Varadhan, S R S
2016-01-01
The theory of large deviations deals with rates at which probabilities of certain events decay as a natural parameter in the problem varies. This book, which is based on a graduate course on large deviations at the Courant Institute, focuses on three concrete sets of examples: (i) diffusions with small noise and the exit problem, (ii) large time behavior of Markov processes and their connection to the Feynman-Kac formula and the related large deviation behavior of the number of distinct sites visited by a random walk, and (iii) interacting particle systems, their scaling limits, and large deviations from their expected limits. For the most part the examples are worked out in detail, and in the process the subject of large deviations is developed. The book will give the reader a flavor of how large deviation theory can help in problems that are not posed directly in terms of large deviations. The reader is assumed to have some familiarity with probability, Markov processes, and interacting particle systems.
Large deviations and idempotent probability
Puhalskii, Anatolii
2001-01-01
In the view of many probabilists, author Anatolii Puhalskii''s research results stand among the most significant achievements in the modern theory of large deviations. In fact, his work marked a turning point in the depth of our understanding of the connections between the large deviation principle (LDP) and well-known methods for establishing weak convergence results.Large Deviations and Idempotent Probability expounds upon the recent methodology of building large deviation theory along the lines of weak convergence theory. The author develops an idempotent (or maxitive) probability theory, introduces idempotent analogues of martingales (maxingales), Wiener and Poisson processes, and Ito differential equations, and studies their properties. The large deviation principle for stochastic processes is formulated as a certain type of convergence of stochastic processes to idempotent processes. The author calls this large deviation convergence.The approach to establishing large deviation convergence uses novel com...
Large Deviation Bounds for a Polling System with Two Queues and Multiple Servers
Wei, Fen
2004-01-01
In this paper, we present large deviation bounds for a discrete-time polling system consisting of two-par-allel queues and m servers. The arrival process in each queue is an arbitrary, and possibly correlated, stochastic process. Each server (serves) independently serves the two queues according to a Bernoulli service schedule. Using large deviation techniques, we analyze the tail behavior of the stationary distribution of the queue length processes, and derive upper and lower bounds of the b...
Entanglement transitions induced by large deviations
Bhosale, Udaysinh T.
2017-12-01
The probability of large deviations of the smallest Schmidt eigenvalue for random pure states of bipartite systems, denoted as A and B , is computed analytically using a Coulomb gas method. It is shown that this probability, for large N , goes as exp[-β N2Φ (ζ ) ] , where the parameter β is the Dyson index of the ensemble, ζ is the large deviation parameter, while the rate function Φ (ζ ) is calculated exactly. Corresponding equilibrium Coulomb charge density is derived for its large deviations. Effects of the large deviations of the extreme (largest and smallest) Schmidt eigenvalues on the bipartite entanglement are studied using the von Neumann entropy. Effect of these deviations is also studied on the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2, obtained by further partitioning the subsystem A , using the properties of the density matrix's partial transpose ρ12Γ. The density of states of ρ12Γ is found to be close to the Wigner's semicircle law with these large deviations. The entanglement properties are captured very well by a simple random matrix model for the partial transpose. The model predicts the entanglement transition across a critical large deviation parameter ζ . Log negativity is used to quantify the entanglement between subsystems 1 and 2. Analytical formulas for it are derived using the simple model. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical results.
Deuschel, Jean-Dominique; Deuschel, Jean-Dominique
2001-01-01
This is the second printing of the book first published in 1988. The first four chapters of the volume are based on lectures given by Stroock at MIT in 1987. They form an introduction to the basic ideas of the theory of large deviations and make a suitable package on which to base a semester-length course for advanced graduate students with a strong background in analysis and some probability theory. A large selection of exercises presents important material and many applications. The last two chapters present various non-uniform results (Chapter 5) and outline the analytic approach that allow
Large deviations for noninteracting infinite-particle systems
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Donsker, M.D.; Varadhan, S.R.S.
1987-01-01
A large deviation property is established for noninteracting infinite particle systems. Previous large deviation results obtained by the authors involved a single I-function because the cases treated always involved a unique invariant measure for the process. In the context of this paper there is an infinite family of invariant measures and a corresponding infinite family of I-functions governing the large deviations
The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Touchette, Hugo
2009-01-01
The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein's theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.
The large deviation approach to statistical mechanics
Touchette, Hugo
2009-07-01
The theory of large deviations is concerned with the exponential decay of probabilities of large fluctuations in random systems. These probabilities are important in many fields of study, including statistics, finance, and engineering, as they often yield valuable information about the large fluctuations of a random system around its most probable state or trajectory. In the context of equilibrium statistical mechanics, the theory of large deviations provides exponential-order estimates of probabilities that refine and generalize Einstein’s theory of fluctuations. This review explores this and other connections between large deviation theory and statistical mechanics, in an effort to show that the mathematical language of statistical mechanics is the language of large deviation theory. The first part of the review presents the basics of large deviation theory, and works out many of its classical applications related to sums of random variables and Markov processes. The second part goes through many problems and results of statistical mechanics, and shows how these can be formulated and derived within the context of large deviation theory. The problems and results treated cover a wide range of physical systems, including equilibrium many-particle systems, noise-perturbed dynamics, nonequilibrium systems, as well as multifractals, disordered systems, and chaotic systems. This review also covers many fundamental aspects of statistical mechanics, such as the derivation of variational principles characterizing equilibrium and nonequilibrium states, the breaking of the Legendre transform for nonconcave entropies, and the characterization of nonequilibrium fluctuations through fluctuation relations.
Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chloe Ya Gao
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green–Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.
Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions
Gao, Chloe; Limmer, David
2017-10-01
We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation function. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which is a scaled cumulant generating function analogous to the free energy. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate the large deviation functions, from which arbitrary transport coefficients are derivable. We find significant statistical improvement over traditional Green-Kubo based calculations. The systematic and statistical errors of this method are analyzed in the context of specific transport coefficient calculations, including the shear viscosity, interfacial friction coefficient, and thermal conductivity.
Transport Coefficients from Large Deviation Functions
Gao, Chloe Ya; Limmer, David T.
2017-01-01
We describe a method for computing transport coefficients from the direct evaluation of large deviation functions. This method is general, relying on only equilibrium fluctuations, and is statistically efficient, employing trajectory based importance sampling. Equilibrium fluctuations of molecular currents are characterized by their large deviation functions, which are scaled cumulant generating functions analogous to the free energies. A diffusion Monte Carlo algorithm is used to evaluate th...
Towards a large deviation theory for strongly correlated systems
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Ruiz, Guiomar; Tsallis, Constantino
2012-01-01
A large-deviation connection of statistical mechanics is provided by N independent binary variables, the (N→∞) limit yielding Gaussian distributions. The probability of n≠N/2 out of N throws is governed by e −Nr , r related to the entropy. Large deviations for a strong correlated model characterized by indices (Q,γ) are studied, the (N→∞) limit yielding Q-Gaussians (Q→1 recovers a Gaussian). Its large deviations are governed by e q −Nr q (∝1/N 1/(q−1) , q>1), q=(Q−1)/(γ[3−Q])+1. This illustration opens the door towards a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics. -- Highlights: ► We introduce the formalism of relative entropy for a single random binary variable and its q-generalization. ► We study a model of N strongly correlated binary random variables and their large-deviation probabilities. ► Large-deviation probability of strongly correlated model exhibits a q-exponential decay whose argument is proportional to N, as extensivity requires. ► Our results point to a q-generalized large deviation theory and suggest a large-deviation foundation of nonextensive statistical mechanics.
The large deviations theorem and ergodicity
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Gu Rongbao
2007-01-01
In this paper, some relationships between stochastic and topological properties of dynamical systems are studied. For a continuous map f from a compact metric space X into itself, we show that if f satisfies the large deviations theorem then it is topologically ergodic. Moreover, we introduce the topologically strong ergodicity, and prove that if f is a topologically strongly ergodic map satisfying the large deviations theorem then it is sensitively dependent on initial conditions
Two examples of non strictly convex large deviations
De Marco, Stefano; Jacquier, Antoine; Roome, Patrick
2016-01-01
We present two examples of a large deviations principle where the rate function is not strictly convex. This is motivated by a model used in mathematical finance (the Heston model), and adds a new item to the zoology of non strictly convex large deviations. For one of these examples, we show that the rate function of the Cramer-type of large deviations coincides with that of the Freidlin-Wentzell when contraction principles are applied.
Sample-path large deviations in credit risk
Leijdekker, V.J.G.; Mandjes, M.R.H.; Spreij, P.J.C.
2011-01-01
The event of large losses plays an important role in credit risk. As these large losses are typically rare, and portfolios usually consist of a large number of positions, large deviation theory is the natural tool to analyze the tail asymptotics of the probabilities involved. We first derive a
Limiting values of large deviation probabilities of quadratic statistics
Jeurnink, Gerardus A.M.; Kallenberg, W.C.M.
1990-01-01
Application of exact Bahadur efficiencies in testing theory or exact inaccuracy rates in estimation theory needs evaluation of large deviation probabilities. Because of the complexity of the expressions, frequently a local limit of the nonlocal measure is considered. Local limits of large deviation
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T.
2018-03-01
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
Importance sampling large deviations in nonequilibrium steady states. I.
Ray, Ushnish; Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Limmer, David T
2018-03-28
Large deviation functions contain information on the stability and response of systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states and in such a way are similar to free energies for systems at equilibrium. As with equilibrium free energies, evaluating large deviation functions numerically for all but the simplest systems is difficult because by construction they depend on exponentially rare events. In this first paper of a series, we evaluate different trajectory-based sampling methods capable of computing large deviation functions of time integrated observables within nonequilibrium steady states. We illustrate some convergence criteria and best practices using a number of different models, including a biased Brownian walker, a driven lattice gas, and a model of self-assembly. We show how two popular methods for sampling trajectory ensembles, transition path sampling and diffusion Monte Carlo, suffer from exponentially diverging correlations in trajectory space as a function of the bias parameter when estimating large deviation functions. Improving the efficiencies of these algorithms requires introducing guiding functions for the trajectories.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jasemi, Ashkan; Sonnesen, Liselotte
2016-01-01
AIM: To analyze differences in prevalence and pattern of tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology between non syndromic children with tooth agenesis with and without upper cervical spine morphological deviations and to analyze associations between craniofacial morphology and tooth agenesis...... in the two groups together. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-six pre-orthodontic children with tooth agenesis were divided into two groups with (19 children, mean age 11.9) and without (107 children, mean age 11.4) upper spine morphological deviations. Visual assessment of upper spine morphology...... and measurements of craniofacial morphology were performed on lateral cephalograms. Tooth agenesis was evaluated from orthopantomograms. RESULTS: No significant differences in tooth agenesis and craniofacial morphology were found between children with and without upper spine morphological deviations (2.2 ± 1.6 vs...
Large deviations and portfolio optimization
Sornette, Didier
Risk control and optimal diversification constitute a major focus in the finance and insurance industries as well as, more or less consciously, in our everyday life. We present a discussion of the characterization of risks and of the optimization of portfolios that starts from a simple illustrative model and ends by a general functional integral formulation. A major item is that risk, usually thought of as one-dimensional in the conventional mean-variance approach, has to be addressed by the full distribution of losses. Furthermore, the time-horizon of the investment is shown to play a major role. We show the importance of accounting for large fluctuations and use the theory of Cramér for large deviations in this context. We first treat a simple model with a single risky asset that exemplifies the distinction between the average return and the typical return and the role of large deviations in multiplicative processes, and the different optimal strategies for the investors depending on their size. We then analyze the case of assets whose price variations are distributed according to exponential laws, a situation that is found to describe daily price variations reasonably well. Several portfolio optimization strategies are presented that aim at controlling large risks. We end by extending the standard mean-variance portfolio optimization theory, first within the quasi-Gaussian approximation and then using a general formulation for non-Gaussian correlated assets in terms of the formalism of functional integrals developed in the field theory of critical phenomena.
Large-Deviation Results for Discriminant Statistics of Gaussian Locally Stationary Processes
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Junichi Hirukawa
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses the large-deviation principle of discriminant statistics for Gaussian locally stationary processes. First, large-deviation theorems for quadratic forms and the log-likelihood ratio for a Gaussian locally stationary process with a mean function are proved. Their asymptotics are described by the large deviation rate functions. Second, we consider the situations where processes are misspecified to be stationary. In these misspecified cases, we formally make the log-likelihood ratio discriminant statistics and derive the large deviation theorems of them. Since they are complicated, they are evaluated and illustrated by numerical examples. We realize the misspecification of the process to be stationary seriously affecting our discrimination.
Large deviations in the presence of cooperativity and slow dynamics
Whitelam, Stephen
2018-06-01
We study simple models of intermittency, involving switching between two states, within the dynamical large-deviation formalism. Singularities appear in the formalism when switching is cooperative or when its basic time scale diverges. In the first case the unbiased trajectory distribution undergoes a symmetry breaking, leading to a change in shape of the large-deviation rate function for a particular dynamical observable. In the second case the symmetry of the unbiased trajectory distribution remains unbroken. Comparison of these models suggests that singularities of the dynamical large-deviation formalism can signal the dynamical equivalent of an equilibrium phase transition but do not necessarily do so.
Large deviation function for a driven underdamped particle in a periodic potential
Fischer, Lukas P.; Pietzonka, Patrick; Seifert, Udo
2018-02-01
Employing large deviation theory, we explore current fluctuations of underdamped Brownian motion for the paradigmatic example of a single particle in a one-dimensional periodic potential. Two different approaches to the large deviation function of the particle current are presented. First, we derive an explicit expression for the large deviation functional of the empirical phase space density, which replaces the level 2.5 functional used for overdamped dynamics. Using this approach, we obtain several bounds on the large deviation function of the particle current. We compare these to bounds for overdamped dynamics that have recently been derived, motivated by the thermodynamic uncertainty relation. Second, we provide a method to calculate the large deviation function via the cumulant generating function. We use this method to assess the tightness of the bounds in a numerical case study for a cosine potential.
A course on large deviations with an introduction to Gibbs measures
Rassoul-Agha, Firas
2015-01-01
This is an introductory course on the methods of computing asymptotics of probabilities of rare events: the theory of large deviations. The book combines large deviation theory with basic statistical mechanics, namely Gibbs measures with their variational characterization and the phase transition of the Ising model, in a text intended for a one semester or quarter course. The book begins with a straightforward approach to the key ideas and results of large deviation theory in the context of independent identically distributed random variables. This includes Cramér's theorem, relative entropy, Sanov's theorem, process level large deviations, convex duality, and change of measure arguments. Dependence is introduced through the interactions potentials of equilibrium statistical mechanics. The phase transition of the Ising model is proved in two different ways: first in the classical way with the Peierls argument, Dobrushin's uniqueness condition, and correlation inequalities and then a second time through the ...
On asymptotically efficient simulation of large deviation probabilities.
Dieker, A.B.; Mandjes, M.R.H.
2005-01-01
ABSTRACT: Consider a family of probabilities for which the decay is governed by a large deviation principle. To find an estimate for a fixed member of this family, one is often forced to use simulation techniques. Direct Monte Carlo simulation, however, is often impractical, particularly if the
Large deviations for solutions to stochastic recurrence equations under Kesten's condition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buraczewski, Dariusz; Damek, Ewa; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin
2013-01-01
In this paper we prove large deviations results for partial sums constructed from the solution to a stochastic recurrence equation. We assume Kesten’s condition [17] under which the solution of the stochastic recurrence equation has a marginal distribution with power law tails, while the noise...... sequence of the equations can have light tails. The results of the paper are analogs of those obtained by A.V. and S.V. Nagaev [21, 22] in the case of partial sums of iid random variables. In the latter case, the large deviation probabilities of the partial sums are essentially determined by the largest...... step size of the partial sum. For the solution to a stochastic recurrence equation, the magnitude of the large deviation probabilities is again given by the tail of the maximum summand, but the exact asymptotic tail behavior is also influenced by clusters of extreme values, due to dependencies...
Deviations from Newton's law in supersymmetric large extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callin, P.; Burgess, C.P.
2006-01-01
Deviations from Newton's inverse-squared law at the micron length scale are smoking-gun signals for models containing supersymmetric large extra dimensions (SLEDs), which have been proposed as approaches for resolving the cosmological constant problem. Just like their non-supersymmetric counterparts, SLED models predict gravity to deviate from the inverse-square law because of the advent of new dimensions at sub-millimeter scales. However SLED models differ from their non-supersymmetric counterparts in three important ways: (i) the size of the extra dimensions is fixed by the observed value of the dark energy density, making it impossible to shorten the range over which new deviations from Newton's law must be seen; (ii) supersymmetry predicts there to be more fields in the extra dimensions than just gravity, implying different types of couplings to matter and the possibility of repulsive as well as attractive interactions; and (iii) the same mechanism which is purported to keep the cosmological constant naturally small also keeps the extra-dimensional moduli effectively massless, leading to deviations from general relativity in the far infrared of the scalar-tensor form. We here explore the deviations from Newton's law which are predicted over micron distances, and show the ways in which they differ and resemble those in the non-supersymmetric case
Large deviations for Gaussian processes in Hoelder norm
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Fatalov, V R
2003-01-01
Some results are proved on the exact asymptotic representation of large deviation probabilities for Gaussian processes in the Hoeder norm. The following classes of processes are considered: the Wiener process, the Brownian bridge, fractional Brownian motion, and stationary Gaussian processes with power-law covariance function. The investigation uses the method of double sums for Gaussian fields
Quasi-potential and Two-Scale Large Deviation Theory for Gillespie Dynamics
Li, Tiejun
2016-01-07
The construction of energy landscape for bio-dynamics is attracting more and more attention recent years. In this talk, I will introduce the strategy to construct the landscape from the connection to rare events, which relies on the large deviation theory for Gillespie-type jump dynamics. In the application to a typical genetic switching model, the two-scale large deviation theory is developed to take into account the fast switching of DNA states. The comparison with other proposals are also discussed. We demonstrate different diffusive limits arise when considering different regimes for genetic translation and switching processes.
An explicit local uniform large deviation bound for Brownian bridges
Wittich, O.
2005-01-01
By comparing curve length in a manifold and a standard sphere, we prove a local uniform bound for the exponent in the Large Deviation formula that describes the concentration of Brownian bridges to geodesics.
Level 2 and level 2.5 large deviation functionals for systems with and without detailed balance
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Hoppenau, J; Nickelsen, D; Engel, A
2016-01-01
Large deviation functions are an essential tool in the statistics of rare events. Often they can be obtained by contraction from a so-called level 2 or level 2.5 large deviation functional characterizing the empirical density and current of the underlying stochastic process. For Langevin systems obeying detailed balance, the explicit form of the level 2 functional has been known ever since the mathematical work of Donsker and Varadhan. We rederive the Donsker–Varadhan result using stochastic path-integrals. We than generalize the derivation to level 2.5 large deviation functionals for non-equilibrium steady states and elucidate the relation between the large deviation functionals and different notions of entropy production in stochastic thermodynamics. Finally, we discuss some aspects of the contractions to level 1 large deviation functions and illustrate our findings with examples. (paper)
Two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction kinetics through second quantization path integral
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Tiejun; Lin, Feng
2016-01-01
Motivated by the study of rare events for a typical genetic switching model in systems biology, in this paper we aim to establish the general two-scale large deviations for chemical reaction systems. We build a formal approach to explicitly obtain the large deviation rate functionals for the considered two-scale processes based upon the second quantization path integral technique. We get three important types of large deviation results when the underlying two timescales are in three different regimes. This is realized by singular perturbation analysis to the rate functionals obtained by the path integral. We find that the three regimes possess the same deterministic mean-field limit but completely different chemical Langevin approximations. The obtained results are natural extensions of the classical large volume limit for chemical reactions. We also discuss its implication on the single-molecule Michaelis–Menten kinetics. Our framework and results can be applied to understand general multi-scale systems including diffusion processes. (paper)
Large Deviations and Asymptotic Methods in Finance
Gatheral, Jim; Gulisashvili, Archil; Jacquier, Antoine; Teichmann, Josef
2015-01-01
Topics covered in this volume (large deviations, differential geometry, asymptotic expansions, central limit theorems) give a full picture of the current advances in the application of asymptotic methods in mathematical finance, and thereby provide rigorous solutions to important mathematical and financial issues, such as implied volatility asymptotics, local volatility extrapolation, systemic risk and volatility estimation. This volume gathers together ground-breaking results in this field by some of its leading experts. Over the past decade, asymptotic methods have played an increasingly important role in the study of the behaviour of (financial) models. These methods provide a useful alternative to numerical methods in settings where the latter may lose accuracy (in extremes such as small and large strikes, and small maturities), and lead to a clearer understanding of the behaviour of models, and of the influence of parameters on this behaviour. Graduate students, researchers and practitioners will find th...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hurtado, Pablo I; Garrido, Pedro L
2009-01-01
We study the distribution of the time-integrated current in an exactly solvable toy model of heat conduction, both analytically and numerically. The simplicity of the model allows us to derive the full current large deviation function and the system statistics during a large deviation event. In this way we unveil a relation between system statistics at the end of a large deviation event and for intermediate times. The mid-time statistics is independent of the sign of the current, a reflection of the time-reversal symmetry of microscopic dynamics, while the end-time statistics does depend on the current sign, and also on its microscopic definition. We compare our exact results with simulations based on the direct evaluation of large deviation functions, analyzing the finite-size corrections of this simulation method and deriving detailed bounds for its applicability. We also show how the Gallavotti–Cohen fluctuation theorem can be used to determine the range of validity of simulation results
Large deviations and mixing for dissipative PDEs with unbounded random kicks
Jakšić, V.; Nersesyan, V.; Pillet, C.-A.; Shirikyan, A.
2018-02-01
We study the problem of exponential mixing and large deviations for discrete-time Markov processes associated with a class of random dynamical systems. Under some dissipativity and regularisation hypotheses for the underlying deterministic dynamics and a non-degeneracy condition for the driving random force, we discuss the existence and uniqueness of a stationary measure and its exponential stability in the Kantorovich-Wasserstein metric. We next turn to the large deviations principle (LDP) and establish its validity for the occupation measures of the Markov processes in question. The proof is based on Kifer’s criterion for non-compact spaces, a result on large-time asymptotics for generalised Markov semigroup, and a coupling argument. These tools combined together constitute a new approach to LDP for infinite-dimensional processes without strong Feller property in a non-compact space. The results obtained can be applied to the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes system in a bounded domain and to the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.
Large Deviations for Two-Time-Scale Diffusions, with Delays
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Kushner, Harold J.
2010-01-01
We consider the problem of large deviations for a two-time-scale reflected diffusion process, possibly with delays in the dynamical terms. The Dupuis-Ellis weak convergence approach is used. It is perhaps the most intuitive and simplest for the problems of concern. The results have applications to the problem of approximating optimal controls for two-time-scale systems via use of the averaged equation.
Efficient characterisation of large deviations using population dynamics
Brewer, Tobias; Clark, Stephen R.; Bradford, Russell; Jack, Robert L.
2018-05-01
We consider population dynamics as implemented by the cloning algorithm for analysis of large deviations of time-averaged quantities. We use the simple symmetric exclusion process with periodic boundary conditions as a prototypical example and investigate the convergence of the results with respect to the algorithmic parameters, focussing on the dynamical phase transition between homogeneous and inhomogeneous states, where convergence is relatively difficult to achieve. We discuss how the performance of the algorithm can be optimised, and how it can be efficiently exploited on parallel computing platforms.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Tamed 3D Navier-Stokes Equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roeckner, Michael; Zhang, Tusheng; Zhang Xicheng
2010-01-01
In this paper, using weak convergence method, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell type for the stochastic tamed 3D Navier-Stokes equations driven by multiplicative noise, which was investigated in (Roeckner and Zhang in Probab. Theory Relat. Fields 145(1-2), 211-267, 2009).
Wasserstein gradient flows from large deviations of many-particle limits
Duong, M.H.; Laschos, V.; Renger, D.R.M.
2013-01-01
We study the Fokker–Planck equation as the many-particle limit of a stochastic particle system on one hand and as a Wasserstein gradient flow on the other. We write the path-space rate functional, which characterises the large deviations from the expected trajectories, in such a way that the free
Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhai, Jianliang; Zhang, Tusheng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.
Large Deviations for Stochastic Models of Two-Dimensional Second Grade Fluids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhai, Jianliang, E-mail: zhaijl@ustc.edu.cn [University of Science and Technology of China, School of Mathematical Sciences (China); Zhang, Tusheng, E-mail: Tusheng.Zhang@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, School of Mathematics (United Kingdom)
2017-06-15
In this paper, we establish a large deviation principle for stochastic models of incompressible second grade fluids. The weak convergence method introduced by Budhiraja and Dupuis (Probab Math Statist 20:39–61, 2000) plays an important role.
Quasi-potential and Two-Scale Large Deviation Theory for Gillespie Dynamics
Li, Tiejun; Li, Fangting; Li, Xianggang; Lu, Cheng
2016-01-01
theory for Gillespie-type jump dynamics. In the application to a typical genetic switching model, the two-scale large deviation theory is developed to take into account the fast switching of DNA states. The comparison with other proposals are also
Standard Deviation for Small Samples
Joarder, Anwar H.; Latif, Raja M.
2006-01-01
Neater representations for variance are given for small sample sizes, especially for 3 and 4. With these representations, variance can be calculated without a calculator if sample sizes are small and observations are integers, and an upper bound for the standard deviation is immediate. Accessible proofs of lower and upper bounds are presented for…
WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations
Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch
2017-06-01
Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work.
Large-deviation theory for diluted Wishart random matrices
Castillo, Isaac Pérez; Metz, Fernando L.
2018-03-01
Wishart random matrices with a sparse or diluted structure are ubiquitous in the processing of large datasets, with applications in physics, biology, and economy. In this work, we develop a theory for the eigenvalue fluctuations of diluted Wishart random matrices based on the replica approach of disordered systems. We derive an analytical expression for the cumulant generating function of the number of eigenvalues IN(x ) smaller than x ∈R+ , from which all cumulants of IN(x ) and the rate function Ψx(k ) controlling its large-deviation probability Prob[IN(x ) =k N ] ≍e-N Ψx(k ) follow. Explicit results for the mean value and the variance of IN(x ) , its rate function, and its third cumulant are discussed and thoroughly compared to numerical diagonalization, showing very good agreement. The present work establishes the theoretical framework put forward in a recent letter [Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 104101 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.104101] as an exact and compelling approach to deal with eigenvalue fluctuations of sparse random matrices.
WKB theory of large deviations in stochastic populations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assaf, Michael; Meerson, Baruch
2017-01-01
Stochasticity can play an important role in the dynamics of biologically relevant populations. These span a broad range of scales: from intra-cellular populations of molecules to population of cells and then to groups of plants, animals and people. Large deviations in stochastic population dynamics—such as those determining population extinction, fixation or switching between different states—are presently in a focus of attention of statistical physicists. We review recent progress in applying different variants of dissipative WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) to this class of problems. The WKB approximation allows one to evaluate the mean time and/or probability of population extinction, fixation and switches resulting from either intrinsic (demographic) noise, or a combination of the demographic noise and environmental variations, deterministic or random. We mostly cover well-mixed populations, single and multiple, but also briefly consider populations on heterogeneous networks and spatial populations. The spatial setting also allows one to study large fluctuations of the speed of biological invasions. Finally, we briefly discuss possible directions of future work. (topical review)
A large deviations approach to limit theory for heavy-tailed time series
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mikosch, Thomas Valentin; Wintenberger, Olivier
2016-01-01
and vanishing in some neighborhood of the origin. We study a variety of such functionals, including large deviations of random walks, their suprema, the ruin functional, and further derive weak limit theory for maxima, point processes, cluster functionals and the tail empirical process. One of the main results...
