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Sample records for upper minnelusa formation

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF SANDSTONE RESERVOIRS FOR ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY: THE PERMIAN UPPER MINNELUSA FORMATION, POWDER RIVER BASIN, WYOMING.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, C.J.; Schmoker, J.W.; Scheffler, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    Upper Minnelusa sandstones form a complex group of reservoirs because of variations in regional setting, sedimentology, and diagenetic alteration. Structural lineaments separate the reservoirs into northern and southern zones. Production in the north is from a single pay sand, and in the south from multi-pay sands due to differential erosion on top of the Upper Minnelusa. The intercalation of eolian dune, interdune, and sabkha sandstones with marine sandstones, carbonates, and anhydrites results in significant reservoir heterogeneity. Diagenetic alterations further enhance heterogeneity, because the degree of cementation and dissolution is partly facies-related.

  2. Oil Recovery Increases by Low-Salinity Flooding: Minnelusa and Green River Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-09-01

    Waterflooding is by far the most widely used method in the world to increase oil recovery. Historically, little consideration has been given in reservoir engineering practice to the effect of injection brine composition on waterflood displacement efficiency or to the possibility of increased oil recovery through manipulation of the composition of the injected water. However, recent work has shown that oil recovery can be significantly increased by modifying the injection brine chemistry or by injecting diluted or low salinity brine. This paper reports on laboratory work done to increase the understanding of improved oil recovery by waterflooding with low salinity injection water. Porous media used in the studies included outcrop Berea sandstone (Ohio, U.S.A.) and reservoir cores from the Green River formation of the Uinta basin (Utah, U.S.A.). Crude oils used in the experimental protocols were taken from the Minnelusa formation of the Powder River basin (Wyoming, U.S.A.) and from the Green River formation, Monument Butte field in the Uinta basin. Laboratory corefloods using Berea sandstone, Minnelusa crude oil, and simulated Minnelusa formation water found a significant relationship between the temperature at which the oil- and water-saturated cores were aged and the oil recovery resulting from low salinity waterflooding. Lower aging temperatures resulted in very little to no additional oil recovery, while cores aged at higher temperatures resulted in significantly higher recoveries from dilute-water floods. Waterflood studies using reservoir cores and fluids from the Green River formation of the Monument Butte field also showed significantly higher oil recoveries from low salinity waterfloods with cores flooded with fresher water recovering 12.4% more oil on average than those flooded with undiluted formation brine.

  3. Numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area, South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    The city of Rapid City and other water users in the Rapid City area obtain water supplies from the Minnelusa and Madison aquifers, which are contained in the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units. A numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units in the Rapid City area was developed to synthesize estimates of water-budget components and hydraulic properties, and to provide a tool to analyze the effect of additional stress on water-level altitudes within the aquifers and on discharge to springs. This report, prepared in cooperation with the city of Rapid City, documents a numerical groundwater-flow model of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units for the 1,000-square-mile study area that includes Rapid City and the surrounding area. Water-table conditions generally exist in outcrop areas of the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units, which form generally concentric rings that surround the Precambrian core of the uplifted Black Hills. Confined conditions exist east of the water-table areas in the study area. The Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit is 375 to 800 feet (ft) thick in the study area with the more permeable upper part containing predominantly sandstone and the less permeable lower part containing more shale and limestone than the upper part. Shale units in the lower part generally impede flow between the Minnelusa hydrogeologic unit and the underlying Madison hydrogeologic unit; however, fracturing and weathering may result in hydraulic connections in some areas. The Madison hydrogeologic unit is composed of limestone and dolomite that is about 250 to 610 ft thick in the study area, and the upper part contains substantial secondary permeability from solution openings and fractures. Recharge to the Minnelusa and Madison hydrogeologic units is from streamflow loss where streams cross the outcrop and from infiltration of precipitation on the outcrops (areal recharge). MODFLOW-2000, a finite-difference groundwater

  4. Selected Data for Wells and Test Holes Used in Structure-Contour Maps of the Inyan Kara Group, Minnekahta Limestone, Minnelusa Formation, Madison Limestone, and Deadwood Formation in the Black Hills Area, South Dakota

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carter, Janet M

    1999-01-01

    This report presents selected data on wells and test holes that were used in the construction of structure-contour maps of selected formations that contain major aquifers in the Black Hills area of western South Dakota...

  5. New Particle Formation in the Mid-Latitude Upper Troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axisa, Duncan

    Primary aerosol production due to new particle formation (NPF) in the upper troposphere and the impact that this might have on cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration can be of sufficient magnitude to contribute to the uncertainty in radiative forcing. This uncertainty affects our ability to estimate how sensitive the climate is to greenhouse gas emissions. Therefore, new particle formation must be accurately defined, parametrized and accounted for in models. This research involved the deployment of instruments, data analysis and interpretation of particle formation events during the Mid-latitude Airborne Cirrus Properties Experiment (MACPEX) campaign. The approach combined field measurements and observations with extensive data analysis and modeling to study the process of new particle formation and growth to CCN active sizes. Simultaneous measurements of O3, CO, ultrafine aerosol particles and surface area from a high-altitude research aircraft were used to study tropospheric-stratospheric mixing as well as the frequency and location of NPF. It was found that the upper troposphere was an active region in the production of new particles by gas-to-particle conversion, that nucleation was triggered by convective clouds and mixing processes, and that NPF occurred in regions with high relative humidity and low surface area. In certain cases, mesoscale and synoptic features enhanced mixing and facilitated the formation of new particles in the northern mid-latitudes. A modeling study of particle growth and CCN formation was done based on measured aerosol size distributions and modeled growth. The results indicate that when SO2 is of sufficient concentration NPF is a significant source of potential CCN in the upper troposphere. In conditions where convective cloud outflow eject high concentrations of SO2, a large number of new particles can form especially in the instance when the preexisting surface area is low. The fast growth of nucleated clusters produces a

  6. UPPER FRASNIAN (UPPER DEVONIAN POLYGNATHUS AND ICRIODUS CONODONTS FROM THE BAHRAM FORMATION, HUR SECTION, KERMAN PROVINCE, SOUTHEASTERN IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAYEBEH AHMADI

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodont fauna from the Upper Devonian (Frasnian Bahram Formation at the Hur section, north of Kerman, southeast Iran, is dominated by species of Icriodus and Polygnathus. This fauna allowed discrimination of two biointervals from the Lower rhenana Zone to an Upper rhenana-linguiformis interval. The age of the lower part of the studied section is tentatively considered to be older than the Lower rhenana Zone. 

  7. Paleoescatology in the sopas formation (Upper Pleistocene) form Uruguay, paleobilogic focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verde, M.; Ubilla, M.; Soloviy, J.

    1998-01-01

    Continental tetrapod coprolites are reported for the first time for Uruguay, these remains come from the Sopas Formation (Upper Pleistocene). They are assigned to carnivore mammals based on morphology and inclusions of micrommmal remains besides of other attributes.(author)

  8. WATER FORMATION IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF THE EARLY EARTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Marcq, Emmanuel; Vettier, Ludovic; Määttänen, Anni, E-mail: benjamin.fleury@latmos.ipsl.fr [Université Versailles St-Quentin, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2015-07-10

    The water concentration and distribution in the early Earth's atmosphere are important parameters that contribute to the chemistry and the radiative budget of the atmosphere. If the atmosphere above the troposphere is generally considered as dry, photochemistry is known to be responsible for the production of numerous minor species. Here we used an experimental setup to study the production of water in conditions simulating the chemistry above the troposphere of the early Earth with an atmospheric composition based on three major molecules: N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. The formation of gaseous products was monitored using infrared spectroscopy. Water was found as the major product, with approximately 10% of the gas products detected. This important water formation is discussed in the context of the early Earth.

  9. Hydrologic budgets for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers, Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming, water years 1987-96

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Hamade, Ghaith R.; Jarrell, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    The Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are two of the most important aquifers in the Black Hills area of South Dakota and Wyoming. Quantification and evaluation of various hydrologic budget components are important for managing and understanding these aquifers. Hydrologic budgets are developed for two scenarios, including an overall budget for the entire study area and more detailed budgets for subareas. Budgets generally are combined for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers because most budget components cannot be quantified individually for the aquifers. An average hydrologic budget for the entire study area is computed for water years 1987-96, for which change in storage is approximately equal to zero. Annual estimates of budget components are included in detailed budgets for nine subareas, which consider periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96). Inflow components include recharge, leakage from adjacent aquifers, and ground-water inflows across the study area boundary. Outflows include springflow (headwater and artesian), well withdrawals, leakage to adjacent aquifers, and ground-water outflow across the study area boundary. Leakage, ground-water inflows, and ground-water outflows are difficult to quantify and cannot be distinguished from one another. Thus, net ground-water flow, which includes these components, is calculated as a residual, using estimates for the other budget components. For the overall budget for water years 1987-96, net ground-water outflow from the study area is computed as 100 ft3/s (cubic feet per second). Estimates of average combined budget components for the Madison and Minnelusa aquifers are: 395 ft3/s for recharge, 78 ft3/s for headwater springflow, 189 ft3/s for artesian springflow, and 28 ft3/s for well withdrawals. Hydrologic budgets also are quantified for nine subareas for periods of decreasing storage (1987-92) and increasing storage (1993-96), with changes in storage assumed equal but opposite. Common

  10. Upper mantle fluids evolution, diamond formation, and mantle metasomatism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Sverjensky, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    During mantle metasomatism, fluid-rock interactions in the mantle modify wall-rock compositions. Previous studies usually either investigated mineral compositions in xenoliths and xenocrysts brought up by magmas, or examined fluid compositions preserved in fluid inclusions in diamonds. However, a key study of Panda diamonds analysed both mineral and fluid inclusions in the diamonds [1] which we used to develop a quantitative characterization of mantle metasomatic processes. In the present study, we used an extended Deep Earth Water model [2] to simulate fluid-rock interactions at upper mantle conditions, and examine the fluids and mineral assemblages together simultaneously. Three types of end-member fluids in the Panda diamond fluid inclusions include saline, rich in Na+K+Cl; silicic, rich in Si+Al; and carbonatitic, rich in Ca+Mg+Fe [1, 3]. We used the carbonatitic end-member to represent fluid from a subducting slab reacting with an excess of peridotite + some saline fluid in the host environment. During simultaneous fluid mixing and reaction with the host rock, the logfO2 increased by about 1.6 units, and the pH increased by 0.7 units. The final minerals were olivine, garnet and diamond. The Mg# of olivine decreased from 0.92 to 0.85. Garnet precipitated at an early stage, and its Mg# also decreased with reaction progress, in agreement with the solid inclusions in the Panda diamonds. Phlogopite precipitated as an intermediate mineral and then disappeared. The aqueous Ca, Mg, Fe, Si and Al concentrations all increased, while Na, K, and Cl concentrations decreased during the reaction, consistent with trends in the fluid inclusion compositions. Our study demonstrates that fluids coming from subducting slabs could trigger mantle metasomatism, influence the compositions of sub-lithospherc cratonic mantle, precipitate diamonds, and change the oxygen fugacity and pH of the upper mantle fluids. [1] Tomlinson et al. EPSL (2006); [2] Sverjensky, DA et al., GCA (2014

  11. Floristic characters of the upper coal-bearing formation in the Transcarpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syabryaj, S. [Institute of Geological Sciences NASU, Kiev (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The results of palynological studies of samples from outcrops, boreholes and mines in the Transcarpathians are presented. Megafloral remains from the Ilnitsa suite show the age of the upper coal-bearing formation to be Romanian. The palynological analysis allows the reconstruction of changes in the plant cover during the Romanian, and the determination of the climatic and palaeogeographic conditions. 10 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Geothermal resources: Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast. Geological circular 76-3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebout, D.G.; Loucks, R.G.; Bosch, S.C.; Dorfman, M.H.

    1976-01-01

    Major sand trends were identified in the Frio Formation, Upper Texas Gulf Coast as part of the evaluation of its potential for producing geothermal energy. Electrical logs from 465 wells spaced 5 to 10 miles apart were used in the study. Maps illustrating total net sand and total sand percentage of the Frio Formation are included. It was found that subsurface fluid temperatures of greater than 250/sup 0/F occur in the Frio sand bodies up to 100 ft thick downdip of the high-sand trends. LA broad band in Brazoria and Galveston Counties was delineated as having geothermal potential. (JGB)

  13. Depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation, central Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset; Al-Kahtany, Khaled; Almadani, Sattam; Tawfik, Mohamed

    2018-03-01

    To document the depositional architecture and sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Jurassic Hanifa Formation in central Saudi Arabia, three composite sections were examined, measured and thin section analysed at Al-Abakkayn, Sadous and Maashabah mountains. Fourteen microfacies types were identified, from wackestones to boundstones and which permits the recognition of five lithofacies associations in a carbonate platform. Lithofacies associations range from low energy, sponges, foraminifers and bioclastic burrowed offshoal deposits to moderate lithoclstic, peloidal and bioclastic foreshoal deposits in the lower part of the Hanifa while the upper part is dominated by corals, ooidal and peloidal high energy shoal deposits to moderate to low energy peloidal, stromatoporoids and other bioclastics back shoal deposits. The studied Hanifa Formation exhibits an obvious cyclicity, distinguishing from vertical variations in lithofacies types. These microfacies types are arranged in two third order sequences, the first sequence is equivalent to the lower part of the Hanifa Formation (Hawtah member) while the second one is equivalent to the upper part (Ulayyah member). Within these two sequences, there are three to six fourth-order high frequency sequences respectively in the studied sections.

  14. Preliminary stratigraphy and facies analysis of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation, including a brief summary of newly discovered oil stain, upper Alaska Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wartes, Marwan A.; Decker, Paul L.; Stanley, Richard G.; Herriott, Trystan M.; Helmold, Kenneth P.; Gillis, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Alaska Division of Geological and Geophysical Surveys has an ongoing program aimed at evaluating the Mesozoic forearc stratigraphy, structure, and petroleum systems of lower Cook Inlet. Most of our field studies have focused on the Jurassic component of the petroleum system (this report). However, in late July and early August of 2012, we initiated a study of the stratigraphy and reservoir potential of the Upper Cretaceous Kaguyak Formation. The Kaguyak Formation is locally well exposed on the upper Alaska Peninsula (fig. 25) and was named by Keller and Reiser (1959) for a sequence of interbedded siltstone and sandstone of upper Campanian to Maastrichtian age that they estimated to be 1,450 m thick.Subsequent work by Detterman and Miller (1985) examined 900 m of section and interpreted the unit as the record of a prograding submarine fan.This interpretation of deep-water deposition contrasts with other Upper Cretaceous rocks exposed along the Alaska Peninsula and lower Cook Inlet that are generally described as nonmarine to shallow marine (Detterman and others, 1996; LePain and others, 2012).Based on foraminifera and palynomorphs from the COST No. 1 well, Magoon (1986) concluded that the Upper Cretaceous rocks were deposited in a variety of water depths and environments ranging from upper bathyal to nonmarine. During our recent fieldwork west and south of Fourpeaked Mountain, we similarly encountered markedly varying lithofacies in the Kaguyak Formation (fig. 25), and we also found oil-stained rocks that are consistent with the existence of an active petroleum system in Upper Cretaceous rocks on the upper Alaska Peninsula and in lower Cook Inlet. These field observations are summarized below.

  15. Rodents from the Upper Miocene Tuğlu Formation (Çankırı Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joniak, Peter; de Bruijn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The upper Miocene assemblages of rodents collected from two layers of the type section of the Tuğlu Formation (Çankırı Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey) are described. The assemblage from the lower level is considerably less diverse than that from the upper level. It contains Progonomys together with

  16. CHAMBERED HEXACTINELLID SPONGES FROM UPPER TRIASSIC(NORIAN-RHAETIAN? REEFS OF NAYBAND FORMATION IN CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes several chambered hexactinellid sponges, including Casearia iranica n.sp., C. vezvanensis n. sp., C. delijanensis n. sp., Esfahanella magna gen. n. n. sp., and E. parva gen. n. n. sp. from reefs of the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian Nayband Formation exposed south of the town of Delijan in central Iran. The relative abundance of chambered and non-chambered hexactinellid sponges at this locality - as compared to hypercalcified representatives - highlight the importance of this group of sponges in reef and reefal limestones in central and east Tethys (China, Caucasia, Iran. 

  17. Parameters controlling fracturing distribution: example of an Upper Jurassic marly-calcareous formation (eastern Paris Basin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, G.; Rebours, H.; Wileveau, Y.; Proudhon, B.

    2006-01-01

    Study of fractures along a 490-m vertical section of marl/limestone alternations in the Upper Jurassic (Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory-eastern Paris Basin) reveals their organization and the different states of palaeo-stress. Type and extension of tectonic structures seem to be controlled principally by lithology and secondary by depth. Also, it appears deviations of Alpine palaeo-stresses between Kimmeridgian and Oxfordian formations. These deviations are related to the presence of marl/limestone contacts. The vertical evolution of current horizontal maximum stress shows a similar behaviour, with deviations at the walls of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. These results allow us to point out and to discuss the impact of lithology, rheology and depth on fracturing occurrence and distribution. Furthermore, this study suggests the role of Callovo-Oxfordian as a barrier for fracture development between the limestones of Dogger and Oxfordian formations. (authors)

  18. Geochemical Identification of Windblown Dust Deposits in the Upper Permian Brushy Canyon Formation, Southern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, M. M.; Motanated, K.; Weiss, R.

    2009-12-01

    Windblown dust is a potentially important but difficult-to-quantify source of siliciclastics for sedimentary basins worldwide. Positively identifying windblown deposits requires distinguishing them from other low density suspension transport deposits. For instance, laminated very fine grained sandstones and siltstones of the Upper Permian Brushy Canyon Formation have been variously interpreted as 1) the deposits of slow-moving, low-density turbidity currents, 2) distal overbank deposits of turbidity currents, 3) the deposits of turbulent suspensions transported across a pycnocline (interflows), and 4) windblown dust. This facies forms the bulk of Brushy Canyon Formation slope deposits, so understanding its origin is critical to understanding the evolution of the basin as a whole. We use a geochemical mapping technique (x-ray fluorescence microscopy) to show that these rocks are up to two times enriched in very fine sand sized zircon and rutile grains relative to Bouma A divisions of interbedded turbidites, suggesting substantial turbulence during transport. However, in contrast with the A divisions, the laminated sandstones and siltstones never show evidence of scour or amalgamation, implying that flow turbulence did not interact with underlying beds. Moreover, proximal loess deposits are often characterized by elevated Zr/Al2O3. These observations are most consistent with windblown interpretations for Brushy Canyon Formation slope sediments, and suggest that evolution of this early deepwater slope system was controlled largely by short-distance aeolian transport of very fine sand and silt from the coast. Heavy mineral incorporation into Brushy Canyon Formation slope deposits as reflected in laminae-scale bulk Zr and Ti abundances may preserve a long-term record of local wind intensity during the Upper Permian.

  19. Upper cretaceous ammonite succession (Cenomanian - Coniacian) related to the upper Hondita and Loma Gorda Formations along the Bambuca creek, Aipe, Huila (Colombia, S.A.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patarroyo, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    The Bambuca creek section (Aipe - Huila) shows a very good exposition of the upper Magdalena valley cretaceous deposits. To the upper part of the Hondita Formation were recollected acanthoceras sp. and rhynchostreon sp. of the upper Cenomanian. Related to the lower segment of the Loma Gorda Formation were found choffaticeras (c.) cf. segne, fagesia cf. catinus, neoptychites cf. andinus, mitonia gracilis, morrowitessp., nannovascoceras ? sp., quitmaniceras ? sp., benueites ? sp., paramammites ? sp. together with mytiloideskossmati, m. goppelnensis and anomia sp. of the lower Turonian. Following by hoplitoides sp. h. ingens,h. cf. lagiraldae, codazziceras ospinae, allocrioceras sp. that can be representing between the lower and middle Turonian. To the upper part of this segment were collected prionocycloceras sp. p. guayabanum, reesidites subtuberculatum, subprionotropis colombianus, mytiloides scupini, dydimotis sp., gauthiericerassp, anagaudryceras ? sp., eulophoceras jacobi, paralenticeras sieversi, hauericeras cf. madagascarensis, peroniceras (p.) subtricarinatum, forresteria (f.) sp, barroisiceras cf. onilahyense, ankinatsytes venezolanus, with upper Turonian to Coniacian. According to the related fauna it is not possible to establish the Cenomanian/Turonian and Turonian/Coniacian boundaries.

  20. Crocodyliform feeding traces on juvenile ornithischian dinosaurs from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Kaiparowits Formation, Utah.

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    Clint A Boyd

    Full Text Available Crocodyliforms serve as important taphonomic agents, accumulating and modifying vertebrate remains. Previous discussions of Mesozoic crocodyliform feeding in terrestrial and riverine ecosystems have often focused on larger taxa and their interactions with equally large dinosaurian prey. However, recent evidence suggests that the impact of smaller crocodyliforms on their environments should not be discounted. Here we present direct evidence of feeding by a small crocodyliform on juvenile specimens of a 'hypsilophodontid' dinosaur from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian Kaiparowits Formation of southern Utah. Diagnostic crocodyliform bite marks present on a left scapula and a right femur, as well as a partial probable crocodyliform tooth crown (ovoid in cross-section preserved within a puncture on the right femur, comprise the bulk of the feeding evidence. Computed tomography scans of the femoral puncture reveal impact damage to the surrounding bone and that the distal tip of the embedded tooth was missing prior to the biting event. This is only the second reported incidence of a fossil crocodyliform tooth being found embedded directly into prey bone. These bite marks provide insight into the trophic interactions of the ecosystem preserved in the Kaiparowits Formation. The high diversity of crocodyliforms within this formation may have led to accentuated niche partitioning, which seems to have included juvenile dinosaurian prey.

  1. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian of Alberta, Canada.

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    Jordan C Mallon

    Full Text Available Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2 landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  2. Skull ecomorphology of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the dinosaur park formation (upper campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaur coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has long puzzled researchers, owing to the mystery of how so many large herbivores (6-8 sympatric species, in many instances) could coexist on such a small (4-7 million km(2)) landmass. Various explanations have been put forth, one of which-dietary niche partitioning-forms the focus of this study. Here, we apply traditional morphometric methods to the skulls of megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta to infer the ecomorphology of these animals and to test the niche partitioning hypothesis. We find evidence for niche partitioning not only among contemporaneous ankylosaurs, ceratopsids, and hadrosaurids, but also within these clades at the family and subfamily levels. Consubfamilial ceratopsids and hadrosaurids differ insignificantly in their inferred ecomorphologies, which may explain why they rarely overlap stratigraphically: interspecific competition prevented their coexistence.

  3. Rodents from the Upper Miocene Tuğlu Formation (Çankırı Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Joniak, Peter; de Bruijn, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The upper Miocene assemblages of rodents collected from two layers of the type section of the Tuğlu Formation (Çankırı Basin, Central Anatolia, Turkey) are described. The assemblage from the lower level is considerably less diverse than that from the upper level. It contains Progonomys together with Megacricetodon, which is a very unusual association. The assemblage from the upper layer shows a relatively high diversity with four species of Gliridae instead of only one in the lower layer. Apa...

  4. Ostracoda (Arthropoda, Crustacea from the Riachuelo Formation, Sergipe-Alagoas Basin, Brazil, Upper Aptian-Albian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Silveira Antonietto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sergipe-Alagoas Basin has one of the most complete, exposed lithological successions of the Cretaceous period in the continental margin of Brazil. It captures several phases of the evolution of the South Atlantic Ocean, including rift, gulf and drift. The upper Aptian–Albian Riachuelo Formation corresponds to the first stages of the southern proto-Atlantic Ocean invasion in that basin. The present study reviews the taxonomic identification and ecology of 39 ostracod species of this formation, proposing a new genus – Gabonorygma gen. nov. – and three new species – Praebythoceratina deltalata sp. nov., Gabonorygma sergipana gen. et sp. nov. and Brachycythere smithsoniana sp. nov. Other taxa include Conchoecia? sp. 1, Cytherella sp. 1, C. besrineensis comb. nov., Cytherelloidea aff. globosa, C. btaterensis, Bairdoppilata sp. 1, Bairdoppilata sp. 2, B. comanchensis comb. nov., B. pseudoseptentrionalis, Robsoniella falklandensis, Cetacella sp. 1, Paracypris eniotmetos, Harbinia sinuata?, H. crepata, Liasina sp. 1, Praebythoceratina amsittenensis comb. nov., P. trinodosa comb. nov., Patellacythere sp. 1, P. shimonensis comb. nov., Xestoleberis? sp. 1, Xestoleberis? sp. 2, Apatocythere? sp. 1, Neocythere? aff. pseudovanveeni, N. (Physocythere tenuis, Aracajuia antiqua comb. nov., A. benderi, A. fragilis comb. nov., Eocytheropteron sp. 1, Metacytheropteron aff. minuta, Microceratina? sp. 1, M. azazoulensis, Veenia guianensis, Algeriana? sp. 1, Quasihermanites? sp. 1 and Sergipella viviersae.

  5. SOME INOZOID SPONGES FROM UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN-RHAETIAN NAYBAND FORMATION OF CENTRAL IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Some small-scaled Norian-Rhaetian reefs and reef mounds are imbedded within the shales, siltstones and siliciclastic-carbonate deposits of the Nayband Formation in central Iran. These deposits belong to the central Iranian plate as part of the Cimmerian Continent. Most of the biogenic rocks have a biostromal geometry, biohermal constructions are rare. Inozoid, sphinctozoid, and chaetetid sponges are, beside of corals and other reef builders, the most important reef organisms within these bioconstructions. In some reefs a variety of hexactinellid sponges also occur. The following inozoid sponges are described in this paper: Radiofibra norica n. sp., Permocorynella maxima n. sp., ?Sestrostomella robusta, Marawandia iranica, n. gen., n. sp. and Enaulofungia? triassica n. sp. The first four taxa are among the most abundant sponges within the Nayband Formation where it is exposed in several localities in central Iran. Enaulofungia? triassica, however, is not an abundant sponge there. These inozoid sponges have never been reported from the Triassic deposits of this region. Radiofibra, until now known only from the Upper Permian of Djebel Tebaga (Tunisia, is reported here for the first time from Triassic rocks. The stratigraphic as well as the paleogeographic distribution of all the genera are discussed.   

  6. Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) phosphorites in Jordan: implications for the formation of a south Tethyan phosphorite giant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pufahl, Peir K.; Grimm, Kurt A.; Abed, Abdulkader M.; Sadaqah, Rushdi M. Y.

    2003-10-01

    A record of sedimentary, authigenic, and biological processes are preserved within the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Alhisa Phosphorite Formation (AP) in central and northern Jordan. The AP formed near the eastern extremity of the south Tethyan Phosphorite Province (STPP), a carbonate-dominated Upper Cretaceous to Eocene "phosphorite giant" that extends from Colombia, North Africa to the Middle East. Multidisciplinary research of the AP and associated cherts, chalks, and oyster buildups indicate that phosphatic strata formed on a highly productive, storm-dominated, east-west trending epeiric platform along the south Tethyan margin. The onset of phosphogenesis and the accumulation of economic phosphorite coincided with a rise in relative sea level that onlapped peritidal carbonates of the Ajlun Group. Pristine phosphates are associated with well-developed micrite concretionary horizons and contain abundant non-keeled spiral planktic foraminifera and a low diversity benthic assemblage of Buliminacean foraminifera, suggesting that pristine phosphates are a condensed facies and phosphogenesis was stimulated by the effects of a highly productive surface ocean and the suboxic diagenesis of sedimentary organic matter. The bulk sediment composition and absence of Fe-bearing authigenic phases such as glauconite, pyrite (including pyrite molds), siderite, and goethite within pristine phosphates suggests that deposition and authigenesis occurred under conditions of detrital starvation and that "iron-pumping" played a minimal role in phosphogenesis. Authigenic precipitation of phosphate occurred in a broad array of sedimentary environments—herein termed a "phosphorite nursery"—that spanned the entire platform. This is a non-uniformitarian phenomenon reflecting precipitation of sedimentary apatite across a wide depositional spectrum in a variety of depositional settings, wherever the conditions were suitable for phosphogenesis. Sedimentologic data indicate that pristine

  7. Radiosensitivity of subterranean bacteria in the Hungarian upper permian siltstone formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, G.; Gazso, L.G.; Diosi, G.

    2002-01-01

    The main purpose of this work was to study the radioresistance of subterranean aerobic and anaerobic isolates from the Hungarian Upper Permian Siltstone (Aleurolite) Formation, in order to assess the safety of potential sites of future underground repositories for nuclear waste. A total of 93 isolates were studied. The radiosensitivities of these aerobic and anaerobic bacteria isolates were determined: the D 10 values (decimal reducing doses) of the aerobic spore-formers lay in the range 0.80-2.44 kGy, and those of the anaerobic spore-formers lay in the range 1.86-4.93 kGy. The D 10 values of the aerobic and anaerobic vegetative isolates were much lower, in the ranges 0.11-0.57 and 0.22-0.40 kGy, respectively. The variability in bacterial radioresistance indicates the biodiversity at this potential disposal site. These results can affect the construction of a future underground repository, since knowledge of the most resistant microorganism may be of importance as concerns calculation of the time required to inactivate the bacteria surrounding the containers

  8. Sequence and facies architecture of the upper Blackhawk Formation and the Lower Castlegate Sandstone (Upper Cretaceous), Book Cliffs, Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.

    2000-11-01

    High-frequency stratigraphic sequences that comprise the Desert Member of the Blackhawk Formation, the Lower Castlegate Sandstone, and the Buck Tongue in the Green River area of Utah display changes in sequence architecture from marine deposits to marginal marine deposits to an entirely nonmarine section. Facies and sequence architecture differ above and below the regionally extensive Castlegate sequence boundary, which separates two low-frequency (106-year cyclicity) sequences. Below this surface, high-frequency sequences are identified and interpreted as comprising the highstand systems tract of the low-frequency Blackhawk sequence. Each high-frequency sequence has a local incised valley system on top of the wave-dominated delta, and coastal plain to shallow marine deposits are preserved. Above the Castlegate sequence boundary, in contrast, a regionally extensive sheet sandstone of fluvial to estuarine origin with laterally continuous internal erosional surfaces occurs. These deposits above the Castlegate sequence boundary are interpreted as the late lowstand to early transgressive systems tracts of the low-frequency Castlegate sequence. The base-level changes that generated both the low- and high-frequency sequences are attributed to crustal response to fluctuations in compressive intraplate stress on two different time scales. The low-frequency stratigraphic sequences are attributed to changes in the long-term regional subsidence rate and regional tilting of foreland basin fill. High-frequency sequences probably reflect the response of anisotropic basement to tectonism. Sequence architecture changes rapidly across the faulted margin of the underlying Paleozoic Paradox Basin. The high-frequency sequences are deeply eroded and stack above the Paradox Basin, but display less relief and become conformable updip. These features indicate that the area above the Paradox Basin was more prone to vertical structural movements during formation of the Blackhawk

  9. Sedimentary facies and evolution of the upper member of cretaceou Sunjiawan formation in Heishui area of western Liaoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhonghua; Xi Haiyin; Chen Debing; Wang Liming; Rao Minghui

    2010-01-01

    The upper member of Sunjiawan formation in Heishui area is mainly alluvial fan facies. From the macroscopic view, alluvial fan facies can be divided into three sub-facies of proximal end gravel braided plain, distal end gravel braided plain and pre-fan flood-plain and further into some micro-facies of debris flow, gravel braided channel, gravel dam, flood-fine and peat bog etc. The upper member of Sunjiawan formation could be divided into three sub-members. The first sub-member is retrograding dry land type fan sediment under drought-humid climate. The second sub-member is retrograding wet land type fan deposit under humid climate. Third sub-member is progradational wetland type fan sediments under humid climate. Sunjiawan formation in Heishui area experienced three evolutionary stages: the early retrograding dryland type fan deposition, the medium term retrograding wet land type fan deposition and the later progradational wetland type fan. (authors)

  10. Coalbed methane potential of the Upper Cretaceous Mesaverde and Meeteetse formations, Wind River Reservation, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.C.; Clark, A.C.; Barker, C.E.; Crysdale, B.L.; Higley, D.K.; Szmajter, R.J.; Finn, T.M.

    1993-01-01

    The environments of deposition of the uppermost part of the Cody Shale and the Mesaverde and Meeteetse Formations of Late Cretaceous age were studied on outcrop in the Shotgun Butte area in the north-central part of the Wind River Reservation. A shoreface sandstone occurs in the lower part of the Mesaverde Formation at all localities studied, and is directly overlain by a coaly interval. Repetitive coarsening-upward cycles of mudstone, siltstone, and sandstone occur in the 200 ft interval of the upper part of the Cody Shale below the shoreface sandstone. These Cody sandstones are typically hummocky cross stratified with symmetrical ripples near the top, indicating that they are largely storm surge deposits that were later reworked. Channel-form sandstones from 10 to 20 ft thick, with abundant locally derived clayey clasts, occur in a 75 ft thick interval below the shoreface at one locality. These unusual sandstones are largely confined to a narrow area of the outcrop and grade laterally into more typical storm surge deposits. They may be unusually large storm surge channels created when high-energy flow conditions were localized to a limited area of the shelf.The Mesaverde Formation above the shoreface sandstone is divided into a middle member and the Teapot Sandstone Member. The lower part of the middle member is everywhere coaly. Erosional-based sandstones in this coaly interval are highly variable in thickness and architecture. Thin, single channel sandstone bodies were deposited by moderate to high sinuosity streams, and thick, multistory channel sandstone bodies were deposited by rapidly switching fluvial channel systems that remained relatively stationary for extended periods of time. The architecture of the fluvial channel sandstones in the overlying noncoaly interval appears to be highly variable as well, with complex multistory sandstones occurring at different stratigraphic levels at different localities. This distribution may be explained by long term

  11. Porosity and reservoir potentiality of the Cherahil Formation limestone (middle-upper Eocene) in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njahi, Zahra; Kassabi, Nadhem; Touir, Jamel

    2017-07-01

    During the middle and upper Eocene, the deposits in the Gulf of Gabes correspond to the Cherahil Formation, which is sub-divided into three units, which are as follows from base to top: the Lower Cherahil A, the Siouf and the Upper Cherahil B members. The Siouf member has a lateral equivalent in the Souar Formation named Reineche member. The Cherahil Formation has never been considered by oil companies as a particular drilling target in the Gulf of Gabes (offshore east Tunisia) despite the presence of hydrocarbon at the bottom of Cherahil Formation in Sidi Behara and Sidi Litayem oil fields in Sfax Area (onshore east Tunisia) and in its equivalent carbonate beds in Jebel Trozza (Central Tunisia). Therefore, the evaluation of porosity in the carbonate levels of Cherahil Formation in 20 drilling wells were performed on well logging by applying Wyllie method. The obtained results show that the studied carbonates are characterized by an economically important total porosity average ranging between 5% and 55%, and both vertical and lateral variations. The vertical porosity variation was controlled by the sea-level fluctuation that, in turn, controlled the evolution of carbonate sedimentary environments and relative facies. The lateral porosity variation followed the Tunisian middle-upper Eocene paleogeography changes controlled by NW-SE synsedimentary tectonic trends. Considering the important features of the Cherahil Formation and the coexistence of components of an oil system in the Gulf of Gabes, this formation can be an important potential reservoir and subsequently a new petroleum exploration target in the Gulf of Gabes.

  12. Diagnostic dilemma in vascular mal-formation of the upper lip: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    richard

    2014-09-08

    Sep 8, 2014 ... Radiography, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos. *Corresponding author: ... To present a case of vascular lesion on the upper lip and its management. Methods: We .... midline of the face without bone involvement.

  13. Year-class formation of upper St. Lawrence River northern pike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B.M.; Farrell, J.M.; Underwood, H.B.; Smith, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    Variables associated with year-class formation in upper St. Lawrence River northern pike Esox lucius were examined to explore population trends. A partial least-squares (PLS) regression model (PLS 1) was used to relate a year-class strength index (YCSI; 1974-1997) to explanatory variables associated with spawning and nursery areas (seasonal water level and temperature and their variability, number of ice days, and last day of ice presence). A second model (PLS 2) incorporated four additional ecological variables: potential predators (abundance of double-crested cormorants Phalacrocorax auritus and yellow perch Perca flavescens), female northern pike biomass (as a measure of stock-recruitment effects), and total phosphorus (productivity). Trends in adult northern pike catch revealed a decline (1981-2005), and year-class strength was positively related to catch per unit effort (CPUE; R2 = 0.58). The YCSI exceeded the 23-year mean in only 2 of the last 10 years. Cyclic patterns in the YCSI time series (along with strong year-classes every 4-6 years) were apparent, as was a dampening effect of amplitude beginning around 1990. The PLS 1 model explained over 50% of variation in both explanatory variables and the dependent variable, YCSI first-order moving-average residuals. Variables retained (N = 10; Wold's statistic ??? 0.8) included negative YCSI associations with high summer water levels, high variability in spring and fall water levels, and variability in fall water temperature. The YCSI exhibited positive associations with high spring, summer, and fall water temperature, variability in spring temperature, and high winter and spring water level. The PLS 2 model led to positive YCSI associations with phosphorus and yellow perch CPUE and a negative correlation with double-crested cormorant abundance. Environmental variables (water level and temperature) are hypothesized to regulate northern pike YCSI cycles, and dampening in YCSI magnitude may be related to a

  14. Paleoecology and environments of bioestromes and path reefs , its ostreid , enhdolith and epibionts ( Camacho formation - middle upper Miocene; Uruguay)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprechmann, P.; Verde, M.; Martinez, S.; Gaucher, C.

    1998-01-01

    A special lithofacies of the Camacho formation (Middle-Upper Miocene, Uruguay), exposed at Puerto Arazati, is studied from a sedimentologic and paleontologic point of view. Ostreid biostromes and patch reefs show different kinds of growings patterns. Two kinds of ostreid concentration s, biogenic and sedimentologic were distinguished in Puerto Arazati based on taphonomic evidence. Endolith association and epibionts from biostrome and patch reef hardgrounds were also analysed in Puerto Arazati. Both sedimentologic and paleontologic evidence indicates a free of sediment, shallow water depositional environment, in the photic zone. Complementary data about endoliths from other outcrops of the Camacho Formation are included (author)

  15. Source of uranium in the Elblag formation (upper buntsandstein): sedimentological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworowski, K.

    1986-01-01

    On the basis of results of sedimentological survey of area of typical development of the Elblag formation, the evidence supporting previously published hypothesis on source of uranium in this formation is presented. 10 refs., 9 figs. (M.F.W.)

  16. New finds of stegosaur tracks from the Upper Jurassic Lourinhã formation, Portugal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateus, Octavio; Milàn, Jesper; Romano, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Eleven new tracks from the Upper Jurassic of Portugal are described and attributed to the stegosaurian ichnogenus Deltapodus. One track exhibits exceptionally well−preserved impressions of skin on the plantar surface, showing the stegosaur foot to be covered by closely spaced skin tubercles of ca...

  17. Middle-to-Upper Palaeolithic site formation processes at the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (Central France)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aubry, Thierry; Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2014-01-01

    . In this article we use the Middle and Early Upper Palaeolithic archaeo-stratigraphic record from the Bordes-Fitte rockshelter (les Roches d'Abilly site, Central France), a Bayesian analysis of the ages obtained by accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon on ultrafiltered collagen and by luminescence on quartz...

  18. Allogenic controls on the fluvial architecture and fossil preservation of the Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Carina E.; Limarino, Carlos O.; Alcober, Oscar A.

    2017-12-01

    The Upper Triassic Ischigualasto Formation in NW Argentina was deposited in a fluvial system during the synrift filling of the extensional Ischigualasto-Villa Unión Basin. The expansive exposures of the fluvial architecture and paleosols provide a framework to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental evolution of this basin during the Upper Triassic using continental sequence stratigraphy. The Ischigualasto Formation deposition can be divided into seven sequential sedimentary stages: the 1) Bypass stage; 2) Confined low-accommodation stage; 3) Confined high accommodation stage; 4) Unstable-accommodation stage; 5) Unconfined high-accommodation stage; 6) Unconfined low-accommodation stage; and finally, 7) Unconfined high-accommodation stage. The sedimentary evolution of the Ischigualasto Formation was driven by different allogenic controls such as rises and falls in lake levels, local tectonism, subsidence, volcanism, and climate, which also produced modifications of the equilibrium profile of the fluvial systems. All of these factors result in different accommodations in central and flank areas of the basin, which led to different architectural configurations of channels and floodplains. Allogenic processes affected not only the sequence stratigraphy of the basin but also the vertebrate and plant taphocenosis. Therefore, the sequence stratigraphy can be used not only as a predictive tool related to fossil occurrence but also to understand the taphonomic history of the basin at each temporal interval.

  19. Geology and formation of titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area, Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Javad Moghaddasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Fanuj titaniferous placer deposits are located 35 km northwest of the Fanuj, Sistan and Baluchestan province (1 . The studied area comprises a (2 small part of the late Cretaceous Fanuj-Maskutan (Rameshk ophiolite complex (Arshadi and Mahdavi, 1987. Reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration programs in the Fanuj district (East of the 1:100000 Fanuj quadrangle map,Yazdi, 2010 revealed that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. In this study, geology and formation of the titaniferous placer deposits in Upper Jogaz Valley area are discussed. Materials and Methods (3 Forty samples were collected from surface and drainage sediments to evaluate the potential for titaniferous placers. Mineralogical studies indicated the high Ti (ilmenite bearing areas, which led to detailed exploration by 29 shallow drill holes and 9 trenches. A total of 61 sub-surface samples were collected for heavy mineral studies and ore grade determination. The exploration studies suggest that the the Upper Jogaz Valley area in the Fanuj district has a high potential for titaniferous placer deposits. Extensive exposures of black sands in the sreambeds of this area suggested detailed sampling, so that 12 holes were drilled (2-3 m depthfrom which 26 samples were collected, and five trenches were excavated to 2-4 m depth (4. The distribution of drill holes and trenches were plotted with “Logplot” software for further interpretation. Twenty-two samples from these drill holes were analyzed for TiO2. Results The reconnaissance and comprehensive exploration in Fanuj district shows that the Upper Jogaz Valley area has the highest concentration of titaniferous placer deposits. The general geology of the region and petrology and mineralogy of collected samples suggest that the source rock of the Upper Jogaz Valley titaniferous placers is the hornblende- and olivine-gabbro unit of the Fanuj-Ramesh ophiolites. The Ti

  20. Anatomy of a mountain: The Thebes Limestone Formation (Lower Eocene) at Gebel Gurnah, Luxor, Nile Valley, Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Christopher; Dupuis, Christian; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Knox, Robert O.'B.; Galal, Wael Fathi; Baele, Jean-Marc

    2017-12-01

    We present a detailed geologic study of the Thebes Formation at Gebel Gurnah in its locus typicus on the West Bank (opposite Luxor) of the Nile River in the Upper Nile Valley, Egypt. This is the first detailed measurement and lithologic description of the ∼340 m thick (predominantly) carbonate section. The Thebes Formation is divided into thirteen major lithic units (A to M). We interpret data on the lithologic succession and variations, whole rock/clay mineralogy, and macro/micropaleontology in terms of deposition on a shallow carbonate platform episodically influenced by continental runoff, and describe six depositional sequences that we place in the global framework of Lower Eocene (Ypresian) sequence stratigraphy. We note however significant incompatibilities between the Thebes depositional sequences and the global sequences. We emend the definition of the Thebes Formation by defining its top as corresponding to level 326 m at the top of Nodular Limestone 'L' (NLL), and assigning the overlying beds to the Minia Limestone Formation. New biostratigraphic data and revision of previous studies establish the direct assignment of the Thebes Formation to planktonic foraminiferal Zones E4/P6b (upper part), E5/P7 and (indirectly) Zone E6/P8, and (probably, indirectly) Zone E7a/;P9;, and to calcareous nannofossil Zone NP12 and lower Zone NP13 of the Lower Eocene (Ypresian) and provide a temporal framework spanning ∼ 2.8 Myr from towards the end of the Early Eocene. Dominantly carbonate deposition, with a strongly reduced detrital influx, occurred on a very wide shelf (probably) at least ∼ 100 km from the coastline. The thick sedimentary succession and the marked vertical lithologic variations are interpreted as resulting from sea level fluctuations imprinted on a long-term decrease in sea-level associated with rapid subsidence reflecting tectonic relaxation after the major Late Paleocene tectonic reorganization of the Syrian Arc.

  1. Analysis on sequence stratigraphy and depositional systems of Mangbang formation, upper tertiary in Longchuanjiang basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Zexuan; Yao Yifeng; Chen Yong; Li Guoxin

    2004-01-01

    Longchuanjiang basin is a small Cenozoic intramontane down-faulted basin. This paper, combining the Pliocene structure, the volcanic activities and the sedimentation of the basin, analyses the sequence stratigraphy and the depositional systems of Mangbang formation (the cover of the basin). Based on the analysis of depositional systems of Mangbang formation, the depositional pattern of Pliocene in Longchuanjiang basin is set up. It is suggested that because of the fast accumulation in early down-faulted zone during Pliocene time, the alluvial fan depositional system was dominated at that time. During the middle-late period, the alluvial fan entered the lake forming a combination of fan-fandelta-lacustrine depositional systems. Authors propose a view point that the formation of Mangbang formation sequence was constrained by multistage tectonic movement, and three structural sequences were established, and system tracts were divided. (authors)

  2. New proposal for the Piedras de Afilar lithostratigraphic formation, upper Neo proterozoic of Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pamoukaghlian, K.; Gaucher, C.; Poire, D.

    2010-01-01

    This work is about the Piedras de Afilar lithostratigraphic formation which is part of Tandilia Precambrian terrain of Uruguay. This sedimentary sequence of Neo proterozoic age is supported by a Paleoproterozoic basement

  3. The palynology of the Cerrejon Formation (upper Paleocene) of northern Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo, C.A.; Pardo-Trujillo, A.; Rueda, M.; Torres, V.; Harrington, G.J.; Mora, G. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (United States)

    2007-07-01

    A palynological study of the Cerrejon Formation was conducted in order to date the formation and understand the floristic composition and diversity of a Paleocene tropical site. The Cerrejon Formation outcrops in the Cerrejon Coal Mine, the largest open cast coal mine in the world. Two cores (725 m) were provided by Carbones del Cerrejon LLC for study. Two hundred samples were prepared for palynology, and at least 150 palynomorphs were counted per sample where possible. Several statistical techniques including rarefaction, species accumulation curves, detrended correspondence analysis, and Anosim were used to analyze the floristic composition and diversity of the palynofloras. Palynomorph assemblages indicate that the age of the Cerrejon Formation and the overlying Tabaco Formation is Middle to Late Paleocene (ca. 60-58 Ma). Major structural repetitions were not found in the Cerrejon Formation in the Cerrejon coal mine, and there is little floral variation throughout. The floral composition, diversity, and lithofacies do not change significantly. Lithofacies associations and floral composition indicate deposition fluctuating from an estuarine-influenced coastal plain at the base to a fluvial-influenced coastal plain at the top. There are, however, significant differences in the composition and diversity of coal and siliciclastic samples. Coal palynofloras have fewer morphospecies, and a distinct and more homogeneous floral assemblage compared to assemblages from the intervening sisliciclastic strata, suggesting that tropical swampy environments supported fewer plant species and had a distinct vegetation adapted to permanently wet environments.

  4. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained

  5. Stratigraphy and depositional environments of the upper Pleistocene Chemehuevi Formation along the lower Colorado River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmon, Daniel V.; Howard, Keith A.; House, P. Kyle; Lundstrom, Scott C.; Pearthree, Philip A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Wan, Elmira; Wahl, David B.

    2011-01-01

    The Chemehuevi Formation forms a conspicuous, widespread, and correlative set of nonmarine sediments lining the valleys of the Colorado River and several of its larger tributaries in the Basin and Range geologic province. These sediments have been examined by geologists since J. S. Newberry visited the region in 1857 and are widely cited in the geologic literature; however their origin remains unresolved and their stratigraphic context has been confused by inconsistent nomenclature and by conflicting interpretations of their origin. This is one of the most prominent stratigraphic units along the river below the Grand Canyon, and the formation records an important event or set of events in the history of the Colorado River. Here we summarize what is known about these deposits throughout their range, present new stratigraphic, sedimentologic, topographic, and tephrochronologic data, and formally define them as a lithostratigraphic unit. The Chemehuevi Formation consists primarily of a bluff-forming mud facies, consisting of gypsum-bearing, horizontally bedded sand, silt, and clay, and a slope-forming sand facies containing poorly bedded, well sorted, quartz rich sand and scattered gravel. The sedimentary characteristics and fossil assemblages of the two facies types suggest that they were deposited in flood plain and channel environments, respectively. In addition to these two primary facies, we identify three other mappable facies in the formation: a thick-bedded rhythmite facies, now drowned by Lake Mead; a valley-margin facies containing abundant locally derived sediment; and several tributary facies consisting of mixed fluvial and lacustrine deposits in the lower parts of major tributary valleys. Observations from the subsurface and at outcrops near the elevation of the modern flood plain suggest that the formation also contains a regional basal gravel member. Surveys of numerous outcrops using high-precision GPS demonstrate that although the sand facies commonly

  6. A crocodylian trace from the Lance Formation (Upper Cretaceous) of Wyoming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkingham, Peter L; Milàn, Jesper; Manning, Philip L

    2010-01-01

    A 1.5-m-long double sinusoidal trace from the Lance Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A, is attributed a crocodylian origin. The trace forms part of a diverse tracksite containing dinosaur and bird tracks. The double sinusoidal nature of the trace is suggested to have originated from the dual undulatory...

  7. Palaeontology of the upper Turonian paralic deposits of the Sainte-Mondane Formation, Aquitaine Basin, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neraudenau, D.; Saint Martin, S.; Battern, D.J.; Colin, J.P.; Daviero-Gomez, V.; Girard, V.; Gomez, B.; Nohra, Y.A.; Polette, F.; Platel, J.P.; Saint Martin, J.P.; Vullo, R.

    2016-07-01

    The upper Turonian lignite deposits of Sainte-Mondane, Dordogne (Aquitaine Basin, SW France), consist of clays bearing translucent, orange to red, amber micrograins. The amber exhibits different types of microbial inclusions. The clays contain several conifers including the genera Brachyphyllum, Frenelopsis and Glenrosa, and a few leaf fragments of eudicot angiosperms. Among the plant meso-fossils the occurrence of Costatheca, Spermatites and abundant, diverse, megaspores, including species of Ariadnaesporites, Bacutriletes, Echitriletes, Erlansonisporites, Maexisporites, Minerisporites and Verrutriletes, is noteworthy. Pollen grains of the Normapolles group are important components of the palynomorph assemblage. The clays were deposited in a calm, estuarine or lagoonal, muddy environment. The overlying lignitic sands contain large fossil wood pieces of the conifer Agathoxylon, small solitary corals, fragmentary oysters and pectinids, echinoid spines, a few teeth of marine selachians and bony fishes, but no amber is present. These sands were deposited in a high-energy coastal marine environment. (Author)

  8. The Pangaean megamonsoon - evidence from the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation, Colorado Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubiel, R.F.; Totman, Parrish J.; Parrish, J.M.; Good, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Chinle was deposited between about 5?? to 15??N paleolatitude in the western equatorial region of Pangaea, a key area for documenting the effects of the monsoonal climate. This study summarizes sedimentological and paleontologic data from the Chinle Formation on the Colorado Plateau and integrates that data with paleoclimatic models. The evidence for abundant moisture and seasonality attest to the reversal of equatorial flow and support the hypothesis that the Triassic Pangaean climate was dominated by monsoonal circulation. -from Authors

  9. Sedimentology of the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic (?) Mosolotsane Formation (Karoo Supergroup), Kalahari Karoo Basin, Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Segwabe, Tebogo; Makuke, Bonno

    2010-08-01

    The Mosolotsane Formation (Lebung Group, Karoo Supergroup) in the Kalahari Karoo Basin of Botswana is a scantly exposed, terrestrial red bed succession which is lithologically correlated with the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic Molteno and Elliot Formations (Karoo Supergroup) in South Africa. New evidence derived from field observations and borehole data via sedimentary facies analysis allowed the assessment of the facies characteristics, distribution and thickness variation as well as palaeo-current directions and sediment composition, and resulted in the palaeo-environmental reconstruction of this poorly known unit. Our results show that the Mosolotsane Formation was deposited in a relatively low-sinuosity meandering river system that drained in a possibly semi-arid environment. Sandstone petrography revealed mainly quartz-rich arenites that were derived from a continental block provenance dominated by metamorphic and/or igneous rocks. Palaeo-flow measurements indicate reasonably strong, unidirectional current patterns with mean flow directions from southeast and east-southeast to northwest and west-northwest. Regional thickness and facies distributions as well as palaeo-drainage indicators suggest that the main depocenter of the Mosolotsane Formation was in the central part of the Kalahari Karoo Basin. Separated from this main depocenter by a west-northwest - east-southeast trending elevated area, an additional depocenter was situated in the north-northeast part of the basin and probably formed part of the Mid-Zambezi Karoo Basin. In addition, data also suggests that further northeast-southwest trending uplands probably existed in the northwest and east, the latter separating the main Kalahari Karoo depocenter from the Tuli Basin.

  10. Integrated Modeling and Carbonate Reservoir Analysis, Upper Jurassic Smackover Formation, Fishpond Field, Southwest Alabama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Alexander Emory

    This field case study focuses on Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian) Smackover hydrocarbon reservoir characterization, modeling and evaluation at Fishpond Field, Escambia County, Alabama, eastern Gulf Coastal Plain of North America. The field is located in the Conecuh Embayment area, south of the Little Cedar Creek Field in Conecuh County and east of Appleton Field in Escambia County. In the Conecuh Embayment, Smackover microbial buildups commonly developed on Paleozoic basement paleohighs in an inner to middle carbonate ramp setting. The microbial and associated facies identified in Fishpond Field are: (F-1) peloidal wackestone, (F-2) peloidal packstone, (F-3) peloidal grainstone, (F-4) peloidal grainstone/packstone, (F-5) microbially-influenced wackestone, (F-6) microbially-influenced packstone, (F-7) microbial boundstone, (F-8) oolitic grainstone, (F-9) shale, and (F-10) dolomitized wackestone/packstone. The Smackover section consists of an alternation of carbonate facies, including F-1 through F-8. The repetitive vertical trend in facies indicates variations in depositional conditions in the area as a result of changes in water depth, energy conditions, salinity, and/or water chemistry due to temporal variations or changes in relative sea level. Accommodation for sediment accumulation also was produced by a change in base level due to differential movement of basement rocks as a result of faulting and/or subsidence due to burial compaction and extension. These changes in base level contributed to the development of a microbial buildup that ranges between 130-165 ft in thickness. The Fishpond Field carbonate reservoir includes a lower microbial buildup interval, a middle grainstone/packstone interval and an upper microbial buildup interval. The Fishpond Field has sedimentary and petroleum system characteristics similar to the neighboring Appleton and Little Cedar Creek Fields, but also has distinct differences from these Smackover fields. The characteristics of the

  11. Gas chromatograph study of bitumen from oil shale of Amman Formation (upper cretaceous), NW Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, H.; Mustafa, H.

    1997-01-01

    The extractable organic matter of seven outcrop samples of Amman Formation Oil Shale have been analysed by Gas Chromatography (GC). The bitumen is rich in heterocompounds contents (> 60 wt%). Gas chromatograms show a predominance of iosprenoids, specially phytane over n-alkanes, and low carbon preference index (CPI). This indicates that the organic matter is immature, and its origin is mainly of marine organisms. These rocks could be possible source rocks due to the high content of hydrocarbon. (authors). 22 refs., 4 figs. 3 tabs

  12. Environmental significance of Upper Miocene phosphorites at hominid sites in the Lukeino Formation (Tugen Hills, Kenya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dericquebourg, Perrine; Person, Alain; Ségalen, Loïc; Pickford, Martin; Senut, Brigitte; Fagel, Nathalie

    2015-08-01

    The Lukeino Formation contains an important sedimentary and fossiliferous record of the late Miocene (6.09-5.68 Ma), which has in particular yielded the fossil remains of the oldest East African bipedal hominid called Orrorin tugenensis. This fluvio-lacustrine sedimentary succession crops out in the Kenyan part of the East African Rift. It is mainly composed of clay to sandy clay deposits intercalated with volcanic ash horizons, and localized layers of carbonates and diatomites. A detailed sedimentological and mineralogical study of the Lukeino Formation was conducted to throw light on the environmental conditions in which the hominids lived. Several centimetric, relatively continuous and indurated phosphatic horizons, of sedimentary origin, were identified at two sites (Sunbarua and Kapcheberek). Mineralogical (XRD) and geochemical analyses as well as observations by SEM, which was coupled with an energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) microprobe, indicate that the autochthonous phosphate layers are composed of a micritic matrix of francolite (38-93%), with incorporation of silicates in variable proportions from one layer to another. The phosphate matrix contains very well preserved and abundant diatom frustules in the basal phosphate layer. These diatoms are identified as Aulacoseira granulata, implying a pH of 7.8-8.2 for freshwaters of the Palaeolake Lukeino. Calcitic tubular structures, linked to a possible bacterial origin, are also observed locally. Phosphate layers occur abruptly within a thick clay-sandy series, associated with an intense runoff phase during the deposition of this interval of the Lukeino Formation. The massive and cyclic input of phosphorus to the lake promoted productivity to the stage where it caused a diatom bloom. The establishment of several phosphate horizons testifies to successive phases of eutrophication of Palaeolake Lukeino. The diatom cells provided some of the organic matter, which was decomposed by bacterial activity at the

  13. Formation mechanisms and sequence response of authigenic grain-coating chlorite: evidence from the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation in the southern Sichuan Basin, China

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    Yu Yu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Authigenic grain-coating chlorite is widely distributed in the clastic rocks of many sedimentary basins around the world. These iron minerals were mainly derived from flocculent precipitates formed when rivers flow into the ocean, especially in deltaic environments with high hydrodynamic conditions. At the same time, sandstone sequences with grain-coating chlorites also tend to have relatively high glauconite and pyrite content. EPMA composition analysis shows that glauconites with “high Al and low Fe” content indicate slightly to semi-saline marine environments with weak alkaline and weakly reducing conditions. By analyzing the chlorite-containing sandstone bodies of the southern Sichuan Xujiahe Formation, this study found that chlorite was mainly distributed in sedimentary microfacies, including underwater distributary channels, distributary channels, shallow lake sandstone dams, and mouth bars. Chlorite had a tendency to form in the upper parts of sandstone bodies with signs of increased base level, representing the influence of marine (lacustrine transgression. This is believed to be influenced by megamonsoons in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region during the Late Triassic Epoch. During periods of abundant precipitation, river discharges increased and more Fe particulates flowed into the ocean (lake. In the meantime, increases or decreases in lake level were only affected by precipitation for short periods of time. The sedimentary environment shifted from weakly oxidizing to weak alkaline, weakly reducing conditions as sea level increased, and Fe-rich minerals as authigenic chlorite and glauconite began to form and deposit.

  14. Paleoclimate cycles and tectonic controls on fluvial, lacustrine, and eolian strata in upper Triassic Chinle Formation, San Juan basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubiel, R.F. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Sedimentologic study of the Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the San Juan basin (SJB) indicates that Late Triassic paleoclimate and tectonic movements influenced the distribution of continental lithofacies. The Shinarump, Monitor Butte, and Petrified Forest Members in the lower part of the Chinle consist of complexly interfingered fluvial, floodplain, marsh, and lacustrine rocks; the Owl Rock and Rock Point Members in the upper part consists of lacustrine-basin and eolian sandsheet strata. Facies analysis, vertebrate and invertebrate paleontology, and paleoclimate models demonstrate that the Late Triassic was dominated by tropical monsoonal circulation, which provided abundant precipitation interspersed with seasonally dry periods. Owl Rock lacustrine strata comprise laminated limestones that reflect seasonal monsoonal precipitation and larger scale, interbedded carbonates and fine-grained clastics that represent longer term, alternating wet and dry climatic cycles. Overlying Rock Point eolian sand-sheet and dune deposits indicate persistent alternating but drier climatic cyclicity. Within the Chinle, upward succession of lacustrine, alternating lacustrine/eolian sand-sheet, and eolian sand-sheet/dune deposits reflects an overall decrease in precipitation due to the northward migration of Pangaea out of low latitudes dominated by monsoonal circulation.

