers/unqualified employees and bourgeoisie. These findings support the view that the recent widening of inequalities among social classes in Turkey pose a substantial threat to health.
Deaver, Susan B.
This upper-elementary level social studies curriculum guide is designed to: (1) teach students to understand and appreciate the built (man made) environment; (2) instruct students about Georgia's history and heritage; and (3) introduce the basic concepts of historic preservation. The unit highlights 10 architectural styles of the homes of famous…
Akhan, Nadire Emel
The purpose of this research is to measure how effective the use of art activities is at achieving the goals of social studies program and to introduce a model practice that social studies teachers can follow. Accordingly, certain objectives were selected from among the main objectives of social studies program and the activities prepared for a…
Asking participants to assess their social class may be an efficient approach to examining inequalities in heath from survey data. The present study investigated this possibility empirically by testing whether subjective class identification is related to overall health. I used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2012 and the 2014 General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey carried out among adults in the United States. The association between health and class was estimated separately by gender, race and age. The association follows a gradient pattern where health deteriorates with lower class position even after controlling for indicators typically used in research that examines class differences in health-educational attainment, family income and occupational prestige. The results largely hold when the data are stratified by gender, race and age. These findings demonstrate the empirical value of subjective class identification for assessing social inequalities in health from survey data.
Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier
for the statistical analysis. Our results are, first, that controlling for the three types of capital we explain a considerable part of the social class effect on educational attainment, and, second, that cultural and social capital are the key predictors of educational attainment.......This paper analyzes how much of the effect of social class on children’s choice of secondary education in Denmark can be decomposed into the influence of parental economic, cultural, and social capital. Following mobility regime theory, we propose that in the Scandinavian mobility regime to which...... Denmark belongs, the effect of social class on educational attainment should be explained primarily by non-economic forms of capital. We use an extremely rich Danish longitudinal survey to construct empirical measures of economic, cultural, and social capital and an extended random effect framework...
Allan, Blake A; Garriott, Patton O; Keene, Chesleigh N
The purpose of this study was to examine perceptions of classism that may explain links between social class, first-generation college student status, and academic and well-being outcomes. Specifically, with a sample of 1,225 college students from a public university, we examined social class and first-generation status as predictors of institutionalized, citational, and interpersonal classism and classism as a predictor of life satisfaction, academic satisfaction, and grade point average (GPA). Partially supporting hypotheses, social class and first-generation status predicted institutionalized classism and interpersonal classism, and social class predicted citational classism. In turn, institutionalized classism and citational classism negatively predicted life satisfaction, and institutionalized classism negatively predicted academic satisfaction. Indirect effects were significant from social class to life satisfaction via institutionalized and citational classism, from social class to academic satisfaction via institutionalized classism, and from first-generation status to life satisfaction via institutionalized classism. Social class also had direct effects to life satisfaction, academic satisfaction, and GPA, and first-generation status had direct effects to academic satisfaction and GPA. Implications for research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Gannar, Fadoua; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Del Cristo Rodríguez Pérez, María; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Ben Dahmen, Fatma; Sakly, Mohsen; Attia, Nabil
There is an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in developing countries. It has been shown the relationship between social class and MS in developed countries. The objective of our study was to compare the association of social class with the prevalence of MS in a developing country (Tunisia, region of Cap-Bon) and a developed one (Spain, Canary Islands). Cross-sectional study of 6729 Canarian and 393 Tunisian individuals. Social class was measured with the income, crowding and education (ICE) model, which includes family income, household crowding and education level. Logistic regression models adjusted by age estimated the risk by odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI 95 %) of MS according to social class. MS prevalence was higher in Tunisian (50 %) than in Canarian women (29 %; p = 0.002), with no significant differences between men. For Canarian women, being in the highest social class was a protective factor against MS (OR = 0.39; CI 95 % 0.29-0.53) and all its components. The Canarian population and the Tunisian women, showed a significant linear trend (p social class increased. High social class is a protective factor from MS and its components within the Canarian population and the Tunisian women. Our results suggest that the socioeconomic transition in a developing country like Tunisia can improve the population health in a sex-specific manner.
This article discusses different expressions of mid- and upper-class Greek women's use of classical antiquity in relation to female bodily culture. It focuses on two cases, connected with successive phases of the collective women's action in Greece. The first case concerns principally the conjuncture of the Athens Olympic Games of 1896. The games offered the opportunity to the Ladies' Journal, the weekly that gave expression to the first feminist group in Greece and its leading figure, C. Parren, to put forward a discourse which, by constructing a specific image of the ancient Heraia games for 'maidens', 'invents' a specific athletic-competitive 'tradition' on behalf of Greek women of their social class. The second case rejoins the same circle of women principally in the interwar years as leading figures of the Lyceum of Greek Women, the organization which distinguished itself by juxtaposing to the newly formed militant feminist organizations its 'hellenic-worthy' activity, by organizing monumental festivals in the Panathenaic Stadium, which, through displays of 'national' dances - folk and 'ancient' dances - and other ritual events, performed the 'tradition' of the nation from prehistory until today.
Stephens, Nicole M; Markus, Hazel Rose; Phillips, L Taylor
America's unprecedented levels of inequality have far-reaching negative consequences for society as a whole. Although differential access to resources contributes to inequality, the current review illuminates how ongoing participation in different social class contexts also gives rise to culture-specific selves and patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting. We integrate a growing body of interdisciplinary research to reveal how social class culture cycles operate over the course of the lifespan and through critical gateway contexts, including homes, schools, and workplaces. We first document how each of these contexts socializes social class cultural differences. Then, we demonstrate how these gateway institutions, which could provide access to upward social mobility, are structured according to middle-class ways of being a self and thus can fuel and perpetuate inequality. We conclude with a discussion of intervention opportunities that can reduce inequality by taking into account the contextual responsiveness of the self.
Calderón-Almendros, Ignacio; Ruiz-Román, Cristóbal
This project reflects on the way in which students in a situation of social risk construct their identity. Based on the reflections and theories originating from research conducted on individuals and collective groups in a situation of social exclusion due to disability, social class or ethnicity, this paper will analyse the conflicts these…
Garcha, V; Shetiya, S H; Kakodkar, P
To investigate and compare the influence of social and cultural factors as access barriers to oral health care amongst people from various social classes. A cross sectional survey in Pimpri, was conducted using a pilot tested 15 item-structured, close-ended and self-administered questionnaire. Two hundred and fifty people aged 35-45 years (50 participants each in five social classes as per British Registrar's General classification of occupation) were selected. The chi-square test was applied to check statistical differences between social classes at 5% level of significance. Overall, it was observed that irrespective of the social class difference 88% participants wished to seek only expert/professional advice for the dental treatment. Unavailability of services on Sunday (63%), going to dentist only when in pain (57%), trying self care or home remedy (54%), inadequate government policies (50%), budgetary constraints (40%) were among the major access barriers. Statistically significant difference in the access barriers among the social classes were found related to: Inadequate government policies, budgetary constraints, appointment schedules, far-off located clinics, myths and fear about dental treatment. Social and cultural factors act as access barriers to oral health care and social class differences have a significant influence on the access barriers.
Crombie, Iain K; Precious, Elaine
To explore the nature of the social class gradient of cirrhosis mortality in England and Wales across the 20th century. Data on male cirrhosis mortality by social class were obtained from the Registrar General's Decennial Supplements for the years 1921-1991. Data for 1941 were not collected because of the second World War. In 1921, cirrhosis mortality was substantially higher among the professional and managerial classes (I and II) than among the other social classes (III-V). This marked social class difference persisted until 1961 when the differences between the social classes were inconsistent. By 1991, the gradient had reversed and the lower social classes (IV and V) had the higher mortality. The excess mortality was greatest for social class V. The change in the mortality gradient is stark: in 1921social classes I and II had a cirrhosis mortality at least twice that of social classes IV and V, but by 1991 this ratio had reversed. The reversal in the social class gradient of cirrhosis mortality indicates a major change in risk factor distribution across social classes. Differential changes in alcohol consumption are a possible explanation for this change, although the 1991 social class gradient in cirrhosis is inconsistent with alcohol consumption data from national surveys. Further research is required to clarify the explanation for the observed gradient, so that appropriate preventive measures can be put into place.
Muntaner, Carles; Lynch, John W; Hillemeier, Marianne; Lee, Ju Hee; David, Richard; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme
This study tests two propositions from Navarro's critique of the social capital literature: that social capital's importance has been exaggerated and that class-related political factors, absent from social epidemiology and public health, might be key determinants of population health. The authors estimate cross-sectional associations between economic inequality, working-class power, and social capital and life expectancy, self-rated health, low birth weight, and age- and cause-specific mortality in 16 wealthy countries. Of all the health outcomes, the five variables related to birth and infant survival and nonintentional injuries had the most consistent association with economic inequality and working-class power (in particular with strength of the welfare state) and, less so, with social capital indicators. Rates of low birth weight and infant deaths from all causes were lower in countries with more "left" (e.g., socialist, social democratic, labor) votes, more left members of parliament, more years of social democratic government, more women in government, and various indicators of strength of the welfare state, as well as low economic inequality, as measured in a variety of ways. Similar associations were observed for injury mortality, underscoring the crucial role of unions and labor parties in promoting workplace safety. Overall, social capital shows weaker associations with population health indicators than do economic inequality and working-class power. The popularity of social capital and exclusion of class-related political and welfare state indicators does not seem to be justified on empirical grounds.
Manstead, Antony S R
Drawing on recent research on the psychology of social class, I argue that the material conditions in which people grow up and live have a lasting impact on their personal and social identities and that this influences both the way they think and feel about their social environment and key aspects of their social behaviour. Relative to middle-class counterparts, lower/working-class individuals are less likely to define themselves in terms of their socioeconomic status and are more likely to have interdependent self-concepts; they are also more inclined to explain social events in situational terms, as a result of having a lower sense of personal control. Working-class people score higher on measures of empathy and are more likely to help others in distress. The widely held view that working-class individuals are more prejudiced towards immigrants and ethnic minorities is shown to be a function of economic threat, in that highly educated people also express prejudice towards these groups when the latter are described as highly educated and therefore pose an economic threat. The fact that middle-class norms of independence prevail in universities and prestigious workplaces makes working-class people less likely to apply for positions in such institutions, less likely to be selected and less likely to stay if selected. In other words, social class differences in identity, cognition, feelings, and behaviour make it less likely that working-class individuals can benefit from educational and occupational opportunities to improve their material circumstances. This means that redistributive policies are needed to break the cycle of deprivation that limits opportunities and threatens social cohesion. © 2018 The Author. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.
Porta, Miquel; Bosch de Basea, Magda; Benavides, Fernando G.; Lopez, Tomas; Fernandez, Esteve; Marco, Esther; Alguacil, Juan; Grimalt, Joan O.; Puigdomenech, Elisa
Background: The relationships between social factors and body concentrations of environmental chemical agents are unknown in many human populations. Some chemical compounds may play an etiopathogenic role in pancreatic cancer. Objective: To analyze the relationships between occupational social class and serum concentrations of seven selected organochlorine compounds (OCs) in exocrine pancreatic cancer: dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (p,p'-DDT), dichlorodiphenyldichloroethene (p,p'-DDE), 3 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorobenzene, and β-hexachlorocyclohexane. Methods: Incident cases of exocrine pancreatic cancer were prospectively identified, and interviewed face-to-face during hospital admission (n=135). Serum concentrations of OCs were analyzed by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron-capture detection. Social class was classified according to occupation. Results: Multivariate-adjusted concentrations of all seven compounds were higher in occupational social classes IV-V (the less affluent) than in classes I-II; they were higher as well in class III than in classes I-II for four compounds. Concentrations of six OCs were higher in manual workers than in non-manual workers (p<0.05 for PCBs). Social class explained statistically between 3.7% and 5.7% of the variability in concentrations of PCBs, and 2% or less variability in the other OCs. Conclusions: Concentrations of most OCs were higher in the less affluent occupational social classes. In pancreatic cancer the putative causal role of these persistent organic pollutants may not be independent of social class. There is a need to integrate evidence on the contribution of different social processes and environmental chemical exposures to the etiology of pancreatic and other cancers
Julio César Montáñez-Ruiz
Full Text Available Hoy en día el debate sobre la pregunta de cuáles conflictos sociales deben ser castigados desde la óptica de la política criminal aún continúa. La batalla para imponer un particular discurso de criminalidad está relacionada con el hecho de que el marco de la criminalización depende del legislador que refleja la expansión punitiva. El propósito de este artículo es discutir sobre la lucha entre modelos de criminalización, los cuales, de una parte, tienden a la aplicación del sistema criminal persiguiendo a la criminalidad de las clases poderosas y, de otra, buscan el criterio de intervención mínima para prevenir la excesiva intervención del derecho penal.
Full Text Available O artigo trata da questão da relação constitutiva entre classe social e movimento social. Em vez de ver um movimento social como o resultado de uma classe social, argumenta-se que uma classe social é constituída também pelas ações coletivas que chamamos de movimento social. Isso implica que a classe social não pode ser tratada como uma variável independente que reivindica um status objetivo como tal. Essa é considerada uma forma de reificação da noção de classe. Contra ela, argumenta-se que a classe é o produto de uma ação coletiva de pessoas e que pode, portanto, ser analisada em relação a sua composição social, a suas redes sociais organizadoras e a suas estruturações culturais. Esse quadro de referência de análise de classe é então aplicado à classe média, à qual essa abordagem se mostra particularmente adequada. Em vez de repetir velhas afirmações de uma classe média não-homogênea, reduzindo uma classe de pessoas a uma massa de pessoas, mostra-se como essa classe se constitui em ação e mobilização contínuas como uma classe social com limites, redes e orientações culturais claros. Nesse sentido, a classe tem importância, e a análise de classe é ainda uma ferramenta central para entender fenômenos macrossociológicos.
Stirrup, Julie; Evans, John; Davies, Brian
Despite 50 years and more of "progressive education" in the United Kingdom, classed patterns of educational success and failure stubbornly prevail. So how, where and when does it all go wrong for the many children who continue to fail or underachieve? Drawing on the work of Basil Bernstein, this article centres processes within early…
Bullock, Heather E
Record-setting levels of income and wealth inequality are deepening social class divisions. The adoption of strong progressive redistributive policies is crucial to reducing class inequities, yet many barriers to doing so exist. This review examines class-based policy preferences, focusing on the effects of economic self-interest, system justification, and classist, racist, and sexist stereotypes on policy support. The impact of broader economic conditions is also considered. Collectively, this body of research makes clear that building stronger cross-class support for redistributive policies and programs will prove difficult without addressing both class-based power differences and beliefs that justify inequality. Reducing stereotypes and developing a shared sense of societal responsibility that cuts across class lines can help advance these goals. Social psychological research is vital to informing these efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lay perceptions and experiences of social location have been commonly framed with reference to social class. However, complex responses to, and ambivalence over, class categories have raised interesting analytic questions relating to how sociological concepts are operationalized in empirical research. For example, prior researchers have argued that processes of class dis-identification signify moral unease with the nature of classed inequalities, yet dis-identification may also in part reflect a poor fit between 'social class' as a category and the ways in which people accord meaning to, and evaluate, their related experiences of socio-economic inequality. Differently framed questions about social comparison, aligned more closely with people's own terms of reference, offer an interesting alternative avenue for exploring subjective experiences of inequality. This paper explores some of these questions through an analysis of new empirical data, generated in the context of recession. In the analysis reported here, class identification was common. Nevertheless, whether or not people self identified in class terms, class relevant issues were perceived and described in highly diverse ways, and lay views on class revealed it to be a very aggregated as well as multifaceted construct. It is argued that it enables a particular, not general, perspective on social comparison. The paper therefore goes on to examine how study participants compared themselves with familiar others, identified by themselves. The evidence illuminates social positioning in terms of constraint, agency and (for some) movement, and offers insight into very diverse experiences of inequality, through the comparisons that people made. Their comparisons are situated, and pragmatic, accounts of the material contexts in which people live their lives. Linked evaluations are circumscribed and strongly tied to these proximate material contexts.The paper draws out implications for theorizing lay perspectives on
Takei, Yoshimitsu; And Others
While the occupational aspirations of Malay and Chinese male students in the secondary schools reveal fairly similar configurations, the socio-economic expectations of Malays are higher and largely independent of social class origins. (Authors)
Rhine, W. Ray
This article reports an investigation in which the brith order, social class, and level of achievement arousal are the variables considered when fifth and sixth-grade girls make independent judgements in performing a set task. (JH)
Omid Talebi Rezaabadi
This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening Anxiety Scale and a newly developed Foreign Language Social Anxiety Scale. The potential correlation between social anxiety and listening-test perfor...
Feb 1, 2018 ... The ideal mass education to improve literacy rate, which has been identified as ... Internet and social media, which today have a significant place both in ..... education: Real access or marketing ploy? The International Review ...
Lindholm, C; Burström, B; Diderichsen, F
with eight years interval 1979-89 and 1986-97. Sociodemographic characteristics, self reported longstanding illness, employment situation and financial conditions were measured at baseline. Social consequences (economic inactivity, unemployment, financial difficulties) of limiting longstanding illness were......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate adverse social consequences of limiting longstanding illness and the modifying effect of socioeconomic position on these consequences. DESIGN: Cohort study on the panel within the annual Swedish Survey of Living Conditions where participants were interviewed twice...
Ciciolla, Lucia; Curlee, Alexandria S.; Karageorge, Jason; Luthar, Suniya S.
High achievement expectations and academic pressure from parents have been implicated in rising levels of stress and reduced well-being among adolescents. In this study of affluent, middle-school youth, we examined how perceptions of parents' emphasis on achievement (relative to prosocial behavior) influenced youth's psychological adjustment and school performance, and examined perceived parental criticism as a possible moderator of this association. The data were collected from 506 (50% female) middle school students from a predominately white, upper-middle-class community. Students reported their perceptions of parents' values by rank ordering a list of achievement- and prosocial-oriented goals based on what they believed was most valued by their mothers and fathers for them (the child) to achieve. The data also included students' reports of perceived parental criticism, internalizing symptoms, externalizing symptoms, and self-esteem, as well as school-based data on grade point average and teacher-reported classroom behavior. Person-based analyses revealed six distinct latent classes based on perceptions of both mother and father emphases on achievement. Class comparisons showed a consistent pattern of healthier child functioning, including higher school performance, higher self-esteem, and lower psychological symptoms, in association with low to neutral parental achievement emphasis, whereas poorer child functioning was associated with high parental achievement emphasis. In variable-based analyses, interaction effects showed elevated maladjustment when high maternal achievement emphasis coexisted with high (but not low) perceived parental criticism. Results of the study suggest that to foster early adolescents' well-being in affluent school settings, parents focus on prioritizing intrinsic, prosocial values that promote affiliation and community, at least as much as, or more than, they prioritize academic performance and external achievement; and strive to limit
Daly, Richard F.
The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between an adolescent's socioeconomic status (SES) and selected variables of the sub-subsystems of the River City High School senior class social system during the 1974-75 academic year. Variables for study were selected from each of the three sub-subsystems of the senior class social…
Kniveton, Bromley H.
Investigates the effects on young male students of differing social backgrounds and varying levels of intelligence, of seeing a peer misbehave. Notes that working class boys imitated the misbehaving model significantly more than middle-class boys. Level of intelligence was not found to relate to the amount a student imitated a misbehaving peer.…
Tassoni, John Paul
This article relates case histories of basic writing programs at regional campuses in Florida, and the perceived need to incorporate concerns of social class into basic writing curriculum. Attention to class helps scholars identify institutional patterns that distance basic writing from the university's mainstream business. This author describes a…
Studies of collegiate party and hookup culture tend to overlook variation along social class and racial/ethnic lines. Drawing on interview data at a "party school" in the Midwest, I examine the meanings and practices of drinking and casual sex for a group of class and race-diverse fraternity men. While more privileged men draw on ideas…
Temel, Cenk; Güllü, Mehmet
The current study aimed to analyze the social gender perception in physical education classes in Turkey through the pictures drawn by students about the physical education class. The document analysis technique, which is a qualitative research method, was used in the study. In the light of this aim, the pictures drawn by a total of 394 students…
Locke, Leslie Ann; Trolian, Teniell L.
In this chapter, we discuss microaggressions, or the everyday (and often unintended) incidents of discrimination that individuals from marginalized or underserved groups experience on college campuses as they relate to students' social class identities--or simply, class-based prejudices.
Cui, Ding; Zhou, Yuan
Stress from dominance ranks in human societies, or that of other social animals, especially nonhuman primates, can have negative influences on health. Individuals holding different social status may be burdened with various stress levels. The middle class experiences a special stress situation within the dominance hierarchy due to its position between the higher and lower classes. Behaviorally, questions about where middle-class stress comes from and how individuals adapt to middle-class stress remain poorly understood in nonhuman primates. In the present study, social interactions, including aggression, avoidance, grooming and mounting behaviors, between beta males, as well as among group members holding higher or lower social status, were analyzed in captive male-only cynomolgus monkey groups. We found that aggressive tension from the higher hierarchy members was the main origin of stress for middle-class individuals. However, behaviors such as attacking lower hierarchy members immediately after being the recipient of aggression, as well as increased avoidance, grooming and mounting toward both higher and lower hierarchy members helped alleviate middle-class stress and were particular adaptations to middle-class social status.
Dietze, Pia; Knowles, Eric D
We theorize that people's social class affects their appraisals of others' motivational relevance-the degree to which others are seen as potentially rewarding, threatening, or otherwise worth attending to. Supporting this account, three studies indicate that social classes differ in the amount of attention their members direct toward other human beings. In Study 1, wearable technology was used to film the visual fields of pedestrians on city streets; higher-class participants looked less at other people than did lower-class participants. In Studies 2a and 2b, participants' eye movements were tracked while they viewed street scenes; higher class was associated with reduced attention to people in the images. In Study 3, a change-detection procedure assessed the degree to which human faces spontaneously attract visual attention; faces proved less effective at drawing the attention of high-class than low-class participants, which implies that class affects spontaneous relevance appraisals. The measurement and conceptualization of social class are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.
The author develops a series of life profiles for men and women living in the Greater Santiago area of Chile over the past 25 years. These profiles, which are based on the concept of life expectancy at birth, illustrate the length of time individuals take to go through such life cycle stages as education, employment, unemployment, and retirement. The concept is used to analyze changes in the life profile over time and how these differ by class. (SUMMARY IN ENG)
Ericsson, Malin; Lundholm, Cecilia; Fors, Stefan; Dahl Aslan, Anna K; Zavala, Catalina; Reynolds, Chandra A; Pedersen, Nancy L
In this report we analyzed genetically informative data to investigate within-person change and between-person differences in late-life cognitive abilities as a function of childhood social class. We used data from nine testing occasions spanning 28 y in the Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging and parental social class based on the Swedish socioeconomic index. Cognitive ability included a general factor and the four domains of verbal, fluid, memory, and perceptual speed. Latent growth curve models of the longitudinal data tested whether level and change in cognitive performance differed as a function of childhood social class. Between-within twin-pair analyses were performed on twins reared apart to assess familial confounding. Childhood social class was significantly associated with mean-level cognitive performance at age 65 y, but not with rate of cognitive change. The association decreased in magnitude but remained significant after adjustments for level of education and the degree to which the rearing family was supportive toward education. A between-pair effect of childhood social class was significant in all cognitive domains, whereas within-pair estimates were attenuated, indicating genetic confounding. Thus, childhood social class is important for cognitive performance in adulthood on a population level, but the association is largely attributable to genetic influences.
Sánchez-García, Sergio; Heredia-Ponce, Erika; Cruz-Hervert, Pablo; Juárez-Cedillo, Teresa; Cárdenas-Bahena, Angel; García-Peña, Carmen
To explore the oral health status through a latent class analysis in elderly social security beneficiaries from Southwest Mexico City. Cross-sectional study of beneficiaries of the State Employee Social Security and Social Services Institute (ISSSTE, in Spanish) and the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS, in Spanish) aged 60 years or older. Oral health conditions such as edentulism, coronal and root caries (DMFT and DFT ≥ 75 percentile), clinical attachment loss (≥ 4 mm), and healthy teeth (≤ 25 percentile) were determined. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to classify the oral health status of dentate patients. In total, 336 patients were included (47.9% from the ISSSTE and 52.1% from the IMSS), with an average age of 74.4 (SD = 7.1) years. The 75th percentile of the DMFT = 23 and of the DFT = 2. Of the patients, 77.9% had periodontal disease. The 25th percentile of healthy teeth = 4. A three class model is adequate, with a high classification quality (Entropy = 0.915). The patients were classified as "Edentulous" (15.2%), "Class 1 = Unfavorable" (13.7%), "Class 2 = Somewhat favorable" (10.4%), and "Class 3 = Favorable" (60.7%). Using "Class 3 = Favorable" as a reference, there was an association (OR = 3.4; 95% CI = 1.8-6.4) between being edentulous and being 75 years of age and over, compared with the 60- to 74-year age group. The oral health in elderly social security beneficiaries is not optimal. The probability of becoming edentulous increases with age. A three-class model appropriately classifies the oral health dimensions in the elderly population. Key words:Elderly, Latent class analysis (LCA), oral health, social security, Mexico.
Stansfeld, S A; Head, J; Marmot, M G
Work characteristics, including skill discretion and decision authority, explain most of the socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression in middle-aged British civil servants from the Whitehall II Study, London. Social support explained about one-third of the gradient, life events and material difficulties less than one-third. Socioeconomic status was measured by employment grade. Work characteristics were based on the Karasek model, social support was measured by the Close Persons Questionnaire, depression by the General Health Questionnaire and well-being by the Affect Balance Scale. Despite a small contribution from social selective factors measured by upward mobility, the psychosocial work environment explained most of the cross-sectional socioeconomic status gradient in well-being and depression.
Mills, Adam J.; Robson, Karen; Pitt, Leyland F.
Changing curriculum content requirements, based on shifting global perspectives on corporate behavior and capitalism as well as business school accreditation requirements, mean that many marketing instructors have attempted to introduce discussions of organizational ethics, corporate social responsibility, and corporate governance into their…
The study illuminates the influence of social networks on the HE decision-making process of white working-class boys. The impact of gender, race and social class social characteristics on white working-class boys HE decision-making is assessed. In addition, how white working-class boys define and discuss the membership of their social network, together with the phenomenon of social network influence on white working-class boys’ decision-making about HE at Key Stage 4.The expansive literature ...