A large deviations approach to the transient of the Erlang loss model
Mandjes, M.R.H.; Ridder, Annemarie
2001-01-01
This paper deals with the transient behavior of the Erlang loss model. After scaling both arrival rate and number of trunks, an asymptotic analysis of the blocking probability is given. Apart from that, the most likely path to blocking is given. Compared to Shwartz and Weiss [Large Deviations for
Berger, Noam; Mukherjee, Chiranjib; Okamura, Kazuki
2018-03-01
We prove a quenched large deviation principle (LDP) for a simple random walk on a supercritical percolation cluster (SRWPC) on {Z^d} ({d ≥ 2}). The models under interest include classical Bernoulli bond and site percolation as well as models that exhibit long range correlations, like the random cluster model, the random interlacement and the vacant set of random interlacements (for {d ≥ 3}) and the level sets of the Gaussian free field ({d≥ 3}). Inspired by the methods developed by Kosygina et al. (Commun Pure Appl Math 59:1489-1521, 2006) for proving quenched LDP for elliptic diffusions with a random drift, and by Yilmaz (Commun Pure Appl Math 62(8):1033-1075, 2009) and Rosenbluth (Quenched large deviations for multidimensional random walks in a random environment: a variational formula. Ph.D. thesis, NYU, arXiv:0804.1444v1) for similar results regarding elliptic random walks in random environment, we take the point of view of the moving particle and prove a large deviation principle for the quenched distribution of the pair empirical measures of the environment Markov chain in the non-elliptic case of SRWPC. Via a contraction principle, this reduces easily to a quenched LDP for the distribution of the mean velocity of the random walk and both rate functions admit explicit variational formulas. The main difficulty in our set up lies in the inherent non-ellipticity as well as the lack of translation-invariance stemming from conditioning on the fact that the origin belongs to the infinite cluster. We develop a unifying approach for proving quenched large deviations for SRWPC based on exploiting coercivity properties of the relative entropies in the context of convex variational analysis, combined with input from ergodic theory and invoking geometric properties of the supercritical percolation cluster.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Eric
2011-01-01
The meaning of thermodynamic descriptions is found in large-deviations scaling (Ellis 1985 Entropy, Large Deviations, and Statistical Mechanics (New York: Springer); Touchette 2009 Phys. Rep. 478 1-69) of the probabilities for fluctuations of averaged quantities. The central function expressing large-deviations scaling is the entropy, which is the basis both for fluctuation theorems and for characterizing the thermodynamic interactions of systems. Freidlin-Wentzell theory (Freidlin and Wentzell 1998 Random Perturbations in Dynamical Systems 2nd edn (New York: Springer)) provides a quite general formulation of large-deviations scaling for non-equilibrium stochastic processes, through a remarkable representation in terms of a Hamiltonian dynamical system. A number of related methods now exist to construct the Freidlin-Wentzell Hamiltonian for many kinds of stochastic processes; one method due to Doi (1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1465-78; 1976 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 9 1479) and Peliti (1985 J. Physique 46 1469; 1986 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 19 L365, appropriate to integer counting statistics, is widely used in reaction-diffusion theory. Using these tools together with a path-entropy method due to Jaynes (1980 Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem. 31 579-601), this review shows how to construct entropy functions that both express large-deviations scaling of fluctuations, and describe system-environment interactions, for discrete stochastic processes either at or away from equilibrium. A collection of variational methods familiar within quantum field theory, but less commonly applied to the Doi-Peliti construction, is used to define a 'stochastic effective action', which is the large-deviations rate function for arbitrary non-equilibrium paths. We show how common principles of entropy maximization, applied to different ensembles of states or of histories, lead to different entropy functions and different sets of thermodynamic state variables. Yet the relations among all these levels of
Ren, Jiagang; Wu, Jing; Zhang, Hua
2015-01-01
In this paper, we prove a large deviation principle of Freidlin-Wentzell's type for the multivalued stochastic differential equations. As an application, we derive a functional iterated logarithm law for the solutions of multivalued stochastic differential equations.
Perception of midline deviations in smile esthetics by laypersons.
Ferreira, Jamille Barros; Silva, Licínio Esmeraldo da; Caetano, Márcia Tereza de Oliveira; Motta, Andrea Fonseca Jardim da; Cury-Saramago, Adriana de Alcantara; Mucha, José Nelson
2016-01-01
To evaluate the esthetic perception of upper dental midline deviation by laypersons and if adjacent structures influence their judgment. An album with 12 randomly distributed frontal view photographs of the smile of a woman with the midline digitally deviated was evaluated by 95 laypersons. The frontal view smiling photograph was modified to create from 1 mm to 5 mm deviations in the upper midline to the left side. The photographs were cropped in two different manners and divided into two groups of six photographs each: group LCN included the lips, chin, and two-thirds of the nose, and group L included the lips only. The laypersons performed the rate of each smile using a visual analog scale (VAS). Wilcoxon test, Student's t-test and Mann-Whitney test were applied, adopting a 5% level of significance. Laypersons were able to perceive midline deviations starting at 1 mm. Statistically significant results (p< 0.05) were found for all multiple comparisons of the values in photographs of group LCN and for almost all comparisons in photographs of group L. Comparisons between the photographs of groups LCN and L showed statistically significant values (p< 0.05) when the deviation was 1 mm. Laypersons were able to perceive the upper dental midline deviations of 1 mm, and above when the adjacent structures of the smiles were included. Deviations of 2 mm and above when the lips only were included. The visualization of structures adjacent to the smile demonstrated influence on the perception of midline deviation.
Large-deviation properties of resilience of power grids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewenter, Timo; Hartmann, Alexander K
2015-01-01
We study the distributions of the resilience of power flow models against transmission line failures via a so-called backup capacity. We consider three ensembles of random networks, and in addition, the topology of the British transmission power grid. The three ensembles are Erdős–Rényi random graphs, Erdős–Rényi random graphs with a fixed number of links, and spatial networks where the nodes are embedded in a two-dimensional plane. We numerically investigate the probability density functions (pdfs) down to the tails to gain insight into very resilient and very vulnerable networks. This is achieved via large-deviation techniques, which allow us to study very rare values that occur with probability densities below 10 −160 . We find that the right tail of the pdfs towards larger backup capacities follows an exponential with a strong curvature. This is confirmed by the rate function, which approaches a limiting curve for increasing network sizes. Very resilient networks are basically characterized by a small diameter and a large power sign ratio. In addition, networks can be made typically more resilient by adding more links. (paper)
Large deviation estimates for a Non-Markovian Lévy generator of big order
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Léandre, Rémi
2015-01-01
We give large deviation estimates for a non-markovian convolution semi-group with a non-local generator of Lévy type of big order and with the standard normalisation of semi-classical analysis. No stochastic process is associated to this semi-group. (paper)
Han, Zhifeng; Liu, Jianye; Li, Rongbing; Zeng, Qinghua; Wang, Yi
2017-07-04
BeiDou system navigation messages are modulated with a secondary NH (Neumann-Hoffman) code of 1 kbps, where frequent bit transitions limit the coherent integration time to 1 millisecond. Therefore, a bit synchronization algorithm is necessary to obtain bit edges and NH code phases. In order to realize bit synchronization for BeiDou weak signals with large frequency deviation, a bit synchronization algorithm based on differential coherent and maximum likelihood is proposed. Firstly, a differential coherent approach is used to remove the effect of frequency deviation, and the differential delay time is set to be a multiple of bit cycle to remove the influence of NH code. Secondly, the maximum likelihood function detection is used to improve the detection probability of weak signals. Finally, Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to analyze the detection performance of the proposed algorithm compared with a traditional algorithm under the CN0s of 20~40 dB-Hz and different frequency deviations. The results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the traditional method with a frequency deviation of 50 Hz. This algorithm can remove the effect of BeiDou NH code effectively and weaken the influence of frequency deviation. To confirm the feasibility of the proposed algorithm, real data tests are conducted. The proposed algorithm is suitable for BeiDou weak signal bit synchronization with large frequency deviation.
Large deviations for the Fleming-Viot process with neutral mutation and selection
Dawson, Donald; Feng, Shui
1998-01-01
Large deviation principles are established for the Fleming-Viot processes with neutral mutation and selection, and the corresponding equilibrium measures as the sampling rate goes to 0. All results are first proved for the finite allele model, and then generalized, through the projective limit technique, to the infinite allele model. Explicit expressions are obtained for the rate functions.
Das, Biswajit; Gangopadhyay, Gautam
2018-05-01
In the framework of large deviation theory, we have characterized nonequilibrium turnover statistics of enzyme catalysis in a chemiostatic flow with externally controllable parameters, like substrate injection rate and mechanical force. In the kinetics of the process, we have shown the fluctuation theorems in terms of the symmetry of the scaled cumulant generating function (SCGF) in the transient and steady state regime and a similar symmetry rule is reflected in a large deviation rate function (LDRF) as a property of the dissipation rate through boundaries. Large deviation theory also gives the thermodynamic force of a nonequilibrium steady state, as is usually recorded experimentally by a single molecule technique, which plays a key role responsible for the dynamical symmetry of the SCGF and LDRF. Using some special properties of the Legendre transformation, here, we have provided a relation between the fluctuations of fluxes and dissipation rates, and among them, the fluctuation of the turnover rate is routinely estimated but the fluctuation in the dissipation rate is yet to be characterized for small systems. Such an enzymatic reaction flow system can be a very good testing ground to systematically understand the rare events from the large deviation theory which is beyond fluctuation theorem and central limit theorem.
Large deviations of a long-time average in the Ehrenfest urn model
Meerson, Baruch; Zilber, Pini
2018-05-01
Since its inception in 1907, the Ehrenfest urn model (EUM) has served as a test bed of key concepts of statistical mechanics. Here we employ this model to study large deviations of a time-additive quantity. We consider two continuous-time versions of the EUM with K urns and N balls: with and without interactions between the balls in the same urn. We evaluate the probability distribution that the average number of balls in one urn over time T, , takes any specified value aN, where . For long observation time, , a Donsker–Varadhan large deviation principle holds: , where … denote additional parameters of the model. We calculate the rate function exactly by two different methods due to Donsker and Varadhan and compare the exact results with those obtained with a variant of WKB approximation (after Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin). In the absence of interactions the WKB prediction for is exact for any N. In the presence of interactions the WKB method gives asymptotically exact results for . The WKB method also uncovers the (very simple) time history of the system which dominates the contribution of different time histories to .
Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vivo, Pierpaolo; Majumdar, Satya N; Bohigas, Oriol
2007-01-01
We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X T X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value (λ) = N/c decreases for large N as ∼exp[-β/2 N 2 Φ - (2√c + 1: c)], where β = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M ≤ 1 and Φ - (x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions
Large deviations of the maximum eigenvalue in Wishart random matrices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vivo, Pierpaolo [School of Information Systems, Computing and Mathematics, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UB8 3PH (United Kingdom) ; Majumdar, Satya N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Bohigas, Oriol [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique et Modeles Statistiques (UMR 8626 du CNRS), Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 100, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France)
2007-04-20
We analytically compute the probability of large fluctuations to the left of the mean of the largest eigenvalue in the Wishart (Laguerre) ensemble of positive definite random matrices. We show that the probability that all the eigenvalues of a (N x N) Wishart matrix W = X{sup T}X (where X is a rectangular M x N matrix with independent Gaussian entries) are smaller than the mean value ({lambda}) = N/c decreases for large N as {approx}exp[-{beta}/2 N{sup 2}{phi}{sub -} (2{radical}c + 1: c)], where {beta} = 1, 2 corresponds respectively to real and complex Wishart matrices, c = N/M {<=} 1 and {phi}{sub -}(x; c) is a rate (sometimes also called large deviation) function that we compute explicitly. The result for the anti-Wishart case (M < N) simply follows by exchanging M and N. We also analytically determine the average spectral density of an ensemble of Wishart matrices whose eigenvalues are constrained to be smaller than a fixed barrier. Numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the analytical predictions.
Large deviations of heavy-tailed random sums with applications in insurance and finance
Kluppelberg, C; Mikosch, T
We prove large deviation results for the random sum S(t)=Sigma(i=1)(N(t)) X-i, t greater than or equal to 0, where (N(t))(t greater than or equal to 0) are non-negative integer-valued random variables and (X-n)(n is an element of N) are i.i.d. non-negative random Variables with common distribution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuo Zhang
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we consider a size-dependent renewal risk model with stopping time claim-number process. In this model, we do not make any assumption on the dependence structure of claim sizes and inter-arrival times. We study large deviations of the aggregate amount of claims. For the subexponential heavy-tailed case, we obtain a precise large-deviation formula; our method substantially relies on a martingale for the structure of our models.
A large deviation principle in H\\"older norm for multiple fractional integrals
Sanz-Solé, Marta; Torrecilla-Tarantino, Iván
2007-01-01
For a fractional Brownian motion $B^H$ with Hurst parameter $H\\in]{1/4},{1/2}[\\cup]{1/2},1[$, multiple indefinite integrals on a simplex are constructed and the regularity of their sample paths are studied. Then, it is proved that the family of probability laws of the processes obtained by replacing $B^H$ by $\\epsilon^{{1/2}} B^H$ satisfies a large deviation principle in H\\"older norm. The definition of the multiple integrals relies upon a representation of the fractional Brownian motion in t...
Large Deviations for the Annealed Ising Model on Inhomogeneous Random Graphs: Spins and Degrees
Dommers, Sander; Giardinà, Cristian; Giberti, Claudio; Hofstad, Remco van der
2018-04-01
We prove a large deviations principle for the total spin and the number of edges under the annealed Ising measure on generalized random graphs. We also give detailed results on how the annealing over the Ising model changes the degrees of the vertices in the graph and show how it gives rise to interesting correlated random graphs.
A framework for the direct evaluation of large deviations in non-Markovian processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cavallaro, Massimo; Harris, Rosemary J
2016-01-01
We propose a general framework to simulate stochastic trajectories with arbitrarily long memory dependence and efficiently evaluate large deviation functions associated to time-extensive observables. This extends the ‘cloning’ procedure of Giardiná et al (2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 96 120603) to non-Markovian systems. We demonstrate the validity of this method by testing non-Markovian variants of an ion-channel model and the totally asymmetric exclusion process, recovering results obtainable by other means. (letter)
From a large-deviations principle to the Wasserstein gradient flow : a new micro-macro passage
Adams, S.; Dirr, N.; Peletier, M.A.; Zimmer, J.
2011-01-01
We study the connection between a system of many independent Brownian particles on one hand and the deterministic diffusion equation on the other. For a fixed time step h > 0, a large-deviations rate functional J h characterizes the behaviour of the particle system at t = h in terms of the initial
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hanasaki, Itsuo; Kawano, Satoyuki
2013-01-01
Motility of bacteria is usually recognized in the trajectory data and compared with Brownian motion, but the diffusion coefficient is insufficient to evaluate it. In this paper, we propose a method based on the large deviation principle. We show that it can be used to evaluate the non-Gaussian characteristics of model Escherichia coli motions and to distinguish combinations of the mean running duration and running speed that lead to the same diffusion coefficient. Our proposed method does not require chemical stimuli to induce the chemotaxis in a specific direction, and it is applicable to various types of self-propelling motions for which no a priori information of, for example, threshold parameters for run and tumble or head/tail direction is available. We also address the issue of the finite-sample effect on the large deviation quantities, but we propose to make use of it to characterize the nature of motility. (paper)
Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien
2017-06-01
Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which-as shown on the contact process-provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.
Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Nemoto, Takahiro; Lecomte, Vivien
2017-06-01
Rare trajectories of stochastic systems are important to understand because of their potential impact. However, their properties are by definition difficult to sample directly. Population dynamics provides a numerical tool allowing their study, by means of simulating a large number of copies of the system, which are subjected to selection rules that favor the rare trajectories of interest. Such algorithms are plagued by finite simulation time and finite population size, effects that can render their use delicate. In this paper, we present a numerical approach which uses the finite-time and finite-size scalings of estimators of the large deviation functions associated to the distribution of rare trajectories. The method we propose allows one to extract the infinite-time and infinite-size limit of these estimators, which—as shown on the contact process—provides a significant improvement of the large deviation function estimators compared to the standard one.
Large Abundances of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Titan's Upper Atmosphere
Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.
2013-01-01
In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 micron in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al.We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 micron. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) × 10(exp 4) particles / cubic cm. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is approx 430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 sq. nm; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chertkov, Michael; Kolokolov, Igor; Lebedev, Vladimir
2012-01-01
The standard definition of the stochastic risk-sensitive linear–quadratic (RS-LQ) control depends on the risk parameter, which is normally left to be set exogenously. We reconsider the classical approach and suggest two alternatives, resolving the spurious freedom naturally. One approach consists in seeking for the minimum of the tail of the probability distribution function (PDF) of the cost functional at some large fixed value. Another option suggests minimizing the expectation value of the cost functional under a constraint on the value of the PDF tail. Under the assumption of resulting control stability, both problems are reduced to static optimizations over a stationary control matrix. The solutions are illustrated using the examples of scalar and 1D chain (string) systems. The large deviation self-similar asymptotic of the cost functional PDF is analyzed. (paper)
Kotik, A.; Usyukin, V.; Vinogradov, I.; Arkhipov, M.
2017-11-01
he realization of astrophysical researches requires the development of high-sensitive centimeterband parabolic space radiotelescopes (SRT) with the large-size mirrors. Constructively such SRT with the mirror size more than 10 m can be realized as deployable rigid structures. Mesh-structures of such size do not provide the reflector reflecting surface accuracy which is necessary for the centimeter band observations. Now such telescope with the 10 m diameter mirror is developed in Russia in the frame of "SPECTR - R" program. External dimensions of the telescope is more than the size of existing thermo-vacuum chambers used to prove SRT reflecting surface accuracy parameters under the action of space environment factors. That's why the numerical simulation turns out to be the basis required to accept the taken designs. Such modeling should be based on experimental working of the basic constructive materials and elements of the future reflector. In the article computational modeling of reflecting surface deviations of a centimeter-band of a large-sized deployable space reflector at a stage of his orbital functioning is considered. The analysis of the factors that determines the deviations - both determined (temperatures fields) and not-determined (telescope manufacturing and installation faults; the deformations caused by features of composite materials behavior in space) is carried out. The finite-element model and complex of methods are developed. They allow to carry out computational modeling of reflecting surface deviations caused by influence of all factors and to take into account the deviations correction by space vehicle orientation system. The results of modeling for two modes of functioning (orientation at the Sun) SRT are presented.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
De Roeck, W.; Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel; Schütz, M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 2 (2015), "023301-1"-"023301-30" ISSN 0022-2488 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : quantum systems * quantum large deviations * entanglement * cluster expansions Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics Impact factor: 1.234, year: 2015
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mourragui, Mustapha; Orlandi, Enza
2013-01-01
A particle system with a single locally-conserved field (density) in a bounded interval with different densities maintained at the two endpoints of the interval is under study here. The particles interact in the bulk through a long-range potential parametrized by β⩾0 and evolve according to an exclusion rule. It is shown that the empirical particle density under the diffusive scaling solves a quasilinear integro-differential evolution equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The associated dynamical large deviation principle is proved. Furthermore, when β is small enough, it is also demonstrated that the empirical particle density obeys a law of large numbers with respect to the stationary measures (hydrostatic). The macroscopic particle density solves a non-local, stationary, transport equation. (paper)
Some novel inequalities for fuzzy variables on the variance and its rational upper bound
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiajie Yi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Variance is of great significance in measuring the degree of deviation, which has gained extensive usage in many fields in practical scenarios. The definition of the variance on the basis of the credibility measure was first put forward in 2002. Following this idea, the calculation of the accurate value of the variance for some special fuzzy variables, like the symmetric and asymmetric triangular fuzzy numbers and the Gaussian fuzzy numbers, is presented in this paper, which turns out to be far more complicated. Thus, in order to better implement variance in real-life projects like risk control and quality management, we suggest a rational upper bound of the variance based on an inequality, together with its calculation formula, which can largely simplify the calculation process within a reasonable range. Meanwhile, some discussions between the variance and its rational upper bound are presented to show the rationality of the latter. Furthermore, two inequalities regarding the rational upper bound of variance and standard deviation of the sum of two fuzzy variables and their individual variances and standard deviations are proved. Subsequently, some numerical examples are illustrated to show the effectiveness and the feasibility of the proposed inequalities.
Duffy, Ken; Lobunets, Olena; Suhov, Yuri
2007-05-01
We propose a model of a loss averse investor who aims to maximize his expected wealth under certain constraints. The constraints are that he avoids, with high probability, incurring an (suitably defined) unacceptable loss. The methodology employed comes from the theory of large deviations. We explore a number of fundamental properties of the model and illustrate its desirable features. We demonstrate its utility by analyzing assets that follow some commonly used financial return processes: Fractional Brownian Motion, Jump Diffusion, Variance Gamma and Truncated Lévy.
75 FR 76632 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO
2010-12-09
... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Hannibal Railroad Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 309.9, at Hannibal, Missouri. The deviation is necessary to allow...
Nagaev, Alexander; Zaigraev, Alexander
2005-01-01
A class of absolutely continuous distributions in Rd is considered. Each distribution belongs to the domain of normal attraction of an α-stable law. The limit law is characterized by a spectral measure which is absolutely continuous with respect to the spherical Lebesgue measure. The large-deviation problem for sums of independent and identically distributed random vectors when the underlying distribution belongs to that class is studied. At the focus of attention are the deviations in the di...
LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), E-18080 Granada (Spain); Dinelli, B. M. [ISAC-CNR, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Adriani, A.; D' Aversa, E. [IAPS-INAF, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Moriconi, M. L. [ISAC-CNR, I-00133 Rome (Italy); Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J., E-mail: puertas@iaa.es [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035-1000 (United States)
2013-06-20
In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gerhard MAIER
2005-08-01
Full Text Available The zooplankton communities of two basins of a large lake, Lake Constance, were compared during the years 2002 and 2003. The two basins differ in morphology, physical and chemical conditions. The Upper Lake basin has a surface area of 470 km2, a mean depth of 100 and a maximum depth of 250 m; the Lower Lake basin has a surface area of 62 km2, a mean depth of only 13 and a maximum depth of 40 m. Nutrient, chlorophyll-a concentrations and mean temperatures are somewhat higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of rotifers (number per m2 lake surface was higher and rotifer development started earlier in the year in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Total abundance of crustaceans was higher in the Upper Lake in the year 2002; in the year 2003 no difference in abundance could be detected between the lake basins, although in summer crustacean abundance was higher in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. Crustacean communities differed significantly between lake basins while there was no apparent difference in rotifer communities. In the Lower Lake small crustaceans, like Bosmina spp., Ceriodaphnia pulchella and Thermocyclops oithonoides prevailed. Abundance (number per m2 lake surface of predatory cladocerans, large daphnids and large copepods was much lower in the Lower than in the Upper Lake, in particular during the summer months. Ordination with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS separated communities of both lakes along gradients that correlated with temperature and chlorophyll a concentration. Clutches of copepods were larger in the Lower than in the Upper Lake. No difference could be detected in clutch size of large daphnids between lake basins. Our results show that zooplankton communities in different basins of Lake Constance can be very different. They further suggest that the lack of large crustaceans in particular the lack of large predatory cladocerans in the Lower Lake can have negative effects on growth and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio David Corrêa Normando
2009-04-01
Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: avaliar o grau de percepção do desvio de linha média superior e da angulação incisal do arco superior entre ortodontistas e leigos, assim como a influência da visualização clínica do filtro labial como referência morfológica para esse diagnóstico. MÉTODOS: foi utilizada a fotografia do sorriso de um indivíduo do gênero feminino, na qual foram produzidas alterações na linha média dentária, de 1 em 1 milímetro, até 4mm, e na angulação incisal, de 5 em 5 graus, até 15 graus, ambas para o lado esquerdo, com o auxílio de um programa de manipulação de imagens (Adobe Photoshop 7.0®.As imagens obtidas foram recortadas,formando um grupo com e outro sem a visualização do filtro labial e,em seguida,foram organizadas aleatoriamente e avaliadas por 24 ortodontistas e 24 indivíduos leigos com nível superior. RESULTADOS: os resultados obtidos revelaram que os ortodontistas foram capazes de detectar desvios da linha média a partir de 2mm (p AIM: The present study evaluated the perception degree of the upper midline deviation and crown incisor angulation among orthodontists and lay people, as well as the influence of the labial philtrum visualization as a morphological reference of the facial midline during smile examination. METHODS: in a smile picture taken from a 23 year old female, 10 year after orthodontic retention, changes were made in the upper midline, from 1mm to 4mm, and in the crown incisor angulation, from 5º to 15º, both for left side, using a image manipulation software (Adobe Photoshop 7.0. The pictures were cut out forming a group with and another without the visualization of the labial philtrum. The images obtained were examined by 24 orthodontists and 24 graduated lay people. RESULTS: Results showed that orthodontists were less tolerant to discrepancies of midline than lay people, as well as to changes in the crown incisor angulation. The orthodontists were able to observe midline deviations of 2mm
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R.I.; Stein, R.F.
1979-01-01
Deviations from LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient b is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section αsub(ν) grows with frequency ν faster than ν 2 ; b exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of αsub(ν). Overpopulation (b > 1) always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature. (author)
Deviations from LTE in a stellar atmosphere
Kalkofen, W.; Klein, R. I.; Stein, R. F.
1979-01-01
Deviations for LTE are investigated in an atmosphere of hydrogen atoms with one bound level, satisfying the equations of radiative, hydrostatic, and statistical equilibrium. The departure coefficient and the kinetic temperature as functions of the frequency dependence of the radiative cross section are studied analytically and numerically. Near the outer boundary of the atmosphere, the departure coefficient is smaller than unity when the radiative cross section grows with frequency faster than with the square of frequency; it exceeds unity otherwise. Far from the boundary the departure coefficient tends to exceed unity for any frequency dependence of the radiative cross section. Overpopulation always implies that the kinetic temperature in the statistical-equilibrium atmosphere is higher than the temperature in the corresponding LTE atmosphere. Upper and lower bounds on the kinetic temperature are given for an atmosphere with deviations from LTE only in the optically shallow layers when the emergent intensity can be described by a radiation temperature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shchukina, N.G.
1980-01-01
The methodology of the problem of deviation from local thermodynamical equilibrium in the solar atmosphere is presented. The difficulties of solution and methods of realization are systematized. The processes of line formation are considered which take into account velocity fields, structural inhomogeneity, radiation non-coherence etc. as applied to a quiet solar atmosphere. The conclusion is made on the regularity of deviation of the local thermodynamic equilibrium in upper layers of the solar atmosphere
P. Dorian Owen
2009-01-01
The relative standard deviation of win percentages, the most widely used measure of within-season competitive balance, has an upper bound which is very sensitive to variation in the numbers of teams and games played. Taking into account this upper bound provides additional insight into comparisons of competitive balance across leagues or over time.
Ribeiro, Sara F T; Milbratz, Gherusa H; Garcia, Denny M; Devoto, Martin; Guilherme Neto, H; Mörschbächer, Ricardo; Pereira, Filipe J; Cruz, Antonio A V
2012-01-01
One of the most common problems of the surgical management of Graves upper eyelid retraction is the occurrence of eyelid contour abnormalities. In the present study, the postoperative contour of a large sample of eyelids of patients with Graves orbitopathy was measured. The postoperative upper eyelid contour of 62 eyes of 43 patients with Graves orbitopathy was subjectively classified by 3 experienced surgeons in 3 categories: poor, fair, and good. The shape of the eyelid contours in each category was then measured with a recently developed custom-made software by measuring multiple midpupil eyelid distances each 15° along the palpebral fissure. The upper eyelid contour of 60 normal subjects was also quantified as a control group. The mean ratio between the sum of the lateral and medial midpupil eyelid distances (lateral/medial ratio) was 1.10 ± 0.11 standard deviation in controls and 1.15 ± 0.13 standard deviation in patients. Postoperatively, the mean midpupil eyelid distance at 90° was 4.16 ± 1.13 mm standard deviation. The distribution lateral/medial ratios of the eyelids judged as having good contours was similar to the distribution of the controls with a modal value centered on the interval between 1.0 and 1.10. The distribution of lateral/medial ratios of the eyelids judged as having poor contour was bimodal, with eyelids with low and high lateral/medial ratios. Low lateral/medial ratios occurred when there was a lateral overcorrection, giving the eyelid a flat or a medial ptosis appearance. High lateral/medial ratios were due to a central or medial overcorrection or a lateral peak maintenance. Postoperative upper eyelid contour abnormalities can be quantified by comparing the sum of multiple midpupil eyelid distances of the lateral and medial sectors of the eyelid. Low and high lateral/medial ratios are anomalous and judged as unpleasant.