  15. Regional diagenesis of sandstone in the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansley, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    The author reports that early authigenic mineral assemblages and vitroclastic textures are very well preserved in upper sandstones of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation. The distributions of the authigenic minerals were controlled, in part, by chemical gradients in a large saline, alkaline lake (Lake T'oo'dichi) that existed in late Morrison time. Sandstones on lake margins were cemented by smectite and silica, whereas sandstones nearer the lake center, in which waters were most saline and alkaline, were cemented by zeolites. Diagenetic alterations in sandstones were promoted by alkaline interstitial waters that emanated from adjacent fine-grained, tuffaceous lake beds. Metastable phases that precipitated first were replaced relatively quickly by more stable, ordered phases in the geochemically favorable environment of the closed basin setting. Elevation of temperatures above the geothermal gradient was proved by the influx of warm, deep-basin waters that locally modified early diagenetic assemblages during burial diagenesis. In organic- (and commonly also uranium ore-) bearing sandstones located primarily in the southern part of the basin, complex diagenetic assemblages resulted from water/rock reactions involving soluble organic complexes

  16. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farke, Andrew A; Phillips, George E

    2017-01-01

    Ceratopsids ("horned dinosaurs") are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian) of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  17. The first reported ceratopsid dinosaur from eastern North America (Owl Creek Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Mississippi, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Farke

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ceratopsids (“horned dinosaurs” are known from western North America and Asia, a distribution reflecting an inferred subaerial link between the two landmasses during the Late Cretaceous. However, this clade was previously unknown from eastern North America, presumably due to limited outcrop of the appropriate age and depositional environment as well as the separation of eastern and western North America by the Western Interior Seaway during much of the Late Cretaceous. A dentary tooth from the Owl Creek Formation (late Maastrichtian of Union County, Mississippi, represents the first reported occurrence of Ceratopsidae from eastern North America. This tooth shows a combination of features typical of Ceratopsidae, including a double root and a prominent, blade-like carina. Based on the age of the fossil, we hypothesize that it is consistent with a dispersal of ceratopsids into eastern North America during the very latest Cretaceous, presumably after the two halves of North America were reunited following the retreat of the Western Interior Seaway.

  18. Stratigraphy and structural setting of Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation, western Centennial Mountains, southwestern Montana and southeastern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Nichols, D.J.; Obradovich, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    Stratigraphic, sedimentologic, and palynologic data were used to correlate the Frontier Formation of the western Centennial Mountains with time-equivalent rocks in the Lima Peaks area and other nearby areas in southwestern Montana. The stratigraphic interval studied is in the middle and upper parts (but not uppermost) of the formation based on a comparison of sandstone petrography, palynologic age data, and our interpretation of the structure using a seismic line along the frontal zone of the Centennial Mountains and the adjacent Centennial Valley. The Frontier Formation is comprised of sandstone, siltstone, mudstone, limestone, and silty shale in fluvial and coastal depositional settings. A distinctive characteristic of these strata in the western Centennial Mountains is the absence of conglomerate and conglomeratic sandstone beds. Absence of conglomerate beds may be due to lateral facies changes associated with fluvial systems, a distal fining of grain size, and the absence of both uppermost and lower Frontier rocks in the study area. Palynostratigraphic data indicate a Coniacian age for the Frontier Formation in the western Centennial Mountains. These data are supported by a geochronologic age from the middle part of the Frontier at Lima Peaks indicating a possible late Coniacian-early Santonian age (86.25 ?? 0.38 Ma) for the middle Frontier there. The Frontier Formation in the western Centennial Mountains is comparable in age and thickness to part of the Frontier at Lima Peaks. These rocks represent one of the thickest known sequences of Frontier strata in the Rocky Mountain region. Deposition was from about 95 to 86 Ma (middle Cenomanian to at least early Santonian), during which time, shoreface sandstone of the Telegraph Creek Formation and marine shale of the Cody Shale were deposited to the east in the area now occupied by the Madison Range in southwestern Montana. Frontier strata in the western Centennial Mountains are structurally isolated from other

  19. Characterization of lacustrine shale pore structure: The Upper-Triassic Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin, China

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    Yuxi Yu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amounts of silty laminae in continental shale gas reservoir were investigated in the Zhangjiatan shale of the Yanchang Formation, Ordos Basin. The purpose of this study is to provide awareness in terms of the nature and discrepancies in pore structure between silty laminae and clayey laminae. By mechanically separating the silty laminae from the shale core, a combination measurement series of mercury injection capillary pressure, N2 adsorption, and carbon dioxide adsorption were performed on the aforementioned two parts. An integrated pore size distribution, with a pore diameter range of 0.1 nm-100 μm, was obtained by using appropriate sample particle size and calculation model. The comparative analysis of the pore structure shows that the clayey laminae are dominated by mesopore and micropore; meanwhile, the silty laminae are dominated by macropore alone. The pore volume distribution in clayey laminae is sorted as mesopore volume > micropore volume > macropore volume, on the other hand, for silty laminae it is macropore volume > mesopore volume > micropore volume. The averaged total pore volume of silty laminae is 2.02 cc/100 g, and for clayey laminae, it is 1.41 cc/100 g. The porosity of silty laminae is 5.40%, which is greater than that of clayey laminae's 3.67%. Since silty laminae have larger pore width and pore space, they are more permeable and porous than the clayey laminae; it also acts as a favorable conduit and reservoir for shale gas.

  20. Reconstruction of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation extinct ecosystem—a synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Christine E.; Peterson, Fred

    2004-05-01

    A synthesis of recent and previous studies of the Morrison Formation and related beds, in the context of a conceptual climatic/hydrologic framework, permits reconstruction of the Late Jurassic dinosaurian ecosystem throughout the Western Interior of the United States and Canada. Climate models and geologic evidence indicate that a dry climate persisted in the Western Interior during the Late Jurassic. Early and Middle Kimmeridgian eolian deposits and Late Kimmeridgian alkaline, saline wetland/lacustrine deposits demonstrate that dryness persisted throughout the Kimmeridgian. Tithonian-age coal reflects lower evaporation rates associated with a slight cooling trend, but not a significant climate change. With a subtropical high over the Paleo-Pacific Ocean and atmospheric circulation generally toward the east, moisture carried by prevailing winds "rained out" progressively eastward, leaving the continental interior—and the Morrison depositional basin—dry. Within the basin, high evaporation rates associated with the southerly paleolatitude and greenhouse effects added to the dryness. Consequently, the two main sources of water—groundwater and surface water—originated outside the basin, through recharge of regional aquifers and streams that originated in the western uplands. Precipitation that fell west of the basin recharged aquifers that underlay the basin and discharged in wetlands and lakes in the distal, low-lying part of the basin. Precipitation west of the basin also fed intermittent and scarce perennial streams that flowed eastward. The streams were probably "losing" streams in their upstream reaches, and contributed to a locally raised water table. Elsewhere in the basin, where the floodplain intersected the water table, small lakes dotted the landscape. Seasonal storms, perhaps in part from the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico, brought some precipitation directly to the basin, although it was also subjected to "rain out" en route. Thus, meteoric input to the

  1. Reconstruction of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation extinct ecosystem - A synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, C.E.; Peterson, F.

    2004-01-01

    A synthesis of recent and previous studies of the Morrison Formation and related beds, in the context of a conceptual climatic/hydrologic framework, permits reconstruction of the Late Jurassic dinosaurian ecosystem throughout the Western Interior of the United States and Canada. Climate models and geologic evidence indicate that a dry climate persisted in the Western Interior during the Late Jurassic. Early and Middle Kimmeridgian eolian deposits and Late Kimmeridgian alkaline, saline wetland/lacustrine deposits demonstrate that dryness persisted throughout the Kimmeridgian. Tithonian-age coal reflects lower evaporation rates associated with a slight cooling trend, but not a significant climate change. With a subtropical high over the Paleo-Pacific Ocean and atmospheric circulation generally toward the east, moisture carried by prevailing winds "rained out" progressively eastward, leaving the continental interior-and the Morrison depositional basin-dry. Within the basin, high evaporation rates associated with the southerly paleolatitude and greenhouse effects added to the dryness. Consequently, the two main sources of water-groundwater and surface water-originated outside the basin, through recharge of regional aquifers and streams that originated in the western uplands. Precipitation that fell west of the basin recharged aquifers that underlay the basin and discharged in wetlands and lakes in the distal, low-lying part of the basin. Precipitation west of the basin also fed intermittent and scarce perennial streams that flowed eastward. The streams were probably "losing" streams in their upstream reaches, and contributed to a locally raised water table. Elsewhere in the basin, where the floodplain intersected the water table, small lakes dotted the landscape. Seasonal storms, perhaps in part from the Paleo-Gulf of Mexico, brought some precipitation directly to the basin, although it was also subjected to "rain out" en route. Thus, meteoric input to the basin was

  2. Preliminary report on the Oldenburg “butter shale” in the Upper Ordovician (Katian; Richmondian Waynesville Formation, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Aucoin

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The Cincinnatian Series (Upper Ordovician; upper Katian of the Cincinnati Arch region, Ohio, Indiana and Kentucky contains several bed packages informally referred to as “butter shales” or “trilobite shales”. These packages are typically 1–2 m of relatively pure, homogeneous claystone with isolated, lenticular limestone beds. These claystones are most widely known for their excellent preservation of abundant trilobites, especially Isotelus and Flexicalymene, as well as diverse and commonly articulated bivalves, and nautiloids. A newly recognized butter shale interval in the Clarksville Member of the Waynesville Formation contains a typical butter-shale fossil assemblage, dominated by bivalves, orthoconic cephalopods and trilobites. To better study the fabric of this claystone, a large, epoxy-coated block of the claystone was dry-cut. Polished surfaces show a variety of otherwise cryptic features, including pervasive bioturbation and the presence of probable lingulid escape burrows (Lingulichnus, as well as abundant fodinichnia (Chondrites, Planolites, Teichichnus. Preservation of articulated trilobites and closed bivalves in approximate living position, as well as escape burrows, indicates deposition as a series of mud burial events or obrution deposits. We suggest that the butter shales resulted from net accumulation of multiple episodes of re-suspended mud deposition, which rapidly smothered organisms and resulted in exceptional preservation. Between events the seafloor was colonized by abundant deposit-feeding infaunal organisms, which destabilized the substrate and generated turbidity near the sediment–water interface, thus inhibiting sessile suspension feeders. Rapid net deposition was also interrupted by more prolonged periods (tens to hundreds of years of low sedimentation that permitted colonization by epifaunal brachiopod-dominated communities. While most butter shale units are regionally extensive, the Oldenburg is

  3. Regional paleohydrologic and paleoclimatic settings of wetland/lacustrine depositional systems in the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic), Western Interior, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunagan, S.P.; Turner, C.E.

    2004-01-01

    During deposition of the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation, water that originated as precipitation in uplands to the west of the Western Interior depositional basin infiltrated regional aquifers that underlay the basin. This regional groundwater system delivered water into the otherwise dry continental interior basin where it discharged to form two major wetland/lacustrine successions. A freshwater carbonate wetland/lacustrine succession formed in the distal reaches of the basin, where regional groundwater discharged into the Denver-Julesburg Basin, which was a smaller structural basin within the more extensive Western Interior depositional basin. An alkaline-saline wetland/lacustrine complex (Lake T'oo'dichi') formed farther upstream, where shallower aquifers discharged into the San Juan/Paradox Basin, which was another small structural basin in the Western Interior depositional basin. These were both wetlands in the sense that groundwater was the major source of water. Input from surface and meteoric water was limited. In both basins, lacustrine conditions developed during episodes of increased input of surface water. Inclusion of wetlands in our interpretation of what had previously been considered largely lacustrine systems has important implications for paleohydrology and paleoclimatology. The distal carbonate wetland/lacustrine deposits are well developed in the Morrison Formation of east-central Colorado, occupying a stratigraphic interval that is equivalent to the "lower" Morrison but extends into the "upper" Morrison Formation. Sedimentologic, paleontologic, and isotopic evidence indicate that regional groundwater discharge maintained shallow, hydrologically open, well oxygenated, perennial carbonate wetlands and lakes despite the semi-arid climate. Wetland deposits include charophyte-rich wackestone and green mudstone. Lacustrine episodes, in which surface water input was significant, were times of carbonate and siliciclastic deposition in scarce deltaic

  4. Petrogenesis, detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology, and tectonic implications of the Upper Paleoproterozoic Seosan iron formation, western Gyeonggi Massif, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Seong; Jang, Yirang; Samuel, Vinod O.; Kwon, Sanghoon; Park, Jung-Woo; Yi, Keewook; Choi, Seon-Gyu

    2018-05-01

    This study involves investigations on the Upper Paleoproterozoic iron formation (viz., Seosan iron formation) from the Seosan Group, Gyeonggi Massif of the southwestern Korean Peninsula. It occurs as thin banded layers within meta-arkosic sandstone, formed by alternating processes of chemical (hydrothermal) and detrital depositions under a shallow marine environment. It mainly consists of alternating layers of iron oxides, mostly hematite, and quartz. Minor amounts of magnetite surrounded by muscovite, clinopyroxene and amphibole indicate hydrothermal alteration since its formation. Meta-arkosic sandstone is composed of recrystallized or porphyroclastic quartz and microcline, with small amounts of hematite and pyrite clusters. The Seosan iron formation has high contents of total Fe2O3 and SiO2 with positive Eu anomalies similar to those of other Precambrian banded iron formations, and its formation is clearly related to hydrothermal alteration since its deposition. Detrital zircon SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology data from a meta-arkosic sandstone (SN-1) and an iron formation (SN-2) show mainly two age groups of ca. 2.5 Ga and ca. 1.9-1.75 Ga. This together with intrusion age of the granite gneiss (ca. 1.70-1.65 Ga) clearly indicate that the iron formations were deposited during the Upper Paleoproterozoic. The dominant Paleoproterozoic detrital zircon bimodal age peaks preserved in the Seosan iron formation compare well with those from the South China Craton sedimentary basins, reflecting global tectonic events related to the Columbia supercontinent in East Asia.

  5. Using the characteristics of the structure of the upper Frasnian salt bearing formation in prospecting for oil deposits in the Pripyat depression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yeroshina, D.M.; Kislik, V.Z.; Sinichka, A.M.; Vysotskiy, E.A.

    1984-01-01

    The possibility is shown of using the structure of the upper Frasnian salt bearing formation to establish ancient depressions and uplifts. A gradual wedge out of the lower strata of rock salt towards the domes of the ancient uplifts occurs. It is recommended that several reflecting levels be built up in the base of the salt bearing formation to record the behavior of these strata.

  6. Field-scale forward modelling of a shallow marine carbonate ramp: the Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (onshore Abu Dhabi - UAE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchionda, Elisabetta; Deschamps, Rémy; Nader, Fadi H.; Ceriani, Andrea; Di Giulio, Andrea; Lawrence, David; Morad, Daniel J.

    2017-04-01

    The stratigraphic record of a carbonate system is the result of the interplay of several local and global factors that control the physical and the biological responses within a basin. Conceptual models cannot be detailed enough to take into account all the processes that control the deposition of sediments. The evaluation of the key controlling parameters on the sedimentation can be investigated with the use of stratigraphic forward models, that permit dynamic and quantitative simulations of the sedimentary basin infill. This work focuses on an onshore Abu Dhabi field (UAE) and it aims to provide a complete picture of the stratigraphic evolution of Upper Jurassic Arab Formation (Fm.). In this study, we started with the definition of the field-scale conceptual depositional model of the Formation, resulting from facies and well log analysis based on five wells. The Arab Fm. could be defined as a shallow marine carbonate ramp, that ranges from outer ramp deposits to supratidal/evaporitic facies association (from bottom to top). With the reconstruction of the sequence stratigraphic pattern and several paleofacies maps, it was possible to suggest multiple directions of progradations at local scale. Then, a 3D forward modelling tool has been used to i) identify and quantify the controlling parameters on geometries and facies distribution of the Arab Fm.; ii) predict the stratigraphic architecture of the Arab Fm.; and iii) integrate and validate the conceptual model. Numerous constraints were set during the different simulations and sensitivity analyses were performed testing the carbonate production, eustatic oscillations and transport parameters. To verify the geological consistency the 3D forward modelling has been calibrated with the available control points (five wells) in terms of thickness and facies distribution.

  7. Relationship between petrographic pore types and core measurements in sandstones of the Monserrate Formation, upper Magdalena Valley, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, R; Cobaleda, G; Barclay, Ferm

    1997-01-01

    Patterns of porosity in sandstones of the Monserrate Formation (Upper Magdalena Valley) exposed in polished blocks have been digitally recorded using an image processor coupled to a scanning electron microscope operated in back scatter electron mode. Additionally, porosity, permeability and response to mercury injection-capillary pressure tests were measured on some of the imaged samples. Porosity pattern were evaluated via an erosion/dilation-differencing image-processing algorithm and then classified by the self-training classifier, SAWVEC. Changes in the resulting pore type proportions were strongly associated with changes in the mercury porosimetry curves. From the image processing data, five pore types, sufficient to include all of the variability in size and shape of the patterns of porosity, were identified. Variations in the number of pares of each type per unit cross sectional area were related to variations in permeability. The resultant relationships with mercury porosimetry demonstrated that pares of the same type tends to form microcircuits characterized by a limited throat size range. Permeability modeling showed that intergranular Pare Types 2 and 4 (secondary porosity resulting from carbonate dissolution) are responsible for permeability in the 0,01 - 0,1 0 Darcy range. Type 5 pares (large molds) slightly contribute to permeability, except in coarse grained rocks where they are efficiently connected by micro fractures

  8. A new upper jurassic ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaur from the Slottsmøya Member, Agardhfjellet formation of central Spitsbergen.

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    Aubrey Jane Roberts

    Full Text Available Abundant new ichthyosaur material has recently been documented in the Slottsmøya Member of the Agardhfjellet Formation from the Svalbard archipelago of Norway. Here we describe a partial skeleton of a new taxon, Janusaurus lundi, that includes much of the skull and representative portions of the postcranium. The new taxon is diagnosed by a suite of cranial character states including a very gracile stapedial shaft, the presence of a dorsal process on the prearticular and autapomorphic postcranial features such as the presence of an interclavicular trough and a conspicuous anterodorsal process of the ilium. The peculiar morphology of the ilia indicates a previously unrecognized degree of morphological variation in the pelvic girdle of ophthalmosaurids. We also present a large species level phylogenetic analysis of ophthalmosaurids including new and undescribed ichthyosaur material from the Upper Jurassic of Svalbard. Our results recover all Svalbard taxa in a single unresolved polytomy nested within Ophthalmosaurinae, which considerably increases the taxonomic composition of this clade. The paleobiogeographical implications of this result suggest the presence of a single clade of Boreal ophthalmosaurid ichthyosaurs that existed during the latest Jurassic, a pattern also reflected in the high degree of endemicity among some Boreal invertebrates, particularly ammonoids. Recent and ongoing descriptions of marine reptiles from the Slottsmøya Member Lagerstätte provide important new data to test hypotheses of marine amniote faunal turnover at the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary.

  9. The origin of volcanic rock fragments in Upper Pliocene Grad Member of the Mura Formation, North-Eastern Slovenia

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    Polona Kralj

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fresh-water, coarse-grained and detritus-dominated Mura Formation in North Eastern Slovenia includes pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits originating from Upper Pliocene volcanic activity of basaltic geochemical character. Although localized in occurrence at the hamlet Grad, these pyroclastic and volcaniclastic sediments forma distinctive depositional unit, for which the term “Grad Member” is proposed and introduced in this paper.In the Grad area no lavas or cinder cones are preserved, and the origin of volcaniclastic fragments still uncertain. For this reason, chemical composition of basaltic rock fragments from the Grad Member volcaniclastics has been studied and compared with basaltic rocks from the neighboring locations at Klöch, Kindsberg, Dölling and Neuhaus. The Grad Member pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits seem to be fed from the same source which is different from the occurrences in Austria. That supports the idea about the existence of a local volcanic centre in the present Grad area. The old volcanic edificeswerepossiblydestroyed by the late-stage hydrovolcanic eruptions, and pyroclastic and volcaniclastic deposits subjected to constant reworking by fluvial currents in a dynamic sedimentary environment of alluvial fan and braided river systems.

  10. Characteristics of depositional environment and evolution of Upper Cretaceous Mishrif Formation, Halfaya Oil field, Iraq based on sedimentary microfacies analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yuan; Zhou, Lu; Tan, Xiucheng; Guo, Rui; Zhao, Limin; Li, Fei; Jin, Zhimin; Chen, Yantao

    2018-04-01

    As one of the most important carbonate targets in the Middle East, Upper Cretaceous Mishrif Formation has been highlighted for a long time. Although consensus has been reached on the overall sedimentary background, disputes still exist in understanding the sedimentary environment changes among sub-regions due to relatively limited research, rare outcrop, and incomplete drilled core, which hinders the analysis on sedimentary environment and thus the horizontal and vertical correlation. In this study, taking the Halfaya Oil Field as an example, the sedimentary microfacies analysis method was introduced to comprehensively characterize the cored interval of Mishrif Formation, including Single Layers MC1-1 to MA2. A total of 11 sedimentary microfacies are identified through system identification of sedimentary microfacies and environmental analysis, with reference to the standard microfacies classification in the rimmed carbonate platform. Then three kinds of environments are identified through microfacies assemblage analysis, namely restricted platform, open platform, and platform margin. Systematic analyses indicate that the deposits are mainly developed in the open platform and platform margin. Meanwhile, rock-electricity interpretation model is established according to the electricity response to cored intervals, and is then employed to interpret the uncored intervals, which finally helps build the sedimentary evolution pattern through horizontal and vertical correlation. It is proposed that the Single Layers MC1-1 to MB2-3 were deposited in the open platform featured by low water level, including sub-environments of low-energy shoal within platform and inter-shoal sea; Single Layers MB2-2 to MB1-2B were deposited in the open platform and platform margin, including sub-environments of high-energy shoal on the platform margin, low-energy shoal within platform, inter-shoal sea, and open sea; and Single Layers MB1-2A to MA2 were again deposited in the open platform

  11. A new squamate lizard from the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group, São Paulo State, Brazil

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    William R. Nava

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The record of non-mosasaur squamates (Reptilia, Squamata is sparse in the Cretaceus fossil record of Brazil and include six putative reports, three from the Aptian-Albian of the Araripe Basin (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior and Marques, Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans and Yabumoto, and a lizard indet. and three from the Upper Cretaceous of the Bauru Group (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., and Squamata gen. et sp. indet.. In this contribution, a new genus and species of lizard, Brasiliguana prudentis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on an isolated left maxilla with teeth. The material was discovered in an outcrop of the Upper Cretaceous Adamantina Formation (Bauru Group located in the proximity of Presidente Prudente Municipality, São Paulo State, Brazil. The new taxon is considered a basal non-Priscagamidae+Acrodonta iguanian based on the presence of a weakly inclined anterior margin of the maxillary nasal process and maxillary tooth shape and tooth implantation similar to that of iguanians rather than of other lizard groups (e.g. teiids. This finding significantly increases the squamate lizard diversity of South America, which is still poorly understood and sparsely represented in the fossil record.Os achados de escamados (Reptilia, Squamata são escassos no Cretáceo do Brasil, incluindo cinco registros pontuais, dois do Aptiano-Albiano da Bacia do Araripe (Tijubina pontei Bonfim-Júnior e Marques e Olindalacerta brasiliensis Evans e Yabumoto, e três do Cretáceo Superior do Grupo Bauru (Pristiguana brasiliensis Estes and Price, Anilioidae gen. et sp. indet., Squamata gen. et sp. indet.. Nesta contribuição apresentamos um novo gênero e espécie de lagarto, Brasiliguana prudentis, baseado numa maxila esquerda com dentição. O material provém de depósitos da Formação Adamantina aflorantes próximos a cidade de Presidente Prudente, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. O novo táxon é considerado um

  12. Reservoir characterization of the Upper Jurassic geothermal target formations (Molasse Basin, Germany): role of thermofacies as exploration tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homuth, S.; Götz, A. E.; Sass, I.

    2015-06-01

    The Upper Jurassic carbonates of the southern German Molasse Basin are the target of numerous geothermal combined heat and power production projects since the year 2000. A production-orientated reservoir characterization is therefore of high economic interest. Outcrop analogue studies enable reservoir property prediction by determination and correlation of lithofacies-related thermo- and petrophysical parameters. A thermofacies classification of the carbonate formations serves to identify heterogeneities and production zones. The hydraulic conductivity is mainly controlled by tectonic structures and karstification, whilst the type and grade of karstification is facies related. The rock permeability has only a minor effect on the reservoir's sustainability. Physical parameters determined on oven-dried samples have to be corrected, applying reservoir transfer models to water-saturated reservoir conditions. To validate these calculated parameters, a Thermo-Triaxial-Cell simulating the temperature and pressure conditions of the reservoir is used and calorimetric and thermal conductivity measurements under elevated temperature conditions are performed. Additionally, core and cutting material from a 1600 m deep research drilling and a 4850 m (total vertical depth, measured depth: 6020 m) deep well is used to validate the reservoir property predictions. Under reservoir conditions a decrease in permeability of 2-3 magnitudes is observed due to the thermal expansion of the rock matrix. For tight carbonates the matrix permeability is temperature-controlled; the thermophysical matrix parameters are density-controlled. Density increases typically with depth and especially with higher dolomite content. Therefore, thermal conductivity increases; however the dominant factor temperature also decreases the thermal conductivity. Specific heat capacity typically increases with increasing depth and temperature. The lithofacies-related characterization and prediction of reservoir

  13. ATom observations of new particle formation in the tropical upper troposphere. The role of convection and nucleation mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupc, A.; Williamson, C.; Hodshire, A. L.; Pierce, J. R.; Ray, E. A.; Froyd, K. D.; Richardson, M.; Weinzierl, B.; Dollner, M.; Erdesz, F.; Bui, T. V.; Diskin, G. S.; Brock, C. A.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of size distributions during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) reveal high number concentrations (>>1000 cm-3) of nucleation mode particles at high altitudes in the tropics and subtropics under low condensation sink conditions and are associated with upwelling in convective clouds. The broad spatial extent of these newly formed particles shows that the upper free troposphere (FT) of the tropics and subtropics is a globally significant source. In this study, we investigate the link between convection and new particle formation (NPF) by exploring the processes that govern NPF and growth in the tropical and subtropical FT of the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. We use measurements of the size distributions made with a suite of fast-response instruments on board of a NASA DC-8 aircraft during ATom mission. ATom maps the remote atmosphere over the Pacific and Atlantic basins ( 80 °N and 65 °S) in continuous ascents and descents (0.2 and 13 km), providing the latitudinal and vertical information on the greenhouse gases, reactive and tracer species and aerosol properties and their seasonal variability. We couple measurements of size distributions between 0.003 and 4.8 µm and potential aerosol precursor vapors measured on ATom (August 2016 and February 2017) with calculated air mass back trajectories and the TwO-Moment Aerosol Sectional (TOMAS) box model. The back trajectories identify air masses potentially influenced by recent convection. We then use TOMAS to model particle nucleation, condensation and coagulation along that trajectory to investigate the link between convection and NPF. Through TOMAS, we explore the influence of different nucleation mechanisms (such as binary, ternary or the one with organics) and gas-phase aerosol precursors (such as sulfur dioxide) on observed particle size distributions. We discuss similarities and differences in NPF over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans and their relationship to convection, examine particle

  14. Glacial loess or shoreface sands: a re-interpretation of the Upper Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial Ammar Formation, Southern Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B. R.; Makhlouf, I. M.; Armstrong, H. A.

    2003-04-01

    Upper Ordovician (Ashgillian) glacial deposits of the Ammar Formation, Southern Jordan, comprise locally deformed, structureless fine sandstone, incised by glacial channels filled by braided outwash plain sandstones and transgressive marine mudstones. The structureless sandstones, previously interpreted as a glacial rock flour or loessite derived from the underlying undisturbed sandstones, differ significantly from typical loessite and contain hitherto unrecognised sedimentary structures, including hummocky cross-stratification. The sandstones, which grade laterally and vertically into stratigraphically equivalent undeformed marginal marine sandstones, are interpreted as a deformed facies of the underlying sandstones, deposited in a similar high energy shoreface environment. Although deformation of the shoreface sandstones was post-depositional, the origin of the deformation, and its confinement to the Jebel Ammar area is unknown. Deformation due to the weight of the overlying ice is unlikely as the glaciofluvial channels are now thought to have been cut by tunnel valley activity not ice. A more likely mechanism is post-glacial crustal tectonics. Melting of ice caps is commonly associated with intraplate seismicity and the development of an extensional crustal stress regime around the perimeter of ice caps; the interior is largely aseismic because the weight of the ice supresses seismic activity and faulting. Since southern Jordan lay close to the ice cap in Saudi Arabia it may have been subjected to postglacial seismicity and crustal stress, which induced ground shaking, reduced overburden pressure, increased hydrostatic pressure and possibly reactivation of existing tectonic faults. This resulted in liquefaction and extensive deformation of the sediments, which show many characteristics of seismites, generated by earthquake shocks. Since the glaciation was a very short-lived event (0.2-1 Ma), deglaciation and associated tectonism triggering deformation, lasted

  15. U-Pb (SHRIMP II) Age of zircons from ash tuffs of the upper vendian Chernyi Kamen formation (Sylvitsa group, Middle Urals)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronkin, Yu.L.; Grazhdankin, D.V.; Maslov, A.V.; Mizens, G.A.; Matukov, D.I.; Krupenin, M.T.; Petrov, G.A.; Lepikhina, O.P.; Kornilova, A.Yu.

    2006-01-01

    To make more precise the model of correlation of the Middle Urals western slope upper vendian layers with the White Sea remote layers one carried out the SHRIMP-II procedure base U-Pb-dating of the volcanogenic zircons from the ash tuffs and of the volcanogenic zircon enclosing argillites of the Middle Urals Chernyi Kamen formation. The obtained age value of the studied zircons equal to 557+-13 million years is in line with the geological data [ru

  16. Microfacies, sedimentary environment and diagenesis of the upper part of Dalan and Kangan Formations in the Kuh-e Surmeh area, Folded Zagros

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    Mohammadhossein Adabi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The upper part of Dallan and Kangan formations (Permian-Triassic, are located in the Kuh-e Surmeh area in folded Zagros Basin with a thickness of 325 m overlying by Nar evaporite member and underlying by Dashtak Formation. Dominant lithology of these formations are limestone and dolomite. Our purpose in this study is to identify microfacieses, sedimentary environment and diagenetic proceses. To overcome this aim, thin sections petrographic studies, leaded to identify 12 microfacieses related to 4 facieses belt: tidal flat, lagoon, shoal and open marine. The observed microfacies patterns indicate a ramp carbonate platform as depositional environment. Based on petrographic studies, the important diagenetic processes in these formations consist of: micritization, dolomitization, cementation, stilolitization and chemical and physical compactions. Burial diagenesis is dominated diagenetic event. The observed porosities in this section are primary and secondary such as fenestral, vuggy, fracture, moldic, interparticle, intraparticle and channel

  17. Lithofacies and sequence stratigraphic description of the upper part of the Avon Park Formation and the Arcadia Formation in U.S. Geological Survey G–2984 test corehole, Broward County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin J.; Robinson, Edward

    2017-07-18

    Rock core and sediment from U.S. Geological Survey test corehole G–2984 completed in 2011 in Broward County, Florida, provide an opportunity to improve the understanding of the lithostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and hydrogeologic framework of the intermediate confining unit and Floridan aquifer system in southeastern Florida. A multidisciplinary approach including characterization of sequence stratigraphy, lithofacies, ichnology, foraminiferal paleontology, depositional environments, porosity, and permeability was used to describe the geologic samples from this test corehole. This information has produced a detailed characterization of the lithofacies and sequence stratigraphy of the upper part of the middle Eocene Avon Park Formation and Oligocene to middle Miocene Arcadia Formation. This enhancement of the knowledge of the sequence stratigraphic framework is especially important, because subaerial karst unconformities at the upper boundary of depositional cycles at various hierarchical scales are commonly associated with secondary porosity and enhanced permeability in the Floridan aquifer system.

  18. The organic carbon isotope of lacustrine sediments of the Upper Shahejie formation in Huanghua Depression: a record of sedimentary environment and productivity of an ancient lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fei, Weiwei; Huang, Xiaoyan; Dai, Na; Zhong, Ningning

    2013-01-01

    Huanghua depression was one of the largest Paleogene rift lakes in Bohai Bay basin, eastern China. The lake had broad area and deep water in the period of development peak—Oligocene 36~38Ma B.C., when organic-rich mudstones of upper Shahejie Formation formed. Twenty eight distal lake facie samples of the upper Shahejie Formation from Well GS35 were analyzed for organic carbon isotope, TOC, hydrogen index and trace elements in order to investigate the controls of organic carbon accumulation in the lake. The results show that lacustrine mudstones in the middile member of the upper Shahejie Formation have a heavy organic carbon isotope (-28.6 ‰ to -21.1 ‰) and a intense fractionation which is more than 7‰. In addition, it shows a good positive correlation with the total organic carbon (TOC) (Figure 1). Organic petrographic and organic geochemical analysis indicate that the biological inputs of the mudstone is dominated by algae and other aquatic organisms, and a low content of gammacerane prove the water is freshwater-brackish, so terrigenous organic matter and water salinity have little effect on its organic carbon isotope composition (δ"1"3C_o_r_g). It has well been documented that the climate in Bohai Bay basin was warm and humid during deposition of the upper Shahejie Formation, and the temperature did not change dramatically at that time (TaoZ et al., 2005). Ultimately, the heavy carbon isotope values of lacustrine organic matter may indicate the high productivity of ancient lakes. The good correlation between total organic carbon (TOC) and organic carbon isotope (δ"1"3C_o_r_g) as well as the widely existed organic-rich lamellae of the mudstone are the strong evidence for high paleoproductivity of the upper Shahejie Formation in Huanghua Depression during the deposition period. (1) Organic-rich lamellae of the mudstone formed in anoxia and stable environment have been recognized as the best evidence of high paleoproductivity. The presence of organic

  19. A Re-Evaluation of the Chasmosaurine Ceratopsid Genus Chasmosaurus (Dinosauria: Ornithischia) from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Dinosaur Park Formation of Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, James A; Ryan, Michael J; Holmes, Robert B; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J

    2016-01-01

    The chasmosaurine ceratopsid Chasmosaurus is known from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Dinosaur Park Formation of southern Alberta and Saskatchewan. Two valid species, Chasmosaurus belli and C. russelli, have been diagnosed by differences in cranial ornamentation. Their validity has been supported, in part, by the reported stratigraphic segregation of chasmosaurines in the Dinosaur Park Formation, with C. belli and C. russelli occurring in discrete, successive zones within the formation. An analysis of every potentially taxonomically informative chasmosaurine specimen from the Dinosaur Park Formation indicates that C. belli and C. russelli have indistinguishable ontogenetic histories and overlapping stratigraphic intervals. Neither taxon exhibits autapomorphies, nor a unique set of apomorphies, but they can be separated and diagnosed by a single phylogenetically informative character-the embayment angle formed by the posterior parietal bars relative to the parietal midline. Although relatively deeply embayed specimens (C. russelli) generally have relatively longer postorbital horncores than specimens with more shallow embayments (C. belli), neither this horncore character nor epiparietal morphology can be used to consistently distinguish every specimen of C. belli from C. russelli. Kosmoceratops is purportedly represented in the Dinosaur Park Formation by a specimen previously referred to Chasmosaurus. The reassignment of this specimen to Kosmoceratops is unsupported here, as it is based on features that are either influenced by taphonomy or within the realm of individual variation for Chasmosaurus. Therefore, we conclude that Kosmoceratops is not present in the Dinosaur Park Formation, but is instead restricted to southern Laramidia, as originally posited.

  20. Geochemistry and sedimentary provenance of the Upper Cretaceous Uberaba Formation (Southeastern Triângulo Mineiro, MG, Brazil

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    Dennis Arthuso Quintão

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The campanian Uberaba Formation, which crops out around the homonymous town, is composed of greenish lithic sandstones and conglomerates with possible volcanoclastic contribution. In this unit, heavy minerals such as ilmenite, garnet, perovskite and magnetite, besides clinopyroxene, plagioclase, quartz, calcite and apatite, are found. The Uberaba Formation geochemistry is marked by high grades of Ba, Ta, La, Nb and Th, with flat (no Eu anomaly and highly fractionated (LaN/YbN = ca. 128 chondrite-normalized rare earth elements. Mineral chemistry analyses of detrital garnets from the Uberaba Formation indicate the predominance of chorlomite with an affinity to crustal garnets (G3. The sedimentary provenance of the Uberaba Formation corresponds to a mixing of materials from the alkaline districts of the Alto Paranaíba and from the erosion of the Serra Geral Formation and the Canastra and Araxá groups. Diamond-producing conglomerates which crop out nearby, in Romaria, were considered by some authors as correlated to the Uberaba Formation. However, the composition of garnets recovered from those conglomerates is different, plotting in the field of mantle garnets (G9/G10. We consider, then, that those units are not correlated, and that the Uberaba Formation is not a possible source for the alluvial diamonds found in the homonymous river.

  1. Lower Brioverian formations (Upper Proterozoic) of the Armorican Massif (France): geodynamic evolution of source areas revealed by sandstone petrography and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabard, Marie Pierre

    1990-11-01

    Formations with interbedded cherts constitute an important part of the Lower Brioverian succession (Upper Proterozoic age) in the Armorican Massif (northwest France). These formations are composed of shale-sandstone alternations with interbedded siliceous carbonaceous members. Petrographic and geochemical study of the detrital facies shows that these rocks are compositionally immature. The wackes are rich in lithic fragments (volcanic fragments: 3-20% modal; sedimentary and metamorphic fragments: 0-7% modal) and in feldspar (5-16%). From the geochemical point of view, they are relatively enriched in Fe 2+MgO (about 5.5%) and in alkalis with {Na 2O }/{K 2O } ratios greater than 1. The CaO contents are low (about 0.3%). Slightly negative Eu anomalies are observed ( {Eu}/{Eu ∗} = 0.8 ). Their chemical compositions are in agreement with a dominantly acidic source area with deposition in a continental active margin setting. Compared with other Upper Proterozoic deposits of the Armorican Massif, the interbedded-chert formations appear rather similar to other deposits in North Brittany which accumulated in an intra-arc or back-arc basin environment. The formations with interbedded cherts are interpreted as having been deposited during an early stage of magmatic arc activity (around 640-630 Ma ago) in an immature marginal basin. The clastic supply to these formations is derived in part from early volcanic products (acidic to intermediate) which are linked to subduction beneath the North Armorican Domain. Another component is inherited from the reworking of 2000 Ma old basement relics. The opening of the back-arc domain, with associated basaltic volcanism, would bring about a progressive displacement of the interbedded-chert depositional basin towards the continental margin.

  2. New high (> or =6M/sub sun/) upper mass limit for planetary nebula formation, and a new high lower mass bound for carbon detonation supernova models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuchman, Y.; Sack, N.; Barkat, Z.

    1978-01-01

    Envelope ejection leading to a planetary nebula has been recently shown to occur as the terminal point of the Mira stage. The ejection is due to a diverging pulsational instability, not to a dynamical one. It is found that in this case (and for Population I, mixing length=1 pressure scale height) the upper mass limit for formation of planetary nebulae is at least 6 M/sub sun/. It thus follows that the lower mass limit for realization of carbon detonation model configurations is also at last 6 M/sub sun/

  3. Sr isotope evidence for a lacustrine origin for the upper Miocene to Pliocene Bouse Formation, lower Colorado River trough, and implications for timing of Colorado Plateau uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, J.E.; Patchett, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    The upper Miocene to Pliocene Bouse Formation in the lower Colorado River trough, which consists largely of siltstone with basal tufa and marl, has been interpreted as estuarine on the basis of paleontology. This interpretation requires abrupt marine inundation that has been linked to early rifting in the Gulf of California and Salton trough. New strontium isotope measurements reported here from carbonates and invertebrate shells in the Bouse Formation reveal no evidence of marine water, but are consistent with deposition in a lake or chain of lakes fed by the Colorado River. Furthermore, the absence of a southward decrease in 87Sr/86Sr within the Bouse Formation does not support the estuarine model in which low 87Sr/86Sr marine Sr would have dominated the mouth of the hypothetical Bouse estuary. Elevation of originally marine 87Sr/86Sr in the Bouse Formation to its present level, due to postdepositional interaction with ground water, is unlikely because Sr from secondary calcite above, below, and within the Bouse Formation is consistently less radiogenic, not more, than Bouse marl and shells. In contrast to Bouse Sr, strontium from mollusks in tidal-flat and delta-front paleoenvironments in the contemporaneous Imperial Formation in the Salton trough and from the subsurface south of Yuma was derived from sea water and confirms the dominance of marine strontium near or at the mouth of the late Miocene to early Pliocene Colorado River. Inferred post-early Pliocene uplift of the Bouse Formation from below sea level to modern elevations of up to 550 m has been used to support a late Cenozoic uplift age for the nearby Colorado Plateau. This constraint on uplift timing is eliminated if the Bouse Formation is lacustrine.

  4. Invertebrate ichnofossils and rhizoliths associated with rhizomorphs from the Marília Formation (Echaporã Member), Bauru Group, Upper Cretaceous, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineiro, Adriano Santos; Santucci, Rodrigo Miloni; da Rocha, Dulce Maria Sucena; de Andrade, Marco Brandalise; Nava, William Roberto

    2017-12-01

    The Marília Formation (Bauru Group, Upper Cretaceous, Brazil) has furnished a large array of vertebrate fossils. However, its ichnological and botanical contents are poorly explored to date. Here we report findings of invertebrate trace fossils (Beaconites isp., Skolithos isp., and Taenidium barretti), rhizoliths associated with rhizomorphs with preserved hyphae, and fossil roots from the Echaporã Member, Marília Formation, São Paulo State, Brazil. The association of trace fossils suggest they can be regarded to the Scoyenia Ichnofacies. The rhizoliths indicate that at least two types of herbaceous/arbustive plants inhabited the area, one of them living in the vadose zone and the other one with roots closer to the water table, under arid/semiarid conditions. Sedimentological analyses suggest the studied outcrop comprises fluvial deposits, with predominance of sand bars that underwent different and relatively long periods of subaerial exposure.

  5. THALAMID SPONGES FROM THE UPPER TRIASSIC (NORIAN-RHAETIAN NAYBAND FORMATION NEAR WALI-ABAD, SE ABADEH, CENTRAL IRAN(CONTRIBUTION TO TRIASSIC PALEONTOLOGY OF IRAN 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BABA SENOWBARI-DARYAN

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available An association of thalamid sponges including Amblysiphonella, Nevadathalamia, Stylothalamia, and Neoguadalupia, with the hexactinellid Casearia is described from the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian Nayband Formation of Hambast-Mts. near the small town of Wali-Abad (Abadeh region, central Iran. These Norian-Rhaetian (Neoguadalupia, Amblysiphonella, Nevadathalamia and Liassic (Stylothalamia columnaris Le Maitre thalamid sponge assemblages are exceptional associations, not previously reported from Iran nor from other localities in the world. The microfacies and organism associations in the sponge-bearing carbonates is discussed. Differences of macro- and microfaunal composition, as well as flora, support the recognition of Kristan-Tollmann et al. to classify the Nayband Formation in the Abadeh region as of a distinct unit, termed the "Wali-Abad-Faziesregion". Following thalamid sponge species are described as new: Nevadathalamia waliabadensis n. sp. and Stylothalamia hambastensis n. sp. 

  6. Comparative analysis of the calcretization process in the Marilia formations (Bauru group - Brasil) and Mercedes ( Paysandu group - Uruguay), Upper Cretaceous of the Parana basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veroslavsky, G.; Etchebehere, M.; Sad, A.; Fulfaro, J.

    1998-01-01

    Pedogenic and non-pedogenic calcrete facies are very common feature of Marilia (Brazil) and Mercedes (Uruguay) formations in the Parana Basin. The non-pedogenic ones constitute massive limestone facies that have been recently interpreted as groundwater calcretes. These limestones are exploited in both countries to supply raw materials to Portland cement and soil conditioner in origin and age of calcretization phenomena. In Uruguay, the calcretization process seens to be band formation. Field relationships and fossil assemblage point to a Paleocene (or later) age for the calcretization. In Brazilian territory, the groundwater calcretes aresupposed to be of Upper Cretaceous age due to the presence of dinosaurs scattered through the Bauru Group, including siliciclastic beds below and above the calcretes. The authors assume that calcretization processes are similar in both countries (host rocks, intensity, size, textures, geometries and economic potential). The main difference is in age of the calcretization. (author)

  7. Outcrop analogue study of Permocarboniferous geothermal sandstone reservoir formations (northern Upper Rhine Graben, Germany): impact of mineral content, depositional environment and diagenesis on petrophysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretz, Achim; Bär, Kristian; Götz, Annette E.; Sass, Ingo

    2016-07-01

    The Permocarboniferous siliciclastic formations represent the largest hydrothermal reservoir in the northern Upper Rhine Graben in SW Germany and have so far been investigated in large-scale studies only. The Cenozoic Upper Rhine Graben crosses the Permocarboniferous Saar-Nahe Basin, a Variscan intramontane molasse basin. Due to the subsidence in this graben structure, the top of the up to 2-km-thick Permocarboniferous is located at a depth of 600-2900 m and is overlain by Tertiary and Quaternary sediments. At this depth, the reservoir temperatures exceed 150 °C, which are sufficient for geothermal electricity generation with binary power plants. To further assess the potential of this geothermal reservoir, detailed information on thermophysical and hydraulic properties of the different lithostratigraphical units and their depositional environment is essential. Here, we present an integrated study of outcrop analogues and drill core material. In total, 850 outcrop samples were analyzed, measuring porosity, permeability, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity. Furthermore, 62 plugs were taken from drillings that encountered or intersected the Permocarboniferous at depths between 1800 and 2900 m. Petrographic analysis of 155 thin sections of outcrop samples and samples taken from reservoir depth was conducted to quantify the mineral composition, sorting and rounding of grains and the kind of cementation. Its influence on porosity, permeability, the degree of compaction and illitization was quantified. Three parameters influencing the reservoir properties of the Permocarboniferous were detected. The strongest and most destructive influence on reservoir quality is related to late diagenetic processes. An illitic and kaolinitic cementation and impregnation of bitumina document CO2- and CH4-rich acidic pore water conditions, which are interpreted as fluids that migrated along a hydraulic contact from an underlying Carboniferous hydrocarbon source rock. Migrating

  8. Formation of the Wiesloch Mississippi Valley-type Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the extensional setting of the Upper Rhinegraben, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaff, Katharina; Hildebrandt, Ludwig H.; Leach, David L.; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Markl, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    The Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) Zn-Pb-Ag deposit in the Wiesloch area, Southwest Germany, is controlled by graben-related faults of the Upper Rhinegraben. Mineralization occurs as vein fillings and irregular replacement ore bodies consisting of sphalerite, banded sphalerite, galena, pyrite, sulfosalts (jordanite and geocronite), barite, and calcite in the Middle Triassic carbonate host rock. Combining paragenetic information, fluid inclusion investigations, stable isotope and mineral chemistry with thermodynamic modeling, we have derived a model for the formation of the Wiesloch deposit. This model involves fluid mixing between ascending hot brines (originating in the crystalline basement) with sedimentary formation waters. The ascending brines originally had a near-neutral pH (around 6) and intermediate oxidation state, reflecting equilibrium with granites and gneisses in the basement. During fluid ascent and cooling, the pH of the brine shifted towards more acidic (around 4) and the oxidation state increased to conditions above the hematite-magnetite buffer. These chemical characteristics contrast strongly with those of the pore and fracture fluid residing in the limestone aquifer, which had a pH between 8 and 9 in equilibrium with calcite and was rather reduced due to the presence of organic matter in the limestone. Mixing between these two fluids resulted in a strong decrease in the solubility of silver-bearing sphalerite and galena, and calcite. Besides Wiesloch, several Pb-Zn deposits are known along the Upper Rhinegraben, including hydrothermal vein-type deposits like Badenweiler and the Michael mine near Lahr. They all share the same fluid origin and formation process and only differ in details of their host rock and fluid cooling paths. The mechanism of fluid mixing also seems to be responsible for the formation of other MVT deposits in Europe (e.g., Reocin, Northern Spain; Treves, Southern France; and Cracow-Silesia, Poland), which show notable

  9. Geochemical characteristics of natural gas in the hydrocarbon accumulation history, and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of hydrocarbon generation, trap formation, inclusion homogenization temperature, authigenic illite dating, and ESR dating were used to understand the history of hydrocarbon accumulation and its difference among gas reservoirs in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin. The results show the hydrocarbon accumulation mainly occurred during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods; they could also be classified into three stages: (1 early hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage, (2 mass hydrocarbon generation accumulation stage before the Himalayan Epoch, (3 and parts of hydrocarbon adjustment and re-accumulation during Himalayan Epoch. The second stage is more important than the other two. The Hydrocarbon accumulation histories are obviously dissimilar in different regions. In western Sichuan Basin, the gas accumulation began at the deposition period of member 5 of Xujiahe Formation, and mass accumulation occurred during the early Middle Jurassic up to the end of the Late Cretaceous. In central Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the early Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle Early Cretaceous till the end of the Late Cretaceous. In southern Sichuan Basin, the accumulation began at the middle Late Jurassic, and the mass accumulation occurred from the middle of the Late Cretaceous to the end of the Later Cretaceous. The accumulation history of the western Sichuan Basin is the earliest, and the southern Sichuan Basin is the latest. This paper will help to understand the accumulation process, accumulation mechanism, and gas reservoir distribution of the Triassic gas reservoirs in the Sichuan Basin better. Meanwhile, it is found that the authigenic illite in the Upper Triassic formation of Sichuan Basin origin of deep-burial and its dating is a record of the later accumulation. This suggests that the illite dating needs to fully consider illite origin; otherwise the dating results may not accurately

  10. Sedimentary features of the Mercedes formation (upper Cretaceous ) between Mercedes and Fray Bentos cities, Rca. O del Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofalo, O.; Pazos, P.

    1998-01-01

    A new locality by the Mercedes formation is analyzed close to route 2, near at the Mercedes City. The stratigraphic assignment is proposed after the examination of the sedimentary features that include geometry, composition and sedimentary structures. The section that reach 10 meters in thickness contains conglomerates, pebbly sandstones, sandstones and scare mudstones with a finning upward arrangement. All of features are indicative of a alluvial origin. This locality is the first mention of the Mercedes formation in the south section of the Department Rio Negro. (author)

  11. Geotechnical properties of La Arganosa Formation (Upper Cretaceous, Oviedo); Propiedades geotecnicas de la Formacion La Arganosa (Cretacico Superior, Oviedo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pando, L.; Gutierrez Claverol, M.; Flor-Blanco, G.

    2011-07-01

    It is performed the first geotechnical synthesis for La Arganosa Formation, the Cretaceous lithostratigraphic unit with very low geomechanical quality under the urban core of Oviedo; it also configures a major regional aquifer. In this study, geotechnical parameters of identification and condition, as well as physical and hydraulic ones, are compiled, statistically treated and interpreted. They were obtained from about 400 laboratory tests and more than 250 field tests around the city. The unit, of detrital origin, is bounded at the bottom and top by limestone lithologies, and is made up of soils and very soft rocks in alternating granular and cohesive layers. It discusses the main properties that define its geotechnical behavior: particle size distribution, plasticity, strength, compactness, consistency, compressibility, expansivity, collapsibility, permeability, and chemical aggressiveness of the materials and water. Furthermore, same numerical values are provided for reference forward guidance for future research to develop on this formation. (Author) 31 refs.

  12. Evidence of an Upper Bound on the Masses of Planets and Its Implications for Giant Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaufman, Kevin C.

    2018-01-01

    Celestial bodies with a mass of M≈ 10 {M}{Jup} have been found orbiting nearby stars. It is unknown whether these objects formed like gas-giant planets through core accretion or like stars through gravitational instability. I show that objects with M≲ 4 {M}{Jup} orbit metal-rich solar-type dwarf stars, a property associated with core accretion. Objects with M≳ 10 {M}{Jup} do not share this property. This transition is coincident with a minimum in the occurrence rate of such objects, suggesting that the maximum mass of a celestial body formed through core accretion like a planet is less than 10 {M}{Jup}. Consequently, objects with M≳ 10 {M}{Jup} orbiting solar-type dwarf stars likely formed through gravitational instability and should not be thought of as planets. Theoretical models of giant planet formation in scaled minimum-mass solar nebula Shakura–Sunyaev disks with standard parameters tuned to produce giant planets predict a maximum mass nearly an order of magnitude larger. To prevent newly formed giant planets from growing larger than 10 {M}{Jup}, protoplanetary disks must therefore be significantly less viscous or of lower mass than typically assumed during the runaway gas accretion stage of giant planet formation. Either effect would act to slow the Type I/II migration of planetary embryos/giant planets and promote their survival. These inferences are insensitive to the host star mass, planet formation location, or characteristic disk dissipation time.

  13. Traces in the dark: sedimentary processes and facies gradients in the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, Williston Basin, North Dakota, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egenhoff, Sven O.; Fishman, Neil S.

    2013-01-01

    Black, organic-rich rocks of the upper shale member of the Upper Devonian–Lower Mississippian Bakken Formation, a world-class petroleum source rock in the Williston Basin of the United States and Canada, contain a diverse suite of mudstone lithofacies that were deposited in distinct facies belts. The succession consists of three discrete facies associations (FAs). These comprise: 1) siliceous mudstones; 2) quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones; and 3) macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones. These FAs were deposited in three facies belts that reflect proximal to distal relationships in this mudstone system. The macrofossil-debris-bearing massive mudstones (FA 3) occur in the proximal facies belt and contain erosion surfaces, some with overlying conodont and phosphate–lithoclast lag deposits, mudstones with abundant millimeter-scale siltstone laminae showing irregular lateral thickness changes, and shell debris. In the medial facies belt, quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate, exhibiting sub-millimeter-thick siltstone layers with variable lateral thicknesses and localized mudstone ripples. In the distal siliceous mudstone facies belt, radiolarites, radiolarian-bearing mudstones, and quartz- and carbonate-bearing, laminated mudstones dominate. Overall, total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between about 3 and 10 wt %, with a general proximal to distal decrease in TOC content. Abundant evidence of bioturbation exists in all FAs, and the lithological and TOC variations are paralleled by changes in burrowing style and trace-fossil abundance. While two horizontal traces and two types of fecal strings are recognized in the proximal facies belt, only a single horizontal trace fossil and one type of fecal string characterize mudstones in the distal facies belt. Radiolarites intercalated into the most distal mudstones are devoid of traces and fecal strings. Bedload transport processes, likely caused by storm-induced turbidity

  14. Feeding height stratification among the herbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Herbivore coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has been a topic of great interest, stemming from the paradoxically high diversity and biomass of these animals in relation to the relatively small landmass available to them. Various hypotheses have been advanced to account for these facts, of which niche partitioning is among the most frequently invoked. However, despite its wide acceptance, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. This study uses the fossil assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta as a model to investigate whether niche partitioning facilitated herbivorous dinosaur coexistence on Laramidia. Specifically, the question of feeding height stratification is examined in light of the role it plays in facilitating modern ungulate coexistence. Results Most herbivorous dinosaur species from the Dinosaur Park Formation were restricted to feeding no higher than approximately 1 m above the ground. There is minimal evidence for feeding height partitioning at this level, with ceratopsids capable of feeding slightly higher than ankylosaurs, but the ecological significance of this is ambiguous. Hadrosaurids were uniquely capable of feeding up to 2 m quadrupedally, or up to 5 m bipedally. There is no evidence for either feeding height stratification within any of these clades, or for change in these ecological relationships through the approximately 1.5 Ma record of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Conclusions Although we cannot reject the possibility, we find no good evidence that feeding height stratification, as revealed by reconstructed maximum feeding heights, played an important role in facilitating niche partitioning among the herbivorous dinosaurs of Laramidia. Most browsing pressure was concentrated in the herb layer, although hadrosaurids were capable of reaching shrubs and low-growing trees that were out of reach from ceratopsids, ankylosaurs, and other small herbivores, effectively dividing the

  15. Feeding height stratification among the herbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Evans, David C; Ryan, Michael J; Anderson, Jason S

    2013-04-04

    Herbivore coexistence on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia has been a topic of great interest, stemming from the paradoxically high diversity and biomass of these animals in relation to the relatively small landmass available to them. Various hypotheses have been advanced to account for these facts, of which niche partitioning is among the most frequently invoked. However, despite its wide acceptance, this hypothesis has not been rigorously tested. This study uses the fossil assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta as a model to investigate whether niche partitioning facilitated herbivorous dinosaur coexistence on Laramidia. Specifically, the question of feeding height stratification is examined in light of the role it plays in facilitating modern ungulate coexistence. Most herbivorous dinosaur species from the Dinosaur Park Formation were restricted to feeding no higher than approximately 1 m above the ground. There is minimal evidence for feeding height partitioning at this level, with ceratopsids capable of feeding slightly higher than ankylosaurs, but the ecological significance of this is ambiguous. Hadrosaurids were uniquely capable of feeding up to 2 m quadrupedally, or up to 5 m bipedally. There is no evidence for either feeding height stratification within any of these clades, or for change in these ecological relationships through the approximately 1.5 Ma record of the Dinosaur Park Formation. Although we cannot reject the possibility, we find no good evidence that feeding height stratification, as revealed by reconstructed maximum feeding heights, played an important role in facilitating niche partitioning among the herbivorous dinosaurs of Laramidia. Most browsing pressure was concentrated in the herb layer, although hadrosaurids were capable of reaching shrubs and low-growing trees that were out of reach from ceratopsids, ankylosaurs, and other small herbivores, effectively dividing the herbivores in terms of relative

  16. Petrophysical characterization of the Dolomitic Member of the Boñar Formation (Upper Cretaceous; Duero Basin, Spain) as a potential CO2 reservoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Gonzalez, A.; Kovacs, C.; Herrero-Hernandez, A.; Gomez-Fernandez, F.