Rubin, Mark; Denson, Nida; Kilpatrick, Sue; Matthews, Kelly E.; Stehlik, Tom; Zyngier, David
This review provides a critical appraisal of the measurement of students' social class and socioeconomic status (SES) in the context of widening higher education participation. Most assessments of social class and SES in higher education have focused on objective measurements based on the income, occupation, and education of students'…
Chen, Yunsong; Yan, Fei
What is the association between macroeconomic conditions and public perceptions of social class? Applying a novel approach based on the Google Books N-gram corpus, this study addresses the relationship between public concerns about social class and economic conditions throughout the twentieth century. The usage of class-related words/phrases, or "literary references to class," in American English-language books is related to US economic performance and income inequality. The findings of this study demonstrate that economic conditions play a significant role in literary references to class throughout the century, whereas income inequality does not. Similar results are obtained from further analyses using alternative measures of class concerns as well as different corpora of English Fiction and the New York Times. We add to the social class literature by showing that the long-term temporal dynamics of an economy can be exhibited by aggregate class concerns. The application of massive culture-wide content analysis using data of unprecedented size also represents a contribution to the literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Santos, Simone José dos; Hardman, Carla Menêses; Barros, Simone Storino Honda; Santos da Franca, Carolina; Santos, Carolina da F B F; Barros, Mauro Virgilio Gomes de
To analyze the association between physical activity, participation in Physical Education classes, and indicators of social isolation among adolescents. This was an epidemiological study based on secondary analysis of data from a representative sample of students (14-19 years) from public high schools (n=4,207). Data were collected through the questionnaire Global School-based Student Health Survey. The independent variables were the level of physical activity and enrollment in Physical Education classes, while the dependent variables were two indicators of social isolation (feeling of loneliness and having few friends). Descriptive and inferential procedures were used in the statistical analysis. Most of the adolescents were classified as insufficiently active (65.1%) and reported not attending Physical Education classes (64.9%). Approximately two in each ten participants reported feeling of loneliness (15.8%) and, in addition, about one in each five adolescents reported have only one friend (19.5%). In the bivariate analysis, a significantly lower proportion of individuals reporting social isolation was observed among adolescents who referred higher enrollment in Physical Education classes. After adjustment for confounding variables, binary logistic regression showed that attending Physical Education classes was identified as a protective factor in relation to the indicator of social isolation 'having few friends,' but only for girls. It was concluded that participation in Physical Education classes is associated with reduced social isolation among female adolescents. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Kraus, Michael W
Kraus and Tan (2015) hypothesized that Americans tend to overestimate social class mobility in society, and do so because they seek to protect the self. This paper reports a pre-registered exact replication of Study 3 from this original paper and finds, consistent with the original study, that Americans substantially overestimate social class mobility, that people provide greater overestimates when made while thinking of similar others, and that high perceived social class is related to greater overestimates. The current results provide additional evidence consistent with the idea that people overestimate class mobility to protect their beliefs in the promise of equality of opportunity. Discussion considers the utility of pre-registered self-replications as one tool for encouraging replication efforts and assessing the robustness of effect sizes.
Michael W. Kraus
Full Text Available Kraus and Tan (2015 hypothesized that Americans tend to overestimate social class mobility in society, and do so because they seek to protect the self. This paper reports a pre-registered exact replication of Study 3 from this original paper and finds, consistent with the original study, that Americans substantially overestimate social class mobility, that people provide greater overestimates when made while thinking of similar others, and that high perceived social class is related to greater overestimates. The current results provide additional evidence consistent with the idea that people overestimate class mobility to protect their beliefs in the promise of equality of opportunity. Discussion considers the utility of pre-registered self-replications as one tool for encouraging replication efforts and assessing the robustness of effect sizes.
Booker, Queen Esther
An approach used to tackle the problem of helping online students find the classes they want and need is a filtering technique called "social information filtering," a general approach to personalized information filtering. Social information filtering essentially automates the process of "word-of-mouth" recommendations: items are recommended to a…
Rezaabadi, Omid Talebi
This study investigated the relationships between the social anxiety, social class and listening-test anxiety of students learning English as a foreign language. The aims of the study were to examine the relationship between listening-test anxiety and listening-test performance. The data were collected using an adapted Foreign Language Listening…
This ethnographic study investigated heritage language maintenance among two distinct groups of Chinese immigrant families (Mandarin and Fujianese) from the social network perspective. The results indicated that a co-ethnic network could be a double-edged sword, which works differently on children from different social classes. While the Mandarin…
Ferri, Beth A.; Connor, David J.
In this article we examine some of the omnipresent yet unacknowledged discourses of social and economic disadvantage and dis/ability within schools in the US. First, we document ways that social class, race, and dis/ability function within schools to further disadvantage and exclude already marginalized students. Next, we show how particular ways…
Vincent, Carol; Ball, Stephen J.; Kemp, Sophie
Childcare is a condensate of disparate social forces and social processes. It is gendered and classed. It is subject to an excess of policy and political discourse. It is increasingly a focus for commercial exploitation. This is a paper reporting on work in progress in an ESRC funded research project (R000239232) on the choice and provision of…
Drawing from ethnography of communication and language socialization approaches, this paper examines classes on bullying held for Sikh middle school students at a Sikh religious institution in California. Sikh educational programs play an important role in socializing youth into Sikh teachings, practices, and community perspectives. Due to one…
Henry, Sue Ellen
Sociology has long recognized the centrality of the body in the reciprocal construction of individuals and society, and recent research has explored the influence of a variety of social institutions on the body. Significant research has established the influence of social class, child-rearing practices, and variable language forms in families and…
Ali, Saba Rasheed; Fall, Kevin; Hoffman, Tina
Unemployment is a stark reality in today's economic climate, and many Americans report a fear of loss or decrease in social status as a result of unexpected unemployment. Despite vocational psychology's emphasis on work as a domain of life, very little exploration on how social class shifts impact workers has been conducted. One way to rectify the…
Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Mousavi, Seyed Ghafour; Karami, Zahra
Suicide is one of the most prominent problems in health care system in current Iran. It could be impacted by various factors such as social, economic, individual and so on. Researchers show that socio-economic factors and suicide has significantly related. The people in low social class may more engage with social problems than higher social class. They may confront to problems such as crime, violence, unemployment, financial hardship, population density, disorder personality, etc. However, these difficulties could be resulted from relationship of inequality socio-economic and mental or physical health. This research attempted to examine social class status and its relationship with parts of suicide characteristics. This study applied a descriptive approach. In the cross-sectional research 179 patients who attempted suicide and admitted to the toxicology ward of Nour hospital and to the burning ward of Imam Mousa Kazem hospital, in Isfahan, during a period of 6 months in 2010 were recruited. The randomize sampling for patients admitted to toxicology ward and census for burning ward are applied. Data collected through a questionnaire which Chronbagh coefficient's alpha was calculated (r= 0/72). Data was analyzed in SPSS software. The data showed that the majority of patients who attempted suicide were young married women who had diploma and under diploma of level education. They were housewife, engaged in education and unemployment. Finding showed that there are no significant relationships between sex, age, marital status, frequency of attempted suicide and their social class. But there is significant relationship between methods of suicide and social class. Similarly, there are significant relationship between social factors (i.e. family friction, betrothal, unemployment, financial problems and so on) effected on suicide and their social classes. Parts of findings were supported by previous studies.
野口, 和行; 村山, 光義; 村松, 憲; 板垣, 悦子; 東海林, 祐子
The purpose of this study was to clarify the change of social skills and self-efficacy in the students who take physical education classes in university and difference among form of the classes ; physical education intensive course, physical education course conducting once a week and lecture course. We measured social skills and self-efficacy using Kikuchi's Social Skill Scale (KiSS-18) and the General Self Efficacy Scale (GSES). The results are as follows :1) Regardless of the kind of the c...
Diliberto, Rachele; Kearney, Christopher A
Selective mutism (SM) is a stable, debilitating psychiatric disorder in which a child fails to speak in most public situations. Considerable debate exists as to the typology of this population, with empirically-based studies pointing to possible dimensions of anxiety, oppositionality, and communication problems, among other aspects. Little work has juxtaposed identified symptom profiles with key temperamental and social constructs often implicated in SM. The present study examined a large, diverse, non-clinical, international sample of children aged 6-10 years with SM to empirically identify symptom profiles and to link these profiles to key aspects of temperament (i.e., emotionality, shyness, sociability, activity) and social functioning (i.e., social problems, social competence). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis revealed anxiety/distress, oppositionality, and inattention domains. In addition, latent class analysis revealed nuanced profiles labeled as (1) moderately anxious, oppositional, and inattentive, (2) highly anxious, and moderately oppositional and inattentive, and (3) mildly to moderately anxious, and mildly oppositional and inattentive. Class 2 was the most impaired group and was associated with greater emotionality, shyness, and social problems. Class 3 was the least impaired group and was associated with better sociability and social competence and activity. Class 1 was largely between the other classes, demonstrating less shyness and social problems than Class 2. The results help confirm previous findings of anxiety and oppositional profiles among children with SM but that nuanced classes may indicate subtle variations in impairment. The results have implications not only for subtyping this population but also for refining assessment and case conceptualization strategies and pursuing personalized and perhaps less lengthy treatment.
James, Spencer L; Amato, Paul R
Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households ( N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States.
James, Spencer L.; Amato, Paul R.
Objective Although prior research has demonstrated the multiple pathways through which socioeconomic attainment occurs, one unexplored avenue regards the role of psychological mechanisms such as self-esteem in this process. Method Using three waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,952), we employed structural equation models to examine the relationship between parenting practices and attitudes, socioeconomic status, offspring's self-esteem, and the likelihood of offspring college attendance. Results Self-esteem was positively related to the likelihood of offspring's college attendance. Additionally, self-esteem was found to be a modest mediator of the relationship between parental educational expectations and parental income, respectively, and the likelihood of offspring completing or being currently enrolled in college. Conclusion Self-esteem may constitute one previously unconsidered mechanism for reproducing the class structure in the United States. PMID:25568500
Rheinschmidt, Michelle L; Mendoza-Denton, Rodolfo
Undergraduates, especially those from lower income backgrounds, may perceive their social class background as different or disadvantaged relative to that of peers and worry about negative social treatment. We hypothesized that concerns about discrimination based on one's social class (i.e., class-based rejection sensitivity or RS-class) would be damaging to undergraduates' achievement outcomes particularly among entity theorists, who perceive their personal characteristics as fixed. We reasoned that a perceived capacity for personal growth and change, characteristic of incremental theorists, would make the pursuit of a college degree and upward mobility seem more worthwhile and attainable. We found evidence across 3 studies that dispositionally held and experimentally primed entity (vs. incremental) beliefs predicted college academic performance as a function of RS-class. Studies 1a and 1b documented that high levels of both entity beliefs and RS-class predicted lower self-reported and official grades, respectively, among undergraduates from socioeconomically diverse backgrounds. In Study 2, high entity beliefs and RS-class at matriculation predicted decreased year-end official grades among lower class Latino students. Study 3 established the causal relationship of entity (vs. incremental) beliefs on academic test performance as a function of RS-class. We observed worse test performance with higher RS-class levels following an entity (vs. incremental) prime, an effect driven by lower income students. Findings from a 4th study suggest that entity theorists with RS-class concerns tend to believe less in upward mobility and, following academic setbacks, are prone to personal attributions of failure, as well as hopelessness. Implications for education and intervention are discussed.
Wodtke, Geoffrey T
This study outlines a theory of social class based on workplace ownership and authority relations, and it investigates the link between social class and growth in personal income inequality since the 1980s. Inequality trends are governed by changes in between-class income differences, changes in the relative size of different classes, and changes in within-class income dispersion. Data from the General Social Survey are used to investigate each of these changes in turn and to evaluate their impact on growth in inequality at the population level. Results indicate that between-class income differences grew by about 60% since the 1980s and that the relative size of different classes remained fairly stable. A formal decomposition analysis indicates that changes in the relative size of different social classes had a small dampening effect and that growth in between-class income differences had a large inflationary effect on trends in personal income inequality.
Wodtke, Geoffrey T.
This study outlines a theory of social class based on workplace ownership and authority relations, and it investigates the link between social class and growth in personal income inequality since the 1980s. Inequality trends are governed by changes in between-class income differences, changes in the relative size of different classes, and changes in within-class income dispersion. Data from the General Social Survey are used to investigate each of these changes in turn and to evaluate their impact on growth in inequality at the population level. Results indicate that between-class income differences grew by about 60 percent since the 1980s and that the relative size of different classes remained fairly stable. A formal decomposition analysis indicates that changes in the relative size of different social classes had a small dampening effect and that growth in between-class income differences had a large inflationary effect on trends in personal income inequality. PMID:27087695
Andersen, Robert; Curtis, Josh
Using data from the World Values Survey and national-level indicators for 24 modern democracies, we assess the influence of social class and economic inequality on preferences for government responsibility. We improve on previous research by using multilevel models that account for differences in attitudes both within (i.e., over time) and across countries. Our findings are consistent with the economic self-interest hypothesis. Specifically, working class individuals, who tend to gain the most from government intervention because of their low and often more precarious economic position, are more likely than others to support government intervention. We also find a positive relationship between national-level income inequality and support for government intervention. As income inequality rises, its social ills tend to be more pervasive, resulting in public opinion becoming more supportive of governments taking responsibility for their citizens. We further demonstrate that inequality moderates the relationship between social class and attitudes. Although the effect of income inequality is positive for all social classes, attitudes across social classes become more similar as inequality rises. © 2015 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.
Full Text Available Of late, issues of social inequality have assumed a new political centrality in many western societies. However, in much discussion of these issues, sociological approaches to the analysis of social inequality have been disregarded, especially in the work of economists and epidemiologists. The main features of the sociological approach are the emphasis given to inequality in a relational rather than a merely attributional sense, and to the distinction between social class and social status as two qualitatively different forms of social stratifi cation. Two cases serve to illustrate the limitations and dangers that result from neglecting the conceptual and empirical work undertaken by sociologists: the study of intergenerational social mobility by economists and the study of the consequences of social inequality for health and related social problems by epidemiologists.
Güveli, A.; Graaf, N.D. de
Scholars have long argued that there are two occupational fractions within the middle class forming two separate classes. They are commonly referred to as the technocrats and the social-cultural specialists. In this article, we distinguish two ‘new’ classes of the high- and low-grade social-cultural
Güveli, Ayse; De Graaf, Nan Dirk
Scholars have long argued that there are two occupational fractions within the middle class forming two separate classes. They are commonly referred to as the technocrats and the social-cultural specialists. In this article, we distinguish two ‘new’ classes of the highand low-grade social-cultural
Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Solà, Judit; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Chung, Haejoo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; Rocha, Kátia B; Ng, Edwin
The aim of this study is to test the effects of neo-Marxian social class and potential mediators such as labor market position, work organization, material deprivation, and health behaviors on all-cause mortality. The authors use longitudinal data from the Barcelona 2000 Health Interview Survey (N=7526), with follow-up interviews through the municipal census in 2008 (95.97% response rate). Using data on relations of property, organizational power, and education, the study groups social classes according to Wright's scheme: capitalists, petit bourgeoisie, managers, supervisors, and skilled, semi-skilled, and unskilled workers. Findings indicate that social class, measured as relations of control over productive assets, is an important predictor of mortality among working-class men but not women. Workers (hazard ratio = 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.35) but also managers and small employers had a higher risk of death compared with capitalists. The extensive use of conventional gradient measures of social stratification has neglected sociological measures of social class conceptualized as relations of control over productive assets. This concept is capable of explaining how social inequalities are generated. To confirm the protective effect of the capitalist class position and the "contradictory class location hypothesis," additional efforts are needed to properly measure class among low-level supervisors, capitalists, managers, and small employers.
Sidorchuk, Anna; Goodman, Anna; Koupil, Ilona
To investigate whether and how social class and social mobility in grandparents and parents predict alcohol-related disorders (ARDs) in males and females aged 12+ years, and whether intergenerational social prediction of ARDs varies across time periods. The study sample included four successive generations (G) of Swedish families from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study: G0 born 1851-1912; G1 born 1915-1929; G2 born 1940-1964 and G3 born 1965-1989. Two study populations were created, each consisting of grandparents, parents and offspring: population I 'G0-G1-G2' (offspring n = 18 430) and population II 'G1-G2-G3' (offspring n = 26 469). Registers and archives provided data on ancestors' socio-demographic factors and ARD history, together with offspring ARD development between 1964-2008. Cox regression models examined the hazard of offspring ARD development according to grandparental social class and grandparental-to-parental social trajectories, controlling for offspring birth year, grandmother's and mother's marital status and parental ARDs. Disadvantaged grandparental social class predicted increased ARD risk in offspring in population I, although the effect attenuated and became non-significant in males after adjusting for parental characteristics (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80 (95%CI; 1.07, 3.03) in females, HR = 1.32 (95%CI; 0.93, 1.89) in males). In population II, no increase in ARD risk by grandparental social was evident. In both populations, males were at the highest ARD risk if both parents and grandparents belonged to disadvantaged social class (population I: HR = 1.82 (95%CI; 1.22-2.72); population II: HR = 1.68 (95%CI; 1.02-2.76)). Intergenerational social patterning of ARDs appears to be time-contextual and gender-specific. The role of grandparental social class in developing ARDs in grandchildren seems to decline over time, while persistent grandparental-to-parental social disadvantage remains associated with higher ARD risk in males
Svastisalee, Chalida; Schipperijn, Jasper; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
Purpose: To investigate whether associations between daily vigorous physical activity (VPA) and the built environment are patterned according to family social class. Methods: We used self-reported daily VPA measured in 6046 11 to 15-year-old boys and girls in 80 schools. Multi-level stratified...... likely to achieve daily VPA than boys. Among children from low family social class backgrounds, girls were less likely to achieve daily VPA than boys (OR = 0.40; CI: 0.28-0.57). Additionally, children from low family social class backgrounds attending schools with low exposure to walking and cycling...... paths had the lowest odds (OR =0.51; CI: 0.29-0.88) of achieving daily VPA than those attending schools with higher exposure to paths. Conclusions: Findings of this study suggest that a lack of supportive physical activity support in school surroundings may have a greater impact on children of low...
A serial mediation model of union interest was tested. Based on theoretical notes provided by Mellor and Golay (in press), adulthood social class was positioned as a predictor of willingness to join a labor union, with success/failure attributions at work and willingness to share work goals positioned as intervening variables. Data from U.S. nonunion employees (N = 560) suggested full mediation after effects were adjusted for childhood social class. In sequence, adulthood social class predicted success/failure attributions at work, success/failure attributions at work predicted willingness to share work goals, and willingness to share work goals predicted willingness to join. Implications for socioeconomic status (SES) research and union expansion are discussed.
Haught, Heather M; Rose, Jason P; Brown, Jill A
Few systematic studies have examined the contexts in which social-class variables will predict engagement in health-relevant behaviours. The current research examined whether the impact of social-class on health behaviours depends upon how social-class is assessed and the category of health behaviour under consideration. Our sample was drawn from the Health Information National Trends Survey in 2012 (N = 3959). Participants reported their income and education as well as their engagement in a variety of prevention and detection behaviours. Consistent with our hypothesised framework, we found that income predicted engagement in a variety of detection behaviours above and beyond education, whereas education predicted engagement in a variety of prevention behaviours above and beyond income. Our findings suggest that income and education operate on health behaviours via different pathways and have implications for public health policy and intervention.
Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol
To investigate the impact of the gap between subjective and objective social status on health-related quality of life. We analyzed data from 12,350 participants aged ≥ 18 years in the Korean Health Panel Survey. Health-related quality of life was measured by EuroQol-Visual analogue scale. Objective (income and education) and subjective social class (measured by MacArthur scale) was classified into three groups (High, Middle, Low). In terms of a gap between objective and subjective social class, social class was grouped into nine categories ranging from High-High to Low-Low. A linear mixed model was used to investigate the association between the combined social class and health-related quality of life. The impact of the gap between objective and subjective status on Health-related quality of life varied according to the type of gap. Namely, at any given subjective social class, an individual's quality of life declined with a decrease in the objective social class. At any given objective social class (e.g., HH, HM, HL; in terms of both education and income), an individual's quality of life declined with a one-level decrease in subjective social class. Our results suggest that studies of the relationship between social class and health outcomes may consider the multidimensional nature of social status.
Tatla, Sandy K; Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, H F Machiel
The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians' perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. The objective of our study was to explore therapists' perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these technologies in rehabilitation. We conducted two focus groups comprised of ten occupational therapists/physiotherapists who provide neurorehabilitation to individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke or cerebral palsy. Data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The diffusion of innovations theory provided a framework to interpret emerging themes. Therapists were using technology in a limited capacity. They identified barriers to using social media and gaming technology with their clients, including a lack of age appropriateness, privacy issues with social media, limited transfer of training, and a lack of accessibility of current systems. Therapists also questioned their role in the context of technology-based interventions. The opportunity for social interaction was perceived as a major benefit of integrated gaming and social media. This study reveals the complexities associated with adopting new technologies in clinical practice, including the need to consider both client and clinician factors. Despite reporting several challenges with applying gaming and social media technology with clinical populations, therapists identified opportunities for increased social interactions and were willing to help shape the development of an upper limb training system that could more readily meet the needs of clients with hemiplegia. By considering the needs of both therapists and clients, technology developers may increase the likelihood that clinicians will adopt innovative technologies.
Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, HF Machiel
Background The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians’ perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. Objective The objective of our study was to explore therapists’ perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these technologies in rehabilitation. Methods We conducted two focus groups comprised of ten occupational therapists/physiotherapists who provide neurorehabilitation to individuals with hemiplegia secondary to stroke or cerebral palsy. Data was analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. The diffusion of innovations theory provided a framework to interpret emerging themes. Results Therapists were using technology in a limited capacity. They identified barriers to using social media and gaming technology with their clients, including a lack of age appropriateness, privacy issues with social media, limited transfer of training, and a lack of accessibility of current systems. Therapists also questioned their role in the context of technology-based interventions. The opportunity for social interaction was perceived as a major benefit of integrated gaming and social media. Conclusions This study reveals the complexities associated with adopting new technologies in clinical practice, including the need to consider both client and clinician factors. Despite reporting several challenges with applying gaming and social media technology with clinical populations, therapists identified opportunities for increased social interactions and were willing to help shape the development of an upper limb training system that could more readily meet the needs of clients with hemiplegia. By considering the needs of both therapists and clients, technology developers may increase the likelihood that
Kraus, Michael W; Park, Jun Won; Tan, Jacinth J X
By some accounts, global economic inequality is at its highest point on record. The pernicious effects of this broad societal trend are striking: Rising inequality is linked to poorer health and well-being across countries, continents, and cultures. The economic and psychological forces that perpetuate inequality continue to be studied, and in this theoretical review, we examine the role of daily experiences of economic inequality-the communication of social class signals between interaction partners-in this process. We theorize that social class signals activate social comparison processes that strengthen group boundaries between the haves and have nots in society. In particular, we argue that class signals are a frequent, rapid, and accurate component of person perception, and we provide new data and analyses demonstrating the accuracy of class signaling in 60-s interactions, Facebook photographs, and isolated recordings of brief speech. We suggest that barriers to the reduction of economic inequality in society arise directly from this class signaling process through the augmentation of class boundaries and the elicitation of beliefs and behaviors that favor the economic status quo.
Huang, Yanshi; Richmond, Arthur D.; Deng, Yue; Chamberlin, Phillip C.; Qian, Liying; Solomon, Stanley C.; Roble, Raymond G.; Xiao, Zuo
The wavelength dependence of solar irradiance enhancement during flare events is one of the important factors in determining how the Thermosphere-Ionosphere (T-I) system responds to flares. To investigate the wavelength dependence of flare enhancement, the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) was run for 61 X-class flares. The absolute and the percentage increases of solar irradiance at flare peaks, compared to pre-flare conditions, have clear wavelength dependences. The 0-14 nm irradiance increases much more (approx. 680% on average) than that in the 14-25 nm waveband (approx. 65% on average), except at 24 nm (approx. 220%). The average percentage increases for the 25-105 nm and 122-190 nm wavebands are approx. 120% and approx. 35%, respectively. The influence of 6 different wavebands (0-14 nm, 14-25 nm, 25-105 nm, 105- 120 nm, 121.56 nm, and 122-175 nm) on the thermosphere was examined for the October 28th, 2003 flare (X17-class) event by coupling FISM with the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) under geomagnetically quiet conditions (Kp=1). While the enhancement in the 0-14 nm waveband caused the largest enhancement of the globally integrated solar heating, the impact of solar irradiance enhancement on the thermosphere at 400 km is largest for the 25-105 nm waveband (EUV), which accounts for about 33 K of the total 45 K temperature enhancement, and approx. 7.4% of the total approx. 11.5% neutral density enhancement. The effect of 122-175 nm flare radiation on the thermosphere is rather small. The study also illustrates that the high-altitude thermospheric response to the flare radiation at 0-175 nm is almost a linear combination of the responses to the individual wavebands. The upper thermospheric temperature and density enhancements peaked 3-5 h after the maximum flare radiation.