High-grade myxofibrosarcoma-presented as a large mass of right upper arm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunil Vitthalrao Jagtap
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Myxofibrosarcoma is one of the rare soft tissue sarcomas. We present a case of a 65-year-old male having large soft tissue mass over right upper arm associated with surface ulceration. On histopathological study tumor was diagnosed as myxofibrosarcoma - high grade according to modified FNCLCC grading system. Like many other tumors of connective tissue, soft tissue sarcoma exhibits high recurrence. In our case, tumor showed features of high grade with local recurrence, large size; however, no evidence of metastasis was noted. For this unpredictable clinical behavior, we are presenting this case.
Upper Hybrid Resonance of Microwaves with a Large Magnetized Plasma Sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huo Wenqing; Guo Shijie; Ding Liang; Xu Yuemin
2013-01-01
A large magnetized plasma sheet with size of 60 cm × 60 cm × 2 cm was generated by a linear hollow cathode discharge under the confinement of a uniform magnetic field generated by a Helmholtz Coil. The microwave transmission characteristic of the plasma sheet was measured for different incident frequencies, in cases with the electric field polarization of the incident microwave either perpendicular or parallel to the magnetic field. In this measurement, parameters of the plasma sheet were changed by varying the discharge current and magnetic field intensity. In the experiment, upper hybrid resonance phenomena were observed when the electric field polarization of the incident wave was perpendicular to the magnetic field. These resonance phenomena cannot be found in the case of parallel polarization incidence. This result is consistent with theoretical consideration. According to the resonance condition, the electron density values at the resonance points are calculated under various experimental conditions. This kind of resonance phenomena can be used to develop a specific method to diagnose the electron density of this magnetized plasma sheet apparatus. Moreover, it is pointed out that the operating parameters of the large plasma sheet in practical applications should be selected to keep away from the upper hybrid resonance point to prevent signals from polarization distortion
77 FR 20716 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2012-04-06
... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...
77 FR 3607 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2012-01-25
... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...
78 FR 79312 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2013-12-30
... deviation from the operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow.... Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation for the Rock Island Railroad and Highway...
76 FR 9223 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2011-02-17
... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...
77 FR 5398 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2012-02-03
... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...
76 FR 9224 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2011-02-17
... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation for the Rock Island...
Large volume liquid silicone injection in the upper thighs : a never ending story
Hofer, SOP; Damen, A; Nicolai, JPA
This report concerns a 26-year-old male-to-female transsexual who had received a large volume liquid silicone injection of unknown grade into her upper lateral thighs to gain female contour. She presented at our outpatient clinic 4 years after the silicone injection with complaints of pain and
Approaching nanometre accuracy in measurement of the profile deviation of a large plane mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Müller, Andreas; Hofmann, Norbert; Manske, Eberhard
2012-01-01
The interferometric nanoprofilometer (INP), developed at the Institute of Process Measurement and Sensor Technology at the Ilmenau University of Technology, is a precision device for measuring the profile deviations of plane mirrors with a profile length of up to 250 mm at the nanometre scale. As its expanded uncertainty of U(l) = 7.8 nm at a confidence level of p = 95% (k = 2) was mainly influenced by the uncertainty of the straightness standard (3.6 nm) and the uncertainty caused by the signal and demodulation errors of the interferometer signals (1.2 nm), these two sources of uncertainty have been the subject of recent analyses and modifications. To measure the profile deviation of the standard mirror we performed a classic three-flat test using the INP. The three-flat test consists of a combination of measurements between three different test flats. The shape deviations of the three flats can then be determined by applying a least-squares solution of the resulting equation system. The results of this three-flat test showed surprisingly good consistency, enabling us to correct this systematic error in profile deviation measurements and reducing the uncertainty component of the standard mirror to 0.4 nm. Another area of research is the signal and demodulation error arising during the interpretation of the interferometer signals. In the case of the interferometric nanoprofilometer, the special challenge is that the maximum path length differences are too small during the scan of the entire profile deviation over perfectly aligned 250 mm long mirrors for proper interpolation and correction since they do not yet cover even half of an interference fringe. By applying a simple method of weighting to the interferometer data the common ellipse fitting could be performed successfully and the demodulation error was greatly reduced. The remaining uncertainty component is less than 0.5 nm. In summary we were successful in greatly reducing two major systematic errors. The
Deviations in upper limb function of the less-affected side in congenital hemiparesis
Steenbergen, B.; Meulenbroek, R.G.J.
2006-01-01
In the present study we examined upper-limb function of the less-affected side in young adolescents with congenital hemiparesis (cerebral palsy: CP). Five participants with hemiparetic CP and five control participants performed a cyclical reach-and-grasp task with the less-affected hand towards
LATERAL CEPHALOMETRIC RADIOGRAPHY FOR EVALUATION OF UPPER AIRWAY
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miesje Karmiati Purwanegara
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The influenced of respiration to dentocraniofacial growth and development is still controversial. The accurate radiologic examination is important factor for proper diagnosis. Deviation of upper airway (i.e. nasopharynx, oropharymx and nasal cavity could be evaluated by lateral and anteroposterior cephalometric projection technique. This paper explains several methods to evaluate upper respiratory tract by lateral radiograph.
77 FR 69761 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA
2012-11-21
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2012-0995] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the...
78 FR 72022 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA
2013-12-02
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2013-0964] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulation. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the...
78 FR 76750 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA
2013-12-19
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2013-1008] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of deviation from drawbridge regulations. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the...
77 FR 69759 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA
2012-11-21
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2012-1002] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has issued a temporary deviation from the...
Precise lim sup behavior of probabilities of large deviations for sums of i.i.d. random variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Rosalsky
2004-12-01
Full Text Available Let {X,Xn;nÃ¢Â‰Â¥1} be a sequence of real-valued i.i.d. random variables and let Sn=Ã¢ÂˆÂ‘i=1nXi, nÃ¢Â‰Â¥1. In this paper, we study the probabilities of large deviations of the form P(Sn>tn1/p, P(Sntn1/p, where t>0 and 0x1/p/ÃÂ•(x=1, then for every t>0, limsupnÃ¢Â†Â’Ã¢ÂˆÂžP(|Sn|>tn1/p/(nÃÂ•(n=tpÃŽÂ±.
77 FR 28488 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO
2012-05-15
... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Hannibal Railroad Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 309.9, at Hannibal, Missouri. The deviation is necessary to allow the replacement of eight wire rope...
78 FR 64887 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO
2013-10-30
... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Hannibal, MO AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Hannibal Railroad Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 309.9, at Hannibal, Missouri. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner time to replace...
Watson, Sheri; Aguas, Marita; Colegrove, Pat; Foisy, Nancy; Jondahl, Bonnie; Anastas, Zoe
2017-02-01
The purpose of the study was to determine if forearm blood pressures (BPs) measured in three different locations agree with the recommended upper arm location for noninvasive BP measurement. A method-comparison design was used. In a convenience sample of postanesthesia care unit patients with large upper arm circumference, BP's were obtained in three different forearm locations (lower forearm, middle forearm, and upper forearm) and compared to upper arm BP using an automated BP measuring device. The level of agreement (bias ± precision) between each forearm location and the upper arm BP was calculated using standard formulas. Acceptable levels of agreement based on expert opinion were set a priori at bias and precision values of less than ±5 mm Hg (bias) and ±8 mm Hg (precision). Forty-eight postanesthesia patients participated in the study. Bias and precision values were found to exceed the acceptable level of agreement for all but one of the systolic and diastolic BP comparisons in the three forearm BP locations. Fifty-six percent of all patients studied had one or more BP difference of at least 10 mm Hg in each of the three forearm locations, with 10% having one or more differences of at least 20 mm Hg. The differences in forearm BP measurements observed in this study indicate that the clinical practice of using a forearm BP with a regular-sized BP cuff in place of a larger sized BP cuff placed on the upper arm in postanesthesia care unit patients with large arm circumferences is inappropriate. The BPs obtained at the forearm location are not equivalent to the BPs obtained at the upper arm location. Copyright Â© 2015 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An estimator for the standard deviation of a natural frequency. I.
Schiff, A. J.; Bogdanoff, J. L.
1971-01-01
A brief review of mean-square approximate systems is given. The case in which the masses are deterministic is considered first in the derivation of an estimator for the upper bound of the standard deviation of a natural frequency. Two examples presented include a two-degree-of-freedom system and a case in which the disorder in the springs is perfectly correlated. For purposes of comparison, a Monte Carlo simulation was done on a digital computer.
75 FR 17561 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2010-04-07
... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operations of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 482.9, Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is... Manager, Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island...
75 FR 22228 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2010-04-28
... issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, Mile 482.9, Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is... Manager, Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island...
Shaar, R.; Tauxe, L.; Ebert, Y.
2017-12-01
Continuous decadal-resolution paleomagnetic data from archaeological and sedimentary sources in the Levant revealed the existence a local high-field anomaly, which spanned the first 350 years of the first millennium BCE. This so-called "the Levantine Iron Age geomagnetic Anomaly" (LIAA) was characterized by a high averaged geomagnetic field (virtual axial dipole moments, VADM > 140 Z Am2, nearly twice of today's field), short decadal-scale geomagnetic spikes (VADM of 160-185 Z Am2), fast directional and intensity variations, and substantial deviation (20°-25°) from dipole field direction. Similar high field values in the time frame of LIAA have been observed north, and northeast to the Levant: Eastern Anatolia, Turkmenistan, and Georgia. West of the Levant, in the Balkans, field values in the same time are moderate to low. The overall data suggest that the LIAA is a manifestation of a local positive geomagnetic field anomaly similar in magnitude and scale to the presently active negative South Atlantic Anomaly. In this presentation we review the overall archaeomagnetic and sedimentary evidences supporting the local anomaly hypothesis, and compare these observations with today's IGRF field. We analyze the global data during the first two millennia BCE, which suggest some unexpected large deviations from a simple dipolar geomagnetic structure.
The Distance Standard Deviation
Edelmann, Dominic; Richards, Donald; Vogel, Daniel
2017-01-01
The distance standard deviation, which arises in distance correlation analysis of multivariate data, is studied as a measure of spread. New representations for the distance standard deviation are obtained in terms of Gini's mean difference and in terms of the moments of spacings of order statistics. Inequalities for the distance variance are derived, proving that the distance standard deviation is bounded above by the classical standard deviation and by Gini's mean difference. Further, it is ...
78 FR 15292 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2013-03-11
... schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge, across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the River Bandits 5K Run/Walk...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a temporary deviation...
Large deviations for Markov chains in the positive quadrant
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borovkov, A A; Mogul' skii, A A [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2001-10-31
The paper deals with so-called N-partially space-homogeneous time-homogeneous Markov chains X(y,n), n=0,1,2,..., X(y,0)=y, in the positive quadrant. These Markov chains are characterized by the following property of the transition probabilities P(y,A)=P(X(y,1) element of A): for some N{>=}0 the measure P(y,dx) depends only on x{sub 2}, y{sub 2}, and x{sub 1}-y{sub 1} in the domain x{sub 1}>N, y{sub 1}>N, and only on x{sub 1}, y{sub 1}, and x{sub 2}-y{sub 2} in the domain x{sub 2}>N, y{sub 2}>N. For such chains the asymptotic behaviour is found for a fixed set B as s{yields}{infinity}, |x|{yields}{infinity}, and n{yields}{infinity}. Some other conditions on the growth of parameters are also considered, for example, |x-y|{yields}{infinity}, |y|{yields}{infinity}. A study is made of the structure of the most probable trajectories, which give the main contribution to this asymptotics, and a number of other results pertaining to the topic are established. Similar results are obtained for the narrower class of 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under less restrictive moment conditions on the transition probabilities P(y,dx). Moreover, exact asymptotic expressions for the probabilities P(X(0,n) element of x+B) are found for 0-partially homogeneous ergodic chains under some additional conditions. The interest in partially homogeneous Markov chains in positive octants is due to the mathematical aspects (new and interesting problems arise in the framework of general large deviation theory) as well as applied issues, for such chains prove to be quite accurate mathematical models for numerous basic types of queueing and communication networks such as the widely known Jackson networks, polling systems, or communication networks associated with the ALOHA algorithm. There is a vast literature dealing with the analysis of these objects. The present paper is an attempt to find the extent to which an asymptotic analysis is possible for Markov chains of this type in their general
78 FR 69995 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2013-11-22
... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the bridge owner time...
2013-05-14
... Operation Regulation; Tuckahoe River, Between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... River, mile 8.0, between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ. The deviation is necessary to facilitate... operating schedule, the State Highway Bridge, mile 8.0, between Corbin City and Upper Township, NJ shall...
78 FR 21537 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2013-04-11
... Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Front Street 5K Run...
Segmentation Using Symmetry Deviation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hollensen, Christian; Højgaard, L.; Specht, L.
2011-01-01
of the CT-scans into a single atlas. Afterwards the standard deviation of anatomical symmetry for the 20 normal patients was evaluated using non-rigid registration and registered onto the atlas to create an atlas for normal anatomical symmetry deviation. The same non-rigid registration was used on the 10...... hypopharyngeal cancer patients to find anatomical symmetry and evaluate it against the standard deviation of the normal patients to locate pathologic volumes. Combining the information with an absolute PET threshold of 3 Standard uptake value (SUV) a volume was automatically delineated. The overlap of automated....... The standard deviation of the anatomical symmetry, seen in figure for one patient along CT and PET, was extracted for normal patients and compared with the deviation from cancer patients giving a new way of determining cancer pathology location. Using the novel method an overlap concordance index...
75 FR 81125 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2010-12-27
... Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... the Upper Mississippi River, mile 481.4, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow... Rock Island, Illinois to open on signal if at least 24 hours advance notice is given for 44 days from...
Vertical force and wrist deviation angle when using a walker to stand up and sit down.
Leung, Cherng-Yee; Yeh, Po-Chan
2011-08-01
Research investigating walkers suggests that safety and assistance for the elderly with weak lower limbs were important. However, the relationship between the use of a walker and the upper limbs has received little investigation. Standing up and sitting down are important daily activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to explore wrist deviation and vertical force among elderly individuals using a walker for assistance to stand up and sit down. In total, 64 elderly volunteers (M age = 80.22, SD = 9.36) were enrolled. Data were obtained from four load cells and a twin-axis wrist goniometer. Wrist deviation and vertical force were examined when participants used a walker with horizontal handles to assist in standing up and sitting down. Significant wrist angle deviation occurred with the use of a walker, with dorsiflexion of the right hand greater than that of the left. Males exerted significantly greater vertical force. In the sitting position, greater ulnar deviation was seen among experienced walker users, whereas during standing, experienced users exhibited greater dorsiflexion. The horizontal handles of most marketed walkers may cause user wrist deviations, suggesting researchers should pursue improvements in walker design.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yong; Ge, Hao; Xiong, Jie; Xu, Lihu
2016-01-01
Fluctuation theorem is one of the major achievements in the field of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics during the past two decades. There exist very few results for steady-state fluctuation theorem of sample entropy production rate in terms of large deviation principle for diffusion processes due to the technical difficulties. Here we give a proof for the steady-state fluctuation theorem of a diffusion process in magnetic fields, with explicit expressions of the free energy function and rate function. The proof is based on the Karhunen-Loève expansion of complex-valued Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process.
SAMPLE STANDARD DEVIATION(s) CHART UNDER THE ASSUMPTION OF MODERATENESS AND ITS PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
Kalpesh S. Tailor
2017-01-01
Moderate distribution proposed by Naik V.D and Desai J.M., is a sound alternative of normal distribution, which has mean and mean deviation as pivotal parameters and which has properties similar to normal distribution. Mean deviation (δ) is a very good alternative of standard deviation (σ) as mean deviation is considered to be the most intuitively and rationally defined measure of dispersion. This fact can be very useful in the field of quality control to construct the control limits of the c...
Large deviations of the finite-time magnetization of the Curie-Weiss random-field Ising model
Paga, Pierre; Kühn, Reimer
2017-08-01
We study the large deviations of the magnetization at some finite time in the Curie-Weiss random field Ising model with parallel updating. While relaxation dynamics in an infinite-time horizon gives rise to unique dynamical trajectories [specified by initial conditions and governed by first-order dynamics of the form mt +1=f (mt) ] , we observe that the introduction of a finite-time horizon and the specification of terminal conditions can generate a host of metastable solutions obeying second-order dynamics. We show that these solutions are governed by a Newtonian-like dynamics in discrete time which permits solutions in terms of both the first-order relaxation ("forward") dynamics and the backward dynamics mt +1=f-1(mt) . Our approach allows us to classify trajectories for a given final magnetization as stable or metastable according to the value of the rate function associated with them. We find that in analogy to the Freidlin-Wentzell description of the stochastic dynamics of escape from metastable states, the dominant trajectories may switch between the two types (forward and backward) of first-order dynamics. Additionally, we show how to compute rate functions when uncertainty in the quenched disorder is introduced.
Upper extremity sensorimotor control among collegiate football players.
Laudner, Kevin G
2012-03-01
Injuries stemming from shoulder instability are very common among athletes participating in contact sports, such as football. Previous research has shown that increased laxity negatively affects the function of the sensorimotor system potentially leading to a pathological cycle of shoulder dysfunction. Currently, there are no data detailing such effects among football players. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the differences in upper extremity sensorimotor control among football players compared with that of a control group. Forty-five collegiate football players and 70 male control subjects with no previous experience in contact sports participated. All the subjects had no recent history of upper extremity injury. Each subject performed three 30-second upper extremity balance trials on each arm. The balance trials were conducted in a single-arm push-up position with the test arm in the center of a force platform and the subjects' feet on a labile device. The trials were averaged, and the differences in radial area deviation between groups were analyzed using separate 1-way analyses of variance (p football players showed significantly more radial area deviation of the dominant (0.41 ± 1.23 cm2, p = 0.02) and nondominant arms (0.47 ± 1.63 cm2, p = 0.03) when compared with the control group. These results suggest that football players may have decreased sensorimotor control of the upper extremity compared with individuals with no contact sport experience. The decreased upper extremity sensorimotor control among the football players may be because of the frequent impacts accumulated during football participation. Football players may benefit from exercises that target the sensorimotor system. These findings may also be beneficial in the evaluation and treatment of various upper extremity injuries among football players.
Wang, Chun; Zheng, Yi; Chang, Hua-Hua
2014-01-01
With the advent of web-based technology, online testing is becoming a mainstream mode in large-scale educational assessments. Most online tests are administered continuously in a testing window, which may post test security problems because examinees who take the test earlier may share information with those who take the test later. Researchers have proposed various statistical indices to assess the test security, and one most often used index is the average test-overlap rate, which was further generalized to the item pooling index (Chang & Zhang, 2002, 2003). These indices, however, are all defined as the means (that is, the expected proportion of common items among examinees) and they were originally proposed for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). Recently, multistage testing (MST) has become a popular alternative to CAT. The unique features of MST make it important to report not only the mean, but also the standard deviation (SD) of test overlap rate, as we advocate in this paper. The standard deviation of test overlap rate adds important information to the test security profile, because for the same mean, a large SD reflects that certain groups of examinees share more common items than other groups. In this study, we analytically derived the lower bounds of the SD under MST, with the results under CAT as a benchmark. It is shown that when the mean overlap rate is the same between MST and CAT, the SD of test overlap tends to be larger in MST. A simulation study was conducted to provide empirical evidence. We also compared the security of MST under the single-pool versus the multiple-pool designs; both analytical and simulation studies show that the non-overlapping multiple-pool design will slightly increase the security risk.
48 CFR 2001.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2001... Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the NRCAR will be authorized... deviations clearly in the best interest of the Government. Individual deviations must be authorized in...
48 CFR 801.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 801... Individual deviations. (a) Authority to authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR is delegated to... nature of the deviation. (d) The DSPE may authorize individual deviations from the FAR and VAAR when an...
Use of Standard Deviations as Predictors in Models Using Large-Scale International Data Sets
Austin, Bruce; French, Brian; Adesope, Olusola; Gotch, Chad
2017-01-01
Measures of variability are successfully used in predictive modeling in research areas outside of education. This study examined how standard deviations can be used to address research questions not easily addressed using traditional measures such as group means based on index variables. Student survey data were obtained from the Organisation for…
Detecting deviating behaviors without models
Lu, X.; Fahland, D.; van den Biggelaar, F.J.H.M.; van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Reichert, M.; Reijers, H.A.
2016-01-01
Deviation detection is a set of techniques that identify deviations from normative processes in real process executions. These diagnostics are used to derive recommendations for improving business processes. Existing detection techniques identify deviations either only on the process instance level
DeSantis, Michael C; DeCenzo, Shawn H; Li, Je-Luen; Wang, Y M
2010-03-29
Standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of stationary single fluorescent molecules are useful for studying axial localization, molecular orientation, and a fluorescence imaging system's spatial resolution. Here we report on the analysis of the precision of standard deviation measurements of intensity profiles of single fluorescent molecules imaged using an EMCCD camera.We have developed an analytical expression for the standard deviation measurement error of a single image which is a function of the total number of detected photons, the background photon noise, and the camera pixel size. The theoretical results agree well with the experimental, simulation, and numerical integration results. Using this expression, we show that single-molecule standard deviation measurements offer nanometer precision for a large range of experimental parameters.
An Analysis of the Linguistic Deviation in Chapter X of Oliver Twist
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘聪
2013-01-01
Charles Dickens is one of the greatest critical realist writers of the Victorian Age. In language, he is often compared with William Shakespeare for his adeptness with the vernacular and large vocabulary. Charles Dickens achieved a recognizable place among English writers through the use of the stylistic features in his fictional language. Oliver Twist is the best representative of Charles Dickens’style, which makes it the most appropriate choice for the present stylistic study on Charles Dickens. No one who has ever read the dehumanizing workhouse scenes of Oliver Twist and the dark, criminal underworld life can forget them. This thesis attempts to investigate Oliver Twist through the approach of modern stylistics, particularly the theory of linguistic devia-tion. This thesis consists of an introduction, the main body and a conclusion. The introduction offers a brief summary of the com-ments on Charles Dickens and Chapter X of Oliver Twist, introduces the newly rising linguistic deviation theories, and brings about the theories on which this thesis settles. The main body explores the deviation effects produced from four aspects: lexical deviation, grammatical deviation, graphological deviation, and semantic deviation. It endeavors to show Dickens ’manipulating language and the effects achieved through this manipulation. The conclusion mainly sums up the previous analysis, and reveals the theme of the novel, positive effect of linguistic deviation and significance of deviation application.
Wang, Wanlin; Zhang, Wang; Chen, Weixin; Gu, Jiajun; Liu, Qinglei; Deng, Tao; Zhang, Di
2013-01-15
The wide angular range of the treelike structure in Morpho butterfly scales was investigated by finite-difference time-domain (FDTD)/particle-swarm-optimization (PSO) analysis. Using the FDTD method, different parameters in the Morpho butterflies' treelike structure were studied and their contributions to the angular dependence were analyzed. Then a wide angular range was realized by the PSO method from quantitatively designing the lamellae deviation (Δy), which was a crucial parameter with angular range. The field map of the wide-range reflection in a large area was given to confirm the wide angular range. The tristimulus values and corresponding color coordinates for various viewing directions were calculated to confirm the blue color in different observation angles. The wide angular range realized by the FDTD/PSO method will assist us in understanding the scientific principles involved and also in designing artificial optical materials.
48 CFR 1501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1501.403 Section 1501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL GENERAL Deviations 1501.403 Individual deviations. Requests for individual deviations from the FAR and the...
A large impact of tropical biomass burning on CO and CO{sub 2} in the upper troposphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hidekazu Matsueda; Shoichi Taguchi; Hisayuki Y; Inoue & Masao Ishii [Meteorological Research Institute, Tsukuba-shi (Japan). Geochemical Research Department
2002-07-01
A large interannual variation of biomass burning emissions from Southeast Asia is associated with the ENSO events. During 1997/98 and 1994 El Nino years, uncontrolled wildfires of tropical rainforests and peat lands in Indonesia were enlarged due to a long drought. Enhanced CO injection into the upper troposphere from the intense Indonesian fires was clearly observed in the 8-year measurements from a regular flask sampling over the western Pacific using a JAL airliner between Australia and Japan. This airliner observation also revealed that upper tropospheric CO{sub 2} cycle largely changed during the 1997 El Nio year due partly to the biomass burning emissions. Widespread pollution from the biomass burnings in Southeast Asia was simulated using a CO tracer driven by a 3D global chemical transport model. This simulation indicates that tropical deep convections connected to rapid advection by the subtropical jet play a significant role in dispersing biomass-burning emissions from Southeast Asia on a global scale.
48 CFR 2401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2401... DEVELOPMENT GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 2401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, proposed deviations from the FAR or HUDAR shall be submitted to the Senior Procurement...
INDICATIVE MODEL OF DEVIATIONS IN PROJECT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО
2016-02-01
Full Text Available The article shows the process of constructing the project deviations indicator model. It based on a conceptual model of project deviations integrated management (PDIM. During the project different causes (such as risks, changes, problems, crises, conflicts, stress lead to deviations of integrated project indicators - time, cost, quality, and content. For a more detailed definition of where in the project deviations occur and how they are dangerous for the whole project, it needs to develop an indicative model of project deviations. It allows identifying the most dangerous deviations that require PDIM. As a basis for evaluation of project's success has been taken famous model IPMA Delta. During the evaluation, IPMA Delta estimated project management competence of organization in three modules: I-Module ("Individuals" - a self-assessment personnel, P-module ("Projects" - self-assessment of projects and/or programs, and O-module ("Organization" - used to conduct interviews with selected people during auditing company. In the process of building an indicative model of deviations in the project, the first step is the assessment of project management in the organization by IPMA Delta. In the future, built cognitive map and matrix of system interconnections of the project, which conducted simulations and built a scale of deviations for the selected project. They determined a size and place of deviations. To identify the detailed causes of deviations in the project management has been proposed to use the extended system of indicators, which is based on indicators of project management model Project Excellence. The proposed indicative model of deviations in projects allows to estimate the size of variation and more accurately identify the place of negative deviations in the project and provides the project manager information for operational decision making for the management of deviations in the implementation of the project
48 CFR 1301.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 1301.403 Individual deviations. The designee authorized to approve individual deviations from the FAR is set forth in CAM 1301.70. ...
48 CFR 301.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 301... ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 301.403 Individual deviations. Contracting activities shall prepare requests for individual deviations to either the FAR or HHSAR in accordance with 301.470. ...
48 CFR 1201.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM 70-Deviations From the FAR and TAR 1201.403 Individual deviations... Executive Service (SES) official or that of a Flag Officer, may authorize individual deviations (unless (FAR...
48 CFR 501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 501... Individual deviations. (a) An individual deviation affects only one contract action. (1) The Head of the Contracting Activity (HCA) must approve an individual deviation to the FAR. The authority to grant an...
48 CFR 401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 401... AGRICULTURE ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and AGAR 401.403 Individual deviations. In individual cases, deviations from either the FAR or the AGAR will be authorized only when essential to effect...