    2016-07-01

    Boñar Formation (Upper Cretaceous) is a mainly carbonate succession, which outcrops in the North of Duero Basin (Spain). According to the existing data, the Dolomitic Member of this formation appears to be the most suitable for geological storage of CO2. The main objective of this study is to find evidence to support, clarify and specify –at an initial level– the potential of the Dolomitic Member of the Boñar Formation as a geological reservoir. The study covers density, porosity and permeability tests on samples obtained from the outcrop of the succession near the village of Boñar (León). According to the analysis and interpretation of the mentioned petrophysical properties, the porosity of the Dolomitic Member is within the acceptable range for CO2 geological storage, but the permeability values are far too low. This minimizes the possibilities of the Dolomitic Member –and probably of the whole Boñar Formation– to become an appropriate CO2 reservoir. (Author)

  17. Hydrothermal dolomitization of the Bekhme formation (Upper Cretaceous), Zagros Basin, Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Record of oil migration and degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansurbeg, Howri; Morad, Daniel; Othman, Rushdy; Morad, Sadoon; Ceriani, Andrea; Al-Aasm, Ihsan; Kolo, Kamal; Spirov, Pavel; Proust, Jean Noel; Preat, Alain; Koyi, Hemin

    2016-07-01

    The common presence of oil seepages in dolostones is widespread in Cretaceous carbonate successions of the Kurdistan Region of Iraq. This integrated field, petrographic, chemical, stable C, O and Sr isotopes, and fluid inclusion study aims to link dolomitization to the origin and geochemical evolution of fluids and oil migration in the Upper Cretaceous Bekhme carbonates. Flux of hot basinal (hydrothermal) brines, which is suggested to have occurred during the Zagros Orogeny, resulted in dolomitization and cementation of vugs and fractures by coarse-crystalline saddle dolomite, equant calcite and anhydrite. The saddle dolomite and host dolostones have similar stable isotopic composition and formed prior to oil migration from hot (81-115 °C) basinal NaCl-MgCl2-H2O brines with salinities of 18-22 wt.% NaCl eq. The equant calcite cement, which surrounds and hence postdates saddle dolomite, has precipitated during oil migration from cooler (60-110 °C) NaCl-CaCl2-H2O brines (14-18 wt.% NaCl eq). The yellowish fluorescence color of oil inclusions in the equant calcite indicates that the oil had API gravity of 15-25° composition, which is lighter than present-day oil in the reservoirs (API of 10-17°). This difference in oil composition is attributed to oil degradation by the flux of meteoric water, which is evidenced by the low δ13C values (- 8.5‰ to - 3.9‰ VPDB) as well as by nil salinity and low temperature in fluid inclusions of late columnar calcite cement. This study demonstrates that linking fluid flux history and related diagenesis to the tectonic evolution of the basin provides important clues to the timing of oil migration, degradation and reservoir evolution.

  18. Deposition and diagenesis of the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon member of the Morrison Formation, San Juan Basin, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    The Brushy Basin Member and the upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member of the Morrison Formation in northwest New Mexico are nonmarine sedimentary rocks of Late Jurassic age. This stratigraphic interval consists of as many as four lithofacies deposited in fluvial and playa-lake environments. Lithofacies A is composed of crossbed feldspathic sandstone and was deposited by braided streams on an alluvial plain. Lithofacies B is composed of crossbedded feldspathic sandstone and tuffaceous mudstone, and was deposited by braided and anastomosing streams at the distal end of the alluvial plain. Lithofacies C is composed of calcareous, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited on a mudflat between the alluvial plain and a playa lake. Lithofacies D is composed of zeolitic, tuffaceous mudstone and was deposited in a playa lake. The distribution of diagenetic facies in mudstones and tuffs in the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member reflects the pH and salinity gradients common to fluvial/playa-lake systems. The abundant vitric ash in the sediments reacted to form montmorillonite in the fluvial facies. Calcite and montmorillonite were the reaction products where the fluvial and outermost playa facies met. Vitric ash reacted to form clinoptilolite and heulandite along the playa margins. In the center of the playa facies, analcime replaced clinoptilolite, an early zeolite. These early diagenetic minerals were replaced by albite, quartz, and mixed-layer illitemontmorillonite where the Brushy Basin Member and upper part of the Westwater Canyon Member have been deeply buried in the San Juan basin

  19. Quantifying opening-mode fracture spatial organization in horizontal wellbore image logs, core and outcrop: Application to Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation tight gas sandstones, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J. Z.; Laubach, S. E.; Gale, J. F. W.; Marrett, R. A.

    2018-03-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Frontier Formation is a naturally fractured gas-producing sandstone in Wyoming. Regionally, random and statistically more clustered than random patterns exist in the same upper to lower shoreface depositional facies. East-west- and north-south-striking regional fractures sampled using image logs and cores from three horizontal wells exhibit clustered patterns, whereas data collected from east-west-striking fractures in outcrop have patterns that are indistinguishable from random. Image log data analyzed with the correlation count method shows clusters ∼35 m wide and spaced ∼50 to 90 m apart as well as clusters up to 12 m wide with periodic inter-cluster spacings. A hierarchy of cluster sizes exists; organization within clusters is likely fractal. These rocks have markedly different structural and burial histories, so regional differences in degree of clustering are unsurprising. Clustered patterns correspond to fractures having core quartz deposition contemporaneous with fracture opening, circumstances that some models suggest might affect spacing patterns by interfering with fracture growth. Our results show that quantifying and identifying patterns as statistically more or less clustered than random delineates differences in fracture patterns that are not otherwise apparent but that may influence gas and water production, and therefore may be economically important.

  20. Paleomagnetic and magnetostratigraphic investigations of the whitehorse group/quartermaster (Dewey Lake) formation (upper permian-lowermost triassic) in the Palo Duro basin, northwest Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Dylan R.

    In northwest Texas, upper Permian to lowermost Triassic hematite-cemented detrital sedimentary rocks, which include a small number of regionally extensive ash beds, were deposited during the time interval of the greatest mass extinction event sequences in Earth history. The magnetic polarity stratigraphy, as well as key rock magnetic properties, of the upper Whitehorse Group (WH) and Quartermaster formations (QM) at selected sections in the Palo Duro Basin, have been determined using thermal, and chemical demagnetization approaches and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility, acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and backfield demagnetization, and thermal demagnetization of three component IRM methods. Demagnetization results show that the WH/QM contains a primary/near-primary characteristic remanent magnetization at each level sampled and thus the magnetic polarity stratigraphy for each section can be compared with existing polarity time scales across the Permian-Triassic boundary. Estimated site mean directions yield a paleomagnetic pole for the latest Permian for North America of 57.8°N, 130.6°E from 38 sampled sites.

  1. The taxonomy of a new parvicursorine alvarezsauroid specimen IVPP V20341 (Dinosauria: Theropoda from the Upper Cretaceous Wulansuhai Formation of Bayan Mandahu, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Pittman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new parvicursorine alvarezsauroid theropod specimen IVPP V20341 from the Upper Cretaceous Wulansuhai Formation of Bayan Mandahu, Inner Mongolia, China is described. IVPP V20341 appears to be distinguishable amongst alvarezsauroids by possible cervical procoely and relatively larger semi-circular caudal neural canals, but these features are not proposed as autapomorphies because current knowledge of alvarezsauroid necks and tails remains sparse. IVPP V20341 is distinguishable from Linhenykus—the sole parvicursorine at Bayan Mandahu—by the location of the origination points of the anterior caudal transverse processes; in IVPP V20341 this is the anterodorsal corner of the centra, whereas in Linhenykus it is the posterior end of the prezygapophyses. A number of additional tentative differences between IVPP V20341 and Linhenykus are also identified, but cannot be confirmed until further details of anatomical variation along the neck and tail are revealed by future finds. Thus, following the study of IVPP V20341 there are still seven parvicursorine species from the Upper Cretaceous Gobi Basin, but future finds could increase this to eight species.

  2. A REVISED AGE FOR UPPER SCORPIUS AND THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY AMONG THE F-TYPE MEMBERS OF THE SCORPIUS-CENTAURUS OB ASSOCIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecaut, Mark J.; Mamajek, Eric E.; Bubar, Eric J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627-0171 (United States)

    2012-02-20

    We present an analysis of the ages and star formation history of the F-type stars in the Upper Scorpius (US), Upper Centaurus-Lupus (UCL), and Lower Centaurus-Crux (LCC) subgroups of Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen), the nearest OB association. Our parent sample is the kinematically selected Hipparcos sample of de Zeeuw et al., restricted to the 138 F-type members. We have obtained classification-resolution optical spectra and have also determined the spectroscopic accretion disk fraction. With Hipparcos and 2MASS photometry, we estimate the reddening and extinction for each star and place the candidate members on a theoretical H-R diagram. For each subgroup we construct empirical isochrones and compare to published evolutionary tracks. We find that (1) our empirical isochrones are consistent with the previously published age-rank of the Sco-Cen subgroups; (2) subgroups LCC and UCL appear to reach the main-sequence turn-on at spectral types {approx}F4 and {approx}F2, respectively. An analysis of the A-type stars shows US reaching the main sequence at about spectral type {approx}A3. (3) The median ages for the pre-main-sequence members of UCL and LCC are 16 Myr and 17 Myr, respectively, in agreement with previous studies, however we find that (4) Upper Sco is much older than previously thought. The luminosities of the F-type stars in US are typically a factor of {approx}2.5 less luminous than predicted for a 5 Myr old population for four sets of evolutionary tracks. We re-examine the evolutionary state and isochronal ages for the B-, A-, and G-type Upper Sco members, as well as the evolved M supergiant Antares, and estimate a revised mean age for Upper Sco of 11 {+-} 1 {+-} 2 Myr (statistical, systematic). Using radial velocities and Hipparcos parallaxes we calculate a lower limit on the kinematic expansion age for Upper Sco of >10.5 Myr (99% confidence). However, the data are statistically consistent with no expansion. We reevaluate the inferred masses for the known

  3. THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10 5 star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  4. Calcareous nannofossils and sedimentary facies in the Upper Cretaceous Bozeş Formation (Southern Apuseni Mountains, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Balc

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The lithology, sedimentology and biostratigraphy of the Bozes Formation, which crop out in the SE Metaliferi Mountains (Apuseni Mts. have been investigated in order to establish the age of the deposits and the depositional environment. The sedimentary structures and facies are interpreted as indicating a deep-water depositional environment, representing part of a submarine fan lobe. Three facies assemblages have been identified and described. Calcareous nannofossils were used to determine the age of the investigated deposits. The presence of Lucianorhabdus cayeuxii and Calculites obscurus indicates the CC17 biozone, while UC13 Zone is pointed out by the continuous occurrence of Arkhangelskiella cymbiformis and the absence of Broinsonia parca parca. Thus, the age of the studied deposits is Late Santonian -?Early Campanian.

  5. Pyritization processes and greigite formation in the advancing sulfidization front in the Upper Pleistocene sediments of the Black Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neretin, LN; Bottcher, ME; Jørgensen, BB

    2004-01-01

    Pyritization in late Pleistocene sediments of the Black Sea is driven by sulfide formed during anaerobic methane oxidation. A sulfidization front is formed by the opposing gradients of sulfide and dissolved iron. The sulfidization processes are controlled by the diffusion flux of sulfide from above...... and by the solid reactive iron content. Two processes of diffusion-limited pyrite formation were identified. The first process includes pyrite precipitation with the accumulation of iron sulfide precursors with the average chemical composition of FeSn (n = 1.10-1.29), including greigite. Elemental sulfur...... and polysulfides, formed from H,S by a reductive dissolution of Fe(Ill)-containing minerals, serve as intermediates to convert iron sulfides into pyrite. In the second process, a "direct" pyrite precipitation occurs through prolonged exposure of iron-containing minerals to dissolved sulfide. Methane-driven sulfate...

  6. Hydrocarbon migration and accumulation in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Changling Sag, southern Songliao Basin: Insights from integrated analyses of fluid inclusion, oil source correlation and basin modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tian; He, Sheng; Wang, Dexi; Hou, Yuguang

    2014-08-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation acts as both the source and reservoir sequence in the Changling Sag, situated in the southern end of the Songliao Basin, northeast China. An integrated approach involving determination of hydrocarbon charging history, oil source correlation and hydrocarbon generation dynamic modeling was used to investigate hydrocarbon migration processes and further predict the favorable targets of hydrocarbon accumulations in the Qingshankou Formation. The hydrocarbon generation and charge history was investigated using fluid inclusion analysis, in combination with stratigraphic burial and thermal modeling. The source rocks began to generate hydrocarbons at around 82 Ma and the hydrocarbon charge event occurred from approximately 78 Ma to the end of Cretaceous (65.5 Ma) when a large tectonic uplift took place. Correlation of stable carbon isotopes of oils and extracts of source rocks indicates that oil was generated mainly from the first member of Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1), suggesting that hydrocarbon may have migrated vertically. Three dimensional (3D) petroleum system modeling was used to evaluate the processes of secondary hydrocarbon migration in the Qingshankou Formation since the latest Cretaceous. During the Late Cretaceous, hydrocarbon, mainly originated from the Qianan depression, migrated laterally to adjacent structural highs. Subsequent tectonic inversion, defined as the late Yanshan Orogeny, significantly changed hydrocarbon migration patterns, probably causing redistribution of primary hydrocarbon reservoirs. In the Tertiary, the Heidimiao depression was buried much deeper than the Qianan depression and became the main source kitchen. Hydrocarbon migration was primarily controlled by fluid potential and generally migrated from relatively high potential areas to low potential areas. Structural highs and lithologic transitions are potential traps for current oil and gas exploration. Finally, several preferred hydrocarbon

  7. Stratigraphic and structural compartmentalization observed within a model turbidite reservoir, Pennsylvanian Upper Jackfork Formation, Hollywood Quarry, Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slatt, R. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Jordan, D. [Arco International Oil and Gas Co., Plano, TX (United States); Stone, C. [Arkansas Geological Commission, Little Rock, AR (United States)] [and others

    1995-08-01

    Hollywood Quarry is a 600 x 375 x 150 ft. (200 x 125 x 50m) excavation which provides a window into lower Pennsylvanian Jackfork Formation turbidite stratal architecture along the crest of a faulted anticlinal fold. A variety of turbidite facies are present, including: (a) lenticular, channelized sandstones, pebbly sandstones, and conglomerates within shale, (b) laterally continuous, interbedded thin sandstones and shales, and (c) thicker, laterally continuous shales. The sandstone and shale layers we broken by several strike-slip and reverse faults, with vertical displacements of up to several feet. This combination of facies and structural elements has resulted in a highly compartmentalized stratigraphic interval, both horizontally and vertically, along the anticlinal flexure. The quarry can be considered analogous to a scaled-down turbidite reservoir. Outcrop gamma-ray logs, measured sections, a fault map, and cross sections provide a database which is analogous to what would be available for a subsurface reservoir. Thus, the quarry provides an ideal outdoor geologic and engineering {open_quote}workshop{close_quote} venue for visualizing the potential complexities of a combination structural-stratigraphic (turbidite) reservoir. Since all forms of compartmentalization are readily visible in the quarry, problems related to management of compartmentalized reservoirs can be discussed and analyzed first-hand while standing in the quarry, within this {open_quote}model reservoir{close_quotes}. These problems include: (a) the high degree of stratigraphic and structural complexity that may be encountered, even at close well spacings, (b) uncertainty in well log correlations and log-shape interpretations, (c) variations in volumetric calculations as a function of amount of data available, and (d) potential production problems associated with specific {open_quote}field{close_quote} development plans.

  8. Sedimentology and Reservoir Characteristics of Early Cretaceous Fluvio-Deltaic and Lacustrine Deposits, Upper Abu Gabra Formation, Sufyan Sub-basin, Muglad Rift Basin, Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed; Abdullatif, Osman; Hariri, Mustafa

    2017-04-01

    Sufyan Sub-basin is an East-West trending Sub-basin located in the northwestern part of the Muglad Basin (Sudan), in the eastern extension of the West and Central Africa Rift System (WCARS). The Early Cretaceous Abu Gabra Formation considered as the main source rock in the Muglad Basin. In Sufyan Sub-basin the Early Cretaceous Upper Abu Gabra Formation is the main oil-producing reservoir. It is dominated by sandstone and shales deposited in fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine environment during the first rift cycle in the basin. Depositional and post-depositional processes highly influenced the reservoir quality and architecture. This study investigates different scales of reservoir heterogeneities from macro to micro scale. Subsurface facies analysis was analyzed based on the description of six conventional cores from two wells. Approaches include well log analysis, thin sections and scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations, grain-size, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of the Abu Gabra sandstone. The cores and well logs analyses revealed six lithofacies representing fluvio-deltaic and lacustrine depositional environment. The sandstone is medium to coarse-grained, poorly to moderately sorted and sub-angular to subrounded, Sub-feldspathic arenite to quartz arenite. On macro-scale, reservoir quality varies within Abu Gabra reservoir where it shows progressive coarsening upward tendencies with different degrees of connectivity. The upper part of the reservoir showed well connected and amalgamated sandstone bodies, the middle to lower parts, however, have moderate to low sandstone bodies' connectivity and amalgamation. On micro-scale, sandstone reservoir quality is directly affected by textures and diagenesis.The XRD and SEM analyses show that kaolinite and chlorite clay are the common clay minerals in the studied samples. Clay matrix and quartz overgrowth have significantly reduced the reservoir porosity and permeability, while the dissolution of feldspars

  9. SEQUENCE STRATIGRAPHY AND PALEONTOLOGY OF THE UPPER MIOCENE PISCO FORMATION ALONG THE WESTERN SIDE OF THE LOWER ICA VALLEY (ICA DESERT, PERU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIO DI CELMA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The sequence stratigraphic framework and a summary of the fossil fauna of the upper Miocene portion of the Pisco Formation exposed along the western side of the Ica River (southern Peru is presented through a new geological map encompassing an area of about 200 km2 and detailed chronostratigraphic analyses. Extensive field mapping and sedimentological study of outcrop sections have shown that the Pisco Formation is a cyclical sediment unit composed of at least three fining-upward, unconformity-bounded depositional sequences, designated P0, P1, and P2 from oldest to youngest. In the study area, these sequences progressively onlap a composite basal unconformity from southwest to northeast. Integration of biostratigraphic and tephrochronologic age determinations constrains the ages of the three Pisco sequences within the study area. Based on the age of surrounding sediments, a conservative estimate of the age of P0 suggests deposition of these strata between 17.99 ± 0.10 Ma and 9.00 ± 0.02 Ma, whereas diatom biostratigraphy and calculated 40Ar/39Ar ages converge to indicate that strata of the P1 sequence were deposited sometime between 9.5 Ma and 8.9 Ma and that those of the P2 sequence are younger than 8.5 Ma and older than 6.71 ± 0.02 Ma. Our survey for both vertebrate and macro-invertebrate remains in the three sequences confirms the outstanding paleontological value of the Pisco Formation and contributes to depict regional faunal shifts in the fossil assemblage.

  10. Astronomical tuning and magnetostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation of South China and Newark Supergroup of North America: Implications for the Late Triassic time scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingsong; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Chunju; Ogg, James; Hinnov, Linda; Wang, Yongdong; Zou, Zhuoyan; Li, Liqin

    2017-10-01

    The time scale of the Late Triassic Epoch has a divergence of age models, especially for the durations of competing definitions for its Rhaetian Stage (uppermost Triassic). The astrochronology derived from relative depth of lacustrine-bearing clastic successions and astronomically tuned geomagnetic polarity time scale (APTS) of the Newark Supergroup of eastern North America provides a basis for the Late Triassic time scale. However, the Newark APTS has been challenged regarding its age scale and completeness; therefore an independent astronomical-tuned magnetic polarity zonation is required to verify the upper Newark APTS reference scale. We compiled a 6.5 million year (myr) APTS with magnetic stratigraphy from four sections of the lacustrine-fluvial, dinosaur-track-bearing Xujiahe Formation in the Sichuan Basin of South China that also has dating from detrital zircons and regional biostratigraphy. Variations in natural gamma-ray and magnetic susceptibility that reflect variable continental weathering in the source regions of the Xujiahe Formation are paced by Milankovitch cycles, especially the 100-kyr short eccentricity and 405-kyr long eccentricity. The cycle-tuned magnetostratigraphy of the Xujiahe Formation is compared directly via the magnetic-polarity zones to the depth ranks of the Newark Supergroup that are indicative of relative depths of lacustrine facies. The Sichuan APTS indicates that there is no significant hiatus between the sedimentary succession and the basalt flows at the top of the Newark Supergroup. The Sichuan APTS is compatible with the magnetostratigraphy from the candidate Global Boundary Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the Norian-Rhaetian boundary interval at the Pignola-Abriola of South Italy, but does not extend downward to the proposed GSSP in Austria associated with the longer Rhaetian option. The earliest dinosaur tracks in China are from the middle of this Xujiahe Formation, therefore are implied to be middle Rhaetian in age

  11. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta, Canada.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan C Mallon

    Full Text Available Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis

  12. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae) from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Sanaa E; Kora, Mahmoud A; Sallam, Hesham M; Claeson, Kerin M; Seiffert, Erik R; Antar, Mohammed S

    2017-01-01

    Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae), Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae. All of the elements belong to the same individual and some of them were found articulated. Qarmoutus gen. nov. is the oldest and the most complete of the Paleogene marine catfishes unearthed from the Birket Qarun Formation. The new genus exhibits distinctive features not seen in other African Paleogene taxa, such as different sculpturing on the opercle and pectoral girdle with respect to that on the neurocranium and nuchal plates, denticulate ornamentation on the skull bones arranged in longitudinal rows and forming a radiating pattern on the sphenotic, pterotic, extrascapular and the parieto-supraoccipital, indentations or pitted ornamentation on the nuchal plates as well as the parieto-supraoccipital process, strut-like radiating pattern of ornamentation on the opercle from the proximal articulation to margins, longitudinal, curved, reticulate ridges and tubercular ornamentations on the cleithrum, sinuous articulation between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the anterior nuchal plate, long, narrow, and arrowhead shaped nuchal shield, very small otic capsules restricted to the prootic. Multiple parsimony and Bayesian morphological phylogenetic analyses of Ariidae, run with and without "molecular scaffolds", yield contradictory results for the placement of Qarmoutus; the genus is either

  13. A new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae from the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, Wadi El-Hitan, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa E El-Sayed

    Full Text Available Wadi El-Hitan, the UNESCO World Heritage Site, of the Fayum Depression in the northeast part of the Western Desert of Egypt, has produced a remarkable collection of Eocene vertebrates, in particular the fossil whales from which it derives its name. Here we describe a new genus and species of marine catfishes (Siluriformes; Ariidae, Qarmoutus hitanensis, from the base of the upper Eocene Birket Qarun Formation, based on a partial neurocranium including the complete left side, partial right dentary, left suspensorium, two opercles, left pectoral girdle and spine, nuchal plates, first and second dorsal spines, Weberian apparatus and a disassociated series of abdominal vertebrae. All of the elements belong to the same individual and some of them were found articulated. Qarmoutus gen. nov. is the oldest and the most complete of the Paleogene marine catfishes unearthed from the Birket Qarun Formation. The new genus exhibits distinctive features not seen in other African Paleogene taxa, such as different sculpturing on the opercle and pectoral girdle with respect to that on the neurocranium and nuchal plates, denticulate ornamentation on the skull bones arranged in longitudinal rows and forming a radiating pattern on the sphenotic, pterotic, extrascapular and the parieto-supraoccipital, indentations or pitted ornamentation on the nuchal plates as well as the parieto-supraoccipital process, strut-like radiating pattern of ornamentation on the opercle from the proximal articulation to margins, longitudinal, curved, reticulate ridges and tubercular ornamentations on the cleithrum, sinuous articulation between the parieto-supraoccipital process and the anterior nuchal plate, long, narrow, and arrowhead shaped nuchal shield, very small otic capsules restricted to the prootic. Multiple parsimony and Bayesian morphological phylogenetic analyses of Ariidae, run with and without "molecular scaffolds", yield contradictory results for the placement of Qarmoutus

  14. Petrographic Evidence of Microbial Mats in the Upper Cretaceous Fish-Bearing, Organic-Rich Limestone, Agua Nueva Formation, Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, A.; Maurrasse, F. J.; Hernández-Ávila, J.; Ángeles-Trigueros, S. A.; García-Cabrera, M. E.

    2013-05-01

    We document petrographic evidence of microbial mats in the Upper Cretaceous Agua Nueva Formation in the area of Xilitla (San Luis Potosí, Central Mexico), located in the southern part of the Tampico-Misantla basin. The sequence consists predominantly of alternating decimeter-thick beds of fossiliferous dark laminated limestone (C-org > 1.0wt%), and light gray, bioturbated limestone (C-org Duque-Botero and Maurrasse, 2005; 2008). These structures are also analogous to microbial mats in present environments, and Devonian deposits (Kremer, 2006). In addition, the laminae at Xilitla include filamentous bacterial structures, as thin and segmented red elements. In some thin sections, filaments appear to be embedded within the crinkly laminae and shreds showing the same pattern of folding, suggestive of biomorphic elements that represent the main producers of the organic matter associated with the laminae. Thus, exceptional bacterial activity characterizes sedimentation during the accumulation of the Agua Nueva Formation. Oxygen-deficient conditions related to the microbial mats were an important element in the mass mortality and preservation of the fish assemblages. Absence of bioturbation, pervasive framboidal pyrite, and the high concentration of organic matter (TOC ranges from 1.2% to 8wt%) in the dark limestones are consistent with persistent recurring dysoxic/anoxic conditions, and the light-gray bioturbated limestones represent relatively well-oxygenated episodes. Planktonic foraminifera (Rotalipora cushmani) and Inoceramu labiatus indicate a time interval from the latest Cenomanian through the earliest Turonian, thus this long interval of severe oxygen deficiency is coeval with Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2). [Duque-Botero and Maurrasse. 2005. Jour. Iberian Geology (31), 85-98; 2008. Cret. Res., 29, 957-964; Kremer. 2006. Acta Palaeontologica Polonica (51, 1), 143-154

  15. The functional and palaeoecological implications of tooth morphology and wear for the megaherbivorous dinosaurs from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallon, Jordan C; Anderson, Jason S

    2014-01-01

    Megaherbivorous dinosaurs were exceptionally diverse on the Late Cretaceous island continent of Laramidia, and a growing body of evidence suggests that this diversity was facilitated by dietary niche partitioning. We test this hypothesis using the fossil megaherbivore assemblage from the Dinosaur Park Formation (upper Campanian) of Alberta as a model. Comparative tooth morphology and wear, including the first use of quantitative dental microwear analysis in the context of Cretaceous palaeosynecology, are used to infer the mechanical properties of the foods these dinosaurs consumed. The phylliform teeth of ankylosaurs were poorly adapted for habitually processing high-fibre plant matter. Nevertheless, ankylosaur diets were likely more varied than traditionally assumed: the relatively large, bladed teeth of nodosaurids would have been better adapted to processing a tougher, more fibrous diet than the smaller, cusp-like teeth of ankylosaurids. Ankylosaur microwear is characterized by a preponderance of pits and scratches, akin to modern mixed feeders, but offers no support for interspecific dietary differences. The shearing tooth batteries of ceratopsids are much better adapted to high-fibre herbivory, attested by their scratch-dominated microwear signature. There is tentative microwear evidence to suggest differences in the feeding habits of centrosaurines and chasmosaurines, but statistical support is not significant. The tooth batteries of hadrosaurids were capable of both shearing and crushing functions, suggestive of a broad dietary range. Their microwear signal overlaps broadly with that of ankylosaurs, and suggests possible dietary differences between hadrosaurines and lambeosaurines. Tooth wear evidence further indicates that all forms considered here exhibited some degree of masticatory propaliny. Our findings reveal that tooth morphology and wear exhibit different, but complimentary, dietary signals that combine to support the hypothesis of dietary niche

  16. Sedimentology and palaeontology of the Upper Jurassic Puesto Almada Member (Cañadón Asfalto Formation, Fossati sub-basin), Patagonia Argentina: Palaeoenvironmental and climatic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaleri, Nora G.; Benavente, Cecilia A.; Monferran, Mateo D.; Narváez, Paula L.; Volkheimer, Wolfgang; Gallego, Oscar F.; Do Campo, Margarita D.

    2013-10-01

    Six facies associations are described for the Puesto Almada Member at the Cerro Bandera locality (Fossati sub-basin). They correspond to lacustrine, palustrine, and pedogenic deposits (limestones); and subordinated alluvial fan, fluvial, aeolian, and pyroclastic deposits. The lacustrine-palustrine depositional setting consisted of carbonate alkaline shallow lakes surrounded by flooded areas in a low-lying topography. The facies associations constitute four shallowing upward successions defined by local exposure surfaces: 1) a Lacustrine-Palustrine-pedogenic facies association with a 'conchostracan'-ostracod association; 2) a Palustrine facies association representing a wetland subenvironment, and yielding 'conchostracans', body remains of insects, fish scales, ichnofossils, and palynomorphs (cheirolepidiacean species and ferns growing around water bodies, and other gymnosperms in more elevated areas); 3) an Alluvial fan facies association indicating the source of sediment supply; and 4) a Lacustrine facies association representing a second wetland episode, and yielding 'conchostracans', insect ichnofossils, and a palynoflora mainly consisting of planktonic green algae associated with hygrophile elements. The invertebrate fossil assemblage found contains the first record of fossil insect bodies (Insecta-Hemiptera and Coleoptera) for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation. The succession reflects a mainly climatic control over sedimentation. The sedimentary features of the Puesto Almada Member are in accordance with an arid climatic scenario across the Upper Jurassic, and they reflect a strong seasonality with periods of higher humidity represented by wetlands and lacustrine sediments.

  17. Spontaneous combustion of the Upper Paleocene Cerrejon Formation coal and generation of clinker in La Guajira Peninsula (Caribbean Region of Colombia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero, J.A. [Carbones del Cerrejon Limited., Cl. 100 No. 19-54 piso 12, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Candela, S.A. [ECOPETROL S.A. Edificio Principal Cr. 7 No. 37-65, Bogota D.C. (Colombia); Rios, C.A. [Escuela de Geologia, Universidad Industrial de Santander, Cr 27 Cl 9, Ciudad Universitaria, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Montes, C. [Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Roosvelt Ave., Tupper Building - 401, Balboa, Ancon, Panama (Panama); Uribe, C. [Tubos Moore S.A. Cll 99 No. 57-74, Bogota (Colombia)

    2009-12-01

    Clinker referred here as red and brick-looking burnt rocks found interbedded in the Upper Paleocene Cerrejon Formation is the result of spontaneous and natural combustion of coal seams in the recent geologic past. These rocks have been mapped, measured and characterized in the Cerrejon Coal Mine at La Guajira Peninsula (Colombia). These burnt rocks usually outcrop in irregular patterns as almost tabular bodies up to 100 m thick, thinning and pinching out below ground surface to depths up to 448 m. Mapping revealed that clinker is usually found near deformed zones, either faults or tight folds. Timing of spontaneous combustion seems to predate folding and faulting, but seems to postdate the development of the Cerrejon thrust fault and alluvial fan proceeding from the Perija Range. Clinker covers an area of around 2.9 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} with a volume of approximately 1.4 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 3}. The calculation of the amount of heat released through coal burning indicates that complete combustion of 6.4 Mt of 26.4 x 10{sup 6} J/kg coal would yield 17 x 10{sup 13} J. (author)

  18. Experimental Investigation of Biotite-Rich Schist Reacting with B-Bearing Fluids at Upper Crustal Conditions and Correlated Tourmaline Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Orlando

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fluid–rock interaction experiments between a biotite-rich schist (from Mt. Calamita Formation, Elba Island, Italy and B-bearing aqueous fluids were carried out at 500–600 °C and 100–130 MPa. The experiments have been carried out in order to reproduce the reaction, which would have produced tourmalinisation of the biotite schist, supposedly by circulation of magmatic fluids issued from leucogranitic dykes. The reacting fluids were either NaCl-free or NaCl-bearing (20 wt % aqueous solutions, with variable concentration of H3BO3 (0.01–3.2 M. The experimental results show that tourmaline (belonging to the alkali group crystallise under high-temperature and upper crustal conditions (500–600 °C, 100–130 MPa when H3BO3 concentration in the system is greater than 1.6 M. The composition of tourmaline is either dravitic (Mg-rich or schorlitic (Fe-rich, depending if an NaCl-bearing or NaCl-free aqueous solution is used. In the first case, a significant amount of Fe released from biotite dissolution remains in the Cl-rich solution resulting from the experiment. By contrast, when pure water is used, Na/K exchange in feldspars makes Na available for tourmaline crystallisation. The high concentration of Fe in the residual fluid has an important metallogenic implication because it indicates that the interaction between the saline B-rich fluid of magmatic derivation and biotite-rich schists, besides producing tourmalinisation, is capable of mobilising significant amounts of Fe. This process could have produced, in part or totally, the Fe deposits located close to the quartz–tourmaline veins and metasomatic bodies of the Mt. Calamita Formation. Moreover, the super-hot reservoir that likely occurs in the deepest part of the Larderello–Travale geothermal field would also be the site of an extensive reaction between the B-rich fluid and biotite-bearing rocks producing tourmaline. Thus, tourmaline occurrence can be a useful guide during deep

  19. The nature of porosity in organic-rich mudstones of the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, North Sea, offshore United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, Neil S.; Hackley, Paul C.; Lowers, Heather; Hill, Ronald J.; Egenhoff, Sven O.; Eberl, Dennis D.; Blum, Alex E.

    2012-01-01

    Analyses of organic-rich mudstones from wells that penetrated the Upper Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation, offshore United Kingdom, were performed to evaluate the nature of both organic and inorganic rock constituents and their relation to porosity in this world-class source rock. The formation is at varying levels of thermal maturity, ranging from immature in the shallowest core samples to mature in the deepest core samples. The intent of this study was to evaluate porosity as a function of both organic macerals and thermal maturity. At least four distinct types of organic macerals were observed in petrographic and SEM analyses and they all were present across the study area. The macerals include, in decreasing abundance: 1) bituminite admixed with clays; 2) elongate lamellar masses (alginite or bituminite) with small quartz, feldspar, and clay entrained within it; 3) terrestrial (vitrinite, fusinite, semifusinite) grains; and 4) Tasmanites microfossils. Although pores in all maceral types were observed on ion-milled surfaces of all samples, the pores (largely nanopores with some micropores) vary as a function of maceral type. Importantly, pores in the macerals do not vary systematically as a function of thermal maturity, insofar as organic pores are of similar size and shape in both the immature and mature Kimmeridge rocks. If any organic pores developed during the generation of hydrocarbons, they were apparently not preserved, possibly because of the highly ductile nature of much of the rock constituents of Kimmeridge mudstones (clays and organic material). Inorganic pores (largely micropores with some nanopores) have been observed in all Kimmeridge mudstones. These pores, particularly interparticle (i.e., between clay platelets), and intraparticle (i.e., in framboidal pyrite, in partially dissolved detrital K-feldspar, and in both detrital and authigenic dolomite) are noteworthy because they compose much of the observable porosity in the shales in both

  20. The upper limit of maturity of natural gas generation and its implication for the Yacheng formation in the Qiongdongnan Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Long; Zheng, Jianjing; Chen, Guojun; Zhang, Gongcheng; Guo, Jianming; Xu, Yongchang

    2012-08-01

    Vitrinite reflectance (VR, Ro%) measurements from residual kerogen of pyrolysis experiments were performed on immature Maoming Oil Shale substituted the samples for the gas-prone source rocks of Yacheng formation of the Qiongdongnan Basin in the South China Sea. The work was focused on determination an upper limit of maturity for gas generation (ULMGG) or "the deadline of natural gas generation". Ro values at given temperatures increase with increasing temperature and prolonged heating time, but ΔRo-value, given a definition of the difference of all values for VR related to higher temperature and adjacent lower temperature in open-system non-isothermal experiment at the heating rate of 20 °C/min, is better than VR. And representative examples are presented in this paper. It indicates that the range of natural gas generation for Ro in the main gas generation period is from 0.96% to 2.74%, in which ΔRo is in concordance with the stage for the onset and end of the main gas generation period corresponding to 0.02% up to 0.30% and from 0.30% up to 0.80%, respectively. After the main gas generation period of 0.96-2.74%, the evolution of VR approach to the ULMGG of the whole rock for type II kerogen. It is equal to 4.38% of VR, where the gas generation rates change little with the increase of maturation, ΔRo is the maximum of 0.83% corresponding to VR of 4.38%Ro, and the source rock does not nearly occur in the end process of hydrocarbon gas generation while Ro is over 4.38%. It shows that it is the same the ULMGG from the whole rock for type II kerogen as the method with both comparison and kinetics. By comparing to both the conclusions of pyrolysis experiments and the data of VR from the source rock of Yacheng formation on a series of selected eight wells in the shallow-water continental shelf area, it indicate that the most hydrocarbon source rock is still far from reaching ULMGG from the whole rock for type II kerogen. The source rock of Yacheng formation in the

  1. Cyclostratigraphic analysis of the Middle to lower Upper Ordovician Postolonnec Formation in the Armorican Massif (France): integrating pXRF, gammay-ray and lithological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnesael, Matthias; Loi, Alfredo; Dabard, Marie-Pierre; Vandenbroucke, Thijs; Claeys, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    The Middle to lower Upper Ordovician sections of the Crozon Peninsula area (Postolonnec Formation, Armorican Massif, western France) show multi-order eustatic sea-level changes (Dabard et al., 2015). The sections are characterized by siliciclastic facies, which were deposited in tidal to storm-dominated shelf environments. Dabard et al. (2015) analysed the facies, their stacking patterns, and gamma-ray data and applied backstripping to identify subsidence and several orders of sea-level change. The main stratigraphic constraints are coming from (chitinozoan) biostratigraphy. The 3th to 5th orders changes are hypothesized to correspond to various frequencies related to astronomical forcing. This study investigates the potential added value of portable X-Ray Fluorescence (pXRF) and the application of spectral analyses. High-resolution (cm-scale) non-destructive pXRF and natural gamma-ray measurements were carried out on 14 m of section that was equally logged on a cm resolution. The pXRF measurements on the surface of the outcrops are compared with earlier results of wavelength dispersive XRF spectrometry and ICP-MS. The potassium records of the pXRF and gamma-ray logs are comparable and essentially reflect lithological variations (i.e., between mudstone and coarse sandstones). Other reliably measured elements also reflected lithological aspects such as clay-sandstone alternations (e.g. K, Rb, Ti), placer locations (Zr, Ce, Ti) and potentially clay mineralogy and condensation horizons (Ni, Zn, Co, Mn). Spectral analyses of the various proxies (lithology, natural gamma-ray and pXRF) are compared with each other. Both the new high-resolution data (14 m of section) as well as the published low-resolution data (which span almost 400 m of Darriwilian-Sandbian) were analyzed. The study reveals strong indications for the imprint of obliquity, precession and eccentricity. Obtaining age constraints, in addition to the existing biostratigraphical framework is a challenge in

  2. Fluvial terrace formation in the northern Upper Rhine Graben during the last 20 000 years as a result of allogenic controls and autogenic evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkens, G.; Dambeck, R.; Volleberg, K.P.; Bouman, M.I.T.J.; Bos, J.A.A.; Cohen, K.M.; Hoek, W.Z.

    2009-01-01

    The northern Upper Rhine Graben hosts a well-preserved Late Weichselian and Holocene fluvial terrace sequence. Terraces differ in elevation, morphology, and overbank sediment characteristics. The purpose of this study was to determine the relative importance of allogenic controlling factors versus

  3. Stratigraphy and facies of the Nocedo, Fueyo and Ermita formations (Upper Devonian to lowermost Carboniferous) in León, N Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loevezijn, van G.B.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Asturo-Leonese Basin is one of the three large palaeogeographical units of the Cantabrian Zone. In the north the basin is bounded by the Asturian Geanticline and the Palencian Basin. In the south the Palaeozoic succession is covered by Mesozoic and Tertiairy deposits. The Upper Devonian to

  4. Siliciclastics in the Upper Triassic dolomite formations of the Krizna Unit (Maid Fatra Mountains, Western Carpathians): constraints for the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Fatric Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkora, M.; Siblík, Miloš; Soták, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2011), s. 121-138 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Carnian event * Upper Triassic dolomites * Western Carpathians * Krizna Unit * shaly interbeds * lingulids * conchostracans Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2011

  5. Investigation on the upper Paleozoic Strata in Tang-e-Zakeen, and introducing Zakeen formation, Kuh-e Faraghan Zagros Basin, South Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghavidel-Syooki, M.

    1998-01-01

    A thick clastic sequence is well-developed in Tang-e-Zakeen, Kuh-e-Faraghan, being situated approximately 80 Km north of Bandar Abbas. The sequence is 340 m. thick and mainly consists of sandstone, siltstone, shale and subordinate dolomitic beds. So far, this clastic sequence has been called Faraghan Formation. This rock unit lacks marine fauna and based on stratigraphic position, it was assigned to the Early Permian (Szabo and Kheradpir, 1978). Since then, a detailed palynological study has been carried out on the Faraghan Formation by the author. These studies resulted identification of numerous palynomorph taxa, including miospore and acritarch species. The known palynomorph taxa indicated that, a major part of Faraghan Formation belongs to the Devonian Period, while the rest is Early Permian. As a result, the National Iranian Stratigraphic Committee decided and agreed upon to divide the Faraghan Formation into two rock units, namely, the Zakeen Formation, embracing the Devonian strata, and Faraghan Formation for the Early Permian sequence in the Zagros Basin respectively. The Zakeen Formation derives from the Zakeen Village which is located in the southern flank of Kuh-e-Faraghan, about 80 km north of Bandar Abbas. The type section of Zakeen Formation attains a thickness of 285m. in Tang-e-Zakeen, Kuh-e-Faraghan, approximately 23 Km from the Zakeen village. It disconformably rests on the Sarchahan Formation, while it too, disconformably overlain by the Faraghan Formation. A total of 100 samples from the Zakeen Formation were selected and treated in the palynological laboratory of the Exploration Division of National Iranian Oil Company. 63 palynomorph taxa were encountered from the Zakeen Formation. The known species were arranged in five local stratigraphic assemblage zones. Zones I and II occur in a thickness of 96 m. of the Zakeen Formation, in ascending order, suggesting the Early Devonian whereas Zones III and IV occur Within 156 m. interval of the Zakeen

  6. Geological characteristic of the main oil and gas producing formations of the upper Austrian molasse basin. Pt. 1. The Eocene sandstones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, L [Rohoel-Aufsuchungs-Gesellschaft m.b.H., Vienna (Austria)

    1980-09-01

    The sandstones of the Upper Eocene are the main oil carriers within RAG's Upper Austrian concession area. The attempt is being made to reconstruct the paleogeography of the Eocene-in which time the sea transgressed the Molasse basin towards N and E - from core and log evidence. From deep Lower Tertiary onwards the mesozoic and older sediments were exposed to intensive erosion, which resulted in a slightly undulating peneplane sloping in a S to SW direction. This erosion plane was - still in Lower Tertiary times - in some areas dissected into horst and graben structures which greatly influenced the deposition of the early Eocene sediments. During the Upper Eocene the Molasse basin began to subside and subsided more strongly in the SW than in the N and NE, so that neritic deposits could form in the first area, whereas lagoonal and brackish sedimentation still prevailed in the latter. The Eocene sandstones are being classified according to their environment of deposition, and their reservoir, characteristics are being studied. Sandstones are absent in the neritic environment of the Discocyclina-marls only. Sand deposits have been encountered as: 1) transgressive horizons directly overlying the pretertiary substrate, 2) infills of channels cut into limnic-brackish sediments, 3) littoral deposits, partly interfingering with Lithothamnium limestone, 4) fine grained sandy marls and nummulitic sandstones within sublittoral to neritic sediments.

  7. Paleontology and stratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay-Cape Kekurnoi-Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5 quadrangle

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the paleontological character and stratigraphy of the Kamishak Formation in the Puale Bay–Cape Kekurnoi–Alinchak Bay area, Karluk C-4 and C-5...

  8. Tabasosphaera pustulosa nov. gen., nov. sp., a microproblematicum (foraminifer? from the Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian reef limestone of Nayban Formation (NE Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba Senowbari-Daryan

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available A microproblematicum with calcaerous test, Tabasosphaera pustulosa nov. gen., nov. sp., a hollow spherical microfossil with pustule-like elements on the outer surface, is described from Upper Triassic (Norian-Rhaetian reef limestones exposed near the town of Ali-Abad, south of Tabas (northeast Iran. Tabasosphaera is an endobiotic organism living within the cavities of other organisms, such as brachiopods, worm tubes, or in sponge spongocoels. The systematic position of Tabasosphaera, its interspecific association and the fossil assemblage of which it makes part is discussed. Most probably Tabasosphaera represents a foraminifer belonging to the group Lagenina.

  9. Parameters controlling fracturing distribution: example of an Upper Jurassic marly-calcareous formation (eastern Paris Basin); Parametres controlant la distribution de la fracturation: exemple dans une serie marno-calcaire du Jurassique superieur (Est du bassin de Paris)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andre, G.; Rebours, H.; Wileveau, Y. [Agence Nationale pour la Gestion des Dechets Radioactifs (ANDRA), Laboratoire de recherche souterrain de Meuse/Haute-Marne, 55 - Bure (France); Proudhon, B. [GEO.TER, 34 - Clapiers (France)

    2006-10-15

    Study of fractures along a 490-m vertical section of marl/limestone alternations in the Upper Jurassic (Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory-eastern Paris Basin) reveals their organization and the different states of palaeo-stress. Type and extension of tectonic structures seem to be controlled principally by lithology and secondary by depth. Also, it appears deviations of Alpine palaeo-stresses between Kimmeridgian and Oxfordian formations. These deviations are related to the presence of marl/limestone contacts. The vertical evolution of current horizontal maximum stress shows a similar behaviour, with deviations at the walls of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. These results allow us to point out and to discuss the impact of lithology, rheology and depth on fracturing occurrence and distribution. Furthermore, this study suggests the role of Callovo-Oxfordian as a barrier for fracture development between the limestones of Dogger and Oxfordian formations. (authors)

  10. Biostratigraphy, palaeoecology and palaeogeography of the mainly marine Ager Formation (Upper Paleocene — Lower Eocene) in the Tremp Basin, Central-South Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaemers, Pieter A.M.

    1978-01-01

    During the greater part of the Palaeogene the Tremp Basin was an area which underwent rapid subsidence as compared with the axial zone of the Pyrenees to the north, and the Ebro Massif to the south. As a result the sea occupied this area for a long time and deposition of the Ager Formation took

  11. Sedimentology and Paleoenvironment of Deposition of the Deba-Fulani Member of Pindiga Formation in the Gongola Arm of the Upper Benue Trough, Northeastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shettima

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The sedimentology and paleoenvironment of the Deba-Fulani Member of the Pindiga Formation were investigated on the basis of their grain size distribution. Granulometric analysis has indicated that the samples are generally well to moderately sorted with skewness values ranging from negatively to positively skewed which may indicate influence of both marine and fluvial conditions. Bivariate plot relationships of standard deviation vs. mean, standard deviation vs. skewness, first percentile vs. mean also indicated both fluvial and marine setting for the middle part of the Pindiga Formation member. However, most of the bivariate plot showed dominance of fluvial environment. The probability curve plot shows a prevalence of three-sand population curves which are usually associated with wave processes indicating marine conditions for most part of the Deba-Fulani Member.

  12. Paleosols of the upper Paleozoic Sangre de Cristo Formation, north-central New Mexico: Record of early Permian palaeoclimate in tropical Pangaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence H. Tanner

    2017-04-01

    During the early Permian, northern New Mexico was situated in a near equatorial position (ca. 4° N. The overall character of the paleosols suggests a persistent warm, semi-humid, seasonal climate throughout most of the interval of deposition during the Wolfcampian, but with episodically increased aridity during formation of the more mature calcretes. No long-term trend of climate change is evident in the stratigraphic section examined for this study.

  13. An integrated study of geochemistry and mineralogy of the Upper Tukau Formation, Borneo Island (East Malaysia): Sediment provenance, depositional setting and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagarajan, Ramasamy; Roy, Priyadarsi D.; Kessler, Franz L.; Jong, John; Dayong, Vivian; Jonathan, M. P.

    2017-08-01

    An integrated study using bulk chemical composition, mineralogy and mineral chemistry of sedimentary rocks from the Tukau Formation of Borneo Island (Sarawak, Malaysia) is presented in order to understand the depositional and tectonic settings during the Neogene. Sedimentary rocks are chemically classified as shale, wacke, arkose, litharenite and quartz arenite and consist of quartz, illite, feldspar, rutile and anatase, zircon, tourmaline, chromite and monazite. All of them are highly matured and were derived from a moderate to intensively weathered source. Bulk and mineral chemistries suggest that these rocks were recycled from sedimentary to metasedimentary source regions with some input from granitoids and mafic-ultramafic rocks. The chondrite normalized REE signature indicates the presence of felsic rocks in the source region. Zircon geochronology shows that the samples were of Cretaceous and Triassic age. Comparable ages of zircon from the Tukau Formation sedimentary rocks, granitoids of the Schwaner Mountains (southern Borneo) and Tin Belt of the Malaysia Peninsular suggest that the principal provenance for the Rajang Group were further uplifted and eroded during the Neogene. Additionally, presence of chromian spinels and their chemistry indicate a minor influence of mafic and ultramafic rocks present in the Rajang Group. From a tectonic standpoint, the Tukau Formation sedimentary rocks were deposited in a passive margin with passive collisional and rift settings. Our key geochemical observation on tectonic setting is comparable to the regional geological setting of northwestern Borneo as described in the literature.

  14. Micromorphology of Paleosols of the Marília Formation and their Significance in the Paleoenvironmental Evolution of the Bauru Basin, Upper Cretaceous, Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luiz da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Deduction of associated paleoenvironments and paleoclimate, definition of the chronosequence of paleosols, and paleogeographic reconstruction have become possible through the application of micromorphology in paleopedology. Micromorphology has also been useful in recognition of weathering processes and definition of minerals formed in succession. In this respect, the objective of this study was to identify the development of pedogenic processes and discuss their significance in the paleoclimate evolution of the Marília Formation (Maastrichtian of Bauru Basin. Three sections of the Marília Formation (A1, A2, and A3 were described, comprising nine profiles. Micromorphologic al analysis was carried out according to the specialized literature. In the Marília Formation, the paleosols developed in sandstones have argillic (Btkm, Bt and carbonate (Bk horizons with different degrees of cementation, forming mainly calcretes. The evolution of pedogenic processes, in light of micromorphological analysis, evidenced three moments or stages for the genesis of paleosols with Bkm, Btk, and Bt horizons, respectively. In the Maastrichtian in the Bauru Basin, the paleosols with Bkm are older and more arid environments, and those with Bt were formed in wetter weather, but not enough to lead to the genesis of enaulic-related distributions, typical of current Oxisols.

  15. Sedimentation of the basal Kombolgie Formation (Upper Precambrian-Carpentarian) Northern Territory, Australia: possible significance in the genesis of the underlying Alligator Rivers unconformity-type uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojakangas, R.W.

    1979-10-01

    The 1400 to 1500 My old Kombolgie Formation of the MacArthur Basin of the Northern Territory overlies or has overlain unconformity-type uranium deposits including Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra, Nabarlek and the small deposits of the South Alligator River Valley. A brief study of the basal portion of the formation showed it to consist entirely of mature conglomerates and quartzose sandstones. Analysis of the bedding types (planar cross beds, trough cross beds and parallel beds) and other sedimentary structures (mainly ripple marks and parting lineation) fit a braided alluvial plain model. A paleocurrent study utilizing about 400 measurements from nine localities located along the westward-facing 250 kilometer-long erosional escarpment of the Arnhem Land Plateau showed the dominant paleocurrent trend to be from west and northwest towards the east and southeast, with local divergence. The data and interpretation presented are relevant to the supergene model of uranium deposition at the unconformity, for they add to the suggestion that additional uranium deposits similar to Jabiluka Two may underlie the Kombolgie Formation eastward from the present escarpment

  16. Influence of a major exposure surface on the development of microporous micritic limestones - Example of the Upper Mishrif Formation (Cenomanian) of the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville de Periere, M.; Durlet, C.; Vennin, E.; Caline, B.; Boichard, R.; Meyer, A.

    2017-05-01

    Microporous platform top limestones of the Cenomanian Mishrif Formation (offshore Qatar) were studied in order to investigate the diagenetic processes associated with the top-Mishrif subaerial unconformity and its influence on the development of microporosity in underlying carbonates. Petrographical and stable isotope results indicate that complex diagenetic changes occurred during subaerial exposure of the Mishrif Formation, including pervasive dissolution and meteoric cementation, as well as neomorphism of the micritic matrix. Micrites at the top of the Mishrif Formation are coarse (i.e. > 2 μm), sub-rounded and very dull luminescent under cathodoluminescence. In this uppermost part of the studied interval, the limestone matrix first underwent dissolution of unstable grains in the vadose zone, with subsequent precipitation of low-magnesium calcite (LMC) overgrowths within an oxidising phreatic setting. This process explains the poor luminescence of the micrite crystals and their relatively coarse crystallometry which results in the present day in relatively good reservoir properties. δ13C ratios within the microporous limestones are negative (up to - 4‰ V-PDB) due to the incorporation of isotopically light carbon derived from palaeosols which developed during exposure. By contrast, fine (i.e. aquifer associated with the Top-Mishrif Unconformity, and were precipitated from meteoric or mixed dysoxic waters which were slightly supersaturated with respect to calcite.

  17. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2002-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 2 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of rockfluid interactions, (2) petrophysical and engineering characterization, (3) data integration, (4) 3-D geologic modeling, (5) 3-D reservoir simulation and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 2. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions is near completion. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and

  18. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2001-09-14

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 1 of the project has been reservoir description and characterization. This effort has included four tasks: (1) geoscientific reservoir characterization, (2) the study of rock-fluid interactions, (3) petrophysical and engineering characterization and (4) data integration. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 1. Overall, the project work is on schedule. Geoscientific reservoir characterization is essentially completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been initiated. Observations regarding the diagenetic processes influencing pore system development and heterogeneity in these reef and shoal reservoirs have been

  19. Taphonomy of the vertebrate bone beds from the Klūnas fossil site, Upper Devonian Tērvete Formation of Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeļena Vasiļkova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combined sedimentological and taphonomical study of the siliciclastic sequence of the Tērvete Formation in the stratotypical area was aimed at revealing the formation of the three oryctocoenoses discovered and related structural and textural features of the deposits, as well as at detailed observation of the taphonomical peculiarities of the obtained palaeontological material. The fossil vertebrate assemblage is represented by 14 taxa comprising placoderms, acanthodians, sarcopterygians and actinopterygians. The three oryctocoenoses, first recognized in 2010, differ in the proportions of repeatedly buried material, in the number and degree of preservation of small and fragile skeletal elements, as well as in the evaluated current velocity and the transportation distance. Sedimentary concentrations of marine vertebrate remains, dominated by the antiarchs Bothriolepis ornata and B. jani, have been formed under the influence of fluvial and tidal processes in the shallow-water environment, deltaic or estuarine settings. Elongated placoderm and sarcopterygian bones are probably better indicators of the palaeoflow direction than acanthodian spines or sarcopterygian teeth.

  20. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2004-02-25

    The University of Alabama, in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company, has undertaken an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling which utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary goal of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. Geoscientific reservoir property, geophysical seismic attribute, petrophysical property, and engineering property characterization has shown that reef (thrombolite) and shoal reservoir lithofacies developed on the flanks of high-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Vocation Field example) and on the crest and flanks of low-relief crystalline basement paleohighs (Appleton Field example). The reef thrombolite lithofacies have higher reservoir quality than the shoal lithofacies due to overall higher permeabilities and greater interconnectivity. Thrombolite dolostone flow units, which are dominated by dolomite intercrystalline and vuggy pores, are characterized by a pore system comprised of a higher percentage of large-sized pores and larger pore throats. Rock-fluid interactions (diagenesis) studies have shown that although the primary control on

  1. INTEGRATED GEOLOGIC-ENGINEERING MODEL FOR REEF AND CARBONATE SHOAL RESERVOIRS ASSOCIATED WITH PALEOHIGHS: UPPER JURASSIC SMACKOVER FORMATION, NORTHEASTERN GULF OF MEXICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest A. Mancini

    2003-09-25

    The University of Alabama in cooperation with Texas A&M University, McGill University, Longleaf Energy Group, Strago Petroleum Corporation, and Paramount Petroleum Company are undertaking an integrated, interdisciplinary geoscientific and engineering research project. The project is designed to characterize and model reservoir architecture, pore systems and rock-fluid interactions at the pore to field scale in Upper Jurassic Smackover reef and carbonate shoal reservoirs associated with varying degrees of relief on pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs in the northeastern Gulf of Mexico. The project effort includes the prediction of fluid flow in carbonate reservoirs through reservoir simulation modeling that utilizes geologic reservoir characterization and modeling and the prediction of carbonate reservoir architecture, heterogeneity and quality through seismic imaging. The primary objective of the project is to increase the profitability, producibility and efficiency of recovery of oil from existing and undiscovered Upper Jurassic fields characterized by reef and carbonate shoals associated with pre-Mesozoic basement paleohighs. The principal research effort for Year 3 of the project has been reservoir characterization, 3-D modeling, testing of the geologic-engineering model, and technology transfer. This effort has included six tasks: (1) the study of seismic attributes, (2) petrophysical characterization, (3) data integration, (4) the building of the geologic-engineering model, (5) the testing of the geologic-engineering model and (6) technology transfer. This work was scheduled for completion in Year 3. Progress on the project is as follows: geoscientific reservoir characterization is completed. The architecture, porosity types and heterogeneity of the reef and shoal reservoirs at Appleton and Vocation Fields have been characterized using geological and geophysical data. The study of rock-fluid interactions has been completed. Observations regarding the diagenetic

  2. Evidence for Sexual Dimorphism in the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus mjosi (Ornithischia, Stegosauria) from the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitta, Evan Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Conclusive evidence for sexual dimorphism in non-avian dinosaurs has been elusive. Here it is shown that dimorphism in the shape of the dermal plates of Stegosaurus mjosi (Upper Jurassic, western USA) does not result from non-sex-related individual, interspecific, or ontogenetic variation and is most likely a sexually dimorphic feature. One morph possessed wide, oval plates 45% larger in surface area than the tall, narrow plates of the other morph. Intermediate morphologies are lacking as principal component analysis supports marked size- and shape-based dimorphism. In contrast, many non-sex-related individual variations are expected to show intermediate morphologies. Taphonomy of a new quarry in Montana (JRDI 5ES Quarry) shows that at least five individuals were buried in a single horizon and were not brought together by water or scavenger transportation. This new site demonstrates co-existence, and possibly suggests sociality, between two morphs that only show dimorphism in their plates. Without evidence for niche partitioning, it is unlikely that the two morphs represent different species. Histology of the new specimens in combination with studies on previous specimens indicates that both morphs occur in fully-grown individuals. Therefore, the dimorphism is not a result of ontogenetic change. Furthermore, the two morphs of plates do not simply come from different positions on the back of a single individual. Plates from all positions on the body can be classified as one of the two morphs, and previously discovered, isolated specimens possess only one morph of plates. Based on the seemingly display-oriented morphology of plates, female mate choice was likely the driving evolutionary mechanism rather than male-male competition. Dinosaur ornamentation possibly served similar functions to the ornamentation of modern species. Comparisons to ornamentation involved in sexual selection of extant species, such as the horns of bovids, may be appropriate in predicting the

  3. Interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa: Implication for merwinite formation in upper mantle, and for the metasomatic origin of sublithospheric diamonds with Ca-rich suite of inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharygin, Igor S.; Shatskiy, Anton; Litasov, Konstantin D.; Golovin, Alexander V.; Ohtani, Eiji; Pokhilenko, Nikolay P.

    2018-03-01

    We performed an experimental study, designed to reproduce the formation of an unusual merwinite + olivine-bearing mantle assemblage recently described as a part of a Ca-rich suite of inclusions in sublithospheric diamonds, through the interaction of peridotite with an alkali-rich Ca-carbonatite melt, derived from deeply subducted oceanic crust. In the first set of experiments, we studied the reaction between powdered Mg-silicates, olivine and orthopyroxene, and a model Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2), in a homogeneous mixture, at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. In these equilibration experiments, we observed the formation of a merwinite + olivine-bearing assemblage at 3.1 GPa and 1200 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1300-1400 °C. The melts coexisting with this assemblage have a low Si and high Ca content (Ca# = molar 100 × Ca/(Ca + Mg) > 0.57). In the second set of experiments, we investigated reaction rims produced by interaction of the same Ca-carbonate melt (molar Na:K:Ca = 1:1:2) with Mg-silicate, olivine and orthopyroxene, single crystals at 3.1 GPa and 1300 °C and at 6.5 GPa and 1400 °C. The interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with olivine leads to merwinite formation through the expected reaction: 2Mg2SiO4 (olivine) + 6CaCO3 (liquid) = Ca3MgSi2O8 (merwinite) + 3CaMg(CO3)2 (liquid). Thus, our experiments confirm the idea that merwinite in the upper mantle may originate via interaction of peridotite with Ca-rich carbonatite melt, and that diamonds hosting merwinite may have a metasomatic origin. It is remarkable that the interaction of the Ca-carbonate melt with orthopyroxene crystals does not produce merwinite both at 3.1 and 6.5 GPa. This indicates that olivine grain boundaries are preferable for merwinite formation in the upper mantle.