Haider, Adil H; Schneider, Eric B; Sriram, N; Dossick, Deborah S; Scott, Valerie K; Swoboda, Sandra M; Losonczy, Lia; Haut, Elliott R; Efron, David T; Pronovost, Peter J; Lipsett, Pamela A; Cornwell, Edward E; MacKenzie, Ellen J; Cooper, Lisa A; Freischlag, Julie A
Significant health inequities persist among minority and socially disadvantaged patients. Better understanding of how unconscious biases affect clinical decision making may help to illuminate clinicians' roles in propagating disparities. To determine whether clinicians' unconscious race and/or social class biases correlate with patient management decisions. We conducted a web-based survey among 230 physicians from surgery and related specialties at an academic, level I trauma center from December 1, 2011, through January 31, 2012. We administered clinical vignettes, each with 3 management questions. Eight vignettes assessed the relationship between unconscious bias and clinical decision making. We performed ordered logistic regression analysis on the Implicit Association Test (IAT) scores and used multivariable analysis to determine whether implicit bias was associated with the vignette responses. Differential response times (D scores) on the IAT as a surrogate for unconscious bias. Patient management vignettes varied by patient race or social class. Resulting D scores were calculated for each management decision. In total, 215 clinicians were included and consisted of 74 attending surgeons, 32 fellows, 86 residents, 19 interns, and 4 physicians with an undetermined level of education. Specialties included surgery (32.1%), anesthesia (18.1%), emergency medicine (18.1%), orthopedics (7.9%), otolaryngology (7.0%), neurosurgery (7.0%), critical care (6.0%), and urology (2.8%); 1.9% did not report a departmental affiliation. Implicit race and social class biases were present in most respondents. Among all clinicians, mean IAT D scores for race and social class were 0.42 (95% CI, 0.37-0.48) and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65-0.78), respectively. Race and class scores were similar across departments (general surgery, orthopedics, urology, etc), race, or age. Women demonstrated less bias concerning race (mean IAT D score, 0.39 [95% CI, 0.29-0.49]) and social class (mean IAT D score
Meier, Madeline H; Hill, Melanie L; Small, Phillip J; Luthar, Suniya S
There is a hypothesis that low socioeconomic status (SES) may explain the link between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. A key question, therefore, is whether adolescent cannabis use is associated with poorer academic performance and mental health in high SES communities where there is reduced potential for confounding. Youth (n=254) from an upper middle class community were followed prospectively through the four years of high school (from age 14/15 to age 17/18). Past-year frequency of cannabis use was assessed annually. Official school records of academic performance and self-reported mental health symptoms (externalizing and internalizing symptoms) were assessed in grades 9 and 12. Persistent cannabis use across the four years of high school was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.18, p=.006), lower Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT) score (β=-0.13, p=.038), and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.29, pgrade, but not with greater internalizing symptoms (β=0.04, p=.53). Moreover, persistent cannabis use was associated with lower grade-point average (β=-0.13, p=.014) and greater externalizing symptoms (β=0.24, p=.002) in 12th grade, even after controlling for 9th grade levels of these outcomes. Similar associations were observed for persistent alcohol and tobacco use. Effects for persistent cannabis use became non-significant after controlling for persistent alcohol and tobacco use, reflecting the difficulties of disentangling effects of cannabis from effects of alcohol and tobacco. Low SES cannot fully explain associations between cannabis use and poorer academic performance and mental health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Despite previous research suggesting that social class influences experiences of and attitudes to abortion, there is a dearth of research which studies the intersection of abortion and social class in England. Across the UK, abortion rates and experiences differ by region and socio-economic status, reflecting broader health inequalities. Contemporary austerity in the UK creates an imperative for new research which contextualises the experience of abortion within this socio-historical moment, and the worsening inequalities which have accompanied it. Whilst work on abortion and social inequality exists, it has often approached class as an a priori category. I argue that contemporary post-structural work on class provides a framework to go beyond this approach by examining how these social classifications occur; who has the power to classify; and how these classifications might be resisted. This framework is demonstrated with emerging findings from a life history study of abortion experiences in England. The applications of this to the work on abortion are potentially rich, because the act of ending a pregnancy invites classification from many quarters, from the legal (legal/illegal) to the medical (early/late) to the moral (deserved/undeserved). This work, therefore, speaks to public health concerns about access to and stigma around abortion and social inequalities.
Lin, Meng-Fen Grace; Hoffman, Ellen S.; Borengasser, Claire
This qualitative case study examined Twitter use by undergraduate and graduate students in three classes. Previous studies have shown that while some faculty use Twitter, few are incorporating it into classes despite many recommendations for such use. This study examined how students perceived Twitter as a classroom tool. As an optional activity,…
Venkataraman, Lakshmi Narayanan
India as an ethnographic museum is known for its national notion of unity in diversity. It is a country of many religions, further divided in terms of diverse social hierarchies. The socio-economic reality, for instance, is not simply based on class dynamics as prevailing in many other countries. The intersectional factors like caste play an important role. The stratification of Hindu social system based on caste places individuals hierarchically according to their birth. The inheritance base...
Lacey, E A; Walters, S J
To investigate the effect of social class and gender on self perceived health status for those recovering from an acute myocardial infarction. A longitudinal survey design was used, collecting both qualitative and quantitative data. Quantitative data are reported in this article, obtained by questionnaire over the first year after the event. SF-36 and EQ-5D (EuroQol) were used to measure self perceived health status. Community based study in a city in the north of England. A consecutive sample of 229 people discharged from hospital after acute myocardial infarction. Overall gain in health status was found to be statistically significant over the year. Improvements were greatest in domains relating to role fulfillment and pursuit of normal and social activities. When analysed by gender, women showed poorer improvement than men, particularly in the domains relating to physical and social functioning. Analysed by social class, those without educational qualifications showed poorer improvement in pain experience and vitality. Access to a car was significant in avoiding physical limitations and promoting general health. Existing gradients between the health of women and men, and between the social classes, are maintained and probably exacerbated by the experience of acute illness, and health professionals need to be made aware of social groups who are at risk of poor rehabilitation.
Peyre, Hugo; Hoertel, Nicolas; Rivollier, Fabrice; Landman, Benjamin; McMahon, Kibby; Chevance, Astrid; Lemogne, Cédric; Delorme, Richard; Blanco, Carlos; Limosin, Frédéric
Little is known about differences in mental health comorbidity and quality of life in individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) according to the number and the types of feared situations. Using a US nationally representative sample, the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we performed latent class analysis to compare the prevalence rates of mental disorders and quality of life measures across classes defined by the number and the types of feared social situations among individuals with SAD. Among the 2,448 participants with a lifetime diagnosis of SAD, we identified three classes of individuals who feared most social situations but differed in the number of feared social situations (generalized severe [N = 378], generalized moderate [N = 1,049] and generalized low [N = 443]) and a class of subjects who feared only performance situations [N = 578]. The magnitude of associations between each class and a wide range of mental disorders and quality of life measures were consistent with a continuum model, supporting that the deleterious effects of SAD on mental health may increase with the number of social situations feared. However, we found that individuals with the "performance only" specifier may constitute an exception to this model because these participants had significantly better mental health than other participants with SAD. Our findings give additional support to the recent changes made in the DSM-5, including the introduction of the "performance only" specifier and the removal of the "generalized" specifier to promote the dimensional approach of the number of social fears. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Valdés, Bulmaro A; Hilderman, Courtney G E; Hung, Chai-Ting; Shirzad, Navid; Van der Loos, H F Machiel
As part of the FEATHERS (Functional Engagement in Assisted Therapy Through Exercise Robotics) project, two motion tracking and one social networking applications were developed for upper limb rehabilitation of stroke survivors and teenagers with cerebral palsy. The project aims to improve the engagement of clients during therapy by using video games and a social media platform. The applications allow users to control a cursor on a personal computer through bimanual motions, and to interact with their peers and therapists through the social media. The tracking applications use either a Microsoft Kinect or a PlayStation Eye camera, and the social media application was developed on Facebook. This paper presents a usability testing of these applications that was conducted with therapists from two rehabilitation clinics. The "Cognitive Walkthrough" and "Think Aloud" methods were used. The objectives of the study were to investigate the ease of use and potential issues or improvements of the applications, as well as the factors that facilitate and impede the adoption of technology in current rehabilitation programs.
Gasull, Magda; Pumarega, José; Rovira, Gemma; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Juan; Porta, Miquel
Scant evidence is available worldwide on the relative influence of occupational social class and educational level on body concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the general population. The objective was to analyse such influence in a representative sample of the general population of Catalonia, Spain. Participants in the Catalan Health Interview Survey aged 18-74 were interviewed face-to-face, gave blood, and underwent a physical exam. The role of age, body mass index (BMI), and parity was analysed with General Linear Models, and adjusted geometric means (GMs) were obtained. Crude (unadjusted) concentrations were higher in women and men with lower education, and in women, but not men, in the less affluent social class. After adjusting for age, in women there were no associations between POP levels and social class or education. After adjusting for age and BMI, men in the less affluent class had higher p,p'-DDE concentrations than men in class I (p-value=0.016), while men in class IV had lower HCB than men in the upper class (p-valuesocial class were co-adjusted for, some positive associations with education in men remained statistically significant, whereas class remained associated only with p,p'-DDE. Educational level influenced blood concentrations of POPs more than occupational social class, especially in men. In women, POP concentrations were mainly explained by age/birth cohort, parity and BMI. In men, while concentrations were also mainly explained by age/birth cohort and BMI, both social class and education showed positive associations. Important characteristics of socioeconomic groups as age and BMI may largely explain crude differences among such groups in internal contamination by POPs. The absence of clear patterns of relationships between blood concentrations of POPs and indicators of socioeconomic position may fundamentally be due to the widespread, lifelong, and generally invisible contamination of human food webs. Decreasing
A. B. Rakhmanov
Full Text Available The author undertakes the first in the Russian and, maybe, world scientific literature sociological research into the disaster of the Titanic. It is researched the social and class structure of the community of passengers of the Titanic on the ground of statistical data on prices of tickets and on occupations of passengers. This data discovers that passengers of the Titanic belonged to different social classes. The author researched the connection between social and class structure and chances of survival. The destiny of passengers and the crew were determined by regulated and unregulated chances of survival. The regulated chances of survival were connected with the politics of the command of the Titanic, that was foremost pointed to, firstly, the rescue of passengers (but not the crew, secondly, passengers of 1st and 2nd classes (but not passengers of 3rd class and thirdly, women and children (but not men. The unregulated chances of survival were connected with ethnic, linguistic and age-related characteristics of passengers. The author considers the disaster of the Titanic within the framework of globalization.
Full Text Available Rehabilitation system adopted by correctional facility is based on Pancasila. All incarcerated men are rehabilitated there with the goal to make them repent, be law-abiding citizens, and uphold moral values. Correctional facility comes as a rehabilitation place to improve social interaction so that inmates can be received by their social environment once they are released from prison. At this point, the researcher focuses on Islamic educational transformation through inmate social interaction training program at Palu correctional facility class II A. This research uses descriptive quantitative design with social legal approach to observe patterns of inmate social interaction. The result of research points out that Islamic educational transformation which is packed into rehabilitation programs and correctional educational activities is remarkably emphasized in inmate social interaction. In this case, Islamic educational transformation applied in Palu correctional facility class II A is defined as ultimum remidium, correctional activities emphasizing on process-based approach. Rehabilitation process given to inmates is able to improve insight and awareness of ethical and moral values in their social interaction. Therefore, when returning to society they can be accepted by social environtment as good responsible people.
Social justice education recognizes the discrepancies in opportunities among disadvantaged groups in society. The purpose of the articles in this special topic on social justice is to (a) provide a critical reflection on issues of social justice within health pedagogy and youth sport of Black and ethnic-minority (BME) young people; (b) provide a framework for the importance of intersectionality research (mainly the intersection of social class, race, and ethnicity) in youth sport and health pedagogy for social justice; and (c) contextualize the complex intersection and interplay of social issues (i.e., race, ethnicity, social classes) and their influence in shaping physical culture among young people with a BME background. The article argues that there are several social identities in any given pedagogical terrain that need to be heard and legitimized to avoid neglect and "othering." This article suggests that a resurgence of interest in theoretical frameworks such as intersectionality can provide an effective platform to legitimize "non-normative bodies" (diverse bodies) in health pedagogy and physical education and sport by voicing positionalities on agency and practice.
In the 1950s, researchers showed an association between low socio-economic status (SES) and psychosis. Two competing theories social causation and social drift were proposed to explain the findings. In the intervening years, contrasting evidence emerged as some studies showed no association between SES and schizophrenia. At present, the nature of the relationship is still unclear; currently, there are no reviews in the literature examining the association between social class at birth and psychosis. To search the literature to clarify the relationship between social class at birth, measured by paternal occupation at birth, and the risk of adult-onset psychosis. A systematic search of the literature using a combination of keywords in Group 1 together with the keywords in Group 2 was performed in October 2012 in the following online databases: (a) MEDLINE (1946-2012), (b) PubMed, (c) Embase (1980-2012), (d) PsycINFO (1806-2012) and (e) Web of Science (1899-2012). Reference lists were also hand searched. The search provided 3,240 studies; following screening of the titles and abstracts by inclusion and exclusion criteria and quality assessment of the full text, 14 studies were identified to be appropriate for the review. The keywords used for the search were as follows: Group 1 - social class, social status, socioeconomic, socio-economic, SES; Group 2 - psychosis, psychoses, schizophrenia. Seven studies showed an association between low SES and psychosis. Four studies showed no association, and three studies showed an association with high SES. There is not enough evidence to support the association between social class and psychosis. While some findings showed an association between low social class and psychosis, there were a number of conflicting studies showing no association or a link with higher social class. Interestingly, the results followed a temporal pattern, as all the studies conducted after 2001 supported an association between low SES at birth and
This paper draws on a three-year critical ethnography which interrogated intersections of social class, school and identity in an urban Irish community. The focus here is on the psycho-spatial disidentifications, inscriptions and class fractioning enacted throughout the school and community of Portown by a cohort of succeeding students from this…
Brienza, Justin P; Grossmann, Igor
We propose that class is inversely related to a propensity for using wise reasoning (recognizing limits of their knowledge, consider world in flux and change, acknowledges and integrate different perspectives) in interpersonal situations, contrary to established class advantage in abstract cognition. Two studies-an online survey from regions differing in economic affluence ( n = 2 145) and a representative in-lab study with stratified sampling of adults from working and middle-class backgrounds ( n = 299)-tested this proposition, indicating that higher social class consistently related to lower levels of wise reasoning across different levels of analysis, including regional and individual differences, and subjective construal of specific situations. The results held across personal and standardized hypothetical situations, across self-reported and observed wise reasoning, and when controlling for fluid and crystallized cognitive abilities. Consistent with an ecological framework, class differences in wise reasoning were specific to interpersonal (versus societal) conflicts. These findings suggest that higher social class weighs individuals down by providing the ecological constraints that undermine wise reasoning about interpersonal affairs. © 2017 The Authors.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the ways in which social class shapes the return-to-work decisions of Finnish working-class and middle-class mothers, and how these decisions are structured by the constraints and opportunities mothers face in the local labor market. The focus of the study is in the local labor market of the city of Jyväskylä. The data consist of two semi-structured focus group interviews of 14 employed mothers of below school-age children. Using the framework of “gendered moral rationalities,” the study shows that there are similarities in mothers’ experiences, while the structural constraints mothers faced when deciding about the timing of returning back to work differ. The analysis highlights that the differences were not only dependent on social class but also on the situation in the local labor market. For working-class mothers, the most crucial issue was the financial strain that their staying at home caused to their families. For middle-class mothers, finding employment opportunities that would match their educational qualifications in the local labor market had been challenging, which affected their timing of returning back to work. The paper concludes that local labor market plays an important role in mother’s return-to-work decisions and should be explored further in differing geographical contexts.
Rabkin, Judith G.; Struening, Elmer L.
This report is an analysis of five ethnic groups in New York City (Jews, blacks, Puerto Ricans, Italians, and Irish), and makes correlations between ethnicity, social class and mental illness. It estimates the extent to which five indicators of health in area populations account for variation in rates of mental hospitalization for men and women…
Köseoglu, Pinar; Mercan, Gamze
This study aims at performing a sample application of the educational use of Facebook as a social networking site in Animal Physiology classes, and to determine student's' views on the application. The research sample was composed of 29 third year undergraduate students attending the Biology Education Department of Hacettepe University. The…
Hall, William J.; Chapman, Mimi V.
Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. All states have enacted antibullying laws. This study surveyed 634 educators about the implementation of the North Carolina School Violence Prevention Act, which enumerated social classes protected from bullying: race, national origin, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual…
Soetevent, AR; Kooreman, P
In this paper we identify the lines along which social ties between high-school teenagers are primarily formed. To this end, we introduce interaction weights between pupils in the same school class that are a function of exogenous individual background characteristics, such as gender, ethnicity, and
According to Bourdieu, habitus is an important, and class-specific, foundation for behaviour. However, he hardly explained how the habitus is acquired. Based on Bernstein's elaboration on the various contexts in which group-specific behavioural principles are acquired, this article demonstrates how young children of two divergent social classes…
Gavrin, Andy; Lindell, Rebecca
There are many reasons for an instructor to consider using social media, particularly in a large introductory course. Improved communications can lessen the sense of isolation some students feel in large classes, and students may be more likely to respond to faculty announcements in a form that is familiar and comfortable. Furthermore, many…
In recent years, the rapid growth of higher education in Taiwan has led to an essential shift from education for the elite to the massification of higher education. Although this massification is making higher education more accessible, one of the main concerns is whether opportunities for higher education are the same among all social classes in…
Hunter, Andrea G.; Friend, Christian A.; Williams-Wheeler, Meeshay; Fletcher, Anne C.
The study is a qualitative investigation of mothers' perspectives about and their role in negotiating and developing intergenerational closure across race, class, and religious differences and their management of children's diverse friendships. Black and White mothers (n = 25) of third graders were interviewed about social networks, children's…
Bubar, Roe; Cespedes, Karina; Bundy-Fazioli, Kimberly
In 2008 EPAS Standards on "Engaging Diversity and Difference in Practice" (2.1.4) added intersectionality (a theory developed by feminist of color) as one aspect to understand diversity, difference, and power in social work curriculum. We consider how intersectionality is omitted in graduate student learning even when class assignments…
Holm, Anders; Jæger, Mads Meier
This paper tests the theory of Relative Risk Aversion (RRA), which argues that educational decisions are intended to minimize the risk of downward social class mobility. We propose a structural model which distinguishes the instantaneous utility of educational decisions from the future utility...
Tittle, Charles R.; And Others
Thirty-five studies examining the relationship between social class and crime/delinquency are reduced to comparable statistics using as units of analysis instances where the relationship was studied for specific categories of age, sex, race, place of residence, data type, or offense. Findings from 363 instances are summarized and patterns are…
ClassDojo is one of the world's most successful educational technologies, currently used by over 3 million teachers and 35 million children globally. It reinforces and enacts emerging governmental "psycho-policies" around the measurement and modification of children's social and emotional learning in schools. This article focuses…
Martin, Nathan D.
Active involvement in college activities is linked to a host of student development outcomes, including personal growth, achievement and satisfaction. Yet, to date there has been too little attention to how social class shapes campus involvement. Through an analysis of survey data of students attending a single elite university and a national…
Christens, Brian D.; Speer, Paul W.; Peterson, N. Andrew
This study examined whether social class moderated the relationship between empowering and disempowering processes and psychological empowerment (PE) in a sample of individuals from five community organizing initiatives (N=490). Hierarchical regression analyses were used to test the relationship between community participation (CP) and alienation…
Research has shown social class differences in undergraduate engagement, yet we know little about the reasons for these differences. Drawing on interviews and participant observation with undergraduates at an urban, public comprehensive university, this ethnographic study investigates the academic engagement strategies of students from different…
Zissi, Anastasia; Stalidis, George
This study draws on old and well-established evidence that economic change, and especially recession, affects people's lives, behavior and mental health. Even though the literature is rich on the relationship between unemployment and mental distress, there is a renewed research interest on the link between socio-economic inequalities and psychological health. The study investigates the relationship of social class with mental distress during the hard times of persistent and severe economic crisis in Greece by conducting a comparative, community study in the country's second largest city, Thessaloniki. A face-to-face structured interview covering living conditions, life events, chronic stressors and coping strategies was employed to 300 residents of socio-economically contrasting neighborhood areas. Social class was operationalized by Erik Olin Wright's social class position typology, based on ownership and control over productive assets. The method of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was also applied to analyze the collected data. The results indicated that mental distress was significantly differentiated across social classes and in each residential area. Unemployed and unskilled workers were the most vulnerable groups in terms of psychological health. Chronic stress arose in this study as a risk factor for poor mental health outcomes and it was associated to low marital quality, intense economic burden and impoverished housing conditions. Those who face income loss, job loss and disability are at high risk for poverty and marginalization, suffering from greater psychological distress.
Morris, David S.
Participation in Organized Activities (OA) is associated with positive behavioral and developmental outcomes in children. However, less is known about how particular aspects of participation affect the academic achievement of high school students from different social class positions. Using the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002, this study…
In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…
Neves, Jorge A.; Haller, Archibald O.; Fernandes, Danielle C.
This paper examines the process of earnings determination in the agricultural sector of Brazil. Among the main causal factors analyzed are human capital (education and work experience), labor market segmentation, gender, social class position, level of development/modernization, and concentration of land ownership. Data on individuals employed in…
Azzarito, Laura; Solomon, Melinda A.
Over the past several years, numerous reports have reported data documenting declining participation in physical activity among youth. We argue that the gender, race and social class differences in these data have not been an important consideration, and that understanding the implications of these differences is crucial for improving physical…
McDowell, Teresa; Brown, Andrae' L.; Cullen, Nicole; Duyn, April
In this article, we report the results of a national survey of students in COAMFTE-accredited family therapy programs who self-identify as coming from lower- or working-class backgrounds. Results of the study reveal opportunity and tension relative to family, friends, and community because of social mobility associated with graduate education.…
Cartolari, Manuela; Carlino, Paula; Colombo, Laura M.
This qualitative study explores the uses of reading and note-taking in two pre-service teacher training Social Sciences courses. Data analysis of in-depth interviews with professors and students, class observations and course materials suggested two polar teaching styles according to how bibliography was included in the course and the presence or…
Brixval, Carina Sjöberg; Axelsen, Solveig Forberg; Lauemøller, Stine Glenstrup
of small group antenatal education on obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists as to whether antenatal education in small classes is effective in regard to obstetric and psycho-social outcomes. We recommend updating this review following the emergence of well......, with participation of a small number of participants, may differ from the effect of other forms of antenatal education due to, for example, group dynamic. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the effects of antenatal education in small groups on obstetric as well as psycho-social outcomes. METHODS...
Townsend, Sarah Sm; Truong, Mindy
Attaining a college degree has traditionally been assumed to be key to upward social and professional mobility. However, college graduates from working-class backgrounds achieve less career success in professional, white-collar workplaces compared to those from middle-class backgrounds. Using a cultural models approach, we examine how the independent cultural beliefs and practices promoted by professional organizations disadvantage people from working-class backgrounds, who espouse interdependent beliefs and practices. Our review illustrates how this disadvantage can manifest in two ways. First, despite relative equality in objective qualifications, it can occur at organizational gateways (e.g., interview and hiring decisions). Second, even after people from working-class backgrounds gain access to an organization, it can occur along organizational pathways (e.g., performance evaluations and assignment to high-profile tasks). Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kramer, Michael R; Schneider, Eric B; Kane, Jennifer B; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Jones-Smith, Jessica; King, Katherine; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Grzywacz, Joseph G
Social class gradients in children's health and development are ubiquitous across time and geography. The authors develop a conceptual framework relating three actions of class-material allocation, salient group identity, and inter-group conflict-to the reproduction of class-based disparities in child health. A core proposition is that the actions of class stratification create variation in children's mesosystems and microsystems in distinct locations in the ecology of everyday life. Variation in mesosystems (e.g., health care, neighborhoods) and microsystems (e.g., family structure, housing) become manifest in a wide variety of specific experiences and environments that produce the behavioral and biological antecedents to health and disease among children. The framework is explored via a review of theoretical and empirical contributions from multiple disciplines and high-priority areas for future research are highlighted.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after Twin Block (TB treatment in growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion compared with untreated Class II patients by cone beam computed tomography (CBCT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty growing patients who have completed TB treatment were recruited into TB group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the patients with the same diagnosis and without TB treatment. CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 data of TB group and control data were collected. After three-dimensional (3D reconstruction and registration of T1 and T2 data, the morphological changes of upper airway during TB treatment were measured. The statistical differences between T1 and T2 data of TB group as well as T2 and control data were accessed by t-test. RESULTS: During the TB treatment, the mandible moved advanced by 3.52 ± 2.14 mm in the horizontal direction and 3.77 ± 2.10 mm in the vertical direction. The hyoid bone was in a more forward and inferior place. The upper airway showed a significant enlargement in nasopharynx, oropharynx and hypopharynx. In addition, the nasopharynx turned more circular, and the oropharynx became more elliptic in transverse shape. However, the transverse shape of the hypopharynx showed no significant difference. After comparison between T2 and control data, only the horizontal movement of the hyoid bone, the volumetric expansion of the oropharynx and hypopharynx, and changes of the oropharyngeal transverse shape showed significant difference. CONCLUSION: Compared to the untreated Class II patients, the upper airway of growing patients with Class II division 1 malocclusion and mandibular retrusion showed a significant enlargement in the oropharynx and hypopharynx as well as a more elliptic transverse shape in the oropharynx, and the hyoid bone moved to an anterior position after TB
The aim of this study was to explore associations between social mobility and tumours of the upper aero-digestive tract (UADT), focussing on life-course transitions in social prestige (SP) based on occupational history. 1,796 cases diagnosed between 1993 and 2005 in ten European countries were compared with 1585 controls. SP was classified by the Standard International Occupational Prestige Scale (SIOPS) based on job histories. SIOPS was categorised in high (H), medium (M) and low (L). Time weighted average achieved and transitions between SP with nine trajectories: H --> H, H --> M, H --> L, M --> H, M --> M, M --> L, L --> H, L --> M and L --> L were analysed. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95%-confidence intervals [95%-CIs] were estimated with logistic regression models including age, consumption of fruits\\/vegetables, study centre, smoking and alcohol consumption. The adjusted OR for the lowest versus the highest of three categories (time weighted average of SP) was 1.28 [1.04-1.56]. The distance of SP widened between cases and controls during working life. The downward trajectory H --> L gave an OR of 1.71 [0.75-3.87] as compared to H --> H. Subjects with M --> M and L --> L trajectories ORs were also elevated relative to subjects with H --> H trajectories. The association between SP and UADT is not fully explained by confounding factors. Downward social trajectory during the life course may be an independent risk factor for UADT cancers.