48 CFR 2801.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2801... OF JUSTICE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR and JAR 2801.403 Individual deviations. Individual deviations from the FAR or the JAR shall be approved by the head of the contracting...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peletier, Mark A.; Redig, Frank; Vafayi, Kiamars
2014-01-01
We consider three one-dimensional continuous-time Markov processes on a lattice, each of which models the conduction of heat: the family of Brownian Energy Processes with parameter m (BEP(m)), a Generalized Brownian Energy Process, and the Kipnis-Marchioro-Presutti (KMP) process. The hydrodynamic limit of each of these three processes is a parabolic equation, the linear heat equation in the case of the BEP(m) and the KMP, and a nonlinear heat equation for the Generalized Brownian Energy Process with parameter a (GBEP(a)). We prove the hydrodynamic limit rigorously for the BEP(m), and give a formal derivation for the GBEP(a). We then formally derive the pathwise large-deviation rate functional for the empirical measure of the three processes. These rate functionals imply gradient-flow structures for the limiting linear and nonlinear heat equations. We contrast these gradient-flow structures with those for processes describing the diffusion of mass, most importantly the class of Wasserstein gradient-flow systems. The linear and nonlinear heat-equation gradient-flow structures are each driven by entropy terms of the form −log ρ; they involve dissipation or mobility terms of order ρ 2 for the linear heat equation, and a nonlinear function of ρ for the nonlinear heat equation
Visualizing the Sample Standard Deviation
Sarkar, Jyotirmoy; Rashid, Mamunur
2017-01-01
The standard deviation (SD) of a random sample is defined as the square-root of the sample variance, which is the "mean" squared deviation of the sample observations from the sample mean. Here, we interpret the sample SD as the square-root of twice the mean square of all pairwise half deviations between any two sample observations. This…
Geometry of river networks. I. Scaling, fluctuations, and deviations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Rothman, Daniel H.
2001-01-01
This paper is the first in a series of three papers investigating the detailed geometry of river networks. Branching networks are a universal structure employed in the distribution and collection of material. Large-scale river networks mark an important class of two-dimensional branching networks, being not only of intrinsic interest but also a pervasive natural phenomenon. In the description of river network structure, scaling laws are uniformly observed. Reported values of scaling exponents vary, suggesting that no unique set of scaling exponents exists. To improve this current understanding of scaling in river networks and to provide a fuller description of branching network structure, here we report a theoretical and empirical study of fluctuations about and deviations from scaling. We examine data for continent-scale river networks such as the Mississippi and the Amazon and draw inspiration from a simple model of directed, random networks. We center our investigations on the scaling of the length of a subbasin's dominant stream with its area, a characterization of basin shape known as Hack's law. We generalize this relationship to a joint probability density, and provide observations and explanations of deviations from scaling. We show that fluctuations about scaling are substantial, and grow with system size. We find strong deviations from scaling at small scales which can be explained by the existence of a linear network structure. At intermediate scales, we find slow drifts in exponent values, indicating that scaling is only approximately obeyed and that universality remains indeterminate. At large scales, we observe a breakdown in scaling due to decreasing sample space and correlations with overall basin shape. The extent of approximate scaling is significantly restricted by these deviations, and will not be improved by increases in network resolution
Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 1: January
Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.
1989-07-01
The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analyses produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of January. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height standard deviation; (3) Mean density standard deviation; (4) Mean density standard deviation (all for 13 levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point standard deviation for the 13 levels; and (6) Jet stream at levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.
The reinterpretation of standard deviation concept
Ye, Xiaoming
2017-01-01
Existing mathematical theory interprets the concept of standard deviation as the dispersion degree. Therefore, in measurement theory, both uncertainty concept and precision concept, which are expressed with standard deviation or times standard deviation, are also defined as the dispersion of measurement result, so that the concept logic is tangled. Through comparative analysis of the standard deviation concept and re-interpreting the measurement error evaluation principle, this paper points o...
48 CFR 3401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 3401.403 Section 3401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL ED ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations 3401.403 Individual deviations. An individual...
48 CFR 1.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1.403 Section 1.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 1.403 Individual deviations. Individual...
48 CFR 2501.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 2501.403 Section 2501.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION GENERAL FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations From the FAR 2501.403 Individual deviations. Individual...
Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation
Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir
2018-01-01
We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel---we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our resu...
Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 2: February
Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.
1989-09-01
The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analyses produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of February. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height standard deviation; (3) Mean density standard deviation; (4) Height and vector standard deviation (all for 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point standard deviation for the 13 levels; and (6) Jet stream for levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.
Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 7: July
Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.
1989-07-01
The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of July. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature/standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height/standard deviation; (3) Mean density/standard deviation; (4) Height and vector standard deviation (all at 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point standard deviation at levels 1000 through 30 mb; and (6) Jet stream at levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.
Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 4: April
Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.
1989-07-01
The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analyses produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of April. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height standard deviation; (3) Mean density standard deviation; (4) Height and vector standard deviation (all for 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point standard deviation for the 13 levels; and (6) Jet stream for levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.
Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 3: March
Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.
1989-11-01
The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of March. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean Temperature Standard Deviation; (2) Mean Geopotential Height Standard Deviation; (3) Mean Density Standard Deviation; (4) Height and Vector Standard Deviation (all for 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean Dew Point Standard Deviation for levels 1000 through 30 mb; and (6) Jet stream for levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.
Joint US Navy/US Air Force climatic study of the upper atmosphere. Volume 10: October
Changery, Michael J.; Williams, Claude N.; Dickenson, Michael L.; Wallace, Brian L.
1989-07-01
The upper atmosphere was studied based on 1980 to 1985 twice daily gridded analysis produced by the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. This volume is for the month of October. Included are global analyses of: (1) Mean temperature/standard deviation; (2) Mean geopotential height/standard deviation; (3) Mean density/standard deviation; (4) Height and vector standard deviation (all at 13 pressure levels - 1000, 850, 700, 500, 400, 300, 250, 200, 150, 100, 70, 50, 30 mb); (5) Mean dew point/standard deviation at levels 1000 through 30 mb; and (6) Jet stream at levels 500 through 30 mb. Also included are global 5 degree grid point wind roses for the 13 pressure levels.
48 CFR 601.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 601.403 Section 601.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF STATE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR 601.403 Individual deviations. The...
78 FR 16411 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2013-03-15
... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad City Heart...-366-9826. [[Page 16412
75 FR 1706 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA
2010-01-13
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket Number USCG-2009-1097] Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District has...
76 FR 6694 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Keokuk, IA
2011-02-08
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket Number USCG-2011-0029] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Keokuk, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has...
48 CFR 201.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 201.403 Section 201.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... Individual deviations. (1) Individual deviations, except those described in 201.402(1) and paragraph (2) of...
48 CFR 3001.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations... from the FAR and HSAR 3001.403 Individual deviations. Unless precluded by law, executive order, or other regulation, the HCA is authorized to approve individual deviation (except with respect to (FAR) 48...
48 CFR 1901.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Individual deviations. 1901.403 Section 1901.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GENERAL... Individual deviations. Deviations from the IAAR or the FAR in individual cases shall be authorized by the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rocha, Vera; Van Praag, Mirjam; Carneiro, Anabela
This paper studies three related questions: To what extent otherwise similar startups employ different quantities and qualities of human capital at the moment of entry? How persistent are initial human capital choices over time? And how does deviating from human capital benchmarks influence firm......, founders human capital, and the ownership structure of startups (solo entrepreneurs versus entrepreneurial teams). We then study the survival implications of exogenous deviations from these benchmarks, based on spline models for survival data. Our results indicate that (especially negative) deviations from...... the benchmark can be substantial, are persistent over time, and hinder the survival of firms. The implications may, however, vary according to the sector and the ownership structure at entry. Given the stickiness of initial choices, wrong human capital decisions at entry turn out to be a close to irreversible...
75 FR 76279 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Burlington, IA
2010-12-08
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-1058] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Burlington, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...
76 FR 79066 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA
2011-12-21
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1018] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...
76 FR 72308 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA
2011-11-23
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2011-1039] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...
75 FR 70817 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA
2010-11-19
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-1039] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Dubuque, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...
75 FR 78162 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA
2010-12-15
... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 [Docket No. USCG-2010-1084] Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Clinton, IA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary deviation from regulations. SUMMARY: The Commander, Eighth Coast Guard District, has issued a...
Computer generation of random deviates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cormack, John
1991-01-01
The need for random deviates arises in many scientific applications. In medical physics, Monte Carlo simulations have been used in radiology, radiation therapy and nuclear medicine. Specific instances include the modelling of x-ray scattering processes and the addition of random noise to images or curves in order to assess the effects of various processing procedures. Reliable sources of random deviates with statistical properties indistinguishable from true random deviates are a fundamental necessity for such tasks. This paper provides a review of computer algorithms which can be used to generate uniform random deviates and other distributions of interest to medical physicists, along with a few caveats relating to various problems and pitfalls which can occur. Source code listings for the generators discussed (in FORTRAN, Turbo-PASCAL and Data General ASSEMBLER) are available on request from the authors. 27 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs
Allan deviation analysis of financial return series
Hernández-Pérez, R.
2012-05-01
We perform a scaling analysis for the return series of different financial assets applying the Allan deviation (ADEV), which is used in the time and frequency metrology to characterize quantitatively the stability of frequency standards since it has demonstrated to be a robust quantity to analyze fluctuations of non-stationary time series for different observation intervals. The data used are opening price daily series for assets from different markets during a time span of around ten years. We found that the ADEV results for the return series at short scales resemble those expected for an uncorrelated series, consistent with the efficient market hypothesis. On the other hand, the ADEV results for absolute return series for short scales (first one or two decades) decrease following approximately a scaling relation up to a point that is different for almost each asset, after which the ADEV deviates from scaling, which suggests that the presence of clustering, long-range dependence and non-stationarity signatures in the series drive the results for large observation intervals.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
İhsan Çaça
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We evaluated the correlation with success rates and deviation type and degree inhorizontal concomitant deviations. 104 horizontal concomitan strabismus cases whowere operated in our clinic between January 1994 – December 2000 were included in thestudy. 56 cases undergone recession-resection procedure in the same eye 19 cases twomuscle recession and one muscle resection, 20 cases two muscle recession, 9 cases onlyone muscle recession. 10 ± prism diopter deviation in postoperative sixth monthexamination was accepted as surgical success.Surgical success rate was 90% and 89.3% in the cases with deviation angle of 15-30and 31-50 prism diopter respectively. Success rate was 78.9% if the angle was more than50 prism diopter. According to strabismus type when surgical success rate examined; inalternan esotropia 88.33%, in alternan exotropia 84.6%, in monocular esotropia 88%and in monocular exotropia 83.3% success was fixed. Statistically significant differencewas not found between strabismus type and surgical success rate. The binocular visiongaining rate was found as 51.8% after the treatment of cases.In strabismus surgery, preoperative deviation angle was found to be an effectivefactor on the success rate.
14 CFR 21.609 - Approval for deviation.
2010-01-01
... deviation. (a) Each manufacturer who requests approval to deviate from any performance standard of a TSO shall show that the standards from which a deviation is requested are compensated for by factors or... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval for deviation. 21.609 Section 21...
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deviations. 226.4 Section 226.4 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS General § 226.4 Deviations. The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) may grant exceptions for...
Temperature variations in Titan's upper atmosphere: Impact on Cassini/Huygens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Kazeminejad
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Temperature variations of Titan's upper atmosphere due to the plasma interaction of the satellite with Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's high altitude monomer haze particles can imply an offset of up to ±30K from currently estimated model profiles. We incorporated these temperature uncertainties as an offset into the recently published Vervack et al. (2004 (Icarus, Vol. 170, 91-112 engineering model and derive extreme case (i.e. minimum and maximum profiles temperature, pressure, and density profiles. We simulated the Huygens probe hypersonic entry trajectory and obtain, as expected, deviations of the probe trajectory for the extreme atmosphere models compared to the simulation based on the nominal one. These deviations are very similar to the ones obtained with the standard Yelle et al. (1997 (ESA SP-1177 profiles. We could confirm that the difference in aerodynamic drag is of an order of magnitude that can be measured by the probe science accelerometer. They represent an important means for the reconstruction of Titan's upper atmospheric properties. Furthermore, we simulated a Cassini low Titan flyby trajectory. No major trajectory deviations were found. The atmospheric torques due to aerodynamic drag, however, are twice as high for our high temperature profile as the ones obtained with the Yelle maximum profile and more than 5 times higher than the worst case estimations from the Cassini project. We propose to use the Cassini atmospheric torque measurements during its low flybys to derive the atmospheric drag and to reconstruct Titan's upper atmosphere density, pressure, and temperature. The results could then be compared to the reconstructed profiles obtained from Huygens probe measurements. This would help to validate the probe measurements and decrease the error bars.
The Standard Deviation of Launch Vehicle Environments
Yunis, Isam
2005-01-01
Statistical analysis is used in the development of the launch vehicle environments of acoustics, vibrations, and shock. The standard deviation of these environments is critical to accurate statistical extrema. However, often very little data exists to define the standard deviation and it is better to use a typical standard deviation than one derived from a few measurements. This paper uses Space Shuttle and expendable launch vehicle flight data to define a typical standard deviation for acoustics and vibrations. The results suggest that 3dB is a conservative and reasonable standard deviation for the source environment and the payload environment.
Deviations from thermal equilibrium in plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burm, K.T.A.L.
2004-01-01
A plasma system in local thermal equilibrium can usually be described with only two parameters. To describe deviations from equilibrium two extra parameters are needed. However, it will be shown that deviations from temperature equilibrium and deviations from Saha equilibrium depend on one another. As a result, non-equilibrium plasmas can be described with three parameters. This reduction in parameter space will ease the plasma describing effort enormously
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoegl, A.
1996-01-01
This study investigates how, from a legal point of view, deviations in radiation protection measurements should be treated in comparisons between measured results and limits stipulated by nuclear legislation or goods transport regulations. A case-by-case distinction is proposed which is based on the legal concequences of the respective measurement. Commentaries on nuclear law contain no references to the legal assessment of deviating measurements in radiation protection. The examples quoted in legal commentaries on civil and criminal proceedings of the way in which errors made in measurements for speed control and determinations of the alcohol content in the blood are to be taken into account, and a commentary on ozone legislation, are examined for analogies with radiation protection measurements. Leading cases in the nuclear field are evaluated in the light of the requirements applying in case of deviations in measurements. The final section summarizes the most important findings and conclusions. (orig.) [de
Analysis of some fuel characteristics deviations and their influence over WWER-440 fuel cycle design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoyanova, I.; Kamenov, K.
2001-01-01
The aim of this study is to estimate the influence of some deviations in WWER-440 fuel assemblies (FA) characteristics upon fuel core design. A large number of different fresh fuel assemblies with enrichment of 3.5 t % are examined related to the enrichment, mass of initial metal Uranium and assembly shroud thickness. Infinite multiplication factor (Kinf) in fuel assembly has been calculated by HELIOS spectral code for basic assembly and for different FA with deviation of a single parameter. The effects from single parameter deviation (enrichment) and from two parameter deviations (enrichment and wall thickness) on the neutron-physics characteristics of the core are estimated for different fuel assemblies. Relatively week burnup dependence on Kinf is observed as result of deviation in the enrichment of the fuel and in the wall thickness of the assembly. An assessment of a FA single and two parameter deviations effects on design fuel cycle duration and relative power peaking factor is also considers in the paper. As a final conclusion can be settled that the maximum relative shortness of fuel cycle can be observed in the case of two FA parameters deviations
75 FR 68974 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2010-11-10
..., has issued a temporary deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois... Operations, telephone 202-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal requested a...
Leblanc, Eric; Bresson, Lucie; Merlot, Benjamin; Puga, Marco; Kridelka, Frederic; Tsunoda, Audrey; Narducci, Fabrice
2016-01-01
Colpohysterectomy is sometimes associated with a large upper colpectomy resulting in a shortened vagina, potentially impacting sexual function. We report on a preliminary experience of a laparoscopic colpoplasty to restore a normal vaginal length. Patients with shortened vaginas after a laparoscopic colpohysterectomy were considered for a laparoscopic modified Davydov's procedure to create a new vaginal vault using the peritoneum of the rectum and bladder. From 2010 to 2014, 8 patients were offered this procedure, after informed preoperative consent. Indications were 2 extensive recurrent vaginal intraepithelial neoplasias grade 3 and 6 radical hysterectomies for cervical cancer. Mean vaginal length before surgery was 3.8 cm (standard deviation, 1.6). Median operative time was 50 minutes (range, 45-90). Blood loss was minimal (50-100 mL). No perioperative complications occurred. Median vaginal length at discharge was 11.3 cm (range, 9-13). Sexual intercourse could be resumed around 10 weeks after surgery. At a median follow-up of 33.8 months (range, 2.4-51.3), 6 patients remained sexually active but 2 had stopped. Although this experience is small, this laparoscopic modified Davydov's procedure seems to be an effective procedure, adaptable to each patient's anatomy. If the initial postoperative regular self-dilatation is carefully observed, vaginal patency is durably restored and enables normal sexual function. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, Chenming; Yang, Huan; Tang, Kun; Xia, Ding; Xu, Hua; Chen, Zhiqiang; Ye, Zhangqun
2016-11-01
For the treatment of large upper urinary stones percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is generally considered the first choice, and Laparoscopic Stone Surgery (LSS) is an alternative. We aim to compare the efficiency and safety of PCNL with LSS, as far as the management of large upper urinary stones is concerned. A systematic search from Pubmed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library and Elsevier was performed up to August 1, 2015 for the relevant published studies. After data extraction and quality assessment, meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 software. 15 eligible trials evaluating LSS vs. PCNL were identified including 6 prospective and 9 retrospective studies with 473 patients undergoing LSS and 523 patients undergoing PCNL. Although LSS led to longer operative time (p = 0.01) and higher open conversion rate (p = 0.02), patients might benefit from significantly fewer overall complications (p = 0.03), especially lower bleeding rate (p = 0.02), smaller drop in hemoglobin level (p rate was also higher for LSS compared with PCNL (p rate. Because of the inherent limitations of the included studies, further large sample prospective, multi-centric studies and randomized control trials should be undertaken to confirm our findings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marcelino, Taise de Freitas
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The reduction of the large nasal dorsum is a critical step for rhinoplasty because it works in the nasal valve area with the challenge of a favorable aesthetic result without functional damage. Method: We used a modified method of reduction of the upper lateral cartilage, through elliptic excision, aiming to reduce the width of the nasal middle third. The inner nasal valve structure, the relationship of the upper lateral cartilages (ULC with the nasal septum and the excess of ULC are evaluated. The ULC excess is marked to allow the exact removal in form of ellipsis in the longitudinal direction of the cartilage. The ellipsis width is determined according to the structure and the excess of nasal cartilage. ULC is exposed and the ellipsis is dried in the horizontal direction following the lateral projection of the cartilage, at a half distance of its width to prevent from interfering with the nasal valve. The evaluation of the ellipsis size to be dried must be carried out meticulously and carefully in order to avoid stenosis of the nasal valve. The authors operated 25 cases during a period of three years. Results: In all cases the results were satisfactory. No review was needed. Conclusions: This method is a good choice to the traditional techniques in the large dorsum. As for the nasal large middle third, the elliptic removal of the ULCs is a useful option when well indicated. Care must be taken of individuals with the inner nasal valve commitment, which may be aggravated with such maneuver.
9 CFR 318.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
...) Deviations in processing (or process deviations) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned...) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP plan... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...
78 FR 18933 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL
2013-03-28
... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Quad City Marathon..., Docket Operations, telephone (202) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The U.S. Army Rock Island Arsenal...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aihong Ren
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a class of fully fuzzy bilevel linear programming problems where all the coefficients and decision variables of both objective functions and the constraints are fuzzy numbers. A new approach based on deviation degree measures and a ranking function method is proposed to solve these problems. We first introduce concepts of the feasible region and the fuzzy optimal solution of a fully fuzzy bilevel linear programming problem. In order to obtain a fuzzy optimal solution of the problem, we apply deviation degree measures to deal with the fuzzy constraints and use a ranking function method of fuzzy numbers to rank the upper and lower level fuzzy objective functions. Then the fully fuzzy bilevel linear programming problem can be transformed into a deterministic bilevel programming problem. Considering the overall balance between improving objective function values and decreasing allowed deviation degrees, the computational procedure for finding a fuzzy optimal solution is proposed. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the proposed approach. The results indicate that the proposed approach gives a better optimal solution in comparison with the existing method.
Introducing the Mean Absolute Deviation "Effect" Size
Gorard, Stephen
2015-01-01
This paper revisits the use of effect sizes in the analysis of experimental and similar results, and reminds readers of the relative advantages of the mean absolute deviation as a measure of variation, as opposed to the more complex standard deviation. The mean absolute deviation is easier to use and understand, and more tolerant of extreme…
Prevention of upper limb symptoms and signs of nerve afflictions in computer operators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Riis Jepsen, Jørgen; Thomsen, Gert
2008-01-01
could be drawn regarding the relation to the intervention of this reduction. Incident pain correlated to findings in accordance with the three locations of nerve affliction. CONCLUSION: A six month course of stretching seems to reduce upper limb symptoms in computer operators but we could......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: In a previous study of computer operators we have demonstrated the relation of upper limb pain to individual and patterns of neurological findings (reduced function of muscles, sensory deviations from normal and mechanical allodynia of nerve trunks). The identified patterns......, respectively, computer operators in two divisions of an engineering consultancy company were invited to answer a questionnaire on upper limb symptoms and to undergo a blinded neurological examination. Participants in one division were subsequently instructed to participate in an upper limb stretching course...
Toft, Peter B
2016-01-01
To review and present the results of a one-step method employing a free tarsal plate graft and a myocutaneous pedicle flap plus a free skin graft for reconstruction of large upper eyelid defects after tumour surgery. This was a retrospective case-series of 8 patients who underwent reconstruction of the upper eyelid after tumour removal. The horizontal defect involved 50-75% of the lid (3 pts.), more than 75% (3 pts.), and more than 75% plus the lateral canthus (2 pts.). The posterior lamella was reconstructed with contralateral upper eyelid tarsal plate. The anterior lamella was reconstructed with a laterally based myocutaneous pedicle flap in 7 patients, leaving a raw surface under the brow which was covered with a free skin graft. In 1 patient with little skin left under the brow, the anterior lamella was reconstructed with a bi-pedicle orbicularis muscle flap together with a free skin graft. All patients healed without necrosis, did not suffer from lagophthalmos, achieved reasonable cosmesis, and did not need lubricants. In one patient, a contact lens was necessary for three weeks because of corneal erosion. One patient still needs a contact lens 3 months after excision to avoid eye discomfort. Large upper eyelid defects can be reconstructed with a free tarsal plate graft and a laterally based myocutaneous pedicle flap in combination with a free skin graft. Two-step procedures can probably be avoided in most cases.
Wei, Jiao; Herrler, Tanja; Gu, Bin; Yang, Mei; Li, Qingfeng; Dai, Chuanchang; Xie, Feng
2018-05-01
The repair of extensive upper limb skin lesions in pediatric patients is extremely challenging due to substantial limitations of flap size and donor-site morbidity. We aimed to create an oversize preexpanded flap based on intercostal artery perforators for large-scale resurfacing of the upper extremity in children. Between March 2013 and August 2016, 11 patients underwent reconstructive treatment for extensive skin lesions in the upper extremity using a preexpanded intercostal artery perforator flap. Preoperatively, 2 to 4 candidate perforators were selected as potential pedicle vessels based on duplex ultrasound examination. After tissue expander implantation in the thoracodorsal area, regular saline injections were performed until the expanded flap was sufficient in size. Then, a pedicled flap was formed to resurface the skin lesion of the upper limb. The pedicles were transected 3 weeks after flap transfer. Flap survival, complications, and long-term outcome were evaluated. The average time of tissue expansion was 133 days with a mean final volume of 1713 mL. The thoracoabdominal flaps were based on 2 to 6 pedicles and used to resurface a mean skin defect area of 238 cm ranging from 180 to 357 cm. In all cases, primary donor-site closure was achieved. Marginal necrosis was seen in 5 cases. The reconstructed limbs showed satisfactory outcome in both aesthetic and functional aspects. The preexpanded intercostal artery perforator flap enables 1-block repair of extensive upper limb skin lesions. Due to limited donor-site morbidity and a pedicled technique, this resurfacing approach represents a useful tool especially in pediatric patients.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Treuer, Harald; Kocher, Martin; Hoevels, Moritz; Hunsche, Stefan; Luyken, Klaus; Maarouf, Mohammad; Voges, Juergen; Mueller, Rolf-Peter; Sturm, Volker
2006-01-01
Objective: Determination of the impact of inaccuracies in the determination and setup of the target point in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on the expectable complication and control probabilities. Methods: Two randomized samples of patients with arteriovenous malformation (AVM) (n = 20) and with brain metastases (n = 20) treated with SRS were formed, and the probability for complete obliteration (COP) or complete remission (CRP), the size of the 10 Gy-volume in the brain tissue (VOI10), and the probability for radiation necrosis (NTCP) were calculated. The dose-effect relations for COP and CRP were fitted to clinical data. Target point deviations were simulated through random vectors and the resulting probabilities and volumes were calculated and compared with the values of the treatment plan. Results: The decrease of the relative value of the control probabilities at 1 mm target point deviation was up to 4% for AVMs and up to 10% for metastases. At 2 mm the median decrease was 5% for AVMs and 9% for metastases. The value for the target point deviation, at which COP and CRP decreased about 0.05 in 90% of the cases, was 1.3 mm. The increase of NTCP was maximally 0.0025 per mm target point deviation for AVMs and 0.0035/mm for metastases. The maximal increase of VOI10 was 0.7 cm 3 /mm target point deviation in both patient groups. Conclusions: The upper limit for tolerable target point deviations is at 1.3 mm. If this value cannot be achieved during the system test, a supplementary safety margin should be applied for the definition of the target volume. A better accuracy level is desirable, in order to ensure optimal chances for the success of the treatment. The target point precision is less important for the minimization of the probability of radiation necroses
Fidelity deviation in quantum teleportation
Bang, Jeongho; Ryu, Junghee; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir
2018-04-01
We analyze the performance of quantum teleportation in terms of average fidelity and fidelity deviation. The average fidelity is defined as the average value of the fidelities over all possible input states and the fidelity deviation is their standard deviation, which is referred to as a concept of fluctuation or universality. In the analysis, we find the condition to optimize both measures under a noisy quantum channel—we here consider the so-called Werner channel. To characterize our results, we introduce a 2D space defined by the aforementioned measures, in which the performance of the teleportation is represented as a point with the channel noise parameter. Through further analysis, we specify some regions drawn for different channel conditions, establishing the connection to the dissimilar contributions of the entanglement to the teleportation and the Bell inequality violation.
48 CFR 1401.403 - Individual deviations.
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Individual deviations. 1401.403 Section 1401.403 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACQUISITION REGULATION SYSTEM Deviations from the FAR and DIAR 1401.403 Individual...
TERMINOLOGY MANAGEMENT FRAMEWORK DEVIATIONS IN PROJECTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Олена Борисівна ДАНЧЕНКО
2015-05-01
Full Text Available The article reviews new approaches to managing projects deviations (risks, changes, problems. By offering integrated control these parameters of the project and by analogy with medical terminological systems building a new system for managing terminological variations in the projects. With an improved method of triads system definitions are analyzed medical terms that make up terminological basis. Using the method of analogy proposed new definitions for managing deviations in projects. By using triad integrity built a new system triad in project management, which will subsequently also analogous to develop a new methodology of deviations in projects.
Extremes of 2d Coulomb gas: universal intermediate deviation regime
Lacroix-A-Chez-Toine, Bertrand; Grabsch, Aurélien; Majumdar, Satya N.; Schehr, Grégory
2018-01-01
In this paper, we study the extreme statistics in the complex Ginibre ensemble of N × N random matrices with complex Gaussian entries, but with no other symmetries. All the N eigenvalues are complex random variables and their joint distribution can be interpreted as a 2d Coulomb gas with a logarithmic repulsion between any pair of particles and in presence of a confining harmonic potential v(r) \\propto r2 . We study the statistics of the eigenvalue with the largest modulus r\\max in the complex plane. The typical and large fluctuations of r\\max around its mean had been studied before, and they match smoothly to the right of the mean. However, it remained a puzzle to understand why the large and typical fluctuations to the left of the mean did not match. In this paper, we show that there is indeed an intermediate fluctuation regime that interpolates smoothly between the large and the typical fluctuations to the left of the mean. Moreover, we compute explicitly this ‘intermediate deviation function’ (IDF) and show that it is universal, i.e. independent of the confining potential v(r) as long as it is spherically symmetric and increases faster than \\ln r2 for large r with an unbounded support. If the confining potential v(r) has a finite support, i.e. becomes infinite beyond a finite radius, we show via explicit computation that the corresponding IDF is different. Interestingly, in the borderline case where the confining potential grows very slowly as v(r) ∼ \\ln r2 for r \\gg 1 with an unbounded support, the intermediate regime disappears and there is a smooth matching between the central part and the left large deviation regime.