  4. Sequence stratigraphy, sedimentary systems and petroleum plays in a low-accommodation basin: Middle to upper members of the Lower Jurassic Sangonghe Formation, Central Junggar Basin, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Youliang; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Chunfang

    2015-06-01

    The Lower Jurassic Junggar Basin is a low-accommodation basin in northwestern China. Because of low subsidence rates and a warm, wet climate, deposits of the Central subbasin of the Junggar Basin formed from fluvial, deltaic, shallow lake facies. Sequence stratigraphy and sedimentary systems of the Lower Jurassic members of the Sangonghe Formation (J1s) were evaluated by observing cores, interpreting wireline logs and examining seismic profiles. Two third-order sequences were recognized in the strata. The distribution of the sedimentary systems in the systems tracts shows that tectonic movement, paleorelief, paleoclimate and changes in lake level controlled the architecture of individual sequences. During the development of the lowstand systems tract (LST), the intense structural movement of the basin resulted in a significant fall in the water level in the lake, accompanied by rapid accommodation decrease. Braided rivers and their deltaic systems were also developed in the Central Junggar Basin. Sediments carried by braided rivers were deposited on upward slopes of the paleorelief, and braid-delta fronts were deposited on downward slopes. During the transgressive systems tract (TST), the tectonic movement of the basin was quiescent and the climate was warm and humid. Lake levels rose and accommodation increased quickly, shoal lines moved landward, and shore- to shallow-lake deposits, sublacustrine fans and deep-lake facies were deposited in shallow- to deep-lake environments. During the highstand systems tract (HST), the accommodation no longer increased but sediment supply continued, far exceeding accommodation. HST deposits slowly formed in shallow-lake to meandering river delta-front environments. Relatively low rates of structural subsidence and low accommodation resulted in coarse-grained successions that were fining upward. Deposits were controlled by structural movement and paleorelief within the LST to TST deposits in the Central subbasin. Fine- to medium

  5. Sedimentary paleoenvironments of the Candeleros Formation(Rio Limay Subgroup)upper cretaceous, Ezequiel Ramos Mexia, Neuquen, Argentina daming west, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.

    2004-01-01

    Sedimentary facies from the Candeleros Formation (Rio Limay Subgroup), cropping out at the El Escondido creek, at the Ezequiel Ramos Mexia dam, are analyzed and interpreted in this paper. A sedimentological detailed section was measured to get the main goal of this paper which is the sedimentary paleoenvironment. The outcroppings were pictured and a section was measured, geometries and espacial relation between them were analyzed. Eight lithofacies were identified which are: coarse sandstone facies (Se), sandstones (Sm, St, Sp, Sh t Sr), siltstones and shales (Fl and Fr). These lithofacies were agrupated into eight facies associations (FA). AFA constitutes the registration of multiepisodic events of sheet floods; AFB, C and D are product of the depositation in a braided channel belt, AFE represents units of lateral accretion, AFF is assigned deposits of crevasse splay and AFG and H are assigned to plain of flood. The distribution of these associations in the column defines an terminal fan paleoenvironment where is represented of base to top: distal (AFA, B and G) and proximal area (AFD and G) of the distributary plain; zone of feeding of the system (AFC, And, F and G), media-proximal distributary plain (AFD and F), proximal distributary plain (AFC, And, F and G); and flood basin (AFF, G and H) [es

  6. Structure dynamics of a fish community over ten years of formation in the reservoir of the hydroelectric power plant in upper Uruguay River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schork, G; Zaniboni-Filho, E

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the structure of the fish assemblage in the ten years following the closing of the lake of the Itá Hydroelectric Power Plant. Seasonal collections were conducted from 2001 to 2010. During this period, 44,834 fish were captured, totaling 3,818.01 kg, among 8 orders, 24 families and 84 species. In general, profound changes were not observed in the fish assemblage in the ten years after the formation of the Itá lake. Few species changed in dominance over time, while many were rare in the environment. The ichthyofauna in the reservoir was dominated by small and medium size opportunist species that conduct short or no migratory movements. Among the most abundant, six species were responsible for more than 50% of the numeric representation: Steindachnerina brevipinna, Astyanax fasciatus, Apareiodon affinis, Hypostomus isbrueckeri, Iheringichthys labrosus and Loricariichthys anus. The increase in the representation of the later species stood out. The biomass was dominated by Steindachneridion scriptum, Prochilodus lineatus, I. laborsus, Schizodon nasutus, Hoplias malabaricus, Acestrorhynchus pantaneiro, Hoplias lacerdae, H. isbrueckeri and L. anus. Despite the presence of large migrators in the region of the reservoir, their vulnerability was revealed by the low numeric abundance and accidental capture. The k-dominance curve of numerical abundance and biomass indicates a moderately disturbed community, in which the representation of small species was also important to the amounts of biomass.

  7. Paleomorphology of the upper part of the Macae formation, Namorado field, Campos basin; Paleomorfologia do intervalo superior da formacao Macae, Campo de Namorado, Bacia de Campos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Eduardo Guimaraes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Geociencias; Tomazelli, Luiz Jose; Ayup-Zouain, Ricardo Norberto [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Geociencias. Centro de Estudos de Geologia Costeira e Oceanica; Viana, Adriano Roessler [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Exploracao e Producao. Edificio Sede

    2004-07-01

    The Macae Formation (Late Albian-Turonian of the Campos Basin) is represented by a thick column of carbonate sediments whose deposition began soon after the evaporitic phase that marks the beginning of the marine occupation of the basin. The top of this interval is represented by an unconformity (Type I), indicative of a variation in the base level of the basin, on which the turbidities of the basal sequence of the Namorado Field were deposited. For a better understanding of the depositional geometry of these turbidities, the paleogeomorphology analysis demonstrated to be quite efficient. The method of work used for so was a combination among the seismic 3D visualization (VoxelGeo{sup R}), from the characterization of different physical attributes of the seismic signal, and the facies analysis of wells profiles of the referred field. The developed analysis allowed the individualization and the three-dimensional visualization of a sinuous paleochannel in the top of the interval, until then not described in previous interpretations of this depositional system. With the information coming from this study, a better understanding of the genesis of this accumulation can be reached, especially in the part regarding to the units of important economic character, represented by the turbidities deposits and whose occurrences are related with stages of relative lowering of the sea level. (author)

  8. Paleoenvironmental interpretation through the analysis of ostracodes and carbonate microfacies: study of the Jandaíra Formation, Upper Cretaceous, Potiguar Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Batista dos Santos Filho

    Full Text Available Paleoecological analyses are important tools for the reconstruction of paleoenvironments. This paper had the objective of using analysis of ostracode assemblages and carbonate microfacies of a well (Carbomil and an outcrop (Quixeré from the Jandaíra Formation, Potiguar Basin, in order to verify how they corroborate and complement the other. Two paleoenvironments for Carbomil Well (assemblages 1 and 2, respectively marine and brackish to neritic environments and one for Quixeré Outcrop (assemblage 3, marine environment were identified through the ostracode assemblage analysis. Thin section analysis allowed the identification of two different facies for Carbomil Well, i.e. bioclastic packstones to wackstones, a marine brackish or restricted marine system; and bioclastic grainstones to packstones, a normal, shallow marine system. High levels of alteration on the samples prevented an adequate analysis of Quixeré Outcrop; however, it seems to point towards a low-energy environment. Overall, information provided by the thin sections corroborate and complement data of the ostracode assemblages, which allowed a higher degree of certainty for the paleoenvironmental analysis.

  9. The Postcranial Skeleton of an Exceptionally Complete Individual of the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus stenops (Dinosauria: Thyreophora from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah Catherine Rose Maidment

    Full Text Available Although Stegosaurus is one of the most iconic dinosaurs, well-preserved fossils are rare and as a consequence there is still much that remains unknown about the taxon. A new, exceptionally complete individual affords the opportunity to describe the anatomy of Stegosaurus in detail for the first time in over a century, and enables additional comparisons with other stegosaurian dinosaurs. The new specimen is from the Red Canyon Ranch Quarry, near Shell Wyoming, and appears to have been so well preserved because it was buried rapidly in a pond or body of standing water immediately after death. The quarry is probably located in the middle part of the Morrison Formation, which is believed to be Tithonian in age in this area. The specimen is referable to Stegosaurus stenops based on the possession of an edentulous anterior portion of the dentary and elevated postzygapophyses on the cervical vertebrae. New information provided by the specimen concerns the morphology of the vertebrae, the iliosacral block and dermal armor. Several aspects of its morphology indicate the individual was not fully skeletally mature at the time of death, corroborating a previous histological study.

  10. A hyper-robust sauropodomorph dinosaur ilium from the Upper Triassic-Lower Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa: Implications for the functional diversity of basal Sauropodomorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPhee, Blair W.; Choiniere, Jonah N.

    2016-11-01

    It has generally been held that the locomotory habits of sauropodomorph dinosaurs moved in a relatively linear evolutionary progression from bipedal through "semi-bipedal" to the fully quadrupedal gait of Sauropoda. However, there is now a growing appreciation of the range of locomotory strategies practiced amongst contemporaneous taxa of the latest Triassic and earliest Jurassic. Here we present on the anatomy of a hyper-robust basal sauropodomorph ilium from the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic Elliot Formation of South Africa. This element, in addition to highlighting the unexpected range of bauplan diversity throughout basal Sauropodomorpha, also has implications for our understanding of the relevance of "robusticity" to sauropodomorph evolution beyond generalized limb scaling relationships. Possibly representing a unique form of hindlimb stabilization during phases of bipedal locomotion, the autapomorphic morphology of this newly rediscovered ilium provides additional insight into the myriad ways in which basal Sauropodomorpha managed the inherited behavioural and biomechanical challenges of increasing body-size, hyper-herbivory, and a forelimb primarily adapted for use in a bipedal context.

  11. The Postcranial Skeleton of an Exceptionally Complete Individual of the Plated Dinosaur Stegosaurus stenops (Dinosauria: Thyreophora) from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Wyoming, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maidment, Susannah Catherine Rose; Brassey, Charlotte; Barrett, Paul Michael

    2015-01-01

    Although Stegosaurus is one of the most iconic dinosaurs, well-preserved fossils are rare and as a consequence there is still much that remains unknown about the taxon. A new, exceptionally complete individual affords the opportunity to describe the anatomy of Stegosaurus in detail for the first time in over a century, and enables additional comparisons with other stegosaurian dinosaurs. The new specimen is from the Red Canyon Ranch Quarry, near Shell Wyoming, and appears to have been so well preserved because it was buried rapidly in a pond or body of standing water immediately after death. The quarry is probably located in the middle part of the Morrison Formation, which is believed to be Tithonian in age in this area. The specimen is referable to Stegosaurus stenops based on the possession of an edentulous anterior portion of the dentary and elevated postzygapophyses on the cervical vertebrae. New information provided by the specimen concerns the morphology of the vertebrae, the iliosacral block and dermal armor. Several aspects of its morphology indicate the individual was not fully skeletally mature at the time of death, corroborating a previous histological study.

  12. Aquifer prospect and vulnerability of Upper Maastrichtian sandstones: Case of Ajali and Nsukka formations in the Northern Enugu Province, southeastern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpai, Stephen N.; Ezeh, Hilary N.; Igwe, James O.

    2017-11-01

    Two typical aquifer systems, namely, regional aquifer and local Perched aquifer have been delineated in the study area. The regional aquifer was identified at about 100 m depth around lowland areas, although prone to polluting effects from farming activities, erosion and weathering processes. This study investigated extents of groundwater pollution and permeability of the aquifers from water sample and grain size analyses. Results show porosity ranging from 49 to 50% and hydraulic conductivities as follows: 7.0 m/day for the sandstone of Nsukka Formation, 34.6 m/day for the outcrop of Ajali sandstone and 10.4 m/day for the sandstone at saturated subsurface zone with transmissivity of about 572 m2/day. The results signify that the regional aquifer is recharged by substantial rate of infiltrations vis-a-vis surface outcrops, and is therefore vulnerable to infiltration of pollution plumes. The groundwater is mainly acidic at pH ranging from 5.05 to 7.41 with a mean value of about 6.48, hence the pollution from dissolved iron in many places. Three main water types were identified, namely, Ca-Mg-HCO3, Ca-HCO3-Cl2 and Mg-Na-HCO3-SO4-Cl2 facies, all signifying dominance of groundwater species arising from precipitation recharge. This has resulted in the influences of surface effluents from run off as indicated by nitrate pollution in some areas. Thus, active hydrologic cycle controls the chemical facies in the water resources of the region, and with its hydraulic influence on the landscape, the quality status of groundwater, as well as the growth of agricultural products have been impaired.

  13. Discontinuities and sequences in the Tarat formation (Upper Visean) and the Arlit Unit (Namurian-Westphalian) at Arlit (Niger). Sedimentary climatic and tectonic evolution of the area during Carboniferous

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sempere, T.; Beaudoin, B.

    1984-01-01

    The Tarat Formation is composed at Arlit of three sequences consisting of sandstones and black mudstones rich in organic matter of continental origin. The three of them are interpreted as estuarine sediments deposited in different tectonic frameworks. The Arlit Unit consists of motley argillaceous sandstones deposited in a very flat lacustrine or alluvial environment and under an arid climate. These formations are separated by a fundamental discontinuity linked to the structuration of the Tim Mersoi Trough. At regional scale, the sediments lying below this discontinuity are grouped in tectono-sedimentary supersequences, which are interpreted as biorhexistasic rhythms; their deposition was horizontally directed by complex evolving synsedimentary tectonics controlled by the N-S In Azawa Lineament, and was influenced by the permanent proximity of a northern sea. The sediments lying above the fundamental discontinuity belong to the ''Continental Intercalaire'' Supergroup; their deposition was influenced by the Tim Mersoi Trough. The whole Carboniferous sedimentation took place in a climatic context which evolved from cold (Lower Visean) to warm and arid (Upper Carboniferous) through temperate climates [fr

  14. Using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to explore geochemical taphonomy of vertebrate fossils in the upper cretaceous two medicine and Judith River formations of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, R.R.; Fricke, H.C.; Addona, V.; Canavan, R.R.; Dwyer, C.N.; Harwood, C.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Murray, R.; Thole, J.T.; Williams, J.

    2010-01-01

    Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used to determine rare earth element (REE) content of 76 fossil bones collected from the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Two Medicine (TMF) and Judith River (JRF) Formations of Montana. REE content is distinctive at the formation scale, with TMF samples exhibiting generally higher overall REE content and greater variability in REE enrichment than JRF samples. Moreover, JRF bones exhibit relative enrichment in heavy REE, whereas TMF bones span heavy and light enrichment fields in roughly equal proportions. TMF bones are also characterized by more negative Ce anomalies and greater U enrichment than JRF bones, which is consistent with more oxidizing diagenetic conditions in the TMF. Bonebeds in both formations show general consistency in REE content, with no indication of spatial or temporal mixing within sites. Previous studies, however, suggest that the bonebeds in question are attritional assemblages that accumulated over considerable time spans. The absence of geochemical evidence for mixing is consistent with diagenesis transpiring in settings that remained chemically and hydrologically stable during recrystallization. Lithology-related patterns in REE content were also compared, and TMF bones recovered from fluvial sandstones show relative enrichment in heavy REE when compared with bones recovered from fine-grained floodplain deposits. In contrast, JRF bones, regardless of lithologic context (sandstone versus mudstone), exhibit similar patterns of REE uptake. This result is consistent with previous reconstructions that suggest that channel-hosted microfossil bonebeds of the JRF developed via the reworking of preexisting concentrations embedded in the interfluve. Geochemical data further indicate that reworked elements were potentially delivered to channels in a recrystallized condition, which is consistent with rapid adsorption of REE postmortem. Copyright ?? 2010, SEPM (Society for

  15. Water circulation control on carbonate-δ18O records in a low permeability clay formation and surrounding limestones: The Upper Dogger-Oxfordian sequence from the eastern Paris basin, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavastre, Veronique; Ader, Magali; Buschaert, Stephane; Petit, Eddy; Javoy, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Up. Dog./Oxf. sequence is investigated for radioactive waste disposal feasibilities. → Marine carbonates suffered isotopic exchanges with meteoric water. → Modelling shows that very low W/R ratio can explain isotopic changes in clay layer. → Higher W/R ratio are needed to reach isotopic changes in carbonated layers. → Confirmed barrier property of clay layer was probably reached during early burial. - Abstract: Upper Dogger to Oxfordian Formations in the eastern part of the Paris basin (France) are currently being investigated by the French nuclear waste management agency (Andra), testing the feasibility of long-term deep nuclear waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Characterising the hydrogeological behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones is, therefore, essential in evaluating its potential as a geological barrier. In order to evaluate and quantify water/rock interactions experienced over geological time by these Formations, bulk carbonate δ 13 C and δ 18 O were measured and calculations of water-rock ratios were used to explain carbonate-δ 18 O changes. Meteoric porewater and a maximum temperature reached of about 40 deg. C were considered. The Jurassic marine carbonate δ 13 C was preserved in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones and in the overlying limestones (-0.28 per mille to 3.39 per mille/PDB), while the δ 18 O values are lower by 0-5 per mille (-6.25 per mille to -1.32 per mille/PDB). Calculations show that Upper Dogger and Oxfordian Limestone δ 18 O data: (i)have random-like distribution through theoretical δ 18 O-W/R curves and (ii)suggest that water/rock ratios (0.08-0.4) needed to explain δ 18 O changes are higher by a factor of about 2-20 compared to the present-day water/rock ratio. These features indicate advection in both aquifers. According to the history of the Paris basin, this hydrogeological behaviour could have been effective since Jurassic/Cretaceous transition times. Inversely, the

  16. Water circulation control on carbonate-{delta}{sup 18}O records in a low permeability clay formation and surrounding limestones: The Upper Dogger-Oxfordian sequence from the eastern Paris basin, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavastre, Veronique, E-mail: veronique.lavastre@univ-st-etienne.fr [Universite de Lyon, Universite Jean Monnet, F-42023 Saint Etienne (France)] [CNRS, UMR 6524, LMV, F-42023 Saint Etienne (France)] [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Ader, Magali [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France); Buschaert, Stephane [Andra, Parc de la Croix Blanche, 7-8 rue Jean Monnet, 92 298 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Petit, Eddy; Javoy, Marc [Laboratoire de Geochimie des Isotopes Stables, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris and Universite Paris 7 - UMR CNRS 7154, 4, place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2011-05-15

    Research Highlights: > Up. Dog./Oxf. sequence is investigated for radioactive waste disposal feasibilities. > Marine carbonates suffered isotopic exchanges with meteoric water. > Modelling shows that very low W/R ratio can explain isotopic changes in clay layer. > Higher W/R ratio are needed to reach isotopic changes in carbonated layers. > Confirmed barrier property of clay layer was probably reached during early burial. - Abstract: Upper Dogger to Oxfordian Formations in the eastern part of the Paris basin (France) are currently being investigated by the French nuclear waste management agency (Andra), testing the feasibility of long-term deep nuclear waste disposal in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones. Characterising the hydrogeological behaviour of the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones is, therefore, essential in evaluating its potential as a geological barrier. In order to evaluate and quantify water/rock interactions experienced over geological time by these Formations, bulk carbonate {delta}{sup 13}C and {delta}{sup 18}O were measured and calculations of water-rock ratios were used to explain carbonate-{delta}{sup 18}O changes. Meteoric porewater and a maximum temperature reached of about 40 deg. C were considered. The Jurassic marine carbonate {delta}{sup 13}C was preserved in the Callovo-Oxfordian claystones and in the overlying limestones (-0.28 per mille to 3.39 per mille/PDB), while the {delta}{sup 18}O values are lower by 0-5 per mille (-6.25 per mille to -1.32 per mille/PDB). Calculations show that Upper Dogger and Oxfordian Limestone {delta}{sup 18}O data: (i)have random-like distribution through theoretical {delta}{sup 18}O-W/R curves and (ii)suggest that water/rock ratios (0.08-0.4) needed to explain {delta}{sup 18}O changes are higher by a factor of about 2-20 compared to the present-day water/rock ratio. These features indicate advection in both aquifers. According to the history of the Paris basin, this hydrogeological behaviour could have been

  17. High-resolution sequence stratigraphic correlation of the braided river and vertical distribution characteristics of sand body-Take upper member of saihan formation of lower cretaceous in Bayanwula deposit, for instance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Mingjian; Peng Yunbiao; Yang Jianxin; Shen Kefeng

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the high-resolution sequence stratigraphy of which reference surface is base level cycle get rapid development. Its biggest advantage is the ability to apply to the continental sedimentary basins controlled by multiple factors, especially applied to the thin layer contrast of the paleochannel sandstone type uranium reservoir. This paper, by using drill core and logging data, has made the high resolution sequence stratigraphy studies on braided river uranium reservoir of Upper Member of Saihan Formation of Lower Cretaceous (Kls2) in Bayanwula deposit and identified the base level cycle interface. The study interval is divided into one long-term cycle and seven mid-term base level cycle, and high-resolution time stratigraphic framework of the deposit is established. Depth analysis is taken for the relationship between the braided river sand body and base level cycles. And the position, distribution, and genesis in vertical of the braided river sand body are discussed in detail. Ore body is mainly hosted in edge of braided bar sand body, which formed in the low accommodation space, and braided channel and the braided bar interchange. So uranium enriched in the mid-term base level cycle MSC2-MSC5 in the study area. (authors)

  18. The experimental modeling of gas percolation mechanisms in a coal-measure tight sandstone reservoir: A case study on the coal-measure tight sandstone gas in the Upper Triassic Xujiahe Formation, Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shizhen Tao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Tight sandstone gas from coal-measure source rock is widespread in China, and it is represented by the Xujiahe Formation of the Sichuan Basin and the Upper Paleozoic of the Ordos Basin. It is affected by planar evaporative hydrocarbon expulsion of coal-measure source rock and the gentle structural background; hydrodynamics and buoyancy play a limited role in the gas migration-accumulation in tight sandstone. Under the conditions of low permeability and speed, non-Darcy flow is quite apparent, it gives rise to gas-water mixed gas zone. In the gas displacing water experiment, the shape of percolation flow curve is mainly influenced by core permeability. The lower the permeability, the higher the starting pressure gradient as well as the more evident the non-Darcy phenomenon will be. In the gas displacing water experiment of tight sandstone, the maximum gas saturation of the core is generally less than 50% (ranging from 30% to 40% and averaging at 38%; it is similar to the actual gas saturation of the gas zone in the subsurface core. The gas saturation and permeability of the core have a logarithm correlation with a correlation coefficient of 0.8915. In the single-phase flow of tight sandstone gas, low-velocity non-Darcy percolation is apparent; the initial flow velocity (Vd exists due to the slippage effect of gas flow. The shape of percolation flow curve of a single-phase gas is primarily controlled by core permeability and confining pressure; the lower the permeability or the higher the confining pressure, the higher the starting pressure (0.02–0.08 MPa/cm, whereas, the higher the quasi-initial flow speed, the longer the nonlinear section and the more obvious the non-Darcy flow will be. The tight sandstone gas seepage mechanism study shows that the lower the reservoir permeability, the higher the starting pressure and the slower the flow velocity will be, this results in the low efficiency of natural gas migration and accumulation as well as

  19. Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...

  20. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar

    2007-01-01

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  1. Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)

  2. Lathlike upper bainite in a silicon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Zhao Zhenbo; Bhole, S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The morphology and mechanical properties of upper bainite formed isothermally at 400 deg. C for different holding times in a 1.83 wt.% silicon steel have been investigated by optical metallograph, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the early stage of upper bainitic transformation, lathlike bainite whose individual lath ferrite is separated by the thin film type of retained austenite is obtained. As the isothermal holding times are increased, the blocky region consisting of retained austenite and martensite is also found. The stability of retained austenite in lathlike upper bainite is studied in relation to the isothermal treatment times, and the heat treatment conditions. The results show that an optimum combination of strength and ductility is attributed to the formation of bainitic ferrite (BF) and a large amount of thin film carbon-enriched retained austenite in the upper bainite

  3. Comparative analysis of the calcretization process in the Marilia formations (Bauru group - Brasil) and Mercedes ( Paysandu group - Uruguay), Upper Cretaceous of the Parana basin; Analisis comparativo de los procesos de calcretizacion en las Formaciones Marilia (Grupo Bauru-Brasil) y Mercedes (Grupo Paysandu-Uruguay), Cretacico Superior de la cuenca de Parana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veroslavsky, G; Etchebehere, M; Sad, A; Fulfaro, J

    1998-07-01

    Pedogenic and non-pedogenic calcrete facies are very common feature of Marilia (Brazil) and Mercedes (Uruguay) formations in the Parana Basin. The non-pedogenic ones constitute massive limestone facies that have been recently interpreted as groundwater calcretes. These limestones are exploited in both countries to supply raw materials to Portland cement and soil conditioner in origin and age of calcretization phenomena. In Uruguay, the calcretization process seens to be band formation. Field relationships and fossil assemblage point to a Paleocene (or later) age for the calcretization. In Brazilian territory, the groundwater calcretes aresupposed to be of Upper Cretaceous age due to the presence of dinosaurs scattered through the Bauru Group, including siliciclastic beds below and above the calcretes. The authors assume that calcretization processes are similar in both countries (host rocks, intensity, size, textures, geometries and economic potential). The main difference is in age of the calcretization. (author)

  4. Upper respiratory tract (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major passages and structures of the upper respiratory tract include the nose or nostrils, nasal cavity, mouth, throat (pharynx), and voice box (larynx). The respiratory system is lined with a mucous membrane that ...

  5. ACA Federal Upper Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Affordable Care Act Federal Upper Limits (FUL) based on the weighted average of the most recently reported monthly average manufacturer price (AMP) for...

  6. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinman, Marcie; Haut, Elliott R

    2014-02-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding remains a commonly encountered diagnosis for acute care surgeons. Initial stabilization and resuscitation of patients is imperative. Stable patients can have initiation of medical therapy and localization of the bleeding, whereas persistently unstable patients require emergent endoscopic or operative intervention. Minimally invasive techniques have surpassed surgery as the treatment of choice for most upper GI bleeding. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Upper GI Bleeding in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...

  8. Right upper quadrant pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralls, P.W.; Colletti, P.M.; Boswell, W.D. Jr.; Halls, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    Historically, assessment of acute right upper quadrant abdominal pain has been a considerable clinical challenge. While clinical findings and laboratory data frequently narrow the differential diagnosis, symptom overlap generally precludes definitive diagnosis among the various diseases causing acute right upper quadrant pain. Fortunately, the advent of newer diagnostic imaging modalities has greatly improved the rapidity and reliability of diagnosis in these patients. An additional challenge to the physician, with increased awareness of the importance of cost effectiveness in medicine, is to select appropriate diagnostic schema that rapidly establish accurate diagnoses in the most economical fashion possible. The dual goals of this discussion are to assess not only the accuracy of techniques used to evaluate patients with acute right upper quadrant pain, but also to seek out cost-effective, coordinated imaging techniques to achieve this goal

  9. Upper airway evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, E.A.; Gefter, W.B.; Schnall, M.; Nordberg, J.; Listerud, J.; Lenkinski, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    The authors are evaluating upper-airway sleep disorders with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and x-ray cine computed tomography (CT). Fixed structural anatomy is visualized with multisection spin-echo MR imaging, the dynamic component with cine CT. Unique aspects of the study are described in this paper

  10. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinegar, Harold J.; Karanikas, John Michael; Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu; Wellington, Scott Lee

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  11. Improvements in throat function and qualities of sore throat from locally applied flurbiprofen 8.75 mg in spray or lozenge format: findings from a randomized trial of patients with upper respiratory tract infection in the Russian Federation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burova N

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natalia Burova,1 Valeria Bychkova,2 Adrian Shephard3 1Federal State Establishment Clinical Diagnostic Medical Center, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 2Reckitt Benckiser (Russia, Moscow, Russia; 3Reckitt Benckiser Healthcare International Ltd, Slough, Berkshire, UK Objective: To assess the speed of relief provided by flurbiprofen 8.75 mg spray and lozenge and their effect on many of the different qualities and characteristics of throat pain and discomfort, and the many articulations of the broad term “sore throat” (ST. Patients and methods: Four hundred and forty adults with recent-onset, moderate-to-severe ST due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI were randomized to a single dose of either flurbiprofen 8.75 mg spray (n=218 or flurbiprofen 8.75 mg lozenge (n=222. Throat swabs for bacterial culture were taken at baseline. ST relief was assessed at 1 minute, 1 and 2 hours post-dose using the Sore Throat Relief Rating Scale. The change from baseline at 1 and 2 hours post-dose in difficulty swallowing and swollen throat was assessed using the difficulty swallowing scale and the swollen throat scale, respectively. Patients’ experience of URTI symptoms was assessed using a URTI questionnaire at baseline and 2 hours post-dose. The change in Qualities of Sore Throat Index, a 10-item index of qualities of ST, from baseline at 2 hours post-dose was also measured. Results: ST relief was evident in the spray and the lozenge treatment groups at 1 minute, 1 and 2 hours post-dose (P>0.05. In both groups, scores for difficulty swallowing and swollen throat significantly improved at 1 and 2 hours post-dose compared with baseline. At 2 hours post-dose, the number of patients experiencing URTI symptoms that can be attributed to or associated with ST decreased relative to baseline. The mean change from baseline to 2 hours post-dose for each individual score on the Qualities of Sore Throat Index showed significant improvements for flurbiprofen spray and

  12. Upper urinary tract tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gandrup, Karen L; Nordling, Jørgen; Balslev, Ingegerd

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Computed tomography urography (CTU) is used widely in the work-up of patients with symptoms of urinary tract lesions. Preoperative knowledge of whether a tumor is invasive or non-invasive is important for the choice of surgery. So far there are no studies about the distinction...... of invasive and non-invasive tumors in ureter and renal pelvis based on the enhancement measured with Hounsfield Units. PURPOSE: To examine the value of CTU using split-bolus technique to distinguish non-invasive from invasive urothelial carcinomas in the upper urinary tract. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients...... obtained at CTU could distinguish between invasive and non-invasive lesions. No patients had a CTU within the last year before the examination that resulted in surgery. CONCLUSION: A split-bolus CTU cannot distinguish between invasive and non-invasive urothelial tumors in the upper urinary tract...

  13. A vertebrate assemblage of Las Curtiembres Formation (Upper Cretaceous of northwestern Argentina Una asociación de vertebrados de la Formación Las Curtiembres (Cretácico Superior del Noroeste de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Scanferla

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We describe an association of fossil vertebrates from the Morales Member of the Las Curtiembres Formation (Campanian near Puente Morales, Salta Province, NW Argentina. The fossils include teleostean fishes, pipid frogs, pleurodiran turtles, mesoeucrocodylians, non-avian theropod dinosaurs, and enantiornithine birds. The vertebrate record is dominated by freshwater taxa. With the exception of pipid frogs, all taxa here described constitute new records for this sedimentary unit. Among them, the turtles are reported for the first time in the Cretaceous of northwestern Argentina (Salta Group. Additionally, the recently published small enantiornithine Intiornis inexpectatus enlarges the diversity of cretaceous birds from South America. Despite the fragmentary nature of the specimens, the information provided by this Late Cretaceous assemblage sheds new light on the composition of the continental vertebrate fauna in a paleontologically poorly known region of South America.Aquí describimos una asociación de fósiles de vertebrados proveniente del Miembro Morales de la Formación Las Curtiembres (Campaniano exhumada en la localidad de Puente Morales, provincia de Salta, Argentina. Esta asociación se encuentra conformada por peces teleósteos, anuros pipidos, tortugas pleurodiras, mesoeucrocodilidos, dinosaurios terópodos no avianos y aves Enantiornithes. Este registro de vertebrados se encuentra dominado por taxa de agua dulce. Con la excepción de los anuros pipidos, todos los demás taxa aquí descriptos constituyen nuevos registros para esta unidad sedimentaria. Entre ellos, el registro de tortugas resulta ser el primero para el Grupo Salta. Adicionalmente, el Enantiornithes Intiornis inexpectatus amplía la diversidad de aves cretácicas de América del Sur. Más allá de la naturaleza fragmentaria de algunos de los especímenes, la información proporcionada por esta asociación del Cretácico Superior aporta novedosa información acerca de la

  14. in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Uzman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is increasing interest in sedation for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE. Prospective randomized studies comparing sedation properties and complications of propofol and midazolam/meperidine in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE are few. Aim: To compare propofol and midazolam/meperidine sedation for UGE in terms of cardiopulmonary side effects, patient and endoscopist satisfaction and procedure-related times. Material and methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study of propofol versus midazolam and meperidine in 100 patients scheduled for diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. The patients were divided into propofol and midazolam/meperidine groups. Randomization was generated by a computer. Cardiopulmonary side effects (hypotension, bradycardia, hypoxemia, procedure-related times (endoscopy time, awake time, time to hospital discharge, and patient and endoscopist satisfaction were compared between groups. Results: There was no significant difference between the groups with respect to the cost, endoscopy time, or demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients. Awake time and time to hospital discharge were significantly shorter in the propofol group (6.58 ±4.72 vs. 9.32 ±4.26 min, p = 0.030 and 27.60 ±7.88 vs. 32.00 ±10.54 min, p = 0.019. Hypotension incidence was significantly higher in the propofol group (12% vs. 0%, p = 0.027. The patient and endoscopist satisfaction was better with propofol. Conclusions : Propofol may be preferred to midazolam/meperidine sedation, with a shorter awake and hospital discharge time and better patient and endoscopist satisfaction. However, hypotension risk should be considered with propofol, and careful evaluation is needed, particularly in cardiopulmonary disorders.

  15. Upper extremity golf injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Michael A; Lee, Steven K; Strauss, Eric J

    2013-01-01

    Golf is a global sport enjoyed by an estimated 60 million people around the world. Despite the common misconception that the risk of injury during the play of golf is minimal, golfers are subject to a myriad of potential pathologies. While the majority of injuries in golf are attributable to overuse, acute traumatic injuries can also occur. As the body's direct link to the golf club, the upper extremities are especially prone to injury. A thorough appreciation of the risk factors and patterns of injury will afford accurate diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of further injury.

  16. Sedimentological processes in a scarp-controlled rocky shoreline to upper continental slope environment, as revealed by unusual sedimentary features in the Neogene Coquimbo Formation, north-central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, J. P.; Gómez, Carolina; Fenner, Juliane; Middleton, Heather

    2004-03-01

    Exceptionally good outcrops of Miocene to Pliocene deposits in the vicinity of submarine Paleozoic basement scarps at Carrizalillo, north of La Serena, reveal a wealth of sedimentary features not commonly observed. The most proximal facies consist of rock fall and coarse-grained debris flow deposits directly abutting the basement wall from which they originated. Angular basement clasts are mixed with well-rounded cobbles, which probably formed as a basal gravel on a wave-cut platform at the beginning of marine flooding, subsequently accumulated at the scarp edge and were incorporated into the debris when the latter collapsed. The poor sorting, inverse grading, and protruding cobbles and boulders are classical debris flow features, with good clast imbrication indicating a laminar shearing action. A medial facies is represented by secondary channels running parallel to the major scarp about 1 km downslope of the first locality. In the largest channel, megaflutes at the base indicate the passage of highly turbulent, nondepositing flows eroding the soft, silty substrate. In the deepest, central part of the channel, a pebbly coquina shows horizontal and trough cross-stratification, with most of the bivalves oriented convex side up. Meter-scale rip-up clasts of the underlying siltstone are also present, indicating turbulent flow with a density sufficiently high to retard settling. The coquina is interpreted as a detachment deposit resulting from a hydroplaning debris flow along the central part of the channel, where the velocity and rate of pore pressure decay were highest. This deposit is overlain by fining upward, massive to horizontally stratified sandstone very similar in texture and composition to the matrix of the debris flow, suggesting its formation by surface transformation and elutriation of the latter. Along the channel margin, a basal centimeter-scale sandstone layer is virtually unaffected by the megaflute topography and clearly represents a subsequent event

  17. Oriental upper blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chau-Jin

    2009-02-01

    Aesthetic surgery of the upper eyelids is a very common procedure performed in cosmetic practices around the world. The word blepharoplasty, however, has a different meaning in Asia than it does elsewhere. Orientals have different periorbital anatomic characteristics, their motivations for seeking eyelid treatment are different, and operative techniques have been adapted consequently. There are also many eyelid shapes among Orientals, mostly with regard to the presence and location of the supratarsal fold and/or presence of an epicanthal fold. The surgeon must therefore master a range of surgical procedures to treat these variations adequately. It is critical to know the indications for each blepharoplasty technique as well as their complications to select the right surgery and avoid unfavorable results. Epicanthoplasty performed on the right patient can greatly improve aesthetic results while retaining ethnic characteristics. This article will discuss Oriental eyelid characteristics, preoperative patient assessment, commonly used corrective techniques for the "double-eyelid" creation, and complications and how to avoid them.

  18. Complex climate constraints of upper treeline formation in the Pyrenees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gonzalez de Andres, E.; Julio Camarero, J.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2015), s. 941-952 ISSN 0931-1890 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : pinus-uncinata * spanish pyrenees * summer temperature * sierra-nevada * wood density * ring growth * variability * altitude * mountain * dynamics * Basal area increment * Drought stress * Mediterranean * Pinus uncinata * Temperature * Treeline Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.706, year: 2015

  19. First record of Elasmosaurid Plesiosaurs (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria in upper levels of the Dorotea Formation, Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian, Puerto Natales, Chilean Patagonia Primer Registro de Plesiosaurios Elasmosáuridos (Sauropterygia: Plesiosauria en estratos superiores de la Formación Dorotea, Cretácico Tardío (Maastrichtiano, Puerto Natales, Patagonia Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo A Otero

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available New remains of plesiosaurs (Diapsida; Sauropterygia found in a transported block correlated with upper levels of the Dorotea Formation, Late Cretaceous (Maastrichtian are describedherein. They were collected on the southern slopes of Sierra Dorotea located northeast of Puerto Natales (51 °41 '20,4"S, 72°26'07,4"W, Magallanes Región, Chile. This is the first disco very of the family Elasmosauridae in high latitudes of South America, complementing the previously known paleodistribution of this group in the eastern Pacific Ocean and the Antarctic during the latest Cretaceous.Se describen nuevos restos de plesiosaurios (Diapsida; Sauropterygia incluidos en un bloque rodado correlacionado con estratos superiores de la Formación Dorotea (Cretácico Tardío, Maastrichtiano, recolectados en la parte sur de la sierra homómma, ubicada al noreste de Puerto Natales (51°41'20,4"S, 72°26'07,4"W, Región de Magallanes, Chile. Se reconoce por primera vez la presencia de la familia Elasmosauridae en altas latitudes de Sudamérica, complementando así la paleodistribution previamente conocida de este grupo en el margen oriental del Océano Pacífico y de la Antartica durante la última parte del Cretácico Tardío.

  20. Upper airway resistance syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montserrat, J M; Badia, J R

    1999-03-01

    This article reviews the clinical picture, diagnosis and management of the upper airway resistance syndrome (UARS). Presently, there is not enough data on key points like the frequency of UARS and the morbidity associated with this condition. Furthermore, the existence of LIARS as an independent sleep disorder and its relation with snoring and obstructive events is in debate. The diagnosis of UARS is still a controversial issue. The technical limitations of the classic approach to monitor airflow with thermistors and inductance plethysmography, as well as the lack of a precise definition of hypopnea, may have led to a misinterpretation of UARS as an independent diagnosis from the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. The diagnosis of this syndrome can be missed using a conventional polysomnographic setting unless appropriate techniques are applied. The use of an esophageal balloon to monitor inspiratory effort is currently the gold standard. However, other sensitive methods such as the use of a pneumotachograph and, more recently, nasal cannula/pressure transducer systems or on-line monitoring of respiratory impedance with the forced oscillation technique may provide other interesting possibilities. Recognition and characterization of this subgroup of patients within sleep breathing disorders is important because they are symptomatic and may benefit from treatment. Management options to treat UARS comprise all those currently available for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome (SAHS). However, the subset of patients classically identified as LIARS that exhibit skeletal craneo-facial abnormalities might possibly obtain further benefit from maxillofacial surgery.

  1. Upper Illinois River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.

  2. Method of developing thick sloping coal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragintsev, V F; Mashkovtsev, I L; Semenov, V S; Zykov, V N

    1980-04-25

    A method is patented for developing thick sloping coal formations in 3 inclined layers. It includes conducting developmental operations for each of the layers until one begins the last one and extraction of the layers. In order to improve effectivess and extraction operation safety one first carried out preliminary development of a formation in thin strips beneath protected objects when extracting formation which contain alot of gas. Then one removes the gas of a formation through boreholes that have been drilled into the formation from the indicated workings. Then one works the upper layer in thin strips in a sequence from the roof of the formation to the floor of the upper layer. The one strengthens roof rock of the formation by pumping in a quickly hardening solution into the boreholes which have been drilled into the roof of the formation after processing the upper layer. The middle layer is worked in thin strips in the sequence from the roof to the ground of the middle layer, then the lower layer of the formation is strengthened by pumping in quickly hardening solution into the formation along degasified boreholes and it is worked in thin strips in sequence from the ground of the lower to its roof. Workings are shaped respectively for the middle and lower layers by deepening workings of the upper and middle layers. The layers are worked respectively after finishing displacement of the roof in front of the extraction face of each subsequent extraction of a layer in alternating fashion.

  3. Upper mantle and crustal structure of the East Greenland Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schiffer, Christian; Balling, N.; Jacobsen, B. H.

    The East Greenland and Scandinavian Caledonides once formed a major coherent mountain range, as a consequence of the collision of the continents of Laurentia and Baltica. The crustal and upper mantle structure was furthermore influenced by several geodynamic processes leading to the formation of ...

  4. Evidence of lacustrine sedimentation in the Upper Permian Bijori

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The Upper Permian Bijori Formation of the Satpura Gondwana basin comprising fine- to coarsegrained sandstone, carbonaceous shale/mudstone and thin coal bands was previously interpreted as the deposits of meandering rivers. The present study documents abundance of wave ripples, hummocky and swaley ...

  5. Microfloral assemblage, age and paleoenvironment of the Upper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microfloral assemblage, age and paleoenvironment of the Upper Cretaceous Patti Formation, southeastern Bida Basin, Nigeria. OJ Ojo, SO Akande. Abstract. No Abstract. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol. 44 (1) 2008: pp. 71-82. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  6. Lithostratigraphy of the Upper Oligocene - Miocene succession of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piasecki, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a revised lithostratigraphic scheme for the uppermost Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession of Denmark. The marine Oligocene Brejning Clay Member is upgraded to formation status and includes the Sydklint Member and the Øksenrade Member (new. The shallow marine and deltaic deposits of mainly Early Miocene age are included in the Ribe Group (new while the fully marine Middle and Upper Miocene clay-rich deposits are referred to the Måde Group (new. The Ribe Group is subdivided into 6 formations: the Vejle Fjord Formation is revised and includes the Skansebakke Member,the Billund Formation (new includes the Addit and Hvidbjerg Members (new, the Klintinghoved Formation is redefined formally and includes the Koldingfjord Member (new, the Bastrup Formation(new includes the Resen Member (new, the Vandel Member is a new member in the Arnum Formation (revised, the Odderup Formation is redefined and includes the Stauning Member (new and the coalbearing Fasterholt Member. The Måde Group is subdivided into the Hodde, Ørnhøj (new, Gram and Marbæk (new Formations. Subdivision of the Upper Oligocene – Miocene succession into two groups, the Ribe and Måde Groups, is compatible with the North Sea lithostratigraphic framework where they correlate with the upper part of the Hordaland Group and the Nordland Group, respectively. The revised lithostratigraphic framework correlated in three dimensions provides rigorous constraints on the palaeogeographic interpretation of the Late Oligocene – Miocene period. Three major deltaic units (Billund, Bastrup and Odderup Formations prograded from the north and north-east into the North Sea Basin during the Early – early Middle Miocene. Delta progradation was punctuated by deposition of marine clay and silt associated with minor transgressive events (Vejle Fjord, Klintinghoved and Arnum Formations. During the Middle–Late Miocene, marine depositional conditions dominated (Hodde, Ørnhøj and

  7. Stellar formation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddish, V C

    1978-01-01

    Stellar Formation brings together knowledge about the formation of stars. In seeking to determine the conditions necessary for star formation, this book examines questions such as how, where, and why stars form, and at what rate and with what properties. This text also considers whether the formation of a star is an accident or an integral part of the physical properties of matter. This book consists of 13 chapters divided into two sections and begins with an overview of theories that explain star formation as well as the state of knowledge of star formation in comparison to stellar structure

  8. Extensive upper respiratory tract sarcoidosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Mafalda Trindade; Sousa, Carolina; Garanito, Luísa; Freire, Filipe

    2016-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a chronic granulomatous disease of unknown aetiology. It can affect any part of the organism, although the lung is the most frequently affected organ. Upper airway involvement is rare, particularly if isolated. Sarcoidosis is a diagnosis of exclusion, established by histological evidence of non-caseating granulomas and the absence of other granulomatous diseases. The authors report a case of a man with sarcoidosis manifesting as a chronic inflammatory stenotic condition of the upper respiratory tract and trachea. PMID:27090537

  9. Aggregate formation in 3D turbulent-like flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dominguez, A.; Aartrijk, van M.; Castello, Del L.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, B.; Clercx, H

    2006-01-01

    Aggregate formation is an important process in industrial and environ mental turbulent flows. Two examples in the environmental area, where turbulent aggregate formation takes place, are raindrop formation in clouds and Marine Snow (aggregate) formation in the upper layer in the oceans. The

  10. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, J.; Di Cintio, A.; Dvorkin, I.

    2014-01-01

    Galaxy formation is at the forefront of observation and theory in cosmology. An improved understanding is essential for improving our knowledge both of the cosmological parameters, of the contents of the universe, and of our origins. In these lectures intended for graduate students, galaxy formation theory is reviewed and confronted with recent observational issues. In lecture 1, the following topics are presented: star formation considerations, including IMF, star formation efficiency and star formation rate, the origin of the galaxy luminosity function, and feedback in dwarf galaxies. In lecture 2, we describe formation of disks and massive spheroids, including the growth of supermassive black holes, negative feedback in spheroids, the AGN-star formation connection, star formation rates at high redshift and the baryon fraction in galaxies.

  11. Radiographic assessment of congenital malformations of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winfeld, Matthew J.; Otero, Hansel

    2016-01-01

    Congenital and developmental malformations of the upper extremity are uncommon and their diagnosis can challenge radiologists. Many complex classification systems exist, the latest of which accounts for the complex embryology and pathogenetic mechanisms that govern the formation of these anomalies. Using appropriate descriptors allows for more specific diagnosis and improved consultation with referring pediatricians and surgeons, helping to guide medical and surgical interventions and, if indicated, further investigation for associated abnormalities and underlying syndromes. We review the imaging characteristics of upper limb malformations to help pediatric radiologists better understand the classification and workup necessary in these cases. (orig.)

  12. Radiographic assessment of congenital malformations of the upper extremity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winfeld, Matthew J. [Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Division, Penn Medicine University City, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Otero, Hansel [Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Congenital and developmental malformations of the upper extremity are uncommon and their diagnosis can challenge radiologists. Many complex classification systems exist, the latest of which accounts for the complex embryology and pathogenetic mechanisms that govern the formation of these anomalies. Using appropriate descriptors allows for more specific diagnosis and improved consultation with referring pediatricians and surgeons, helping to guide medical and surgical interventions and, if indicated, further investigation for associated abnormalities and underlying syndromes. We review the imaging characteristics of upper limb malformations to help pediatric radiologists better understand the classification and workup necessary in these cases. (orig.)

  13. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Joseph; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yu-Fen; Lai, Hung-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group) and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group). The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6%) ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1%) to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  14. Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lin

    Full Text Available Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group. The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6% ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1% to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.

  15. Consumer design priorities for upper limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddiss, Elaine; Beaton, Dorcas; Chau, Tom

    2007-11-01

    To measure consumer satisfaction with upper limb prosthetics and provide an enumerated list of design priorities for future developments. A self-administered, anonymous survey collected information on participant demographics, history of and goals for prosthesis use, satisfaction, and design priorities. The questionnaire was available online and in paper format and was distributed through healthcare providers, community support groups, and one prosthesis manufacturer; 242 participants of all ages and levels of upper limb absence completed the survey. Rates of rejection for myoelectric hands, passive hands, and body-powered hooks were 39%, 53%, and 50%, respectively. Prosthesis wearers were generally satisfied with their devices while prosthesis rejecters were dissatisfied. Reduced prosthesis weight emerged as the highest priority design concern of consumers. Lower cost ranked within the top five design priorities for adult wearers of all device types. Life-like appearance is a priority for passive/cosmetic prostheses, while improved harness comfort, wrist movement, grip control and strength are required for body-powered devices. Glove durability, lack of sensory feedback, and poor dexterity were also identified as design priorities for electric devices. Design priorities reflect consumer goals for prosthesis use and vary depending on the type of prosthesis used and age. Future design efforts should focus on the development of more light-weight, comfortable prostheses.

  16. Upper atmosphere research at INPE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemesha, B.R.

    1984-01-01

    Upper atmosphere research at INPE is mainly concerned with the chemistry and dynamics of the stratosphere, upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere, and the middle thermosphere. Experimental work includes lidar observations of the stratospheric aerosol, measurements of stratospheric ozone by Dobson spectrophotometers and by balloon and rocket-borne sondes, lidar measurements of atmospheric sodium, and photometric observations of O, O 2 , OH and Na emissions, including interferrometric measurements of the OI6300 emission for the purpose of determing thermospheric winds and temperature. The airglow observations also include measurements of a number of emissions produced by the precipitation of energetic neutral particles generated by charge exchange in the ring current. Some recent results of INPE's upper atmosphere program are presented. (Author) [pt

  17. Lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Youbin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Based on the petrological study, according to single factor analysis and multifactor comprehensive mapping method, the quantitative lithofacies palaeogeography of the Upper Permian Changxing Stage of the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region was studied. The Changxing Stage in the Middle and Upper Yangtze Region is mainly composed of carbonate rocks; in addition, clastic and siliceous rocks occur with rare coals and pyroclastic rocks. Lithofacies can be divided into five types, including clastic rock assemblage, clastic rock–limestone assemblage, limestone assemblage, limestone–siliceous rock assemblage, and siliceous rock–clastic rock assemblage. Four fundamental ecological types and five fossil assemblages were recognized in the Changxing Stage. On the basis of the petrological and palaeoecological study, eight single factors were chosen including thickness, content of marine rocks, content of shallow water carbonate rocks, content of bioclasts with limemud matrix, content of bioclasts with sparry cement, distribution of reefs, content of thin bedded siliceous rocks and content of deep water sedimentary rocks. And eight single factor maps and one lithofacies paleogeographic map of the Changxing Stage were compiled. Paleoenvironments from west to east include an erosional area, fluvial plain, clastic platform, carbonate platform and reefs that developed there, slope and basin, low energy organic banks, and high energy organic banks. Sedimentary environments have an obvious control on the development of the source rocks, and the excellent source rocks are developed in the Dalong Formation. Changxing Stage reservoirs should be dominated by the reef and platform surrounding the Guangyuan–Liangping Basin rim area, and is the most favorable exploration area of the reef petroleum reservoirs of the Changxing Formation.

  18. Angiography of the upper extremity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janevski, B.K.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis provides a description of the technical and medical aspects of arteriography of the upper extremity and an extensive analysis of the angiographic anatomy and pathology of 750 selective studies performed in more than 500 patients. A short historical review is provided of angiography as a whole and of arteriography of the hand in particular. The method of percutaneous transfemoral catheterization of the arteries of the upper extremity and particularly the arteries of the hand is considered, discussing the problems the angiographer encounters frequently, describing the angiographic complications which may occur and emphasizing the measures to keep them to a minimum. The use of vasodilators in hand angiography is discussed. A short description of the embryological patterns persisting in the arteries of the arm is included in order to understand the congenital variations of the arteries of the upper extremity. The angiographic patterns and clinical aspects of the most common pathological processes involving the arteries of the upper extremities are presented. Special attention is paid to the correlation between angiography and pathology. (Auth.)

  19. Approach to upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has a variety of causes (Table 1) and is the commonest complication of peptic ulceration and portal hypertension. Peptic ulceration in the duo- denum or stomach and oesophageal varices are the conditions most often responsible for patients who have the potential to present.

  20. Horizontal Diplopia Following Upper Blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Ortiz-Basso

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Diplopia is an infrequent complication after blepharoplasty. Most of the cases are in its vertical form due to trauma of the extraocular muscles. In this article, we present a case of horizontal diplopia following cosmetic upper blepharoplasty; we review the literature on this unexpected complication and offer some recommendations to avoid it.

  1. The formation of ice sails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, A. C.; Mayer, C.

    2017-11-01

    Debris-covered glaciers are prone to the formation of a number of supraglacial geomorphological features, and generally speaking, their upper surfaces are far from level surfaces. Some of these features are due to radiation screening or enhancing properties of the debris cover, but theoretical explanations of the consequent surface forms are in their infancy. In this paper we consider a theoretical model for the formation of "ice sails", which are regularly spaced bare ice features which are found on debris-covered glaciers in the Karakoram.

  2. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  3. The Upper Danube Nature Park

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosedla, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    When in 1980 the Upper Danube Nature Park was founded as one of 65 nature sanctuaries in Germany there was great diversity of opinions concerning its intended character. The protected region consisting of a geologically outstanding landscape within central Europe is covering the first 80 km the upper Danube where the young river shortly after it's source in the Black Forest is breaking through the narrow canyons of the Jurassic rock plateau of the so-called Suebian Alps and also locates the subterranean passage where the stream is submerging from the surface for nearly ten miles. Since the purpose of nature preservation according to German las is closely combined with the rather contradicting aim of offering an attractive recreation area thus facing the immense impacts of modern mass tourism there are numerous problems which in the course of years have resulted in an intricate patterns of subtle management methods coping with the growing awareness of the ecological balance. (author)

  4. Upper limit of peak area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helene, O.A.M.

    1982-08-01

    The determination of the upper limit of peak area in a multi-channel spectra, with a known significance level is discussed. This problem is specially important when the peak area is masked by the background statistical fluctuations. The problem is exactly solved and, thus, the results are valid in experiments with small number of events. The results are submitted to a Monte Carlo test and applied to the 92 Nb beta decay. (Author) [pt

  5. Technology improves upper extremity rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalczewski, Jan; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    Stroke survivors with hemiparesis and spinal cord injury (SCI) survivors with tetraplegia find it difficult or impossible to perform many activities of daily life. There is growing evidence that intensive exercise therapy, especially when supplemented with functional electrical stimulation (FES), can improve upper extremity function, but delivering the treatment can be costly, particularly after recipients leave rehabilitation facilities. Recently, there has been a growing level of interest among researchers and healthcare policymakers to deliver upper extremity treatments to people in their homes using in-home teletherapy (IHT). The few studies that have been carried out so far have encountered a variety of logistical and technical problems, not least the difficulty of conducting properly controlled and blinded protocols that satisfy the requirements of high-level evidence-based research. In most cases, the equipment and communications technology were not designed for individuals with upper extremity disability. It is clear that exercise therapy combined with interventions such as FES, supervised over the Internet, will soon be adopted worldwide in one form or another. Therefore it is timely that researchers, clinicians, and healthcare planners interested in assessing IHT be aware of the pros and cons of the new technology and the factors involved in designing appropriate studies of it. It is crucial to understand the technical barriers, the role of telesupervisors, the motor improvements that participants can reasonably expect and the process of optimizing IHT-exercise therapy protocols to maximize the benefits of the emerging technology. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved Mars Upper Atmosphere Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougher, S. W.

    2004-01-01

    The detailed characterization of the Mars upper atmosphere is important for future Mars aerobraking activities. Solar cycle, seasonal, and dust trends (climate) as well as planetary wave activity (weather) are crucial to quantify in order to improve our ability to reasonably depict the state of the Mars upper atmosphere over time. To date, our best information is found in the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Accelerometer (ACC) database collected during Phase 1 (Ls = 184 - 300; F10.7 = 70 - 90) and Phase 2 (Ls = 30 - 90; F10.7 = 90 - 150) of aerobraking. This database (100 - 170 km) consists of thermospheric densities, temperatures, and scale heights, providing our best constraints for exercising the coupled Mars General Circulation Model (MGCM) and the Mars Thermospheric General Circulation Model (MTGCM). The Planetary Data System (PDS) contains level 0 and 2 MGS Accelerometer data, corresponding to atmospheric densities along the orbit track. Level 3 products (densities, temperatures, and scale heights at constant altitudes) are also available in the PDS. These datasets provide the primary model constraints for the new MGCM-MTGCM simulations summarized in this report. Our strategy for improving the characterization of the Mars upper atmospheres using these models has been three-fold : (a) to conduct data-model comparisons using the latest MGS data covering limited climatic and weather conditions at Mars, (b) to upgrade the 15-micron cooling and near-IR heating rates in the MGCM and MTGCM codes for ad- dressing climatic variations (solar cycle and seasonal) important in linking the lower and upper atmospheres (including migrating tides), and (c) to exercise the detailed coupled MGCM and MTGCM codes to capture and diagnose the planetary wave (migrating plus non-migrating tidal) features throughout the Mars year. Products from this new suite of MGCM-MTGCM coupled simulations are being used to improve our predictions of the structure of the Mars upper atmosphere for the

  7. Cement Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Telschow, Samira; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming; Theisen, Kirsten

    2012-01-01

    Cement production has been subject to several technological changes, each of which requires detailed knowledge about the high multiplicity of processes, especially the high temperature process involved in the rotary kiln. This article gives an introduction to the topic of cement, including...... an overview of cement production, selected cement properties, and clinker phase relations. An extended summary of laboratory-scale investigations on clinkerization reactions, the most important reactions in cement production, is provided. Clinker formations by solid state reactions, solid−liquid and liquid......−liquid reactions are discussed, as are the influences of particles sizes on clinker phase formation. Furthermore, a mechanism for clinker phase formation in an industrial rotary kiln reactor is outlined....

  8. Star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodward, P.R.

    1978-01-01

    Theoretical models of star formation are discussed beginning with the earliest stages and ending in the formation of rotating, self-gravitating disks or rings. First a model of the implosion of very diffuse gas clouds is presented which relies upon a shock at the edge of a galactic spiral arm to drive the implosion. Second, models are presented for the formation of a second generation of massive stars in such a cloud once a first generation has formed. These models rely on the ionizing radiation from massive stars or on the supernova shocks produced when these stars explode. Finally, calculations of the gravitational collapse of rotating clouds are discussed with special focus on the question of whether rotating disks or rings are the result of such a collapse. 65 references

  9. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  10. Comet formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  11. Histological and Transcriptomic Analysis during Bulbil Formation in Lilium lancifolium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Aerial bulbils are an important propagative organ, playing an important role in population expansion. However, the detailed gene regulatory patterns and molecular mechanism underlying bulbil formation remain unclear. Triploid Lilium lancifolium, which develops many aerial bulbils on the leaf axils of middle-upper stem, is a useful species for investigating bulbil formation. To investigate the mechanism of bulbil formation in triploid L. lancifolium, we performed histological and transcriptomic analyses using samples of leaf axils located in the upper and lower stem of triploid L. lancifolium during bulbil formation. Histological results indicated that the bulbils of triploid L. lancifolium are derived from axillary meristems that initiate de novo from cells on the adaxial side of the petiole base. Transcriptomic analysis generated ~650 million high-quality reads and 11,871 differentially expressed genes (DEGs. Functional analysis showed that the DEGs were significantly enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism and plant hormone signal transduction. Starch synthesis and accumulation likely promoted the initiation of upper bulbils in triploid L. lancifolium. Hormone-associated pathways exhibited distinct patterns of change in each sample. Auxin likely promoted the initiation of bulbils and then inhibited further bulbil formation. High biosynthesis and low degradation of cytokinin might have led to bulbil formation in the upper leaf axil. The present study achieved a global transcriptomic analysis focused on gene expression changes and pathways' enrichment during upper bulbil formation in triploid L. lancifolium, laying a solid foundation for future molecular studies on bulbil formation.