Full Text Available The study analyses trends in life expectancy by level of education and by occupational social class in Finland from 1981 to 2000 to assess to what extent these trends have been in accordance with the target of reducing socioeconomic differences in life expectancy set in the Government public health programme. The study is based on the census records for the population aged 35 or over, which have been linked to the death records for the years 1981 to 2000. The results show that, contrary to the public health target, the difference in the life expectancy between persons with tertiary and basic education and that between upper non-manual and manual occupational classes increased during the 1990s. Differences in the trends in mortality from alcohol-related causes of death and from other cancers than lung cancer accounted for most the increase in the socioeconomic gap among men. Different from the 1980s changes in cardiovascular mortality did not contribute to the increase in the socioeconomic gap. Among women the increase in the socioeconomic gap was mainly due to the heterogeneous group of other diseases and cancers other than lung and breast cancer
Connelly, Roxanne; Gayle, Vernon
The 'Flynn effect' describes the substantial and long-standing increase in average cognitive ability test scores, which has been observed in numerous psychological studies. Flynn makes an appeal for researchers to move beyond psychology's standard disciplinary boundaries and to consider sociological contexts, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive inequalities. In this article we respond to this appeal and investigate social class inequalities in general cognitive ability test scores over time. We analyse data from the National Child Development Study (1958) and the British Cohort Study (1970). These two British birth cohorts are suitable nationally representative large-scale data resources for studying inequalities in general cognitive ability. We observe a large parental social class effect, net of parental education and gender in both cohorts. The overall finding is that large social class divisions in cognitive ability can be observed when children are still at primary school, and similar patterns are observed in each cohort. Notably, pupils with fathers at the lower end of the class structure are at a distinct disadvantage. This is a disturbing finding and it is especially important because cognitive ability is known to influence individuals later in the lifecourse. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Moschetti, Roxanne; Hudley, Cynthia
Social capital is a useful theory for understanding the experiences of working class, first-generation college students. Social capital is the value of a relationship that provides support and assistance in a given social situation. According to social capital theory, networks of relationships can aid students in managing an otherwise unfamiliar…
Malmusi, Davide; Vives, Alejandra; Benach, Joan; Borrell, Carme
Women experience poorer health than men despite their longer life expectancy, due to a higher prevalence of non-fatal chronic illnesses. This paper aims to explore whether the unequal gender distribution of roles and resources can account for inequalities in general self-rated health (SRH) by gender, across social classes, in a Southern European population. Cross-sectional study of residents in Catalonia aged 25-64, using data from the 2006 population living conditions survey (n=5,817). Poisson regression models were used to calculate the fair/poor SRH prevalence ratio (PR) by gender and to estimate the contribution of variables assessing several dimensions of living conditions as the reduction in the PR after their inclusion in the model. Analyses were stratified by social class (non-manual and manual). SRH was poorer for women among both non-manual (PR 1.39, 95% CI 1.09-1.76) and manual social classes (PR 1.36, 95% CI 1.20-1.56). Adjustment for individual income alone eliminated the association between sex and SRH, especially among manual classes (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.85-1.19; among non-manual 1.19, 0.92-1.54). The association was also reduced when adjusting by employment conditions among manual classes, and household material and economic situation, time in household chores and residential environment among non-manual classes. Gender inequalities in individual income appear to contribute largely to women's poorer health. Individual income may indicate the availability of economic resources, but also the history of access to the labour market and potentially the degree of independence and power within the household. Policies to facilitate women's labour market participation, to close the gender pay gap, or to raise non-contributory pensions may be helpful to improve women's health.
Full Text Available Se repasan los principales conceptos de clase social, ocupación y estratificación social, y su contribución al análisis de los determinantes sociales de la salud (DSS, y se revisan los estudios empíricos desarrollados en América Latina que utilicen las relaciones de empleo como DSS. La revisión se ha enfocado en los estudios sobre la relación entre salud y clase social basados en las perspectivas neoweberiana o neomarxista. La búsqueda en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud de BIREME y en la base de datos SciELO permitió localizar 28 artículos de esas características. Esta relativa escasez contrasta con la abundancia de trabajos con tales enfoques realizados en Europa y en los Estados Unidos, con una larga tradición en el análisis de los DSS. En tal sentido, las implicaciones políticas y programáticas de la investigación sobre clase social y relaciones de empleo son diferentes y complementarias de los estudios de gradientes de salud asociados a los ingresos y la educación. La globalización en las relaciones de empleo exige nuevos conceptos para explicar y medir los mecanismos de acción de los DSS trascendiendo lo estrictamente laboral; en particular, la relevancia en la realidad latinoamericana actual del impacto del trabajo informal sobre la salud.This paper reviews the principal concepts of social class, occupation, and social stratification, and their contribution to the analysis of the social determinants of health (SDH, and reviews empirical studies conducted in Latin America that use employment relations as an SDH. The review focuses on studies of the relationship between health and social class based on neo-Weberian or neo-Marxist perspectives. A search of the BIREME Virtual Health Library and the SciELO database found 28 articles meeting these characteristics. This relative dearth contrasts with the profusion of papers that use these approaches written in Europe and in the United States, with a long tradition in the
Prameek M. Kannan
Full Text Available Ethograms provide a systematic approach to identify and quantify the repertoire of behaviors of an organism. This information may assist animal welfare in zoos, increase awareness of conservation needs, and help curb high-risk behaviors during human-wildlife conflict. Our primary objective was to utilize an equid ethogram to produce activity budgets for Equus kiang males, a social ungulate that is among the least-studied mammals worldwide, and unknown to the ethological literature. We recently reported the existence of three social classes of this species; Territorial males, Bachelor males and ‘Transient’ males. Therefore, our secondary objective was to compare activity budgets in each of these three groups. We found that kiang spent >70% of their time performing six behaviors: vigilance (34%, locomotion (24.2%, resting (14.2%, mixed foraging (12.5%, browsing (5.1%, and antagonism (1.1%. Over 2% of the total behavioral investment was spent on olfactory investigations (genital sniffing, sniffing proximity and flehmen. Eleven of the eighteen behaviors differed by class. Habitat selection differed strongly by each group, with Territorial males favoring mesic sites with greater vegetation abundance. Vigilance also differed according to habitat selection, but not group size. Animals in the xeric, least vegetation-rich area were far less vigilant than animals at more attractive sites. We found that the full repertoire of behaviors, and relative investments in each, differ according to social class. These findings are a reminder that researchers should make every effort to disambiguate social class among ungulates– and other taxa where behaviors are class-dependent.
Yohanes Eko Rubiyanto
Abstract The writer conducts the research related to class conflict which is presented in Khaled Hosseini’s “The Kite Runner” novel. This qualitative research is written to analyze the conflicts that happen in Afghan society which is mainly caused by difference of social class. The research is conducted by using library research. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative method as the data are described in the form of sentences. The steps of collecting the data in this re...
Grineski, Sara; Daniels, Heather; Collins, Timothy; Morales, Danielle X.; Frederick, Angela; Garcia, Marilyn
Research on the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) student development pipeline has largely ignored social class and instead examined inequalities based on gender and race. We investigate the role of social class in undergraduate student research publications. Data come from a sample of 213 undergraduate research participants…
Although a great deal of previous literature has explored the ways in which social class affects parental engagement in educational processes, there has been surprisingly little discussion of the way in which social class shapes the parent-professional interaction that occurs in school exclusion processes specifically. School exclusion processes…
La Parra Casado, Daniel; Gil González, Diana; de la Torre Esteve, María
To determine the social class gradient in health in general Spain population and the health status of the Spanish Roma. The National Health Survey of Spanish Roma 2006 (sample size = 993 people; average age: 33.6 years; 53.1% women) and the National Health Surveys for Spain 2003 (sample size: 21,650 people; average age: 45.5 years; 51.2% women) and 2006 (sample size: 29,478 people; average age: 46 years; 50.7% women) are compared. Several indicators were chosen: self-perceived health, activity limitation, chronic diseases, hearing and sight problems, caries, and obesity. Analysis was based on age-standardised rates and logistic regression models. According to most indicators, Roma's health is worse than that of social class IV-V (manual workers). Some indicators show a remarkable difference between Roma and social class IV-V: experiencing three or more health problems, sight problems, and caries, in both sexes, and hearing problems and obesity, in women. Roma people are placed on an extreme position on the social gradient in health, a situation of extreme health inequality.
Nadeau, Line; Tessier, Réjean
The aim of this study was to describe the social experience of children with cerebral palsy (CP) in mainstream classes in Canada and compare it with that of their classmates without disability. The CP group included 25 females and 35 males (mean age 10 y 5 mo [SD 0.95], range 10 y 4 mo-10 y 10 mo) diagnosed as having hemiplegia (n=44) or diplegia (n=16) and classified as Level I on the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS). Fifty-seven comparison children, born at term and without any motor and/or sensory impairment, were recruited from the classes of the children with CP during a school visit (mean age 10 y 3 mo, [SD 1.0], range 10 y-10 y 6 mo). They were matched to children with CP for sex, age, parents' education level, and family income. Social adjustment measures (social status, reciprocated friendships, social isolation, aggression, sociability/leadership, and verbal and/or physical victimization) were obtained by conducting a class-wide sociometric interview (n=943) in the classes of the children with CP. Findings showed that children with CP (specifically females with CP and irrespective of their type of disability) had fewer reciprocated friendships, exhibited fewer sociable/leadership behaviours, and were more isolated and victimized by their peers than their classmates without a disability. This seems to suggest that females and males with CP are perceived differently from their peers in a mainstreaming context. The discussion addresses the issue of age- and sex-related differences and provides avenues of intervention relating to personal and environmental factors that could facilitate or interfere with the social experience of children with CP in a mainstream environment.
De opkomst van de 'nieuwe' sociale klassen binnen de dienstenklasse in Nederland: Politieke oriëntatie van de 'nieuwe' sociale klassen tussen 1970 en 2000 [The rise of ‘new’ social classes within the service class in the Netherlands: Political orientation of the ‘new’ social classes between 1970 and 2000
Güveli, A.; Need, A.; Graaf, N.D. de
The employment structure of the Netherlands and other advanced countries is evolving from an industrial structure to a post-industrial structure. Yet existing social class schemas, like the well-known EGP class schema, were constructed for an industrial employment structure. In this study we adjust
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol
Our objective was to investigate the impact of socioeconomic status and subjective social class on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) vs. overall quality of life (QOL). We performed a longitudinal analysis using data regarding 8250 individuals drawn from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA). We analyzed differences between HRQOL and QOL in individuals of various socioeconomic strata (high, middle, or low household income and education levels) and subjective social classes (high, middle, or low) at baseline (2009). Individuals with low household incomes and of low subjective social class had the highest probability of reporting discrepant HRQOL and QOL scores (B: 4.796; P socioeconomic status. In conclusion, both household income/subjective social class and education/subjective social class were found to have an impact on the degree of divergence between QOL and HRQOL. Therefore, in designing interventions, socioeconomic inequalities should be taken into account through the use of multi-dimensional measurement tools.
Full Text Available EnglishThis is an exploratory study that investigates the association of socialclass withmalaria prevalence among household heads in Ghana. Data utilized is takenfrom the 1997 Core Welfare Indicators Questionnaire (CWIQ survey of Ghana.The survey collected information on households covering a variety of topicsincluding education, health, employment, household assets, householdamenities, poverty predictors, and child anthropometry. A total of 14,514households were interviewed, comprising 63 percent rural household heads and37 percent urban household heads. The research method employed in this studyinvolves the construction of a composite index of social class from six indicatorsnamely, education, dwelling ownership, heads of cattle, modern householditems, main source of cooking fuel and type of toilet facility. Logistic regressionwas applied in examining the association between social class and the dependentvariable, prevalence of malaria. Marital status and personal hygiene wereexamined together with social class as the predictor variables, while sex, age,place of residence and ecological zone were introduced as control variables. Thestudy revealed that there was no direct association between social class and theprevalence of malaria among household heads in Ghana; rather, marital statusserved as a mediating factor.FrenchCeci est une étude exploratoire qui examine la corrélation entre la classe socialeet la prédominance de la malaria parmi les foyers au Ghana. La collecte desdonnées a été puisée d’un questionnaire concernant le noyau indicateurd’assistance sociale au Ghana en 1997(CWIQ. L’information compilée sur lesfoyers couvrent plusieurs domaines :l’éducation, la santé, l’emploi, le gaincapital par foyer, les appareils ménagers, les indicateurs de pauvreté etl’anthropométrie enfantine. Un total de 14 514 foyers ont été interviewéscomportant 63% des familles rurales et 37% des familles urbaines. La m
Thomsen, Jens Peter
education demands a closer examination of the hidden heterogeneity in the students’ social origin and educational strategies. Using a mixed-method approach (register data and ethnographic observations and interviews) the paper focuses on the students’ class origins and on different cultural practices......This paper examines the relationship between social background, choice of university programme and academic culture among Danish university students. Statistically and sociologically, university students are often treated as a homogeneous group, but the ever-increasing number of students in higher...... in three Danish university programmes. It is shown that the Danish university field is characterized by a significant variation in social selectivity from programme to programme, and it is argued that these different social profiles correspond with distinctively different cultural practices...
McLaren, Lindsay; Godley, Jenny; MacNairn, Ian A S
The social gradient in body weight (for example, obesity) departs from the social gradient in other health outcomes. Innovative approaches are needed to understand the observed patterns. This study examines time-use patterns by indicators of socio-economic position, and considers the implications of variations in time use for the social gradient in weight reported in other studies. The data are from respondents aged 25 to 64 to Canada's 1986 and 2005 General Social Surveys, which focused on time use. Participation in various activities was examined by sex, and by personal income and education, stratified by sex, in both years. Higher-income men and women were more likely than those of lower income to spend time in paid work, commuting and eating out, and less likely to spend time sleeping. Men and women with higher education were more likely than those with lower education to spend time in physical activity (2005 only) and reading. These time-use patterns plausibly contribute to the social gradient in obesity reported in other Canadian studies. The findings suggest that there is value in looking beyond a narrow range of health behaviours toward broader measures of daily routines to gain insight into the social determinants of weight and health.
Islam, Gazi; Wills-Herrera, Eduardo; Hamilton, Marilyn
The authors tested the proposition that monetary household income affects subjective well-being (E. Deiner, E. M. Suh, R. E. Lucas, & H. L. Smith, 1999) through the mediating mechanisms of objective and subjective social classes. The present authors drew a representative sample in a door-to-door survey format from a Brazilian urban center. Using a back-translated version of E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larson, and S. Griffin's (1985) Satisfaction With Life Scale, the present authors demonstrated a significant relation with income. However, this effect was mediated by objectively and subjectively measured social classes. These effects reinforce, extend, and internationally generalize the Person x Situation perspective elaborated by E. Diener et al. (1999).
Potter, Daniel; Roksa, Josipa
Children from different family backgrounds enter schooling with different levels of academic skills, and those differences grow over time. What explains this growing inequality? While the social reproduction tradition has argued that family contexts are central to producing class gaps in academic achievement, recent quantitative studies have found that family experiences explain only a small portion of those inequalities. We propose that resolving this inconsistency requires developing a new measure of family experiences that captures the continuity of exposure over time and thus more closely reflects the logic of the social reproduction tradition. Results using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K) show that, consistent with previous quantitative research, time-specific measures of family experiences have little explanatory power. However, cumulative family experiences account for most of the growing inequality in academic achievement between children from different social class backgrounds over time. These findings support claims from the social reproduction tradition, and contribute more broadly to the understanding of how family experiences contribute to social inequality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article explores the seemingly paradoxical attitudes of the Chinese middle class towards democracy, social stability, and reform. Using fieldwork data from Ningbo, this article shows that a group of objective, middle-class individuals can concurrently display high levels of support for democratic principles and low levels of participation in real-life socio-political events. Being generally confident in China’s social stability, these individuals have little to no desire for significant democratic reform, or indeed any reform that occurs outside the purview of the state, as it is considered destabilising. By highlighting the distinction between how these members of the middle class respond to generic democratic concepts, real-life socio-political affairs, and the idea of democratic reform, this article argues that the Chinese middle class are aware of what “should be,” what “could be,” and what “is,” which lends their socio-political attitudes a paradoxical appearance.
Full Text Available The study was based on a theoretical presumption that social climate and relationships in the class can be in specific ways connected with students’ achievement motivation. Previous research in the area of student motivation was mostly based on self-reports and was therefore focused on explicit motives, i.e. personal goals which the respondents strived for. Self-report measures of motivation, however, can be affected by biases and misperceptions of one’s own self. Our study approached achievement motivation at its implicit, i.e. non-conscious level. It was conducted with students in five classes of a secondary school, N = 138, 107 female and 31 male, with an average age of 17 years. The respondents were administered a sociometric questionnaire and the projective Thematic Apperception Test (TAT in McClelland´s adaptation using Heckhausen´s content-analytical clue for the measurement of achievement motivation. The hypothesized relation between social position in class and achievement motivation was only partly supported. Affiliation was unrelated to achievement motivation, even when analyzed for both achievement motives separately. We found a slight negative relationship between influence in the class and achievement motivation, especially with the motive to achieve success. These results, partly diverging from theoretical presumptions, can be explained in terms of specific features of the sample as well as a general methodological disparity in previous research, especially a lack of differentiation between implicit and explicit motives in the interpretation of the findings.
Osler, Merete; Petersen, L.; Prescott, Eva Irene Bossano
Genetic and maternal prenatal environmental factors as well as the post-natal rearing environment may contribute to the association between childhood socioeconomic circumstances and later mortality. In order to disentangle these influences, we studied all-cause and cause-specific mortality in a c...... in a cohort of adoptees, in whom we estimated the effects of their biological and adoptive fathers' social classes as indicators of the genetic and/or prenatal environmental factors and the post-natal environment, respectively....
Caruana, Albert; Magri, Emanuel
Explores the effects of dogmatism and social class variables on consumer ethnocentrism and formulates hypotheses linking these variables. Also considers the effects of a number of classificatory variables on consumer ethnocentrism. Reports the findings from a survey of consumers in Malta which show not only that dogmatism and age are positively related to consumer ethnocentrism but also that consumer ethnocentrism is lower among consumers with higher levels of education. Discusses the implica...
Smith, Burleigh M.; Schumaker, Jean B.; Schaeffer, Janae; Sherman, James A.
An experiment was conducted to evaluate procedures to improve classroom discussions in seventh-grade social studies classes. An increased number of students participated in discussions when rules were stated for discussions, students were praised for their contributions, the teacher restated or paraphrased students' contributions aloud or on the blackboard, the teacher planned an outline of discussion questions, student contributions to discussions were recorded and were used to determine par...
Harackiewicz, Judith M; Canning, Elizabeth A; Tibbetts, Yoi; Priniski, Stacy J; Hyde, Janet S
Many college students abandon their goal of completing a degree in science, technology, engineering, or math (STEM) when confronted with challenging introductory-level science courses. In the U.S., this trend is more pronounced for underrepresented minority (URM) and first-generation (FG) students, and contributes to persisting racial and social-class achievement gaps in higher education. Previous intervention studies have focused exclusively on race or social class, but have not examined how the 2 may be confounded and interact. This research therefore investigates the independent and interactive effects of race and social class as moderators of an intervention designed to promote performance, measured by grade in the course. In a double-blind randomized experiment conducted over 4 semesters of an introductory biology course (N = 1,040), we tested the effectiveness of a utility-value intervention in which students wrote about the personal relevance of course material. The utility-value intervention was successful in reducing the achievement gap for FG-URM students by 61%: the performance gap for FG-URM students, relative to continuing generation (CG)-Majority students, was large in the control condition, .84 grade points (d = .98), and the treatment effect for FG-URM students was .51 grade points (d = 0.55). The UV intervention helped students from all groups find utility value in the course content, and mediation analyses showed that the process of writing about utility value was particularly powerful for FG-URM students. Results highlight the importance of intersectionality in examining the independent and interactive effects of race and social class when evaluating interventions to close achievement gaps and the mechanisms through which they may operate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Kesteloot, Christian; De Maesschalck, Filip
Class struggle resulted in a anti-urban feeling in Flanders. The industrial revolution first developed in Wallonia and industrialisation came much later in Flanders. The bourgeoisie and the Church could anticipate rising secularisation and socialism in Flanders by keeping the workers away from the cities through specific housing and mobility policies. This explains the traditional Christian political hegemony in Flanders, with socialist and liberal cracks mainly in the cities. In the second p...
Connelly, Roxanne; Gayle, Vernon
The ‘Flynn effect’ describes the substantial and long-standing increase in average cognitive ability test scores, which has been observed in numerous psychological studies. Flynn makes an appeal for researchers to move beyond psychology’s standard disciplinary boundaries and to consider sociological contexts, in order to develop a more comprehensive understanding of cognitive inequalities. In this article we respond to this appeal and investigate social class inequalities in general cognitive...
Gavrin, Andy; Lindell, Rebecca
There are many reasons for an instructor to consider using social media, particularly in a large introductory course. Improved communications can lessen the sense of isolation some students feel in large classes, and students may be more likely to respond to faculty announce-ments in a form that is familiar and comfortable. Furthermore, many students currently establish social media sites for their classes, without the knowledge or participation of their instructors. Such "shadow" sites can be useful, but they can also become distributors of misinformation, or venues for inappropriate or disruptive discussions. CourseNetworking (CN) is a social media platform designed for the academic environment. It combines many features common among learning management systems (LMS's) with an interface that looks and feels more like Facebook than a typical academic system. We have recently begun using CN as a means to engage students in an introductory calculus-based mechanics class, with enrollments of 150-200 students per semester. This article presents basic features of CN, and details our initial experiences and observations.
Provides critical reviews of three books, "The Political Economy of Social Class", "Ethnicity: Theory and Experience," and "Ethnicity in the United States," focusing on the political economy of social class and ethnicity. (Author/AM)
Ove Edvard Hatlevik
Full Text Available Since 2009, most Norwegian students in upper secondary have had access to their own personal computer at school. Hence, with the increased access to technology, the importance of online connectedness has increased for adolescents’ social interaction and communication. It is, therefore, important to identify and understand the concept of Internet safety among upper secondary school students. A total of 4216 students from 238 classrooms in 23 upper secondary schools completed an Internet safety assessment. The aim of the study was to operationalize and measure Internet safety in a school context, and to further examine the factors predicting students’ Internet safety awareness and responsibility. Our analysis revealed substantial variation in Internet safety awareness between schools, classrooms and students. Overall, the findings indicate that students’ social backgrounds are determining for their development and understanding of Internet safety awareness.
Muntaner, Carles; Borrell, Carme; Solà, Judit; Marì-Dell'olmo, Marc; Chung, Haejoo; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Benach, Joan; Noh, Samuel
To examine the effects of Neo-Marxian social class (i.e. measured as relations of control over productive assets) and potential mediators such as labour-market position, work organization, material deprivation and health behaviours upon mortality in Barcelona, Spain. Longitudinal data from the Barcelona 2000 Health Interview Survey (n = 7526) with follow-up interviews through the municipal census in 2008 (95.97% response rate) were used. Using data on relations of property, organizational power, and education, social classes were grouped according to Wright's scheme: capitalists, petit bourgeoisie, managers, supervisors, and skilled, semi-skilled and unskilled workers. Social class, measured as relations of control over productive assets, is an important predictor of mortality among working-class positions for men but not for women. Workers (hazard ratio 1.60, 95% confidence interval 1.10-2.35), managers and small employers had a higher risk of death than capitalists. The extensive use of conventional gradient measures of social stratification has neglected sociological measurements of social class conceptualized as relations of control over productive assets. This concept is capable of explaining how social inequalities are generated. To confirm the protective effect of the capitalist class position and the ''contradictory class location hypothesis'', additional efforts are needed to properly measure class among low-level supervisors, capitalists, managers, and small employers.
Sagheri, Darius; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Clarkson, John J
To compare dental caries levels of schoolchildren stratified in different social classes whose domestic water supply had been fluoridated since birth (Dublin) with those living in an area where fluoridated salt was available (Freiburg). A representative, random sample of twelve-year-old children was examined and dental caries was recorded using World Health Organization criteria. A total of 699 twelve-year-old children were examined, 377 were children in Dublin and 322 in Freiburg. In Dublin the mean decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) was 0.80 and in Freiburg it was 0.69. An examination of the distribution of the DMFT score revealed that its distribution is highly positively skewed. For this reason this study provides summary analyses based on medians and inter-quartile range and nonparametric rank sum tests. In both cities caries levels of children in social class 1 (highest) were considerably lower when compared with the other social classes regardless of the fluoride intervention model used. The caries levels showed a reduced disparity between children in social class 2 (medium) and 3 (lowest) in Dublin compared with those in social class 2 and 3 in Freiburg. The evidence from this study confirmed that water fluoridation has reduced the gap in dental caries experience between medium and lower social classes in Dublin compared with the greater difference in caries experience between the equivalent social classes in Freiburg. The results from this study established the important role of salt fluoridation where water fluoridation is not feasible.
Burdick, Summer M.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Hoy, Marshal S.
Executive SummaryThe largest populations of federally endangered Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose suckers (Chasmistes brevirostris) exist in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, and Clear Lake Reservoir, California. Upper Klamath Lake populations are decreasing because adult mortality, which is relatively low, is not being balanced by recruitment of young adult suckers into known spawning aggregations. Most Upper Klamath Lake juvenile sucker mortality appears to occur within the first year of life. Annual production of juvenile suckers in Clear Lake Reservoir appears to be highly variable and may not occur at all in very dry years. However, juvenile sucker survival is much higher in Clear Lake, with non-trivial numbers of suckers surviving to join spawning aggregations. Long-term monitoring of juvenile sucker populations is needed to (1) determine if there are annual and species-specific differences in production, survival, and growth, (2) to identify the season (summer or winter) in which most mortality occurs, and (3) to help identify potential causes of high juvenile sucker mortality, particularly in Upper Klamath Lake.We initiated an annual juvenile sucker monitoring program in 2015 to track cohorts in 3 months (June, August, and September) annually in Upper Klamath Lake and Clear Lake Reservoir. We tracked annual variability in age-0 sucker apparent production, juvenile sucker apparent survival, and apparent growth. Using genetic markers, we were able to classify suckers as one of three taxa: shortnose or Klamath largescale suckers, Lost River, or suckers with genetic markers of both species (Intermediate Prob[LRS]). Using catch data, we generated taxa-specific indices of year class strength, August–September apparent survival, and overwinter apparent survival. We also examined prevalence and severity of afflictions such as parasites, wounds, and deformities.Indices of year class strength in Upper Klamath Lake were similar for shortnose suckers in 2015
Mazloomy Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed; Tehrani, Hadi; Gholian-Aval, Mahdi; Gholami, Hasan; Nematy, Mohsen
Reducing salt intake is a factor related to life style which can influence the prevention of blood pressure. This study was conducted to assess the impact of social class on the amount of salt intake in patients with hypertension in Iran. This was an observational on the intake of salt, as estimated by Kawasaki formula in a sample from Iranian population, stratified for social background characteristics. The finding in general was that the estimated salt intake was somewhat higher in subjects from a lower social background, while the opposite was true for lipid levels (LDL and HDL cholesterol). There was also a significant correlation between salt intake and the level of systolic blood pressure, but not the level of diastolic blood pressure. Considering high salt intake (almost double the standard amount in Iran), especially in patients with low-social class and the effects of salt on human health, it is suggested to design and perform suitable educational programs based on theories and models of health education in order to reduce salt intake.