Qin, Guangzhao; Qin, Zhenzhen; Wang, Huimin; Hu, Ming
2017-05-01
Efficient heat dissipation, which is featured by high thermal conductivity, is one of the crucial issues for the reliability and stability of nanodevices. However, due to the generally fast 1 /T decrease of thermal conductivity with temperature increase, the efficiency of heat dissipation quickly drops down at an elevated temperature caused by the increase of work load in electronic devices. To this end, pursuing semiconductor materials that possess large thermal conductivity at high temperature, i.e., slower decrease of thermal conductivity with temperature increase than the traditional κ ˜1 /T relation, is extremely important to the development of disruptive nanoelectronics. Recently, monolayer gallium nitride (GaN) with a planar honeycomb structure emerges as a promising new two-dimensional material with great potential for applications in nano- and optoelectronics. Here, we report that, despite the commonly established 1 /T relation of thermal conductivity in plenty of materials, monolayer GaN exhibits anomalous behavior that the thermal conductivity almost decreases linearly over a wide temperature range above 300 K, deviating largely from the traditional κ ˜1 /T law. The thermal conductivity at high temperature is much larger than the expected thermal conductivity that follows the general κ ˜1 /T trend, which would be beneficial for applications of monolayer GaN in nano- and optoelectronics in terms of efficient heat dissipation. We perform detailed analysis on the mechanisms underlying the anomalously temperature-dependent thermal conductivity of monolayer GaN in the framework of Boltzmann transport theory and further get insight from the view of electronic structure. Beyond that, we also propose two required conditions for materials that would exhibit similar anomalous temperature dependence of thermal conductivity: large difference in atom mass (huge phonon band gap) and electronegativity (LO-TO splitting due to strong polarization of bond). Our
41 CFR 115-1.110 - Deviations.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviations. 115-1.110 Section 115-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 115-1.110 Deviations...
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deviation. 105-1.110 Section 105-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.110 Deviation. (a...
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Deviation. 101-1.110 Section 101-1.110 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS GENERAL 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulation System § 101-1.110 Deviation...
Temperature variations in Titan's upper atmosphere: Impact on Cassini/Huygens
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Kazeminejad
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Temperature variations of Titan's upper atmosphere due to the plasma interaction of the satellite with Saturn's magnetosphere and Titan's high altitude monomer haze particles can imply an offset of up to ±30K from currently estimated model profiles. We incorporated these temperature uncertainties as an offset into the recently published Vervack et al. (2004 (Icarus, Vol. 170, 91-112 engineering model and derive extreme case (i.e. minimum and maximum profiles temperature, pressure, and density profiles. We simulated the Huygens probe hypersonic entry trajectory and obtain, as expected, deviations of the probe trajectory for the extreme atmosphere models compared to the simulation based on the nominal one. These deviations are very similar to the ones obtained with the standard Yelle et al. (1997 (ESA SP-1177 profiles. We could confirm that the difference in aerodynamic drag is of an order of magnitude that can be measured by the probe science accelerometer. They represent an important means for the reconstruction of Titan's upper atmospheric properties. Furthermore, we simulated a Cassini low Titan flyby trajectory. No major trajectory deviations were found. The atmospheric torques due to aerodynamic drag, however, are twice as high for our high temperature profile as the ones obtained with the Yelle maximum profile and more than 5 times higher than the worst case estimations from the Cassini project. We propose to use the Cassini atmospheric torque measurements during its low flybys to derive the atmospheric drag and to reconstruct Titan's upper atmosphere density, pressure, and temperature. The results could then be compared to the reconstructed profiles obtained from Huygens probe measurements. This would help to validate the probe measurements and decrease the error bars.
The deep thermal field of the Upper Rhine Graben
Freymark, Jessica; Sippel, Judith; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Bär, Kristian; Stiller, Manfred; Fritsche, Johann-Gerhard; Kracht, Matthias
2017-01-01
The Upper Rhine Graben has a significant socioeconomic relevance as it provides a great potential for geothermal energy production. The key for the utilisation of this energy resource is to understand the controlling factors of the thermal field in this area. We have therefore built a data-based lithospheric-scale 3D structural model of the Upper Rhine Graben and its adjacent areas. In addition, 3D gravity modelling was performed to constrain the internal structure of the crystalline crust consistent with seismic information. Based on this lithosphere scale 3D structural model the present-day conductive thermal field was calculated and compared to measured temperatures. Our results show that the regional thermal field is mainly controlled by the configuration of the upper crust, which has different thermal properties characteristic for the Variscan and Alpine domains. Temperature maxima are predicted for the Upper Rhine Graben where thick insulating Cenozoic sediments cause a thermal blanketing effect and where the underlying crustal units are characterised by high radiogenic heat production. The comparison of calculated and measured temperatures overall shows a reasonable fit, while locally occuring model deviations indicate where a larger influence of groundwater flow may be expected.
Comparing Standard Deviation Effects across Contexts
Ost, Ben; Gangopadhyaya, Anuj; Schiman, Jeffrey C.
2017-01-01
Studies using tests scores as the dependent variable often report point estimates in student standard deviation units. We note that a standard deviation is not a standard unit of measurement since the distribution of test scores can vary across contexts. As such, researchers should be cautious when interpreting differences in the numerical size of…
Effect of Pilates Exercise on Range of Motion and Edema of Upper Limb in Mastectomy Side
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maryam Ghorbani
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Background & objectives : The surgery of breast cancer like any other surgeries may bring about some problems and complications, which the knowledge of these problems may be an effective way for prevention or dealing with the complications. The motor and sensory impairments in the upper limb of the surgery side necessitate the utilization of the rehabilitation methods. The main purpose of this research was to show the effect of Pilates exercise on range of motion and edema of upper limb in females suffering from breast cancer after going through surgery. Methods: This quasi- experimental study was conducted on 25 patients randomly chosen among the patients referring to Cancer Institute. The designed exercise included five "Mat Pilates" moves which were done for 15 sessions until the patient reached fatigue borderlines. Meantime, the control group was doing routine active exercises in physiotherapy center. The range of motion and edema of upper limb was measured before and after applying the designed exercise. For describing the data, the mean and standard deviation, and for inferential analysis, the correlated T-tests and one way analysis of variance were used in level of significance of 5%, to compare the variants before and after applying the designed exercise. Results: The results showed a significant difference between the flexion, extension, and internal, external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, flexion, extension, supination deviation and pronation deviation of the wrist and forearm before and after experiment in Pilates group. While in the control group, flexion, extension, internal and external rotation of shoulder, flexion and extension of elbow, and flexion of wrist showed a significant difference before and after the experiment. Conclusion: The use of Pilates exercise after mastectomy surgery can increase the range of motion of the upper limb in the involved side of the patients, and decrease the edema
41 CFR 109-1.110-50 - Deviation procedures.
2010-07-01
... best interest of the Government; (3) If applicable, the name of the contractor and identification of... background information which will contribute to a full understanding of the desired deviation. (b)(1... authorized to grant deviations to the DOE-PMR. (d) Requests for deviations from the FPMR will be coordinated...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ning Gan
Full Text Available Intraoral digital impressions have been stated to meet the clinical requirements for some teeth-supported restorations, though fewer evidences were proposed for larger scanning range. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision of intraoral digital impressions for whole upper jaws, including the full dentitions and palatal soft tissues, as well as to determine the effect of different palatal vault height or arch width on accuracy of intraoral digital impressions. Thirty-two volunteers were divided into three groups according to the palatal vault height or arch width. Each volunteer received three scans with TRIOS intraoral scanner and one conventional impression of whole upper jaw. Three-dimensional (3D images digitized from conventional gypsum casts by a laboratory scanner were chose as the reference models. All datasets were imported to a specific software program for 3D analysis by "best fit alignment" and "3D compare" process. Color-coded deviation maps showed qualitative visualization of the deviations. For the digital impressions for palatal soft tissues, trueness was (130.54±33.95μm and precision was (55.26±11.21μm. For the digital impressions for upper full dentitions, trueness was (80.01±17.78μm and precision was (59.52±11.29μm. Larger deviations were found between intraoral digital impressions and conventional impressions in the areas of palatal soft tissues than that in the areas of full dentitions (p0.05, but arch width was found to have a significant effect on precision of intraoral digital impressions for full dentitions (p = 0.016. A linear correlation was found between arch width and precision of digital impressions for whole upper jaws (r = 0.326, p = 0.034 for palatal soft tissues and r = 0.485, p = 0.002 for full dentitions. It was feasible to use the intraoral scanner to obtain digital impressions for whole upper jaws. Wider dental arch contributed to lower precision of an intraoral
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dalluege, K H; Eichhorn, H J; Grunau, H [Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Krebsforschung
1981-08-01
The reaction of hematological and serological parameters in 47 patients having received a large dose single irradiation of the upper and the parvicellular bronchial carcinoma, resp., of the upper and of the lower half of the body with 8.4 Gy for the mid-line is reported. Different positions of the patients during irradiation and different fractionations were compared. Subdivision of the half-body irradiation dose, anteroposterior direction of irradiation and partial sparing of the extremities during treatment proved to be the most careful method for the leukopoietic system because the leukocytes reached their initial values 6 weeks and the lymphocytes 2 months after irradiation. Serum aldolase is a suitable parameter for tumor response and for the demonstration of eventually not yet known metastases in the irradiated half of the body with an increase of the values above 8 IU per liter after irradiation. Creatine kinase is an indicator of the radiation response of the muscles.
Camus, Marine; Jensen, Dennis M.; Ohning, Gordon V.; Kovacs, Thomas O.; Ghassemi, Kevin A.; Jutabha, Rome; Machicado, Gustavo A.; Dulai, Gareth S.; Hines, Joel O.
2013-01-01
Background and study aims Cameron ulcers are a rare but clinically significant cause of severe upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage (SUGIH). Our aims were to describe (1) the diagnosis, treatment and outcomes of patients with Cameron ulcers causing hospitalization for SUGIH, (2) the differences between patients with occult vs. overt bleeding and (3) between patients treated surgically and medically. Patients and methods Over the past 17 years, all consecutive patients hospitalized in our two tertiary referral medical centers for severe UGIH or severe obscure GIH and entered into our large prospective databasis were screened for Cameron ulcer diagnosis. Results Cameron ulcers were diagnosed in 25 patients of 3960 patients with SUGIH (0.6%). 21 patients had follow-up (median [IQR] time of 20.4 months [8.5–31.8]). Patients were more often elderly females with chronic anemia, always had large hiatal hernias, and were usually referred for obscure SUGIH. Twelve (57.2%) patients were referred to surgery for rebleeding and recurrent blood loss while treated with high dose of proton pump inhibitors (PPI). 9 (42.8%) other patients continued PPI without any rebleeding during the follow-up. Patients with overt bleeding had significantly more prior hospitalizations for SUGIH, more often stigmata of hemorrhage on ulcers, and more red blood cell transfusions than patients with occult bleeding. However, there was no difference in rebleeding and mortality rates between the two groups. Conclusions Cameron ulcers in large hiatal hernias are an uncommon cause of SUGIH. Most of patients are referred for obscure GIH. The choice of medical vs. surgical therapy should be individualized. PMID:23616128
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higashi, Katsuhiko; Goto, Tazuko K.; Kanda, Shigenobu; Shiratsuchi, Yuji; Nakashima, Akihiko; Horinouchi, Yasufumi
2006-01-01
Numerous studies on the cross-sectional area of masticatory muscles, which are correlated to the facial shape, have been reported for normal subjects in previous articles. However to date, there have been no such studies on masseter muscles at jaw-closing and jaw-opening in patients with jaw deformities involving mandibular deviation. The MRI data sets of the masseter muscles at jaw-closing and jaw-opening in 14 female patients with mandibular deviation, who demonstrated a more than 3-mm deviation in the median line in the lower first incisors in comparison to the upper ones, were utilized. The cross-sectional areas from the origin to the insertion at jaw-closing and jaw-opening which were reconstructed perpendicular to the three-dimensional long axis of each masseter muscle, each maximum cross-sectional area (MCSA) and the ratio of the change in MCSA after jaw-opening were analyzed. As a result, a significant difference was observed between the MCSA at jaw-closing and jaw-opening on the same side. However, no difference in MCSA was seen between the deviated and non-deviated side of the mandible. The line chart patterns of the masseter muscles from the origin to the insertion could be classified into four types. Our results suggest that it is important to analyze cross-sectional areas of the masseter muscles in each subject while considering the three-dimensional axis of each muscle. (author)
FINDING STANDARD DEVIATION OF A FUZZY NUMBER
Fokrul Alom Mazarbhuiya
2017-01-01
Two probability laws can be root of a possibility law. Considering two probability densities over two disjoint ranges, we can define the fuzzy standard deviation of a fuzzy variable with the help of the standard deviation two random variables in two disjoint spaces.
Upper gastrointestinal bleeding - state of the art.
Szura, Mirosław; Pasternak, Artur
2014-01-01
Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is a condition requiring immediate medical intervention, with high associated mortality exceeding 10%. The most common cause of upper GI bleeding is peptic ulcer disease, which largely corresponds to the intake of NSAIDs and Helicobacter pylori infection. Endoscopy is the essential tool for the diagnosis and treatment of active upper GI hemorrhage. Endoscopic therapy together with proton pump inhibitors and eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduces rebleeding rates, mortality and number of emergency surgical interventions. This paper presents contemporary data on the diagnosis and treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding.
On the influence of airfoil deviations on the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine rotors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Winstroth, J; Seume, J R
2016-01-01
The manufacture of large wind turbine rotor blades is a difficult task that still involves a certain degree of manual labor. Due to the complexity, airfoil deviations between the design airfoils and the manufactured blade are certain to arise. Presently, the understanding of the impact of manufacturing uncertainties on the aerodynamic performance is still incomplete. The present work analyzes the influence of a series of airfoil deviations likely to occur during manufacturing by means of Computational Fluid Dynamics and the aeroelastic code FAST. The average power production of the NREL 5MW wind turbine is used to evaluate the different airfoil deviations. Analyzed deviations include: Mold tilt towards the leading and trailing edge, thick bond lines, thick bond lines with cantilever correction, backward facing steps and airfoil waviness. The most severe influences are observed for mold tilt towards the leading and thick bond lines. By applying the cantilever correction, the influence of thick bond lines is almost compensated. Airfoil waviness is very dependent on amplitude height and the location along the surface of the airfoil. Increased influence is observed for backward facing steps, once they are high enough to trigger boundary layer transition close to the leading edge. (paper)
Müller, Roy; Rode, Christian; Aminiaghdam, Soran; Vielemeyer, Johanna; Blickhan, Reinhard
2017-11-01
Directing the ground reaction forces to a focal point above the centre of mass of the whole body promotes whole body stability in human and animal gaits similar to a physical pendulum. Here we show that this is the case in human hip-flexed walking as well. For all upper body orientations (upright, 25°, 50°, maximum), the focal point was well above the centre of mass of the whole body, suggesting its general relevance for walking. Deviations of the forces' lines of action from the focal point increased with upper body inclination from 25 to 43 mm root mean square deviation (RMSD). With respect to the upper body in upright gait, the resulting force also passed near a focal point (17 mm RMSD between the net forces' lines of action and focal point), but this point was 18 cm below its centre of mass. While this behaviour mimics an unstable inverted pendulum, it leads to resulting torques of alternating sign in accordance with periodic upper body motion and probably provides for low metabolic cost of upright gait by keeping hip torques small. Stabilization of the upper body is a consequence of other mechanisms, e.g. hip reflexes or muscle preflexes.
PoDMan: Policy Deviation Management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aishwarya Bakshi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Whenever an unexpected or exceptional situation occurs, complying with the existing policies may not be possible. The main objective of this work is to assist individuals and organizations to decide in the process of deviating from policies and performing a non-complying action. The paper proposes utilizing software agents as supportive tools to provide the best non-complying action while deviating from policies. The article also introduces a process in which the decision on the choice of non-complying action can be made. The work is motivated by a real scenario observed in a hospital in Norway and demonstrated through the same settings.
Deviations outside the acceptance limits in the IAEA/WHO TLD audits for radiotherapy hospitals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vatnitsky, S.; Izewska, J.
2002-01-01
The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for high-energy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient
Quantum uncertainty relation based on the mean deviation
Sharma, Gautam; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjib; Sazim, Sk; Pati, Arun Kumar
2018-01-01
Traditional forms of quantum uncertainty relations are invariably based on the standard deviation. This can be understood in the historical context of simultaneous development of quantum theory and mathematical statistics. Here, we present alternative forms of uncertainty relations, in both state dependent and state independent forms, based on the mean deviation. We illustrate the robustness of this formulation in situations where the standard deviation based uncertainty relation is inapplica...
Exploring Students' Conceptions of the Standard Deviation
delMas, Robert; Liu, Yan
2005-01-01
This study investigated introductory statistics students' conceptual understanding of the standard deviation. A computer environment was designed to promote students' ability to coordinate characteristics of variation of values about the mean with the size of the standard deviation as a measure of that variation. Twelve students participated in an…
Fracture toughness of A533B. Part 2. Review of data pertinent to upper shelf temperatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Druce, S.G.; Eyre, B.L.; Belcher, W.P.A.
1978-08-01
This report is the second in a series of three examining the state of the art of elastoplastic fracture mechanics as applied to A533B pressure vessel steel in the upper shelf temperature regime. Part II presents a review of fracture toughness data for A533B Class 1 plate tested in the longitudinal (RW) orientation. Data from USA, UK and Scandinavian sources published prior to September 1976 has been included. It is concluded that previous studies using a maximum load criterion have over-estimated the initiation toughness in the upper shelf regime. Results derived from J integral tests now show the mean toughness at 275 0 C to vary between 141 ksi sq. root in and 154 ksi sq. root in depending on the exact analytical procedure used. Limited statistical analysis of the results obtained using several heats of material suggest that standard deviation of the scatter of results is approximately 11% of the mean value. Recommendations for future work to improve our understanding of the fracture properties of A533B and similar medium strength high toughness materials, and their application to large structures, are presented. (author)
Beyond Multiplexing Gain in Large MIMO Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cakmak, Burak; Müller, Ralf R.; Fleury, Bernard Henri
growth (multiplexing gain). Even when the channel entries are i.i.d. the deviation from the linear growth is significant. We also find an additive property of the deviation for a concatenated MIMO system. Finally, we quantify the deviation of the large SNR capacity from the exact capacity and find...
Large tan β in gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rattazzi, R.
1997-01-01
We explore some topics in the phenomenology of gauge-mediated SUSY-breaking scenarios having a large hierarchy of Higgs VEVs, v U /v D = tan β>>1. Some motivation for this scenario is first presented. We then use a systematic, analytic expansion (including some threshold corrections) to calculate the μ-parameter needed for proper electroweak breaking and the radiative corrections to the B-parameter, which fortuitously cancel at leading order. If B = 0 at the messenger scale then tan β is naturally large and calculable; we calculate it. We then confront this prediction with classical and quantum vacuum stability constraints arising from the Higgs-slepton potential, and indicate the preferred values of the top quark mass and messenger scale(s). The possibility of vacuum instability in a different direction yields an upper bound on the messenger mass scale complementary to the familiar bound from gravitino relic abundance. Next, we calculate the rate for b→sγ and show the possibility of large deviations (in the direction currently favored by experiment) from standard-model and small tan β predictions. Finally, we discuss the implications of these findings and their applicability to future, broader and more detailed investigations. (orig.)
A Visual Model for the Variance and Standard Deviation
Orris, J. B.
2011-01-01
This paper shows how the variance and standard deviation can be represented graphically by looking at each squared deviation as a graphical object--in particular, as a square. A series of displays show how the standard deviation is the size of the average square.
7 CFR 400.204 - Notification of deviation from standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from standards. 400.204... Contract-Standards for Approval § 400.204 Notification of deviation from standards. A Contractor shall advise the Corporation immediately if the Contractor deviates from the requirements of these standards...
Gan, Ning; Xiong, Yaoyang; Jiao, Ting
2016-01-01
Intraoral digital impressions have been stated to meet the clinical requirements for some teeth-supported restorations, though fewer evidences were proposed for larger scanning range. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision) of intraoral digital impressions for whole upper jaws, including the full dentitions and palatal soft tissues, as well as to determine the effect of different palatal vault height or arch width on accuracy of intraoral digital impressions. Thirty-two volunteers were divided into three groups according to the palatal vault height or arch width. Each volunteer received three scans with TRIOS intraoral scanner and one conventional impression of whole upper jaw. Three-dimensional (3D) images digitized from conventional gypsum casts by a laboratory scanner were chose as the reference models. All datasets were imported to a specific software program for 3D analysis by "best fit alignment" and "3D compare" process. Color-coded deviation maps showed qualitative visualization of the deviations. For the digital impressions for palatal soft tissues, trueness was (130.54±33.95)μm and precision was (55.26±11.21)μm. For the digital impressions for upper full dentitions, trueness was (80.01±17.78)μm and precision was (59.52±11.29)μm. Larger deviations were found between intraoral digital impressions and conventional impressions in the areas of palatal soft tissues than that in the areas of full dentitions (pimpressions for palatal soft tissues was slightly better than that for full dentitions (p = 0.049). There was no significant effect of palatal vault height on accuracy of digital impressions for palatal soft tissues (p>0.05), but arch width was found to have a significant effect on precision of intraoral digital impressions for full dentitions (p = 0.016). A linear correlation was found between arch width and precision of digital impressions for whole upper jaws (r = 0.326, p = 0.034 for palatal soft tissues and r
Gan, Ning; Xiong, Yaoyang; Jiao, Ting
2016-01-01
Intraoral digital impressions have been stated to meet the clinical requirements for some teeth-supported restorations, though fewer evidences were proposed for larger scanning range. The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy (trueness and precision) of intraoral digital impressions for whole upper jaws, including the full dentitions and palatal soft tissues, as well as to determine the effect of different palatal vault height or arch width on accuracy of intraoral digital impressions. Thirty-two volunteers were divided into three groups according to the palatal vault height or arch width. Each volunteer received three scans with TRIOS intraoral scanner and one conventional impression of whole upper jaw. Three-dimensional (3D) images digitized from conventional gypsum casts by a laboratory scanner were chose as the reference models. All datasets were imported to a specific software program for 3D analysis by "best fit alignment" and "3D compare" process. Color-coded deviation maps showed qualitative visualization of the deviations. For the digital impressions for palatal soft tissues, trueness was (130.54±33.95)μm and precision was (55.26±11.21)μm. For the digital impressions for upper full dentitions, trueness was (80.01±17.78)μm and precision was (59.52±11.29)μm. Larger deviations were found between intraoral digital impressions and conventional impressions in the areas of palatal soft tissues than that in the areas of full dentitions (pimpressions for palatal soft tissues was slightly better than that for full dentitions (p = 0.049). There was no significant effect of palatal vault height on accuracy of digital impressions for palatal soft tissues (p>0.05), but arch width was found to have a significant effect on precision of intraoral digital impressions for full dentitions (p = 0.016). A linear correlation was found between arch width and precision of digital impressions for whole upper jaws (r = 0.326, p = 0.034 for palatal soft tissues and r
Upper shielding body in LMFBR type reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shoji, Koichi.
1986-01-01
Purpose: Preference is given to the strength and thermal insulation of a roof slab thereby ensuring axial size and improving the operationability upon inserting the control rod in the upper shielding body of LMFBR type reactors. Constitution: In an upper shielding body in which a large rotational plug is rotatably mounted to a circular hole formed at an eccentric position of a roof slab, while a small rotational plug is rotatably mounted to a circular hole disposed at an eccentric position of the large rotational plug and the reactor core upper mechanisms are supported on the small rotational plug, heat insulation layers are attached to the inside of the inner circumferential wall of the roof slab and the outer circumferential wall of the large rotational plug. By attaching the heat insulation layers, the heat conduction between the roof slab and the large rotational plug can be suppressed remarkably, by which occurrence of specific heat pass or local generation of large thermal stresses can be avoided even if difference is resulted to the temperature distribution between them. In this way, functions taking advantage of respective features of the roof slab and the small rotational plug can be obtained to achieve the purpose. (Kamimura, M.)
21 CFR 330.11 - NDA deviations from applicable monograph.
2010-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false NDA deviations from applicable monograph. 330.11... EFFECTIVE AND NOT MISBRANDED Administrative Procedures § 330.11 NDA deviations from applicable monograph. A new drug application requesting approval of an OTC drug deviating in any respect from a monograph that...
Sensitivity Analysis of Deviation Source for Fast Assembly Precision Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianjun Tang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Assembly precision optimization of complex product has a huge benefit in improving the quality of our products. Due to the impact of a variety of deviation source coupling phenomena, the goal of assembly precision optimization is difficult to be confirmed accurately. In order to achieve optimization of assembly precision accurately and rapidly, sensitivity analysis of deviation source is proposed. First, deviation source sensitivity is defined as the ratio of assembly dimension variation and deviation source dimension variation. Second, according to assembly constraint relations, assembly sequences and locating, deviation transmission paths are established by locating the joints between the adjacent parts, and establishing each part’s datum reference frame. Third, assembly multidimensional vector loops are created using deviation transmission paths, and the corresponding scalar equations of each dimension are established. Then, assembly deviation source sensitivity is calculated by using a first-order Taylor expansion and matrix transformation method. Finally, taking assembly precision optimization of wing flap rocker as an example, the effectiveness and efficiency of the deviation source sensitivity analysis method are verified.
Effect of nasal deviation on quality of life.
de Lima Ramos, Sueli; Hochman, Bernardo; Gomes, Heitor Carvalho; Abla, Luiz Eduardo Felipe; Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Juliano, Yara; Dini, Gal Moreira; Ferreira, Lydia Masako
2011-07-01
Nasal deviation is a common complaint in otorhinolaryngology and plastic surgery. This condition not only causes impairment of nasal function but also affects quality of life, leading to psychological distress. The subjective assessment of quality of life, as an important aspect of outcomes research, has received increasing attention in recent decades. Quality of life is measured using standardized questionnaires that have been tested for reliability, validity, and sensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate health-related quality of life, self-esteem, and depression in patients with nasal deviation. Sixty patients were selected for the study. Patients with nasal deviation (n = 32) were assigned to the study group, and patients without nasal deviation (n = 28) were assigned to the control group. The diagnosis of nasal deviation was made by digital photogrammetry. Quality of life was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey questionnaire; the Rosenberg Self-Esteem/Federal University of São Paulo, Escola Paulista de Medicina Scale; and the 20-item Self-Report Questionnaire. There were significant differences between groups in the physical functioning and general health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (p < 0.05). Depression was detected in 11 patients (34.4 percent) in the study group and in two patients in the control group, with a significant difference between groups (p < 0.05). Nasal deviation is an aspect of rhinoplasty of which the surgeon should be aware so that proper psychological diagnosis can be made and suitable treatment can be planned because psychologically the patients with nasal deviation have significantly worse quality of life and are more prone to depression. Risk, II.(Figure is included in full-text article.).
Association between septal deviation and sinonasal papilloma.