  12. The artery blood supply variant of the upper limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    MASLARSKI, IVAN

    2015-01-01

    Variations of arterial patterns in the upper limb have represented the most common subject of vascular anatomy. Different types of artery branching pattern of the upper limb are very important for orthopedists in angiographic and microvascular surgical practice. The brachial artery (BA) is the most important vessel in the normal vascular anatomy of the upper limb. The classical pattern of the palmar hand region distribution shows the superficial palmar arch. Normally this arch is formed by the superficial branch of the ulnar artery and completed on the lateral side by one of these arteries: the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery, the princeps pollicis artery, the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery or the median artery. After the routine dissection of the right upper limb of an adult male cadaver, we found a very rare variant of the superficial arch artery – a division in a higher level brachial artery. We found this division at 10.4 cm from the beginning of the brachial artery. This superficial brachial artery became a radial artery and was not involved in the formation of the palm arch. In the forearm region, the artery variant was present with the median artery and the ulnar artery, which form the superficial palm arch. PMID:26733754

  13. Composites for Exploration Upper Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.

    2016-01-01

    The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.

  14. Six upper incisors: what's next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berneburg, Mirjam; Meller, Christian

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes our therapeutic approach taken in a girl with eruption disturbance of the upper anterior teeth. Two supernumerary teeth were involved, which required a combination of orthodontic and surgical treatment. The initial situation in the upper anterior segment was characterized by two supernumerary mesial incisors, ectopic eruption of the distally located lateral incisors, and crowded tooth buds in the canine areas. Key decisions had to be made as to whether any teeth needed to be extracted and, if so, regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Removing teeth too early would have preempted a complete assessment of tooth quality, whereas late extraction would have carried a risk of eruption disturbance. Once the distal lateral incisors had erupted, the supernumerary mesial incisors were extracted and the central incisors (initially located in between) mesialized with a bracket appliance. Following space closure and mesialization of the lateral incisors, a functional appliance was used. Tooth 13 was erupting, while tooth 23 was displaced and subsequently aligned as part of the final bracket treatment. To successfully treat eruption disturbances, a careful diagnostic workup is essential, including informative radiographs, personalized treatment planning, and correct decision-making as to whether teeth need to be extracted and regarding the timing and sites of extraction. Finally, the eruption of the canines should be monitored.

  15. Dissolution of the Upper Seven Rivers and Salado salt in the interior Palo Duro Basin, Texas: Revision: Topical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeConto, R.T.; Murphy, P.J.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Seven Rivers and Salado Formations contain the uppermost salts within the interior Palo Duro Basin, Stratigraphic and structural evidence based on geophysical well logs indicate that both dissolution and facies change have influenced the thickness of these uppermost salts. The magnitude of vertical salt loss due to dissolution is interminable at this time because original salt thickness is unknown. Gradual thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation is recognized from south to north across the Palo Duro Basin. Anhydrites within the formation pinch out toward the basin margins, indicating that section loss is in part depositionally controlled. Additionally, informal subdivision of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation suggests that salt dissolution has occurred in the uppermost salt. A northeast-trending zone of thin Upper Seven Rivers Formation in portions of Deaf Smith, Randall, Castro, and Parmer Counties is possibly related to Tertiary dissolution. In New Mexico, local thinning of the Upper Seven Rivers Formation may be associated with faulting. Triassic erosion on uplifted fault blocks has affected the Upper Permian section. The Salado salt margin is located within the interior Palo Duro Basin. Geophysical well logs and core evidence indicate that the salt margin has migrated basinward as a result of dissolution. Permian dissolution probably contributed to some salt loss. 106 refs., 31 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Medusae Fossae Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 10 April 2002) The Science This THEMIS visible image was acquired near 7o S, 172o W (188o E) and shows a remarkable martian geologic deposit known as the Medusae Fossae Formation. This Formation, seen here as the raised plateau in the upper two-thirds of the image, is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. In this region the deposit has been heavily eroded by the wind to produce a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These parallel ridges point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them, and demonstrate the power of martian winds to sculpt the dry landscape of Mars. The Medusae Fossae Formation has been completely stripped from the surface in the lower third of the image, revealing a harder layer below that is more resistant to wind erosion. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely formed by the deposition of wind-blown dust or volcanic ash. Several ancient craters that were once completely buried by this deposit are being exposed, or exhumed, as the overlying Medusae Formation is removed. Very few impact craters are visible on this Formation, indicating that the surface seen today is relatively young, and that the processes of erosion are likely to be actively occurring. The Story Medusa of Greek mythology fame, the name-giver to this region, had snaky locks of hair that could turn a person to stone. Wild and unruly, this monster of the underworld could certainly wreak havoc on the world of the human imagination. As scary as she was, Medusa would have no advantage over the fierce, masterful winds blowing across Mars, which once carved the streaky, terrain at the top of this image. Wild and whipping, these winds have slowly eroded away the 'topsoil,' revealing ancient craters and other surface features they once covered. The loosely cemented particles of this 'topsoil' are likely made up of dust

  17. RUNOFF POTENTIAL OF MUREŞ RIVER UPPER BASIN TRIBUTARIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. SOROCOVSCHI

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff Potential of Mureş River Upper Basin Tributaries. The upper basin of the Mureş River includes a significant area of the Eastern Carpathians central western part with different runoff formation conditions. In assessing the average annual runoff potential we used data from six gauging stations and made assessments on three distinct periods. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on geographical units. The potential average runoff is also assessed on altitude intervals of the mentioned areas. The runoff potential analysis on hydrographic basins, geographical units and altitude intervals highlights the variant spatial distribution of this general water resources indicator in the different studied areas.

  18. Benchmark soils on alluvial, fluvial and fluvio-glacial formations of the upper-Segre valley Suelos de referencia en formaciones aluviales, fluviales y fluvio-glaciales de la cabecera del río Segre Solos de referência em formações aluviais, fluviais e fluvio-glaciais da cabeceira do rio Segre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Poch Claret

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The upper reaches of the Segre river, flowing through the Pyrenees, offers a variety of geomorphic surfaces that allow us to study soil chronosequences. The objective of this work is to widen the knowledge about the main characteristics and formation processes of some benchmark soils developed on fluvio-glacial, alluvial-fan and terrace materials of Pleistocene and Holocene age related to the Segre river, either siliceous or carbonatic. This knowledge will allow us to identify soil forming processes, commonly found in Mediterranean environments such as carbonate redistribution, clay formation and mobilization and rubefaction, all as functions of parent material and age. Five profiles, ranging from the Lower Pleistocene to the Holocene were classified according to Soil Taxonomy/WRB. The Montferrer profile (Calcic Palexeralf /Calcic Cutanic Luvisol (Chromic is a deep, partly decarbonated soil, with calcium carbonate accumulation in depth covering glacial features. The Torre del Remei profile (Typic Paleustalf /Cutanic Luvisol developed on silicic moraines and shows an extreme clay formation and illuviation. The Alp (Typic Haplustalf /Cutanic Luvisol and Tartera (Petric Calciustept /Petric Calcisol soils are developed on alluvial fans with calcium carbonate sources. The former is partly decarbonated, whilst the latter is rubefacted on top and shows speleothem-like carbonate pendants with superposition of clay illuviation. The youngest profile, Abellerols, (Typic Calciustept /Typic Calcisol shows only a partial decarbonation and calcite accumulation at depth. The results show that soil development is determined by the age of the surface and the source of calcite, either in the parent rock or brought by subsurface flow: clay illuviation is extreme in absence of it. Special morphologies of carbonate pendants are indicators of environmental conditions. The coexistence of clay coatings and secondary calcite can be explained by recarbonatation or by

  19. Updates on upper eyelid blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasturi Bhattacharjee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration. The applied anatomy, indications of upper eyelid blepharoplasty, preoperative workup, surgical procedure, postoperative care, and complications would be discussed in detail in this review article.

  20. Lithostratigraphy of Upper Ordovician strata exposed in Kentucky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Gordon Whitney; Peterson, Warren Lee; Swadley, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    Ordovician formations above the Lexington Limestone crop out in the Blue Grass region of Kentucky and along the Cumberland River and its tributaries. The formations are all conformable and in places intertongue and intergrade. The major Ordovician units above the Lexington Limestone in the Blue Grass region are: The Clays Ferry Formation, the Kope Formation, the Garrard Siltstone, the Fairview Formation, the Calloway Creek Limestone, the Grant Lake Limestone, the Ashlock Formation, the Bull Fork Formation, and the Drakes Formation. The Clays Ferry Formation is made up of subequal amounts of fossiliferous limestone and shale and minor siltstone; the Clays Ferry is as much as 300 ft thick and intertongues with the Lexington Limestone and the Kope Formation. The Kope Formation resembles the partly equivalent Clays Ferry but has a higher shale content (60-80 percent) and thicker layers of shale; the Kope, as much as 275 ft thick, is mostly restricted to the northern part of the State. The Garrard Siltstone, which consists of very calcitic siltstone and minor shale, overlies the Clays Ferry Formation in the southeastern part of the Blue Grass region; the Garrard, as much as 100 ft thick, feathers out into the upper part of the Clays Ferry in southern central and northern east-central Kentucky. The Fairview Formation is characterized by even-bedded limestone interlayered with nearly equal amounts of shale and minor siltstone. The Fairview crops out in the northern part of the Blue Grass region, where it generally overlies the Kope Formation or the Garrard Siltstone; it grades southward into the Calloway Creek Limestone. The Calloway Creek contains more limestone (generally at least 70 percent) and is more irregularly and thinner bedded than the Fairview. The Grant Lake Limestone is composed of nodular-bedded limestone (70-90 percent), interlayered and intermixed with shale; it overlies the Fairview Formation in the northern part of the Blue Grass region and the Calloway

  1. Climate of the upper atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Jacobi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available

    In the frame of the European COST 296 project (Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems, MIERS

    investigations of the climate of the upper atmosphere have been carried out during the last four years to obtain

    new information on the upper atmosphere. Mainly its ionospheric part has been analysed as the ionosphere

    most essential for the propagation of radio waves. Due to collaboration between different European partners

    many new results have been derived in the fields of long-term trends of different ionospheric and related atmospheric

    parameters, the investigations of different types of atmospheric waves and their impact on the ionosphere,

    the variability of the ionosphere, and the investigation of some space weather effects on the ionosphere.


  2. Influence of the level of subsoil water on the distribution of moisture content in a peat formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedotov, A.I.; Kostyuk, N.S.

    1983-01-01

    Under laboratory and field conditions, observations are made of the influence of the level of subsoil water on the distribution of moisture content in the upper layers of the peat formation. It is established that prolonged evaporation sharply reduces the moisture content of the upper layers of the formation at a depth up to 20cm. Precipitation is mainly absorbed by the upper layers of the formation and can penetrate in the season with level of subsoil water about 1m at depth of no more than 50cm. The zone of complete capillary water-saturation of the upper formation does not exceed 45cm.

  3. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia

    OpenAIRE

    Dovern, A.; Fink, G. R.; Weiss, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients’ everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients’ prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed...

  4. Fuzzy upper bounds and their applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soleimani-damaneh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Mathematical Science and Computer Engineering, Teacher Training University, 599 Taleghani Avenue, Tehran 15618 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: soleimani_d@yahoo.com

    2008-04-15

    This paper considers the concept of fuzzy upper bounds and provides some relevant applications. Considering a fuzzy DEA model, the existence of a fuzzy upper bound for the objective function of the model is shown and an effective approach to solve that model is introduced. Some dual interpretations are provided, which are useful for practical purposes. Applications of the concept of fuzzy upper bounds in two physical problems are pointed out.

  5. Depositional environment and organic matter accumulation of Upper Ordovician–Lower Silurian marine shale in the Upper Yangtze Platform, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangfang; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Shao, Deyong

    2017-01-01

    The main controlling factors of organic matter accumulation in the Upper Ordovician Wufeng–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formations are complex and remain highly controversial. This study investigates the vertical variation of total organic carbon (TOC) content as well as major and trace element concentrations of four Ordovician–Silurian transition sections from the Upper Yangtze Platform of South China to reconstruct the paleoenvironment of these deposits and to improve our understanding of those factors that have influenced organic matter accumulation in these deposits.The residual TOC content of the Wufeng Formation averages 3.2% and ranges from 0.12 to 6.0%. The overlying lower Longmaxi Formation displays higher TOC content (avg. 4.4%), followed upsection by consistent and lower values that average 1.6% in the upper Longmaxi Formation. The concentration and covariation of redox-sensitive trace elements (Mo, U and V) suggest that organic-rich intervals of the Wufeng Formation accumulated under predominantly anoxic conditions. Organic-rich horizons of the lower Longmaxi Formation were deposited under strongly anoxic to euxinic conditions, whereas organic-poor intervals of the upper Longmaxi Formation accumulated under suboxic conditions. Positive correlations between redox proxies and TOC contents suggest that organic matter accumulation was predominantly controlled by preservation. Barium excess (Baxs) values indicate high paleoproductivity throughout the entire depositional sequence, with an increase in the lower Longmaxi Formation. Increased productivity may have been induced by enhanced P recycling, as evidenced by elevated Corg/Ptot ratios. Mo–U covariation and Mo/TOC values reveal that the Wufeng Formation was deposited under extremely restricted conditions, whereas the Longmaxi Formation accumulated under moderately restricted conditions. During the Late Ordovician, the extremely restricted nature of ocean circulation on the Upper Yangtze Platform in

  6. Upper plenum mixing in a BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Parameswaran, V.

    1984-01-01

    A model for the emergency core cooling injection into the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor has been formulated and implemented into the TRACB02 computer program. The model consists of a spray model and a submerged jet model. The submerged jet model is used when the spray nozzles are covered by a two-phase mixture, and the spray model is used when the nozzles are uncovered. The upper plenum model has been assessed by comparison to an upper plenum mixing test in the Steam Sector Test Facility. It is found that the model accurately predicts the phenomena in the upper plenum of a boiling water reactor

  7. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a condition requiring immediate medical intervention, with high associated mortality exceeding 10%. The most common cause of upper GI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, which largely corresponds to the intake of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy is the essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of active upper GI hemorrhage. Endoscopic therapy together with proton pump inhibitors and eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduces rebleeding rates, mortality and number of emergency surgical interventions. This paper presents contemporary data on the diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

  8. Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, Morris

    2018-04-01

    Modern observational techniques are still not powerful enough to directly view planet formation, and so it is necessary to rely on theory. However, observations do give two important clues to the formation process. The first is that the most primitive form of material in interstellar space exists as a dilute gas. Some of this gas is unstable against gravitational collapse, and begins to contract. Because the angular momentum of the gas is not zero, it contracts along the spin axis, but remains extended in the plane perpendicular to that axis, so that a disk is formed. Viscous processes in the disk carry most of the mass into the center where a star eventually forms. In the process, almost as a by-product, a planetary system is formed as well. The second clue is the time required. Young stars are indeed observed to have gas disks, composed mostly of hydrogen and helium, surrounding them, and observations tell us that these disks dissipate after about 5 to 10 million years. If planets like Jupiter and Saturn, which are very rich in hydrogen and helium, are to form in such a disk, they must accrete their gas within 5 million years of the time of the formation of the disk. Any formation scenario one proposes must produce Jupiter in that time, although the terrestrial planets, which don't contain significant amounts of hydrogen and helium, could have taken longer to build. Modern estimates for the formation time of the Earth are of the order of 100 million years. To date there are two main candidate theories for producing Jupiter-like planets. The core accretion (CA) scenario supposes that any solid materials in the disk slowly coagulate into protoplanetary cores with progressively larger masses. If the core remains small enough it won't have a strong enough gravitational force to attract gas from the surrounding disk, and the result will be a terrestrial planet. If the core grows large enough (of the order of ten Earth masses), and the disk has not yet dissipated, then

  9. Smartphone supported upper limb prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hepp D.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available State of the art upper limb prostheses offer up to six active DoFs (degrees of freedom and are controlled using different grip patterns. This low number of DoFs combined with a machine-human-interface which does not provide control over all DoFs separately result in a lack of usability for the patient. The aim of this novel upper limb prosthesis is both offering simplified control possibilities for changing grip patterns depending on the patients’ priorities and the improvement of grasp capability. Design development followed the design process requirements given by the European Medical Device Directive 93/42 ECC and was structured into the topics mechanics, software and drive technology. First user needs were identified by literature research and by patient feedback. Consequently, concepts were evaluated against technical and usability requirements. A first evaluation prototype with one active DoF per finger was manufactured. In a second step a test setup with two active DoF per finger was designed. The prototype is connected to an Android based smartphone application. Two main grip patterns can be preselected in the software application and afterwards changed and used by the EMG signal. Three different control algorithms can be selected: “all-day”, “fine” and “tired muscle”. Further parameters can be adjusted to customize the prosthesis to the patients’ needs. First patient feedback certified the prosthesis an improved level of handling compared to the existing devices. Using the two DoF test setup, the possibilities of finger control with a neural network are evaluated at the moment. In a first user feedback test, the smartphone based software application increased the device usability, e.g. the change within preselected grip patterns and the “tired muscle” algorithm. Although the overall software application was positively rated, the handling of the prosthesis itself needs to be proven within a patient study to be

  10. Report from upper atmospheric science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carignan, G.R.; Roble, R.G.; Mende, S.B.; Nagy, A.F.; Hudson, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the understanding of the thermosphere resulted from the analysis of data accrued through the Atmosphere Explorer satellites, the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite, and observations from rockets, balloons, and ground based instruments. However, new questions were posed by the data that have not yet been answered. The mesosphere and lower thermosphere have been less thoroughly studied because of the difficulty of accessibility on a global scale, and many rather fundamental characteristics of these regions are not well understood. A wide variety of measurement platforms can be used to implement various parts of a measurement strategy, but the major thrusts of the International Solar Terrestrial Physics Program would require Explorer-class missions. A remote sensing mission to explore the mesosphere and lower thermosphere and one and two Explorer-type spacecraft to enable a mission into the thermosphere itself would provide the essential components of a productive program of exploration of this important region of the upper atomsphere. Theoretical mission options are explored

  11. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chih-Chia; Wang, Su-Ming; Kuo, Huey-Liang; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Lin, Hsin-Hung; Wang, I-Kuan; Yang, Ya-Fei; Lu, Yueh-Ju; Chou, Che-Yi; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2014-08-07

    Patients with CKD receiving maintenance dialysis are at risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. However, the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with early CKD who are not receiving dialysis is unknown. The hypothesis was that their risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding is negatively linked to renal function. To test this hypothesis, the association between eGFR and risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis was analyzed. Patients with stages 3-5 CKD in the CKD program from 2003 to 2009 were enrolled and prospectively followed until December of 2012 to monitor the development of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding was analyzed using competing-risks regression with time-varying covariates. In total, 2968 patients with stages 3-5 CKD who were not receiving dialysis were followed for a median of 1.9 years. The incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding per 100 patient-years was 3.7 (95% confidence interval, 3.5 to 3.9) in patients with stage 3 CKD, 5.0 (95% confidence interval, 4.8 to 5.3) in patients with stage 4 CKD, and 13.9 (95% confidence interval, 13.1 to 14.8) in patients with stage 5 CKD. Higher eGFR was associated with a lower risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (P=0.03), with a subdistribution hazard ratio of 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.87 to 0.99) for every 5 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) higher eGFR. A history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (Pupper gastrointestinal bleeding risk. In patients with CKD who are not receiving dialysis, lower renal function is associated with higher risk for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The risk is higher in patients with previous upper gastrointestinal bleeding history and low serum albumin. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  12. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S

    2008-01-01

    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  13. Galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gribbin, J.

    1979-01-01

    The current debate on the origin and evolution of galaxies is reviewed and evidence to support the so-called 'isothermal' and 'adiabatic' fluctuation models considered. It is shown that new theories have to explain the formation of both spiral and elliptical galaxies and the reason for their differences. It is stated that of the most recent models the best indicates that rotating spiral galaxies are formed naturally when gas concentrates in the centre of a great halo and forms stars while ellipticals are explained by later interactions between spiral galaxies and merging, which can cancel out the rotation while producing an elliptical galaxy in which the stars, coming from two original galaxies, follow very elliptical, anisotropic orbits. (UK)

  14. Habit formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  15. Habit formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  16. Sedimentology of the upper Karoo fluvial strata in the Tuli Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Catuneanu, Octavian

    2001-08-01

    The sedimentary rocks of the Karoo Supergroup in the Tuli Basin (South Africa) may be grouped in four stratigraphic units: the basal, middle and upper units, and the Clarens Formation. This paper presents the findings of the sedimentological investigation of the fluvial terrigenous clastic and chemical deposits of the upper unit. Evidence provided by primary sedimentary structures, palaeontological record, borehole data, palaeo-flow measurements and stratigraphic relations resulted in the palaeo-environmental reconstruction of the upper unit. The dominant facies assemblages are represented by sandstones and finer-grained sediments, which both can be interbedded with subordinate intraformational coarser facies. The facies assemblages of the upper unit are interpreted as deposits of a low-sinuosity, ephemeral stream system with calcretes and silcretes in the dinosaur-inhabited overbank area. During the deposition of the upper unit, the climate was semi-arid with sparse precipitation resulting in high-magnitude, low-frequency devastating flash floods. The current indicators of the palaeo-drainage system suggest flow direction from northwest to southeast, in a dominantly extensional tectonic setting. Based on sedimentologic and biostratigraphic evidence, the upper unit of the Tuli Basin correlates to the Elliot Formation in the main Karoo Basin to the south.

  17. Unsedated Flexible Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy: Need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To determine the incidence of oxygen desaturation and whether routine oxygen monitoring is necessary during unsedated diagnostic flexible upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Methods: A prospective study involving 54 consecutive in and out patients who had diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy at ...

  18. Upper High School Students' Understanding of Electromagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saglam, Murat; Millar, Robin

    2006-01-01

    Although electromagnetism is an important component of upper secondary school physics syllabuses in many countries, there has been relatively little research on students' understanding of the topic. A written test consisting of 16 diagnostic questions was developed and used to survey the understanding of electromagnetism of upper secondary school…

  19. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Hussain, Shahid; Lozin, Vadim; Monnot, Jé rô me; Ries, Bernard; Zamaraev, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph

  20. The Upper Atmosphere; Threshold of Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, John

    This booklet contains illustrations of the upper atmosphere, describes some recent discoveries, and suggests future research questions. It contains many color photographs. Sections include: (1) "Where Does Space Begin?"; (2) "Importance of the Upper Atmosphere" (including neutral atmosphere, ionized regions, and balloon and investigations); (3)…

  1. Management of upper airway edema caused by hereditary angioedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farkas Henriette

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hereditary angioedema is a rare disorder with a genetic background involving mutations in the genes encoding C1-INH and of factor XII. Its etiology is unknown in a proportion of cases. Recurrent edema formation may involve the subcutis and the submucosa - the latter can produce obstruction in the upper airways and thereby lead to life-threatening asphyxia. This is the reason for the high, 30-to 50-per-cent mortality of undiagnosed or improperly managed cases. Airway obstruction can be prevented through early diagnosis, meaningful patient information, timely recognition of initial symptoms, state-of-the-art emergency therapy, and close monitoring of the patient. Prophylaxis can substantially mitigate the risk of upper airway edema and also improve the patients' quality of life. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any form of upper airway edema should be regarded as a potentially life-threatening condition. None of the currently available prophylactic modalities is capable of preventing UAE with absolute certainty.

  2. Seasonal Dynamics of Mobile Carbon Supply in Quercus aquifolioides at the Upper Elevational Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wan-Ze; Cao, Min; Wang, San-Gen; Xiao, Wen-Fan; Li, Mai-He

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have tried to explain the physiological mechanisms of the alpine treeline phenomenon, but the debate on the alpine treeline formation remains controversial due to opposite results from different studies. The present study explored the carbon-physiology of an alpine shrub species (Quercus aquifolioides) grown at its upper elevational limit compared to lower elevations, to test whether the elevational limit of alpine shrubs (treeline formation. PMID:22479567

  3. Review of the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy in Western Cameros basin, Northern Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vidal, Maria del Pilar Clemente

    2010-01-01

    The Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous stratigraphy of the Cameros basin has been reviewed. In Western Cameros the stratigraphic sections are condensed but they have a parallel development with the basin depocentre and the same groups have been identified. The Tera Group consists of two formations: ...

  4. Method of developing thick sloping coal formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragintsev, V F; Mashkovtsev, I L; Semenov, V S; Zykov, V N

    1980-02-15

    A method of developing thick sloping coal formations in three inclined layers includes carrying out developmental operations for each of the layers until one begins development of the last one and extraction of layers. It is characterized in that in order to improve efficiency and safety of an operation of formation development there is first extraction of the upper layer and then slits in sequence from the roof of the formation to the floor of the upper layer and beneath protected objects. Then the lower layer is workedin thin strips in sequence from the floor of the formation to the roof of the lower layer. Next there is extraction of a slit at the roof of the middle layer and delivery of a plasticized hardening mixture into the worked out space of the indicated slot. The middle layer is worked in thin layers beneath the protection of the formed artificial roof in a sequence from the artificial roof to the floor of the middle layer. Workings of the middle layer are formed by joining of the combined workings of the upper and lower layers during extraction of pillars of coal between them. The layers are respectively worked following completion of roof advance in front of the working face of each subsequent extraction layer in alternating fashion.

  5. Biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation in Zagros Basin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introdaction   The Gurpi Formation is developed in the central of the Zagros fold in Khuzestan, Lorestan and Fars provinces of southwestern Iran, defined az theZagros basin ,The Gurpi refers to Gurpi Mountain in the Kuzestan province.type section gurpi,which is N of the Lali oil wells and N-E of Masjed – Soleiman city,comprises 320m argillaceous limestone and gry-to-blueshale marl(James and Wynd,1965Although the boundary the Gurpi Formation and the underlying Ilam Formation is reported to be gradual,the altered facies found at this boundrary could be a sign of a low disconformity or even unconformity.In some place,the Ilam Formation does not exist and tne Gurpi Formation lie abave the Sarvak Formation.The upper boundry of the Gurpi Formation is more noticeable and there are different overlying formations.In Khozstan province,the Gurpi Formation is overlain by purplr shale of pabdeh Formation with signs of unconformity.The Gurpi Formation is not always concurrent. Biostratigraphy and lithological characteries of the Gurpi Formation were studied by James and Wynd (1965, Taheri (1998, KameliAzao (2002, Zarei (2005, Hematinasab (2008, Madavian (2009, Tavalaian (2011. This research study aims at describing the biostratigraphy of Gurpi Formation.In this study five stratigraphic section is investigate for its Planktonc Foraminiforal content.     Method and Matrials   This study involves five stratigraphic sections from the Gurpi Formation that were measured the ticknes and determind of Litostratigrapic limit as well as recognizd of detail litostrstigray the Gurpi Formation.More than 525 thine sections were examined. Some samples from the underlying Pabdeh Formation were also analysed for comparison. then recognizd Genus and species of Planktonic foraminifera and biozones mentioned wells have been introduced. In order to the biozonation of Gurpi Formation, stratigraphic distribution of well- known foraminifora is recognizd and then biozones are

  6. Biostratigraphy of the Gurpi Formation in Zagros Basin, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Sadeghi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available   Introdaction   The Gurpi Formation is developed in the central of the Zagros fold in Khuzestan, Lorestan and Fars provinces of southwestern Iran, defined az theZagros basin ,The Gurpi refers to Gurpi Mountain in the Kuzestan province.type section gurpi,which is N of the Lali oil wells and N-E of Masjed – Soleiman city,comprises 320m argillaceous limestone and gry-to-blueshale marl(James and Wynd,1965Although the boundary the Gurpi Formation and the underlying Ilam Formation is reported to be gradual,the altered facies found at this boundrary could be a sign of a low disconformity or even unconformity.In some place,the Ilam Formation does not exist and tne Gurpi Formation lie abave the Sarvak Formation.The upper boundry of the Gurpi Formation is more noticeable and there are different overlying formations.In Khozstan province,the Gurpi Formation is overlain by purplr shale of pabdeh Formation with signs of unconformity.The Gurpi Formation is not always concurrent. Biostratigraphy and lithological characteries of the Gurpi Formation were studied by James and Wynd (1965, Taheri (1998, KameliAzao (2002, Zarei (2005, Hematinasab (2008, Madavian (2009, Tavalaian (2011. This research study aims at describing the biostratigraphy of Gurpi Formation.In this study five stratigraphic section is investigate for its Planktonc Foraminiforal content.     Method and Matrials   This study involves five stratigraphic sections from the Gurpi Formation that were measured the ticknes and determind of Litostratigrapic limit as well as recognizd of detail litostrstigray the Gurpi Formation.More than 525 thine sections were examined. Some samples from the underlying Pabdeh Formation were also analysed for comparison. then recognizd Genus and species of Planktonic foraminifera and biozones mentioned wells have been introduced. In order to the biozonation of Gurpi Formation, stratigraphic distribution of well- known foraminifora is recognizd and

  7. Delaware River and Upper Bay Sediment Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The area of coverage consists of 192 square miles of benthic habitat mapped from 2005 to 2007 in the Delaware River and Upper Delaware Bay. The bottom sediment map...

  8. Climate influences on upper Limpopo River flow

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... Keywords: Limpopo Valley, hydro-meteorology, surface water deficit. * To whom all ... millenia and there is a history of drought impacts on vegetation. (Ekblom et ... water budget of the upper Limpopo River valley using direct.

  9. γ -phlebography of the upper limbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacolot, G.; Legendre, P.; Millour, L.; Barra, J.A.; Perramant, M.; Morin, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    γ-phlebography is an easy and repetitive exploration of deep venous thrombosis. This investigation becomes very useful for the upper limbs on account of the present frequency of iatrogenic thrombosis [fr

  10. upper gastrointestinal endoscopy findings in patients referred

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-01

    Aug 1, 2014 ... Objective: To determine the pattern of referral and endoscopy ... build a model of a flexible fibre imaging device (2) ..... a retrospective and prospective audit of all upper ... endoscopy should be reserved for the high risk.

  11. Parametric decay below the upper hybrid frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, E; Krause, K; Schlueter, H [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Experimentalphysik 2

    1977-03-21

    Parametric decay of the upper hybrid mode is observed between the electron cyclotron frequency and its first two harmonics. The decay products are identified as electron Bernstein and ion acoustic mode. The diagnostic results confirm the relevant dispersion relations.

  12. An approach to the painful upper limb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pain in the upper limb is a common presenting complaint in the primary health care setting and the ... disruptions or pathological fracture, as opposed to ... and a neurological assessment of the lower limbs. This is in addition to a thorough.

  13. CASE STUDY CRITIQUE; UPPER CLINCH CASE STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case study critique: Upper Clinch case study (from Research on Methods for Integrating Ecological Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment: A Trade-off Weighted Index Approach to Integrating Economics and Ecological Risk Assessment). This critique answers the questions: 1) does ...

  14. Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Appropriateness of Referrals for Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. ... Accra between January and December, 2008 were interviewed and evaluated for this study. ... Presentations with bleeding and suspicion of malignancy showed statistical ...

  15. Endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulkarni Jagdeesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we report a second case of endometrioid carcinoma of the upper urinary tract presenting 17 years after hysterectomy for high grade adenocarcinoma of ovary. A 51-year-old nullipara presented to us with a complaint of hematuria. After complete work up, she underwent right radical nephro-ureterectomy with bladder cuff excision. The histology showed endometrioid carcinoma of upper urinary tract without any evidence of endometriosis.

  16. Upper gastrointestinal alterations in kidney transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homse Netto, João Pedro; Pinheiro, João Pedro Sant'Anna; Ferrari, Mariana Lopes; Soares, Mirella Tizziani; Silveira, Rogério Augusto Gomes; Maioli, Mariana Espiga; Delfino, Vinicius Daher Alvares

    2018-05-14

    The incidence of gastrointestinal disorders among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is high, despite the lack of a good correlation between endoscopic findings and symptoms. Many services thus perform upper gastrointestinal (UGI) endoscopy on kidney transplant candidates. This study aims to describe the alterations seen on the upper endoscopies of 96 kidney-transplant candidates seen from 2014 to 2015. Ninety-six CKD patients underwent upper endoscopic examination as part of the preparation to receive kidney grafts. The data collected from the patients' medical records were charted on Microsoft Office Excel 2016 and presented descriptively. Mean values, medians, interquartile ranges and 95% confidence intervals of the clinic and epidemiological variables were calculated. Possible associations between endoscopic findings and infection by H. pylori were studied. Males accounted for 54.17% of the 96 patients included in the study. Median age and time on dialysis were 50 years and 50 months, respectively. The most frequent upper endoscopy finding was enanthematous pangastritis (57.30%), followed by erosive esophagitis (30.20%). Gastric intestinal metaplasia and peptic ulcer were found in 8.33% and 7.30% of the patients, respectively. H. pylori tests were positive in 49 patients, and H. pylori infection was correlated only with non-erosive esophagitis (P = 0.046). Abnormal upper endoscopy findings were detected in all studied patients. This study suggested that upper endoscopy is a valid procedure for kidney transplant candidates. However, prospective studies are needed to shed more light on this matter.

  17. Formation and dissociation of dust molecules in dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Jia; Feng Fan; Liu Fucheng; Dong Lifang; He Yafeng

    2016-01-01

    Dust molecules are observed in a dusty plasma experiment. By using measurements with high spatial resolution, the formation and dissociation of the dust molecules are studied. The ion cloud in the wake of an upper dust grain attracts the lower dust grain nearby. When the interparticle distance between the upper dust grain and the lower one is less than a critical value, the two dust grains would form a dust molecule. The upper dust grain always leads the lower one as they travel. When the interparticle distance between them is larger than the critical value, the dust molecule would dissociate. (paper)

  18. Exploration of the Karvinskiy formation covering in Beskidakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strakoa, Z

    1980-01-01

    The Karvinskiy formation of coal-bearing carbon in the Upper Silesian basin was established by drilling wells in 1965 under the tectonic covers in Beskidakh. It forms a large eroded residual rock of 600 km/sup 2/ with industrial layers of rock coal. Work over the last few years has established the area over which the strata in the south are distributed, the position of the base, the new oil phenomena, the tectonic data of the southern region of the Upper Silesian basin. The rock coal fields were explored to define the borders of the mine fields of West Frenshtadt and East Frenshtadt. Eighteen coal layers were identified in the Karvinskiy formation. These belonged to 7 layer groups in the stratigraphy of the continental formations of Upper Silesian carbon, numbered 40 to 33. In the same mine fields, continental coal-bearing deposits of timber strata covering the Karvinskiy depression were discovered.

  19. ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper

  20. MILLIMETER WAVE SPECTRUM AND ASTRONOMICAL SEARCH FOR VINYL FORMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, E. R.; Kolesniková, L.; Cabezas, C.; Alonso, J. L. [Grupo de Espectroscopia Molecular (GEM), Edificio Quifima, Área de Química-Física, Laboratorios de Espectroscopia y Bioespectroscopia, Parque Científico UVa, Unidad Asociada CSIC, Universidad de Valladolid, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain); Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J. [Grupo de Astrofísica Molecular, ICMM-CSIC, C/Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Cantoblanco (Spain); Guillemin, J.-C. [Institut des Sciences Chimiques de Rennes, École Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Rennes, CNRS, UMR 6226, 11 Allée de Beaulieu, CS 50837, F-35708 Rennes Cedex 7 (France)

    2016-11-20

    Previous detections of methyl and ethyl formate make other small substituted formates potential candidates for observation in the interstellar medium. Among them, vinyl formate is one of the simplest unsaturated carboxylic ester. The aim of this work is to provide direct experimental frequencies of the ground vibrational state of vinyl formate in a large spectral range for astrophysical use. The room-temperature rotational spectrum of vinyl formate has been measured from 80 to 360 GHz and analyzed in terms of Watson’s semirigid rotor Hamiltonian. Two thousand six hundred transitions within J = 3–88 and K {sub a} = 0–28 were assigned to the most stable conformer of vinyl formate and a new set of spectroscopic constants was accurately determined. Spectral features of vinyl formate were then searched for in Orion KL, Sgr B2(N), B1-b, and TMC-1 molecular clouds. Upper limits to the column density of vinyl formate are provided.

  1. Sedimentary facies of the upper Cambrian (Furongian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan) Tunnel City Group, Upper Mississippi Valley: new insight on the old stormy debate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    New data from detailed measured sections permit a comprehensive revision of the sedimentary facies of the Furongian (upper Cambrian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan stages) Tunnel City Group (Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation) of Wisconsin and Minnesota. Heterogeneous sandstones, comprising seven lithofacies along a depositional transect from shoreface to transitional-offshore environments, record sedimentation in a storm-dominated, shallow-marine epicontinental sea. The origin of glauconite in the Birkmose Member and Reno Member of the Lone Rock Formation was unclear, but its formation and preserved distribution are linked to inferred depositional energy rather than just net sedimentation rate. Flat-pebble conglomerate, abundant in lower Paleozoic strata, was associated with the formation of a condensed section during cratonic flooding. Hummocky cross-stratification was a valuable tool used to infer depositional settings and relative paleobathymetry, and the model describing formation of this bedform is expanded to address flow types dominant during its genesis, in particular the importance of an early unidirectional component of combined flow. The depositional model developed here for the Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation is broadly applicable to other strata common to the early Paleozoic that document sedimentation along flooded cratonic interiors or shallow shelves.

  2. The Age of Upper Scorpius from Eclipsing Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Trevor; Hillenbrand, Lynne

    2018-01-01

    The Upper Scorpius OB association is the nearest region of recent massive star formation and thus an important benchmark for investigations concerning astrophysical timescales. Classical estimates of the association age based on the kinematics of high-mass members and a Hertzsprung-Russell (H-R) diagram of the full stellar population established an age of 5 Myr. However, recent analyses based on the H-R diagram for intermediate- and high-mass members suggest an older age of 11 Myr. Importantly, the H-R diagram ages of stars in Upper Scorpius (and other clusters of a similar age) are mass-dependent, such that low-mass members appear younger than their high-mass counterparts. Here we report an age that is self-consistent in the mass range of 0.3–5 M⊙, and based on the fundamentally-determined masses and radii of eclipsing binaries (EBs). We present nine EBs in Upper Scorpius, four of which are newly reported here and all of which were discovered from K2 photometry. Joint fitting of the eclipse photometry and radial velocities from newly acquired Keck-I/HIRES spectra yields precise masses and radii for those systems that are spectroscopically double-lined. We identify one of the EB components as a slowly pulsating B-star. We use these EBs to develop an empirical mass-radius relation for pre-main-sequence stars, and to evaluate the predictions of widely-used stellar evolutionary models. Our results are consistent with previous studies that indicate most models underestimate the masses of low-mass stars by tens of percent based on H-R diagram analyses. Models including the effects of magnetic fields produce better agreement between the observed bulk and radiative parameters of these young, low-mass stars. From the orbital elements and photometrically inferred rotation periods, we consider the dynamical states of several binaries and compare with expectations from tidal dissipation theories.

  3. New Parallaxes for the Upper Scorpius OB Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, J. K.; Weinberger, A. J.; Gagné, J.; Boss, A. P.; Keiser, S. A.

    2017-11-01

    Upper Scorpius is a subgroup of the nearest OB association, Scorpius-Centaurus. Its young age makes it an important association to study star and planet formation. We present parallaxes to 52 low-mass stars in Upper Scorpius, 28 of which have full kinematics. We measure ages of the individual stars by combining our measured parallaxes with pre-main-sequence evolutionary tracks. We find a significant difference in the ages of stars with and without circumstellar disks. The stars without disks have a mean age of 4.9 ± 0.8 Myr and those with disks have an older mean age of 8.2 ± 0.9 Myr. This somewhat counterintuitive result suggests that evolutionary effects in young stars can dominate their apparent ages. We also attempt to use the 28 stars with full kinematics (I.e., proper motion, radial velocity (RV), and parallax) to trace the stars back in time to their original birthplace to obtain a trackback age. As expected, given the large measurement uncertainties on available RV measurements, we find that measurement uncertainties alone cause the group to diverge after a few Myr.

  4. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Eppie R.

    2015-11-16

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.

  5. Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians

    KAUST Repository

    Jones, Eppie R.; Gonzalez-Fortes, Gloria; Connell, Sarah; Siska, Veronika; Eriksson, Anders; Martiniano, Rui; McLaughlin, Russell L.; Gallego Llorente, Marcos; Cassidy, Lara M.; Gamba, Cristina; Meshveliani, Tengiz; Bar-Yosef, Ofer; Mü ller, Werner; Belfer-Cohen, Anna; Matskevich, Zinovi; Jakeli, Nino; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Currat, Mathias; Lordkipanidze, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Manica, Andrea; Pinhasi, Ron; Bradley, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    We extend the scope of European palaeogenomics by sequencing the genomes of Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,300 years old, 1.4-fold coverage) and Mesolithic (9,700 years old, 15.4-fold) males from western Georgia in the Caucasus and a Late Upper Palaeolithic (13,700 years old, 9.5-fold) male from Switzerland. While we detect Late Palaeolithic–Mesolithic genomic continuity in both regions, we find that Caucasus hunter-gatherers (CHG) belong to a distinct ancient clade that split from western hunter-gatherers ~45 kya, shortly after the expansion of anatomically modern humans into Europe and from the ancestors of Neolithic farmers ~25 kya, around the Last Glacial Maximum. CHG genomes significantly contributed to the Yamnaya steppe herders who migrated into Europe ~3,000 BC, supporting a formative Caucasus influence on this important Early Bronze age culture. CHG left their imprint on modern populations from the Caucasus and also central and south Asia possibly marking the arrival of Indo-Aryan languages.

  6. Upper-hybrid solitons and oscillating-two-stream instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.; Goldman, M.V.

    1976-01-01

    A warm two-fluid theory of soliton formation near the upper-hybrid frequency is developed. Several forms of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation are obtained, depending on whether the electric field is completely perpendicular to the dc magnetic field or whether it has an additional small component parallel to the magnetic field. For the perpendicular case, the character of the soliton depends on its scale length, L, and on β. For low β, when L c/ω/subp//subi/ the super-Alvenic solitons described magnetohydromagnetically by Kaufman and Stenflo are obtained. However, the case E/sub parallel/not-equal0 may be of more interest, since it couples the pump to the excited waves more efficiently. In the limit of linearization about an infinite wavelength pump, the nonlinear Schrodinger equations yield purely growing (oscillating-two-stream) instabilities in both cases

  7. Interventional studies of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.; Gross, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear Medicine studies of the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract provide a means whereby physiologic and pathophysiologic features can be observed from a unique and noninvasive perspective. While nuclear medicine studies by their very nature lack the high spatial resolution of the radiographic approach, the data derived are readily quantitated and presented in numerical fashion to provide functional and dynamic information in which the influences of interventions may be observed. This chapter outlines the scope of such interventions in studies of the upper GI tract with emphasis on examinations for gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying. The interactions of nutrients, physical maneuvers of pharmacologic agents on nuclear medicine studies of the upper GI tract may be intentional to render a test more sensitive or to evaluate the effect of therapy, or may represent an unintentional side effect that must be taken into account if misinterpretation is to be avoided

  8. Upper limb treatment technigues for stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Kornet

    2017-03-01

    It was considered that the most important elements of the treatment used in the rehabilitation of the paretic upper limb are: exercise matching the anti-spasm pattern, maintaining appropriate position for exercise that provide an approximation of the shoulder joint and the use of cross-facilitation. The study indicates that the treatment of a post stroke upper limb should be based on the: physiotherapy, kinesiotherapy and specific positioning - all of them corresponding to a given stage of the disease. The work also presents the most frequently used methods, especially highlighting: the Prorioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation (PNF, Bobath, Brunnstrom, CIMT and OIT. It was also shown that in order to enhance the effects of a post-stroke upper limb rehabilitation, it should be extended by modern methods such as Mirror Therapy, Virtual Reality or Robot-assisted Therapy.

  9. Upper entropy axioms and lower entropy axioms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jin-Li; Suo, Qi

    2015-01-01

    The paper suggests the concepts of an upper entropy and a lower entropy. We propose a new axiomatic definition, namely, upper entropy axioms, inspired by axioms of metric spaces, and also formulate lower entropy axioms. We also develop weak upper entropy axioms and weak lower entropy axioms. Their conditions are weaker than those of Shannon–Khinchin axioms and Tsallis axioms, while these conditions are stronger than those of the axiomatics based on the first three Shannon–Khinchin axioms. The subadditivity and strong subadditivity of entropy are obtained in the new axiomatics. Tsallis statistics is a special case of satisfying our axioms. Moreover, different forms of information measures, such as Shannon entropy, Daroczy entropy, Tsallis entropy and other entropies, can be unified under the same axiomatics

  10. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  11. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  12. A Boundary Property for Upper Domination

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2016-08-08

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality.The problem of finding an upper dominating set is generally NP-hard, but can be solved in polynomial time in some restricted graph classes, such as P4-free graphs or 2K2-free graphs.For classes defined by finitely many forbidden induced subgraphs, the boundary separating difficult instances of the problem from polynomially solvable ones consists of the so called boundary classes.However, none of such classes has been identified so far for the upper dominating set problem.In the present paper, we discover the first boundary class for this problem.

  13. Transfusion strategy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, James; Lang, Eddy

    2015-09-01

    Clinical question Does a hemoglobin transfusion threshold of 70 g/L yield better patient outcomes than a threshold of 90 g/L in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Article chosen Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2013;368(1):11-21. Study objectives The authors of this study measured mortality, from any cause, within the first 45 days, in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, who were managed with a hemoglobin threshold for red cell transfusion of either 70 g/L or 90 g/L. The secondary outcome measures included rate of further bleeding and rate of adverse events.

  14. Hypnosis and upper digestive function and disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarioni, Giuseppe; Palsson, Olafur S; Whitehead, William E

    2008-01-01

    Hypnosis is a therapeutic technique that primarily involves attentive receptive concentration. Even though a small number of health professionals are trained in hypnosis and lingering myths and misconceptions associated with this method have hampered its widespread use to treat medical conditions, hypnotherapy has gained relevance as an effective treatment for irritable bowel syndrome not responsive to standard care. More recently, a few studies have addressed the potential influence of hypnosis on upper digestive function and disease. This paper reviews the efficacy of hypnosis in the modulation of upper digestive motor and secretory function. The present evidence of the effectiveness of hypnotherapy as a treatment for functional and organic diseases of the upper bowel is also summarized, coupled with a discussion of potential mechanisms of its therapeutic action. PMID:19009639

  15. Membraneous stenosis of the upper oesophagus ('webs')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, H.L.; Kurtz, B.

    1981-01-01

    Webs of the upper oesophagus are sail-like mucosal folds of unknown aetiology. Small, transverse webs on the anterior wall of the oesophagus are not uncommon incidental findings which are easily overlooked on routine examination. Extensive, circular membranes in the upper oesophagus, on the other hand, are rare; these may lead to severe difficulty with swallowing and may be associated with regurgitation. One example of a transverse, and three cases of circular webs are described, which caused stenosis and dysphagia and which, in some cases, were multiple. The aetiology is discussed. (orig.) [de

  16. Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Claus; Schreiber, Trine; Tønnesen, Pia Hvid

    The discussion paper is a publication from the project Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School. The project is a collaboration between the National Library of Education at the Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, and the Royal School of Library and Information Science....... The project is funded by Denmark's Electronic Research Library (DEFF). The discussion paper is published in connection with the conference Information Literacy in the Upper Secondary School on 22 April 2010. See video streaming from the conference etc. at www.dpu.dk/info....

  17. Collaborative Tools in Upper Secondary School - Why?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, Helle; Degn, Hans-Peter; Bech, Christian Winther

    2013-01-01

    The paper will discuss potentials of digital media to support student engagement and student production in Danish upper secondary education with a specific focus on group work and collaboration. With the latest school reform, upper secondary education in Denmark has experienced an increased focus...... on the system theoretical approach will be described. Third, the findings from the qualitative, and quantitative studies will be presented. The paper concludes that the study demonstrates changes in the way group work is organised by the students using digital media, and a tendency to develop student engagement...

  18. Tacuarembo formation: its age and a new nomenclatural proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, M.; Perea, D.; Martinez, S.; Veroslavsky, G.

    2004-01-01

    Tacuarembo Formation: its age and a new nomenclatural proposal. A new nomenclatural proposal concerning the Tacuarembo Formation is formalized, denominating the Lower and Upper members as Martinote Member (stratotype: Cerro Batovi) and Rivera Member (stratotype: Subida de Pena, respectively. The Assemblage-Zone of Priohybodus arambourgi-Asiatoceratodus tiguidensis is defined. Fossil conchostracans and fishes from Martinote Member indicate a Kimmeridgian-Albian age for this unit, which in addition to the stratigraphic relationships with Arapey Formation implies that Tacuarembo Formation was deposited in the Kimmeridgian-Hautevirian interval [es

  19. 'Trigonal' @iDiscocyclina@@ sp. from the Pondicherry formation, Pondicherry, South India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Setty, M.G.A.P.

    A rare and unusual type of 'trigonal' @iDiscocyclina@@ sp. is noticed in the uppermost Discocyclinid limestone and the Upper marlstone units of the Pondicherry formation (F horizon - Nerinea beds - of Pondicherry area). The faunal association...

  20. Unusually well preserved casts of halite crystals: A case from the Upper Frasnian of northern Lithuania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rychliński, Tomasz; Jaglarz, Piotr; Uchman, Alfred; Vainorius, Julius

    2014-07-01

    Upper Frasnian carbonate-siliciclastics of the Stipinai Formation (northern Lithuania) comprise a bed of calcareous silty arenite with casts of halite crystals, including hopper crystals. Unusually well-preserved casts occur on the lower surface of the bed, while poorly-preserved casts are present on the upper bedding surface. The casts originated as the result of the dissolution of halite crystals which grew in the sediment. The dissolution took place during early stages of diagenesis, when host sediment was soft. Unstable cavities after crystal dissolution were filled by overlying sediment forming their casts. The collapsing sediment form sink-hole deformation structures which disturb wave-ripple cross lamination from the upper part of the bed. Dewatering pipe structures are also present. The casts and accompanying sink-hole and dewatering pipes are classified as the postdepositional deformation structures caused by haloturbation.

  1. Vertebrate paleontological exploration of the Upper Cretaceous succession in the Dakhla and Kharga Oases, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallam, Hesham M.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Kora, Mahmoud; Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Seiffert, Erik R.; Faris, Mahmoud; Ouda, Khaled; El-Dawoudi, Iman; Saber, Sara; El-Sayed, Sanaa

    2016-05-01

    The Campanian and Maastrichtian stages are very poorly documented time intervals in Africa's record of terrestrial vertebrate evolution. Upper Cretaceous deposits exposed in southern Egypt, near the Dakhla and Kharga Oases in the Western Desert, preserve abundant vertebrate fossils in nearshore marine environments, but have not yet been the focus of intensive collection and description. Our recent paleontological work in these areas has resulted in the discovery of numerous new vertebrate fossil-bearing localities within the middle Campanian Qusier Formation and the upper Campanian-lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation. Fossil remains recovered from the Campanian-aged Quseir Formation include sharks, rays, actinopterygian and sarcopterygian fishes, turtles, and rare terrestrial archosaurians, including some of the only dinosaurs known from this interval on continental Africa. The upper Campanian/lower Maastrichtian Duwi Formation preserves sharks, sawfish, actinopterygians, and marine reptiles (mosasaurs and plesiosaurs). Notably absent from these collections are representatives of Mammalia and Avialae, both of which remain effectively undocumented in the Upper Cretaceous rocks of Africa and Arabia. New age constraints on the examined rock units is provided by 23 nannofossil taxa, some of which are reported from the Duwi Formation for the first time. Fossil discoveries from rock units of this age are essential for characterizing the degree of endemism that may have developed as the continent became increasingly tectonically isolated from the rest of Gondwana, not to mention for fully evaluating origin and diversification hypotheses of major modern groups of vertebrates (e.g., crown birds, placental mammals).

  2. Emergency readmission following acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömdahl, Martin; Helgeson, Johan; Kalaitzakis, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the occurrence, clinical predictors, and associated mortality of all-cause emergency readmissions after acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients with AUGIB from an area of 600 000 inhabitants in Sweden admitted in a single institution...

  3. [Upper lateral incisor with 2 canals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabra Campos, H

    1991-01-01

    Clinical case summary of the patient with an upper lateral incisor with two root canals. The suspicion that there might be an anatomic anomaly in the root that includes a complex root canal system was made when an advanced radicular groove was detected in the lingual surface or an excessively enlarged cingulum.

  4. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  5. Diagnosis and treatment of upper limb apraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovern, A; Fink, G R; Weiss, P H

    2012-07-01

    Upper limb apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a common consequence of left-hemispheric stroke. Contrary to common assumption, apraxic deficits not only manifest themselves during clinical testing but also have delirious effects on the patients' everyday life and rehabilitation. Thus, a reliable diagnosis and efficient treatment of upper limb apraxia is important to improve the patients' prognosis after stroke. Nevertheless, to date, upper limb apraxia is still an underdiagnosed and ill-treated entity. Based on a systematic literature search, this review summarizes the current tools of diagnosis and treatment strategies for upper limb apraxia. It furthermore provides clinicians with graded recommendations. In particular, a short screening test for apraxia, and a more comprehensive diagnostic apraxia test for clinical use are recommended. Although currently only a few randomized controlled studies investigate the efficacy of different apraxia treatments, the gesture training suggested by Smania and colleagues can be recommended for the therapy of apraxia, the effects of which were shown to extend to activities of daily living and to persist for at least 2 months after completion of the training. This review aims at directing the reader's attention to the ecological relevance of apraxia. Moreover, it provides clinicians with appropriate tools for the reliable diagnosis and effective treatment of apraxia. Nevertheless, this review also highlights the need for further research into how to improve diagnosis of apraxia based on neuropsychological models and to develop new therapeutic strategies.

  6. Team Teaching at Upper Arlington School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Annette R.

    1968-01-01

    Team teaching has been used for 4 years in the 10th-grade English classes at Upper Arlington High School near Columbus, Ohio. Units are prepared, presented, and evaluated by teachers working together voluntarily. A 6-day American literature unit introducing Romanticism has been particularly successful. The contrasts between Neoclassicism and…

  7. Upper Atmosphere Research Report Number 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-12-30

    as a whol,. The history of the program was given in some detail in the first report*. The part of the Naval Research Laboratory in upper atmosphere...5B and 6. The third gage was installed as a service to the spectroscopy program. The gago elements were simply 6 watt, 110 volt Mazda pilot *1 lamps

  8. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Upper gastrointestinal endoscopic findings and prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection among adult patients with dyspepsia in northern Tanzania. ... Endoscopy (EGD) for initial work up. Study on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of H. pylori is recommended to guide choices for evidence based treatment option.

  9. Helicobacter pylori and upper digestive diseases - diagnosis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in patients with various upper gastrointestinal problems was 84.7%. The use of medication that can reduce the H. pylori density was common among the infected patients, as history of antibiotics use, acid suppressant use and medications for eradication treatment were ...

  10. Local anaesthesia in the upper jaw

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, J.A.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The sensory innervation of the upper jaw arises from the second trunk of the trigeminal nerve, the maxillary nerve. This main branch of the trigeminal nerve leaves the neurocranium via the foramen rotundum, reaches the pterygopalatine fossa and runs straight through the infraorbital nerve, branching

  11. X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español X-Ray Exam: Femur (Upper Leg) KidsHealth / For Parents / X- ... Muscles, and Joints Broken Bones Getting an X-ray (Video) X-Ray (Video) View more Partner Message About Us ...

  12. The Upper Permian in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, W.A.

    1955-01-01

    The Upper Permian in the Netherlands, as known from borehole data, is deposited in a mainly evaporitic facies north of the Brabant and Rhenish Massifs. In the extreme south (Belgian Campine, de Peel) a near-shore facies of reef dolomites and elastics occurs. In the western and central Netherlands

  13. Upper blepharoplasty : Defying dogmas and clarifying uncertainties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Shariselle Mirna Wietske

    2016-01-01

    Upper blepharoplasty is one of the most commonly performed procedures by (oculo)plastic surgeons and it is generally recognized as a relatively easy technical procedure. However, seemingly minor aspects before, during and after surgery can be identified that significantly contribute to surgical

  14. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Utin, Yuri, E-mail: yuri.utin@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Fabritsiev, Sergey [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Koenig, Werner [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Prebeck, Markus [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Privalova, Elena [NTC Sintez, Efremov Inst., 189631 Metallostroy, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Ranzinger, Franz [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); Savrukhin, Petr [Russian Federation ITER Domestic Agency, Kurchatov sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Schiller, Thomas [MAN Diesel & Turbo SE, Werftstrasse 17, Deggendorf (Germany); and others

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  15. Starting manufacturing phase of ITER upper ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utin, Yuri; Alekseev, Alexander; Sborchia, Carlo; Choi, Changho; Albin, Vincent; Barabash, Vladimir; Davis, James; Fabritsiev, Sergey; Giraud, Benoit; Guirao, Julio; Koenig, Werner; Kedrov, Igor; Kuzmin, Evgeny; Levesy, Bruno; Martinez, Jean-Marc; Prebeck, Markus; Privalova, Elena; Ranzinger, Franz; Savrukhin, Petr; Schiller, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The port plugs are attached to the ports with high-strength fasteners. • Tightening of the fasteners via inductive heating was tested. • A concept for the port/plug sealing with metal-type gaskets has progressed. • Manufacturing design of the Upper Ports is in progress. • A full-scale mock-up of double-wall part of the port stub extension is in manufacturing process – acceptable final tolerances are expected. - Abstract: The ITER Vacuum Vessel (VV) features upper, equatorial and lower ports. The upper and regular equatorial ports are occupied by the port plugs. Although the port design has been overall completed in the past, the design of some remaining interfaces was still in progress: in particular, the Sealing Flange package, which includes the high-vacuum seals and the plug fasteners. As the ITER construction phase has started, the procurement of the VV ports has been launched. The VV upper ports will be procured by the Russian Federation Domestic Agency. The main suppliers were selected and the manufacturing design of the first parts is in full progress now. Since the VV is classified at nuclear level N2, the design and manufacture of its components are to be compliant with the French RCC-MR code and regulations for nuclear pressure equipment in France. These regulations make a strong impact to the port design and manufacturing process.

  16. Uprated OMS engine for upper stage propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a pre-development component demonstration program on the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump that increases the Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) operating pressure are given. Tests and analysis confirm the the capability of the concept to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Storable propellant upper stage concepts are also discussed.

  17. Do statins protect against upper gastrointestinal bleeding?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulmez, Sinem Ezgi; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Aalykke, Claus

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Recently, an apparent protective effect of statins against upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGB) was postulated in a post hoc analysis of a randomized trial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of statin use on acute nonvariceal UGB alone or in combinations with low-dose aspirin and other...

  18. Teaching Astrophysics to Upper Level Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dorn Bradt, Hale

    2010-03-01

    A Socratic peer-instruction method for teaching upper level undergraduates is presented. Basically, the instructor sits with the students and guides their presentations of the material. My two textbooks* (on display) as well as many others are amenable to this type of teaching. *Astronomy Methods - A Physical Approach to Astronomical Observations (CUP 2004) *Astrophysics Processes-The Physics of Astronomical Phenomena (CUP 2008)

  19. Global Change in the Upper Atmosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan; Akmaev, R. A.; Beig, G.; Bremer, J.; Emmert, J. T.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 314, č. 5803 (2006), s. 1253-1254 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC 091 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30420517 Keywords : Global change * Upper Atmosphere * Ionosphere Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 30.028, year: 2006

  20. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorescu, D.; Klarik, L.; Bojar, A.-V.