Siahaan, M. F.
The purpose of this study was to identify school mathematics topics and mathematics learning experiences of two elementary schools in contrasting social class settings under an umbrella of one institution. A case study research methodology was used to examine data collected from those two Elementary schools. The data revealed that there were similarities in curriculum framework, curriculum materials but there were also significant differences in what was taught and what was experienced in those two schools. The data suggested that word problem and a pedagogy of critical thinking were implemented in one of the schools. The differences were assessed in terms of theoretical and social implications. It was concluded that social stratification of mathematical knowledge occurred
Moreno Murcia, Juan A; Parra Rojas, Nicolás; González-Cutre Coll, David
The purpose of this study was to analyze some factors that influence amotivation in physical education classes. A sample of 399 students, of ages 14 to 16 years, was used. They completed the Perceived Autonomy Support Scale in Exercise Settings (PASSES), the Social Goal Scale-Physical Education (SGS-PE), the factor of the Basic Psychological Needs in Exercise Scale (BPNES) adapted to physical education and the amotivation> factor of the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale (PLOC). The psychometric properties of the PASSES were analyzed, as this scale had not been validated to the Spanish context. In this analysis, the scale showed appropriate validity and reliability. The results of the structural equation model indicated that social responsibility and social relationship goals positively predicted perception of relatedness, whereas the context of autonomy support did not significantly predict it. In turn, perception of relatedness negatively predicted amotivation. The findings are discussed with regard to enhancing students' positive motivation.
Lahelma, Eero; Lallukka, Tea; Laaksonen, Mikko; Martikainen, Pekka; Rahkonen, Ossi; Chandola, Tarani; Head, Jenny; Marmot, Michael; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Tatsuse, Takashi; Sekine, Michikazu
This study aims to examine social class differences in smoking, heavy drinking, unhealthy food habits, physical inactivity and obesity, and work-related psychosocial factors as explanations for these differences. This is done by comparing employee cohorts from Britain, Finland and Japan. Social class differences in health behaviours are found in the two western European countries, but not in Japan. The studied psychosocial factors related to work, work-family interface and social relationships did not explain the found class differences in health behaviours.
Güveli, A.; Need, A.; Graaf, N.D. de
Do the social and cultural specialists differ from the technocrats and other social classes with respect to their socio-political, cultural and economic preferences and behaviour? If they do, is this attributable to their level and field of education? The social and cultural specialists are assumed
Full Text Available We summarize the results of socio-psychological studies of classroom management, performed on the basis of a theoretical model of value exchange, developed by R.L.Krichevsky. Classroom management is understood as a kind of management activity of a teacher, aimed at organizing group of students. Factor analysis revealed two major factors of the effectiveness of classroom management: the nature of the relationship between the students and their relations to the class teacher. As teacher’s activity characteristics, we considered manifestations of his attitudes toward students, leadership style, characteristics of individual interaction with students. It is shown that the activity of the class teacher, aimed at meeting the critical social needs of students, has two major dimensions: taking care about students and development of their motivation. We analyze the impact of social and perceptual characteristics of the teacher on the effectiveness of his interaction with students. We reveal the features of self-assessment and reflective evaluation of personality and activity of a class teacher, the specifics of causal attributions of success and failure of students in different areas of school life.
Maher, Jaclyn P; Gottschall, Jinger S; Conroy, David E
Engaging in regular physical activity is a challenging task for many adults. Intrinsic satisfaction with exercise classes is thought to promote adherence to physical activity. This study examined the characteristics of exercise classes that impact within-person changes in intrinsic satisfaction over the course of an extended group exercise program. A 30-week physical activity trial was conducted with assessments at the end of each class. Community-living adults (n = 29) were instructed to complete at least six group exercise classes each week and, following each exercise class, complete a questionnaire asking about the characteristics of the class and the participant's evaluation of the class. Intrinsic satisfaction was high, on average, but varied as much within-person from class-to-class as it did between exercisers. Participants reported the greatest intrinsic satisfaction when classes placed greater emphasis on exercisers' involvement with the group task, feelings of competence, and encouragement from the instructor. For the most part, exercise classes that were more intense than usual were perceived by exercisers as less intrinsically satisfying. Some overall characteristics of the exercise classes were also associated with intrinsic satisfaction. The social and motivational characteristics of group exercise classes contribute to exercisers' intrinsic satisfaction with classes and attention to those dynamics, as well as the intensity of the exercise, may improve adherence for exercise regimens.
Delgado-Angulo, E K; Bernabé, E
To identify the lifecourse model that best describes the association between social class and adult oral health. Data from 10,217 participants of the 1958 National Child Development Study were used. Social class at ages 7, 16 and 33 years were chosen to represent socioeconomic conditions during childhood, adolescence and adulthood, respectively. Two subjective oral health indicators (lifetime and past-year prevalence of persistent trouble with gums or mouth) were measured at age 33. The critical period, accumulation and social trajectories models were tested in logistic regression models and the most appropriate lifecourse model was identified using the structured modelling approach. The critical period model showed that only adulthood social class was significantly associated with oral health. For the accumulation model, a monotonic gradient was found between the number of periods in manual social class and oral health; and four out of eight social trajectories were found to be distinctive. Finally, the social trajectories model was not significantly different from the saturated model indicating that it provided a good fit to the data. This study shows the social trajectories model was the most appropriate, in terms of model fit, to describe the association between social class and oral health.
Christensen, Vibeke T; Carpiano, Richard M
Research on social class differences in obesity and weight-related outcomes has highlighted the need to consider how such class differences reflect the unequally distributed constellations of economic, cultural, and social resources that enable and constrain health-related habits and practices or health lifestyles. Motivated by this need, the present study applies a theoretical perspective that integrates Cockerham's (2005) health lifestyles theory with Bourdieu's (1984) theoretical scholarship on social class, lifestyles, and the body to analyzing class-based differences in body mass index (BMI) among adult female respondents of a 2007 Danish national survey (n = 1376). We test hypotheses concerning how respective levels of economic, cultural, and social capital that constitute women's social class membership are associated with BMI directly and via their influence on respondent's dietary-related values, preferences, behaviors, and exercise activities. Our analyses indicate that cultural and economic capital were both directly associated with BMI. Mediation analyses revealed that greater cultural and social capital were linked to higher BMI via interest in cooking; while all three forms of capital were associated with lower BMI via greater frequency of exercise. These findings provide evidence for the many-and sometimes contradictory-ways that social class can influence body weight. Identifying such patterns can inform the design of more effective population health interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Sang Gyu; Shin, Jaeyong; Park, Eun-Cheol
Our objective was to investigate whether gaps between socioeconomic stratum and subjective social class affect the prevalence of depressive symptoms. We collected data from the Korean Health Panel Survey, years 2009 and 2011, and performed a longitudinal analysis of 12,357 individuals at baseline (2009), estimating the prevalence of depressive symptoms among individuals with disparate socioeconomic stratum (High, Middle, or Low household income and education level, respectively) and subjective social class (High, Middle, or Low). The odds ratio for depressive symptoms among individuals with High household income and High social class, or Low household income and Low social class, was 0.537 and 1.877, respectively (psocioeconomic stratum and subjective social class on depressive symptoms deteriorated, as a whole, across the socioeconomic spectrum. The gap between socioeconomic stratum and perceived position in the social hierarchy explains a substantial part of inequalities in the prevalence of depressive symptoms. It is important to consider the impact of discrepancies between different measures of socioeconomic well-being on depressive symptoms rather than looking at the subjective social class alone. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Farrell, Ann M; Mayer, Susan H; Rethlefsen, Melissa L
Librarians at the Mayo Clinic developed customized Web 2.0 courses for library staff, health science faculty, and nurse educators. As demand for this type of training spread across the institution, a single, self-paced class was developed for all employees. The content covered the typical Web 2.0 and social media tools (e.g., blogs, really simple syndication [RSS], wikis, social networking tools) emphasizing the organization's social media guidelines. The team consulted with the public affairs department to develop the class and coordinate marketing and advertising. The eight-module, blog-based course was introduced to all employees in 2010. Employees completing each module and passing a brief assessment receive credit on their employee transcript. Libraries staff provided support to participants throughout the duration of the course through chat widgets, e-mail, and blog comments. The results show that even though a high number of learners accessed the course, the completion percentage was low since there was no requirement to complete the course. Deploying a single, self-paced course for a large institution is an enormous undertaking, requiring the support of high level administration, managers, and employees.
Stephen L. Morgan
Full Text Available Through an analysis of the 1994 through 2016 General Social Surveys, this article demonstrates that a substantial proportion of eligible voters within the working class turned away from solid identification with either the Democratic Party or the Republican Party during the Obama presidency. Even before the 2016 election cycle commenced, conditions were uncharacteristically propitious for a Republican candidate who could appeal to prospective voters in the working class, especially those who had not voted in recent presidential elections but could be mobilized to vote. These findings support the contested position that variation in party identification is a genuine leading indicator of electoral outcomes and perhaps also, in this case, of party realignment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diabetes is the sixth leading cause of death in the United States. Persons with diabetes are at increased risk for serious complications including CVD, stroke, retinopathy, amputation, and nephropathy. Minorities have the highest incidence and prevalence of diabetes and related complications compared to other racial groups. Preventive care practices such as smoking cessation, eye examinations, feet examinations, and yearly checkups can prevent or delay the incidence and progression of diabetes related complications. The purpose of this study was to examine racial/ethnic differences in diabetes preventive care practices by several socio-demographic characteristics including social class. Methods Data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey for 1998–2001 were used for analyses. The study population consisted of persons who indicated having diabetes on the BRFSS, 35 yrs and older, and Non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White, or Hispanic persons. Logistic regression was used in analyses. Results Contrary to our hypotheses, Blacks and Hispanics engaged in preventive care more frequently than Whites. Whites were less likely to have seen a doctor in the previous year, less likely to have had a foot exam, more likely to smoke, and less likely to have attempted smoking cessation. Persons of lower social class were at greatest risk for not receiving preventive care regardless of race/ethnicity. Persons with no health care coverage were twice as likely to have not visited the doctor in the previous year and twice as likely to have not had an eye exam, 1.5 times more likely to have not had a foot exam or attempted smoking cessation. Conclusion This study showed that persons of lower social class and persons with no health insurance are at greatest risk for not receiving preventive services.
Full Text Available This essay focuses on a particular expression of globalization and regionalization that entails social, political, cultural and economic dimensions: social movements. I argue that current social movements are not necessarily articulated only in terms of class struggle-as the major labor movements were for the last two centuries. Neither do they articulate their protests only in terms of identity and recognition-such as women's movements did in the 1960s. Social movements are now most commonly organized around a discourse that combines those two dimensions. Contemporary social movements are expanding from the structural economic and industrial system (and thus abandoning the form of traditional class struggles to cultural and identity grounds. New social movements are now seen more and more as symbolic challengers, because power-that affects everyday life and tries to manipulate and give social meaning to things-is being contested by individuals in both the public and private spheres. Thus movements have a more symbolic function: they are a new kind of media, fighting for symbolic and cultural stakes, and for a different meaning and orientation of social action. However, constructing a collective identity within a social movement is not definitive. A movement's identity is constructed on an everyday basis, and within the process of globalization, the contact and social interaction with others -with the other, which allows the definition of one's own identity-is not only possible but also necessary. This paper considers the Zapatista rebellion in Chiapas as an empirical approach to social movements expanding from regional, local mobilizations and discourse, to more global oriented contentious activities. I argue that the Zapatista movement's identity in 1994 was quite different from the one it has now: the Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional (EZLN, or Zapatista National Liberation Army discourse has been transformed, from having an ethnic
Donna Deitch's Desert Hearts, one of the highest-grossing lesbian films ever made, is a groundbreaking and poignant movie about self-discovery and self-acceptance. This article focuses on the societal obstacles-such as vastly different social classes, cultures, and educational backgrounds-that Vivian and Cay must overcome in order to begin their relationship. The article also shows the taboos faced by gays in the 1950s, such as the firing of college professors in that era. The latent lesbian desire of the homophobic Frances, which is rarely addressed in criticism of the film, is discussed in detail.
Lux, Martin; Sunega, Petr; Katrňák, Tomáš
Roč. 29, č. 2 (2013), s. 274-288 ISSN 0266-7215 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/09/1915 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : social stratification * housing classes * transition countries Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.031, year: 2013 http://esr.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/07/29/esr.jcr060.abstract?keytype=ref&ijkey=2UAFdmbxp7jS5D6
The evidence suggests that working-class students are disadvantaged in the graduate labour market. This article focuses on the extent to which students from working-class backgrounds are disadvantaged in the career decision-making process because of their lack of social capital. The study is based on in-depth interviews with 30 final-year…
Building adequate social relationships and learning about them is very important in our society. Nowadays social games are often used in schools, especially to enhance good behaviour and improve relationships between students. By learning social skills in school we can improve the quality of life for our students during schooling as they will feel accepted in their class and as a result feel better about themselves. In addition, social games give them knowledge that they can use in adulthood ...
Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben
This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group......, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding...
Leinonen, Taina; Martikainen, Pekka; Myrskylä, Mikko
The balance between the amount of time spent in work and in retirement underlies the long-term sustainability of the social security system. We examined socioeconomic differences in how increasing longevity is distributed between labor market statuses in Finland. We used register data and the Sullivan method to analyze life expectancy at age 50 spent in different labor market statuses over the period 1989-2012 and across cohorts born in 1938-1953. We projected the future mortality and labor market participation rates of partially observed cohorts. Both working life expectancy at age 50 and the share of remaining life spent in work have increased across periods following the recession of the early 1990s, and across successive cohorts. The trends were similar across the social classes, but there were large differences in the numbers of years spent in various states: for the most recent period and the youngest cohort, we find that compared with upper non-manual employees, male and female manual workers were expected to spend 3.6-3.7 fewer years in work, 1.7-4.7 fewer years in statutory retirement, and 3.2-3.9 more years in other forms of nonemployment. Our finding that the share of remaining life at age 50 spent in work is increasing implies that pressure on the welfare system is not as severe as is commonly thought. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
van Dun, M.E.H.
During Peru’s internal armed conflict (1980s-1990s) the Upper Huallaga Valley became one of the most violent theaters of conflict, with political violence and violent crime becoming causally related phenomena. In the Upper Huallaga different sorts of armed actors (whether their motivations were
Choi, Young; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol
Several previous studies have established the relationship between the effects of socioeconomic status or subjective social strata on life satisfaction. However, no previous study has examined the relationship between social class and life satisfaction in terms of a disparity between subjective and objective social status. To investigate the relationship between differences in subjective and objective social class and life satisfaction. Data from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging with 8252 participants aged 45 or older was used. Life satisfaction was measured by the question, "How satisfied are you with your quality of life?" The main independent variable was differences in objective (income and education) and subjective social class, which was classified according to nine categories (ranging from high-high to low-low). This association was investigated by linear mixed model due to two waves data nested within individuals. Lower social class (income, education, subjective social class) was associated with dissatisfaction. The impact of objective and subjective social class on life satisfaction varied according to the level of differences in objective and subjective social class. Namely, an individual's life satisfaction declined as objective social classes decreased at the same level of subjective social class (i.e., HH, MH, LH). In both dimensions of objective social class (education and income), an individual's life satisfaction declined as subjective social class decreased by one level (i.e., HH, HM, HL). Our findings indicated that social supports is needed to improve the life satisfaction among the population aged 45 or more with low social class. The government should place increased focus on policies that encourage not only the life satisfaction of the Korean elderly with low objective social class, but also subjective social class. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Stone, Juliet; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan; Blane, David
Research investigating associations between social class over the life-course and later health relies primarily on secondary analysis of existing data, limiting the number and timing of available measurements. This paper aims to examine the impact of these constraints on the measurement of life-course occupational social class and subsequent explanatory analyses predicting health in later life. Participants of the UK Boyd Orr Lifegrid Subsample ( n = 294), aged an average of 68 years, provided retrospective information on their life-course occupational social class, coded at 6-month intervals. This was used to simulate two types of life-course data: (1) Theoretical: Life stage (four data-points at key life stages); (2) A-theoretical: Panel data (data-points at regular intervals of varying length). The percentage of life time in disadvantage and the predictive value for limiting longstanding illness (LLI) in later life using the full life-course and simulated data was compared. The presence of 'critical periods' of exposure and the role of trajectories of social class were also investigated. Compared with the full data, the life stage approach estimated a higher percentage of life time in disadvantage and emphasised 'transient' periods in disadvantage (e.g. labour market entry). With varying intervals using the a-theoretical approach, there was no clear pattern. Percentage of life time in manual class was a significant predictor of LLI only when using the four-point life stage approach. Occupational social class at labour market entry was a predictor of LLI in later life, suggesting a 'critical period'. Comparison of trajectories of social class further emphasised the importance of the sequence and timing of exposures to disadvantage in determining later health. We conclude that producing a valid summary of life-course occupational social class does not necessarily require a large number of data-points, particularly if guided by relevant theory, and that such
Savolainen, Jukka; Paananen, Reija; Merikukka, Marko; Aaltonen, Mikko; Gissler, Mika
Research on social class and crime is dominated by perspectives that assume socioeconomic disadvantage to exert causal influence on offending. As an alternative approach, the present study examined hypotheses derived from a social selection perspective which treats intergenerational continuity in antisocial propensity as the primary source of socioeconomic differences in criminal activity. Under this theory, individual characteristics of the parents influence their personal socioeconomic attainment as well as the behavioral traits they pass on to their children. Consistent with both of these perspectives, longitudinal data tracking Finnish males born in 1987 (n=21,513) showed strong negative associations between family socioeconomic status (SES) and offspring rates of criminal offending. In critical support for the selection perspective: (1) these association were linear rather than discrete, (2) parents' educational attainment accounted for most of the association between the occupational measure of family SES and crime, and (3) measures of offspring criminal propensity mediated a substantial share of these effects. Adolescent educational marginalization emerged as the key factor linking childhood socioeconomic status to the risk of criminal offending in emerging adulthood. We discuss the implications of this finding for social influence and social selection models of explanation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elizabeth B. Silva
Full Text Available Este artigo discute até que ponto as posições de classe na Grã-Bretanha contemporânea foram herdadas dos pais e que tipo de escolhas em termos conjugais (e seus efeitos homens e mulheres fazem em posições sociais diferentes. De modo inovador, o artigo investiga os diferentes ativos herdados de pais e mães por filhos e filhas, visando a um exame refinado dos efeitos de gênero, ainda não presente na literatura. Discriminam-se também as escolhas conjugais de homens e mulheres. Essas explorações se apoiam no material empírico desenvolvido para o estudo britânico Capital Cultural e Exclusão Social (CCSE, na sigla em inglês, inspirado pelo trabalho de Pierre Bourdieu sobre capitais e habitus na definição das posições dos indivíduos nas classes sociais. O artigo indica que o gênero, uma ativo mal compreendido por Bourdieu, afeta a posição de classe de formas sutis e complexas, sendo muito significativo em certos aspectos.
Bennett, Pamela R.; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi
We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children’s involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face. PMID:25328250
Bennett, Pamela R; Lutz, Amy; Jayaram, Lakshmi
We investigate cultural and structural sources of class differences in youth activity participation with interview, survey, and archival data. We find working- and middle-class parents overlap in parenting logics about participation, though differ in one respect: middle-class parents are concerned with customizing children's involvement in activities, while working-class parents are concerned with achieving safety and social mobility for children through participation. Second, because of financial constraints, working-class families rely on social institutions for participation opportunities, but few are available. Schools act as an equalizing institution by offering low-cost activities, allowing working-class children to resemble middle-class youth in school activities, but they remain disadvantaged in out-of-school activities. School influences are complex, however, as they also contribute to class differences by offering different activities to working- and middle-class youth. Findings raise questions about the extent to which differences in participation reflect class culture rather than the objective realities parents face.
Braden, Sarah Katherine
-level identities related to academic success during lab work and the experiences of language minority students as they navigated social interactions during lab tasks. Classroom-level findings suggest that students oriented to three local identities related to academic success: (1) the science expert, (2) the good student, and (3) the good assistant. Looking across the socialization pathways of the Latina students in the class revealed that their identities as Latinas and Spanish-speakers intersected with their ability to articulate science expert status in complicated ways. I conclude this dissertation with implications for research on Latino/as in STEM, classroom discourse studies, language socialization research, and science teacher education.
Carmel, S; Lazar, A
The purpose of the study was to compare three groups of Israeli elderly that differ in social class and immigration status on measures of health and psycho-social well-being, and assess the factors which explain their self-rated health (SRH). Based on a random sample of Israeli Jewish elderly (70 +), data were collected from 1138 persons during 1994 by structured home interviews. Social class differences among Israeli veterans were mainly found with regard to psycho-social characteristics. They were less conspicuous in health measures. New immigrants, who had a higher level of education than the veterans, but ranked lower on economic status, reported lower levels of health and psycho-social well-being than the veterans. Self-rated health among the immigrants was mainly explained by objective measures of health, and economic status, while in the higher social class of veterans it was also explained by education and psycho-social variables such as self-esteem and social support. These findings indicate that in contradiction to the convergence hypothesis, social class and immigration status affect health and well-being also in old age. It is suggested that the immigration crisis and factors related to the standard of living and health services in the countries of origin, as well as the lower social and economic status of the immigrants in Israel, outweigh their relative advantage in age and education in influencing their health and well-being. The differences found among the three groups in the factors that explain self-rated health have implications for the use of economic status as a relevant indicator of social class when considering health status among the elderly, and for the interpretation of SRH, as a global measure of health, in different socio-cultural groups.
Verkerk, P.H.; Zaadstra, B.M.; Reerink, J.D.; Herngreen, W.P.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.
Social class and ethnicity are important risk factors for small-for-gestational-age and preterm delivery in many countries. This study was performed to assess whether this is also the case in the Netherlands, a country with a high level of social security, relatively small income differences and
Mortimer, Jeylan T.
The effects of both vertical and nonvertical dimensions of fathers' work on family relations and vocational socialization are explored through a multivariate analysis of data collected from several hundred male student participants enrolled in a Michigan College from 1962-1967. Social class and occupationally-related differences in family…
Keller, Heidi; Abels, Monika; Borke, Jorn; Lamm, Bettina; Su, Yanjie; Wang, Yifang; Lo, Wingshan
Children's socialization environments reflect cultural models of parenting. In particular, Euro-American and Chinese families have been described as following different socialization scripts. The present study assesses parenting behaviors as well as parenting ethnotheories with respect to three-month-old babies in middle-class families in Los…
Demir, Selcuk Besir; Pismek, Nuray
In today's educational landscape, social studies classes are characterized by controversial issues (CIs) that teachers handle differently using various ideologies. These CIs have become more and more popular, particularly in heterogeneous communities. The actual classroom practices for teaching social studies courses are unclear in the context of…
Using Pierre Bourdieu's theories of social class differentiation and class reproduction, this paper provides an analysis of class-based identity politics in contemporary suburban America. Through a critical ethnography of the emergent, American, upper-middle-class "soccer mom" phenomenon, this study contributes to a growing body of…
Borup, Ina; Holstein, Bjørn Evald
of the health dialogue and to examine the effect of social class on this response controlled for the effect of other relevant social factors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study is a survey. The population were all pupils in the fifth, seventh and ninth grade (11, 13 and 15 years old) in a random sample of schools...... the nurse's advice, 77% had made their own autonomous decisions based on the health dialogue, and 11% had returned to the nurse for further advice. Pupils from the lower social classes had more often followed the nurse's advice (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 0.99-1.37) and returned to the nurse (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.......12-1.90). Pupils from the middle and lower social classes had more often made their own autonomous decisions (middle social classes: OR =1.23, 95% CI: 1.08-1.39, lower social classes: OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.95-1.34). CONCLUSION: Most pupils reported an outcome of the health dialogue with the school health nurse...
Ramsay, Sheena; Lowe, Gordon D O; Whincup, Peter H; Rumley, Ann; Morris, Richard W; Wannamethee, S Goya
Haemostatic and inflammatory markers have been hypothesised to mediate the relationship of social class and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated whether a range of inflammatory/haemostatic markers are associated with social class independent of chronic diseases and behavioural risk factors in a population-based sample of 2682 British men aged 60-79 without a physician diagnosis of CVD, diabetes or musculoskeletal disease requiring anti-inflammatory medications. Men in lower social classes had higher mean levels of C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, interleukin-6, white blood cell count, von Willebrand factor (vWF), factor VIII, activated protein C (APC) resistance, plasma viscosity, fibrin D-dimer and platelet count, compared to higher social class groups; but not of tissue plasminogen activator antigen, haematocrit or activated partial prothrombin time. After adjustment for behavioural risk factors (smoking, alcohol, physical activity and body mass), the associations of social class with vWF, factor VIII, APC resistance, plasma viscosity, and platelet count though weakened, remained statistically significant, while those of other markers were considerably attenuated. In this study of older men without CVD, the social gradient in inflammatory and haemostatic markers was substantially explained by behavioural risk factors. The effect of socio-economic gradient on the factor VIII-vWF complex, APC resistance, plasma viscosity and platelet count merits further study.