Nomura, Kazuhiro; Ogawa, Takenori; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Honkura, Yohei; Oshima, Hidetoshi; Arakawa, Kazuya; Oshima, Takeshi; Katori, Yukio
2013-12-01
Sinonasal papilloma is a common benign epithelial tumor of the sinonasal tract and accounts for 0.5% to 4% of all nasal tumors. The etiology of sinonasal papilloma remains unclear, although human papilloma virus has been proposed as a major risk factor. Other etiological factors, such as anatomical variations of the nasal cavity, may be related to the pathogenesis of sinonasal papilloma, because deviated nasal septum is seen in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis. We, therefore, investigated the involvement of deviated nasal septum in the development of sinonasal papilloma. Preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging findings of 83 patients with sinonasal papilloma were evaluated retrospectively. The side of papilloma and the direction of septal deviation showed a significant correlation. Septum deviated to the intact side in 51 of 83 patients (61.4%) and to the affected side in 18 of 83 patients (21.7%). Straight or S-shaped septum was observed in 14 of 83 patients (16.9%). Even after excluding 27 patients who underwent revision surgery and 15 patients in whom the papilloma touched the concave portion of the nasal septum, the concave side of septal deviation was associated with the development of sinonasal papilloma (p = 0.040). The high incidence of sinonasal papilloma in the concave side may reflect the consequences of the traumatic effects caused by wall shear stress of the high-velocity airflow and the increased chance of inhaling viruses and pollutants. The present study supports the causative role of human papilloma virus and toxic chemicals in the occurrence of sinonasal papilloma.
Hearing protector performance and standard deviation.
Williams, W; Dillon, H
2005-01-01
The attenuation performance of a hearing protector is used to estimate the protected exposure level of the user. The aim is to reduce the exposed level to an acceptable value. Users should expect the attenuation to fall within a reasonable range of values around a norm. However, an analysis of extensive test data indicates that there is a negative relationship between attenuation performance and the standard deviation. This result is deduced using a variation in the method of calculating a single number rating of attenuation that is more amenable to drawing statistical inferences. As performance is typically specified as a function of the mean attenuation minus one or two standard deviations from the mean to ensure that greater than 50% of the wearer population are well protected, the implication of increasing standard deviation with decreasing attenuation found in this study means that a significant number of users are, in fact, experiencing over-protection. These users may be disinclined to use their hearing protectors because of an increased feeling of acoustic isolation. This problem is exacerbated in areas with lower noise levels.
Top Yukawa deviation in extra dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haba, Naoyuki; Oda, Kin-ya; Takahashi, Ryo
2009-01-01
We suggest a simple one-Higgs-doublet model living in the bulk of five-dimensional spacetime compactified on S 1 /Z 2 , in which the top Yukawa coupling can be smaller than the naive standard-model expectation, i.e. the top quark mass divided by the Higgs vacuum expectation value. If we find only single Higgs particle at the LHC and also observe the top Yukawa deviation, our scenario becomes a realistic candidate beyond the standard model. The Yukawa deviation comes from the fact that the wave function profile of the free physical Higgs field can become different from that of the vacuum expectation value, due to the presence of the brane-localized Higgs potentials. In the Brane-Localized Fermion scenario, we find sizable top Yukawa deviation, which could be checked at the LHC experiment, with a dominant Higgs production channel being the WW fusion. We also study the Bulk Fermion scenario with brane-localized Higgs potential, which resembles the Universal Extra Dimension model with a stable dark matter candidate. We show that both scenarios are consistent with the current electroweak precision measurements.
Perfect Octagon Quadrangle Systems with an upper C4-system and a large spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luigia Berardi
2011-02-01
Full Text Available An octagon quadrangle is the graph consisting of an 8-cycle (x1, x2,..., x8 with two additional chords: the edges {x1, x4} and {x5, x8}. An octagon quadrangle system of order ν and index λ [OQS] is a pair (X,H, where X is a finite set of ν vertices and H is a collection of edge disjoint octagon quadrangles (called blocks which partition the edge set of λKν defined on X. An octagon quadrangle system Σ=(X,H of order ν and index λ is said to be upper C4-perfect if the collection of all of the upper 4-cycles contained in the octagon quadrangles form a μ-fold 4-cycle system of order ν; it is said to be upper strongly perfect, if the collection of all of the upper 4-cycles contained in the octagon quadrangles form a μ-fold 4-cycle system of order ν and also the collection of all of the outside 8-cycles contained in the octagon quadrangles form a ρ-fold 8-cycle system of order ν. In this paper, the authors determine the spectrum for these systems, in the case that it is the largest possible.
Deviation from local thermodynamic equilibrium in a cesium-seeded argon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stefanov, B.; Zarkova, L.
1985-11-01
The possibility of deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium of a cesium seeded argon plasma has been analyzed. A four level model of cesium has been employed. Overpopulations of the ground state and the first excited state as well as the corresponding reduction of the electron density are calculated for cylindrical discharge structures by solving stationary rate equations. Numerical results are presented. These results indicate that in a large regime of plasma conditions the LTE assumption is valid for electron temperatures larger than 3000 K. (orig.)
Prosthodontic management of mandibular deviation using palatal ramp appliance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prince Kumar
2012-08-01
Full Text Available Segmental resection of the mandible generally results in deviation of the mandible to the defective side. This loss of continuity of the mandible destroys the balance of the lower face and leads to decreased mandibular function by deviation of the residual segment toward the surgical site. Prosthetic methods advocated to reduce or eliminate mandibular deviation include intermaxillary fixation, removable mandibular guide flange, palatal ramp, implant-supported prosthesis and palatal guidance restorations which may be useful in reducing mandibular deviation and improving masticatory performance and efficiency. These methods and restorations would be combined with a well organized mandibular exercise regimen. This clinical report describes the rehabilitation following segmental mandibulectomy using palatal ramp prosthesis.
Scaphoid and lunate movement in different ranges of carpal radioulnar deviation.
Tang, Jin Bo; Xu, Jing; Xie, Ren Guo
2011-01-01
We aimed to investigate scaphoid and lunate movement in radial deviation and in slight and moderate ulnar deviation ranges in vivo. We obtained computed tomography scans of the right wrists from 20° radial deviation to 40° ulnar deviation in 20° increments in 6 volunteers. The 3-dimensional bony structures of the wrist, including the distal radius and ulna, were reconstructed with customized software. The changes in position of the scaphoid and lunate along flexion-extension motion (FEM), radioulnar deviation (RUD), and supination-pronation axes in 3 parts--radial deviation and slight and moderate ulnar deviation--of the carpal RUD were calculated and analyzed. During carpal RUD, scaphoid and lunate motion along 3 axes--FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation--were the greatest in the middle third of the measured RUD (from neutral position to 20° ulnar deviation) and the smallest in radial deviation. Scaphoid motion along the FEM, RUD, and supination-pronation axes in the middle third was about half that in the entire motion range. In the middle motion range, lunate movement along the FEM and RUD axes was also the greatest. During carpal RUD, the greatest scaphoid and lunate movement occurs in the middle of the arc--slight ulnar deviation--which the wrist frequently adopts to accomplish major hand actions. At radial deviation, scaphoid and lunate motion is the smallest. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
An absolute deviation approach to assessing correlation.
Gorard, S.
2015-01-01
This paper describes two possible alternatives to the more traditional Pearson’s R correlation coefficient, both based on using the mean absolute deviation, rather than the standard deviation, as a measure of dispersion. Pearson’s R is well-established and has many advantages. However, these newer variants also have several advantages, including greater simplicity and ease of computation, and perhaps greater tolerance of underlying assumptions (such as the need for linearity). The first alter...
38 CFR 36.4304 - Deviations; changes of identity.
2010-07-01
... identity. 36.4304 Section 36.4304 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS... Deviations; changes of identity. A deviation of more than 5 percent between the estimates upon which a... change in the identity of the property upon which the original appraisal was based, will invalidate the...
Moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Abstract. The aim of this paper is to provide pointwise and uniform moderate deviations principles for the kernel estimator of a nonrandom regression function. Moreover, we give an application of these moderate deviations principles to the construction of condence regions for the regression function. Resume. L'objectif de ...
48 CFR 1352.219-71 - Notification to delay performance (Deviation).
2010-10-01
... performance (Deviation). 1352.219-71 Section 1352.219-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF....219-71 Notification to delay performance (Deviation). As prescribed in 48 CFR 1319.811-3(b), insert the following clause: Notification To Delay Performance (Deviation) (APR 2010) The contractor shall...
Mod-ϕ convergence normality zones and precise deviations
Féray, Valentin; Nikeghbali, Ashkan
2016-01-01
The canonical way to establish the central limit theorem for i.i.d. random variables is to use characteristic functions and Lévy’s continuity theorem. This monograph focuses on this characteristic function approach and presents a renormalization theory called mod-ϕ convergence. This type of convergence is a relatively new concept with many deep ramifications, and has not previously been published in a single accessible volume. The authors construct an extremely flexible framework using this concept in order to study limit theorems and large deviations for a number of probabilistic models related to classical probability, combinatorics, non-commutative random variables, as well as geometric and number-theoretical objects. Intended for researchers in probability theory, the text is carefully well-written and well-structured, containing a great amount of detail and interesting examples. .
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andre, G.; Rebours, H.; Wileveau, Y.; Proudhon, B.
2006-01-01
Study of fractures along a 490-m vertical section of marl/limestone alternations in the Upper Jurassic (Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory-eastern Paris Basin) reveals their organization and the different states of palaeo-stress. Type and extension of tectonic structures seem to be controlled principally by lithology and secondary by depth. Also, it appears deviations of Alpine palaeo-stresses between Kimmeridgian and Oxfordian formations. These deviations are related to the presence of marl/limestone contacts. The vertical evolution of current horizontal maximum stress shows a similar behaviour, with deviations at the walls of Callovo-Oxfordian argilites. These results allow us to point out and to discuss the impact of lithology, rheology and depth on fracturing occurrence and distribution. Furthermore, this study suggests the role of Callovo-Oxfordian as a barrier for fracture development between the limestones of Dogger and Oxfordian formations. (authors)
7 CFR 400.174 - Notification of deviation from financial standards.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of deviation from financial standards... Agreement-Standards for Approval; Regulations for the 1997 and Subsequent Reinsurance Years § 400.174 Notification of deviation from financial standards. An insurer must immediately advise FCIC if it deviates from...
Yoshino, Takaiko; Fukuchi, Takeo; Togano, Tetsuya; Sakaue, Yuta; Seki, Masaaki; Tanaka, Takayuki; Ueda, Jun
2016-03-01
We evaluated the rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects in patients with treated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) with high myopia (HM). Seventy eyes of 70 POAG patients with HM [≤-8 diopters (D)] were examined. The mean deviation (MD) slope and the upper and lower total deviation (upper TD, lower TD) slopes of the Humphrey Field Analyzer were calculated in patients with high-tension glaucoma (HTG) (>21 mmHg) versus normal-tension glaucoma (NTG) (≤21 mmHg). The mean age of all the patients (29 eyes with HTG and 41 eyes with NTG) was 48.5 ± 9.6 years. The MD slope, and upper and lower TD slopes of the HM group were compared to those of the non-HM group (NHM) (>-8 D) selected from 544 eyes in 325 age-matched POAG patients. In all, 70 eyes with HM and NHM were examined. The mean MD slope was -0.33 ± 0.33 dB/year in the HM, and -0.38 ± 0.49 dB/year in the NHM. There were no statistical differences between the HM and NHM (p = 0.9565). In the comparison of HTG versus NTG patients in both groups, the MD slope, and upper and lower TD slopes were similar. The rate of progression of total, upper, and lower visual field defects was similar among patients with HM and NHM. Although HM is a risk factor for the onset of glaucoma, HM may not be a risk factor for progression of visual field defects as assessed by the progression rate under treatment.
Heterodyne Angle Deviation Interferometry in Vibration and Bubble Measurements
Ming-Hung Chiu; Jia-Ze Shen; Jian-Ming Huang
2016-01-01
We proposed heterodyne angle deviation interferometry (HADI) for angle deviation measurements. The phase shift of an angular sensor (which can be a metal film or a surface plasmon resonance (SPR) prism) is proportional to the deviation angle of the test beam. The method has been demonstrated in bubble and speaker’s vibration measurements in this paper. In the speaker’s vibration measurement, the voltage from the phase channel of a lock-in amplifier includes the vibration level and frequency. ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vatnitsky, Stanislav; Izewska, Joanna
2002-01-01
The main purpose of the IAEA/WHO TLD postal dose audit programme for dosimetry in radiotherapy [1] is to provide an independent verification of the dose delivered by treatment machines in radiotherapy hospitals. The results of the TLD audit are considered acceptable if the relative deviation between the participant's stated dose and the TLD determined dose is within ±5%. The goal of this note is to draw the attention of participants of the TLD programme to some of the common reasons for deviations outside the acceptance limits. Armed with this knowledge, other participants may avoid similar problems in the future. The analysis of deviations presented here is based on the results of TLD audits of the calibration of approximately 1000 Co-60 beams and 600 high-energy X-ray beams performed in the period 1996-2001. A total of 259 deviations outside the ±5% limits have been detected, including 204 deviations for Co-60 beams (20% of all Co-60 beams checked) and 55 for high-energy X-ray beams (10% of all X-ray beams checked). It is worth mentioning that the percentage of large deviations (beyond 10%) is also higher for Co-60 beams than for highenergy X-ray beams. Some problems may be caused by obsolete dosimetry equipment or poor treatment machine conditions. Other problems may be due to insufficient training of staff working in radiotherapy. The clinical relevance of severe TLD deviations detected in the audit programme was confirmed in many cases, but, fortunately, not all-poor dosimetric results reflect deficiencies in the calibration of clinical beams or machine faults. Sometime it happens, that the TLDs are irradiated with an incorrect dose due to misunderstanding of the instructions on how to perform the TLD irradiation. Such dosimetry errors would have no direct impact on actual dose delivered to a patient
Upper bounds on superpartner masses from upper bounds on the Higgs boson mass.
Cabrera, M E; Casas, J A; Delgado, A
2012-01-13
The LHC is putting bounds on the Higgs boson mass. In this Letter we use those bounds to constrain the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) parameter space using the fact that, in supersymmetry, the Higgs mass is a function of the masses of sparticles, and therefore an upper bound on the Higgs mass translates into an upper bound for the masses for superpartners. We show that, although current bounds do not constrain the MSSM parameter space from above, once the Higgs mass bound improves big regions of this parameter space will be excluded, putting upper bounds on supersymmetry (SUSY) masses. On the other hand, for the case of split-SUSY we show that, for moderate or large tanβ, the present bounds on the Higgs mass imply that the common mass for scalars cannot be greater than 10(11) GeV. We show how these bounds will evolve as LHC continues to improve the limits on the Higgs mass.
[The crooked nose: correction of dorsal and caudal septal deviations].
Foda, H M T
2010-09-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 800 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 71% of these suffered from variable degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 736 (92%) patients, not only to improve breathing, but also to achieve a straight, symmetric external nose. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the nasal dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.
Jurkojć, Jacek; Wodarski, Piotr; Michnik, Robert A; Bieniek, Andrzej; Gzik, Marek; Granek, Arkadiusz
2017-01-01
Indexing methods are very popular in terms of determining the degree of disability associated with motor dysfunctions. Currently, indexing methods dedicated to the upper limbs are not very popular, probably due to difficulties in their interpretation. This work presents the calculation algorithm of new SDDI index and the attempt is made to determine the level of physical dysfunction along with description of its kind, based on the interpretation of the calculation results of SDDI and PULMI indices. 23 healthy people (10 women and 13 men), which constituted a reference group, and a group of 3 people with mobility impairments participated in the tests. In order to examine possibilities of the utilization of the SDDI index the participants had to repetitively perform two selected rehabilitation movements of upper extremities. During the tests the kinematic value was registered using inertial motion analysis system MVN BIOMECH. The results of the test were collected in waveforms of 9 anatomical angles in 4 joints of upper extremities. Then, SDDI and PULMI indices were calculated for each person with mobility impairments. Next, the analysis was performed to check which abnormalities in upper extremity motion can influence the value of both indexes and interpretation of those indexes was shown. Joint analysis of the both indices provides information on whether the patient has correctly performed the set sequence of movement and enables the determination of possible irregularities in the performance of movement given.
Large-size space debris flyby in low earth orbits
Baranov, A. A.; Grishko, D. A.; Razoumny, Y. N.
2017-09-01
the analysis of NORAD catalogue of space objects executed with respect to the overall sizes of upper-stages and last stages of carrier rockets allows the classification of 5 groups of large-size space debris (LSSD). These groups are defined according to the proximity of orbital inclinations of the involved objects. The orbits within a group have various values of deviations in the Right Ascension of the Ascending Node (RAAN). It is proposed to use the RAANs deviations' evolution portrait to clarify the orbital planes' relative spatial distribution in a group so that the RAAN deviations should be calculated with respect to the concrete precessing orbital plane of the concrete object. In case of the first three groups (inclinations i = 71°, i = 74°, i = 81°) the straight lines of the RAAN relative deviations almost do not intersect each other. So the simple, successive flyby of group's elements is effective, but the significant value of total Δ V is required to form drift orbits. In case of the fifth group (Sun-synchronous orbits) these straight lines chaotically intersect each other for many times due to the noticeable differences in values of semi-major axes and orbital inclinations. The intersections' existence makes it possible to create such a flyby sequence for LSSD group when the orbit of one LSSD object simultaneously serves as the drift orbit to attain another LSSD object. This flyby scheme requiring less Δ V was called "diagonal." The RAANs deviations' evolution portrait built for the fourth group (to be studied in the paper) contains both types of lines, so the simultaneous combination of diagonal and successive flyby schemes is possible. The value of total Δ V and temporal costs were calculated to cover all the elements of the 4th group. The article is also enriched by the results obtained for the flyby problem solution in case of all the five mentioned LSSD groups. The general recommendations are given concerned with the required reserve of total
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Hyewon; Hwang, Min; Muljadi, Eduard
2017-01-01
In an electric power grid that has a high penetration level of wind, the power fluctuation of a large-scale wind power plant (WPP) caused by varying wind speeds deteriorates the system frequency regulation. This paper proposes a power-smoothing scheme of a doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG...... demonstrate that the proposed scheme significantly lessens the output power fluctuation of a WPP under various scenarios by modifying the gain with the rotor speed and frequency deviation, and thereby it can regulate the frequency deviation within a narrow range.......) that significantly mitigates the system frequency fluctuation while preventing over-deceleration of the rotor speed. The proposed scheme employs an additional control loop relying on the system frequency deviation that operates in combination with the maximum power point tracking control loop. To improve the power...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goswami, Gurupada; Majee, Pradip; Bag, Bidhan Chandra [Department of Chemistry, Visva-Bharati, Santiniketan 731 235 (India); Barik, Debashis [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700 032 (India)
2006-09-15
In this paper we have studied upper bound of time derivative of information entropy for colored cross-correlated noise driven open systems. The upper bound is calculated based on the Fokker-Planck equation and the Schwartz inequality principle. Our results consider the effect of the noise correlation strength and correlation time due to the correlation between additive and multiplicative white noises on the upper bound as well as relaxation time. The interplay of deterministic and random forces reveals extremal nature of the upper bound and its deviation from the time derivative of information entropy. (author)
Complexity analysis based on generalized deviation for financial markets
Li, Chao; Shang, Pengjian
2018-03-01
In this paper, a new modified method is proposed as a measure to investigate the correlation between past price and future volatility for financial time series, known as the complexity analysis based on generalized deviation. In comparison with the former retarded volatility model, the new approach is both simple and computationally efficient. The method based on the generalized deviation function presents us an exhaustive way showing the quantization of the financial market rules. Robustness of this method is verified by numerical experiments with both artificial and financial time series. Results show that the generalized deviation complexity analysis method not only identifies the volatility of financial time series, but provides a comprehensive way distinguishing the different characteristics between stock indices and individual stocks. Exponential functions can be used to successfully fit the volatility curves and quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data. Then we study the influence for negative domain of deviation coefficient and differences during the volatile periods and calm periods. after the data analysis of the experimental model, we found that the generalized deviation model has definite advantages in exploring the relationship between the historical returns and future volatility.
Deviation equation in spaces with affine connection. Pts. 3 and 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iliev, B.Z.
1987-01-01
The concept of a parallel transport is used to define a class of displacement vectors in spaces with affine connection. The nonlocal deviation equation in such spaces is introduced using a definition of the deviation vector based on the displacement vector. It turns out to be a special of the generalized deviation equation, but having an appropriate physical interpretation. The equation of geodesic deviation is presented as an example
How large is the Upper Indus Basin? The pitfalls of auto-delineation using DEMs
Khan, Asif; Richards, Keith S.; Parker, Geoffrey T.; McRobie, Allan; Mukhopadhyay, Biswajit
2014-02-01
Extraction of watershed areas from Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) is increasingly required in a variety of environmental analyses. It is facilitated by the availability of DEMs based on remotely sensed data, and by Geographical Information System (GIS) software. However, accurate delineation depends on the quality of the DEM and the methodology adopted. This paper considers automated and supervised delineation in a case study of the Upper Indus Basin (UIB), Pakistan, for which published estimates of the basin area show significant disagreement, ranging from 166,000 to 266,000 km2. Automated delineation used ArcGIS Archydro and hydrology tools applied to three good quality DEMs (two from SRTM data with 90m resolution, and one from 30m resolution ASTER data). Automatic delineation defined a basin area of c.440,000 km2 for the UIB, but included a large area of internal drainage in the western Tibetan Plateau. It is shown that discrepancies between different estimates reflect differences in the initial extent of the DEM used for watershed delineation, and the unchecked effect of iterative pit-filling of the DEM (going beyond the filling of erroneous pixels to filling entire closed basins). For the UIB we have identified critical points where spurious addition of catchment area has arisen, and use Google Earth to examine the geomorphology adjacent to these points, and also examine the basin boundary data provided by the HydroSHEDS database. We show that the Pangong Tso watershed and some other areas in the western Tibetan plateau are not part of the UIB, but are areas of internal drainage. Our best estimate of the area of the Upper Indus Basin (at Besham Qila) is 164,867 km2 based on the SRTM DEM, and 164,853 km2 using the ASTER DEM). This matches the catchment area measured by WAPDA SWHP. An important lesson from this investigation is that one should not rely on automated delineation, as iterative pit-filling can produce spurious drainage networks and basins, when
Schnick, Rosalie A.; Morton, John M.; Mochalski, Jeffrey C.; Beall, Jonathan T.
1982-01-01
Extensive information is provided on techniques that can reduce or eliminate the negative impact of man's activities (particularly those related to navigation) on large river systems, with special reference to the Upper Mississippi River. These techniques should help resource managers who are concerned with such river systems to establish sound environmental programs. Discussion of each technique or group of techniques include (1) situation to be mitigated or enhanced; (2) description of technique; (3) impacts on the environment; (4) costs; and (5) evaluation for use on the Upper Mississippi River Systems. The techniques are divided into four primary categories: Bank Stabilization Techniques, Dredging and Disposal of Dredged Material, Fishery Management Techniques, and Wildlife Management Techniques. Because techniques have been grouped by function, rather than by structure, some structures are discussed in several contexts. For example, gabions are discussed for use in revetments, river training structures, and breakwaters. The measures covered under Bank Stabilization Techniques include the use of riprap revetments, other revetments, bulkheads, river training structures, breakwater structures, chemical soil stabilizers, erosion-control mattings, and filter fabrics; the planting of vegetation; the creation of islands; the creation of berms or enrichment of beaches; and the control of water level and boat traffic. The discussions of Dredging and the Disposal of Dredged Material consider dredges, dredging methods, and disposal of dredged material. The following subjects are considered under Fishery Management Techniques: fish attractors; spawning structures; nursery ponds, coves, and marshes; fish screens and barriers; fish passage; water control structures; management of water levels and flows; wing dam modification; side channel modification; aeration techniques; control of nuisance aquatic plants; and manipulated of fish populations. Wildlife Management
Influence of asymmetrical drawing radius deviation in micro deep drawing
Heinrich, L.; Kobayashi, H.; Shimizu, T.; Yang, M.; Vollertsen, F.
2017-09-01
Nowadays, an increasing demand for small metal parts in electronic and automotive industries can be observed. Deep drawing is a well-suited technology for the production of such parts due to its excellent qualities for mass production. However, the downscaling of the forming process leads to new challenges in tooling and process design, such as high relative deviation of tool geometry or blank displacement compared to the macro scale. FEM simulation has been a widely-used tool to investigate the influence of symmetrical process deviations as for instance a global variance of the drawing radius. This study shows a different approach that allows to determine the impact of asymmetrical process deviations on micro deep drawing. In this particular case the impact of an asymmetrical drawing radius deviation and blank displacement on cup geometry deviation was investigated for different drawing ratios by experiments and FEM simulation. It was found that both variations result in an increasing cup height deviation. Nevertheless, with increasing drawing ratio a constant drawing radius deviation has an increasing impact, while blank displacement results in a decreasing offset of the cups geometry. This is explained by different mechanisms that result in an uneven cup geometry. While blank displacement leads to material surplus on one side of the cup, an unsymmetrical radius deviation on the other hand generates uneven stretching of the cups wall. This is intensified for higher drawing ratios. It can be concluded that the effect of uneven radius geometry proves to be of major importance for the production of accurately shaped micro cups and cannot be compensated by intentional blank displacement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crabol, B.
1985-04-01
An original concept on the difference of behaviour of the high frequency (small-scale) and low frequency (large-scale) atmospheric turbulence relatively to the mean wind speed has been introduced. Through a dimensional analysis based on TAYLOR's formulation, it has been shown that the parameter of the atmospheric dispersion standard-deviations was the travel distance near the source, and the travel time far from the source. Using hypotheses on the energy spectrum in the atmosphere, a numerical application has made it possible to quantify the evolution of the horizontal standard deviation for different mean wind speeds between 0,2 and 10m/s. The areas of validity of the parameter (travel distance or travel time) are clearly shown. The first one is confined in the near field and is all the smaller if the wind speed decreases. For t > 5000s, the dependence on the wind speed of the horizontal standard-deviation expressed in function of the travel time becomes insignificant. The horizontal standard-deviation is only function of the travel time. Results are compared with experimental data obtained in the atmosphere. The similar evolution of the calculated and experimental curves confirms the validity of the hypothesis and input data in calculation. This study can be applied to radioactive effluents transport in the atmosphere
Refraction in Terms of the Deviation of the Light.
Goldberg, Fred M.
1985-01-01
Discusses refraction in terms of the deviation of light. Points out that in physics courses where very little mathematics is used, it might be more suitable to describe refraction entirely in terms of the deviation, rather than by introducing Snell's law. (DH)
Mean-deviation analysis in the theory of choice.
Grechuk, Bogdan; Molyboha, Anton; Zabarankin, Michael
2012-08-01
Mean-deviation analysis, along with the existing theories of coherent risk measures and dual utility, is examined in the context of the theory of choice under uncertainty, which studies rational preference relations for random outcomes based on different sets of axioms such as transitivity, monotonicity, continuity, etc. An axiomatic foundation of the theory of coherent risk measures is obtained as a relaxation of the axioms of the dual utility theory, and a further relaxation of the axioms are shown to lead to the mean-deviation analysis. Paradoxes arising from the sets of axioms corresponding to these theories and their possible resolutions are discussed, and application of the mean-deviation analysis to optimal risk sharing and portfolio selection in the context of rational choice is considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.
Illusory shadow person causing paradoxical gaze deviations during temporal lobe seizures
Zijlmans, M.; van Eijsden, P.; Ferrier, C. H.; Kho, K. H.; van Rijen, P. C.; Leijten, F. S. S.
Generally, activation of the frontal eye field during seizures can cause versive (forced) gaze deviation, while non-versive head deviation is hypothesised to result from ictal neglect after inactivation of the ipsilateral temporoparietal area. Almost all non-versive head deviations occurring during
Performance of Phonatory Deviation Diagrams in Synthesized Voice Analysis.