    2002-01-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition

  1. Preliminary data on dinosaurs habitat during the Upper Maastrichtian, Hateg Basin, Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigorescu, D; Klarik, L [University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geology and Geophysics (Romania); Bojar, A -V [Department of Geology and Paleontology, Graz (Austria)

    2002-10-01

    The Hateg basin is located in the south-western part of the Transylvanian Depression and it is filled with sediments that overly the crystalline rocks of the Getic nappe. The basin show multiple stage of Mesozoic evolution. The Latest Cretaceous (Middle and Upper Maastrichtian) with continuous transition to Paleocene is represented by two continental lithostratigraphic units: the Densus-Ciula and the Sinpetru Formations. The Upper Maastrichtian of Densus-Ciula Formation at Tustea Quarry is represented by a pebbly alluvium with massive, matrix supported conglomerates, cross bedded sandstones and mudstones, the last one containing calcretes and dinosaur remains, including eggs and hatchlings of the hadrosaurid Telmatosaurus transsylvanicus. In order to constrain the paleoenvironment in which dinosaurs lived, calcretes and dinosaur eggshells were analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopic composition.

  2. Rates of star formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    It is illustrated that a theoretical understanding of the formation and evolution of galaxies depends on an understanding of star formation, and especially of the factors influencing the rate of star formation. Some of the theoretical problems of star formation in galaxies, some approaches that have been considered in models of galaxy evolution, and some possible observational tests that may help to clarify which processes or models are most relevant are reviewed. The material is presented under the following headings: power-law models for star formation, star formation processes (conditions required, ways of achieving these conditions), observational indications and tests, and measures of star formation rates in galaxies. 49 references

  3. Why adult formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Justinek

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available The article argues that the primary aim of adult formation is comprehensive personality development which is supposed to ensure quality existence in modern world. The article also suggests that formarion is a permanent process. Justinek puts special emphasis on adult formation methodology and defines fundamental formation styles which encourage independent action in individuals. Justinek differentiates between formation and education. methods and concludes that formation methods are related to the emotional sphere of personality, and education methods mostly to the rational. Justinek believes that formation of adults is based primarily on appropriate formation methodology.

  4. Resedimented Limestones in Middle and Upper Jurassic Succession of the Slovenian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boštjan Rožič

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The Middle and Upper Jurassic succession of the Slovenian Basin is characterized by pelagic sedimentation of siliceous limestones and radiolarian cherts. In the southern and central part of the basin two packages of resedimented limestones are interbedded within pelagic sediments. The Lower resedimented limestones are lower-middle Bajocian to lower Callovian in age. In the southern part of the basin they form laterally discontinuous sequences composed of limestone breccias, calcarenites and micritic limestone and in the central part of the basin calcarenite intercalations within pelagic beds. They were transported by turbidity currents from highly productive ooidal shoals of the Dinaric Carbonate Platform. The Lower resedimented carbonates correlate with the lower three members of the Travnik Formation in the Bovec Trough and similarly developed but much thicker Vajont Formation in the Belluno Basin. The difference in thickness is interpreted as a consequence of shallow-water and longshore currents on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform that transported platform material towards southwest in the direction of the Belluno Basin. The Upper resedimented limestones are upper Kimmeridgian to lower Tithonian and occur within radiolarian cherts in the upper part of the succession as calcarenite beds that originated by turbidity currents. Onset of resedimentation coincides with the emersion-related demise of barrier reef and following deposition of micritic and rare oolitic limestones on the Dinaric Carbonate Platform. Approximatelly coeval resedimented limestones occur in the fourth member of the Travnik Formation in the Bovec Trough, but are not reported from the Ammonitico Rosso Superiore Formation in the Belluno Basin.

  5. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan R. Crable

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production.

  6. Sedimentology and palaeontology of upper Karoo aeolian strata (Early Jurassic) in the Tuli Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Catuneanu, Octavian

    2002-08-01

    The Karoo Supergroup in the Tuli Basin (South Africa) consists of a sedimentary sequence composed of four stratigraphic units, namely the Basal, Middle and Upper units, and Clarens Formation. The units were deposited in continental settings from approximately Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic. This paper focuses on the Clarens Formation, which was examined in terms of sedimentary facies and palaeo-environments based on evidence provided by primary sedimentary structures, palaeo-flow measurements and palaeontological findings. Two main facies associations have been identified: (i) massive and large-scale planar cross-bedded sandstones of aeolian origin; and (ii) horizontally and cross-stratified sandstones of fluvial origin. Most of the sandstone lithofacies of the Clarens Formation were generated as transverse aeolian dunes produced by northwesterly winds in a relatively wet erg milieu. Direct evidence of aquatic subenvironments comes from local small ephemeral stream deposits, whereas palaeontological data provide indirect evidence. Fossils of the Clarens Formation include petrified logs of Agathoxylon sp. wood type and several trace fossils which were produced by insects and vertebrates. The upper part of the Clarens Formation lacks both direct and indirect evidence of aquatic conditions, and this suggests aridification that led to the dominance of dry sand sea conditions.

  7. Computer vision for shoe upper profile measurement via upper and sole conformal matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.

  8. CT arteriography of the upper abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasuo, K; Matsuura, K; Baba, H; Numaguchi, Y; Komaki, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-04-01

    The technique of CT arteriography was introduced, and CT images of the upper abdomen were explained. Very clear enhancement of parenchyma and vessels (especially portal vein) of the object organs could be obtained by CT arteriography of the upper abdomen, anatomical structures of organs were identified more easily by CT arteriography than by conventional CT, and the amount of information obtained was increased by using CT arteriography. However, the indication of CT arteriography must be limited, because of its complexity that CT arteriography is performed after angiography and involves the invasion of patients' bodies. As described in many reports, CT arteriography is useful for malignant tumors of the liver, and it is worthwhile, especially when surgery for hepatocellular carcinoma is considered. CT arteriography for organs except the liver has not been discussed sufficiently. Therefore, an application of this method for other organs must be decided after consideration of the balance of the amount of information obtained by CT arteriography with invasion to patients.

  9. Temperature Profile of the Upper Mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.L.

    1980-01-01

    Following the procedure outlined by Magnitsky [1971], thermal profiles of the upper mantle are computed by deriving the thermal gradient from the seismic data given as dv/sub s//drho used along with the values of (dv/sub s//dT9/sub p/ and (dv/sub s//dP)/sub T/ of selected minerals, measured at high temperature. The resulting values of dT/dZ are integrated from 380 km upward toward the surface, where the integrating constant is taken from Akagi and Akimoto's work, T=1400 0 C at 380 km. The resulting geotherms for minerals are used to derive geotherms for an eclogite mantle and a lherzolite mantle, with and without partial melting in the low-velocity zone. The geotherms are all subadiabatic, and some are virtually isothermal in the upper mantle. Some are characterized by a large thermal hump at the lithosphere boundary

  10. Emulating Upper Limb Disorder for Therapy Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Ayuni binti Che Zakaria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Robotics not only contributes to the invention of rehabilitation devices, it can also enhance the quality of medical education. In recent years, the use of patient simulators and part-task trainers in the medical education field has brought meaningful improvements in the training of medical practitioners. Nevertheless, in the context of therapy training for upper limb disorders, trainee therapists still have to engage directly with the patients to gain experience of the rehabilitation of physical diseases. In this work, a high-fidelity part-task trainer that is able to reproduce the stiffness of spasticity and rigidity symptoms of the upper limb, such as those observed in post-stroke patients and Parkinson's disease patients, has been developed. Based on the evaluation carried out by two experienced therapists, the developed part-task trainer is able to simulate different patient cases and help trainee therapists gain pre-clinical experience in a safe and intuitive learning environment.

  11. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in irbid, jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banisalamah, A.A.; Mraiat, Z.M.

    2007-01-01

    To define the various causes of nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, to outline management modalities and to determine the final outcome of patients. A retrospective analysis of patients presenting with upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding from January 2003 to December 2006 (4 years) was conducted. Patients with endoscopically proven variceal bleeding were excluded. Out of the 120 patients, most of the patients belonged to an age group of more than 50 years (mean 48.5 years). Haematemesis was the most common presentation and Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesion (AGML) was the most frequently encountered lesion. The cause of bleeding was not identified in 10 patients (undetermined group). Twenty-two (18.3%) underwent surgery and we had an overall mortality of 15.8%. AGML being the leading cause can be managed conservatively most of the time. There is a male preponderance and the incidence and mortality increases with advancing age. The undetermined group remains a diagnostic problem. (author)

  12. Stereotactic radiosurgery with an upper partial denture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayama, Shusaku; Kunieda, Etsuo; Takeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Oku, Yohei

    2009-01-01

    A 54-year-old male with partial denture underwent stereotactic radiosurgery with an infrared camera-guided system for a metastatic brain tumor arising from lung cancer. Although this method utilizes a biteplate mounted on the upper jaw to detect head movement, the patient only had four teeth in his upper jaw. In order to stabilize the biteplate, the maxillary denture was fixed to the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. In addition, the rest-occlusal position of the lower jaw was impressed on the inferior surface of the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. To assess reproducibility and stability, the distance between the left and right incus and left and right markers was measured during pre-planning, as well as before and after stereotactic irradiation. Wearing the biteplate ensures the accuracy of radiotherapy planning for the implementation of radiosurgery in patients who have many maxillary teeth missing. However, a large degree of error was observed when the biteplate was removed. (author)

  13. Upper functional gastrointestinal disorders in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adibi, Peyman; Behzad, Ebrahim; Shafieeyan, Mohammad; Toghiani, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Functional Gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) are common disorders in gastroenterology which are common in young adults. The aim of this study is evaluating the prevalence of upper FGID in iranian young adults. This was a cross-sectional study which was on 995 persons who were going to marry. A ROME III based questionnaire was used to determine the frequency of upper GI Syndromes among the sample population. Our results determined 74 subjects had functional dyspepsia (36 subjects diagnosed as postprandial distress syndrome patient and Epigastric pain syndrome was seen in 38 subjects). Functional heartburn was diagnosed in 52 participants. Globus was seen in 35 subjects and 41 had unspecified excessive belching. Many epidemiologic studies were done all around the world but there are different reports about prevalence and incidence of FGIDs. Our results were agreed with reported prevalence of FGIDs in Iran in adults. And our findings were agreed with some other Asian studies.

  14. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Stake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses.

  15. Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thromboses: The Bowler and the Barista.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stake, Seth; du Breuil, Anne L; Close, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Effort thrombosis of the upper extremity refers to a deep venous thrombosis of the upper extremity resulting from repetitive activity of the upper limb. Most cases of effort thrombosis occur in young elite athletes with strenuous upper extremity activity. This article reports two cases who both developed upper extremity deep vein thromboses, the first being a 67-year-old bowler and the second a 25-year-old barista, and illustrates that effort thrombosis should be included in the differential diagnosis in any patient with symptoms concerning DVT associated with repetitive activity. A literature review explores the recommended therapies for upper extremity deep vein thromboses.

  16. Understanding Nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta; Kshetri, Ritesh; Sarkar, S.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclei in the upper-$sd$ shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A$\\simeq$ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array...

  17. Upper limb position control in fibromyalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardal Ellen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems are reported by patients with fibromyalgia (FM. However, the mechanisms leading to alterations in motor performance are not well understood. In this study, upper limb position control during sustained isometric contractions was investigated in patients with FM and in healthy controls (HCs. Methods Fifteen female FM patients and 13 HCs were asked to keep a constant upper limb position during sustained elbow flexion and shoulder abduction, respectively. Subjects received real-time visual feedback on limb position and both tasks were performed unloaded and while supporting loads (1, 2, and 3 kg. Accelerations of the dominant upper limb were recorded, with variance (SD of mean position and power spectrum analysis used to characterize limb position control. Normalized power of the acceleration signal was extracted for three frequency bands: 1–3 Hz, 4–7 Hz, and 8–12 Hz. Results Variance increased with load in both tasks (P 0.001 but did not differ significantly between patients and HCs (P > 0.17. Power spectrum analysis showed that the FM patients had a higher proportion of normalized power in the 1–3 Hz band, and a lower proportion of normalized power in the 8–12 Hz band compared to HCs (P 0.05. The results were consistent for all load conditions and for both elbow flexion and shoulder abduction. Conclusion FM patients exhibit an altered neuromuscular strategy for upper limb position control compared to HCs. The predominance of low-frequency limb oscillations among FM patients may indicate a sensory deficit.

  18. Bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đokić Milan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The incidence of tumors of the upper urothelium is high in our country, apart from their relation to specific regions (BEN and PBEN and their frequent bilateralism. Bilateral forms are present in significant percentage and are followed, in most cases, by renal failure, which speaks in favor of conservative surgery, if possible. Objective: The aim of the study was to present epidemiological, pathoanatomical and clinical characteristics of bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium and evaluate the Results of their treatment. Method: Our retrospective study analyzed 12 patients with bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium who were treated in the period from 1992 to 1996, according to their epidemiological, clinical, pathoanatomical and pathohistological characteristics, type of surgical treatment and relevant success. Results: In the observed period, bilateral tumors of the upper urothelium were found in 8.2% of our patients. In the group of 12 patients, 5 females and 7 males, 11 cases were from the region of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN. Renal failure was recorded in high percentage (66%. Radical surgical treatment - total nephroureterectomy was performed in 9 kidney units, and conservative operation in 15 units. Relapse significantly depended on tumor stage and grade, not on type of surgical treatment in the majority of cases. Five-year survival was 58.33%; major cause of death was associated with further evolution of tumor, recurrence and tumor dissemination, respectively, while renal failure complications were the cause of death in one case. Conclusion: The success of treatment mainly depends on tumor stage and grade and not on type of surgical Method in conservative treatment, but renal failure and its complications are an important risk factor in these patients.

  19. Rare upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage of cetuximab

    OpenAIRE

    Duan, Shi-Jie; Gao, Zi-Ming; Wang, Peng-Liang; Gong, Bao-Cheng; Huang, Han-Wei; Luo, Lei; Wang, Xin; Xing, Ya-Nan; Xu, Hui-Mian; Liu, Fu-Nan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: cetuximab, an epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor, is a targeted therapeutic regimen of colorectal cancers. Several common adverse effects have been found, such as cutaneous or gastrointestinal toxicity. However, according to the articles had been published, upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is considered to be rare and its mechanism remains unclear. Patient concerns: In this report, we presented a 42-year-old male patient with advanced recto-sigmoid cancer. Af...

  20. PWR upper/lower internals shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homyk, W.A. [Indian Point Station, Buchanan, NY (United States)

    1995-03-01

    During refueling of a nuclear power plant, the reactor upper internals must be removed from the reactor vessel to permit transfer of the fuel. The upper internals are stored in the flooded reactor cavity. Refueling personnel working in containment at a number of nuclear stations typically receive radiation exposure from a portion of the highly contaminated upper intervals package which extends above the normal water level of the refueling pool. This same issue exists with reactor lower internals withdrawn for inservice inspection activities. One solution to this problem is to provide adequate shielding of the unimmersed portion. The use of lead sheets or blankets for shielding of the protruding components would be time consuming and require more effort for installation since the shielding mass would need to be transported to a support structure over the refueling pool. A preferable approach is to use the existing shielding mass of the refueling pool water. A method of shielding was devised which would use a vacuum pump to draw refueling pool water into an inverted canister suspended over the upper internals to provide shielding from the normally exposed components. During the Spring 1993 refueling of Indian Point 2 (IP2), a prototype shield device was demonstrated. This shield consists of a cylindrical tank open at the bottom that is suspended over the refueling pool with I-beams. The lower lip of the tank is two feet below normal pool level. After installation, the air width of the natural shielding provided by the existing pool water. This paper describes the design, development, testing and demonstration of the prototype device.

  1. New discoveries in Upper and Middle Magdalena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1998-01-01

    In six association contracts and one risk participation contract may give Colombia the possibility of finding new oil reserves. These prospects, located in the Upper and Middle Magdalena Valleys and the Eastern Plains. the completion process, evaluation, confirmation and commercialization should be in the next two years, these new discoveries also reveal interesting geological aspects; some in fractured limestone, similar to the found at Maracaibo lake in Venezuela, where vast oil fields were discovered

  2. [Antithrombotic therapy and nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanová, Veronika; Gřiva, Martin

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is about 85-108/100,000 inhabitants per year, nonvariceal bleeding accounts for 80-90%. Antiplatelet and anticoagulation treatment are the significant risk factors for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. To evaluate the occurrence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in the general community of patients in a county hospital. And to compare the role played by antiplatelet and anticoagulation drugs and other risk medication. Retrospective analysis of patients over 18 years of age who underwent endoscopy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding or anaemia (haemoglobinupper gastrointestinal tract during a hospital stay in 2013 (from January to June). We included 111 patients of average age 69±15 years, men 60%. Nonvariceal bleeding accounted for 90% of the cases. None of the patients with variceal bleeding (10% of patients) took antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy. There were 100 patients with nonvariceal bleeding of average age 70±15, 61% men. With the symptoms of acute bleeding (hematemesis, melena) presented in 73% of patients. The most frequent cause of bleeding was gastric and duodenal ulcer (54%). 32% of patients with nonvariceal bleeding had antiplatelets, 19% anticoagulants and 10% used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or corticosteroids. 30-days mortality of patients with nonvariceal bleeding was 11%, annual mortality was 23%. There was no significant difference in mortality, blood transfusion requirements or surgical intervention between the patients with antithrombotic agents and without them. 25% of patients (8 patients) using acetylsalicylic acid did not fulfil the indication for this treatment. Among the patients examined by endoscopy for symptomatic nonvariceal bleeding and/or anaemia (haemoglobingastrointestinal bleeding. With regard to that, it is alarming, that there still exists a nonnegligible percentage of patients taking acetylsalicylic acid even

  3. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    During the report period significant progress on the quantitative understanding of regional upper airway deposition of airborne particle has been realized. Replicate models of the human upper airways obtained from post-mortem casting of the nasal, oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal and upper tracheal regions and in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the same regions of adults and children have been employed to determine the overall and local deposition characteristics of aerosols in the ultrafine (1--100 μm diameter) and fine (0.8--12 μm diameter) region. Studies have been carried out for both nasal and oral breathing during inspiratory and expiratory flow at constant flow rates representative of rest and states of exercise. The results of these investigations indicate that particles in the size range of ''unattached'' radon progeny (1--3 nm) are deposited in both the nasal and oral passages with high efficiency (60--80%) for both inspiration and expiration, with the nasal deposition being somewhat greater (5--10%) than oral deposition. The effect of flow rate on upper airway deposition for both pathways is not great; data analysis indicates that the deposition for all flow rates from 4--50 liters/minute can be grouped by plotting deposition vs Q- 1/8 , where Q is flow rate, a far weaker dependency than observed for inertial deposition. Diffusional transport is the primary mechanism of deposition, and size dependence can be accounted for by plotting, deposition percent vs D n where D is particle diffusion coefficient and n ranges from 0.5--0.66. 2 refs

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources of Upper Cretaceous Shales in the Songliao Basin of China, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher J.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Pitman, Janet K.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Finn, Thomas M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Marra, Kristen R.; Woodall, Cheryl A.

    2018-05-03

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 3.3 billion barrels of oil and 887 billion cubic feet of gas in shale reservoirs of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou and Nenjiang Formations in the Songliao Basin of northeastern China.

  5. Upper shielding body in LMFBR type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Koichi.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: Preference is given to the strength and thermal insulation of a roof slab thereby ensuring axial size and improving the operationability upon inserting the control rod in the upper shielding body of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: In an upper shielding body in which a large rotational plug is rotatably mounted to a circular hole formed at an eccentric position of a roof slab, while a small rotational plug is rotatably mounted to a circular hole disposed at an eccentric position of the large rotational plug and the reactor core upper mechanisms are supported on the small rotational plug, heat insulation layers are attached to the inside of the inner circumferential wall of the roof slab and the outer circumferential wall of the large rotational plug. By attaching the heat insulation layers, the heat conduction between the roof slab and the large rotational plug can be suppressed remarkably, by which occurrence of specific heat pass or local generation of large thermal stresses can be avoided even if difference is resulted to the temperature distribution between them. In this way, functions taking advantage of respective features of the roof slab and the small rotational plug can be obtained to achieve the purpose. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Volume rejuvenation of the facial upper third.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckingham, Edward D; Glasgold, Robert; Kontis, Theda; Smith, Stephen P; Dolev, Yalon; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Lam, Samuel M; Williams, Edwin F; Pollei, Taylor R

    2015-02-01

    The next three articles in this issue take a unique approach to discussing volumetric restoration. Robert Glasgold has provided an assessment for each facial region and five different renowned authors (TK, SPS, RF, SML, and EFW) have been asked to speak on a particular volumetric product, of which they are considered an expert, as it applies to the different regions of the face. The articles are broken into the following: (1) upper third which corresponds to the upper eyelid, brow, temple, and forehead; (2) middle third which will cover lower eyelid, cheek, and perioral area; and (3) lower third which discusses the marionette, prejowl, and jawline. Our hope is that by placing differing opinions of experienced authors, organized by facial region together, the reader will have the opportunity to more readily compare the options. The contributing authors and their product area are as follows: Theda Kontis, MD-hyaluronic acid; Steve Smith, MD-calcium hydroxyl appetite; Rebecca Fitzgerald, MD-poly-L lactic acid; Sam Lam, MD-polymethyl methacrylate; and Edwin Williams, MD-Autologous Fat Transfer. If the author included general comments on the product, they are included in the article on the upper face only and are not repeated. Please note that other individuals may also have significantly assisted in the production of these articles, but those listed above are the senior authors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  7. Land Capability Evaluation of Upper Sekampung Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Sukri Banuwa

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Land degradation is a serious problem in the Upper Sekampung Watersheds. This is because the farmers cultivated in steep land to coffee crops without in adequate soil and water conservation practices. The land degradation is mostly caused by erosion. The erosion problem not only stripping the most fertile top soil and decreasing crop production, but also resulting problems in lowland. Therefore, the reorientation land management should be improved to produce agriculture sustainability. The first step is to evaluated land capability this area. The objectives of the research were evaluate land capability of Upper Sekampung Watersheds. The results showed that the Upper Sekampung Watersheds were dominated with class and subclass land capability of III-l2 about 17.630,51 ha (41,58%. All of the constrain for each land capability in this area is erosion hazard, especially land slope. From this research, cultivated land to coffee base crops were allowed in land capability II-l1.e1, III-l2, IV-l3, and VI-l4, with in adequate soil and water conservation practices. In contrary, the land capability of VII-l5 unsuitable for agriculture, they should be a nature or for conservation forest.

  8. Infantile lipofibromatosis of the upper limb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teo, Harvey E.L.; Peh, Wilfred C.G. [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Chan, Mei-Yoke [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Walford, Norman [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Pathology, Singapore (Singapore)

    2005-12-01

    The imaging features of extensive lipofibromatosis presenting in a 1-day-old female infant are reported. This lesion involved her entire right upper limb, extending from the axilla to the palm of the hand. Radiographs showed marked deformity and thinning of all the right upper-limb bones due to pressure effect of soft-tissue enlargement, especially affecting the distal humerus and proximal forearm bones. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge soft-tissue mass infiltrating most of the muscles of the entire upper limb, with bony erosion. The mass was largely T1-isointense, moderately T2-hyperintense and showed marked enhancement. There were intra-lesional signal changes consistent with fatty elements. A lesion debulking procedure was performed and the histology was that of lipofibromatosis. The limb was found to be non-viable after the procedure and a subsequent above-elbow amputation was performed. Although the resection margins were not clear, she had no further recurrence over a subsequent 3-year follow-up period. (orig.)

  9. Upper Cretaceous molluscan record along a transect from Virden, New Mexico, to Del Rio, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobban, W.A.; Hook, S.C.; McKinney, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    Updated age assignments and new collections of molluscan fossils from lower Cenomanian through upper Campanian strata in Texas permit a much refined biostratigraphic correlation with the rocks of New Mexico and the Western Interior. Generic names of many Late Cretaceous ammonites and inoceramid bivalves from Texas are updated to permit this correlation. Strata correlated in the west-to-east transect include the lower Cenomanian Beartooth Quartzite and Sarten Sandstone of southwest New Mexico, and the Eagle Mountains Formation, Del Rio Clay, Buda Limestone, and. basal beds of the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations of the Texas-Mexico border area. Middle Cenomanian strata are lacking in southwestern New Mexico but are present in the lower parts of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas Formations in southwest Texas. Upper Cenomanian and lower Turonian rocks are present at many localities in New Mexico and Texas in the Mancos Shale and Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. Middle Turonian and younger rocks seem to be entirely nonmarine in southwestern New Mexico, but they are marine in the Rio Grande area in the Chispa. Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations. The upper part of the Chispa Summit and Boquillas contain late Turonian fossils. Rocks of Coniacian and Santonian age are present high in the Chispa Summit, Ojinaga, and Boquillas Formations, and in the lower part of the Austin. The San Carlos, Aguja, Pen, and Austin Formations contain fossils of Campanian age. Fossils representing at least 38 Upper Cretaceous ammonite zones are present along the transect. Collections made in recent years in southwestern New Mexico and at Sierra de Cristo Rey just west of downtown El Paso, Texas, have been well treated and do not need revision. Taxonomic names and zonations published in the pre-1970 literature on the Rio Grande area of Texas have been updated. New fossil collections from the Big Bend National Park, Texas, allow for a much refined correlation

  10. Spacesuit Soft Upper Torso Sizing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziosi, David; Splawn, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The passive sizing system consists of a series of low-profile pulleys attached to the front and back of the shoulder bearings on a spacesuit soft upper torso (SUT), textile cord or stainless steel cable, and a modified commercial ratchet mechanism. The cord/cable is routed through the pulleys and attached to the ratchet mechanism mounted on the front of the spacesuit within reach of the suited subject. Upon actuating the ratchet mechanism, the shoulder bearing breadth is changed, providing variable upper torso sizing. The active system consists of a series of pressurizable nastic cells embedded into the fabric layers of a spacesuit SUT. These cells are integrated to the front and back of the SUT and are connected to an air source with a variable regulator. When inflated, the nastic cells provide a change in the overall shoulder bearing breadth of the spacesuit and thus, torso sizing. The research focused on the development of a high-performance sizing and actuation system. This technology has application as a suit-sizing mechanism to allow easier suit entry and more accurate suit fit with fewer torso sizes than the existing EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) suit system. This advanced SUT will support NASA s Advanced EMU Evolutionary Concept of a two-sizes-fit-all upper torso for replacement of the current EMU hard upper torso (HUT). Both the passive and nastic sizing system approaches provide astronauts with real-time upper torso sizing, which translates into a more comfortable suit, providing enhanced fit resulting in improved crewmember performance during extravehicular activity. These systems will also benefit NASA by reducing flight logistics as well as overall suit system cost. The nastic sizing system approach provides additional structural redundancy over existing SUT designs by embedding additional coated fabric and uncoated fabric layers. Two sizing systems were selected to build into a prototype SUT: one active and one passive. From manned testing, it

  11. Pulsation, Mass Loss and the Upper Mass Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klapp, J.; Corona-Galindo, M. G.

    1990-11-01

    RESUMEN. La existencia de estrellas con masas en exceso de 100 M0 ha sido cuestionada por mucho tiempo. Lfmites superiores para la masa de 100 M0 han sido obtenidos de teorfas de pulsaci6n y formaci6n estelar. En este trabajo nosotros primero investigamos la estabilidad radial de estrellas masivas utilizando la aproximaci6n clasica cuasiadiabatica de Ledoux, la aproximaci6n cuasiadiabatica de Castor y un calculo completamente no-adiabatico. Hemos encontrado que los tres metodos de calculo dan resultados similares siempre y cuando una pequefia regi6n de las capas externas de la estrella sea despreciada para la aproximaci6n clasica. La masa crftica para estabilidad de estrellas masivas ha sido encontrada en acuerdo a trabajos anteriores. Explicamos Ia discrepancia entre este y trabajos anteriores por uno de los autores. Discunmos calculos no-lineales y perdida de masa con respecto a) lfmite superior de masa. The existence of stars with masses in excess of 100 M0 has been questioned for a very long time. Upper mass limits of 100 Me have been obtained from pulsation and star formation theories. In this work we first investigate the radial stability of massive stars using the classical Ledoux's quasiadiabatic approximation. the Castor quasiadiabatic approximation and a fully nonadiabatic calculation. We have found that the three methods of calculation give similar results provided that a small region in outer layers of the star be neglected for the classical approximation. The critical mass for stability of massive stars is found to be in agreement with previous work. We explain the reason for the discrepancy between this and previous work by one of the authors. We discuss non-linear calculations and mass loss with regard to the upper mass limit. Key words: STARS-MASS FUNCTION - STARS-MASS LOSS - STARS-PULSATION

  12. FORMATION CONSTANTS AND THERMODYNAMIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KEY WORDS: Metal complexes, Schiff base ligand, Formation constant, DFT calculation ... best values for the formation constants of the proposed equilibrium model by .... to its positive charge distribution and the ligand deformation geometry.

  13. Land degradation of Taleghan drainage basin, Iran from saline and alkaline marly formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakikhani, K.; Feiznia, S.; Hosseini, S. H.

    2009-01-01

    In Iran fine-grained, saline, alkaline and erodible Tertiary marly formations are exposed in many geological zones and play important role in the formation of present landforms. They also play important role in degradation of water resources and soils as diffuse sources, they are the main sources of suspension loads of many rivers and are endless sources of sediments for sand dunes. These marly formations are present in Zagros, Central Iran, Alborz and Kopeh Dagh geological Zones and consists of different geological formations such as Gachsaran, Mishan and Razak Formations ( in Zagros), Lower Red and Upper Red Formations ( in Central Iran) and Neogene Red Beds (in Albords and Kopeh Dagh). (Author)

  14. Land degradation of Taleghan drainage basin, Iran from saline and alkaline marly formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakikhani, K.; Feiznia, S.; Hosseini, S. H.

    2009-07-01

    In Iran fine-grained, saline, alkaline and erodible Tertiary marly formations are exposed in many geological zones and play important role in the formation of present landforms. They also play important role in degradation of water resources and soils as diffuse sources, they are the main sources of suspension loads of many rivers and are endless sources of sediments for sand dunes. These marly formations are present in Zagros, Central Iran, Alborz and Kopeh Dagh geological Zones and consists of different geological formations such as Gachsaran, Mishan and Razak Formations ( in Zagros), Lower Red and Upper Red Formations ( in Central Iran) and Neogene Red Beds (in Albords and Kopeh Dagh). (Author)

  15. A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of medicinal plants around upper Songkhla lake, Thailand. ... method of preparation, route of administration and properties of plants. ... Keywords: Medicinal plant, Ethnobotany, Traditional medicine, Upper Songkhla Lake, Thailand ...

  16. Arterial variations of upper limb: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vollala V

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of upper limb arteries are common and there are many reports about this subject. We report multiple variations in arterial pattern of upper extremity, which were encountered in a single cadaver.

  17. Biostratigraphy of the Furongian (upper Cambrian) Alum Shale Formation at Degerhamn, Öland, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Wilhelm; Rasmussen, Jan A.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2017-01-01

    ) similis Chronozone; S. modestus has not previously been reported from Öland. The uppermost parts of the O. gibbosus, O. truncatus, P. spinulosa and C. tumida zones are reworked. Peltura minor may range into the basal C. linnarssoni Zone; alternatively it is also reworked. Ctenopyge (Ctenopyge) directa...

  18. Biozonation of the furongian (upper Cambrian) alum shale formation at Hunneberg, Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bo Wilhelm; Rasmussen, Jan Audun Liljeroth; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2016-01-01

    The Furongian Alum Shale at Nygård, Hunneberg, Sweden, has been sampled for trilobites. The section is ≥12.20 m thick and comprises a relatively thick Olenus superzone, overlain by more condensed Parabolina, Leptoplastus, Protopeltura and Peltura superzones. The section is truncated low in the Pe......The Furongian Alum Shale at Nygård, Hunneberg, Sweden, has been sampled for trilobites. The section is ≥12.20 m thick and comprises a relatively thick Olenus superzone, overlain by more condensed Parabolina, Leptoplastus, Protopeltura and Peltura superzones. The section is truncated low...

  19. Theory of aurora formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Akira.

    1975-04-01

    A new theory of aurora formation is presented based on Alfven wave-electron interaction. The theory explains consistently 1) the electron acceleration process, 2) the formation of auroral layers and 3) the long wave formation in the longitudinal direction. (auth.)

  20. Advanced upper limb prosthetic devices: implications for upper limb prosthetic rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Meucci, Marissa R; Lieberman-Klinger, Shana; Fantini, Christopher; Kelty, Debra L; Disla, Roxanne; Sasson, Nicole

    2012-04-01

    The number of catastrophic injuries caused by improvised explosive devices in the Afghanistan and Iraq Wars has increased public, legislative, and research attention to upper limb amputation. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has partnered with the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency and DEKA Integrated Solutions to optimize the function of an advanced prosthetic arm system that will enable greater independence and function. In this special communication, we examine current practices in prosthetic rehabilitation including trends in adoption and use of prosthetic devices, financial considerations, and the role of rehabilitation team members in light of our experiences with a prototype advanced upper limb prosthesis during a VA study to optimize the device. We discuss key challenges in the adoption of advanced prosthetic technology and make recommendations for service provision and use of advanced upper limb prosthetics. Rates of prosthetic rejection are high among upper limb amputees. However, these rates may be reduced with sufficient training by a highly specialized, multidisciplinary team of clinicians, and a focus on patient education and empowerment throughout the rehabilitation process. There are significant challenges emerging that are unique to implementing the use of advanced upper limb prosthetic technology, and a lack of evidence to establish clinical guidelines regarding prosthetic prescription and treatment. Finally, we make recommendations for future research to aid in the identification of best practices and development of policy decisions regarding insurance coverage of prosthetic rehabilitation. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Trends in dynamics of forest upper boundary in high mountains of northern Baikal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Voronin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Studies of spatial-temporal variability of the upper boundary of the forest on the north-western coast of Lake Baikal (Baikal and Upper Angara Ridges are performed on the base of the analysis of forests renewal processes and of the dynamics of larch radial increment in the ecotone of the forest upper boundary and out of it. The presence of a large amount of well-developed uplands and circuses with considerable heights drops in the structure of mountain system favours formation of interrupted boundary between forest and subgoltsy belt. The timber stand of the upper forest boundary in the studied area is represented by Daurian larch. Three tree-ring chronologies of larch are obtained. The longest chronology is obtained for mountain taiga belt of Baikal Ridge and is as long as 460 years. Since 1980ies, a sustainable trend of increase of radial trees growth is observed. It is observed the most distinctly in trees of the upper forest boundary on the Baikal Ridge. There is advancing of trees species into subgoltsy belt and into mountain tundra, which depends, respectively, on slopes heights, exposition and tilting, on sites of growth of concrete cenoses. Modern peculiarity of the vegetation of the studied area is presence of abundant viable larch undergrowth (from 2–3 to 25 y.o. and fir in the ecotone of upper forest boundary and in subgoltsy belt, as well as appearing of single specimens of spruce. Main undergrowth mass (2/3 is presented by trees aged in average 15–25 y.o., i.e., they appeared in late 1980ies. Due to increase of snow cover thickness in winter, the trees young growth obtained great protection from freezing resulting in the increase of ability of young growth to live up to elder age.

  2. Interpretation of massive sandstones in ephemeral fluvial settings: A case study from the Upper Candelária Sequence (Upper Triassic, Paraná Basin, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Bruno Ludovico Dihl; Goldberg, Karin; Schultz, Cesar Leandro

    2018-01-01

    Ephemeral rivers display a wide range of upper- and lower-flow regime structures due to great flow-velocity changes during the floods. The development of flow structures in these setting is yet to be understood, especially in the formation of thick, massive sandstones. The Upper Triassic of Southern Gondwana was marked by a climate with great seasonal changes, yet there is no description of river systems with seasonal characteristics in Southern Gondwana. This work aims to characterize a ephemeral alluvial system of the Upper Triassic of the Paraná Basin. The characteristics of the deposits are discussed in terms of depositional processes through comparison with similar deposits from literature, flow characteristics and depositional signatures compared to flume experiments. The alluvial system is divided in four facies associations: (1) channels with wanning fill, characterized by low width/thickness ratio, tabular bodies, scour-and-fill structures with upper- and lower-flow regime bedforms; (2) channels with massive fill, characterized by low w/t ratio, sheet-like bodies, scour-and-fill structures with massive sandstones; (3) proximal sheetfloods, characterized by moderate w/t ratio, sheet-like bodies with upper- and lower-flow regime bedforms and (4) distal sheetfloods, characterized by high w/t ratio, sheet-like bodies with lower-flow regime bedforms. Evidence for the seasonal reactivation of the riverine system includes the scarcity of well-developed macroforms and presence of in-channel mudstones, thick intraformational conglomerates, and the occurrence of well- and poorly-preserved vertebrate bones in the same beds. The predominantly massive sandstones indicate deposition from a hyperconcentrated flow during abrupt changes in flow speed, caused by de-confinement or channel avulsion, whereas turbulent portions of the flow formed the upper- and lower-flow regime bedforms after the deposition of the massive layers. The upper portion of the Candelária Sequence

  3. Uranium distribution and sandstone depositional environments: oligocene and upper Cretaceous sediments, Cheyenne basin, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibbelink, K.A.; Ethridge, F.G.

    1984-01-01

    Wyoming-type roll-front uranium deposits occur in the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills sandstones in the Cheyenne basin of northeastern Colorado. The location, geometry, and trend of specific depositional environments of the Oligocene White River and the Upper Cretaceous Laramie and Fox Hills formations are important factors that control the distribution of uranium in these sandstones. The Fox Hills Sandstone consists of up to 450 ft (140 m) of nearshore marine wave-dominated delta and barrier island-tidal channel sandstones which overlie offshore deposits of the Pierre Shale and which are overlain by delta-plain and fluvial deposits of the Laramie Formation. Uranium, which probably originated from volcanic ash in the White River Formation, was transported by groundwater through the fluvial-channel deposits of the White River into the sandstones of the Laramie and Fox Hills formations where it was precipitated. Two favorable depositional settings for uranium mineralization in the Fox Hills Sandstone are: (1) the landward side of barrier-island deposits where barrier sandstones thin and interfinger with back-barrier organic mudstones, and (2) the intersection of barrier-island and tidal channel sandstones. In both settings, sandstones were probably reduced during early burial by diagenesis of contained and adjacent organic matter. The change in permeability trends between the depositional strike-oriented barrier sandstones and the dip-oriented tidal-channel sandstones provided sites for dispersed groundwater flow and, as demonstrated in similar settings in other depositional systems, sites for uranium mineralization

  4. Palynologic and petrographic intervals in the upper Pennsylvanian McLeansboro Group, Western Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hower, J.C.; Helfrich, C.T.; Williams, D.A. (University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Center for Applied Energy Research)

    1994-07-01

    The McLeansboro Group in the Western Kentucky coal field spans the upper Desmoinesian (Westphalian D) and the Missourian and Virgilian series (Stephanian). Significant features of the McLeansboro Group are the marine zones over most of the coals and paleochannels, which are the only disruptions to the continuity of other lithologies. Patoka Formation (lower Missourian) coals are dominated by tree fern spores with lesser amounts of sphenopsids, ferns and cordaites spores. Only the No. 15 coal bed exceeds 80% vitrinite: the vitrinite content of the No. 16 coal bed is less than 72%. The Bond formation (upper Missourian) represents a distinct floristic interval, with a greater diversity of plant groups than in the Patoka Formation. The coals generally exceed 80% vitrinite. The Mattoon Formation (Virgillian) coals have a variety of palynomorph assemblages. The low-sulfur Geiger Lake coal bed is dominated by tree fern spores, with important contributions from other ferns and sphenopsids. Similar to the underlying tree fern interval vitrinite contents are less than 80%. The uppermost Mattoon coals are dominated by tree ferns and are notable in being the only coals more than 1 m thick in Stephanian portion of the section, with the top coal being 4.3 m thick. The uppermost coals generally contain more than 80% vitrinite. The palynologic/petrographic intervals appear to represent fluctuating dry (low vitrinite) and wet intervals within the Stephanian, which was itself drier than the Westphalian D. 21 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Orthodontic intervention of an impacted upper left central incisor due ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A fixed orthodontic appliance was used to facilitate traction and correction of malalignement of the impacted upper left central incisor.Treatment outcome: Successful removal of the odontoma, full exposure of the crown of upper left central incisor and good alignment on the arch were achieved. Crowding on the upper and ...

  6. Occupational upper airway disease: how work affects the nose

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, V.; Steelant, B.; Fokkens, W.; Nemery, B.; Hellings, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the upper airways is common and can arbitrarily be divided into rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. Infection and allergy represent two well-characterized and most frequently diagnosed etiologies of upper airway inflammation. Persistent upper airway inflammation caused by agents

  7. Origin and tectonic evolution of upper Triassic Turbidites in the Indo-Burman ranges, West Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Wei; Ding, Lin; Cai, Fulong; Wang, Houqi; Xu, Qiang; Zaw, Than

    2017-11-01

    The Pane Chaung Formation is exposed in the Indo-Burman Ranges, and has been involved in collision between the Indian Plate and West Burma Block. However, controversies exist over the provenance and paleogeographic reconstruction of the Pane Chaung Formation. This study presents new petrographical and detrital zircon Usbnd Pb ages and Hf isotopic data from the Pane Chaung Formation in Rakhine Yoma and Chin Hills, west Myanmar. The depositional age of the Pane Chaung Formation is Late Triassic, indicated by the Carnian-Norian Halobia fossils and maximum depositional ages between 233.0 ± 2.5 Ma and 206.2 ± 1.8 Ma. Upper Triassic sandstones contain 290-200 Ma detrital zircons, εHf(t) values of - 6 to 11 and TDMC of 1.6 to 0.6 Ga, interpreted to be derived from West Papua region. The most abundant zircon age population of 750-450 Ma is derived from Pan-African orogenic belts in Australia. Zircons of 1250-900 Ma age were derived from the Grenvillian orogen in Australia. Archean zircons are interpreted to be derived from the Yilgarn and Pilbara cratons in Western Australia. Detrital zircon ages of the Pane Chaung Formation are distinct from similar aged strata in Indochina and Sibumasu, but comparable to NW Australia (Carnarvon Basin) and Greater India (Langjiexue Formation). It is suggested that the Pane Chaung Formation was deposited in a Late Triassic submarine fan along the northern margin of Australia.

  8. Organic geochemical characterization of potential hydrocarbon source rocks in the upper Benue Trough

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaje, N. G.; Pearson, M. J.; Suh, C. E.; Dada, S. S.

    1999-01-01

    The Upper Benue Trough of Nigeria is the northeastern most portion of the Benue rift structure that extends from the northern limit of the Niger Delta in the south to the southern limit of the Chad basin int he northeast. this portion of the trough is made up of two arms: the Gongola Arm and the Yola Arm. Stratigraphic sequence in the Gongola Arm comprises the continental Albian Bima Sandstone, the transitional Cenomanian Yolde Formation and the marine Turonian - Santonian Gongila, Pindiga, and Fika Formations. Overlying these are the continental Campane - Maastrichtian Gombe Sandstone and the Tertiary Kerri - Kerri Formation. In the Yola Arm, the Turonian - Santonian sequence is replaced by the equally marine Dukul, Jessu, Sekuliye Formations, Numanha Shale, and the Lamja Sandstone. Organic geochemical studies have been carried on outcrop sample form the Gongila, Pindiga, Dukul Formations, the Fika shale and the shaly units of the Gombe Sandstone, with the aim of assessing their source rock potential. Gas Chromatography (GC), Gas Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (C - MS), and Rock Eval Pyrolysis were the major organic geochemical tools employed. Biomaker hydrocarbon signatures obtained from the GC - MS and the Rock Eval Pyrolysis results indicate that all he formations studied, except the Dukul formation, are immature and are all lean in organic matter

  9. Phytolith analysis in fluvial quaternary sediment (San Salvador and Palmar formation) Uruguay river and Argentina eastern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterer, N.; Passeggi, E.; Zucol, A.; Brea, M.; Krohling, D.

    2012-01-01

    This work is about two microfossils fluvial units deposited by the Uruguay river during the Quaternary. These are San Salvador and Palmar formation (Plio-Pleistocene - Upper Pleistocene).The Palmar formation is a band of 4-15 km along the right bank of the Uruguay river outcropping from the eastern provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios, to Concepcion del Uruguay

  10. UPPER LIMB FUNCTIONAL ASSESSMENT USING HAPTIC INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Bardorfer

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks – to assess the accuracy of movement – tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces – to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test – to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A new method for the assessment of the upper limb (UL functional state, using a haptic interface is presented. A haptic interface is used as a measuring device, capable of providing objective, repeatable and quantitative data of the UL motion. A patient is presented with a virtual environment, both graphically via a computer screen and haptically via the Phantom Premium 1.5 haptic interface. The setup allows the patient to explore and feel the virtual environment with three of his/her senses; sight, hearing, and most important, touch. Specially designed virtual environments are used to assess the patient’s UL movement capabilities. The tests range from tracking tasks–to assess the accuracy of movement-tracking tasks with added disturbances in a form of random forces-to assess the patient’s control abilities, a labyrinth test-to assess both speed and accuracy, to the last test for measuring the maximal force capacity of the UL.A comprehensive study, using the developed measurement setup within the

  11. Upper respiratory tract infections in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Clifton L; Diehl, Jason J

    2007-07-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) represent the most common acute illnesses in the general population and account for the leading acute diagnoses in the outpatient setting. Given the athlete's expectation to return to activity as soon as possible, the sports medicine physician should be able to accurately diagnose and aggressively treat these illnesses. This article discusses the common pathogens, diagnosis, treatment options, and return-to-play decisions for URTIs, with a focus on the common cold, sinusitis, pharyngitis, and infectious mononucleosis in the athlete.

  12. Upper extremity weightlifting injuries: Diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshani, Kayvon; Cinque, Mark E; O'Halloran, Peter; Softness, Kenneth; Keeling, Laura; Macdonell, J Ryan

    2018-03-01

    Common upper extremity injuries in resistance training athletes include muscle strains, ligament sprains, pectoralis major tendon ruptures, distal biceps tendon ruptures, and chronic shoulder pain and capsulolabral injuries. While each injury is unique in its specific anatomic location and mechanism, each is preventable with proper exercise technique, safety and maintenance of muscle balance. Conservative treatment is the therapeutic modality of choice and these injuries generally resolve with workout modification, appropriate recovery, anti-inflammatory medication, and physical therapy. If conservative treatment fails, surgical intervention is often successful and can return the weightlifter to a level of performance near their pre-injury level.

  13. Material management performance indicators for upper management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Loughlin, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a case for the use of performance indicators by upper management to monitor the effectiveness of material management operations at nuclear power plants. The paper establishes that the use of performance indicators is not a pro forma matter. There are specific standards and conditions to which the material management operation must conform for the performance measures to be meaningful. The paper concludes with discussion of the application and use of specific performance indicators. Proper use of selected performance indicators can remove the mystery and uncertainty for management about an aspect of nuclear plant operations that has significant budget implications

  14. External Environment and Upper Echelons Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Yamak, Sibel

    This work reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. We extend the existing research on upper echelons theory, which has largely focused on the team and firm level of analyses of top management teams (TMT). Considering institutional...... and industrial organization theories, we elaborate a cross-level conceptual model outlining the direct, mediating and moderating effects of the external environment on TMTs and their impact. Our review distinguishes between industry and institutional level of analyses and three types of environmental...

  15. Exploring Responsible Tourism in Upper Myanmar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Loda

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The concept of “responsible tourism”, which has spread rapidly in recent years, evokes conscious tourist behavior so as to minimize negative impacts on destinations, from an environmental, economic and cultural point of view. While intuitively comprehensible, the concept is not easy to operationalize in empirical studies. Facing this difficulty, our contribution illustrates an attempt to operatively define the concept within the framework of the development of a sustainable destination plan for the Ancient Cities of Upper Myanmar (ACUM. The paper describes the index adopted to survey and measure responsible attitudes among tourists and the main results of the research.

  16. [Epidemiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Gabon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudong Mbethe, G L; Mounguengui, D; Ondounda, M; Magne, C; Bignoumbra, R; Ntsoumou, S; Moussavou Kombila, J-B; Nzenze, J R

    2014-01-01

    The department of internal medicine of the military hospital of Gabon managed 92 cases of upper gastrointestinal bleeding from April 2009 to November 2011. The frequency of these hemorrhages in the department was 8.2%; they occurred most often in adults aged 30-40 years and 50-60 years, and mainly men (74%). Erosive-ulcerative lesions (65.2%) were the leading causes of hemorrhage, followed by esophageal varices (15.2%). These results underline the importance of preventive measures for the control of this bleeding.

  17. Catahoula Formation as uranium source rock in East Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledger, E.B.; Tieh, T.T.; Rowe, N.W.

    1984-01-01

    The Oligocene-Miocene Catahoula Formation of the Texas Gulf coastal plain is a fluvial and lacustrine volcaniclastic unit composed of normal fluvial material mixed with distal rhyolitic air-fall ash. In the lower Texas Gulf coastal plain, it consists of stream-transported detritus from the volcanic source area in Trans-Pecos Texas and adjacent Mexico. This volcaniclastic component has altered to release uranium to mineralization processes in the lower Gulf Coast, but there has not been uranium production in the middle and upper Gulf Coast. To evaluate the potential of the upper Texas Gulf coastal plain for uranium ore deposits, a geochemical study was undertaken. The Catahoula Formation was analyzed for U, Th, K, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Ti to estimate the nature of volcanic glass and its abundance and alteration. Concentrations from three key outcrops were compared. They were also compared to samples from a volcanic area in Trans-Pecos Texas, which is chemically appropriate as a source for the volcanic material in the Catahoula Formation. In the lower Texas Gulf coastal plain, where uranium is produced, the glassy volcanic material has been pervasively altered, but in the upper coastal plain much glass remains. Because glass alteration is necessary for uranium release and concentration, the potential is low for large, shallow uranium ore bodies in the upper Texas Gulf coastal plain

  18. Upper Gastrointestinal Stent Insertion in Malignant and Benign Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2015-01-01

    Upper gastrointestinal (GI) stents are increasingly being used to manage upper GI obstructions. Initially developed for palliative treatment of esophageal cancer, upper GI stents now play an emerging role in benign strictures of the upper GI tract. Because recurrent obstruction and stent-related complications are common, new modifications of stents have been implemented. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) have replaced older plastic stents. In addition, newly designed SEMS have been developed to prevent complications. This review provides an overview of the various types, indications, methods, complications, and clinical outcomes of upper GI stents in a number of malignant and benign disorders dividing the esophagus and gastroduodenum. PMID:26064817

  19. A fiery birth of aluminosilica analogs of refractory dust in the upper stratosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Ferrari, M.; Della Corte, V.; Rotundi, A.; Palumbo, P.; De Angelis, S.; Galluzzi, V.

    2017-11-01

    Following a successful dust collection flight in the upper stratosphere our DUSTER (Dust in the Upper Stratosphere Tracking Experiment and Retrieval) made a safe remote landing at its assigned location on Baffin Island during early June 2009. When the balloon payload that included DUSTER was retrieved it was found part of the payload had experienced a lithium-sparked fire while the payload was being dragged across the landing site. In this process the housing of DUSTER had developed a pin-sized hole that allowed smoke of the fire to enter the collector. Numerous smoke particles were found covering both the DUSTER collection and blank collector surfaces an indication that our experiment to collect upper stratospheric dust had failed! Both collector surfaces were covered by numerous carbon smoke and amorphous, aluminosilica nanoparticles. The compositions of vast majority of these aluminosilica nanoparticles, Al2O3 = 49 wt% and SiO2 = 51 wt%, was both surprising and unique because it was an exact match of the Deep Metastable Eutectic (DME) nanoparticles found in vapor phase condensation experiments. These vapor phase condensation experiments were conducted to explore the formation of extraterrestrial dust particles. We are not claiming an extraterrestrial origin for these particles from this DUSTER experiment. We submit that given the appropriate conditions of high temperature alumina and silica vapors and rapid quenching in a contained natural environment, DME aluminosilica nanoparticles will likely condense. This serendipitous result can be used to explore nanoparticle formation inside incandescent clouds associated with bolides and fireballs.

  20. Biosystematics, genetics and upper temperature tolerance of Gigartina teedii (Rhodophyta) from the Atlantic and Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiry, M. D.; Tripodi, G.; Lüning, K.

    1987-09-01

    Plants of Gigartina teedii from the mediterranean isolated into laboratory culture showed Polysiphonia-type life histories with consistent formation of dioecious gametangial plants, as previously reported for Atlantic isolates. Male and female plants from the Atlantic and Mediterranean were almost completely compatible in terms of cystocarp formation on female plants, and carpospores from positive crosses always formed plants that released viable tetraspores. Sex-linked inheritance of branching pattern was found in all strains, but showed varying degrees of expression. Female plants were more branched than male plants and it is suggested that this may be an adaptation for spermatial capture. G. teedii plants showed differences in morphology in culture that are considered to be genetically-based. Preliminary studies of tip elongation showed that Mediterranean strains may have up to three times the elongation rates of Atlantic strains at 15°C,bar 8. Such genetic variation in fully-interbreeding strains suggests that populations of this species in the Atlantic and Mediterranean are genecodemic. All strains showed an upper temperature tolerance of 31°C when tested at 1°C intervals from 29—34°C. An upper temperature tolerance of 31 32°C was found for the related species G. intermedia from Korea and Japan, but G. johnstonii from the Gulf of California showed an upper tolerance of 32 33°C.

  1. Conservative treatment of perforated upper gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naoi, Daishi; Sano, Wataru; Nakata, Yasuyuki; Yano, Kentaro; Suzuki, Takeshi; Chiku, Tsuyoshi; Tashiro, Tsuguhiko

    2009-01-01

    In order to clarify the validity of indication criteria of the conservative treatment for perforated upper gastrointestinal tract, a retrospective study was carried out. We enrolled 28 patients with perforation of the gastrointestinal tract who were determined to receive conservative treatment at the time of hospitalization from January 2000 to December 2007. When the following criteria were satisfied, we treated the patients by the conservative treatment after informed consent was gained from them and their families: stable condition of vital signs; peritoneal signs localized in the upper abdomen; and no or slight fluid collection at the Douglas' pouch determined by computed tomography. Patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection during follow-up were promptly converted to surgery. Six patients were converted to surgery, but all of them were discharged very much improved. We compared patient's data of the conservative treatment group and the converted surgery group at the time of consultation. All data were not statistically different between two groups. If all criteria are satisfied, it seemed that we can start conservative treatment for perforated gastrointestinal tract with careful observation and the system of prompt conversion to operation for patients who showed changes for the worse of peritonitis or increased fluid collection. (author)

  2. Upper gastrointestinal symptoms in autoimmune gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabotti, Marilia; Lahner, Edith; Esposito, Gianluca; Sacchi, Maria Carlotta; Severi, Carola; Annibale, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Autoimmune gastritis is often suspected for its hematologic findings, and rarely the diagnosis is made for the presence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Aims of this cross-sectional study were to assess in a large cohort of patients affected by autoimmune gastritis the occurrence and the pattern of gastrointestinal symptoms and to evaluate whether symptomatic patients are characterized by specific clinical features. Gastrointestinal symptoms of 379 consecutive autoimmune gastritis patients were systematically assessed and classified following Rome III Criteria. Association between symptoms and anemia pattern, positivity to gastric autoantibodies, Helicobacter pylori infection, and concomitant autoimmune disease were evaluated. In total, 70.2% of patients were female, median age 55 years (range 17–83). Pernicious anemia (53.6%), iron deficiency anemia (34.8%), gastric autoantibodies (68.8%), and autoimmune disorders (41.7%) were present. However, 56.7% of patients complained of gastrointestinal symptoms, 69.8% of them had exclusively upper symptoms, 15.8% only lower and 14.4% concomitant upper and lower symptoms. Dyspepsia, subtype postprandial distress syndrome was the most represented, being present in 60.2% of symptomatic patients. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that age gastritis is associated in almost 60% of cases with gastrointestinal symptoms, in particular dyspepsia. Dyspepsia is strictly related to younger age, no smoking, and absence of anemia. PMID:28072728

  3. Laparoscopic jejunostomy for obstructing upper gastrointestinal malignancies

    Science.gov (United States)

    TSUJIMOTO, HIRONORI; HIRAKI, SHUICHI; TAKAHATA, RISA; NOMURA, SHINSUKE; ITO, NOZOMI; KANEMATSU, KYOHEI; HORIGUCHI, HIROYUKI; AOSASA, SUEFUMI; YAMAMOTO, JUNJI; HASE, KAZUO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a minimally invasive laparoscopic jejunostomy (Lap-J) technique for obstruction due to upper gastrointestinal malignancies and evaluate the nutritional benefit of Lap-J during neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in cases with obstructing esophageal cancer. Under general anesthesia, the jejunum 20–30 cm distant from the Treitz ligament was pulled out through an extended umbilical laparoscopic incision and a jejunal tube was inserted to 30 cm. The loop of bowel was gently returned to the abdomen and the feeding tube was drawn through the abdominal wall via the left lower incision. The jejunum was then laparoscopically sutured to the anterior abdominal wall. Lap-J was performed in 26 cases. The median operative time was 82 min. The postoperative course was uneventful. Lap-J prior to NAC was not associated with a decrease in body weight or serum total protein during NAC, compared with patients who received NAC without Lap-J. This minimally invasive jejunostomy technique may be particularly useful in patients in whom endoscopic therapy is not feasible due to obstruction from upper gastrointestinal malignancies. PMID:26807238

  4. Upper limb lymphedema after breast cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Salah, H.; Bahri, M.; Jbali, B.; Daoud, J.; Guermazi, M.; Frikha, M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. - To study the frequency and risk factors for upper limb lymphedema through a series of patients treated for breast cancer. Patients and methods. - It is a retrospective study about 222 patients treated for breast cancer during the period between February 1993 and December 2003 in Sfax hospitals. Average age was 51 years (27-92 years). Tumour was T2 in 59% of cases. All patients had surgery with lymph node dissection. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma was the most frequent histological type (80% of cases), with predominant SBR II grade (62%). The mean number of removed lymph nodes was 12 (2-33). Axillary lymph node metastasis was detected in 124 patients. Radiotherapy was delivered in 200 patients, including axillary irradiation in 30 cases. The mean follow-up was 68 months (12-120). Results. - Lymphedema appeared in 23% of cases (51 patients), 14 months after surgery (mean period). Lymphedema affected the brachium in 17% of cases, the forearm in 12% of cases and all upper limb in 71% of cases. Fifty percent of patients had rehabilitation. However, improvement of lymphedema was obtained in 18 cases. Parameters predicting lymphedema were studied. Significant risk factors were obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. The type of surgery, axillary irradiation and shoulder abduction deficit did not predict lymphedema. Conclusion. - Lymphedema of the arm is a frequent consequence of breast cancer treatment. The risk of lymphedema is correlated with obesity, infection and a number of removed lymph node above 10. (authors)

  5. Mammal extinctions in the Vallesian (Upper Miocene)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusti, J.; Moya-Sola, S.