Jabakhanji, Samira Barbara; Pavlova, Milena; Groot, Wim; Boland, Fiona; Biesma, Regien
Many studies have reported a social class gradient within overweight prevalence ( 1-4 ). Additionally, cross-country comparisons report high overweight trends and a change in food consumption patterns in countries affected by an economic crisis ( 5-11 ). The aim of this study was to assess the association between social class and recession on obesity levels in 3-year-old Irish children. The population-based infant cohort of the national Growing Up in Ireland (GUI) study was used. Prevalence rates of overweight and obesity were calculated and logistic regression models, adjusting for confounders, were used to examine the relationship between social class, effects of the recession and childhood obesity. In 2008, 19.5% of 9-month-olds were obese and 19.4% overweight increasing to 22.7% and 20.4%, respectively by 2011 when the infants were 3 years old (World Health Organization (WHO) criteria). The prevalence of obesity increased by 2.3% to 10.1% for various social classes (unadjusted). However, adjusting for confounders, there was no evidence of a difference in obesity of 3-year-old children across social classes. There was evidence that obesity was 22-27% higher for families who perceived a very significant crisis effect on their family, compared with those significantly affected. Increases in obesity were found to be significantly associated with perceived recession effects on the family, but not with social class. Policy makers should be aware that in times of economic downturn, public health efforts to promote healthy weight are needed at a population level rather than for specific social classes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
This article investigates the monitorial system of education in Sweden between 1820 and 1843. In contrast to previous research, which has emphasised monitorial education as a method for disciplining poor children, this article compares the use of the method in schools for the working classes and in academic schools. Using concepts such as…
Crane, Riley; Sornette, Didier
We study the relaxation response of a social system after endogenous and exogenous bursts of activity using the time series of daily views for nearly 5 million videos on YouTube. We find that most activity can be described accurately as a Poisson process. However, we also find hundreds of thousands of examples in which a burst of activity is followed by an ubiquitous power-law relaxation governing the timing of views. We find that these relaxation exponents cluster into three distinct classes and allow for the classification of collective human dynamics. This is consistent with an epidemic model on a social network containing two ingredients: a power-law distribution of waiting times between cause and action and an epidemic cascade of actions becoming the cause of future actions. This model is a conceptual extension of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem to social systems [Ruelle, D (2004) Phys Today 57:48-53] and [Roehner BM, et al., (2004) Int J Mod Phys C 15:809-834], and provides a unique framework for the investigation of timing in complex systems.
Mok, Ka Ho; Ngok, Kinglun
The major objective of this article is to critically examine changes in social stratification and social mobility of the peasant workers in the post-Mao period, with particular reference to examine whether and how the selected peasant workers in Dongguan city in South China have asserted themselves in protecting their labour rights. The present studies is based upon intensive policy and documentary analysis, in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and survey in getting first-hand data from conducting fieldwork in China. Migrant workers in Dongguan city in South China. Although peasant workers are becoming more concerned with their economic and social rights, they have not attempted to organize themselves as organized social organizations in protecting their own interests. Despite the fact that peasant workers may have a greater awareness of the interests as a social group, such a consciousness has not been developed into a distinct class identity. Without a distinct class identity, coupled with a lack of organized social forces in asserting their class interests, peasant workers have not formed themselves into an organized social class right now, especially as many of them still consider themselves having a peasant status instead of obtaining a new citizenship associated with working in urban China.
The unconscious impact of differences in culture and social class is discussed from the perspective of an analyst practising in London whose 'foreign accent' prevents patients from placing her within the social stratifications by which they feel confined. Because she is seen by them as an analyst from both 'inside' and 'outside' the British psycho-social fabric and cultural complex, this opens a space in the transference that enables fuller exploration of the impact of the British social class system on patients' experience of themselves and their world. The paper considers this impact as a trans-generational trauma of living in a society of sharp socio-economic divisions based on material property. This is illustrated with the example of a patient who, at the point of moving towards the career to which he aspired, was unable to separate a sense of personal identity from the social class he so desperately wanted to leave behind and walk the long avenue of individuation. The dearth of literature on the subject of class is considered, and the paper concludes that not enough attention is given to class identification in training. © 2016, The Society of Analytical Psychology.
Seiler, Gale A.
Schools and science classrooms within schools continue to contribute to social reproduction and to the disenfranchisement of inner city African American students though attempts have been made to remedy the situation through standards, high-stakes testing, and compensatory programs. Such reforms ignore the sociocultural, political, and economic contexts of the individual students in the schools they are impacting. They do not take into account the uniqueness and diversity of the learners in these settings and have not included the voices of the students. Another possibility was studied here; that of starting with the cultural capital of the learner rather than with external standards. In a non-required science course at a local high school two coteachers endeavored to enact a student-emergent curriculum as a way to foster student agency and to counteract the reproductive nature of schools. The class was examined as a field within multiple other fields. The dialectical relationship between structure and agency in the class was used to frame the analysis and the tension between them was examined at several levels through video and audio analysis. Structural and rational choice views of action were abandoned in favor of an understanding hinged upon strategies of action that actors construct from cultural toolkits in and through practice. In this setting the students and teachers co-constructed a class that can be described and characterized in certain ways yet contained many counter-examples and alternative characterizations. A continuum of successes and failures, agency and subjectivity can be found in the trends and counter-trends in the course. The contradictions were examined to portray the complexity of the interactions and the possibilities for agency within them.
Kan, Chiemi; Kawakami, Norito; Karasawa, Mayumi; Love, Gayle Dienberg; Coe, Christopher L; Miyamoto, Yuri; Ryff, Carol D; Kitayama, Shinobu; Curhan, Katherine B; Markus, Hazel Rose
Recently, researchers have proposed that psychological resources might be key concept in explaining the association between social class and health. However, empirical examinations of the extent to which psychological resources to social class in health are still few. This study investigated mediating effects of selected psychological resources (sense of control, self-esteem, optimism, and neuroticism) on the association of social class [education and subjective social status (SSS)] with current health status (self-rated health and the number of chronic conditions). This sample consisted of 1,805 Americans (818 males and 987 females) from the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) survey, 2004-2006 and 1,027 Japanese (505 males and 522 females) from the Midlife in Japan (MIDJA) survey in Tokyo, Japan, 2008-2010. Information on social class, psychological resources, and health status was obtained using telephone interviews or written questionnaires. A mediation analysis was conducted separately for males and females in Japan and the USA. Neuroticism significantly mediated the association of education and SSS with self-rated health and chronic conditions among males and females in both countries, with one exception (not for chronic conditions among Japanese females). Sense of control significantly mediated the association of education and SSS with self-rated health among males and females in both countries. As hypothesized, self-esteem significantly mediated almost all of the associations of education and SSS with self-rated health and chronic conditions among men and women in the USA, but very few such associations in Japan. Optimism significantly mediated most associations of social class and health status in both countries, but only among females. Overall, the findings underscore important culture- and gender specificity in the ways in which psychosocial resources mediate the links between social class and health.
Bast, L S; Nordahl, H; Christensen, L B; Holstein, B E
Regular tooth brushing in adolescence predicts stable tooth brushing habits later in life. Differences in tooth brushing habits by ethnic background and socioeconomic position have been suggested. We investigated migration status and social class in relation to infrequent tooth brushing both separately and combined. The study population was 11-15 year-olds chosen from a clustered random sample of schools. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses estimated the separate and combined effects of migration status and social class on less than twice daily tooth brushing. 10,607 respondents: a response rate of 88.3%. Boys of lower social class had higher odds ratio (OR) of infrequent tooth brushing than girls: 1.98 (95% confidence interval 1.62-2.41) vs 1.80 (1.53-2.24). Immigrants and descendants had higher odds compared to adolescents of Danish origin: immigrant boys OR 1.39 (1.05-1.89), girls OR 1.92 (1.47-2.50); descendant boys OR 2.53 (1.97-3.27), girls OR 2.56 (2.02-3.35). Analyses of the combined effect of social class and migration status showed that the social gradient in tooth brushing habits observed among ethnic Danes cannot be found among groups of immigrants and descendants. The study shows that both non-Danish origin and low social class increases the risk of infrequent tooth brushing among school-aged children. The study calls for in depth analyses of the processes which influence young people's tooth brushing habits. Further, there is a need to strengthen the promotion of appropriate tooth brushing habits of minority and low social class youths.
Kim, Jae-Hyun; Park, Eun-Cheol; Yoo, Ki-Bong
We investigate the impact of gaps between socioeconomic status (SES; household income and education) and perceived social class on suicidal ideation. Longitudinal data from the 2009 and 2011 Korean Health Panel Survey were used. Our sample consisted of 12,357 subjects included in the 2009 survey and 11,758 subjects included in the 2011 survey. We analyzed rates of suicidal ideation as a function of the gap between SES and perceived social class, defined as the difference between household income and education-high (H; college or higher), medium (M; high school), low (L; middle school or lower)-and perceived social class (H, M, and L). Among respondents whose actual and perceived levels of household income (HH: odds ratio [OR]=0.611 [95% CI [confidence interval]: 0.486-0.768], LL: OR=1.829 [95% CI: 1.489-2.247]) and education (HH: OR=0.788 [95% CI: 0.622-0.998], LL: OR 1.853 [95% CI: 1.476-2.328]) were the same, suicidal ideation increased as perceived social class decreased. The adjusted effect of the association between SES and perceived social class on suicidal ideation decreased according to the same pattern. This study suggests that the gap between SES and perceptions of one's position in the social hierarchy explains a substantial part of inequalities in suicidal ideation. It is important to consider the impact of the slopes of both gaps on suicidal ideation rather than focus only on perceived social class. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Andersson, Anton; Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens
The study investigates inequalities in access to social capital based on social class origin and immigration background and examines the role of transnational ties in explaining these differences. Social capital is measured with a position generator methodology that separates between national and transnational contacts in a sample of young adults in Sweden with three parental backgrounds: at least one parent born in Iran or Yugoslavia, or two Sweden-born parents. The results show that having socioeconomically advantaged parents is associated with higher levels of social capital. Children of immigrants are found to have a greater access to social capital compared to individuals with native background, and the study shows that this is related to transnational contacts, parents' education and social class in their country of origin. Children of immigrants tend to have more contacts abroad, while there is little difference in the amount of contacts living in Sweden across the three groups. It is concluded that knowledge about immigration group resources help us predict its member's social capital, but that the analysis also needs to consider how social class trajectories and migration jointly structure national and transnational contacts. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.
Rao, Shobha; Apte, Priti
In view of the fact that height differences between socio-economic groups are apparent early in childhood, it is of interest to examine whether skeletal growth is reflective of the social class gradient in CVD risk. The present study examined blood pressure levels, adiposity and growth of adolescent boys from high and low social classes. In a cross-sectional study, skeletal growth (height and sitting height), adiposity (weight, BMI and body fat) and blood pressure levels of the adolescents were measured. Pune, India. Adolescent schoolboys (9-16 years) from high socio-economic (HSE; n 1146) and low socio-economic (LSE; n 932) class. LSE boys were thin, short and undernourished (mean BMI: 15.5 kg/m2 v. 19.3 kg/m2 in HSE boys, P = 0.00). Social gradient was revealed in differing health risks. The prevalence of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) was high in HSE class (10.5 % v. 2.7 % in LSE class, P = 0.00) and was associated with adiposity, while the prevalence of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) was high in LSE class (9.8 % v. 7.0 % in HSE class, P = 0.00) and had only a weak association with adiposity. Despite this, lower ratio of leg length to height was associated with significantly higher respective health risks, i.e. for HDBP in LSE class (OR = 1.99, 95 % CI 1.14, 3.47) and for HSBP in HSE class (OR = 1.69, 95 % CI 1.02, 2.77). As stunting in childhood is a major problem in India and Asia, the leg length to height indicator needs to be validated in different populations to understand CVD risks.
The relationship between social class and mental illness stigma has received little attention in recent years. At the same time, the concept of mental health literacy has become an increasingly popular way of framing knowledge and understanding of mental health issues. British Social Attitudes survey data present an opportunity to unpack the relationships between these concepts and social class, an important task given continuing mental health inequalities. Regression analyses were undertaken which centred on depression and schizophrenia vignettes, with an asthma vignette used for comparison. The National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, education and income were used as indicators of class. A number of interesting findings emerged. Overall, class variables showed a stronger relationship with mental health literacy than stigma. The relationship was gendered such that women with higher levels of education, especially those with a degree, had the lowest levels of stigma and highest levels of mental health literacy. Interestingly, class showed more of an association with stigma for the asthma vignette than it did for both the depression and schizophrenia vignettes, suggesting that mental illness stigma needs to be contextualised alongside physical illness stigma. Education emerged as the key indicator of class, followed by the National Statistics Socio-economic Classification, with income effects being marginal. These findings have implications for targeting health promotion campaigns and increasing service use in order to reduce mental health inequalities. © The Author(s) 2014.
DiGuiseppi, Carolyn G; Thoreson, Sallie R; Clark, Lauren; Goss, Cynthia W; Marosits, Mark J; Currie, Dustin W; Lezotte, Dennis C
Determine whether a church-based social marketing program increases older adults' participation in balance classes for fall prevention. In 2009-10, 51 churches (7101 total members aged ≥ 60) in Colorado, U.S.A. were randomized to receive no intervention or a social marketing program. The program highlighted benefits of class participation (staying independent, building relationships), reduced potential barriers (providing convenient, subsidized classes), and communicated marketing messages through church leaders, trained "messengers," printed materials and church-based communication channels. Between-group differences in balance class enrollment and marketing message recall among congregants were compared using Wilcoxon Two-Sample Test and regression models. Compared to 25 control churches, 26 churches receiving the social marketing program had a higher median proportion (9.8% vs. 0.3%; psocial marketing effectively disseminated messages about preventing falls through balance classes and, by emphasizing benefits and reducing barriers and costs of participation, successfully motivated older adults to enroll in the classes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Wolf, T E; Bennett, N C; Burroughs, R; Ganswindt, A
One of the primary sources of perceived stress is the social environment of an animal and the interactions with conspecifics. An essential component of the response to a stressor is the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis, which results amongst others in a temporal increase in circulating glucocorticoid (GC) levels. Giraffes occur in a highly flexible fission-fusion social system and group compositions can change on a daily basis, with bulls establishing an age-related dominance hierarchy and showing a roaming strategy in the search for fertile females. The aim of this study was to non-invasively monitor the influence of different group compositions (mixed sex groups vs. all-male groups) on GC concentrations in free ranging giraffe bulls of different age classes. We collected fecal samples from free-ranging giraffe bulls for 12months in a South African Private Game Reserve to examine age- and social context-related patterns of fecal GC metabolite (fGCM) concentrations. We found that fGCM levels in giraffe bulls are age-class dependent, as well asassociated with changes in the social environment. Independently of the social setting, bulls of the youngest age class exhibited the highest fGCM levels compared to bulls of the other two older age-classes, with differences most pronounced when the bulls are associated in all-male groups. In contrast, an almost reversed picture appears when looking at the fGCM levels of sexually active individuals in mixed sex groups, where highest levels were found for the bulls in the oldest age-class, and the lowest for the bulls in the youngest age-class. The study stresses the importance to taking factors such asage-related status and social settings into account, when interpreting fGCM levels in free ranging giraffes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Aguilar-Palacio, Isabel; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Solsona, Sofía; Sartolo, M Teresa; Rabanaque, M José
to explore health-care utilization (primary and specialized health-care, hospitalizations, day hospital and emergency services) and overuse in elderly in Spain, considering the influence of health status, sex, social class and its temporal trend. cross sectional study in two phases. Spain. people surveyed in the National Health Surveys 2006 and 2011-12. Health status was measured using self-rated and diagnosed health (number and diagnoses). Social class was obtained from the last occupation of the main supporter (manual and non-manual workers). Logistic regression analyses were conducted adjusting by sex, age, health status, social class and year, obtaining its predictive capacity. the percentage of elderly population with health-care utilization decreased during the period analyzed. Women who belonged to the manual workers category presented the highest prevalence of low health (low self-rated health in 2006: 70.6%). Low health status was associated with a higher utilization of health-care services. Self-rated health was a better predictor of health-care utilization and overuse than diagnosed health, getting the highest predictive capacity for specialized health-care (C = 0.676). Old people from low social class used with higher frequency primary health-care and emergency services. On the other hand, specialized health-care and day hospital were more used by high social classes. inequalities in health and health-care utilization have been observed in elderly according social class. It is necessary to consider self-rated health as a health-care utilization predictor and to review our health-care services accessibility and equity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Kalmijn, Matthijs; Vanassche, Sofie; Matthijs, Koenraad
In times of low divorce rates (such as the nineteenth century and early twentieth century), the authors expect higher social strata to have the highest divorce chances as they are better equipped to break existing barriers to divorce. In this article, the authors analyze data from marriage certificates to assess whether there was a positive effect of occupational class on divorce in Belgium (Flanders) and the Netherlands. Their results for the Netherlands show a positive association between social class and divorce, particularly among the higher cultural groups. In Flanders, the authors do not find this, but they observe a negative association between illiteracy and divorce, an observation pointing in the same direction.
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study patterns of alcohol consumption and prevalence of high-risk drinking. METHODS: A household survey was carried out in a sample of 2,302 adults in Salvador, Brazil. Cases of High-Risk Drinking (HRD were defined as those subjects who referred daily or weekly binge drinking plus episodes of drunkenness and those who reported any use of alcoholic beverages but with frequent drunkenness (at least once a week. RESULTS: Fifty-six per cent of the sample acknowledged drinking alcoholic beverages. Overall consumption was significantly related with gender (male, marital status (single, migration (non-migrant, better educated (college level, and social class (upper. No significant differences were found regarding ethnicity, except for cachaça (Brazilian sugarcane liquor and other distilled beverages. Overall 12-month prevalence of high-risk drinking was 7%, six times more prevalent among males than females (almost 13% compared to 2.4%. A positive association of HRD prevalence with education and social class was found. No overall relationship was found between ethnicity and HRD. Male gender and higher socioeconomic status were associated with increased odds of HRD. Two-way stratified analyses yielded consistent gender effects throughout all strata of independent variables. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that social and cultural elements determine local patterns of alcohol-drinking behavior. Additional research on long-term and differential effects of gender, ethnicity, and social class on alcohol use and misuse is needed in order to explain their role as sources of social health inequities.OBJETIVOS: Investigar padrões de consumo de álcool e prevalência de consumo de alto risco. MÉTODOS: Inquérito domiciliar realizado no município de Salvador, Bahia, com amostra de 2.302 adultos. Casos de consumo de alto risco foram definidos como sujeitos que referiram uso diário ou semanal mais episódios de embriaguez, além daqueles que
Sikora, Martin; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Sousa, Vitor C.
Present-day hunter-gatherers (HGs) live in multilevel social groups essential to sustain a population structure characterized by limited levels of within-band relatedness and inbreeding. When these wider social networks evolved among HGs is unknown. Here, we investigate whether the contemporary H...
Witten, Nash A K; Maskarinec, Gregory G
Accredited medical schools are required to prepare students to recognize the social determinants of health, such as privilege, yet privilege education has been overlooked in medical school curricula. The purpose of this study is to determine whether a single class session on privilege, within a social justice elective offered to first and second year medical students, is sufficient to change the perspective of medical students concerning their own personal privilege. A pre-class survey, followed by a class session on privilege, and post-class survey were conducted. Thirteen of the 18 students enrolled in the elective completed the pre-class survey. Ten students completed the post-class survey, although only 9 completed both the pre- and post-class surveys. The demographic profile of the participants was 93% Asian and 7% White ethnicity, with 57% identifying as being culturally American. There was no significant difference between average male and female or between age groups' self-assessed privilege amounts. For all characteristics tested, except hair color, participants had an increased self-assessed privilege perspective following the class. Three participants had an overall positive difference in privilege perspective, three participants had an overall negative difference in privilege perspective, and three participants had only a minimal change in privilege perspective. The absolute total difference in privilege perspective was 25 units of change. The single class session on privilege was sufficient to change significantly the perspective of medical students on their own personal privilege; however, future studies with larger groups of medical students are needed to elucidate other findings suggested by this study.
Lee, Valerie E.; Robinson, Shanta R.; Sebastian, James
Is the quality of instruction systematically better in one subject than another? Teachers and students in the same Chicago high schools reported on one core-curriculum class (English, mathematics, science, or social studies) in 2007 surveys. Teachers commented on instructional demands and student participation. Students described engagement,…
Goldstein, Susan B.
This study seeks to expand the literature on predicting friendship diversity beyond race/ethnicity to include religion, social class, and sexual orientation. Survey packets elicited information regarding up to four close friendships developed during college. Additional measures assessed pre-college friendship diversity, participation in college…
Martin, Georgianna LaNelle
The purpose of this study was to understand how White students from low socioeconomic status backgrounds (operationalized as students who are both low income and of the first generation in their family to attend college) experience and navigate social class during college. This was a qualitative research study employing a phenomenological research…
Fordyce, Mariela; Riddell, Sheila; O'Neill, Rachel; Weedon, Elisabet
This article focuses on the intersection between deafness and social class in the context of the unstable economic circumstances in Scotland following the 2007 recession. More specifically, this research investigated the following in the case of young people who are deaf or hard of hearing (DHH): (1) the interaction between educational attainment…
Colbow, Alexander James
The aim of this study was to examine the relations between aspects of subjective social class, academic performance, and subjective wellbeing in first-generation and veteran students. In recent years, both student veterans and first-generation students have become topics of interest for universities, counselors, and researchers, as they are…
Lam, Shui-fong; Law, Wilbert; Chan, Chi-Keung; Wong, Bernard P. H.; Zhang, Xiao
The contribution of social context to school bullying was examined from the self-determination theory perspective in this longitudinal study of 536 adolescents from 3 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Latent class growth analysis of the student-reported data at 5 time points from grade 7 to grade 9 identified 4 groups of students: bullies (9.8%),…
Background/Context: Although much research has evaluated children's books for depictions of gender, little has centered on the portrayal of immigrants and social class. This investigation utilizes Bourdieu's theory of capital reproduction in education, Durkheim's conception of collective conscience and morals, and Bowles and Gintis's critique of…
Tatla, Sandy K; Shirzad, Navid; Lohse, Keith R; Virji-Babul, Naznin; Hoens, Alison M; Holsti, Liisa; Li, Linda C; Miller, Kimberly J; Lam, Melanie Y; Van der Loos, HF Machiel
Background The application of technologies, such as video gaming and social media for rehabilitation, is garnering interest in the medical field. However, little research has examined clinicians? perspectives regarding technology adoption by their clients. Objective The objective of our study was to explore therapists? perceptions of how young people and adults with hemiplegia use gaming and social media technologies in daily life and in rehabilitation, and to identify barriers to using these...
DuPaul, George J; Morgan, Paul L; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M; Maczuga, Steve
We examined trajectories of academic and social functioning in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to identify those who might be at risk for especially severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. We estimated a series of growth mixture models using data from two subsamples of children participating in the NIMH Collaborative Multisite Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA) including those with at least baseline and 96-month data for reading and mathematics achievement (n = 392; 77.3% male; M age = 7.7; SD = 0.8) or social skills ratings from teachers (n = 259; 74.9% male; M age = 7.6; SD = 0.8). We compared latent trajectories for children with ADHD to mean observed trajectories obtained from a local normative (i.e., non-ADHD) comparison group (n = 289; 80.6% male; M age = 9.9; SD = 1.1). Results indicated six latent trajectory classes for reading and mathematics and four classes for teacher social skills ratings. There was not only a relationship between trajectories of inattention symptoms and academic impairment, but also a similarly strong association between trajectory classes of hyperactive-impulsive symptoms and achievement. Trajectory class membership correlated with socio-demographic and diagnostic characteristics, inattention and hyperactive-impulsive symptom trajectories, externalizing behavior in school, and treatment receipt and dosage. Although children with ADHD display substantial heterogeneity in their reading, math, and social skills growth trajectories, those with behavioral and socio-demographic disadvantages are especially likely to display severe levels of academic and social impairment over time. Evidence-based early screening and intervention that directly address academic and social impairments in elementary school-aged children with ADHD are warranted. The ClinicalTrials.gov identifier is NCT00000388.
Verdenik, M; Ihan Hren, N
The decision is not always straightforward as to which orthognathic procedure is best for a good aesthetic result; three-dimensional imaging has brought new insight into this topic. The aim of this prospective study was to verify objectively whether postoperative changes occur within those regions not directly affected by surgical movements of the underlying jaw bones. The study included 83 young adults with skeletal class III deformities. They were classified into three groups according to the type of surgery: bilateral sagittal split osteotomy set-back of the mandible (BSSO), Le Fort I advancement of the maxilla, or a combination of both. Pre- and postoperative optical scans were registered as regional best-fits on the areas of the foreheads and both orbits. The shell to shell differences were measured and the average distances between the observed regions were calculated. As expected, changes were greatest in the regions where the underlying bones had been moved, but regardless of the operation performed, changes were found over the whole face. Changes in the nose, cheek, and upper lip regions in the BSSO group and in the lower lip and chin region in the Le Fort I group confirmed the concept of the facial soft tissue mask acting as one unit. Copyright © 2014 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piff, Paul K
Americans may be more narcissistic now than ever, but narcissism is not evenly distributed across social strata. Five studies demonstrated that higher social class is associated with increased entitlement and narcissism. Upper-class individuals reported greater psychological entitlement (Studies 1a, 1b, and 2) and narcissistic personality tendencies (Study 2), and they were more likely to behave in a narcissistic fashion by opting to look at themselves in a mirror (Study 3). Finally, inducing egalitarian values in upper-class participants decreased their narcissism to a level on par with their lower-class peers (Study 4). These findings offer novel evidence regarding the influence of social class on the self and highlight the importance of social stratification to understanding basic psychological processes.
Assusa, Gonzalo; Jiménez Zunino, Cecilia Inés
Este texto analiza las estrategias de inversión y valorización del capital cultural en familias de clases media y trabajadora. Desde la teoría de la práctica de Pierre Bourdieu, y utilizando metodología que combina técnicas multivariadas (ACM) y entrevistas en profundidad, realizamos un análisis comparado de las apuestas escolares de las posiciones intermedias del espacio social de Gran Córdoba (Argentina). El objetivo es complejizar el análisis sobre las recientes dinámicas de desigualdad so...
Luciano do Nascimento, Diego; Batezelli, Alessandro; Bernardes Ladeira, Francisco Sérgio
This is the first report of trace fossils potentially associated with insect social behavior in sandy and well-drained paleosols of the Upper Cretaceous continental sequence of Brazil. The trace fossils consist of dozens of lobed and vertical structures cemented by CaCO3 and preserved mainly in full relief in paleosols of the Marilia Formation (Bauru Basin) in the state of Minas Gerais. The described ichnofossils are predominantly vertical, up to 2 m long, and are composed of horizontal lobed structures connected by vertical tunnel-like structures that intersect in the center and at the edges. The lobed structures range from 3 to 15 cm long and 2-6 cm thick. Two different hypotheses are analyzed to explain the origin of the trace fossils; the less probable one is that the structures are laminar calcretes associated with rhizoliths and rhizoconcretions. The hypothesis involving social insects was considered because the trace fossils described herein partially resemble a modern ant nest and the ichnofossil Daimoniobarax. The micromorphological analysis of the lobed and tunnel-like structures indicates modifications of the walls, such as the presence of inorganic fluidized linings, dark linings and oriented grains, supporting the hypothesis that they are chambers and shafts. The architecture and size of the reported nests suggest the possibility that social insect colonies existed during the Maastrichtian and are direct evidence of the social behavior and reproductive strategies of the Cretaceous pedofauna.
van den Bergh, M.; Schmittmann, V.D.; Vermunt, J.K.