Lopes, Leonardo Wanderley; da Silva, Karoline Evangelista; da Silva Evangelista, Deyverson; Almeida, Anna Alice; Silva, Priscila Oliveira Costa; Lucero, Jorge; Behlau, Mara
2018-05-02
To analyze the performance of a phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in discriminating the presence and severity of voice deviation and the predominant voice quality of synthesized voices. A speech-language pathologist performed the auditory-perceptual analysis of the synthesized voice (n = 871). The PDD distribution of voice signals was analyzed according to area, quadrant, shape, and density. Differences in signal distribution regarding the PDD area and quadrant were detected when differentiating the signals with and without voice deviation and with different predominant voice quality. Differences in signal distribution were found in all PDD parameters as a function of the severity of voice disorder. The PDD area and quadrant can differentiate normal voices from deviant synthesized voices. There are differences in signal distribution in PDD area and quadrant as a function of the severity of voice disorder and the predominant voice quality. However, the PDD area and quadrant do not differentiate the signals as a function of severity of voice disorder and differentiated only the breathy and rough voices from the normal and strained voices. PDD density is able to differentiate only signals with moderate and severe deviation. PDD shape shows differences between signals with different severities of voice deviation. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Kruijne, Wouter; Van der Stigchel, Stefan; Meeter, Martijn
2014-03-01
The trajectory of saccades to a target is often affected whenever there is a distractor in the visual field. Distractors can cause a saccade to deviate towards their location or away from it. The oculomotor mechanisms that produce deviation towards distractors have been thoroughly explored in behavioral, neurophysiological and computational studies. The mechanisms underlying deviation away, on the other hand, remain unclear. Behavioral findings suggest a mechanism of spatially focused, top-down inhibition in a saccade map, and deviation away has become a tool to investigate such inhibition. However, this inhibition hypothesis has little neuroanatomical or neurophysiological support, and recent findings go against it. Here, we propose that deviation away results from an unbalanced saccade drive from the brainstem, caused by spike rate adaptation in brainstem long-lead burst neurons. Adaptation to stimulation in the direction of the distractor results in an unbalanced drive away from it. An existing model of the saccade system was extended with this theory. The resulting model simulates a wide range of findings on saccade trajectories, including findings that have classically been interpreted to support inhibition views. Furthermore, the model replicated the effect of saccade latency on deviation away, but predicted this effect would be absent with large (400 ms) distractor-target onset asynchrony. This prediction was confirmed in an experiment, which demonstrates that the theory both explains classical findings on saccade trajectories and predicts new findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lathlike upper bainite in a silicon steel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Cheng; Zhao Zhenbo; Bhole, S.D.
2006-01-01
The morphology and mechanical properties of upper bainite formed isothermally at 400 deg. C for different holding times in a 1.83 wt.% silicon steel have been investigated by optical metallograph, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In the early stage of upper bainitic transformation, lathlike bainite whose individual lath ferrite is separated by the thin film type of retained austenite is obtained. As the isothermal holding times are increased, the blocky region consisting of retained austenite and martensite is also found. The stability of retained austenite in lathlike upper bainite is studied in relation to the isothermal treatment times, and the heat treatment conditions. The results show that an optimum combination of strength and ductility is attributed to the formation of bainitic ferrite (BF) and a large amount of thin film carbon-enriched retained austenite in the upper bainite
Dupuis, Paul
2011-01-01
PAUL DUPUIS is a professor in the Division of Applied Mathematics at Brown University in Providence, Rhode Island. RICHARD S. ELLIS is a professor in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
Orofacial-cervical alterations in individuals with upper airway resistance syndrome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedro Wey Barbosa de Oliveira
Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Studies that assess the upper airways in sleep-related breathing disorders have been performed only in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome who seek medical attention. Therefore, in addition to the need for population studies, there are no data on the orofacial-cervical physical examination in subjects with upper airway resistance syndrome. OBJECTIVES: To compare the orofacial-cervical examination between volunteers with upper airway resistance syndrome and without sleep-related breathing disorders. METHODS: Through questionnaires, physical measurements, polysomnography, and otorhinolaryngological evaluation, this study compared the orofacial-cervical physical examination, through a systematic analysis of the facial skeleton, mouth, throat, and nose, between volunteers with upper airway resistance syndrome and volunteers without sleep-related breathing disorders in a representative sample of the adult population of the city of São Paulo. RESULTS: There were 1042 volunteers evaluated; 49 subjects (5% were excluded as they did not undergo otorhinolaryngological evaluation, 381 (36% had apnea-hypopnea index > 5 events/hour, and 131 (13% had oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90%. Among the remaining 481 subjects (46%, 30 (3% met the criteria for the upper airway resistance syndrome definition and 53 (5% met the control group criteria. At the clinical evaluation of nasal symptoms, the upper airway resistance syndrome group had more oropharyngeal dryness (17% vs. 29.6%; p = 0.025 and septal deviation grades 1-3 (49.1% vs. 57.7%; p = 0.025 when compared to controls. In the logistic regression model, it was found that individuals from the upper airway resistance syndrome group had 15.6-fold higher chance of having nose alterations, 11.2-fold higher chance of being hypertensive, and 7.6-fold higher chance of complaining of oropharyngeal dryness when compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Systematic evaluation of the facial
Generation of deviation parameters for amino acid singlets, doublets ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We present a new method, secondary structure prediction by deviation parameter (SSPDP) for predicting the secondary structure of proteins from amino acid sequence. Deviation parameters (DP) for amino acid singlets, doublets and triplets were computed with respect to secondary structural elements of proteins based on ...
VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz dan Mean Absolute Deviation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Agus Sartono
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952 used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991 introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attempt to assess the VaR of two portfolios using delta normal method and historical simulation. We use the secondary data from the Jakarta Stock Exchange – LQ45 during 2003. We find that there is a weak-positive correlation between deviation standard and return in both portfolios. The VaR nolmal delta based on mean absolute deviation method eventually is higher than the VaR normal delta based on mean variance method. However, based on the historical simulation the VaR of two methods is statistically insignificant. Thus, the deviation standard is sufficient measures of portfolio risk.Keywords: optimalisasi portofolio, mean-variance, mean-absolute deviation, value-at-risk, metode delta normal, metode simulasi historis
Aqueous aerosol may build up large upper tropospheric ice supersaturation
Bogdan, Anatoli; Molina, Mario J.
2010-05-01
Keywords: ice supersaturation, upper tropospheric cirrus clouds, freezing of aqueous aerosol. Observations often reveal enhanced and persistent upper tropospheric (UT) ice supersaturation, Si up to 100%, independently of whether cirrus ice clouds are present or not (Krämer et al., 2009; Lawson et al., 2008). However, a water activity criterion (WAC) (Koop et al., 2000) does not allow the formation of Si > ~67% by the homogeneous freezing of aqueous droplets even at the lowest atmospheric temperature of ~185 K. For aqueous aerosol the WAC predicts the existence of a so called homogeneous ice nucleation threshold which, being expressed as Si, is between ~52 and 67% in the temperature range of ~220 - 185 K. The nature of the formation of large Si remains unclear. Since water vapor is the dominant greenhouse gas it is important to know the nature of the accumulation and persistence of water vapor in the UT. We studied the freezing behavior of micrometer-scaled 3-, 4-, and 5-component droplets, which contain different weight fractions of H2O, H2SO4, HNO3, (NH4)2SO4, (NH4)HSO4, NH4NO3, and (NH4)3H(SO4)2. The study was performed between 133 and 278 K at cooling rates of 3, 0.1, and 0.05 K/min using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) (Bogdan and Molina, 2010). The cooling rates of 0.1 and 0.05 K/min (6 and 3 K/h) are similar to the smallest reported synoptic temperature change of ~2 K/h (Carslaw et al., 1998). Using the measured freezing temperature of ice, Ti, and the thermodynamic E-AIM model of the system of H+ - NH4+ - SO42-- NO3-- H2O (Clegg et al., 1998), we calculated the corresponding clear-sky Si which would be built up immediately prior to the formation of ice cirrus clouds by the homogeneous freezing of aqueous aerosol of similar composition. We found that our calculated values of Si are both larger and smaller than the homogeneous ice nucleation threshold. For example, for the droplets of compositions of 15/10 and 20/10 wt % (NH4)3H(SO4)2/H2SO4, which
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svanholt, Palle; Petri, Niels; Wildschiødtz, Gordon
2015-01-01
Summary BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess cephalometric predictive markers in terms of craniofacial morphology including posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology for mandibular advancement device (MAD) treatment outcome in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea...... patients and the no success treatment group of 19 patients. Before MAD treatment lateral cephalograms were taken and analyses of the craniofacial morphology including the posterior cranial fossa and upper spine morphology were performed. Differences between the groups were analysed by Fisher's exact test......, t-test, and multiple regression analysis. RESULTS: Upper spine morphological deviations occurred non-significantly in 25 per cent in the success treatment group and in 42.1 per cent in the no success treatment group. Body mass index (BMI; P
Upper-bound fission product release assessment for large break LOCA in CANFLEX bundle reactor core
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, Duk Ju; Lee, Kang Moon
1996-07-01
Quarter-core gap inventory assessment for CANDU-6 reactor core loaded with CANFLEX fuel bundles has been performed as one of the licensing safety analyses required for 24 natural uranium CANFLEX bundle irradiation in CANDU-6 reactor. The quarter-core gap inventory for the CANFLEX bundle core is 5 - 10 times lower than that for the standard bundle core, depending on the half-life of the isotope. The lower gap inventory of the CANFLEX bundle core is attributed to the lower linear power of the CANFLEX bundle compared with the standard bundle. However, the whole core total inventories for both the CANFLEX and standard bundle cores are nearly the same. The 6 - 8 times lower upper-bound fission product releases of the CANFLEX bundle core for large break LOCA than those of the standard bundle core imply that the loading of 24 natural uranium CANFLEX bundles would improve the predicted consequences of the postulated accident described in the Wolsung 2 safety report. 2 tabs., 6 figs., 3 refs. (Author)
The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain
Coolen-Schrijner, P.; van Doorn, E.A.
2001-01-01
The deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a
The deviation matrix of a continuous-time Markov chain
Coolen-Schrijner, Pauline; van Doorn, Erik A.
2002-01-01
he deviation matrix of an ergodic, continuous-time Markov chain with transition probability matrix $P(.)$ and ergodic matrix $\\Pi$ is the matrix $D \\equiv \\int_0^{\\infty} (P(t)-\\Pi)dt$. We give conditions for $D$ to exist and discuss properties and a representation of $D$. The deviation matrix of a
HU deviation in lung and bone tissues: Characterization and a corrective strategy.
Ai, Hua A; Meier, Joseph G; Wendt, Richard E
2018-05-01
In the era of precision medicine, quantitative applications of x-ray Computed Tomography (CT) are on the rise. These require accurate measurement of the CT number, also known as the Hounsfield Unit. In this study, we evaluated the effect of patient attenuation-induced beam hardening of the x-ray spectrum on the accuracy of the HU values and a strategy to correct for the resulting deviations in the measured HU values. A CIRS electron density phantom was scanned on a Siemens Biograph mCT Flow CT scanner and a GE Discovery 710 CT scanner using standard techniques that are employed in the clinic to assess the HU deviation caused by beam hardening in different tissue types. In addition, an anthropomorphic ATOM adult male upper torso phantom was scanned on the GE Discovery 710 scanner. Various amounts of Superflab bolus material were wrapped around the phantoms to simulate different patient sizes. The mean HU values that were measured in the phantoms were evaluated as a function of the water-equivalent area (A w ), a parameter that is described in the report of AAPM Task Group 220. A strategy by which to correct the HU values was developed and tested. The variation in the HU values in the anthropomorphic ATOM phantom under different simulated body sizes, both before and after correction, were compared, with a focus on the lung and bone tissues. Significant HU deviations that depended on the simulated patient size were observed. A positive correlation between HU and A w was observed for tissue types that have an HU of less than zero, while a negative correlation was observed for tissue types with HU values that are greater than zero. The magnitude of the difference increases as the underlying attenuation property deviates further away from that of water. In the electron density phantom study, the maximum observed HU differences between the measured and reference values in the cortical bone and lung materials were 426 and 94 HU, respectively. In the anthropomorphic phantom
45 CFR 63.19 - Budget revisions and minor deviations.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Budget revisions and minor deviations. 63.19 Section 63.19 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION GRANT PROGRAMS... Budget revisions and minor deviations. Pursuant to § 74.102(d) of this title, paragraphs (b)(3) and (b)(4...
The role of septal surgery in management of the deviated nose.
Foda, Hossam M T
2005-02-01
The deviated nose represents a complex cosmetic and functional problem. Septal surgery plays a central role in the successful management of the externally deviated nose. This study included 260 patients seeking rhinoplasty to correct external nasal deviations; 75 percent of them had various degrees of nasal obstruction. Septal surgery was necessary in 232 patients (89 percent), not only to improve breathing but also to achieve a straight, symmetrical, external nose as well. A graduated surgical approach was adopted to allow correction of the dorsal and caudal deviations of the nasal septum without weakening its structural support to the dorsum or nasal tip. The approach depended on full mobilization of deviated cartilage, followed by straightening of the cartilage and its fixation in the corrected position by using bony splinting grafts through an external rhinoplasty approach.
Effect of classic back massage on spinal pain in a woman with large breasts - case report
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalia Zielińska
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction. The most common ailment of the motion system is spinal pain. For one of the main reasons, it consider a sedentary lifestyle that weakens the musculo-skeletal system, obesity that increases spine load, sleep disorders resulting from unsettled positions during rest or sleep, and chronic stress. The use of massage can reduce the painful pain of the spine, by loosening the excessively tight spine muscles, the articular joints of the joints and the relaxation of the body. Objective. An assessment of the effect of classical spine massage on spinal pain in a woman with large breasts. Material and methods. 10 massage treatments of the classical ridge using olive oil were performed. Sessions took place 2-3 times a week after 30-50 minutes. Before and after intervention were measured: linear measurements of upper and lower limbs; Measurement of the first and short long and short for the upper and lower limbs for the upper and lower extremities; Measurement of the range of mobility of individual segments of the spine; Measurement of muscle strength of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar musculature of the upper limbs; Assessment of deviation from the symmetry of body posture. Also tested was the Cross Stroke Challenge, finger-to-floor test, lumbar vertebrae overtaxis test, Laseque test, Scherer test and Gilett test. Results. The difference in the range of motion, ie the flexion of the thorax and lumbar spine and the finger-to-floor examination, was statistically significantly different. After intervention the silhouette of the body was positioned closer to the vertical axis. The Laseque test for both lower limbs turned out to be negative. The difference in linear and limb length measurements and the Schober test was not statistically significant. The test of cross-provocation, the overtaking test for the lumbar spine movement and the Gillet test did not show deviations before or after intervention. Conclusions. Therapeutic massage of the
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Serrà, Joan; Özaslan, Tan Hakan; Arcos, Josep Lluis
2013-01-01
A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.
Note onset deviations as musical piece signatures.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joan Serrà
Full Text Available A competent interpretation of a musical composition presents several non-explicit departures from the written score. Timing variations are perhaps the most important ones: they are fundamental for expressive performance and a key ingredient for conferring a human-like quality to machine-based music renditions. However, the nature of such variations is still an open research question, with diverse theories that indicate a multi-dimensional phenomenon. In the present study, we consider event-shift timing variations and show that sequences of note onset deviations are robust and reliable predictors of the musical piece being played, irrespective of the performer. In fact, our results suggest that only a few consecutive onset deviations are already enough to identify a musical composition with statistically significant accuracy. We consider a mid-size collection of commercial recordings of classical guitar pieces and follow a quantitative approach based on the combination of standard statistical tools and machine learning techniques with the semi-automatic estimation of onset deviations. Besides the reported results, we believe that the considered materials and the methodology followed widen the testing ground for studying musical timing and could open new perspectives in related research fields.
Young, Justin G; Lin, Jia-Hua; Chang, Chien-Chi; McGorry, Raymond W
2013-01-01
The purpose of this experiment was to quantify the natural angle between the hand and a handle, and to investigate three design factors: handle rotation, handle tilt and between-handle width on the natural angle as well as resultant wrist radial/ulnar deviation ('RUD') for pushing tasks. Photographs taken of the right upper limb of 31 participants (14 women and 17 men) performing maximal seated push exertions on different handles were analysed. Natural hand/handle angle and RUD were assessed. It was found that all of the three design factors significantly affected natural handle angle and wrist RUD, but participant gender did not. The natural angle between the hand and the cylindrical handle was 65 ± 7°. Wrist deviation was reduced for handles that were rotated 0° (horizontal) and at the narrow width (31 cm). Handles that were tilted forward 15° reduced radial deviation consistently (12-13°) across handle conditions. Manual materials handling (MMH) tasks involving pushing have been related to increased risk of musculoskeletal injury. This study shows that handle orientation influences hand and wrist posture during pushing, and suggests that the design of push handles on carts and other MMH aids can be improved by adjusting their orientation to fit the natural interface between the hand and handle.
Eddy, C. L.; Ekstrom, G.; Nettles, M.; Gaherty, J. B.
2017-12-01
We present a three-dimensional model of the anisotropic velocity structure of the Pacific lithosphere and asthenosphere. The presence of seismic anisotropy in the oceanic upper mantle provides information about the geometry of flow in the mantle, the nature of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and the possible presence of partial melt in the asthenosphere. Our dataset consists of fundamental-mode dispersion for Rayleigh and Love waves measured between 25-250 s with paths crossing the Pacific Ocean. We invert the phase anomaly measurements directly for three-dimensional anisotropic velocity structure. Our models are radially anisotropic and include the full set of elastic parameters that describe azimuthal variations in velocity (e.g. Gc, Gs). We investigate the age dependence of seismic velocity and radial anisotropy and find that there are significant deviations from the velocities predicted by a simple oceanic plate cooling model. We observe strong radial anisotropy with vsh > vsv in the asthenosphere of the central Pacific. We investigate the radial anisotropy in the shallow lithosphere, where previous models have reported conflicting results. There is a contrast in both upper-mantle isotropic velocities and radial anisotropy between the Pacific and Nazca plates, across the East Pacific Rise. We also investigate lateral variations in azimuthal anisotropy throughout the Pacific upper mantle and find that there are large areas over which the anisotropy fast axis does not align with absolute plate motion, suggesting the presence of small-scale convection or pressure-driven flow beneath the base of the oceanic plate.
Decreasing the amplitude deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements
Liu, Bo; Wang, Yu
2008-12-01
A new approach for decreasing the amplitude characteristic deviation of Guassian filter in surface roughness measurements is presented in this paper. According to Central Limit Theorem, many different Guassian approximation filters could be constructed. By using first-order Butterworth filter and moving average filter to approximate Guassian filter, their directions of amplitude deviation are opposite, and their locations of extreme value are close. So the linear combination of them could reduce the amplitude deviation greatly. The maximum amplitude deviation is only about 0.11% through paralleling them. The algorithm of this new method is simple and its efficiency is high.
Minimizing Hexapod Robot Foot Deviations Using Multilayer Perceptron
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vytautas Valaitis
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Rough-terrain traversability is one of the most valuable characteristics of walking robots. Even despite their slower speeds and more complex control algorithms, walking robots have far wider usability than wheeled or tracked robots. However, efficient movement over irregular surfaces can only be achieved by eliminating all possible difficulties, which in many cases are caused by a high number of degrees of freedom, feet slippage, frictions and inertias between different robot parts or even badly developed inverse kinematics (IK. In this paper we address the hexapod robot-foot deviation problem. We compare the foot-positioning accuracy of unconfigured inverse kinematics and Multilayer Perceptron-based (MLP methods via theory, computer modelling and experiments on a physical robot. Using MLP-based methods, we were able to significantly decrease deviations while reaching desired positions with the hexapod's foot. Furthermore, this method is able to compensate for deviations of the robot arising from any possible reason.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lin, Jin; Sun, Yuanzhang; Song, Yonghua
2013-01-01
a smoothing controller to suppress the power fluctuation from doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG)-based wind farm. This controller consists of threemain functionality components: risk assessmentmodel, wind turbine rotor speed optimizer, and rotor speed upper limiter. In order to avoid unnecessary energy...... curve with reduced output so that a trade-off between fluctuation smoothing and energy loss is achieved. Subsequently, the controller limits the maximum rotor speed to shift down the power curve of wind power plant based on the optimal wind turbine rotor speed. Therefore, the power fluctuation......Wind power fluctuation raises the security concern of grid frequency deviation, especially for an isolated power system. Thus, better control methodology needs to be developed to smooth the fluctuation without excessive spillage. Based on an actual industrial power system, this paper proposes...
The Impact of Advanced Technologies on Treatment Deviations in Radiation Treatment Delivery
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marks, Lawrence B.; Light, Kim L.; Hubbs, Jessica L.; Georgas, Debra L.; Jones, Ellen L.; Wright, Melanie C.; Willett, Christopher G.; Yin Fangfang
2007-01-01
Purpose: To assess the impact of new technologies on deviation rates in radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Treatment delivery deviations in RT were prospectively monitored during a time of technology upgrade. In January 2003, our department had three accelerators, none with 'modern' technologies (e.g., without multileaf collimators [MLC]). In 2003 to 2004, we upgraded to five new accelerators, four with MLC, and associated advanced capabilities. The deviation rates among patients treated on 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' machines (defined as those with vs. without MLC) were compared over time using the two-tailed Fisher's exact test. Results: In 2003, there was no significant difference between the deviation rate in the 'high-technology' versus 'low-technology' groups (0.16% vs. 0.11%, p = 0.45). In 2005 to 2006, the deviation rate for the 'high-technology' groups was lower than the 'low-technology' (0.083% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.009). This difference was caused by a decline in deviations on the 'high-technology' machines over time (p = 0.053), as well as an unexpected trend toward an increase in deviations over time on the 'low-technology' machines (p = 0.15). Conclusions: Advances in RT delivery systems appear to reduce the rate of treatment deviations. Deviation rates on 'high-technology' machines with MLC decline over time, suggesting a learning curve after the introduction of new technologies. Associated with the adoption of 'high-technology' was an unexpected increase in the deviation rate with 'low-technology' approaches, which may reflect an over-reliance on tools inherent to 'high-technology' machines. With the introduction of new technologies, continued diligence is needed to ensure that staff remain proficient with 'low-technology' approaches
The Predisposing Factors between Dental Caries and Deviations from Normal Weight.
Chopra, Amandeep; Rao, Nanak Chand; Gupta, Nidhi; Vashisth, Shelja; Lakhanpal, Manav
2015-04-01
Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors. So it's important to understand any relationship between dental state and body weight if either is to be managed appropriately. The study was done to find out the correlation between body mass index (BMI), diet, and dental caries among 12-15-year-old schoolgoing children in Panchkula District. A multistage sample of 12-15-year-old school children (n = 810) in Panchkula district, Haryana was considered. Child demographic details and diet history for 5 days was recorded. Data regarding dental caries status was collected using World Health Organization (1997) format. BMI was calculated and categorized according to the World Health Organization classification system for BMI. The data were subjected to statistical analysis using chi-square test and binomial regression developed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 20.0. The mean Decayed Missing Filled Teeth (DMFT) score was found to be 1.72 with decayed, missing, and filled teeth to be 1.22, 0.04, and 0.44, respectively. When the sample was assessed based on type of diet, it was found that vegetarians had higher mean DMFT (1.72) as compared to children having mixed diet. Overweight children had highest DMFT (3.21) which was followed by underweight (2.31) and obese children (2.23). Binomial regression revealed that females were 1.293 times at risk of developing caries as compared to males. Fair and poor Simplified-Oral Hygiene Index (OHI-S) showed 3.920 and 4.297 times risk of developing caries as compared to good oral hygiene, respectively. Upper high socioeconomic status (SES) is at most risk of developing caries. Underweight, overweight, and obese are at 2.7, 2.5, and 3 times risk of developing caries as compared to children with normal BMI, respectively. Dental caries and deviations from normal weight are two conditions which share several broadly predisposing factors such as diet
The response to prism deviations in human infants.
Riddell, P M; Horwood, A M; Houston, S M; Turner, J E
1999-09-23
Previous research has suggested that infants are unable to make a corrective eye movement in response to a small base-out prism placed in front of one eye before 14-16 weeks [1]. Three hypotheses have been proposed to explain this early inability, and each of these makes different predictions for the time of onset of a response to a larger prism. The first proposes that infants have a 'degraded sensory capacity' and so require a larger retinal disparity (difference in the position of the image on the retina of each eye) to stimulate disparity detectors [2]. This predicts that infants might respond at an earlier age than previously reported [1] when tested using a larger prism. The second hypothesis proposes that infants learn to respond to larger retinal disparities through practice with small disparities [3]. According to this theory, using a larger prism will not result in developmentally earlier responses, and may even delay the response. The third hypothesis proposes that the ability to respond to prismatic deviation depends on maturational factors indicated by the onset of stereopsis (the ability to detect depth in an image on the basis of retinal disparity cues only) [4] [5], predicting that the size of the prism is irrelevant. To differentiate between these hypotheses, we tested 192 infants ranging from 2 to 52 weeks of age using a larger prism. Results showed that 63% of infants of 5-8 weeks of age produced a corrective eye movement in response to placement of a prism in front of the eye when in the dark. Both the percentage of infants who produced a response, and the speed of the response, increased with age. These results suggest that infants can make corrective eye movements in response to large prismatic deviations before 14-16 weeks of age. This, in combination with other recent results [6], discounts previous hypotheses.
A robust standard deviation control chart
Schoonhoven, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.
2012-01-01
This article studies the robustness of Phase I estimators for the standard deviation control chart. A Phase I estimator should be efficient in the absence of contaminations and resistant to disturbances. Most of the robust estimators proposed in the literature are robust against either diffuse
Deviation from Covered Interest Rate Parity in Korea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seungho Lee
2003-06-01
Full Text Available This paper tested the factors which cause deviation from covered interest rate parity (CIRP in Korea, using regression and VAR models. The empirical evidence indicates that the difference between the swap rate and interest rate differential exists and is greatly affected by variables which represent the currency liquidity situation of foreign exchange banks. In other words, the deviation from CIRP can easily occur due to the lack of foreign exchange liquidity of banks in a thin market, despite few capital constraints, small transaction costs, and trivial default risk in Korea.
Large Deviations and Quasipotential for Finite State Mean Field Interacting Particle Systems
2014-05-01
The conclusion then follows by applying Lemma 4.4.2. 132 119 4.4.1 Iterative solver: The widest neighborhood structure We employ Gauss - Seidel ...nearest neighborhood structure described in Section 4.4.2. We use Gauss - Seidel iterative method for our numerical experiments. The Gauss - Seidel ...x ∈ Bh, M x ∈ Sh\\Bh, where M ∈ (V,∞) is a very large number, so that the iteration (4.5.1) converges quickly. For simplicity, we restrict our
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft, Peter B
2016-01-01
skin graft. RESULTS: All patients healed without necrosis, did not suffer from lagophthalmos, achieved reasonable cosmesis, and did not need lubricants. In one patient, a contact lens was necessary for three weeks because of corneal erosion. One patient still needs a contact lens 3 months after...... excision to avoid eye discomfort. CONCLUSION: Large upper eyelid defects can be reconstructed with a free tarsal plate graft and a laterally based myocutaneous pedicle flap in combination with a free skin graft. Two-step procedures can probably be avoided in most cases....
An upper bound for the proton temperature anisotrophy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gary, S.P.
1994-01-01
This tutorial describes recent research concerning the upper bound on the hot proton temperature anisotropy imposed by wave-particle scattering due to enhanced fluctuations from the electromagnetic proton cyclotron anisotropy instability. This upper bound, which has been observed in both the magnetosheath and the outer magnetosphere, represents a limited closure relation for the equations of anisotropic magnetohydrodynamics. Such a closure relation has the potential to improve the predictive capability of large-scale anisotropic models of the magnetosphere
Zimmer, Bernd; Seifi-Shirvandeh, Nasrin
2009-06-01
This study aimed to gather statistically validated information on the changes in orthodontic variables in patients with bilateral upper lateral incisor aplasia treated with isolated orthodontic space closure. Data were collected from 25 (15 females, 10 males) consecutively treated, unselected adolescents [mean age at the end of treatment 16.4 years, standard deviation (SD) 1.3] after orthodontic space closure using push-and-pull mechanics (PPM). The changes in the relevant parameters were determined by comparing baseline and final lateral headfilms and casts. Following verification of normal distribution by means of a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, a two-tailed t-test for related data was performed. SNA, ANB, OcP-NL, OcP-ML, upper space balance, overbite, overjet, bilateral molar relationship, and L1-NB changed significantly (P orthodontic space closure for bilateral upper lateral incisor aplasia using PPM can be regarded as a valid alternative to prosthetic solutions. Long-term use of Class III elastics does not lead to significant changes in relevant orthodontic parameters.