    The term Vallesian was created by Crusafont (1950) to designate the first European Mammalian palaeofaunas containing the equid Hipparion, the remainder of the faunas being composed of typical elements coming from the Middle Miocene such as Micromeryx, Euprox, Sansanosmilus, Pseudaelurus, and Listriodon. Thus, the Aragonian-Vallesian boundary does not show a strong change among European Miocene mammalian faunas (Agusti et al., 1984). On the other hand, the Lower Vallesian/Upper Vallesian transition corresponds to a major biotic crisis. This boudnary is characterized by the disappearence of most of the Aragonian artiodactyl forms such as Protragocerus, Miotragocerus, Listriodon, Hyotherium, Parachleusastochoerus, etc. Among the rodents, this crisis affects the family Eomyidae and most of the cricetid and glirid species. On the other hand, a number of eastern elements appear in the area at the same time. This is the case of the suid Schizochoerus and the murid Progonomys. Other eastern forms are Tragoportax, Graecoryx, Adcrocuta, Paramachairodus, Microstonyx, etc. Most of these are typical elements of the next Mammal stage, the Turolian. Thus, whereas the Lower Vallesian fauna has a typical Aragonian composition except for Hipparion. After the Middle Vallesian event, the Upper Vallesian faunas are already largely Turolian in character. The possible factors involved in this extinction event are discussed.

  6. Age Spreads and the Temperature Dependence of Age Estimates in Upper Sco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang Qiliang; Herczeg, Gregory J. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Yiheyuan Lu 5, Haidian Qu, 100871 Beijing (China); Rizzuto, Aaron [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Past estimates for the age of the Upper Sco Association are typically 11–13 Myr for intermediate-mass stars and 4–5 Myr for low-mass stars. In this study, we simulate populations of young stars to investigate whether this apparent dependence of estimated age on spectral type may be explained by the star formation history of the association. Solar and intermediate mass stars begin their pre-main sequence evolution on the Hayashi track, with fully convective interiors and cool photospheres. Intermediate-mass stars quickly heat up and transition onto the radiative Henyey track. As a consequence, for clusters in which star formation occurs on a timescale similar to that of the transition from a convective to a radiative interior, discrepancies in ages will arise when ages are calculated as a function of temperature instead of mass. Simple simulations of a cluster with constant star formation over several Myr may explain about half of the difference in inferred ages versus photospheric temperature; speculative constructions that consist of a constant star formation followed by a large supernova-driven burst could fully explain the differences, including those between F and G stars where evolutionary tracks may be more accurate. The age spreads of low-mass stars predicted from these prescriptions for star formation are consistent with the observed luminosity spread of Upper Sco. The conclusion that a lengthy star formation history will yield a temperature dependence in ages is expected from the basic physics of pre-main sequence evolution, and is qualitatively robust to the large uncertainties in pre-main sequence evolutionary models.

  7. Geochronology of La Tinta Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks, Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cingolani, C.A.; Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Olavarria-Sierras Bayas, Barker-San Manuel and Balcarce-Mar del Plata fine-grained sedimentary rocks from La Tinta Formation, the pre-Cenozoic cover of the Tandilia region, were studied using the Rb-Sr and K-Ar geochronology. The mineralogical study of the fine fraction has shown that only the Olavarria-Sierras Bayas area presents suitable material comprising typical sedimentary clays, affected only by diagenetic processes. Two Rb-Sr isochrons were obtained from Olavarria-Sierras Bayas rocks. They show: (1) an age of 769 +- 12 Ma with ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 = 0.7121 +- 0.0005, for Aust Quarry rocks; and (2) an age of 723 +- 21 Ma with ( 87 Sr/ 86 Sr) 0 = 0.7171 +- 0.0012 for Cerro Negro and Losa Quarries rocks. Considering the above-mentioned isochron data and the mineralogy of the clays studied, the conclusion is drawn that the ages obtained reflect the isotopic setting of a late diagenetic process, dated back to nearly 720 Ma. K-Ar data also support the Rb-Sr isochrons and the late diagenetic clay origin. The lower section of La Tinta sequence in the Sierras Bayas area must then be considered as Upper Proterozoic in age. These new data support the recently reported stratigraphical divisions and ages. (Auth.)

  8. Electrokinetic transport behavior of phenol in upper Permian soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haus, R.; Zorn, R.; Czurda, K.; Ruthe, H. [Dept. of Applied Geology, Univ. Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Electrokinetic experiments with upper Permian, phenol contaminated soils ('Solaris'-area Chemnitz) were performed. Bench scale results show the successful removal of phenol. The developing soil-pH during electroremediation tests is found to affect the transport behavior of phenol strongly. If buffer solutions are used at the electrode compartments, phenol could be removed from the soils. By neutralizing the generating hydrogen ions at the anode reservoir the hydroxyl ions developing at the cathode by the electrolysis of water enter the soil and propagate to the anode by increasing the soil pH. The pH dependent dehydroxylation of phenol promotes the electromigration of negative charged phenolate ions from the cathode to the anode. At the anode the coupling of phenoxyl-radicals supports the formation of non toxic, water insoluble polyoxyphenylene by electro-polymerization. In the case of buffering the pH at the cathode uncharged phenol is transported by electroosmosis from the anode to the cathode because of the nonexisting base front and the unhindered production of hydrogen ions at the anode. (orig.)

  9. Hydrogeology, water quality, and saltwater intrusion in the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the offshore area near Hilton Head Island, South Carolina, and Tybee Island, Georgia, 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falls, W. Fred; Ransom, Camille; Landmeyer, James E.; Reuber, Eric J.; Edwards, Lucy E.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the hydrogeology, water quality, and the potential for saltwater intrusion in the offshore Upper Floridan aquifer, a scientific investigation was conducted near Tybee Island, Georgia, and Hilton Head Island, South Carolina. Four temporary wells were drilled at 7, 8, 10, and 15 miles to the northeast of Tybee Island, and one temporary well was drilled in Calibogue Sound west of Hilton Head Island. The Upper Floridan aquifer at the offshore and Calibogue sites includes the unconsolidated calcareous quartz sand, calcareous quartz sandstone, and sandy limestone of the Oligocene Lazaretto Creek and Tiger Leap Formations, and the limestone of the late Eocene Ocala Limestone and middle Avon Park Formation. At the 7-, 10-, and 15-mile sites, the upper confining unit between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers correlates to the Miocene Marks Head Formation. Paleochannel incisions have completely removed the upper confining unit at the Calibogue site and all but a 0.8-foot-thick interval of the confining unit at the 8-mile site, raising concern about the potential for saltwater intrusion through the paleochannel-fill sediments at these two sites. The paleochannel incisions at the Calibogue and 8-mile sites are filled with fine- and coarse-grained sediments, respectively. The hydrogeologic setting and the vertical hydraulic gradients at the 7- and 10-mile sites favored the absence of saltwater intrusion during predevelopment. After decades of onshore water use in Georgia and South Carolina, the 0-foot contour in the regional cone of depression of the Upper Floridan aquifer is estimated to have been at the general location of the 7- and 10-mile sites by the mid-1950s and at or past the 15-mile site by the 1980s. The upward vertical hydraulic gradient reversed, but the presence of more than 17 feet of upper confining unit impeded the downward movement of saltwater from the surficial aquifer to the Upper Floridan aquifer at the 7- and 10-mile sites. At the 10

  10. Mid-upper-arm-circumference and mid-upper-arm circumference z-score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, J; Andersen, A; Fisker, A B

    2012-01-01

    Mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) is a simple method of assessing nutritional status in children above 6 months of age. In 2007 World Health Organization (WHO) introduced a MUAC z-score for children above 3 months of age. We evaluated whether MUAC or MUAC z-score had the best ability to identify...

  11. Stages of ores formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    Deposit formation (especially endogenous) is the complicated, multi-stage and long process. Establishment of deposit formation succession, age-specific correlations of minerals and aggregates have a high importance at solving genetic questions. Studying of minerals correlations and mineral aggregates, succession of their crystallization and other observations let restore the history of deposit formation, pick up in it different on duration and physical and chemical conditions stages

  12. Planet formation in Binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Thebault, Ph.; Haghighipour, N.

    2014-01-01

    Spurred by the discovery of numerous exoplanets in multiple systems, binaries have become in recent years one of the main topics in planet formation research. Numerous studies have investigated to what extent the presence of a stellar companion can affect the planet formation process. Such studies have implications that can reach beyond the sole context of binaries, as they allow to test certain aspects of the planet formation scenario by submitting them to extreme environments. We review her...

  13. Prospects for an upper Givetian substage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. S. Aboussalam

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available New ammonoid and conodont data from Germany, the Montagne Noire (France and southeastern Morocco document a complex sequence of sedimentary events and faunal changes within an extended Givetian (late Middle Devonian Taghanic Event Interval or Taghanic Biocrisis. Direct association of supposed typical middle Givetian ammonoids, trilobites and corals with upper Givetian marker taxa such as pharciceratids have been found, for example, in Moroccan and French time equivalents of the New York Upper Tully Limestone. The initial and eustatic Taghanic Onlap level is not known to be characterized by the first appearance of any widespread index conodont, goniatite or other taxon. A future upper Givetian substage, therefore, might be based either on the entry of Ozarkodina semialternans or on the first appearance of Schmidtognathus hermanni. The semialternans Zone correlates with a third sedimentary cycle within the Tully Limestone and with the spread of the first Pharciceratidae. Eobeloceratidae (Mzerrebites juvenocostatus and Archoceratidae n. fam. (Atlantoceras. The (Lower hermanni Zone is marked by a post-event transgression which led to a significant conodont radiation and to a further diversification of Pharciceratidae and Eobeloceratidae (Mz. erraticus. Neue Ammonoideen- und Conodonten-Daten aus Deutschland, Frankreich (Montagne Noire und aus Südost-Marokko belegen eine komplexe Abfolge sedimentärer Ereignisse und von Faunenwechseln in einem längerfristigen Taghanic-Event-Intervall bzw. einer Taghanic-Biokrise des Givetiums (oberes Mittel-Devon. Direkte Vergesellschaftungen von Ammonoideen, Trilobiten und Korallen, die früher als typische Mittel-Givetium-Formen angesehen wurden, mit Leitformen des Ober-Givetiums (z. B. Pharciceraten konnten in Marokko und Frankreich in Zeitequivalenten des Oberen Tully-Kalkes von New York nachgewiesen werden. Der initiale und eustatisch bedingte Taghanic Onlap ist bisher nicht durch das Einsetzen eines weit

  14. Upper abdominal malignancies (not including esophagus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rich, Tyvin A.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: This course will give an overview of the role of radiation therapy in the treatment of gastrointestinal malignancies in the upper abdomen, with an emphasis on carcinomas of the stomach, pancreas and biliary tract. For each site, information will be presented related to failure patterns with conventional surgical treatment and the indications for surgery for different stages of disease. The possible uses of radiation therapy as an adjuvant to surgical resection will be discussed as well as the use of radiation therapy alone. In addition, the combination of radiation therapy with chemotherapy will be discussed for each of these sites, as well as the information available at present as to the optimal way to combine chemotherapy with radiation therapy. Radiation therapy is not generally accepted to have a role in the treatment of patients with adenocarcinomas of the stomach. This is related to the fact that gastric cancer has been standardly treated with surgical resection alone, and delivery of high dose radiation therapy to the upper abdomen can be difficult because of the sensitivity of nearby normal tissues. Nonetheless, data on failure patterns suggest that local recurrence is common in patients with disease through the gastric wall and with positive nodes. Although there is some suggestive data to indicate that radiation therapy is effective as an adjuvant, results of an ongoing trial will be necessary for determination of the exact role of radiation therapy. Possible uses of radiation therapy as preoperative therapy or given alone will also be briefly discussed. Radiation therapy has been often used in the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinomas, either alone or combined with surgical resection. Its use is more common for this site both because of the extremely poor prognosis of standard therapies, and because of the difficulty in performing an adequate surgical resection. Data will be reviewed suggesting that radiation therapy has a role when

  15. Data format translation routines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burris, R.D.

    1981-02-01

    To enable the effective connection of several dissimilar computers into a network, modification of the data being passed from one computer to another may become necessary. This document describes a package of routines which permit the translation of data in PDP-8 formats to PDP-11 or DECsystem-10 formats or from PDP-11 format to DECsystem-10 format. Additional routines are described which permit the effective use of the translation routines in the environment of the Fusion Energy Division (FED) network and the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT) data base

  16. ENDF/B format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.; Lemmel, H.D.

    1986-09-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B. This format, originally designed for the US Evaluated Nuclear Data File, is recommended for international use. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-NCS-50496 (ENDF 102) should be consulted. An Appendix to the present document gives a summary of the format differences between ENDF/B-4 and ENDF/B-5. (author)

  17. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    of how the opponent format and relationships impact a game are almost absent in current research. Thus, this paper aims to elucidate how the perception of a competition differs, depending on the opponent format, by presenting a game mechanic framework. The paper furthermore presents an interactive...... football-training platform, as well as games designed to explore the different opponent formats. The games are qualitatively evaluated to illuminate the qualities of and distinctions between different types of opponent formats, proposed by the framework terminology....

  18. The upper atmosphere of Venus: A tentative explanation of its rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, C.

    1986-01-01

    The upper atmosphere of Venus seems to revolve every 4 days, while the planet rotates in 243 days. Mariner 10 UV data on the changing positions of dark spots in the upper Venusian clouds have supported estimations of speeds ranging from 120-240 m/s. High rates of acceleration and deceleration occur on the night side, the former between -110 to -90 deg and the latter continuing to -50 deg. Arch and Y formations have been seen repeatedly between -110 to -70 deg. The highest are seen at about -90 deg and the lowest at about -30 deg. The temperature of the cloud layer at 60 km altitude is about 20 C, the pressure is nearly one earth atmosphere, and complex molecules, including O, C, H, N and S and combinations of these are present in abundance.

  19. Understanding nuclei in the upper sd - shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, M. Saha; Bisoi, Abhijit; Ray, Sudatta [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064 (India); Kshetri, Ritesh [Nuclear Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata 700064, India and Sidho-Kanho-Birsha University, Purulia - 723101 (India); Sarkar, S. [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Howrah - 711103 (India)

    2014-08-14

    Nuclei in the upper-sd shell usually exhibit characteristics of spherical single particle excitations. In the recent years, employment of sophisticated techniques of gamma spectroscopy has led to observation of high spin states of several nuclei near A ≃ 40. In a few of them multiparticle, multihole rotational states coexist with states of single particle nature. We have studied a few nuclei in this mass region experimentally, using various campaigns of the Indian National Gamma Array setup. We have compared and combined our empirical observations with the large-scale shell model results to interpret the structure of these nuclei. Indication of population of states of large deformation has been found in our data. This gives us an opportunity to investigate the interplay of single particle and collective degrees of freedom in this mass region.

  20. Vortices in nonuniform upper-hybrid field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davydova, T.A.; Vranjes, J.

    1992-01-01

    The equations describing the interaction of an upper-hybrid pump wave with small low-frequency density perturbations are discussed under assumption that the pump is spatially nonuniform. The conditions for the modulational instability are investigated. Instead of a dispersion relation, describing the growth of perturbations in the case of an uniform pump, in our case of nonuniform pump a differential equation is obtained and from its eigenvalues are found the instability criteria. Taking into account the slow-frequency self-interaction terms some localized solutions similar to dipole vortices are found, but described by analytic functions in all space. It is shown that their characteristic size and speed are determined by the pump intensity and its spatial structure. (au)

  1. Upper Colorado River Basin Climate Effects Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belnap, Jayne; Campbell, Donald; Kershner, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    The Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB) Climate Effects Network (CEN) is a science team established to provide information to assist land managers in future decision making processes by providing a better understanding of how future climate change, land use, invasive species, altered fire cycles, human systems, and the interactions among these factors will affect ecosystems and the services they provide to human communities. The goals of this group are to (1) identify science needs and provide tools to assist land managers in addressing these needs, (2) provide a Web site where users can access information pertinent to this region, and (3) provide managers technical assistance when needed. Answers to the team's working science questions are intended to address how interactions among climate change, land use, and management practices may affect key aspects of water availability, ecosystem changes, and societal needs within the UCRB.

  2. Hemospray application in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Lyn A; Stanley, Adrian J; Bergman, Jacques J

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemospray TM (TC-325) is a novel hemostatic agent licensed for use in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) in Europe. GOALS: We present the operating characteristics and performance of TC-325 in the largest registry to date of patients presenting with NVUGIB in everyday...... in combination with other hemostatic modalities at the endoscopists' discretion. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (44 men, 19 women), median age 69 (range, 21 to 98) years with NVUGIB requiring endoscopic hemostasis were treated with TC-325. There were 30 patients with bleeding ulcers and 33 with other NVUGIB...... pathology. Fifty-five (87%) were treated with TC-325 as monotherapy; 47 [85%; 95% confidence interval (CI), 76%-94%] of them achieved primary hemostasis, and rebleeding rate at 7 days was 15% (95% CI, 5%-25%). Primary hemostasis rate for TC-325 in patients with ulcer bleeds was 76% (95% CI, 59%-93%). Eight...

  3. Corrosive injuries of the upper gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Lal Meena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosive injury of the upper gastrointestinal tract is a worldwide clinical problem, mostly occurring in children. Alkaline agents produce deeper injuries whereas acidic agents produce superficial injuries usually. Hoarseness, stridor, and respiratory distress indicate airway injury. Dysphagia, odynophagia, and drooling of saliva suggest esophageal injury whereas abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting are indicative of stomach injury. X-rays should be done to rule out perforation. Endoscopy is usually recommended in the first 12–48 h although it is safe up to 96 h after caustic ingestion. Endoscopy should be performed with caution and gentle insufflation. Initial management includes getting intravenous access and replacement of fluids. Hyperemia and superficial ulcerations have excellent recovery while deeper injuries require total parenteral nutrition or feeding jejunostomy. Patients suspected of perforation should be subjected to laparotomy. Common complications after corrosive injury are esophageal stricture, gastric outlet obstruction, and development of esophageal and gastric carcinoma.

  4. [Upper respiratory tract infections and sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffi El Amari, Emmanuelle

    2010-08-11

    Upper respiratory tract infections are frequent in athletes. Mainly of viral origin, they are treated symptomatically. Infectious mononucleosis is associated with an estimated 2% per hundred risk of splenic rupture, which occurs between day four and twenty one of the illness. Therefore return to play guidelines recommend avoiding, exercice during the first twenty one days. Physical exercise seems to influence the immune system, depending on the intensity and length of it. But the relationship between physical exercise and risk of infections remains controversial: some articles showing an increase in risk, whereas others suggesting a certain degree of protection, in athletes. The actual generally accepted working theory is the J-curve proposed by Nieman. This model remains to be formally proven.

  5. Women in Upper Houses: A Global Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Neiva

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In analyses of female representation in lower houses, the adoption of quotas, the electoral system and the religious aspect have been identified as the main explanatory variables. In the case of upper houses, I see a relationship between their political strength and women’s presence in them: when they are weak, the presence of female representatives tends to be larger, when they are strong, women’s presence is smaller. Furthermore, the article shows that an analysis based solely on the number of seats held by women is insufficient for one to gather the true dimensions of their participation in politics. Evaluating the role and expressiveness of the institutions in which they are present is also necessary.

  6. Palpation of the upper thoracic spine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Wulff; Vach, Werner; Vach, Kirstin

    2002-01-01

    procedure. RESULTS: Using an "expanded" definition of agreement that accepts small inaccuracies (+/-1 segment) in the numbering of spinal segments, we found--based on the pooled data from the thoracic spine--kappa values of 0.59 to 0.77 for the hour-to-hour and the day-to-day intraobserver reliability......OBJECTIVE: To assess the intraobserver reliability (in terms of hour-to-hour and day-to-day reliability) and the interobserver reliability with 3 palpation procedures for the detection of spinal biomechanic dysfunction in the upper 8 segments of the thoracic spine. DESIGN: A repeated....... INTERVENTION: Three types of palpation were performed: Sitting motion palpation and prone motion palpation for biomechanic dysfunction and paraspinal palpation for tenderness. Each dimension was rated as "absent" or "present" for each segment. All examinations were performed according to a standard written...

  7. Tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Cathy; Klingenberg, Sarah Louise; Langholz, Ebbe

    2014-01-01

    Background Tranexamic acid reduces haemorrhage through its antifibrinolytic effects. In a previous version of the present review, we found that tranexamic acid may reduce mortality. This review includes updated searches and new trials.Objectives To assess the effects of tranexamic acid versus......-effect and random-effects model meta-analyses and presented results as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and used I² as a measure of between-trial heterogeneity. We analysed tranexamic acid versus placebo or no intervention and tranexamic acid versus antiulcer drugs separately. To analyse...... sources of heterogeneity and robustness of the overall results, we performed subgroup, sensitivity and sequential analyses.Main results We included eight randomised controlled trials on tranexamic acid for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Additionally, we identified one large ongoing pragmatic randomised...

  8. Sensory feedback in upper limb prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antfolk, Christian; D'Alonzo, Marco; Rosén, Birgitta; Lundborg, Göran; Sebelius, Fredrik; Cipriani, Christian

    2013-01-01

    One of the challenges facing prosthetic designers and engineers is to restore the missing sensory function inherit to hand amputation. Several different techniques can be employed to provide amputees with sensory feedback: sensory substitution methods where the recorded stimulus is not only transferred to the amputee, but also translated to a different modality (modality-matched feedback), which transfers the stimulus without translation and direct neural stimulation, which interacts directly with peripheral afferent nerves. This paper presents an overview of the principal works and devices employed to provide upper limb amputees with sensory feedback. The focus is on sensory substitution and modality matched feedback; the principal features, advantages and disadvantages of the different methods are presented.

  9. Temperature structure of the Uranian upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliot, J. L.; Dunham, E.

    1979-01-01

    The temperature structure of the upper atmosphere of Uranus at two locations on the planet was determined from observations of the occultation of the star SAO158687 by Uranus on 10 March 1977, carried out at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory. The temperature-pressure relationships obtained from the immersion and emersion data for 7280 A channel show peak-to-peak variations of 45 K for immersion and 35 K for emersion. The mean temperature for both immersion and emersion profiles is about 100 K, which shows that Uranus has a temperature inversion between 0.001 mbar and the 100 mbar level probed by IR measurements. Both profiles show wavelike temperature variations, which may be due to dynamical or photochemical processes.

  10. Upper extremity injuries in Homer's Iliad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Richard L; Hirthler, Maureen A

    2013-09-01

    Homer's Iliad remains a fascinating source of medical history. This epic poem, compiled around 800 BCE, describes several weeks of the last year of the 10-year siege of Troy (Ilion) by the Achaeans. Homer composed the epic by combining and formalizing oral poems, legends, customs, and experiences that originated in the later Mycenaean age (1600-1100 bce). The story centers on the rage of the great warrior Achilles. The Iliad remains the oldest record of Greek medicine and a unique source of surgical history. This study examines the upper extremity injuries described in the Iliad and compares them to those other sites of injury. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Bayesian network modelling of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisha, Nazziwa; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Adam, Mohd Bakri

    2013-09-01

    Bayesian networks are graphical probabilistic models that represent causal and other relationships between domain variables. In the context of medical decision making, these models have been explored to help in medical diagnosis and prognosis. In this paper, we discuss the Bayesian network formalism in building medical support systems and we learn a tree augmented naive Bayes Network (TAN) from gastrointestinal bleeding data. The accuracy of the TAN in classifying the source of gastrointestinal bleeding into upper or lower source is obtained. The TAN achieves a high classification accuracy of 86% and an area under curve of 92%. A sensitivity analysis of the model shows relatively high levels of entropy reduction for color of the stool, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, consistency and the ratio of blood urea nitrogen to creatinine. The TAN facilitates the identification of the source of GIB and requires further validation.

  12. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Late renal function after upper abdominal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, Monica M.; Willett, Christopher G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: This study assesses the late renal function and complications following upper abdominal irradiation. Methods and Materials: Eighty-six adult patients were identified who were treated with curative intent to the upper abdomen, received greater than 50% unilateral kidney irradiation to doses of at least 26 Gy, and survived for 1 year or more. Following treatment, the clinical course, blood pressure, addition of anti-hypertensive medications, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance were determined. Creatinine clearance was calculated by the formula: creatinine clearance equals [(140 - age) x (weight in kilograms)] / (72 x serum creatinine), which has a close correlation to creatinine clearances measured by 24 hour urine measurement. The percent change in creatinine clearance from pre-treatment values was analyzed. Mean follow-up was 6.7 years. Seventeen patients were followed for 11 or more years. Results: Of the 16 patients with pre-radiotherapy hypertension, eight required an increase in the number of medications for control and eight required no change in medication. Twenty-one patients developed hypertension in follow-up, 15 of whom required no medication. One patient developed malignant hypertension on the basis of renal artery stenosis. Acute or chronic renal failure was not observed in any patient. The serum creatinine for all 86 patients prior to irradiation was below 2 mg/100 ml; in follow-up it rose to between 2-3 mg/100 ml in five patients. On univariate analysis, older patient age, female sex, pre-existing hypertension and initially abnormal renal function (creatinine clearance <90mg/ml) were significantly correlated with later poor creatinine clearance (<50 mg/ml). Conclusions: After significant unilateral kidney irradiation, patients demonstrated a laboratory trend to increased creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance. With long-term follow-up, these physiologic changes did not appear to translate into a clinically relevant alteration in

  14. Southern Hemisphere Upper Thermospheric Wind Climatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhadly, M. S.; Emmert, J. T.; Drob, D. P.

    2017-12-01

    This study is focused on the poorly understood large-scale upper thermospheric wind dynamics in the southern polar cap, auroral, and mid latitudes. The gaps in our understanding of the dynamic high-latitude thermosphere are largely due to the sparseness of thermospheric wind measurements. Using data from current observational facilities, it is unfeasible to construct a synoptic picture of the Southern Hemisphere upper thermospheric winds. However, enough data with wide spatial and temporal coverage have accumulated to construct a meaningful statistical analysis of winds as function of season, magnetic latitude, and magnetic local time. We use long-term data from nine ground-based stations located at different southern high latitudes and three space-based instruments. These diverse data sets possess different geometries and different spatial and solar coverage. The major challenge of the effort is to combine these disparate sources of data into a coherent picture while overcoming the sampling limitations and biases among the datasets. Our preliminary analyses show mutual biases present among some of them. We first address the biases among various data sets and then combine them in a coherent way to construct maps of neutral winds for various seasons. We then validate the fitted climatology against the observational data and compare with corresponding fits of 25 years of simulated winds from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. This study provides critical insight into magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and sets a necessary benchmark for validating new observations and tuning first-principles models.

  15. Oncolytic virotherapy in upper gastrointestinal tract cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoda R

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Raquel Yokoda,1 Bolni M Nagalo,1 Mansi Arora,1 Jan B Egan,1 James M Bogenberger,1 Thomas T DeLeon,1 Yumei Zhou,1 Daniel H Ahn,1 Mitesh J Borad1–3 1Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, Center for Individualized Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 3Department of Oncology, Mayo Clinic Cancer Center, Phoenix, AZ, USA Abstract: Upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies are among the most challenging cancers with regard to response to treatment and prognosis. Cancers of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, liver, and biliary tree have dismal 5-year survival, and very modest improvements in this rate have been made in recent times. Oncolytic viruses are being developed to address these malignancies, with a focus on high safety profiles and low off-target toxicities. Each viral platform has evolved to enhance oncolytic potency and the clinical response to either single-agent viral therapy or combined viral treatment with radiotherapy and chemotherapy. A panel of genomic alterations, chimeric proteins, and pseudotyped capsids are the breakthroughs for vector success. This article revisits developments for each viral platform to each tumor type, in an attempt to achieve maximum tumor selectivity. From the bench to clinical trials, the scope of this review is to highlight the beginnings of translational oncolytic virotherapy research in upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies and provide a bioengineering perspective of the most promising platforms. Keywords: oncolytic viruses, hepatopancreatobiliary, gastric cancer, pancreatic cancer, liver cancer, biliary cancer

  16. Aqueous aerosol may build up large upper tropospheric ice supersaturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J.

    2010-05-01

    Keywords: ice supersaturation, upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, freezing of aqueous aerosol. Observations often reveal enhanced and persistent upper tropospheric (UT) ice supersaturation, Si up to 100%, independently of whether cirrus ice clouds are present or not (Krämer et al., 2009; Lawson et al., 2008). However, a water activity criterion (WAC) (Koop et al., 2000) does not allow the formation of Si > ~67% by the homogeneous freezing of aqueous droplets even at the lowest atmospheric temperature of ~185 K. For aqueous aerosol the WAC predicts the existence of a so called homogeneous ice nucleation threshold which, being expressed as Si, is between ~52 and 67% in the temperature range of ~220 - 185 K. The nature of the formation of large Si remains unclear. Since water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas it is important to know the nature of the accumulation and persistence of water vapor in the UT. We studied the freezing behavior of micrometer-scaled 3-, 4-, and 5-component droplets, which contain different weight fractions of H2O, H2SO4, HNO3, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)HSO4, NH4NO3, and (NH4)3H(SO4)2. The study was performed between 133 and 278 K at cooling rates of 3, 0.1, and 0.05 K/min using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (Bogdan and Molina, 2010). The cooling rates of 0.1 and 0.05 K/min (6 and 3 K/h) are similar to the smallest reported synoptic temperature change of ~2 K/h (Carslaw et al., 1998). Using the measured freezing temperature of ice, Ti, and the thermodynamic E-AIM model of the system of H+ - NH4+ - SO42-- NO3-- H2O (Clegg et al., 1998), we calculated the corresponding clear-sky Si which would be built up immediately prior to the formation of ice cirrus clouds by the homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosol of similar composition. We found that our calculated values of Si are both larger and smaller than the homogeneous ice nucleation threshold. For example, for the droplets of compositions of 15/10 and 20/10 wt % (NH4)3H(SO4)2/H2SO4, which

  17. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, William James; Klinger, Herbert Christian

    2013-12-01

    Kennedy, W.J. and Klinger, H.C. 2013. Scaphitid ammonites from the Upper Cretaceous of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (4), 527-543. Warszawa. Scaphitid ammonites are described and illustrated from the Upper Cretaceous of the coastal region of north-eastern South Africa. Scaphites kieslingswaldensis Langenhan and Grundey, 1891, Scaphites manasoaensis Collignon, 1965, and Yezoites concinna sp. nov. occur in the Coniacian part of the St Lucia Formation in northern KwaZulu-Natal. A further Yezoites sp. may also be from this level. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. occurs in the Santonian to Lower Campanian Mzamba Formation on the northernmost coast of Eastern Cape Province. Yezoites australis sp. nov. occurs in the Upper Santonian part of the St Lucia and Mzamba formations of these areas, and Scaphites reesidei Collignon, 1969, is recorded from the Lower Campanian part of the Mzamba Formation. The scaphitid assemblage includes species previously described from Western Europe and Madagascar, together with Argentoscaphites, previously known only from Patagonia (and possibly South India). Dimorphism is recognised in Scaphites reesidei, Yezoites concinna sp. nov. and Y. australis sp. nov. Argentoscaphites corrugatus sp. nov. and Yezoites sp. are represented by microconchs only. Dimorphism has not been recognised in Scaphites kieslingswaldensis.

  18. Formation and dissociation of dust molecules in dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jia; Feng, Fan; Liu, Fucheng; Dong, Lifang; He, Yafeng

    2016-09-01

    Dust molecules are observed in a dusty plasma experiment. By using measurements with high spatial resolution, the formation and dissociation of the dust molecules are studied. The ion cloud in the wake of an upper dust grain attracts the lower dust grain nearby. When the interparticle distance between the upper dust grain and the lower one is less than a critical value, the two dust grains would form a dust molecule. The upper dust grain always leads the lower one as they travel. When the interparticle distance between them is larger than the critical value, the dust molecule would dissociate. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11205044 and 11405042), the Natural Science Foundation of Hebei Province, China (Grant Nos. A2011201006 and A2012201015), the Research Foundation of Education Bureau of Hebei Province, China (Grant No. Y2012009), the Program for Young Principal Investigators of Hebei Province, China, and the Midwest Universities Comprehensive Strength Promotion Project, China.

  19. ENDF/B Format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M.A.

    1975-01-01

    This document is a brief user's description of the format of ENDF/B, the evaluated neutron nuclear data library of the US National Nuclear Data Center. This summary is an aid to customers of the IAEA Nuclear Data Section when receiving data retrievals in ENDF/B format. For more detailed information the report BNL-50274 (ENDF-102) should be consulted. (author)

  20. Formation of multiple networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnani, Matteo; Rossi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    we introduce the first network formation model for multiple networks. Network formation models are among the most popular tools in traditional network studies, because of both their practical and theoretical impact. However, existing models are not sufficient to describe the generation of multiple...

  1. Sequence stratigraphy of the Upper Cambrian (Furongian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan) Tunnel City Group, Upper Mississippi Valley: Transgressing assumptions of cratonic flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eoff, Jennifer D.

    2014-01-01

    New data from detailed measured sections permit comprehensive analysis of the sequence framework of the Furongian (Upper Cambrian; Jiangshanian and Sunwaptan stages) Tunnel City Group (Lone Rock Formation and Mazomanie Formation) of Wisconsin and Minnesota. The sequence-stratigraphic architecture of the lower part of the Sunwaptan Stage at the base of the Tunnel City Group, at the contact between the Wonewoc Formation and Lone Rock Formation, records the first part of complex polyphase flooding (Sauk III) of the Laurentian craton, at a scale smaller than most events recorded by global sea-level curves. Flat-pebble conglomerate and glauconite document transgressive ravinement and development of a condensed section when creation of accommodation exceeded its consumption by sedimentation. Thinly-bedded, fossiliferous sandstone represents the most distal setting during earliest highstand. Subsequent deposition of sandstone characterized by hummocky or trough cross-stratification records progradational pulses of shallower, storm- and wave-dominated environments across the craton before final flooding of Sauk III commenced with carbonate deposition during the middle part of the Sunwaptan Stage. Comparison of early Sunwaptan flooding of the inner Laurentian craton to published interpretations from other parts of North America suggests that Sauk III was not a single, long-term accommodation event as previously proposed.

  2. Geochemistry of the Oruatemanu Formation, Arrow Rocks, Northland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hori, R.S.; Higuchi, Y.; Fujiki, T.; Maeda, T.; Ikehara, M.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the geochemical characteristics of sedimentary rocks from the Upper Permian - Middle Triassic Oruatemanu Formation on Arrow Rocks, Waipapa Terrane, New Zealand. The sedimentary rocks consist of limestone, tuffaceous shale, vari-coloured bedded chert, hemipelagic shale and green siliceous mudstone (= green argillite), in ascending order, a typical oceanic plate sequence. Shale and green argillite have higher Zr/Nb ratios than do chert and tuffaceous shales, and show similar REE patterns to PAAS (Post-Archean average Australian shale). In contrast, chert sequences from the basal part and intercalated tuff layers have high TiO 2 contents and Zr/Nb ratios similar to those of basaltic rocks from Arrow Rocks. These geochemical characteristics suggest that the sedimentary environment of the Oruatemanu Formation changed upward, from an open sea setting to the continental margin of Gondwanaland. Chemical compositions of bedded cherts from Arrow Rocks indicate a mixing of biogenic silica, detritus from continents and basaltic materials. In the interval from Upper Permian to Lower Middle Triassic this mixing shows remarkable secular variations. We detected geochemical signals of two Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), one at the Permian/Triassic (P/T) boundary, and the other at the middle Upper Induan level. We name them the OAEα (P/T OAE) and OAEβ (Upper Induan OAE). These OAE horizons are enriched in S, U and other heavy metals (e.g. Mo and Cr), and also have high V/(V+Ni) ratios. Based on a comparison between enrichment factors of Cr and other redox-sensitive trace elements (e.g. Zn, Pb, Co, Cu), the Upper Induan OAEβ is considered to be more intense than the P/T boundary OAEα. This result is not in agreement with the superanoxia model previously proposed. In addition, OAEβ corresponds well with the radiolarian faunal turnover from Permian to Triassic forms documented from the Oruatemanu Formation in this volume. These results may suggest that peak time and

  3. From Sermon Formation to Preacher Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaarden, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    today is less about exercising the authority of an office and more about embodying authenticity. I argue that traditional homiletic education can benefit from implementing a learner-centered approach to teaching moving from sermon formation towards preacher formation, in order to develop and train...... preachers. This involves a learning strategy to ministry where theological skills, pastoral competences, and own personality are interwoven. Teaching here means facilitating a room of learning where teacher’s power and control is reduced, allowing the preacher to reflect upon own practice without being...... judged, evaluated, or critiqued. In this paper, I explain how a learner-centered approach to education works in practice and show how pastors experience the teaching method and the congregations’ positive response to their improvements. I shall present the results of a focus-group interview with pastors...

  4. Usage Record Format Recommendation

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsen, J.K.; Muller-Pfeerkorn, R

    2013-01-01

    For resources to be shared, sites must be able to exchange basic accounting and usage data in a common format. This document describes a common format which enables the exchange of basic accounting and usage data from different resources. This record format is intended to facilitate the sharing of usage information, particularly in the area of the accounting of jobs, computing, memory, storage and cloud usage but with a structure that allows an easy extension to other resources. This document describes the Usage Record components both in natural language form and annotated XML. This document does not address how these records should be used, nor does it attempt to dictate the format in which the accounting records are stored. Instead, it denes a common exchange format. Furthermore, nothing is said regarding the communication mechanisms employed to exchange the records, i.e. transport layer, framing, authentication, integrity, etc.

  5. Magnetization of lower oceanic crust and upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikawa, E.

    2004-05-01

    . However, it would be wise to note that similar to upper extrusive layer, geomagnetic field reversals were observed for Leg 153 gabbros and that process of magnetization acquisition of mantle peridotites still remains unclear, though we believe mantle peridotites acquire CRM with the formation of magnetite during the process of serpentinization near the ridge axis.

  6. Dinosaur ichnofauna of the Upper Jurassic/Lower Cretaceous of the Paraná Basin (Brazil and Uruguay)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francischini, H.; Dentzien–Dias, P. C.; Fernandes, M. A.; Schultz, C. L.

    2015-11-01

    Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous sedimentary layers are represented in the Brazilian Paraná Basin by the fluvio-aeolian Guará Formation and the Botucatu Formation palaeoerg, respectively, overlapped by the volcanic Serra Geral Formation. In Uruguay, the corresponding sedimentary units are named Batoví and Rivera Members (both from the Tacuarembó Formation), and the lava flows constitute the Arapey Formation (also in Paraná Basin). Despite the lack of body fossils in the mentioned Brazilian formations, Guará/Batoví dinosaur fauna is composed of theropod, ornithopod and wide-gauge sauropod tracks and isolated footprints, as well as theropod teeth. In turn, the Botucatu/Rivera dinosaur fauna is represented by theropod and ornithopod ichnofossils smaller than those from the underlying units. The analysis of these dinosaur ichnological records and comparisons with other global Mesozoic ichnofauna indicates that there is a size reduction in dinosaur fauna in the more arid Botucatu/Rivera environment, which is dominated by aeolian dunes. The absence of sauropod trackways in the Botucatu Sandstone fits with the increasingly arid conditions because it is difficult for heavy animals to walk on sandy dunes, as well as to obtain the required amount of food resources. This comparison between the Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous dinosaur fauna in south Brazil and Uruguay demonstrates the influence of aridization on the size of animals occupying each habitat.

  7. Geology of the upper part of the Fort Union Group (Paleocene), Williston Basin, with reference to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, A.F.

    1976-01-01

    Tabular sandstone beds in the Sentinel Butte Formation are thicker (as much as 30 m thick), more laterally extensive (more than 2 km wide in many places), and more abundant than in the Tongue River Formation. This indicates that high-sinuosity streams were more abundant where the Sentinel Butte Formation was deposited, and the streams were deeper and occupied wider meander belts, as would be found on the landward part of the delta plain. Siltstone, claystone, lignite, and a small amount of limestone were deposited on natural levees, crevasse splays, and in flood basins. The vertical arrangement of the two formations indicates a progradation of a large deltaic complex into the sea in which the Cannonball Formation was deposited. Sandstone in the Tongue River Formation classifies mostly as carbonate litharenite, and the fine fraction of the formation consists mostly of mica-group minerals, some kaolinite-group minerals, and a little montmorillonite. Sandstone in the Sentinel Butte Formation classifies mostly as volcanic litharenite, and the fine fraction consists mostly of montmorillonite, some kaolinite-group minerals, and a little of the mica-group minerals. The highest-grade uranium deposits in North Dakota are in the Sentinel Butte Formation in the area of the Little Missouri River escarpment in eastern Billings and northwestern Stark Counties. Little uranium has been found in the Tongue River Formation. Uranium may be more abundant in the Sentinel Butte Formation because of the abundance of glassy volcanic matter, which has now been largely altered to montmorillonite, and the abundance of fragments of volcanic rock. Weathering of the upper part of the Sentinel Butte Formation during formation of the Eocene paleosol in the northern Great Plains may have mobilized uranium that was deposited in the formation below the paleosol before deposition of the overlying Oligocene and younger sediment

  8. Origin of natural waters and gases within the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing and autochthonous Miocene strata in South-Western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotarba, Maciej J.; Pluta, Irena

    2009-01-01

    The molecular and stable isotope compositions of coalbed gases from the Upper Carboniferous strata and natural gases accumulated within the autochthonous Upper Miocene Skawina Formation of the Debowiec-Simoradz gas deposit were determined, as well as the chemical and stable isotope compositions of waters from the Skawina Formation and waters at the top of the Upper Carboniferous strata of the Kaczyce Ridge (the abandoned 'Morcinek' coal mine) in the South-Western part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Two genetic types of natural gases within the Upper Carboniferous coal-bearing strata were identified: thermogenic (CH 4 , small amounts of higher gaseous hydrocarbons, and CO 2 ) and microbial (CH 4 , very small amounts of ethane, and CO 2 ). Thermogenic gases were generated during the bituminous stage of coalification and completed at the end of the Variscan orogeny. Degassing (desorption) of thermogenic gases began at the end of late Carboniferous until the late Miocene time-period and extended to the present-day. This process took place in the Upper Carboniferous strata up to a depth of about 550 m under the sealing Upper Miocene cover. A primary accumulation zone of indigenous, thermogenic gases is present below the degassing zone. Up to 200 m depth from the top of the Upper Carboniferous strata, within the weathered complex, an accumulation zone of secondary, microbial gas occurs. Waters within these strata are mainly of meteoric origin of the infiltration period just before the last sea transgression in the late Miocene and partly of marine origin having migrated from the Upper Miocene strata. Then, both methanogenic archaebacteria and their nutrients were transported by meteoric water into the near-surface Carboniferous strata where the generated microbial CH 4 saturated coal seams. Waters within the Miocene strata of the Debowiec-Simoradz and Zablocie are of marine origin, and natural gases accumulated within autochthonous Miocene strata of the Debowiec

  9. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines

    OpenAIRE

    Ga??zka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szo?tys, Edyta; Sm??ka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Rados?aw

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardle...

  10. An upper limb mathematical model of an oil palm harvester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumit, N. P.; Rambely, A. S.; BMT, Shamsul; Shahriman A., B.; Ng Y., G.; Deros, B. M.; Zailina, H.; Goh, Y. M.; Arumugam, Manohar; Ismail, I. A.; Abdul Hafiz A., R.

    2014-09-01

    The main purpose of this article is to develop a mathematical model of human body during harvesting via Kane's method. In this paper, a 2-D closed-kinematic biomechanical model that represents a harvesting movement is developed. The model of six segments consisted of upper right arm, right forearm, harvesting equipment, left forearm, upper left arm, and upper part of trunk. Finally, the inverse dynamic equations are represented in matrix form.

  11. A STUDY ON UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL ENDOSCOPIC FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL BLEEDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salla Surya Prakasa Rao

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Vomiting of blood almost always proximal to the ligament of Treitz is the upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. The incidence of acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage has been estimated to be 50-100 per 1,00,000 person per year, with an annual hospitalization rate of approximately 100 per 1, 00,000 hospital admission. This study is to find out the prevalence of nature of lesion on Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in patients admitted for Gastrointestinal bleeding. (UGI Bleed. MATERIALS AND METHODS Place of Study- Department of General Medicine, Andhra Medical College, Visakhapatnam, India. Type of Study- Prospective study. Period of Study- July 2015 to August 2016. RESULTS The Results Study on Endoscopic Findings in Upper Gastro Intestinal Bleed are 1. The peptic ulcer disease was the most common lesion found on endoscopy with prevalence of 54%. 2. Varices contributes second common lesion, next to peptic ulcer disease in UGI bleed with prevalence of 16%. 3. Minor UGI bleed was the commonest presentation. Majority of lesions (60% presented with minor UGI bleed, 28% lesions presented as moderate UGI bleed. Only 8% presented as major UGI bleed. 4. Varices account for the most common cause for major UGI bleed contributing 50%. 5. Gastric ulcer was commonest lesions accounting for 37 cases (37% among 72 cases having single acid peptic lesions on endoscopy. The second most common is duodenal ulcer (31%. 6. Multiple lesions were found in 10% of cases. Peptic ulcer lesions were found in 20% of total number of varices cases. CONCLUSION Peptic ulcer disease was found to be most common lesion causing UGI bleed, with most common presentation as minor UGI bleed and variceal bleed being most common cause of major UGI bleed.

  12. Unilateral versus bilateral upper limb training after stroke: The upper limb training after stroke clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    van Delden, AL; Peper, CE; Nienhuys, KN; Zijp, NI; Beek, PJ; Kwakkel, G

    2013-01-01

    This article is available open access through the publisher’s website at the link below. Copyright © 2013 American Heart Association, Inc. Background and Purpose — Unilateral and bilateral training protocols for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke represent conceptually contrasting approaches with the same ultimate goal. In a randomized controlled trial, we compared the merits of modified constraint-induced movement therapy, modified bilateral arm training with rhythmic auditory cueing,...

  13. The magnetic polarity stratigraphy of the Mauch Chunk Formation, Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opdyke, Neil D; DiVenere, Victor J

    2004-09-14

    Three sections of Chesterian Mauch Chunk Formation in Pennsylvania have been studied paleomagnetically to determine a Late Mississippian magnetic polarity stratigraphy. The upper section at Lavelle includes a conglomerate with abundant red siltstone rip-up clasts that yielded a positive conglomerate test. All samples were subjected to progressive thermal demagnetization to temperatures as high as 700 degrees C. Two components of magnetization were isolated: a synfolding "B" component and the prefolding "C" component. The conglomerate test is positive, indicating that the C component was acquired very early in the history of the sediment. A coherent pattern of magnetic polarity reversals was identified. Five magnetozones were identified in the upper Lavelle section, which yields a pattern that is an excellent match with the pattern of reversals obtained from the upper Mauch Chunk at the original type section of the Mississippian/Pennsylvanian boundary at Pottsville, PA. The frequency of reversals in the upper Mississippian, as identified in the Mauch Chunk Formation, is approximately one to two per million years, which is an average for field reversal through time.

  14. Optical dating of the anastasia formation, northeastern florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdette, K.E.; Rink, J.W.; Means, G.H.; Portell, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    The single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure was used to obtain optically stimulated luminescence ages to determine the depositional age of the upper part of the Anastasia Formation. This unit, which crops out along the east coast of Florida, is one of the most culturally and economically important coquina deposits in North America. Rock samples from the upper three meters of exposure at three locations were collected. Additional materials for paleontological analysis were also taken. Based on our samples, the luminescence ages of the Anastasia Formation are well within marine isotope stage 5, which is supported by the results of Osmond et al. (1970) based on U/Th ages. The associated fossil assemblages support our luminescence age determinations. Associated fossils fall within the Rancholabrean North American Land Mammal Age (300 10 ka) and the fossil mollusk assemblage consists entirely of modern species.

  15. International Experience in Upper Echelon Theory: Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đerđa Dino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The international experience of top managers is an evolving research within the upper echelon theory; therefore this literature review summarizes everything made so far.

  16. Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A

    2012-01-13

    The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11)  GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.

  17. Nasopharyngeal polymicrobial colonization during health, viral upper respiratory infection and upper respiratory bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qingfu; Wischmeyer, Jareth; Gonzalez, Eduardo; Pichichero, Michael E

    2017-07-01

    We sought to understand how polymicrobial colonization varies during health, viral upper respiratory infection (URI) and acute upper respiratory bacterial infection to understand differences in infection-prone vs. non-prone patients. Nasopharyngeal (NP) samples were collected from 74 acute otitis media (AOM) infection-prone and 754 non-prone children during 2094 healthy visits, 673 viral URI visits and 631 AOM visits. Three otopathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) were identified by culture. NP colonization rates of multiple otopathogens during health were significantly lower than during viral URI, and during URI they were lower than at onset of upper respiratory bacterial infection in both AOM infection-prone and non-prone children. AOM infection-prone children had higher polymicrobial colonization rates than non-prone children during health, viral URI and AOM. Polymicrobial colonization rates of AOM infection-prone children during health were equivalent to that of non-prone children during viral URI, and during viral URI were equivalent to that of non-prone during AOM infection. Spn colonization was positively associated with NTHi and Mcat colonization during health, but negatively during AOM infection. The infection-prone patients more frequently have multiple potential bacterial pathogens in the NP than the non-prone patients. Polymicrobial interaction in the NP differs during health and at onset of infection. Copyright © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Coralgal facies of the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestones in Letca-Rastoci area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Prica

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are described the coralgal facies identified in the Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene limestone succession (Cozla Formation outcropping in two quarries at Letca and Rastoci (Sălaj district, Romania. In the studied profiles the coral and algae limestones are interlayered with bioclastic limestones with foraminifera. On the top of relatively deep water deposits, coral and algae crusts and dendritic corals coated by algae were deposited. The environment registered a gradual deepening, the deposits being completely immersed, while bioclastic limestones with foraminifera were recurrently formed. This cycle is repeated, the whole succession being caracterized by several such “parasequences”.

  19. Involvement of upper torso stress amplification, tissue compression and distortion in the pathogenesis of keloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bux, Shamin; Madaree, Anil

    2012-03-01

    Keloids are benign tumours composed of fibrous tissue produced during excessive tissue repair triggered by minor injury, trauma or surgical incision. Although it is recognized that keloids have a propensity to form in the upper torso of the body, the predisposing factors responsible for this have not been investigated. It is crucial that the aetiopathoical factors implicated in keloid formation be established to provide guidelines for well-informed more successful treatment. We compared keloid-prone and keloid-protected skin, identified pertinent morphological differences and explored how inherent structural characteristics and intrinsic factors may promote keloid formation. It was determined that keloid prone areas were covered with high tension skin that had low stretch and a low elastic modulus when compared with skin in keloid protected areas where the skin was lax with a high elastic modulus and low pre-stress level. Factors contributing to elevated internal stress in keloid susceptible skin were the protrusion of hard connective tissue such as bony prominences or cartilage into the dermis of skin as well as inherent skin characteristics such as the bundled arrangement of collagen in the reticular dermis, the existent high tension, the low elastic modulus, low stretch ability, contractile forces exerted by wound healing fibroblastic cells and external forces. Stress promotes keloid formation by causing dermal distortion and compression which subsequently stimulate proliferation and enhanced protein synthesis in wound healing fibroblastic cells. The strain caused by stress also compresses and occludes microvessels causing ischaemic effects and reperfusion injury which stimulate growth when blood rich in growth factors returns to the tissue. The growth promoting effects of increased internal stress, primarily, and growth factors released by reperfusing blood, manifest in keloid formation. Other inherent skin characteristics promoting keloid growth during the

  20. On the origin of subvisible cirrus clouds in the tropical upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Reverdy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Spaceborne lidar observations have recently revealed a previously undetected significant population of Subvisible Cirrus (SVC. We show them to be colder than −74 °, with an optical depth below 0.0015 on average. The formation and persistence over time of this new cloud population could be related to several atmospheric phenomena. In this paper, we investigate if these clouds follow the same formation mechanisms as the general tropical cirrus population (including convection and in-situ ice nucleation, or if specific nucleation sites and trace species play a role in their formation. The importance of three scenarios in the formation of the global SVC population is investigated through different approaches that include comparisons with data imaging from several spaceborne instruments and back-trajectories that document the history and behavior of air masses leading to the point in time and space where subvisible cirrus were detected. In order to simplify the study of their formation, we singled out SVC with coherent temperature histories (mean variance lower than 4 K according to back-trajectories along 5, 10 or 15 days (respectively 58, 25 and 11% of SVC. Our results suggest that external processes, including local increases in liquid and hygroscopic aerosol concentration (either through biomass burning or volcanic injection forming sulfate-based aerosols in the troposphere or the stratosphere have very limited short-term or mid-term impact on the SVC population. On the other hand, we find that ~20% of air masses leading to SVC formation interacted with convective activity 5 days before they led to cloud formation and detection, a number that climbs to 60% over 15 days. SVC formation appears especially linked to convection over Africa and Central America, more so during JJA than DJF. These results support the view that the SVC population observed by CALIOP is an extension of the general upper tropospheric ice clouds population with its extreme

  1. Melt migration modeling in partially molten upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghods, Abdolreza

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the importance of melt migration in shaping major characteristics of geological features associated with the partial melting of the upper mantle, such as sea-floor spreading, continental flood basalts and rifting. The partial melting produces permeable partially molten rocks and a buoyant low viscosity melt. Melt migrates through the partially molten rocks, and transfers mass and heat. Due to its much faster velocity and appreciable buoyancy, melt migration has the potential to modify dynamics of the upwelling partially molten plumes. I develop a 2-D, two-phase flow model and apply it to investigate effects of melt migration on the dynamics and melt generation of upwelling mantle plumes and focusing of melt migration beneath mid-ocean ridges. Melt migration changes distribution of the melt-retention buoyancy force and therefore affects the dynamics of the upwelling plume. This is investigated by modeling a plume with a constant initial melt of 10% where no further melting is considered. Melt migration polarizes melt-retention buoyancy force into high and low melt fraction regions at the top and bottom portions of the plume and therefore results in formation of a more slender and faster upwelling plume. Allowing the plume to melt as it ascends through the upper mantle also produces a slender and faster plume. It is shown that melt produced by decompressional melting of the plume migrates to the upper horizons of the plume, increases the upwelling velocity and thus, the volume of melt generated by the plume. Melt migration produces a plume which lacks the mushroom shape observed for the plume models without melt migration. Melt migration forms a high melt fraction layer beneath the sloping base of the impermeable oceanic lithosphere. Using realistic conditions of melting, freezing and melt extraction, I examine whether the high melt fraction layer is able to focus melt from a wide partial melting zone to a narrow region

  2. Earth formation porosity log

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, H.D.; Smith, M.P.; Schultz, W.E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for determining the porosity of earth formations in the vicinity of a cased well borehole is described, comprising the steps of: irradiating the earth formations in the vicinity of the cased well borehole with fast neutrons from a source of fast neutrons passed into the borehole; and generating a signal representative of the fast neutron population present in the well borehole at a location in the borehole, the signal is functionally related to the porosity of the earth formations in the vicinity of the borehole

  3. Manuel UNIMARC format bibliographique

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    This manual is the French translation of the second edition of UNIMARC Manual: bibliographic format published in English in 1994 and completed by 5 updates published from 1996 to 2005. This 5th French edition is composite. It reproduces identically a part of the 4th edition published in 2002 and, for the fields of the format modified in the Update 5, it offers a new more structured presentation. This is a handbook dedicated to French-speaking users of the UNIMARC format for bibliographic descriptions.

  4. Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Ketola, R.A.; Laturnus, F.

    2000-01-01

    the initial soil air concentration after 38 h, while the concentrations of the other volatile chlorinated compounds investigated remained fairly constant. The observed chloroform concentration profiles and release rates may indicate a biogenic formation of chloroform in the upper soil layer of spruce forests...... of the annual anthropogenic chloroform emissions, and, therefore, the terrestrial environment can be considered as an important contributor to the atmospheric chloroform input. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  5. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold. Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  6. Factors controlling upper tropospheric relative humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Kärcher

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Factors controlling the distribution of relative humidity in the absence of clouds are examined, with special emphasis on relative humidity over ice (RHI under upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric conditions. Variations of temperature are the key determinant for the distribution of RHI, followed by variations of the water vapor mixing ratio. Multiple humidity modes, generated by mixing of different air masses, may contribute to the overall distribution of RHI, in particular below ice saturation. The fraction of air that is supersaturated with respect to ice is mainly determined by the distribution of temperature. The nucleation of ice in cirrus clouds determines the highest relative humdity that can be measured outside of cirrus clouds. While vertical air motion and ice microphysics determine the slope of the distributions of RHI, as shown in a separate study companion (Haag et al., 2003, clouds are not required to explain the main features of the distributions of RHI below the ice nucleation threshold.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (pressure, density and temperature; troposphere – composition and chemistry; general or miscellaneous

  7. Upper pinch radius limit in EXTRAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1989-12-01

    A simple static equilibrium model of the Z-pinch is considered where a hot plasma core is surrounded by a cold-mantle (gas blanket). The pinch radius, defined as the radial extension of the fully ionized plasma core, is uniquely determined by the plasma particle. momentum and heat balance equations. In Extrap configurations an octupole field is introduced which imposes a magnetic separatrix on Z-pinch geometry. This makes the conditions for Extrap equilibrium 'overdetermined' when the characteristic pinch radium given by the plasma parameters tends to exceed the characteristic radius of the magnetic separatrix. In this case no conventional pinch equilibrium can exist, and part of the current which is forced into the plasma discharge by external sources must be channelled outside of the separatrix, i.e. into the surrounding support structure of the Extrap conductors and the vessel walls. A possibly existing bootstrap current in the plasma boundary layer is further expected to be 'scraped off' in this case. The present paper gives some illustrations of the marginal case of this upper pinch radius limit, in a state where the pinch current is antiparallel to the external rod currents which generate the octupole field. (authors)

  8. Upper Blepharoplasty and Lateral Wound Dehiscence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashkouli, Mohsen Bahmani; Jamshidian-Tehrani, Mansooreh; Sharzad, Sahab; Sanjari, Mostafa Soltan

    2015-01-01

    To report the frequency of lateral wound dehiscence (LWD) after upper blepharoplasty (UB), a technique and its outcome to prevent LWD. A retrospective review was performed for cases of LWD after UB presenting between 2003 and 2009, and then a prospective comparative study was performed between February 2009 and March 2013. For the comparison, subjects were divided into two groups based on intraoperative assessment of lateral wound tension (same technique and surgeon). Group 1 received 1-3 orbicularis/subcutaneous buried sutures (6-0 polyglactin) before interrupted 6-0 nylon skin closure. Group 2 underwent skin closure only. Subjects, who had re-operation, skin healing disorders, and incomplete follow-up (LWD with a mean age of 36.2 years in the audit (2003-2009). The prospective study included 68 subjects (68/293, 23.2%) in Group 1 and 225 in Group 2. Gender and simultaneous forehead and eyebrow procedures were similar between groups (P = 0.3 and P = 0.4 respectively). Group 1 was statistically significantly younger at mean age of 41.4 years, compared to Group 2 at 56.1 years (P = 0.000). The frequency of LWD significantly (P = 0.04) decreased to 0.3% (1/293). In the presence of wound tension on skin closure (intraoperative assessment), tension relieving buried orbicularis/subcutaneous 6-0 polyglactin suturing of the lateral UB incision could prevent LWD.

  9. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Abulezz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome.

  10. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-11-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po{sup 218} particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po{sup 218} particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  11. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swift, D.L.

    1992-11-01

    Laboratory experimental studies were carried out to investigate the factors influencing the deposition of aerosols ranging in size from 1 nm to 10 [mu]m in the human nasal, oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal airways. These experimental studies were performed in replicate upper airway physical models and in human volunteer subjects. New replicate models of the oral passage of an infant, the oral passage of an adult at two openings and the combined nasal and oral airways of an adult were constructed during the period, adding to the existing models of adult, child and infant nasal and oral airways models. Deposition studies in the adult oral and adult nasal models were performed under simulated cyclic flow conditions with 1 nm particles to compare with previously measured constant flow studies. Similar studies with inertial particles (1--10 [mu]m diameter) were performed with the adult nasal model; in both instances, results with cyclic flow were similar to constant flow results using a simple average flow rate based on inspiratory volume and time of inspiration. Human subject studies were performed with particle sizes 5--20 nm for nasal inspiration; preliminary analysis shows good agreement with model studies at several representative flow rates. Nasal inspiratory inertial deposition of 1--4 [mu]m diameter particles was measured in several adults as a function of airway dimensions; dimensional changes of the valve area by decongestion did not produce concomitant deposition changes.