Researchers use latent class (LC) analysis to derive meaningful clusters from sets of categorical variables. However, especially when the number of classes required to obtain a good fit is large, interpretation of the latent classes may not be straightforward. To overcome this problem, we propose an
Wanzek, Jeanne; Swanson, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Kent, Shawn C.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text intervention implemented with 11th-grade students enrolled in U.S. History classes. Using a within-teacher randomized design, the study was conducted in 41 classes (23 treatment classes) with 14 teachers providing the…
Gives a detailed ESL (English as a second language) class-hour plan for using a BBC radio news program on vandalism as a social problem. Teaching goals, teaching materials and methodology are discussed. The working texts are appended; the news tests are available free from the author. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)
Kettley, Nigel Charles; Whitehead, Joan M.
This paper provides a critique of recent Bourdieusian research into the higher education (HE) choice process. Specifically, Ball et al. (2002) maintain that class-related differences in students' psycho-social dispositions in Years 12 and 13, the "landscape of choice", shape their intentions or "decisions" to participate in HE and their selection…
Lennox, Jemma; Emslie, Carol; Sweeting, Helen; Lyons, Antonia
Research suggests young women view drinking as a pleasurable aspect of their social lives but that they face challenges in engaging in a traditionally 'masculine' behaviour whilst maintaining a desirable 'femininity'. Social network sites such as Facebook make socialising visible to a wide audience. This paper explores how young people discuss young women's drinking practices, and how young women construct their identities through alcohol consumption and its display on social media. We conducted 21 friendship-based focus groups (both mixed and single sex) with young adults aged 18-29 years and 13 individual interviews with a subset of focus group respondents centred on their Facebook practices. We recruited a purposive sample in Glasgow, Scotland (UK) which included 'middle class' (defined as students and those in professional jobs) and 'working class' respondents (employed in manual/service sector jobs), who participated in a range of venues in the night time economy. Young women's discussions revealed a difficult 'balancing act' between demonstrating an 'up for it' sexy (but not too sexy) femininity through their drinking and appearance, while still retaining control and respectability. This 'balancing act' was particularly precarious for working class women, who appeared to be judged more harshly than middle class women both online and offline. While a gendered double standard around appearance and alcohol consumption is not new, a wider online audience can now observe and comment on how women look and behave. Social structures such as gender and social class remain central to the construction of identity both online and offline. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The “Steirische Eisenstraße” is a region located in the province of Styria in Austria, which has been struggling with a massive shift in population and age structure for some time. In 2012/13 the Austrian social festival Keep the Ball Rolling is taking place in this region. Over a period of 18 months, the social festival is providing opportunities to think of their own environment. Consequently, they can develop and implement ideas for good cohabitation and put these into practice. The main focus of this article is the demographic presentation of the “Steirische Eisenstraße” region, according to population, employment and age structure. The introduction of the social festival is fundamental in initiating successful change processes.
Green, Michael J; Espie, Colin A; Benzeval, Michael
Psychiatric distress and insomnia symptoms exhibit similar patterning by gender and socioeconomic position. Prospective evidence indicates a bi-directional relationship between psychiatric distress and insomnia symptoms so similarities in social patterning may not be coincidental. Treatment for insomnia can also improve distress outcomes. We investigate the extent to which the prospective patterning of distress over 20 years is associated with insomnia symptoms over that period. 999 respondents to the Twenty-07 Study had been followed for 20 years from approximately ages 36-57 (73.2% of the living baseline sample). Psychiatric distress was measured using the GHQ-12 at baseline and at 20-year follow-up. Gender and social class were ascertained at baseline. Insomnia symptoms were self-reported approximately every five years. Latent class analysis was used to classify patterns of insomnia symptoms over the 20 years. Structural Equation Models were used to assess how much of the social patterning of distress was associated with insomnia symptoms. Missing data was addressed with a combination of multiple-imputation and weighting. Patterns of insomnia symptoms over 20 years were classified as either healthy, episodic, developing or chronic. Respondents from a manual social class were more likely to experience episodic, developing or chronic patterns than those from non-manual occupations but this was mostly explained by baseline psychiatric distress. People in manual occupations experiencing psychiatric distress however were particularly likely to experience chronic patterns of insomnia symptoms. Women were more likely to experience a developing pattern than men, independent of baseline distress. Psychiatric distress was more persistent over the 20 years for those in manual social classes and this effect disappeared when adjusting for insomnia symptoms. Irrespective of baseline symptoms, women, and especially those in a manual social class, were more likely than men to
Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund; Petersen, Joergen Holm; Deepa, Mohan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Mohan, Viswanathan
The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. social class, respectively (P social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016) when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087). An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.
Kim, Moon-Doo; Hong, Seong-Chul; Lee, Sang-Yi; Kwak, Young-Sook; Lee, Chang-In; Hwang, Seung-Wook; Shin, Tae-Kyun; Lee, Seung-Min; Shin, Ji-Nam
Few controlled studies have examined social class as a risk factor for suicide in Korea. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of social class on suicide risk in Korea. A case-control design was constructed from cause-of-death statistics for the period 1999 to 2001, in Korea, as published by the Korean National Statistical Office. The cases were defined as people aged between 20 and 64 who died by suicide, while the controls were defined as those who died of natural causes in the same age groups. The proportions and odds ratios for suicide were higher in young people than in elderly people, and higher for divorced subjects than for cohabitants. They were also higher for residents of rural areas, as opposed to residents of Seoul and other metropolitan areas, and for people in social classes III and IV, than they were for those in social class I. To control the variables that influence risk of suicide, such as age, marital status and area of residence, we used multiple logistic regression. Compared with class I, risk of suicide was higher in social classes III and IV, in both sexes. The principal conclusion of this study is that, regardless of sex, lower social class constitutes a high risk for suicide in Korea, even after controlling for variables such as age, marital status and area of residence. We conclude that a well-controlled and balanced social welfare system could reduce suicide risk, especially among people in lower social class.
Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Burr, Hermann
Investigate whether high physical work demands increase risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men of low social class with low physical fitness.......Investigate whether high physical work demands increase risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) mortality among men of low social class with low physical fitness....
von Stumm, Sophie; Macintyre, Sally; Batty, David G.; Clark, Heather; Deary, Ian J.
In a birth cohort of 6281 men from Aberdeen, Scotland, social class of origin, childhood intelligence, childhood behavior disturbance and education were examined as predictors of status attainment in midlife (46 to 51 years). Social class of origin, intelligence and behavior disturbance were conceptualized as correlated predictors, whose effects…
Jesani, Aliza; DiBiase, Andrew T; Cobourne, Martyn T; Newton, Timothy
Whereas the psychosocial benefits of orthognathic treatment for the individual patient are established, there is little data relating to social perceptions in relation to changes in facial appearance as a result of combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. This study aimed to investigate the social impact of combined orthodontic-orthognathic surgical correction for class III malocclusion in Caucasian subjects. This cross-sectional study compared perceptions of facial appearance prior to and after orthognathic correction of class III malocclusion. Eighty undergraduate students were shown photographs of four Caucasian subjects (2 male and 2 female) pre- and post-orthognathic class III correction. Observers were asked to rate these subjects in relation to four different outcomes: (i) social competence (SC); (ii) intellectual ability (IA); (iii) psychological adjustment (PA); (iv) attractiveness. A mixed-model analysis of variance (ANOVA) was calculated to determine the effect of each variable. Statistically significant differences were found in ratings of the same face before and after treatment. After treatment, faces were rated as more psychologically adjusted, more sociable, more likely to be successful and more attractive; with the mean psychological adjustment rating being associated with the most change (before treatment=8.06 [SD 2.30]; after treatment=6.64 [SD 2.03], t=2.04, pclass III malocclusion in Caucasians, individuals are rated by young adults as being better adjusted both psychologically and socially, more likely to be successful and more attractive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kyoung Ae Kong
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of social inequality in self-rated health among the employed using the Wright’s social class location indicator, and to assess the roles of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors as mediating factors in explaining the social class inequality in self-rated health in South Korea. Methods This study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Study subjects included the employed population of 4392 men and 3309 women aged 19–64 years. Subjects were classified into twelve social class positions based on the Wright’s social class map. The health outcome was self-rated health. Material, psychosocial, behavioral, and workplace environmental factors were considered as potential mediators in explaining social class health inequality. We calculated prevalence ratios of poor self-rated health according to social class, adjusted for age and mediating factors using Poisson regression models. Results Nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie reported worse self-rated health than other social classes among men. The age-adjusted prevalence of petty bourgeoisie and nonskilled workers were about four-fold greater than that of managers. Expert supervisors in the contradictory class location had a greater prevalence of poor self-rated health than experts in men. In women, the prevalence of poor self-rated health was greater in most social classes than their male counterparts, while the differences among social classes within women were not statistically significant. Workplace environmental factors explained the social class inequality by from 24 to 31% in nonskilled and skilled workers and nonskilled supervisors, respectively, and material factors showed an explanatory ability of about 8% for both nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie in men. Conclusions We showed the inequality in self-rated health
Kong, Kyoung Ae; Khang, Young-Ho; Cho, Hong-Jun; Jang, Sung-Mi; Jung-Choi, Kyunghee
The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of social inequality in self-rated health among the employed using the Wright's social class location indicator, and to assess the roles of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors as mediating factors in explaining the social class inequality in self-rated health in South Korea. This study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Study subjects included the employed population of 4392 men and 3309 women aged 19-64 years. Subjects were classified into twelve social class positions based on the Wright's social class map. The health outcome was self-rated health. Material, psychosocial, behavioral, and workplace environmental factors were considered as potential mediators in explaining social class health inequality. We calculated prevalence ratios of poor self-rated health according to social class, adjusted for age and mediating factors using Poisson regression models. Nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie reported worse self-rated health than other social classes among men. The age-adjusted prevalence of petty bourgeoisie and nonskilled workers were about four-fold greater than that of managers. Expert supervisors in the contradictory class location had a greater prevalence of poor self-rated health than experts in men. In women, the prevalence of poor self-rated health was greater in most social classes than their male counterparts, while the differences among social classes within women were not statistically significant. Workplace environmental factors explained the social class inequality by from 24 to 31% in nonskilled and skilled workers and nonskilled supervisors, respectively, and material factors showed an explanatory ability of about 8% for both nonskilled workers and petty bourgeoisie in men. We showed the inequality in self-rated health according to the Wright's social class in an industrialized Asian country
Suadicani, Poul; Andersen, Lars L; Holtermann, Andreas; Mortensen, Ole S; Gyntelberg, Finn
Investigate if the association between perceived psychological work pressure and risk of stroke is modified by socioeconomic status. Thirty-year follow-up of 4943 middle-aged men without cardiovascular disease. In the higher social classes (I, II, and III), perceived regular exposure to psychological work pressure was common and a significant predictor of stroke; almost 10% of the stroke events could be attributed to this exposure in the higher social classes; among lower social classes (IV and V), perceived psychological pressure was no predictor at all. Regular psychological work pressure is a highly prevalent and independent risk factor for stroke among men in higher social classes. In contrast, no association to stroke risk was found among low social class men.
Carlos Augusto Monteiro
Full Text Available Embora freqüentemente assumida como verdadeira, a relação entre classe social e estado de saúde e nutrição raramente tem sido estudada no plano empírico. Adotando-se proposta classificatória que permite a identificação operacional do conceito de classe social em sociedades de organização complexa, procurou-se estabelecer e comparar o estado de saúde e nutrição de uma amostra das crianças da cidade de São Paulo pertencentes a distintas classes sociais. A partir da observação da distribuição do índice altura/idade, evidenciou-se crescimento normal - e portanto condições ótimas de saúde e nutrição - apenas entre as crianças pertencentes à burguesia e à pequena burguesia, as quais correspondem a cerca de 30% da população. Diferenças significantes (p The relationship between social class and nutritional status, although frequently presumed true, has scarcely ever been studied empirically. The health and nutritional status of a sample of children from different social classes in the city of S. Paulo (Brazil are studied by means of an on operational classification of social class. Through the analysis of the height for age distribution normal growth - and, therefore, favourable health status - eas found only among the burgeoisie and the small-burgeoisie, these two classes together constituting about 30% of the total population. Significant divergences from an expected anthropometric standard were found among all the segments of the working-class population. Differences in income and schooling among the classes corroborate the empirical link found between social class and health and nutritional status.
Education by means of the Tibetan Classes (schools) in "neidi," or China's interior regions (or the Tibet Class), was a creative measure in the history of China's ethnic minority education, and the cross-cultural growth and experiences of the Tibetan students as they went to school in China's interior regions was of special significance…
Despite increasing rates of university attendance among women, a significant gender gap remains in socialisation and educational processes in Japan. To understand why and how gender-distinctive socialisation processes persist, this study aimed to examine both middle-class and working-class mothers' beliefs about gender, education, and children's…
Galloway, Louis J.
As an introduction and explanation of the historical development, major concepts, beliefs, practices, and traditions of Hinduism, this teaching unit provides a course outline for class discussion and activities for reading the classic epic, "The Ramayana." The unit requires 10 class sessions and utilizes slides, historical readings,…
Pearce, Eiluned; Launay, Jacques; Machin, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I M
Evidence demonstrates that group singing improves health and well-being, but the precise mechanisms remain unknown. Given that cohesive social networks also positively influence health, we focus on the social aspects of singing, exploring whether improvements in health and well-being are mediated by stronger social bonds, both to the group as a whole (collective-bonding) and to individual classmates (relational-bonding). To do so, seven newly-formed community-based adult education classes (four singing, N =84, and three comparison classes studying creative writing or crafts, N =51) were followed over seven months. Self-report questionnaire data on mental and physical health, well-being, and social bonding were collected at Months 1, 3 and 7. We demonstrate that physical and mental health and satisfaction with life significantly improved over time in both conditions. Path analysis did not show any indirect effects via social bonding of Condition on health and well-being. However, higher collective-bonding at timepoint 3 significantly predicted increased flourishing, reduced anxiety and improved physical health independently of baseline levels. In contrast, relational-bonding showed no such effects, suggesting that it is feeling part of a group that particularly yields health and well-being benefits. Moreover, these results indicate that singing may not improve health and well-being more than other types of activities. Nonetheless, these findings encourage further work to refine our understanding of the social aspects of community-based adult education classes in promoting health, well-being and community cohesion.
Vasquez Guerrero, Desi Alonzo
This study examines the relationships between hypermasculinity, sexual aggression, intimate partner violence, social support, and child maltreatment risk among heterosexual fathers completing parenting classes. Hypermasculinity scores were found to be significant predictors of study participants' reported verbal, physical, and sexual aggression toward their intimate partners. Only lack of social support, operationalized as the reported frequency of participants' conversations with friends, relatives, or neighbors about their problems, was found to be a significant predictor of child maltreatment risk. Alcohol frequency, education, and monthly income were not found to be unique, significant predictors of any dependent variables. Implications for clinical practice and research as well as limitations to the current study are discussed.
Malmusi, Davide; Borrell, Carme; Benach, Joan
In this paper, we briefly review theories and findings on migration and health from the health equity perspective, and then analyse migration-related health inequalities taking into account gender, social class and migration characteristics in the adult population aged 25-64 living in Catalonia, Spain. On the basis of the characterisation of migration types derived from the review, we distinguished between immigrants from other regions of Spain and those from other countries, and within each group, those from richer or poorer areas; foreign immigrants from low-income countries were also distinguished according to duration of residence. Further stratification by sex and social class was applied. Groups were compared in relation to self-assessed health in two cross-sectional population-based surveys, and in relation to indicators of socio-economic conditions (individual income, an index of material and financial assets, and an index of employment precariousness) in one survey. Social class and gender inequalities were evident in both health and socio-economic conditions, and within both the native and immigrant subgroups. Migration-related health inequalities affected both internal and international immigrants, but were mainly limited to those from poor areas, were generally consistent with their socio-economic deprivation, and apparently more pronounced in manual social classes and especially for women. Foreign immigrants from poor countries had the poorest socio-economic situation but relatively better health (especially men with shorter length of residence). Our findings on immigrants from Spain highlight the transitory nature of the 'healthy immigrant effect', and that action on inequality in socio-economic determinants affecting migrant groups should not be deferred. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rubin, Mark; Kelly, Benjamin M.
Introduction This study tested a novel explanation for the positive relation between social class and mental health among university students. Students with a higher social class were expected to have experienced more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles; these parenting styles were expected to lead to greater friendship and social integration at university; and greater friendship and integration were expected to lead to better mental health. Method To test this model, the re...
Kyoung Ae Kong; Young-Ho Khang; Hong-Jun Cho; Sung-Mi Jang; Kyunghee Jung-Choi
Background The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of social inequality in self-rated health among the employed using the Wright?s social class location indicator, and to assess the roles of material, behavioral, psychosocial, and workplace environmental factors as mediating factors in explaining the social class inequality in self-rated health in South Korea. Methods This study used data from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2009. Study sub...
Skells, Kristin Marie
Extant data was used to consider the association between science anxiety, social cognitive factors and STEM career aspirations of high school freshmen in general science classes. An adapted model based on social cognitive career theory (SCCT) was used to consider these relationships, with science anxiety functioning as a barrier in the model. The study assessed the following research questions: (1) Do social cognitive variables relate in the expected way to STEM career aspirations based on SCCT for ninth graders taking general science classes? (2) Is there an association between science anxiety and outcomes and processes identified in the SCCT model for ninth graders taking general science classes? (3) Does gender moderate these relationships? Results indicated that support was found for many of the central tenants of the SCCT model. Science anxiety was associated with prior achievement, self-efficacy, and science interest, although it did not relate directly to STEM career goals. Gender was found to moderate only the relationship between prior achievement and science self-efficacy.
Garrido-Cumbrera, Marco; Borrell, Carme; Palència, Laia; Espelt, Albert; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica; Pasarín, M Isabel; Kunst, Anton
In Spain, despite the existence of a National Health System (NHS), the utilization of some curative health services is related to social class. This study assesses (1) whether these inequalities are also observed for preventive health services and (2) the role of additional private health insurance for people of advantaged social classes. Using data from the Spanish National Health Survey of 2006, the authors analyze the relationships between social class and use of health services by means of Poisson regression models with robust variance, controlling for self-assessed health. Similar analyses were performed for waiting times for visits to a general practitioner (GP) and specialist. After controlling for self-perceived health, men and women from social classes IV-V had a higher probability of visiting the GP than other social classes, but a lower probability of visiting a specialist or dentist. No large class differences were observed in frequency of hospitalization or emergency services use, or in breast cancer screening or influenza vaccination; cervical cancer screening frequency was lower among women from social classes IV-V. The inequalities in specialist visits, dentist visits, and cervical cancer screening were larger among people with only NHS insurance than those with double health insurance. Social class differences in waiting times were observed for specialist visits, but not for GP visits. Men and women from social classes IV-V had longer waits for a specialist; this was most marked among people with only NHS insurance. Clearly, within the NHS, social class inequalities are still evident for some curative and preventive services. Further research is needed to identify the factors driving these inequalities and to tackle these factors from within the NHS. Priority areas include specialist services, dental care, and cervical cancer screening.
The purpose of this research was to investigate the relations between multiple aspects of adolescents’ self-concept and various dimensions of their social status in the classroom and in the peer clique. It was found that there was a positive relationship (1) between physical abilities selfconcept and social preference, perceived popularity, and social dominance; (2) between physical appearance self-concept and perceived popularity and social dominance; (3) between oppositesex ...
Kim, Chong Min
Central to this dissertation was an examination of the role teachers' social networks play in schools as living organizations through three studies. The first study investigated the impact of teachers' social networks on teaching practices. Recent evidence suggests that teachers' social networks have a significant effect on teachers' norms,…
Social justice education recognizes the discrepancies in opportunities among disadvantaged groups in society. The purpose of the articles in this special topic on social justice is to (a) provide a critical reflection on issues of social justice within health pedagogy and youth sport of Black and ethnic-minority (BME) young people; (b) provide a…
Sabau Remus Mircea
Full Text Available Between the elements which mark the global processes, we can include educational issues, the management of processes in pre-university education. Therefore, the synthetic approach to educational problems in Romania, studied in terms of the processes and the phenomena of social development, but also due to the need for submiting the pre-university Romanian educational process to the European Union requirements, appears to be current and important. This analysis focuses on the decentralization of education. This theme is a true significant of the stage and of the the changing potential of the management practice in the public area. Its actuality is also hard to contest under the conditions in which changes in this area have been slow compared to those of the other countries that joined the European Union (Hungary, Czech Republic, Poland, contradictory and inconsistent (Herczynski and Levitas, 2001: 1-2. The legislative changes, training facilities, as well as the constant institutional reorganization of pre-university education show the presence of an active interest in this matter. However, the real reform of university education still requires essential improvements. This study analyzes the social perception of performers in pre-university system, establishes positive and negative aspects of the reform in pre-university education, all from the perspective of teachers. The research was conducted between March 1st, 2011 and April 1st, 2011. During this time the questionnaire was applied and the data interpreted. The data obtained from the questionnaire interpretation were introduced into the SPSS program. For the analysis and interpretation of data we used SPSS 15.0. under Windows license. My investigation efforts were directed towards the impact of decentralization on the performers in pre-university education system and on their perception. The main purpose of the experimental study was to determine the essential perceptions of the performers
Sociologists of professions draw on Weberian theories of closure. However they have tended to ignore Bourdieu's work, which rejects Weberian notions of class and status groups as distinct ideal types and sees these concepts as inextricably linked. Bourdieu emphasises the importance of a class-based habitus which generates orientations, inclinations and dispositions that organise practices and the perception of practice. For Bourdieu, because individuals perceive one another primarily through ...
Full Text Available Since vocational teachers not only mediate theoretical and practical knowledge, but also ideals concerning the professionals’ personalities and actions, the aim of this study is to analyse if and how these ideals influence the highlighted challenges of teaching. The study is drawing on a social constructionist perspective; the method used involves 17 qualitative interviews. The challenges mentioned were as follows: lack of motivation, language and cultural factors, low status of the occupation and plagiarism. Underlying ideals rooted in the health care sector were that students should become a carer because of an inner desire. Moral and ethical values were other ideals that underpinned themes such as dealing with plagiarism and the problems experienced with non-native Swedes. An underlying fact is also the low traditional status of the nursing assistants, a challenge the teachers try to handle without effective tools. In the order to understand the challenges and handle them, the teachers construct categories of differences. This is visible when the categorisation of students is made based on motivation and ethnicity. The findings highlight the importance of courses
Potter, Daniel; Mashburn, Andrew; Grissmer, David
Current explanations of social class gaps in children's early academic skills tend to focus on non-cognitive skills that more advantaged children acquire in the family. Accordingly, social class matters because the cultural resources more abundant in advantaged families cultivate children's repertories and tool kits, which allow them to more easily navigate social institutions, such as schools. Within these accounts, parenting practices matter for children's academic success, but for seemingly arbitrary reasons. Alternatively, findings from current neuroscience research indicate that family context matters for children because it cultivates neural networks that assist in learning and the development of academic skills. That is, children's exposure to particular parenting practices and stimulating home environments contribute to the growth in neurocognitive skills that affect later academic performance. We synthesize sociological and neuroscience accounts of developmental inequality by focusing on one such skill-fine motor skills-to illustrate how family context alters children's early academic performance. Our findings support an interdisciplinary account of academic inequality, and extend current accounts of the family's role in the transmission of social inequality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article aims to apply some concepts from cognitive materialism to the sociological problem of social stratification in capitalism, both in theoretical and abstract terms and through concrete historical examples. After discussing the necessity for a theory of social classes, a division is presented between two types of resources: those intensive in material and energy, and those which are knowledge intensive. At the same time three alternative conditions of access to these resources are theorized: exclusive access (applicable to physical or intellectual property, non-exclusive access, and no access. Combining the different types of resource with the different types of access, we obtain a proposal for a theory of classes (reclaiming this theory as the most powerful for the analysis of social stratification which we apply, in a simplified and schematic way, to various periods. Thus, we analyze social strata in the transition from feudalism to mercantile capitalism, the subsequent transition to industrial capitalism (in which we distinguish two clearly differentiated stages, and finally, in the current transformation into informational capitalism.
Park, Mi Jin; Park, Nan Sook; Chiriboga, David A
This study presents an empirical typology of social activity and its association with the depressive symptoms and self-rated health of community-dwelling older adults (n = 464) in South Korea. Latent class analysis (LCA) was used to classify the types of social activities. Data analyses were conducted using Mplus 7.2 program for LCA and SPSS 22.0 for multiple regression analyses. LCA identified people who fell into one of the four activity groups: Diverse, Community Center/Disengaged, Religion Plus, and Friendship/Leisure. Membership in these four groups predicted differences in depressive symptoms and self-rated health. Results indicate that typologies of social activity could enhance practitioners' understanding of activity patterns and their associations with health and well-being.
Fors, Stefan; Lennartsson, Carin; Lundberg, Olle
The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of childhood living conditions, marital status, and social class in adulthood on the risk of mortality during mid-life. Two questions were addressed: Is there an effect of childhood living conditions on mortality risk during mid-life and if so, is the effect mediated or modified by social class and/or marital status in adulthood? A nationally representative, Swedish, level of living survey from 1968 was used as baseline. The study included those aged 25-69 at baseline (n = 4082). Social conditions in childhood and adulthood were assessed using self-reports. These individuals were then followed for 39 years using registry data on mortality. The results showed associations between childhood living conditions, marital status, social class in adulthood and mortality during mid life. Social class and familial conditions during childhood as well as marital status and social class in adulthood all contributed to the risk of mortality during mid-life. Individuals whose father's were manual workers, who grew up in broken homes, who were unmarried, and/or were manual workers in adulthood had an increased risk of mortality during mid life. The effects of childhood conditions were, in part, both mediated and modified by social class in adulthood. The findings of this study suggest that there are structural, social conditions experienced at different stages of the life course that affect the risk of mortality during mid-life.