  12. Hand dominance in upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Rahman; Varonen, Helena; Heliövaara, Markku; Viikari-Juntura, Eira

    2007-05-01

    To investigate the role of hand dominance in common upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders (UEMSD) in a population study. The target population consisted of a representative sample of people aged 30 years or older residing in Finland during 2000-2001. Of the 7977 eligible subjects, 6254 (78.4%) were included in the study. The prevalence of UEMSD was as follows: rotator cuff tendinitis 3.8%, bicipital tendinitis 0.5%, lateral epicondylitis 1.1%, medial epicondylitis 0.3%, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) 3.8%, and surgery due to CTS 1.3%. CTS was 2.5 times as prevalent in women as men, whereas the other UEMSD were as common in both sexes. Rotator cuff and bicipital tendinitis and medial epicondylitis were more prevalent in the dominant arm only in women, whereas lateral epicondylitis was more prevalent in the dominant elbow in both sexes. The higher prevalence of rotator cuff and bicipital tendinitis in the dominant side persisted beyond working age. The prevalence of CTS did not differ by hand dominance. Dominant hand had been operated more frequently for CTS in women. Our findings show that UEMSD are more prevalent in the dominant than nondominant arm mainly in women. For shoulder tendinitis, the difference persists throughout adult age. Physical load factors may have long-lasting effects on the shoulder and they may play a greater role in women than men.

  13. Regional aerosol deposition in human upper airways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    During the current report experimental studies of upper respiratory deposition of radon progeny aerosols and stimulant aerosols were carried out in replicate casts of nasal and oral passages of adults and children. Additionally, preliminary studies of nasal passage deposition of unattached Po 218 particles was carried out in four human subjects. Data on nasal inspiratory deposition in replicate models of adults and infants from three collaborating laboratories were compared and a best-fit curve of deposition efficiency for both attached and unattached particles was obtained, showing excellent inter-laboratory agreement. This curve demonstrates that nasal inspiratory deposition of radon progeny is weakly dependent upon flow rate over physiologically realistic ranges of flow, does not show a significant age effect, and is relatively independent of nasal passage dimensions for a given age range. Improved replicate models of the human adult oral passage extending to the mid-trachea were constructed for medium and higher flow mouth breathing states; these models were used to assess the deposition of unattached Po 218 particles during oronasal breathing in the oral passage and demonstrated lower deposition efficiency than the nasal passage. Measurements of both Po 218 particle and attached fraction particle size deposition were performed in replicate nasal passage of a four week old infant. 5 refs., 1 fig

  14. Radiogrammetric analysis of upper limb long bones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Zlatan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Radiogrammetry is radiological method of bone mineral density quantification. Besides giving an insight in diagnostics and evolution of metabolic bone disorders (osteoporosis, osteomalacia, osteitis deformans- Paget's disease, it can also explain some specific biomechanical characteristics of bone structures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance and perspectives of radiogrammetry as a scientific model for further inquiry of skeletal system. The work demonstrates mathematical parameters (Ca-Cortical area, CI- Cortical index, GI- Garn's index, ESI- Exton Smith's index of upper limb long bones (humerus, radius, ulna. Two standard radiological projections of bones were taken: antero-posterior (AP and latero-lateral (LL. Correlation with metacarpal and lower limb bones was also performed. The value of the cortical area of humerus is significantly higher comparing with the two other examined bones (Xmean 2,2443 cm2, p < 0.01. Radial bone has the highest values of the relational mathematical parameters, which implicates its higher strength by volumetric unit concerning humerus and ulna. Despite the development of contemporary osteometric procedures (ultrasound densitometry, dual X-ray absorptiometry, digital X-ray radiogrammetry, the classical radiogrammetry sustains its important role in diagnostics of metabolic bone disorders and it can be successfully used for biomechanical inquiry of skeletal system.

  15. Transformation of Taiwan's Upper Secondary Education System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hueih-Lirng Laih

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the policy issues circling around the structural "transition" in upper secondary education implicit in the twenty-year increase in secondary and third-level school enrollment rates in Taiwan. This expansion has taken place within a secondary school system which is rigidly divided into both general, i.e., academic, and vocational tracks and into public and private sectors: the majority of students are enrolled in the private vocational sector which is only loosely articulated with the university sector. These features of the school system are analysed against the background of social and economic developments in Taiwan as well as public opinion. The analysis suggests that the present structures of school must be "reformed" in ways that will result in a more unified secondary system with both greater public funding and better articulation of all school types with the third level. The policy options that circle around the possibility of such reforms in the areas of curriculum, examination structures and second level-third level articulation are discussed and a policy framework for the reform of the Taiwan secondary education sector is outlined.

  16. Palatoglossus coupling in selective upper airway stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Clemens; Edenharter, Günther; Bas, Murat; Wirth, Markus; Hofauer, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Selective upper airway stimulation (sUAS) of the hypoglossal nerve is a useful therapy to treat patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Is it known that multiple obstructions can be solved by this stimulation technique, even at the retropalatal region. The aim of this study was to verify the palatoglossus coupling at the soft palate during stimulation. Single-center, prospective clinical trail. Twenty patients who received an sUAS implant from April 2015 to April 2016 were included. A drug-induced sedated endoscopy (DISE) was performed before surgery. Six to 12 months after activation of the system, patients' tongue motions were recorded, an awake transnasal endoscopy was performed with stimulation turned on, and a DISE with stimulation off and on was done. Patients with a bilateral protrusion of the tongue base showed a significantly increased opening at the retropalatal level compared to ipsilateral protrusions. Furthermore, patients with a clear activation of the geniohyoid muscle showed a better reduction in apnea-hypopnea index. A bilateral protrusion of the tongue base during sUAS seems to be accompanied with a better opening of the soft palate. This effect can be explained by the palatoglossal coupling, due to its linkage of the muscles within the soft palate to those of the lateral tongue body. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:E378-E383, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment.

  18. Vascular parenchymal sources of upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savastano, S.; Feltrin, G.P.; Miotto, D.; Chiesura-Corona, M.; Rubaltelli, L.; Candiani, F.

    1989-01-01

    Fourteen cases of upper gastrointenstinal bleeding (UGIB) were reviewed: 6 (group A) were caused by pancreatitis, 3 (group B) by hemobilia, and 5 (group C) by rupture of esophageal varices due to arterioportal shunts. Elective endoscopy carried out in 7 patients in groups A and B was negative; in 2 actively bleeding patients in group A emergency endoscopy could not detect the source of hemorrhage. Endoscopy was carried out in 4 patients in group C for diagnosis and sclerosis, but severe hemorrhage recurred in spite of treatment. Ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) were carried out prior to angiography in 5 and 4 patients, respectively, and always suggested a parenchymal lesion. All patients underwent angiography. Transcatheter control of the hemorrhage was attempted as an emergency in 2 patients (as a presurgical step in one); elective embolization was the treatment of choice for 8 patients, with good results in 6. This study suggests the usefulness of US and CT both in the detection of parenchymal lesions causing UGIB not clarified by endoscopy, and in the selection of patients for angiographic treatment. (orig.)

  19. Tumor budding in upper gastrointestinal carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Hendrik Koelzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The basis of personalized medicine in oncology is the prediction of an individual’s risk of relapse and death from disease. The presence of tumor budding (TB at the tumor-host interface of gastrointestinal cancers has been recognized as a hallmark of unfavorable disease biology. TB is defined as the presence of dedifferentiated cells or small clusters of up to five cells at the tumor invasive front and can be observed in aggressive carcinomas of the esophagus, stomach, pancreas, ampulla, colon and rectum. Presence of TB reproducibly correlates with advanced tumor stage, frequent lymphovascular invasion, nodal and distant metastasis. The UICC has officially recognized TB as additional independent prognostic factor in cancers of the colon and rectum. Recent studies have also characterized TB as a promising prognostic indicator for clinical management of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma of the gastro-esophageal junction and gastric adenocarcinoma. However, several important issues have to be addressed for application in daily diagnostic practice: 1 Validation of prognostic scoring systems for tumor budding in large, multi-center studies 2 Consensus on the optimal assessment method 3 Inter-observer reproducibility. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of TB in cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract including critical appraisal of perspectives for further study.

  20. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary (Upper Devonian) within the Hanover-Dunkirk transition, northern Appalachian basin, western New York state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Over, D.J. (State Univ. of New York, Geneseo, NY (United States))

    1993-03-01

    In western New York State interbedded pyritic silty green and dark grey shales and siltstone of the Hanover Member, Java Formation, West Falls Group, are overlain by thick pyritic dark grey-black shale of the Dunkirk Member of the Canadaway formation. The dark shales in the upper Hanover and Dunkirk contain a diverse and well preserved conodont fauna which allows precise placement of the Frasnian-Famennian boundary at several described sections. At Pt. Gratiot, in far western New York State, the contact between the Hanover and Dunkirk is disconformable. The Frasnian-Famennian boundary is marked by a pyritic lag deposit at the base of the Dunkirk which contains Palmatolepis triangularis and Pa. subperlobata. The underlying upper Hanover is characterized by Pa. bogartensis , Pa. cf. Pa. rhenana, Pa. winchelli, and Ancyrognathus (asymmetricus/calvini) Eastward, in the direction of the paleo-source area, the Frasnian-Famennian boundary is within the upper Hanover Member. At Irish Gulf the boundary is recognized within a 10 cm thick laminated pyritic dark grey shale bed 3.0 m below the base of the Dunkirk. Palmatolepis triangularis and Pa. subperlobata occur below a conodont-rich lag layer in the upper 2 cm of the bed. Palmatolepis bogartensis , Pa. cf. Pa. rhenana, Ancyrodella curvata, and Icriodus alternatus occur in the underlying 8 cm. Palmatolepis triangularis and Pa. winchelli occur in an underlying dark shale bed separated from the boundary bed by a hummocky cross-bedded siltstone layer.

  1. Reconsidering formative measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential for interpretational confounding and a construct's ability to function as a point variable within a larger model. Although these issues have been addressed in the traditional reflective measurement context, the authors suggest that they are particularly relevant in evaluating formative measurement models. On the basis of this analysis, the authors conclude that formative measurement is not an equally attractive alternative to reflective measurement and that whenever possible, in developing new measures or choosing among alternative existing measures, researchers should opt for reflective measurement. In addition, the authors provide guidelines for researchers dealing with existing formative measures. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  2. Isothermal Martensite Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Matteo

    Isothermal (i.e. time dependent) martensite formation in steel was first observed in the 40ies of the XXth century and is still treated as an anomaly in the description of martensite formation which is considered as a-thermal (i.e. independent of time). Recently, the clarification of the mechanism...... of lattice strains provided fundamental information on the state of stress in the material and clarified the role of the strain energy on martensite formation. Electron backscatter diffraction revealed that the microstructure of the material and the morphology of martensite were independent on the cooling...... leading to isothermal kinetics acquired new practical relevance because of the identification of isothermal martensite formation as the most likely process responsible for enhanced performances of sub-zero Celsius treated high carbon steel products. In the present work, different iron based alloys...

  3. Cosmology and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rees, M.J.

    1977-01-01

    Implications of the massive halos and ''missing mass'' for galaxy formation are addressed; it is suggested that this mass consists of ''Population III'' stars that formed before the galaxies did. 19 references

  4. Fracturing formations in wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daroza, R A

    1964-05-15

    This well stimulation method comprises introducing through the well bore a low-penetrating, dilatant fluid, and subjecting the fluid to sufficient pressure to produce fractures in the formation. The fluid is permitted to remain in contact with the formation so as to become diluted by the formation fluids, and thereby lose its properties of dilatancy. Also, a penetrating fluid, containing a propping agent suspended therein, in introduced into contact with the fractures at a pressure substantially reduced with respect to that pressure which would have been required, prior to the fracturing operation performed using the low-penetrating dilatant fluid. The propping agent is deposited within the fractures, and thereafter, fluid production is resumed from the fractured formation. (2 claims)

  5. Star formation: Cosmic feast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaringi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    Low-mass stars form through a process known as disk accretion, eating up material that orbits in a disk around them. It turns out that the same mechanism also describes the formation of more massive stars.

  6. PCF File Format.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thoreson, Gregory G [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    PCF files are binary files designed to contain gamma spectra and neutron count rates from radiation sensors. It is the native format for the GAmma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) package [1]. It can contain multiple spectra and information about each spectrum such as energy calibration. This document outlines the format of the file that would allow one to write a computer program to parse and write such files.

  7. Plant Formate Dehydrogenase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Markwell

    2005-01-10

    The research in this study identified formate dehydrogenase, an enzyme that plays a metabolic role on the periphery of one-carbon metabolism, has an unusual localization in Arabidopsis thaliana and that the enzyme has an unusual kinetic plasticity. These properties make it possible that this enzyme could be engineered to attempt to engineer plants with an improved photosynthetic efficiency. We have produced transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants with increased expression of the formate dehydrogenase enzyme to initiate further studies.

  8. Buried paleosols of the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparin, B. F.; Platonova, N. I.; Sukhacheva, E. Yu.; Dudin, A. E.

    2016-12-01

    The morphology and chemical and physicochemical properties of paleosols buried at the Upper Paleolithic multilayered site Kostenki-1 in Kostenki-Borshchevo district of Voronezh oblast were studied. Four in situ paleosols formed 20-40(45) ka ago were separated in the archaeological excavation. Together with the surface soils, they characterized two different epochs of pedogenesis—the interstadial and interglacial (Holocene) epochs—and three shorter cycles of pedogenesis. The traces of human occupation in the studied hollow in the Late Paleolithic were found in the layers corresponding to the interstadial epoch. The buried paleosols had a simple horizonation: A(W)-C. A shallow thickness of the soil profiles could be due to relatively short periods of pedogenesis and to the shallow embedding by the carbonate geochemical barrier. The degree of the organic matter humification in the paleosols varied from 0.6 to 1.5, which corresponded to the mean duration of the period of biological activity of 60 to 150 days per year characterizing the climatic conditions of the tundra, taiga, forest-steppe, and steppe natural zones. In the excavation Kostenki-1 (2004-2005), soil-sediment sequences composed of five series of lithological layers with soil layers on top of them were found. Their deposition proceeded in two phases—the water phase and the aerial phase—that predetermined the morphology and composition of the soil-sediment sequences. The history of sediment accumulation in the studied hollow consisted of five stages. Similar morphologies and compositions of the soil-sediment sequences corresponding to these stages attest to the cyclic pattern of their development. The stages of sedimentation and soil formation corresponded to cyclic climate fluctuations with changes in the temperature and moisture conditions. A comparative analysis of the morphology and properties of the paleosols and soil-sediment sequences made it possible to characterize the environmental

  9. [The new potentials of magneto-laser therapy and electrostimulation in children with cleft palate and upper lip].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerasimenko, M Iu; Filatova, E V; Borisenko, O V; Levchenkova, V D; Grishina, N V; Spiridonova, N Z; Shevchenko, E Iu; Goncharenko, L L

    2000-01-01

    The paper presents rationale for design of new procedures of physiotherapy in children with expanded palate and upper lip; morphofunctional features of prenatal and early postnatal formation of central nervous system; a multilayer technique of magneto-laser radiation to the projection of the anterior central gyrus and the technique of electrostimulation by the system of the wink reflex which can influence central mechanisms of regulation and adaptation before and early after uranoplasty and cheiloplasty.

  10. Mummified fossil woods of Fagaceae from the upper Oligocene of Guangxi, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Luliang; Jin, Jianhua; Quan, Cheng; Oskolski, Alexei A.

    2018-02-01

    Three new fossil species, two attributed to the genus Castanopsis (C. nanningensis and C. guangxiensis) and one to the organ genus Lithocarpoxylon (L. nanningensis) are described on the basis of well-preserved mummified wood from the upper Oligocene of Yongning Formation in the Nanning Basin, Guangxi Province, South China. The two species of Castanopsis represent the most ancient reliable wood record of this genus in China and also southeastern Asia, which is the center of diversity of extant species. The fossil leaf records of Castanopsis indicated this genus has migrated to South China in the late Eocene. This fossil wood evidence confirms the presence and persistence of Castanopsis in this region in the late Oligocene. In the Yongning Formation, the presence of numerous Fagaceae woods with faint or absent growth ring boundaries (in C. nanningensis) occasionally associated with prominent ring-porous patterns, suggests that Guangxi (South China) had a seasonal (probably monsoonal) tropical climate during the late Oligocene.

  11. Case management services for work related upper extremity disorders. Integrating workplace accommodation and problem solving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, W S; Feuerstein, M; Lincoln, A E; Miller, V I; Wood, P M

    2001-08-01

    A case manager's ability to obtain worksite accommodations and engage workers in active problem solving may improve health and return to work outcomes for clients with work related upper extremity disorders (WRUEDs). This study examines the feasibility of a 2 day training seminar to help nurse case managers identify ergonomic risk factors, provide accommodation, and conduct problem solving skills training with workers' compensation claimants recovering from WRUEDs. Eight procedural steps to this case management approach were identified, translated into a training workshop format, and conveyed to 65 randomly selected case managers. Results indicate moderate to high self ratings of confidence to perform ergonomic assessments (mean = 7.5 of 10) and to provide problem solving skills training (mean = 7.2 of 10) after the seminar. This training format was suitable to experienced case managers and generated a moderate to high level of confidence to use this case management approach.

  12. 7 CFR 1030.2 - Upper Midwest marketing area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 9 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Upper Midwest marketing area. 1030.2 Section 1030.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Milk), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE MILK IN THE UPPER MIDWEST MARKETING AREA Order...

  13. Unexplained right upper quadrant abdominal pain? do not forget the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Right upper quadrant abdominal pain is a common reason for consulting a gastroenterologist. Commonly, it portends pathological processes occurring in the liver, gall bladder, or the gut however, unusual causes have been reported. We report cervical intervertebral disc prolapse causing right upper quadrant ...

  14. Cerebral gas embolism due to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; Totte, Erik; van Hulst, Rob A.; van der Linde, Klaas; van der Kamp, Wim; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E.

    Cerebral gas embolism as a result of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rare complication and bares a high morbidity. A patient is presented who underwent an upper endoscopy for evaluation of a gastric-mediastinal fistula after subtotal oesophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction because of

  15. Cerebral gas embolism due to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Laan, Mark; Totte, Erik; van Hulst, Rob A.; van der Linde, Klaas; van der Kamp, Wim; Pierie, Jean-Pierre E.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral gas embolism as a result of upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is a rare complication and bares a high morbidity. A patient is presented who underwent an upper endoscopy for evaluation of a gastric-mediastinal fistula after subtotal oesophagectomy and gastric tube reconstruction because of

  16. Upper limb function in adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Bartels (Bart); R.F. Pangalila (Robert); M.P. Bergen (Michael); N.A.M. Cobben (Nicolle); H.J. Stam (Henk); M.E. Roebroeck (Marij)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo determine upper limb function and associated factors in adults with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. Design: Cross-sectional study. Subjects: A sample of 70 men with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (age range 20-43 years). Methods: General motor function and, in particular, upper limb distal

  17. Isolated primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariati, Farzaneh; Ravari, Hasan; Kazemzadeh, Gholamhossein; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2013-03-01

    Primary lymphedema tarda is considered as a congenital disease with late presentation. Primary lymphedema tarda usually affects lower limbs, and primary lymphedema tarda of the upper limbs usually accompanies lower limb lymphedema. In the current case report, we present an 80-year-old male patient with isolated left upper limb swelling that lymphoscintigraphy imaging proved to be lymphedema.

  18. Thermodynamic Upper Bound on Broadband Light Coupling with Photonic Structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Zongfu; Raman, Aaswath; Fan, Shanhui

    2012-01-01

    to an upper bound dictated by the second law of thermodynamics. Such bound limits how efficient light can be coupled to any photonic structure. As one example of application, we use this upper bound to derive the limit of light absorption in broadband solar

  19. LATERAL CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHY FOR EVALUATION OF UPPER AIRWAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miesje Karmiati Purwanegara

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influenced of respiration to dentocraniofacial growth and development is still controversial. The accurate radiologic examination is important factor for proper diagnosis. Deviation of upper airway (i.e. nasopharynx, oropharymx and nasal cavity could be evaluated by lateral and anteroposterior cephalometric projection technique. This paper explains several methods to evaluate upper respiratory tract by lateral radiograph.

  20. Wenckebach upper rate response in single chamber pacemaker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barold, S S

    2000-07-01

    The Medtronic Minix pacemaker during normal function in the VVT mode was found to exhibit a Wenckenbach upper rate response similar to that of dual chamber devices. This behavior occurred only when the upper rate interval was longer than the pacemaker refractory period. In a single chamber device this response may simulate pacemaker malfunction.

  1. Upper limb fractures in rugby in Huddersfield 1986-1990.

    OpenAIRE

    Eyres, K S; Abdel-Salam, A; Cleary, J

    1991-01-01

    Most injuries sustained by rugby players affect the soft tissues, and fracture is relatively uncommon. Whereas the lower limb is most affected in footballers, the upper limb tends to be injured in rugby players. Thirty consecutive fractures and ten dislocations affecting the upper limb, sustained by 35 rugby players, are reported.

  2. Traumatic upper cervical esophageal perforation in childhood with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    rae. The next step was an upper gastrointestinal series, in which posterior oropharyngeal and cervical esophageal perforation draining to the posterior mediastinum was detected (Fig. 1). Emergency laryngobronchoscopy and esophagoscopy were performed. The upper and lower airways were normal except mild laryngeal ...

  3. International Spinal Cord Injury Upper Extremity Basic Data Set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Bryden, A; Curt, A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop an International Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) Upper Extremity Basic Data Set as part of the International SCI Data Sets, which facilitates consistent collection and reporting of basic upper extremity findings in the SCI population. SETTING: International. METHODS: A first draft...

  4. Upper Body Muscular Endurance Among Children 2-5 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl P.; And Others

    The upper body muscular endurance of males and females 2-5 years of age was assessed, and relationships relative to sex, age, endurance and selected anthropometric measures were investigated. None of the relationships were found to be of practical predicative value; while upper body muscular strength increased with age, no significant differences…

  5. A Combinatorial Formula for Certain Elements of Upper Cluster Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungyong; Li, Li; Mills, Matthew R.

    2015-06-01

    We develop an elementary formula for certain non-trivial elements of upper cluster algebras. These elements have positive coefficients. We show that when the cluster algebra is acyclic these elements form a basis. Using this formula, we show that each non-acyclic skew-symmetric cluster algebra of rank 3 is properly contained in its upper cluster algebra.

  6. Aerosol deposition in the upper airways of a child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Franciscus H.C.; Rinkel, M.J.G.; Hoeijmakers, Hendrik Willem Marie

    2005-01-01

    In a small child, normally only a small amount of inhaled aerosol particles reaches the lungs because the majority deposits in the upper airways. In this study, the upper airways of a 9- month-old child, based on computed tomography (CT) data, are modeled to serve as input for a computational fluid

  7. A dichotomy for upper domination in monogenic classes

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Hussain, Shahid; Lozin, Vadim V.; Monnot, Jé rô me; Ries, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    An upper dominating set in a graph is a minimal (with respect to set inclusion) dominating set of maximum cardinality. The problem of finding an upper dominating set is NP-hard for general graphs and in many restricted graph families. In the present

  8. Pattern of presentation and management of benign upper urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper urinary tract obstruction is a common cause of severe symptoms, recurrent urinary tract infection and deterioration or complete loss of renal function when intervention is not timely. Objective: To document the pattern of presentation and the management options for the benign upper urinary tract ...

  9. Risk stratification in upper gastrointestinal bleeding; prediction, prevention and prognosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Groot, N.L.

    2013-01-01

    In the first part of this thesis we developed a novel prediction score for predicting upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding in both NSAID and low-dose aspirin users. Both for NSAIDs and low-dose aspirin use risk scores were developed by identifying the five most dominant predictors. The risk of upper

  10. Upper and Lower Limb Muscle Architecture of a 104 Year-Old Cadaver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggiero, Marissa; Cless, Daniel; Infantolino, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Muscle architecture is an important component to typical musculoskeletal models. Previous studies of human muscle architecture have focused on a single joint, two adjacent joints, or an entire limb. To date, no study has presented muscle architecture for the upper and lower limbs of a single cadaver. Additionally, muscle architectural parameters from elderly cadavers are lacking, making it difficult to accurately model elderly populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to present muscle architecture of the upper and lower limbs of a 104 year old female cadaver. The major muscles of the upper and lower limbs were removed and the musculotendon mass, tendon mass, musculotendon length, tendon length, pennation angle, optimal fascicle length, physiological cross-sectional area, and tendon cross-sectional area were determined for each muscle. Data from this complete cadaver are presented in table format. The data from this study can be used to construct a musculoskeletal model of a specific individual who was ambulatory, something which has not been possible to date. This should increase the accuracy of the model output as the model will be representing a specific individual, not a synthesis of measurements from multiple individuals. Additionally, an elderly individual can be modeled which will provide insight into muscle function as we age.

  11. First detection of ammonia (NH3 in the Asian summer monsoon upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Höpfner

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia (NH3 has been detected in the upper troposphere by the analysis of averaged MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding infrared limb-emission spectra. We have found enhanced amounts of NH3 within the region of the Asian summer monsoon at 12–15 km altitude. Three-monthly, 10° longitude  ×  10° latitude average profiles reaching maximum mixing ratios of around 30 pptv in this altitude range have been retrieved, with a vertical resolution of 3–8 km and estimated errors of about 5 pptv. These observations show that loss processes during transport from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere within the Asian monsoon do not deplete the air entirely of NH3. Thus, ammonia might contribute to the so-called Asian tropopause aerosol layer by the formation of ammonium aerosol particles. On a global scale, outside the monsoon area and during different seasons, we could not detect enhanced values of NH3 above the actual detection limit of about 3–5 pptv. This upper bound helps to constrain global model simulations.

  12. Mechanism of anticlinal trap formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuliev, G.G; Kasimova, S.M; Kulieva, G.Z.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Geo dynamic development of sedimentary basin in accompanied in different stages by significant changes of stressed states. These changes can cover the upper layers as well as deep inner layers of geological stack. In certain levels, called critical level, in consequence of exhausting the feasibility of slow constant deformation, change of regular structures Equilibrium State and folding formation may occur. In total with horizontal component of geo static pressure and tectonic stress, in both cases these compressive loads may be enough to form folding by means of regular structure Equilibrium State instability loss and change to more stable Equilibrium State with curved structure. In this report there are the results of investigation of given problem within non-classical linearized 3D theoretical geomechanical model. Symmetric and asymmetric forms of change to more stable Equilibrium State when modeling deformed medium in kind of an isotropic and anisotropic material, in case of small elastic deformation were investigated. So, results permit us to conclude that only owing to submersion, different forms of structural curvature may occur in geological stack and that parameters of these structural form-changing are considered more accurate within non-classical linearized 3D geo dynamical model.Analogous results were obtained in case of compressive stress occurrence in consequence of density differentiation of rocks. From the obtains results it follows that Equilibrium State of half-plane in irregular compression proves to be unstable when assigning on free half-plane surface dead as well as tracking loads. The increase of intensity value of different surface loads exerts contrary influence on values of critical loads of stability loss depending on modeling of their character of influence. So, the increase of intensity of dead surface loads leads to decrease, but increase of tracking surface loads leads to increase of equilibrium state loss critical force

  13. Mycotic corneal ulcers in upper Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reema Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To study the association of various risk factors and epidemiological variables of mycotic keratitis treated at a tertiary referral hospital of upper Assam. Materials and Methods: In this hospital-based prospective study a total of 310 consecutive corneal ulcer cases attending the ophthalmology outpatient department of Assam Medical College were enrolled between April 2007 and March 2009. After clinical and slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination in all suspected cases, smears and culture examination for fungus was done to establish the etiology. Demographic information and associated probable risk factors of individual cases were noted in a predesigned questionnaire. Results: In 188 (60.6% cases fungal etiology could be established. Out of them 67.6% were males. The most commonly affected age group was 41-50 years (25.5%. The maximum (23.4% cases were reported during the paddy harvesting season in Assam (January and February. Fungal element could be demonstrated in 65.2% cases in direct potassium hydroxide (KOH mount. The commonest predisposing factor was corneal injury (74.5%. While diabetes was a significant systemic predisposing factor in mixed bacterial and fungal infections in 11.1% cases, blocked naso-lacrimal duct was the local predisposing factor in 11.1% of cases. Fusarium solani (25% was the commonest isolate followed by Aspergillus species (19%, Curvularia species (18.5% and Penicillium species (15.2%. Yeasts were isolated in 2.7% (n=5 cases. Conclusions : Ocular trauma was the commonest cause of fungal corneal ulcer in Assam and Fusarium solani was the commonest species responsible for it. Most of the mycotic ulcer cases come from rural areas including the tea gardens.

  14. Sensory feedback for upper limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Steven S; Fettiplace, Michael; Darbandi, Bejan

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter, we discuss the neurophysiological basis of how to provide sensory feedback to users with an upper limb prosthesis and discuss some of the theoretical issues that need to be considered when directly stimulating neurons in the somatosensory system. We focus on technologies that are currently available and discuss approaches that are most likely to succeed in providing natural perception from the artificial hand to the user. First, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of providing feedback by stimulating directly the remaining afferents that originally innervated the arm and hand. In particular, we pay close attention to the normal functional roles that the peripheral afferents play in perception. What are the consequences and implications of stimulating these afferents? We then discuss whether it is reasonable to stimulate neurons in the ascending pathways that carry the information from the afferents to the cortex or directly in neurons in the primary somatosensory cortex. We show that for some modalities there are advantages for stimulating in the spinal cord, while for others it is advantageous to stimulate directly in the somatosensory cortex. Finally, we discuss results from a current experiment in which we used electrical stimuli in primary somatosensory cortex to restore the percept of the intensity of a mechanical probe indented into the hand. The results suggest that the simple percept of stimulus intensity can be provided to the animal from a single finger using four electrodes. We propose that significantly more electrodes will be needed to reproduce more complex aspects of tactile perception. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Upper airway muscles awake and asleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sériès, Frédéric

    2002-06-01

    Upper airway (UA) structures are involved in different respiratory and non-respiratory tasks. The coordination of agonist and antagonist UA dilators is responsible for their mechanical function and their ability to maintain UA patency throughout the respiratory cycle. The activity of these muscles is linked with central respiratory activity but also depends on UA pressure changes and is greatly influenced by sleep. UA muscles are involved in determining UA resistance and stability (i.e. closing pressure), and the effect of sleep on these variables may be accounted for by its effect on tonic and phasic skeletal muscle activities. The mechanical effects of UA dilator contraction also depend on their physiological properties (capacity to generate tension in vitro, activity of the anaerobic enzymatic pathway, histo-chemical characteristics that may differ between subjects who may or may not have sleep-related obstructive breathing disorders). These characteristics may represent an adaptive process to an increased resistive loading of these muscles. The apparent discrepancy between the occurrence of UA closure and an increased capacity to generate tension in sleep apnea patients may be due to a reduction in the effectiveness of UA muscle contraction in these patients; such an increase in tissue stiffness could be accounted for by peri-muscular tissue characteristics. Therefore, understanding of UA muscle physiological characteristics should take into account its capacity for force production and its mechanical coupling with other UA tissues. Important research goals for the future will be to integrate these issues with other physiological features of the disease, such as UA size and dimension, histological characteristics of UA tissues and the effect of sleep on muscle function. Such integration will better inform understanding of the role of pharyngeal UA muscles in the pathophysiology of the sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome.

  16. Treatment of congestion in upper respiratory diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli O Meltzer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Eli O Meltzer1, Fernan Caballero2, Leonard M Fromer3, John H Krouse4, Glenis Scadding51Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Diego, USA; 2Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service, Centro Medico-Docente La Trinidad, Caracas, Venezuela; 3David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, USA; 4Wayne State University School of Medicine, Detroit, Michigan, USA; 5Department of Allergy and Rhinology, Royal National TNE Hospital, London, UKAbstract: Congestion, as a symptom of upper respiratory tract diseases including seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis, acute and chronic rhinosinusitis, and nasal polyposis, is principally caused by mucosal inflammation. Though effective pharmacotherapy options exist, no agent is universally efficacious; therapeutic decisions must account for individual patient preferences. Oral H1-antihistamines, though effective for the common symptoms of allergic rhinitis, have modest decongestant action, as do leukotriene receptor antagonists. Intranasal antihistamines appear to improve congestion better than oral forms. Topical decongestants reduce congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, but local adverse effects make them unsuitable for long-term use. Oral decongestants show some efficacy against congestion in allergic rhinitis and the common cold, and can be combined with oral antihistamines. Intranasal corticosteroids have broad anti-inflammatory activities, are the most potent long-term pharmacologic treatment of congestion associated with allergic rhinitis, and show some congestion relief in rhinosinusitis and nasal polyposis. Immunotherapy and surgery may be used in some cases refractory to pharmacotherapy. Steps in congestion management include (1 diagnosis of the cause(s, (2 patient education and monitoring, (3 avoidance of environmental triggers where possible, (4 pharmacotherapy, and (5 immunotherapy

  17. Upper Respiratory Tract Diseases in Athletes in Different Sports Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałązka-Franta, Anna; Jura-Szołtys, Edyta; Smółka, Wojciech; Gawlik, Radosław

    2016-12-01

    Upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes are a very common medical problem. Training conditions in different sports disciplines increase the risk of upper respiratory disease. Epidemiological evidence suggests that heavy acute or chronic exercise is related to an increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections in athletes. Regular physical exercise at high intensity may lead to transient immunosuppression due to high prevalence of allergic diseases in athletes. Regardless of the cause they can exclude athletes from the training program and significantly impair their performance. In the present work, the most common upper respiratory tract diseases in athletes taking into account the disciplines in which they most often occur were presented. The focus was laid on symptoms, diagnostic methods and pharmacotherapy. Moreover, preventive procedures which can help reduce the occurrence of upper respiratory tract disease in athletes were presented. Management according to anti-doping rules, criteria for return to training and competition as an important issues of athlete's health were discussed.

  18. ANALYSIS OF STRESS STATE IN UPPER LAYER OF ROAD CONCRETE PAVEMENT WITH TEMPERATURE ACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Pshembaev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available While being operated auto-road pavements are subjected to intensive mechanical impacts, ultraviolet ray irradiation, freeze-thaw temperatures, freezing and thawing, drying and moistening. Due to these actions various types of pavement distresses appear on the road pavement. The most significant and dangerous type of distresses is micro-cracks on the road surface. One of the main reasons for their formation is an action of weather and climatic factors that initiate large changes in temperature of coating surface and occurrence of large temperature gradients in the upper layer. In this context while designing and operating auto-roads it is rather essential to investigate a stress state in road surface which is caused by temperature action. Purpose of the described investigations is to determine permissible temperature gradients for cement-concrete pavements that exclude formation of micro-cracks on their surface and thickness of damaged surface layer. Calculations of road pavement have been carried out at various laws for temperature distribution in its depth. A finite difference method realized in PARUS software has been used for studying a stress state of cement-concrete auto-roads. Regularities for distribution of stresses in cement-concrete pavement of auto-roads have been obtained at various surface temperatures. Permissible temperature gradients in the upper pavement layer have been determined and thickness of the layer where micro-cracks are formed has been assessed in the paper. Strength criterion based on the process of micro-crack formation and development in the concrete has been used for calculations. Risk of micro-crack formation on the auto-road pavement depends on material strength, conditions of plate fixing and temperature gradients.

  19. Blistering and bubble formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.

    1976-01-01

    Blister formation in metals has been observed during bombardment with inert-gas ions in the energy range between 1 and 2000 keV at doses of about 10 17 to 10 19 cm -2 . The changes in surface topography and the erosion yields were mainly studied in the scanning electron microscope (SEM). Additionally the release of the implanted gas during blister formation was observed. Recently measurements on single crystals were performed determining simultaneously the implantation profile, the total amount of trapped ions, the depth distribution of the induced lattice damage and the thickness of the covers of the blisters. In several stages of the formation process of blisters the implanted layer was observed in the transmission electron microscope (TEM) showing the formation of gas bubbles. Using the results of all these measurements in this review an attempt is made to develop a model of blister formation combining the effects of hydrostatic pressure in the gas bubbles and lateral stress due to volume swelling. (author)

  20. Vascular lumen formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammert, Eckhard; Axnick, Jennifer

    2012-04-01

    The vascular system developed early in evolution. It is required in large multicellular organisms for the transport of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products to and from tissues. The vascular system is composed of hollow tubes, which have a high level of complexity in vertebrates. Vasculogenesis describes the de novo formation of blood vessels, e.g., aorta formation in vertebrate embryogenesis. In contrast, angiogenesis is the formation of blood vessels from preexisting ones, e.g., sprouting of intersomitic blood vessels from the aorta. Importantly, the lumen of all blood vessels in vertebrates is lined and formed by endothelial cells. In both vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, lumen formation takes place in a cord of endothelial cells. It involves a complex molecular mechanism composed of endothelial cell repulsion at the cell-cell contacts within the endothelial cell cords, junctional rearrangement, and endothelial cell shape change. As the vascular system also participates in the course of many diseases, such as cancer, stroke, and myocardial infarction, it is important to understand and make use of the molecular mechanisms of blood vessel formation to better understand and manipulate the pathomechanisms involved.

  1. Molybdenum Cycling During Crust Formation and Destruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, A. T.; Rudnick, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Molybdenum geochemistry has become an important tool for tracking the redox state of the early atmosphere and oceans as well as the emergence and sustainability of Mo-cofactored enzymes. However, in order for Mo to be enriched in the oceans, it must first be weathered out of the crust. Sulfides that weather in the presence of atmospheric O2have historically been deemed the predominant crustal source of Mo. Here, we test this assumption by determining the mineralogical hosts of Mo in Archean, Proterozoic, and Phanerozoic upper crustal rocks, using LA-ICP-MS. We also investigate Mo behavior during igneous differentiation and continental crust formation. We find that molybdenite, MoS2, is a weatherable sulfide source of Mo, but common igneous sulfides are not because their Mo concentrations are too low. However, molybdenite is uncommon in the upper continental crust. By contrast, volcanic glass is much more abundant and is a significant weatherable source of Mo that readily breaks down to release oxidized, soluble Mo whether or not atmospheric O2is present. Other common crustal mineral hosts of Mo are Ti-bearing phases like titanite, ilmenite, magnetite, and rutile that are resistant to weathering. Significant Mo depletion (relative to Ce and Pr) is observed in nearly every granitic rock analyzed in our study, but is not observed in OIB or MORB (Jenner and O'Neill, 2012). There are two possible reasons for this: 1) Mo is removed from cooling plutons during fluid expulsion, or 2) Mo is fractionated during igneous differentiation. The first scenario is a likely explanation given the solubility of oxidized Mo. However, correlations between Mo/Ce and Nb/La in several plutonic suites suggest a fractionating phase like rutile may sequester Mo in the lower crust. Additionally, a correlation between Mo/Ce and inferred tectonic setting (enrichments observed in rift-related plutons) suggest an overall tectonic influence on the availability of Mo in the upper crust.

  2. The role of chemistry in under-predictions of NO2 in the upper troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, B. H.; Pinder, R. W.; Goliff, W. S.; Stockwell, W. R.; Fahr, A.; Sarwar, G.; Hutzell, W. T.; Mathur, R.; Vizuete, W.; Cohen, R. C.

    2009-12-01

    Global and regional atmospheric models under-predict upper troposphere NO2 compared to satellite and aircraft observations. The upper tropospheric under-prediction of NO2 could be a function of emissions, transport, chemistry or some combination. Previous researchers have linked poor performance in the model to over-prediction of the OH and under-prediction of the HO2 by chemistry (Olson et al. 2006, Bertram et al. 2007). This study isolates upper tropospheric chemistry to evaluate the chemical contribution to NO2 under-predictions and to diagnose OH and HO2 discrepancies. We use a 0-dimensional time dependent model to evaluate seven chemical mechanisms. Because chamber data representing upper tropospheric conditions does not exist, we evaluate the predictions based against an observation-based aging model. Following Bertram et al (2007), we use the NOx:HNO3 ratio to categorize the chemical age of thousands of 10 second average observations between 8 and 10km. Measurements of 10 inorganics and 32 hydrocarbons are translated to model species for each of seven chemical mechanisms. We chose mechanisms ranging from condensed to semi-explicit. The seven mechanisms' design scopes range from urban to global scale. Results include simulations from Model for OZone And Related chemical Tracers (MOZART), Carbon Bond 05 (CB05), State Air Pollution Research Center (SAPRC) 99, SAPRC 07, GEOS-Chem, Regional Atmospheric Chemical Mechanism version 2, and the LEEDS Master Chemical Mechanism. Results from each chemical mechanism are compared to aircraft observations and to those obtained with other chemical mechanisms. Each mechanism is then further evaluated using integrated reaction rate analysis to identify sources of NO2 bias. We find that the largest contributors to the NO2 bias are over-predictions of PAN and HNO3. The formation of PAN is sensitive to the acetone photolysis rate. The conversion of NOx to HNO3 is most sensitive to hydroxyl radical concentrations. Hydroxyl

  3. Water Quality Conditions in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes, Oregon, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberg, Mary K.; Hoilman, Gene; Wood, Tamara M.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Klamath Lake water quality monitoring program gathered information from multiparameter continuous water quality monitors, physical water samples, dissolved oxygen production and consumption experiments, and meteorological stations during the June-October 2006 field season. The 2006 study area included Agency Lake and all of Upper Klamath Lake. Seasonal patterns in water quality were similar to those observed in 2005, the first year of the monitoring program, and were closely related to bloom dynamics of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) in the two lakes. High dissolved oxygen and pH conditions in both lakes before the bloom declined in July, which coincided with seasonal high temperatures and resulted in seasonal lows in dissolved oxygen and decreased pH. Dissolved oxygen and pH in Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes increased again after the bloom recovered. Seasonal low dissolved oxygen and decreased pH coincided with seasonal highs in ammonia and orthophosphate concentrations. Seasonal maximum daily average temperatures were higher and minimum dissolved oxygen concentrations were lower in 2006 than in 2005. Conditions potentially harmful to fish were influenced by seasonal patterns in bloom dynamics and bathymetry. Potentially harmful low dissolved oxygen and high un-ionized ammonia concentrations occurred mostly at the deepest sites in the Upper Klamath Lake during late July, coincident with a bloom decline. Potentially harmful pH conditions occurred mostly at sites outside the deepest parts of the lake in July and September, coincident with a heavy bloom. Instances of possible gas bubble formation, inferred from dissolved oxygen data, were estimated to occur frequently in shallow areas of Upper Klamath and Agency Lakes simultaneously with potentially harmful pH conditions. Comparison of the data from monitors in nearshore areas and monitors near the surface of the water column in the open waters of

  4. New Paleomagnetic Data From Upper Gabbros Supports Limited Rotation of Central Semail Massif in Oman Ophiolite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horst, A. J.; Sarah, T.; Hartley, E.; Martin, J.

    2017-12-01

    Paleomagnetic data from northern massifs of the Oman ophiolite demonstrate substantial clockwise rotations prior to or during obduction, yet data from southern massifs are recently suggested to be remagnetized during obduction and show subsequent smaller counterclockwise rotations. To better understand paleomagnetic data from the southern massifs, we conducted a detailed paleomagnetic and rock magnetic study of 21 sites in upper gabbros and 5 sites in lower crustal gabbros within the central Semail massif. Samples treated with progressive thermal demagnetization yield interpretable magnetizations with dominant unblocking between 500-580°C that implies characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) components carried by low-titanium magnetite and nearly pure magnetite. Rock magnetic and scanning electron microscopy data provide additional support of the carriers of magnetization. ChRMs from sites with samples containing partially-serpentinized olivine are similar to sites with samples lacking olivine, where the carriers appear to be fine magnetite intergrowths in pyroxene. The overall in situ and tilt-corrected mean directions from upper gabbros are distinct from the lower gabbros, from previous data within the massif, and also directions from similar crustal units in adjacent Rustaq and Wadi Tayin massifs. After tilt correction for 10-15° SE dip of the crust-mantle boundary, the mean direction from upper gabbros is nearly coincident with in situ lower gabbros. The tilt-corrected direction from upper gabbros is also consistent with an expected direction from the Late Cretaceous apparent polar wander path for Arabia at the age of crustal accretion ( 95Ma). These results suggest the upper crustal section in Semail has likely only experienced minor tilting since formation and acquisition of magnetization. Due to slow cooling of middle to lower gabbros in fast-spread crust, the lower gabbro sites likely cooled later or after obduction, and thus yield a distinct

  5. Liquid interfacial water and brines in the upper surface of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehlmann, Diedrich

    2013-04-01

    Liquid interfacial water and brines in the upper surface of Mars Diedrich T.F. Möhlmann DLR Institut für Planetenforschung, Rutherfordstr. 2, D - 12489 Berlin, Germany dirk.moehlmann@dlr.de Interfacial water films and numerous brines are known to remain liquid at temperatures far below 0° C. The physical processes behind are described in some detail. Deliquescence, i.e. the liquefaction of hygroscopic salts at the threshold of a specific "Deliquescence Relative Humidity", is shown to be that process, which on present Mars supports the formation of stable interfacial water and bulk liquids in form of temporary brines on and in a salty upper surface of present Mars in a diurnally temporary and repetitive process. Temperature and relative humidity are the governing conditions for deliquescence (and the counterpart "efflorescence") to evolve. The current thermo-dynamical conditions on Mars support these processes to evolve on present Mars. The deliquescence-driven presence of liquid brines in the soil of the upper surface of Mars can expected to be followed by physical and chemical processes like "surface cementation", down-slope flows, and physical and chemical weathering processes. A remarkable and possibly also biologically relevant evolution towards internally interfacial water bearing structures of dendritic capillaries is related to their freezing - thawing driven formation. The internal walls of these network-pores or -tubes can be covered by films of interfacial water, providing that way possibly habitable crack-systems in soil and rock. These evolutionary processes of networks, driven by their tip-growth, can expected to be ongoing also at present.

  6. Meningococcal biofilm formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappann, M.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Claus, H.

    2006-01-01

    We show that in a standardized in vitro flow system unencapsulated variants of genetically diverse lineages of Neisseria meningitidis formed biofilms, that could be maintained for more than 96 h. Biofilm cells were resistant to penicillin, but not to rifampin or ciprofloxacin. For some strains......, microcolony formation within biofilms was observed. Microcolony formation in strain MC58 depended on a functional copy of the pilE gene encoding the pilus subunit pilin, and was associated with twitching of cells. Nevertheless, unpiliated pilE mutants formed biofilms showing that attachment and accumulation......X alleles was identified among genetically diverse meningococcal strains. PilX alleles differed in their propensity to support autoaggregation of cells in suspension, but not in their ability to support microcolony formation within biofilms in the continuous flow system....

  7. Tritiated ammonia formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heung, L.K.

    1995-01-01

    When nitrogen was selected as the glovebox atmosphere for the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS), a concern was raised as to the possibility of tritiated ammonia formation in the gloveboxes. Experimental data were produced to study the tritiated ammonia formation rate in a tritium and nitrogen mixture. A rate equation that closely simulates the experimental data was developed. This rate equation can be used to calculate the formation of tritiated ammonia from different concentrations of tritium and nitrogen. The reaction of T 2 and N 2 to form NT 3 is a slow process, particularly when the tritium concentration is low. The reaction requires weeks or months to reach radiochemical equilibrium dependent on the concentrations of the reactants. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  8. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon

    2010-01-01

    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  9. Observsational Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ruobing; Zhu, Zhaohuan; Fung, Jeffrey

    2017-06-01

    Planets form in gaseous protoplanetary disks surrounding newborn stars. As such, the most direct way to learn how they form from observations, is to directly watch them forming in disks. In the past, this was very difficult due to a lack of observational capabilities; as such, planet formation was largely a subject of pure theoretical astrophysics. Now, thanks to a fleet of new instruments with unprecedented resolving power that have come online recently, we have just started to unveil features in resolve images of protoplanetary disks, such as gaps and spiral arms, that are most likely associated with embedded (unseen) planets. By comparing observations with theoretical models of planet-disk interactions, the masses and orbits of these still forming planets may be constrained. Such planets may help us to directly test various planet formation models. This marks the onset of a new field — observational planet formation. I will introduce the current status of this field.

  10. Forces in strategy formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensen, Elmer Fly; Sanchez, Ron

    2008-01-01

    This chapter proposes that organizational strategy formation should be characterized theoretically as a process that is subject to several interacting forces, rather than represented by separate discrete decisionmodels or theoretic perspectives, as is commonly done in the strategic management...... literature. Based on an extensive review of relevant theory and empirical work in strategic decision-making, organizational change theory, cognitive and social psychology, and strategy processes, seven kinds of ''forces'' - rational, imposed, teleological, learning, political, heuristic, and social...... - are identified as interacting in and having significant influence on the strategy formation process. It is further argued that by applying a holistic ''forces-view'' of the significant and interacting influences on strategy formation, we can better understand the dynamics and challenges in managing the process...

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of hot jupiter upper atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trammell, George B.; Li, Zhi-Yun; Arras, Phil, E-mail: gbt8f@virginia.edu, E-mail: zl4h@virginia.edu, E-mail: arras@virginia.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States)

    2014-06-20

    Two-dimensional simulations of hot Jupiter upper atmospheres including the planet's magnetic field are presented. The goal is to explore magnetic effects on the layer of the atmosphere that is ionized and heated by stellar EUV radiation, and the imprint of these effects on the Lyα transmission spectrum. The simulations are axisymmetric, isothermal, and include both rotation and azimuth-averaged stellar tides. Mass density is converted to atomic hydrogen density through the assumption of ionization equilibrium. The three-zone structure—polar dead zone (DZ), mid-latitude wind zone (WZ), and equatorial DZ—found in previous analytic calculations is confirmed. For a magnetic field comparable to that of Jupiter, the equatorial DZ, which is confined by the magnetic field and corotates with the planet, contributes at least half of the transit signal. For even stronger fields, the gas escaping in the mid-latitude WZ is found to have a smaller contribution to the transit depth than the equatorial DZ. Transmission spectra computed from the simulations are compared to Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Advanced Camera for Surveys data for HD 209458b and HD 189733b, and the range of model parameters consistent with the data is found. The central result of this paper is that the transit depth increases strongly with magnetic field strength when the hydrogen ionization layer is magnetically dominated, for dipole magnetic field B {sub 0} ≳ 10 G. Hence transit depth is sensitive to magnetic field strength, in addition to standard quantities such as the ratio of thermal to gravitational binding energies. Another effect of the magnetic field is that the planet loses angular momentum orders of magnitude faster than in the non-magnetic case, because the magnetic field greatly increases the lever arm for wind braking of the planet's rotation. Spin-down timescales for magnetized models of HD 209458b that agree with the observed transit depth

  12. Planetesimals and Planet Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John

    The first step in the standard model for planet formation is the growth of gravitationally bound bodies called ``planetesimals'' from dust grains in a protoplanetary disk. Currently, we do not know how planetesimals form, how long they take to form, or what their sizes and mechanical properties are. The goal of this proposal is to assess how these uncertainties affect subsequent stages of planetary growth and the kind of planetary systems that form. The work will address three particular questions: (i) Can the properties of small body populations in the modern Solar System constrain the properties of planetesimals? (ii) How do the properties of planetesimals affect the formation of giant planets? (iii) How does the presence of a water ice condensation front (the ``snow line'') in a disk affect planetesimal formation and the later stages of planetary growth? These questions will be examined with computer simulations of planet formation using new computer codes to be developed as part of the proposal. The first question will be addressed using a statistical model for planetesimal coagulation and fragmentation. This code will be merged with the proposer's Mercury N-body integrator code to model the dynamics of large protoplanets in order to address the second question. Finally, a self- consistent model of disk evolution and the radial transport of water ice and vapour will be added to examine the third question. A theoretical understanding of how planets form is one of the key goals of NASA and the Origins of Solar Systems programme. Researchers have carried out many studies designed to address this goal, but the questions of how planetesimals form and how their properties affect planet formation have received relatively little attention. The proposed work will help address these unsolved questions, and place other research in context by assessing the importance of planetesimal origins and properties for planet formation.

  13. Radiosensitivity and chimera formation in Hibiscus syriacus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, S.H.; Won, J.L.

    1980-01-01

    Radiosensitivity of gamma-irradiated Hibiscus syriacus and chimera formation were investigated. The lethal dose-50 percent with respect to seeding and cuttings was 15kR and 2 approximately 3 kR respectively, chlorophyll mutation rate of seeds irradiated with 15 kR being about 13 percent. The degree of chimeric leaf mutants from the buds by radiation treatment depends on the bud position of the branch. Buds of the middle part of V 1 branch seemed to be more multi-cellular condition than the upper and low part when irradiation was made. It is assumed that at least two primordia of V 2 branch were already differentiated from the V 1 branch in Hibiscus syriacus plant. (Author)

  14. Atmospheric particle formation in spatially and temporally varying conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauros, J.

    2011-07-01

    Atmospheric particles affect the radiation balance of the Earth and thus the climate. New particle formation from nucleation has been observed in diverse atmospheric conditions but the actual formation path is still unknown. The prevailing conditions can be exploited to evaluate proposed formation mechanisms. This study aims to improve our understanding of new particle formation from the view of atmospheric conditions. The role of atmospheric conditions on particle formation was studied by atmospheric measurements, theoretical model simulations and simulations based on observations. Two separate column models were further developed for aerosol and chemical simulations. Model simulations allowed us to expand the study from local conditions to varying conditions in the atmospheric boundary layer, while the long-term measurements described especially characteristic mean conditions associated with new particle formation. The observations show statistically significant difference in meteorological and back-ground aerosol conditions between observed event and non-event days. New particle formation above boreal forest is associated with strong convective activity, low humidity and low condensation sink. The probability of a particle formation event is predicted by an equation formulated for upper boundary layer conditions. The model simulations call into question if kinetic sulphuric acid induced nucleation is the primary particle formation mechanism in the presence of organic vapours. Simultaneously the simulations show that ignoring spatial and temporal variation in new particle formation studies may lead to faulty conclusions. On the other hand, the theoretical simulations indicate that short-scale variations in temperature and humidity unlikely have a significant effect on mean binary water sulphuric acid nucleation rate. The study emphasizes the significance of mixing and fluxes in particle formation studies, especially in the atmospheric boundary layer. The further

  15. Superclusters and galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einasto, J.; Joeveer, M.; Saar, E.

    1979-01-01

    The spatial distribution of Galaxies and Galaxy congestions in the southern galactic hemisphere is studied. The rich galaxy congestions, containing many elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies, are linked with each other by chains of scanty congestions with moderate content of elliptic Galaxies and radiogalaxies. The flat formation, linking the density pikes and the intermediate chains, can reasonably be called supercongestion. In the central region of supercongestions there is a thin layer of Galaxies consisting of only spiral Galaxies. The neighbouring supercongestions touch each other, while the intersupercongestion space contains no Galaxy congestions and almost no Galaxies. It is shown that such a structure was, apparently, formed before the formation of Galaxies

  16. Formation of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szalay, A.S.

    1984-12-01

    The present theories of galaxy formation are reviewed. The relation between peculiar velocities and the correlation function of galaxies points to the possibility that galaxies do not form uniformly everywhere. Scale invariant properties of the cluster-cluster correlations are discussed. Comparing the correlation functions in a dimensionless way, galaxies appear to be stronger clustered, in contrast with the comparison of the dimensional amplitudes of the correlation functions. Theoretical implications of several observations as Lyman-α clouds, correlations of faint galaxies are discussed. None of the present theories of galaxy formation can account for all facts in a natural way. 29 references

  17. The formation of stars

    CERN Document Server

    Stahler, Steven W

    2008-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive treatment of star formation, one of the most active fields of modern astronomy. The reader is guided through the subject in a logically compelling manner. Starting from a general description of stars and interstellar clouds, the authors delineate the earliest phases of stellar evolution. They discuss formation activity not only in the Milky Way, but also in other galaxies, both now and in the remote past. Theory and observation are thoroughly integrated, with the aid of numerous figures and images. In summary, this volume is an invaluable resource, both as a text f

  18. Densities and Kinematic Viscosities for the Systems Benzene + Methyl Formate, Benzene + Ethyl Formate, Benzene + Propyl Formate, and Benzene + Butyl Formate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmerling, Uwe; Rasmussen, Peter

    1998-01-01

    a Redlich-Kister type of expression with temperature-independent parameters and the data for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate with temperature-dependent parameters. The viscosities have furthermore been compared to values predicted by means of the GC......Densities and kinematic viscosities have been measured for the system benzene + methyl formate at 20°C and for the systems benzene + ethyl formate, benzene + propyl formate, and benzene + butyl formate from 20°C to 50°C. The results for the system benzene + methyl formate have been correlated using...

  19. Upper Eyelid Fractional CO2 Laser Resurfacing With Incisional Blepharoplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlus, Brett S; Schwarcz, Robert M; Nakra, Tanuj

    2016-01-01

    Laser resurfacing, performed at the same time as blepharoplasty, has most commonly been applied to the lower eyelid skin but can effectively be used on the upper eyelid to reduce rhytidosis and improve skin quality. The authors evaluate the safety and efficacy of this procedure. Fractional CO2 laser resurfacing was performed in conjunction with incisional upper blepharoplasty. The ultrapulsed laser energy was applied to the sub-brow skin, the upper medial canthal skin, and the pretarsal skin in 30 patients. Photos were obtained preoperatively and at 3 months. All patients demonstrated reduction in upper eyelid rhytidosis without any serious complications. Independent rhytidosis grading (0-4) showed a mean improvement of 42%. One patient experienced wound dehiscence that satisfactorily resolved without intervention. Upper eyelid laser resurfacing is effective and can be safely performed at the same time as upper blepharoplasty. This approach reduces or eliminates the need for medial incisions to address medial canthal skin redundancy and rhytidosis and it directly treats upper eyelid wrinkles on residual eyelid and infra-brow skin during blepharoplasty.

  20. [High risk factors of upper gastrointestinal bleeding after neurosurgical procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Kang; Wu, Gang; Cheng, Neng-neng; Yao, Cheng-jun; Zhou, Liang-fu

    2005-12-21

    To analyze high risk factors of postoperative upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding after neurosurgery so as to give guidance for prevention of GI bleeding. A questionnaire was developed to investigate the medical records of 1500 patients who were hospitalized and underwent neurosurgical operations in 1997. Logistic regression analysis was made. 1430 valid questionnaires were obtained. Postoperative upper GI bleeding occurred in 75 patients (5.24%). The incidence of upper GI bleeding were 6.64% (54/813) in the male patients and 3.40% (21/617) in the female persons (P = 0.007); 9.88% (41/415) in those aged > 50 and 3.35% in those aged hematoma, intraventricular hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, and extradural hematoma were 15.7%, 10.0%, 6.00%, and 2.94% respectively (P = 0.02). The incidence of upper GI bleeding of the patients with tumors of fourth ventricle of cerebrum, brainstem, cerebral hemisphere, and sellar hypothalamus were 15.79% (3/19), 7.89%, 5.71%, and 3.74% respectively. In the emergent cases, the incidence of upper GI bleeding was higher in those with hypertension. The incidence of upper GI bleeding was 5.46% in the patients undergoing adrenocortical hormone treatment, significantly higher than that in those who did not receive such treatment (2.13%). Patients who are at high risk of developing postoperative upper GI bleeding including that: age greater than 50 years; male; Glasgow Coma Score less than 10 pre and post operation; The lesion was located in brain stem and forth ventricle; Hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage; Intracerebral and intraventricular hemorrhagic brain trauma; Postoperative pneumonia, brain edema, encephalic high pressure, pyogenic infection of the central nervous system and other postoperative complications. The mortality of patients with postoperative upper GI bleeding was evidently higher than that of the patients without postoperative upper GI bleeding.