This article uses data on couples from the 2000 UK Time Use Survey (N=610) to analyze how social position influences parents' leisure activities with children. The study is the first using representative data to investigate this fundamental question to understand social inequalities in family life and children's life chances. Results reveal that social position intersects with gender in influencing parent-child leisure activities with implications on children's cultural capital. Three are the main findings: (1) social position has significant positive effects on cultural activities with children and negative on parent-child television watching among mothers, but moderate differences are observed for fathers; (2) father-child leisure is strongly influenced by the spouse's social position, but not mother-child leisure; (3) education and social class show complex differences in affecting parent-child leisure, suggesting that future studies should include these two variables when analyzing parent-child time and family life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: To know the reasons to participate or not in a colorectal cancer (CCR screening programme and to analyze the differences by sex, age and social class. Methods: Cross-sectional study by a telephone survey directed to a sample of men and women aged between 50-74 year old, participants (n = 383 and non participants (n = 383 in the CCR screening programme of Valencian Community. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models estimating the Odds Ratio (p < 0.05. Results: The main reasons to participate are "it is important for health" (97.9 % and "the test is easy" (97.6 %; and to non participate are "no CCR symptoms" (49.7 % and "didn't receive invitation letter" (48.3 %. Women are more likely not to participate if the reason was to consider the "test unpleasant" (OR: 1.82; IC: 1.00-3.28, and men if the reason was "lack of time" (OR 0.51; IC: 0.27-0.97; persons 60 or more years old if the reason was "diagnostic fear" (OR: 2.31; IC: 1.11-4.80, and persons 50-59 years old if was "lack of time" (OR 0.44; IC: 0.23-0.85; non manual social class persons if the reason was "lack of time" (OR: 2.66; IC: 1.40-5.10; manual women if the reason was "embarrassment to perform the test" (OR: 0.37; IC: 0.14-0.97; and non manual men if was "lack of time" (OR: 4.78; IC: 1.96-11.66. Conclusions: There are inequalities in the reasons for not participating in CCR screening programmes by sex, age and social class. It would be advisable to design actions that incorporate specific social group needs in order to reduce inequalities in participation.
Rubin, Mark; Kelly, Benjamin M
This study tested a novel explanation for the positive relation between social class and mental health among university students. Students with a higher social class were expected to have experienced more authoritative and less authoritarian parenting styles; these parenting styles were expected to lead to greater friendship and social integration at university; and greater friendship and integration were expected to lead to better mental health. To test this model, the researchers asked 397 Australian undergraduate students to complete an online survey. The research used a cross-sectional correlational design, and the data was analysed using bootstrapped multiple serial mediation tests. Consistent with predictions, parenting style, general friendship and support, and social integration at university mediated the relation between social class and mental health. The present results suggest that working-class parenting styles may inhibit the development of socially-supportive friendships that protect against mental health problems. The potential effectiveness of interventions based on (a) social integration and (b) parenting style is discussed. Future research in this area should employ a longitudinal research design in order to arrive at clearer causal conclusions about the relations between social class, parenting styles, friendship, social integration, and mental health.
Misco, Thomas; Patterson, Nancy C.
This article revisits and explores the promises and challenges of reverse chronology history instruction within the social studies. In response to student disinterest in social studies, changes in our educational culture that often value content knowledge exclusively, and marginalization of instructional time stemming from testing burdens, reverse…
Granruth, Laura Brierton; Kindle, Peter A.; Burford, Michael L.; Delavega, Elena; Johnson, David H.; Peterson, Susan; Caplan, Mary A.
Understanding student political attitudes--feelings about government and perceptions of its role--has long been of interest to social scientists. One factor that may influence political attitudes is belief in a just world, a complex psychological construct well established in the literature. Our study explores changes in social work students'…
Gaddis, S. Michael
After 25 years of intense scrutiny, social capital remains an important yet highly debated concept in social science research. This research uses data from youth and mentors in several chapters of Big Brothers/Big Sisters to assess the importance of different mentoring relationship characteristics in creating positive outcomes among youths. The…
Post-apartheid schooling in South Africa is challenged with the task of contributing towards social justice, as has been evident from the emergence of a plethora of education policies following the promulgation of the South African Schools Act in 1996. One of the most significant ways in which social justice can be cultivated in schools,…
Abrams, Laura S.; Curran, Laura
Postpartum depression (PPD) is a major mental health disorder that affects at least 13 percent of new mothers and has detrimental consequences for populations that are of concern to social workers, such as low-income women, women of color, young women, and single mothers. Despite the relevance of PPD to multiple social work problems and…
Goldstein, Thalia R.
Empathy, theory of mind, and adaptive emotion regulation are critical skills for social functioning. However, the ways in which these skills may co- or differentially develop has thus far been understudied. We explored how these social-cognitive skills converge and diverge across a year of development in early adolescence, and with different kinds…
Stellar, Jennifer E; Manzo, Vida M; Kraus, Michael W; Keltner, Dacher
Previous research indicates that lower-class individuals experience elevated negative emotions as compared with their upper-class counterparts. We examine how the environments of lower-class individuals can also promote greater compassionate responding-that is, concern for the suffering or well-being of others. In the present research, we investigate class-based differences in dispositional compassion and its activation in situations wherein others are suffering. Across studies, relative to their upper-class counterparts, lower-class individuals reported elevated dispositional compassion (Study 1), as well as greater self-reported compassion during a compassion-inducing video (Study 2) and for another person during a social interaction (Study 3). Lower-class individuals also exhibited heart rate deceleration-a physiological response associated with orienting to the social environment and engaging with others-during the compassion-inducing video (Study 2). We discuss a potential mechanism of class-based influences on compassion, whereby lower-class individuals' are more attuned to others' distress, relative to their upper-class counterparts.
America is witnessing a new gilded age. Since the 1970s, inequality in wealth and income has soared within the United States--and globally (Piketty, 2014; Sayer, 2016; Therborn, 2013). Such inequalities affect human flourishing because they allow the privileged class to convert their wealth into different, and unequal, lifestyles and life chances.…
Rhoads, Robert A.; Li, Shuai; Ilano, Lauren
This chapter provides a critical perspective on the global quest to build world-class universities (WCUs), including global "ranking mania," excessive emphasis on university branding, and the attending threats to the traditional public good mission of the university. Alternatively, we offer suggestions on how rankings may be used to…
Kalmijn, Matthijs; Kraaykamp, Gerbert
A classic topic in the sociology of inequality lies in the subjective consequences of people’s stratification position. Many studies have shown that education and occupational class have significant effects on attitudes, but little is known about how the magnitude of these effects depends on the
Prendergast, Louise M.; Hill, Dave; Jones, Sharon
In this article we analyze neoliberalism and neoconservatism, their intentions and characteristics, and the relationship between them. We locate these ideologies and associated policies and discourses as part of the :class war from above" (Harvey, 2005). We critically interrogate the impact of their policies and discourses on the social…
Lucey, Helen; Reay, Diane
Examines ways in which current United Kingdom school-choice policies interact with parental pressures on their children to achieve excellence and how these pressures affect the emotional health of their middle- and working-class children as they make the transition from primary to secondary school. Finds serious emotional consequences (exam…
Open and distance education has been instrumental in eliminating the challenges in education beyond classrooms as well as redefining school age limit by absorbing not only the working class into schooling but also the neglected segment. of the population. The ideal mass education to improve literacy rate, which has ...
Sociologists of professions draw on Weberian theories of closure. However they have tended to ignore Bourdieu's work, which rejects Weberian notions of class and status groups as distinct ideal types and sees these concepts as inextricably linked. Bourdieu emphasises the importance of a class-based habitus which generates orientations, inclinations and dispositions that organise practices and the perception of practice. For Bourdieu, because individuals perceive one another primarily through the status that attaches to their practices (through a symbolic veil of honour) they fail to perceive the real basis of these practices: the forms of capital that underlie the different habitus and enable their realisation. This article draws on interviews with 17 elite doctors appearing on a national (UK) radio show during which they choose eight discs to take to a desert island. According to Bourdieu, 'nothing more clearly affirms one's "class", nothing more infallibly classifies, than one's taste in music'. An analysis of the doctors' musical tastes and their mode of acquisition (largely, for these elites, via their family and education at independent schools), as well as other insights into their cultural capital reveals the importance of linking class and status when exploring professional status and prestige. © 2014 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2014 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Ammons, Samantha K.; Kelly, Erin L.
The challenges of juggling work and family responsibilities are well known, but there has been little attention to the distinctive work and family experiences of young adults. This chapter explores how class affects young adults' exposure to work-family conflicts and the strategies they use to manage their work and family responsibilities. Using…
Skar, Mette; Villumsen, Anne Berg; Christensen, Dirk Lund
Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1) household income; (2) family history of diabetes; (3) physical activity; (4) smoking status; (5) alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical.......001). A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]). The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk......AIM: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban...
Alceu Ravanello Ferraro
Full Text Available Este artigo apresenta os resultados de um experimento de articulação das dimensões gênero, raça e classe social no estudo da dinâmica da escolarização no Brasil, com base nos microdados do Censo Demográfico 2000. O nível de escolarização é medido por meio da média de anos de estudo realizados com aprovação pela população de 10 anos ou mais. O estudo evidencia que essas três dimensões produzem efeitos que não podem ser simplesmente adicionados, porque obedecem a lógicas distintas. À medida que se passa das gerações mais velhas para as mais novas, as mulheres passam da condição de inferioridade à de superioridade em termos de média de anos de estudo, ao passo que a população negra mantém-se em posição de inferioridade, em relação à população branca, em todas as idades, embora com alguma redução no nível de desigualdade. Por sua vez, as desigualdades educacionais relacionadas com as diferentes posições na ocupação, tomadas aqui como indicadores de classe, aparecem como as mais acentuadas, e isso tanto na população masculina como na feminina, tanto na população branca como na negra. O texto reforça, assim, a importância e a viabilidade de se articular, no estudo da escolarização, as dimensões gênero, raça e classe social, como recomendado pela literatura sobre a questão.The article presents results of an experiment in articulating the dimensions of gender, race, and social class in the study of the dynamics of schooling in Brazil based on the micro-data of the 2000 Demographic Census. The level of schooling is measured from the average years of study successfully completed by the population aged 10 or more. The study reveals that these three dimensions produce effects that cannot be simply added to each other, because they follow different logics. As we move from the older generations to the younger, women go from a situation of inferiority to one of superiority in terms of average years of
Animals have to adjust their physiology to seasonal changes, in response to variation in food availability, social tactics and reproduction. I compared basal corticosterone and testosterone levels in free ranging striped mouse from a desert habitat, comparing between the sexes, breeding and philopatric non-breeding individuals, and between the breeding and the non-breeding season. I expected differences between breeders and non-breeders and between seasons with high and low food availability. Basal serum corticosterone was measured from 132 different individuals and serum testosterone from 176 different individuals of free living striped mice. Corticosterone and testosterone levels were independent of age, body weight and not influenced by carrying a transmitter. The levels of corticosterone and testosterone declined by approximately 50% from the breeding to the non-breeding season in breeding females as well as non-breeding males and females. In contrast, breeding males showed much lower corticosterone levels during the breeding season than all other classes, and were the only class that showed an increase of corticosterone from the breeding to the non-breeding season. As a result, breeding males had similar corticosterone levels as other social classes during the non-breeding season. During the breeding season, breeding males had much higher testosterone levels than other classes, which decreased significantly from the breeding to the non-breeding season. My results support the prediction that corticosterone decreases during periods of low food abundance. Variation in the pattern of hormonal secretion in striped mice might assist them to cope with seasonal changes in energy demand in a desert habitat.
Milene de Andrade Carvalho
Full Text Available The city of Camaçari-Ba in the Bahia is considered the biggest territory of the region metropolitan area of Salvador-B. This population has presented considerable growth in the Human Development Index (HDI, with magnifying of the life expectancy and industrial cycle. The biggest social organization situated in the city and considered satate reference of social inclusion are develops entailed diverse actions to the participation of the city departments, except on actions to the healt secretariat. This study one is about a research of transverse whose objective was to identify the profile of 227 individuals assisted by social organization Prof. Raimundo Pinheiro, located in the mentioned city. The results had indicated the presence of a predominant age range next to 60 years, the relation between income and scholarity, the high frequency of chronic pain and relation enters the chronic use of drugs, activities of daily life and occupational activities. It is necessary that the activities of the social organization contemplate the logic of the intersectoral and include secretariat of health in its organizational politics.
Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study is to determine the factors responsible for differences in the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM in subjects of different social class in an urban South Indian population. Materials and Methods: Analyses were based on the cross-sectional data from the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study of 1989 individuals, aged ≥20 years. Entered in the analyses were information obtained by self-report on (1 household income; (2 family history of diabetes; (3 physical activity; (4 smoking status; (5 alcohol consumption. Biochemical, clinical and anthropometrical measurements were performed and included in the analyses. Social class was classified based on income as low (Rs. <2000 intermediate (Rs. 2000-5000` and high (Rs. 5000-20000. Results: The prevalence rates of DM were 12.0%, 18.4% and 21.7% in low, intermediate and high social class, respectively (P < 0.001. A significant increase in the risk of diabetes was found with ascending social class (Intermediate class: Odds ratio [OR], 1.7 [confidence interval [CI], 1.2-2.3]; High class: OR, 2.0 [CI-1.4-2.9]. The multivariable adjusted logistic regression analysis revealed that the effect of social class on the risk of diabetes remained significant (P = 0.016 when age, family history of diabetes and blood pressure were included. However, with the inclusion of abdominal obesity in the model, the significant effect of social class disappeared (P = 0.087. Conclusion: An increased prevalence of DM was found in the higher social class in this urban South Indian population, which is explained by obesity.
Full Text Available This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK. Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/ relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect "signatures" of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups but further confirmatory work is needed.
Sloan, Luke; Morgan, Jeffrey; Burnap, Pete; Williams, Matthew
This paper specifies, designs and critically evaluates two tools for the automated identification of demographic data (age, occupation and social class) from the profile descriptions of Twitter users in the United Kingdom (UK). Meta-data data routinely collected through the Collaborative Social Media Observatory (COSMOS: http://www.cosmosproject.net/) relating to UK Twitter users is matched with the occupational lookup tables between job and social class provided by the Office for National Statistics (ONS) using SOC2010. Using expert human validation, the validity and reliability of the automated matching process is critically assessed and a prospective class distribution of UK Twitter users is offered with 2011 Census baseline comparisons. The pattern matching rules for identifying age are explained and enacted following a discussion on how to minimise false positives. The age distribution of Twitter users, as identified using the tool, is presented alongside the age distribution of the UK population from the 2011 Census. The automated occupation detection tool reliably identifies certain occupational groups, such as professionals, for which job titles cannot be confused with hobbies or are used in common parlance within alternative contexts. An alternative explanation on the prevalence of hobbies is that the creative sector is overrepresented on Twitter compared to 2011 Census data. The age detection tool illustrates the youthfulness of Twitter users compared to the general UK population as of the 2011 Census according to proportions, but projections demonstrate that there is still potentially a large number of older platform users. It is possible to detect “signatures” of both occupation and age from Twitter meta-data with varying degrees of accuracy (particularly dependent on occupational groups) but further confirmatory work is needed. PMID:25729900
Hartmeyer, Rikke Dalgaard; Mygind, Erik
exhaustively. Therefore, we explored the conditions in ‘udeskole’ influencing pupils’ social relations based on an extreme case called the ‘Nature Class’. In the ‘Nature Class’ the pupils (third to fifth grades) were taught outside the classroom one day a week. Five pupils and two teachers were interviewed......’, ‘interaction’, ‘participation’ and ‘pupil-centered tasks’ - were important conditions for the positive social relations during the ‘Nature Class’ project. Two conditions - ‘cooperation’ and ‘engagement’ - seem to be consequences of the improved social relations during the ‘Nature Class’ project which......The use of the ’outdoors’ in pre-school and school settings is becoming an increasingly important field of education and researchers have emphasised the positive influence of the ‘outdoors’ on various social aspects. However, the facilitative conditions for such positive influences are not studied...
Josten, Stefan D
.... Due to the existence of asymmetric information, agents face a moral-hazard problem on the credit market which gives rise to transaction costs and can be alleviated by private, governmental or social...
Chernomas, R; Sepehri, A
In a recent article Erik Olin Wright argues that the U.S. underclass is a drain on the socially available surplus and thus a hindrance to capital accumulation. Wright's argument is not supported by available evidence from the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom on the state's distributive activities. This evidence suggests that the social welfare necessary to sustain the underclass is provided by transfers from wage and salary earners rather than from profit.
Almost there is nowhere that we don’t use permeated smart technology. Increasingly developing mobile and wireless innovations forced us to integrate them to all fields in our lives. The latest trend in education is now blended learning and applications of mobile learning in educational environments. Pervasive and augmented usage of social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Instagram, Bloggers etc. forced educators consider integrating social educational platforms into their academic cu...
The Upper Rio Grande (URG), located in the San Luis Valley (SLV) of southern Colorado, is the primary contributor to streamflow to the Rio Grande Basin, upstream of the confluence of the Rio Conchos at Presidio, TX. The URG-SLV includes a complex irrigation-dependent agricultural social-ecological system (SES), which began development in 1852, and today generates more than 30% of the SLV revenue. The diversions of Rio Grande water for irrigation in the SLV have had a disproportionate impact on the downstream portion of the river. These diversions caused the flow to cease at Ciudad Juarez, Mexico in the late 1880s, creating international conflict. Similarly, low flows in New Mexico and Texas led to interstate conflict. Understanding changes in the URG-SLV that led to this event and the interactions among various drivers of change in the URG-SLV is a difficult task. One reason is that complex social-ecological systems are adaptive, contain feedbacks, emergent properties, cross-scale linkages, large-scale dynamics and non-linearities. Further, most analyses of SES to date have been qualitative, utilizing conceptual models to understand driver interactions. This study utilizes both qualitative and quantitative techniques to develop an innovative approach for analyzing driver interactions in the URG-SLV. Five drivers were identified for the URG-SLV social-ecological system: water (streamflow), water rights, climate, agriculture, and internal and external water policy. The drivers contained several longitudes (data aspect) relevant to the system, except water policy, for which only discreet events were present. Change point and statistical analyses were applied to the longitudes to identify quantifiable changes, to allow detection of cross-scale linkages between drivers, and presence of feedback cycles. Agricultural was identified as the driver signal. Change points for agricultural expansion defined four distinct periods: 1852--1923, 1924--1948, 1949--1978 and 1979
Full Text Available Almost there is nowhere that we don’t use permeated smart technology. Increasingly developing mobile and wireless innovations forced us to integrate them to all fields in our lives. The latest trend in education is now blended learning and applications of mobile learning in educational environments. Pervasive and augmented usage of social media such as Facebook, YouTube, Twitter, Instagram, Bloggers etc. forced educators consider integrating social educational platforms into their academic curriculum. Furthermore the advancement in mobile device technologies with internet connectivity made mobile blended learning inevitable. Thus, for a long time educators are determent to adapt mobile learning for their lessons. So teaching evolves 7/24 through social mobile platforms. In my study I will clarify how to use social mobile media and devices in EFL teaching. Especially, there will be significant strategies how to enhance students’ reading skills using Edmodo in my lessons practically. Advantages and disadvantages of mobile learning will be discussed in my paper. We will have an overview of learners’ attitudes about social media and mobile learning platforms. What kind of reading tasks could be given through on Edmodo? How will be the assessment in this process? Are there any collaborative learning methods in Edmodo? All these and more questions are going to be enlightened in this study. Keywords: Blended learning, mobile devices, social mobile media, reading comprehension skills, student centered approach
Full Text Available Post-apartheid schooling in South Africa is challenged with the task of contributing towards social justice, as has been evident from the emergence of a plethora of education policies following the promulgation of the South African Schools Act in 1996. One of the most significant ways in which social justice can be cultivated in schools, especially where exclusion and marginalisation have been in ascendancy for decades, is through improved pedagogical activities, which receive focus in this article. The article focuses on investigating how the learning goals for Grade 11 Economics with the aid of an educational technology, in particular Facebook, engender opportunities for socially just relations in the classroom. The researcher is concerned with how these learning goals are related to three underlying aspects of Economics education, namely sustainable development, equity (including equality and economic development, and how they may or may not engender opportunities for social justice. Critical discourse analysis is the research approach used to analyse learners' comments on Facebook in relation to their understandings of three films. It was found that it is possible to teach and learn education for social justice in the classroom. Learners treated one another equally; enacted their pedagogical relations equitably; and learnt to become economically aware of their society's developmental needs. Thus, it is recommended that education for social justice be cultivated in school classrooms through the use of Facebook.
McKnight, Douglas; Chandler, Prentice
As a means to challenge and diminish the hold of mainstream curriculum's claim of being a colorblind, politically neutral text, we will address two particular features that partially, though significantly, constitute the hidden curriculum in the United States--race and class--historically studied as separate social issues. Race and class have been…
Full Text Available Within the context of a developing country, suchas South Africa, access to technology is severely limited.However, most South Africans have relatively good access tomobile phone technology in relation to other portable andmobile technology. In this initiative, students wereencouraged to use mobile phone text messaging to sendquestions to the lecturer during classes or between classes. Atotal of 86 text messages were sent to the lecturer during a 7-week, second year psychology course. At the end of thecourse 136 responses to questionnaire distributed in classwas obtained. This data was analysed using activity theoryas a framework for the discussion. The results indicated thatstudents had strongly favorable perceptions of this initiativeand respondents had spontaneously suggested other uses ofmobile phone technology to enhance the learningexperience. Activity theory provided a useful framework forevaluating the use of mobile phone text messages to enhancestudent participation and learning.
Shaw, Richard J.; Benzeval, Michaela; Popham, Frank
Introduction Nordic countries do not have the smallest health inequalities despite egalitarian social policies. A possible explanation for this is that drivers of class differences in health such as financial strain and labour force status remain socially patterned in Nordic countries. Methods Our analyses used data for working age (25–59) men (n = 48,249) and women (n = 52,654) for 20 countries from five rounds (2002–2010) of the European Social Survey. The outcome was self-rated health in 5 categories. Stratified by gender we used fixed effects linear regression models and marginal standardisation to instigate how countries varied in the degree to which class inequalities were attenuated by financial strain and labour force status. Results and Discussion Before adjustment, Nordic countries had large inequalities in self-rated health relative to other European countries. For example the regression coefficient for the difference in health between working class and professional men living in Norway was 0.34 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.42), while the comparable figure for Spain was 0.15 (95% CI 0.08 to 0.22). Adjusting for financial strain and labour force status led to attenuation of health inequalities in all countries. However, unlike some countries such as Spain, where after adjustment the regression coefficient for working class men was only 0.02 (95% CI −0.05 to 0.10), health inequalities persisted after adjustment for Nordic countries. For Norway the adjusted coefficient was 0.17 (95% CI 0.10 to 0.25). Results for women and men were similar. However, in comparison to men, class inequalities tended to be stronger for women and more persistent after adjustment. Conclusions Adjusting for financial security and labour force status attenuates a high proportion of health inequalities in some counties, particularly Southern European countries, but attenuation in Nordic countries was modest and did not improve their relative position. PMID:25313462
Santarém, Vamilton Alvares; Leli, Flávia Noris Chagas; Rubinsky-Elefant, Guita; Giuffrida, Rogério
The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of Toxocara spp. antibodies in children from two different socioeconomic classes in the Presidente Prudente municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil, and the protective and risk factors associated with toxocariasis. One hundred and twenty-six middle-class (MC) and 126 disadvantaged children (DC) were included in this study. Anti-Toxocara ELISA test was performed in order to evaluate seroprevalence. A survey was applied to the children's guardians/parents in order to analyze the protective and risk factors. The overall prevalence was 11.1%, and of 9.5% (12/126) and 12.7% (16/126) for MC and DC subgroups, respectively. Toxocara seropositivity was inversely proportional to the family income. A high household income was considered a protective factor for toxocariasis in the total population and in both MC and DC subgroups. Being a girl was considered a protective factor for the total population and for both subgroups. Whilst being an owner of cat was a risk factor for children belonging to the total and for both MC and DC subgroups, having dog was considered as a risk factor for only the MC. Epidemiologic protective/factor risks can be distinct depending on the strata of the same population. Thus, it is relevant to evaluate these factors independently for different socioeconomic classes in order to design future investigations and programs for preventing the infection of human beings by Toxocara spp. and other geohelminths.
Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A.
This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program
Anderson, T.L.; Lewis, B.E.; Turner, K.H.; Rozelle, M.A. [Dames and Moore, Denver, CO (United States)
This report identifies and characterizes social and institutional issues that would be relevant to the siting, licensing, construction, closure, and postclosure of a Greater-Than-Class-C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) disposal facility. A historical perspective of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) and LLW disposal programs is provided as an overview of radioactive waste disposal and to support the recommendations and conclusions in the report. A characterization of each issue is provided to establish the basis for further evaluations. Where applicable, the regulatory requirements of 10 CFR 60 and 61 are incorporated in the issue characterizations. The issues are used to compare surface, intermediate depth, and deep geologic disposal alternatives. The evaluation establishes that social and institutional issues do not significantly discriminate among the disposal alternatives. Recommendations are provided for methods by which the issues could be considered throughout the lifecycle of a GTCC LLW disposal program.
Skuland, Silje Elisabeth
The article examines the constraints on healthy eating by exploring whether barriers such as taste, competence, time, price, quality and limited selection reduce consumption of vegetables and fish among Norwegians. In order to understand the socio-economic gradient of healthy diets, the study examines how these barriers are related to specific class positions. Regular consumption of both fish and vegetables are recommended by health authorities, and they are broadly perceived as healthy foods by Norwegians. Nevertheless, more than half of the population consumes vegetables less frequently than daily, and the average consumption of fish is far below the recommended two to three dinner portions of fish on a weekly basis. Informed by Bourdieu's theories of social class, this article argues for two overarching barriers related to food consumption, food knowledge and perceived food quality by consumers, and it finds that barriers are tied to scarcity of cultural, economic and social capital. A survey of 2000 respondents subjected to multiple linear regression analysis and factor analysis (PCA) provides the evidence for this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wanzek, Jeanne; Vaughn, Sharon
We describe teacher fidelity (adherence to the components of the treatment as specified by the research team) based on a series of studies of a multicomponent intervention, Promoting Acceleration of Comprehension and Content Through Text (PACT), with middle and high school social studies teachers and their students. Findings reveal that even with…
Almost there is nowhere that we don't use permeated smart technology. Increasingly developing mobile and wireless innovations forced us to integrate them to all fields in our lives. The latest trend in education is now blended learning and applications of mobile learning in educational environments. Pervasive and augmented usage of social media…