Statistics as Unbiased Estimators: Exploring the Teaching of Standard Deviation
Wasserman, Nicholas H.; Casey, Stephanie; Champion, Joe; Huey, Maryann
2017-01-01
This manuscript presents findings from a study about the knowledge for and planned teaching of standard deviation. We investigate how understanding variance as an unbiased (inferential) estimator--not just a descriptive statistic for the variation (spread) in data--is related to teachers' instruction regarding standard deviation, particularly…
A better norm-referenced grading using the standard deviation criterion.
Chan, Wing-shing
2014-01-01
The commonly used norm-referenced grading assigns grades to rank-ordered students in fixed percentiles. It has the disadvantage of ignoring the actual distance of scores among students. A simple norm-referenced grading via standard deviation is suggested for routine educational grading. The number of standard deviation of a student's score from the class mean was used as the common yardstick to measure achievement level. Cumulative probability of a normal distribution was referenced to help decide the amount of students included within a grade. RESULTS of the foremost 12 students from a medical examination were used for illustrating this grading method. Grading by standard deviation seemed to produce better cutoffs in allocating an appropriate grade to students more according to their differential achievements and had less chance in creating arbitrary cutoffs in between two similarly scored students than grading by fixed percentile. Grading by standard deviation has more advantages and is more flexible than grading by fixed percentile for norm-referenced grading.
Composites for Exploration Upper Stage
Fikes, J. C.; Jackson, J. R.; Richardson, S. W.; Thomas, A. D.; Mann, T. O.; Miller, S. G.
2016-01-01
The Composites for Exploration Upper Stage (CEUS) was a 3-year, level III project within the Technology Demonstration Missions program of the NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate. Studies have shown that composites provide important programmatic enhancements, including reduced weight to increase capability and accelerated expansion of exploration and science mission objectives. The CEUS project was focused on technologies that best advanced innovation, infusion, and broad applications for the inclusion of composites on future large human-rated launch vehicles and spacecraft. The benefits included near- and far-term opportunities for infusion (NASA, industry/commercial, Department of Defense), demonstrated critical technologies and technically implementable evolvable innovations, and sustained Agency experience. The initial scope of the project was to advance technologies for large composite structures applicable to the Space Launch System (SLS) Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) by focusing on the affordability and technical performance of the EUS forward and aft skirts. The project was tasked to develop and demonstrate critical composite technologies with a focus on full-scale materials, design, manufacturing, and test using NASA in-house capabilities. This would have demonstrated a major advancement in confidence and matured the large-scale composite technology to a Technology Readiness Level 6. This project would, therefore, have bridged the gap for providing composite application to SLS upgrades, enabling future exploration missions.
Measurement and analysis of the thoracic patient setup deviations in routine radiotherapy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia Mingxuan; Zou Huawei; Wu Rong; Sun Jian; Dong Xiaoqi
2003-01-01
Objective: To determine the magnitude of the setup deviations of the thoracic patients in routine radiotherapy. Methods: Altogether 408 films for 21 thoracic patients were recorded using the electronic portal imaging device (EPID), and comparison with reference CT simulator digitally-reconstructed radiograph (DRR) for anterior-posterior fields was performed. The deviation of setup for 21 patients in the left-right (RL), superior-inferior (SI) directions and rotation about the anterior-posterior (AP) axis were measured and analyzed. Results: Without immobilization device, the mean translational and rotational setup deviations were (0.7±3.1) mm and (1.5±4.1) mm in the RL and SI directions, respectively, and (0.3±2.4) degree about AP axis. With immobilization device, the mean translational and rotational setup deviations were (0.5±2.4) mm and (0.8±2.7) mm in the RL and SI directions respectively, and (0.2±1.6) degree about AP axis. Conclusion: The setup deviations in thoracic patients irradiation may be reduced with the use of the immobilization device. The setup deviation in the SI direction is greater than that in the RL direction. The setup deviations are mainly random errors
Sea Surface Height Deviation, Aviso, 0.25 degrees, Global, Science Quality
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviso Sea Surface Height Deviation is the deviation from the mean geoid as measured from 1993 - 1995. This is Science Quality data.
48 CFR 201.404 - Class deviations.
2010-10-01
..., and the Defense Logistics Agency, may approve any class deviation, other than those described in 201...) Diminish any preference given small business concerns by the FAR or DFARS; or (D) Extend to requirements imposed by statute or by regulations of other agencies such as the Small Business Administration and the...
Infantile lipofibromatosis of the upper limb
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Teo, Harvey E.L.; Peh, Wilfred C.G. [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Singapore (Singapore); Chan, Mei-Yoke [KK Women' s and Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Medicine, Singapore (Singapore); Walford, Norman [Tan Tock Seng Hospital, Department of Pathology, Singapore (Singapore)
2005-12-01
The imaging features of extensive lipofibromatosis presenting in a 1-day-old female infant are reported. This lesion involved her entire right upper limb, extending from the axilla to the palm of the hand. Radiographs showed marked deformity and thinning of all the right upper-limb bones due to pressure effect of soft-tissue enlargement, especially affecting the distal humerus and proximal forearm bones. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a huge soft-tissue mass infiltrating most of the muscles of the entire upper limb, with bony erosion. The mass was largely T1-isointense, moderately T2-hyperintense and showed marked enhancement. There were intra-lesional signal changes consistent with fatty elements. A lesion debulking procedure was performed and the histology was that of lipofibromatosis. The limb was found to be non-viable after the procedure and a subsequent above-elbow amputation was performed. Although the resection margins were not clear, she had no further recurrence over a subsequent 3-year follow-up period. (orig.)
Constraints on deviations from ΛCDM within Horndeski gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellini, Emilio; Cuesta, Antonio J. [ICCUB, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Martí i Franquès 1, E08028 Barcelona (Spain); Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia, E-mail: emilio.bellini@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: ajcuesta@icc.ub.edu, E-mail: rauljimenez@g.harvard.edu, E-mail: liciaverde@icc.ub.edu [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), 08010 Barcelona (Spain)
2016-02-01
Recent anomalies found in cosmological datasets such as the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background or the low redshift amplitude and growth of clustering measured by e.g., abundance of galaxy clusters and redshift space distortions in galaxy surveys, have motivated explorations of models beyond standard ΛCDM. Of particular interest are models where general relativity (GR) is modified on large cosmological scales. Here we consider deviations from ΛCDM+GR within the context of Horndeski gravity, which is the most general theory of gravity with second derivatives in the equations of motion. We adopt a parametrization in which the four additional Horndeski functions of time α{sub i}(t) are proportional to the cosmological density of dark energy Ω{sub DE}(t). Constraints on this extended parameter space using a suite of state-of-the art cosmological observations are presented for the first time. Although the theory is able to accommodate the low multipoles of the Cosmic Microwave Background and the low amplitude of fluctuations from redshift space distortions, we find no significant tension with ΛCDM+GR when performing a global fit to recent cosmological data and thus there is no evidence against ΛCDM+GR from an analysis of the value of the Bayesian evidence ratio of the modified gravity models with respect to ΛCDM, despite introducing extra parameters. The posterior distribution of these extra parameters that we derive return strong constraints on any possible deviations from ΛCDM+GR in the context of Horndeski gravity. We illustrate how our results can be applied to a more general frameworks of modified gravity models.
The phonatory deviation diagram: a novel objective measurement of vocal function.
Madazio, Glaucya; Leão, Sylvia; Behlau, Mara
2011-01-01
To identify the discriminative characteristics of the phonatory deviation diagram (PDD) in rough, breathy and tense voices. One hundred and ninety-six samples of normal and dysphonic voices from adults were submitted to perceptual auditory evaluation, focusing on the predominant vocal quality and the degree of deviation. Acoustic analysis was performed with the VoxMetria (CTS Informatica). Significant differences were observed between the dysphonic and normal groups (p < 0.001), and also between the breathy and rough samples (p = 0.044) and the breathy and tense samples (p < 0.001). All normal voices were positioned in the inferior left quadrant, 45% of the rough voices in the inferior right quadrant, 52.6% of the breathy voices in the superior right quadrant and 54.3% of the tense voices in the inferior left quadrant of the PDD. In the inferior left quadrant, 93.8% of voices with no deviation were located and 72.7% of voices with mild deviation; voices with moderate deviation were distributed in the inferior and superior right quadrants, the latter ones containing the most deviant voices and 80% of voices with severe deviation. The PDD was able to discriminate normal from dysphonic voices, and the distribution was related to the type and degree of voice alteration. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Tulunay
2002-06-01
Full Text Available The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle, 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5 and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20 and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7. It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.
VAR Portfolio Optimal: Perbandingan Antara Metode Markowitz Dan Mean Absolute Deviation
Sartono, R. Agus; Setiawan, Arie Andika
2006-01-01
Portfolio selection method which have been introduced by Harry Markowitz (1952) used variance or deviation standard as a measure of risk. Kanno and Yamazaki (1991) introduced another method and used mean absolute deviation as a measure of risk instead of variance. The Value-at Risk (VaR) is a relatively new method to capitalized risk that been used by financial institutions. The aim of this research is compare between mean variance and mean absolute deviation of two portfolios. Next, we attem...
Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections
Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John
2016-04-01
With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.
Myocutaneous pedicle flap combined with a free skin graft for upper eyelid reconstruction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Toft, Peter B
2010-01-01
Repair of large upper eyelid defects can be accomplished by both 1-stage and 2-stage techniques some of which are complicated and time consuming. I here present a simple 1-stage technique for upper eyelid reconstruction....
Vertical dispersion generated by correlated closed orbit deviations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kewisch, J.; Limberg, T.; Rossbach, J.; Willeke, F.
1986-02-01
Vertical displacement of quadrupole magnets is one of the main causes of a vertical dispersion in a flat storage ring and thus a major contributor to the height of an electron beam. Computer simulations of the beam height in the HERA electron ring give a value of the ratio ε z /ε x of more than 10 percent. This large value occurs even for an rms value of the quadrupole vertical displacements Δz as small as 0.01 mm. Such a vertical emittance is much larger than one expects on the base of a theoretical estimate and it is clearly necessary to investigate the origin of the disagreements especially since the beam height has such an important influence on the machine performance. The key to the understanding of this discrepancy lies in the correlations of the closed orbit deviations at different position of the machine. This is investigated in the next section and in the section which follows we derive the expression for the rms value of dispersion and the vertical emittance. Finally the theoretical results are compared with computer simulations. (orig.)
Evolutionary implications of genetic code deviations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chela Flores, J.
1986-07-01
By extending the standard genetic code into a temperature dependent regime, we propose a train of molecular events leading to alternative coding. The first few examples of these deviations have already been reported in some ciliated protozoans and Gram positive bacteria. A possible range of further alternative coding, still within the context of universality, is pointed out. (author)
Mid-upper tropospheric methane retrieval from IASI and its validation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
X. Xiong
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Mid-upper tropospheric methane (CH4, as an operational product at NOAA's (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS, has been retrieved from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI since 2008. This paper provides a description of the retrieval method and the validation using 596 CH4 vertical profiles from aircraft measurements by the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO program over the Pacific Ocean. The number of degrees of freedom for the CH4 retrieval is mostly less than 1.5, and it decreases under cloudy conditions. The retrievals show greatest sensitivity between 100–600 hPa in the tropics and 200–750 hPa in the mid- to high latitude. Validation is accomplished using aircraft measurements (convolved by applying the monthly mean averaging kernels collocated with all the retrieved profiles within 200 km and on the same day, and the results show that, on average, a larger error of CH4 occurs at 300–500 hPa. The bias in the trapezoid of 374–477 hPa is −1.74% with a residual standard deviation of 1.20%, and at layer 596–753 hPa the bias is −0.69% with a residual standard deviation of 1.07%. The retrieval error is relatively larger in the high northern latitude regions and/or under cloudy conditions. The main reasons for this negative bias include the uncertainty in the spectroscopy near the methane Q branch and/or the empirical bias correction, plus residual cloud contamination in the cloud-cleared radiances. It is expected for NOAA to generate the CH4 product for 20 + years using a similar algorithm from three similar thermal infrared sensors: Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS, IASI and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS. Such a unique product will provide a supplementary to the current ground-based observation network, particularly in the Arctic, for monitoring the CH4 cycle, its transport and trend associated with climate change.
The gait standard deviation, a single measure of kinematic variability.
Sangeux, Morgan; Passmore, Elyse; Graham, H Kerr; Tirosh, Oren
2016-05-01
Measurement of gait kinematic variability provides relevant clinical information in certain conditions affecting the neuromotor control of movement. In this article, we present a measure of overall gait kinematic variability, GaitSD, based on combination of waveforms' standard deviation. The waveform standard deviation is the common numerator in established indices of variability such as Kadaba's coefficient of multiple correlation or Winter's waveform coefficient of variation. Gait data were collected on typically developing children aged 6-17 years. Large number of strides was captured for each child, average 45 (SD: 11) for kinematics and 19 (SD: 5) for kinetics. We used a bootstrap procedure to determine the precision of GaitSD as a function of the number of strides processed. We compared the within-subject, stride-to-stride, variability with the, between-subject, variability of the normative pattern. Finally, we investigated the correlation between age and gait kinematic, kinetic and spatio-temporal variability. In typically developing children, the relative precision of GaitSD was 10% as soon as 6 strides were captured. As a comparison, spatio-temporal parameters required 30 strides to reach the same relative precision. The ratio stride-to-stride divided by normative pattern variability was smaller in kinematic variables (the smallest for pelvic tilt, 28%) than in kinetic and spatio-temporal variables (the largest for normalised stride length, 95%). GaitSD had a strong, negative correlation with age. We show that gait consistency may stabilise only at, or after, skeletal maturity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2015-09-03
Many extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged heavy long-lived particles, such as $R$-hadrons or charginos. These particles, if produced at the Large Hadron Collider, should be moving non-relativistically and are therefore identifiable through the measurement of an anomalously large specific energy loss in the ATLAS pixel detector. Measuring heavy long-lived particles through their track parameters in the vicinity of the interaction vertex provides sensitivity to metastable particles with lifetimes from 0.6 ns to 30 ns. A search for such particles with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is presented, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.4 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. No significant deviation from the Standard Model background expectation is observed, and lifetime-dependent upper limits on $R$-hadrons and chargino production are set. Gluino $R$-hadrons with 10 ns lifetime and masses up to 1185 GeV are excluded at 95%...
Field measurement for large bending magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazzaro, A.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Cavallaro, M.; Foti, A.; Orrigo, S.E.A.; Rodrigues, M.R.D.; Winfield, J.S.
2008-01-01
The results of magnetic field measurements of the large bending magnet of the MAGNEX spectrometer are presented. The experimental values are used to build an Enge function by the least-squares method. The resulting field is compared to the measured one, showing too large deviation for application to ray reconstruction techniques. Similarly, the experimental values are compared with results from a three-dimensional finite elements calculation. Again the deviations between measured and calculated field are too large for a direct application of the latter to ray reconstruction, while its reliability is sufficient for analysis purposes. In particular, it has been applied to study the effect of the inaccuracies in the probe location and orientation on the precision of field reconstruction, and to establish the requirements for the field interpolation. These inaccuracies are found to be rather important, especially for the transversal components of the field, with the consequence that their effect on the reconstructed field should be minimized by special interpolation algorithms
Chiu, Ming-Hung; Tan, Chen-Tai; Tsai, Ming-Hung; Yang, Ya-Hsin
2015-10-01
This full-field transmission-type three-dimensional (3D) optical microscope is constructed based on the angle deviation method (ADM) and the algorithm of reflectivity-height transformation (RHT). The surface height is proportional to the deviation angle of light passing through the object. The angle deviation and surface height can be measured based on the reflectivity closed to the critical angle using a parallelogram prism and two CCDs.
Large deviation estimates for exceedance times of perpetuity sequences and their dual processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Buraczewski, Dariusz; Collamore, Jeffrey F.; Damek, Ewa
2016-01-01
In a variety of problems in pure and applied probability, it is of relevant to study the large exceedance probabilities of the perpetuity sequence $Y_n := B_1 + A_1 B_2 + \\cdots + (A_1 \\cdots A_{n-1}) B_n$, where $(A_i,B_i) \\subset (0,\\infty) \\times \\reals$. Estimates for the stationary tail dist......-time exceedance probabilities of $\\{ M_n^\\ast \\}$, yielding a new result concerning the convergence of $\\{ M_n^\\ast \\}$ to its stationary distribution.......In a variety of problems in pure and applied probability, it is of relevant to study the large exceedance probabilities of the perpetuity sequence $Y_n := B_1 + A_1 B_2 + \\cdots + (A_1 \\cdots A_{n-1}) B_n$, where $(A_i,B_i) \\subset (0,\\infty) \\times \\reals$. Estimates for the stationary tail...... distribution of $\\{ Y_n \\}$ have been developed in the seminal papers of Kesten (1973) and Goldie (1991). Specifically, it is well-known that if $M := \\sup_n Y_n$, then ${\\mathbb P} \\left\\{ M > u \\right\\} \\sim {\\cal C}_M u^{-\\xi}$ as $u \\to \\infty$. While much attention has been focused on extending...
Thoraval, C.
2017-12-01
Describing the large-scale structures of mantle convection and quantifying the mass transfer between upper and lower mantle request to account for the role played by mineral phase transitions in the transition zone. We build a density distribution within the Earth mantle from velocity anomalies described by global seismic tomographic models. The density distribution includes thermal anomalies and topographies of the phase transitions at depths of 410 and 660 km. We compute the flow driven by this density distribution using a 3D spherical circulation model, which account for depth-dependent viscosity. The dynamic topographies at the surface and at the CMB and the geoid are calculated as well. Within the range of viscosity profiles allowing for a satisfying restitution of the long wavelength geoid, we perform a parametric study to decipher the role of the characteristics of phase diagrams - mainly the Clapeyron's slopes - and of the kinetics of phase transitions, which may modify phase transition topographies. Indeed, when a phase transition is delayed, the boundary between two mineral phases is both dragged by the flow and interfere with it. The results are compared to recent estimations of surface dynamic topography and to the phase transition topographies as revealed by seismic studies. The consequences are then discussed in terms of structure of mantle flow. Comparisons between various tomographic models allow us to enlighten the most robust features. At last, the role played by the phase transitions on the lateral variations of mass transfer between upper and lower mantle are quantified by comparison to cases with no phase transitions and confronted to regional tomographic models, which reflect the variability of the behaviors of the descending slabs in the transition zone.
Analysis of form deviation in non-isothermal glass molding
Kreilkamp, H.; Grunwald, T.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.
2018-02-01
Especially in the market of sensors, LED lighting and medical technologies, there is a growing demand for precise yet low-cost glass optics. This demand poses a major challenge for glass manufacturers who are confronted with the challenge arising from the trend towards ever-higher levels of precision combined with immense pressure on market prices. Since current manufacturing technologies especially grinding and polishing as well as Precision Glass Molding (PGM) are not able to achieve the desired production costs, glass manufacturers are looking for alternative technologies. Non-isothermal Glass Molding (NGM) has been shown to have a big potential for low-cost mass manufacturing of complex glass optics. However, the biggest drawback of this technology at the moment is the limited accuracy of the manufactured glass optics. This research is addressing the specific challenges of non-isothermal glass molding with respect to form deviation of molded glass optics. Based on empirical models, the influencing factors on form deviation in particular form accuracy, waviness and surface roughness will be discussed. A comparison with traditional isothermal glass molding processes (PGM) will point out the specific challenges of non-isothermal process conditions. Furthermore, the underlying physical principle leading to the formation of form deviations will be analyzed in detail with the help of numerical simulation. In this way, this research contributes to a better understanding of form deviations in non-isothermal glass molding and is an important step towards new applications demanding precise yet low-cost glass optics.
Schwarz-Zanetti, Gabriela; Fäh, Donat; Gache, Sylvain; Kästli, Philipp; Loizeau, Jeanluc; Masciadri, Virgilio; Zenhäusern, Gregor
2018-03-01
The Valais is the most seismically active region of Switzerland. Strong damaging events occurred in 1755, 1855, and 1946. Based on historical documents, we discuss two known damaging events in the sixteenth century: the 1524 Ardon and the 1584 Aigle earthquakes. For the 1524, a document describes damage in Ardon, Plan-Conthey, and Savièse, and a stone tablet at the new bell tower of the Ardon church confirms the reconstruction of the bell tower after the earthquake. Additionally, a significant construction activity in the Upper Valais churches during the second quarter of the sixteenth century is discussed that however cannot be clearly related to this event. The assessed moment magnitude Mw of the 1524 event is 5.8, with an error of about 0.5 units corresponding to one standard deviation. The epicenter is at 46.27 N, 7.27 E with a high uncertainty of about 50 km corresponding to one standard deviation. The assessed moment magnitude Mw of the 1584 main shock is 5.9, with an error of about 0.25 units corresponding to one standard deviation. The epicenter is at 46.33 N and 6.97 E with an uncertainty of about 25 km corresponding to one standard deviation. Exceptional movements in the Lake Geneva wreaked havoc along the shore of the Rhone delta. The large dimension of the induced damage can be explained by an expanded subaquatic slide with resultant tsunami and seiche in Lake Geneva. The strongest of the aftershocks occurred on March 14 with magnitude 5.4 and triggered a destructive landslide covering the villages Corbeyrier and Yvorne, VD.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khorsandi, Jahon; Aven, Terje
2017-01-01
Quantitative risk assessments (QRAs) of complex engineering systems are based on numerous assumptions and expert judgments, as there is limited information available for supporting the analysis. In addition to sensitivity analyses, the concept of assumption deviation risk has been suggested as a means for explicitly considering the risk related to inaccuracies and deviations in the assumptions, which can significantly impact the results of the QRAs. However, challenges remain for its practical implementation, considering the number of assumptions and magnitude of deviations to be considered. This paper presents an approach for integrating an assumption deviation risk analysis as part of QRAs. The approach begins with identifying the safety objectives for which the QRA aims to support, and then identifies critical assumptions with respect to ensuring the objectives are met. Key issues addressed include the deviations required to violate the safety objectives, the uncertainties related to the occurrence of such events, and the strength of knowledge supporting the assessments. Three levels of assumptions are considered, which include assumptions related to the system's structural and operational characteristics, the effectiveness of the established barriers, as well as the consequence analysis process. The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation. - Highlights: • An approach for assessing the risk of deviations in QRA assumptions is presented. • Critical deviations and uncertainties related to their occurrence are addressed. • The analysis promotes critical thinking about the foundation and results of QRAs. • The approach is illustrated for the case of an offshore installation.
Effects of surface roughness on deviation angle and performance losses in wet steam turbines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagheri Esfe, H.; Kermani, M.J.; Saffar Avval, M.
2015-01-01
In this paper, effects of turbine blade roughness and steam condensation on deviation angle and performance losses of the wet stages are investigated. The steam is assumed to obey non-equilibrium thermodynamic model, in which abrupt formation of liquid droplets produces condensation shocks. An AUSM-van Leer hybrid scheme is used to solve two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow around turbine rotor tip sections. The dominant solver of the computational domain is taken to be the AUSM scheme (1993) that in regions with large gradients smoothly switches to van Leer scheme (1979). This guarantees a robust hybrid scheme throughout the domain. It is observed that as a result of condensation, the aerothermodymics of the flow field changes. For example for a supersonic wet case with exit isentropic Mach number M e,is = 1.45, the deviation angle and total pressure loss coefficient change by 65% and 200%, respectively, when compared with dry case. It is also observed that losses due to surface roughness in subsonic regions are much larger than those in supersonic regions. Hence, as a practical guideline for maintenance sequences, cleaning of subsonic parts of steam turbines should be considered first. - Highlights: • Two-phase turbulent transonic steam flow is numerically studied in this paper. • As a result of condensation, aerothermodynamics of the flow field changes. • Surface roughness has almost negligible effect on deviation angle. • Surface roughness plays an important role in performance losses. • Contribution of different loss mechanisms for smooth and rough blades are computed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fricke, Bradley L.; Abbott, M. Bret; Donnelly, Lane F.; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Poe, Stacy A.; Kalra, Maninder; Amin, Raouf S.; Cotton, Robin T. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati (United States)
2007-12-15
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the airway dynamics of the upper airway as depicted on cine MRI in children with tracheotomy tubes during two states of airflow through the upper airway. Sagittal fast gradient echo cine MR images of the supra-glottic airway were obtained with a 1.5T MRI scanner on seven children with tracheotomy tubes. Two sets of images were obtained with either the tubes capped or uncapped. The findings of the cine MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Volume segmentation of the cine images to compare the airway volume change over time (mean volume, standard deviation, normalized range, and coefficient of variance) was performed for the capped and uncapped tubes in both the nasopharynx and hypopharynx (Signed Rank Test). Graphical representation of the airway volume over time demonstrates a qualitative increased fluctuation in patients with the tracheotomy tube capped as compared to uncapped in both the nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal regions of interest. In the nasopharynx, the mean airway volume (capped 2.72 mL, uncapped 2.09 mL, p = 0.0313), the airway volume standard deviation (capped 0.42 mL, uncapped 0.20 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 2.10 mL, uncapped 1.09 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped group of patients. In the hypopharynx, the airway volume standard deviation (capped 1.54 mL, uncapped 0.67 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 6.44 mL, uncapped 2.93 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. The coefficient of variance (capped 0.37, uncapped 0.26, p = 0.0469) and the normalized range (capped 1.52, uncapped 1.09, p = 0.0313) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. There is a statistically significant change in airway dynamics in children with tracheotomy tubes when breathing via the airway as compared to breathing via the tracheotomy tube.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fricke, Bradley L.; Abbott, M. Bret; Donnelly, Lane F.; Dardzinski, Bernard J.; Poe, Stacy A.; Kalra, Maninder; Amin, Raouf S.; Cotton, Robin T.
2007-01-01
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the airway dynamics of the upper airway as depicted on cine MRI in children with tracheotomy tubes during two states of airflow through the upper airway. Sagittal fast gradient echo cine MR images of the supra-glottic airway were obtained with a 1.5T MRI scanner on seven children with tracheotomy tubes. Two sets of images were obtained with either the tubes capped or uncapped. The findings of the cine MRI were retrospectively reviewed. Volume segmentation of the cine images to compare the airway volume change over time (mean volume, standard deviation, normalized range, and coefficient of variance) was performed for the capped and uncapped tubes in both the nasopharynx and hypopharynx (Signed Rank Test). Graphical representation of the airway volume over time demonstrates a qualitative increased fluctuation in patients with the tracheotomy tube capped as compared to uncapped in both the nasopharyngeal and hypopharyngeal regions of interest. In the nasopharynx, the mean airway volume (capped 2.72 mL, uncapped 2.09 mL, p = 0.0313), the airway volume standard deviation (capped 0.42 mL, uncapped 0.20 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 2.10 mL, uncapped 1.09 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped group of patients. In the hypopharynx, the airway volume standard deviation (capped 1.54 mL, uncapped 0.67 mL, p = 0.0156), and the airway volume range (capped 6.44 mL, uncapped 2.93 mL, p = 0.0156) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. The coefficient of variance (capped 0.37, uncapped 0.26, p = 0.0469) and the normalized range (capped 1.52, uncapped 1.09, p = 0.0313) were significantly larger in the capped tubes. There is a statistically significant change in airway dynamics in children with tracheotomy tubes when breathing via the airway as compared to breathing via the tracheotomy tube
A correlational study of scoliosis and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shuncheng Zhou
Full Text Available Previous studies have confirmed that patients with mandibular deviation often have abnormal morphology of their cervical vertebrae. However, the relationship between mandibular deviation, scoliosis, and trunk balance has not been studied. Currently, mandibular deviation is usually treated as a single pathology, which leads to poor clinical efficiency. We investigated the relationship of spine coronal morphology and trunk balance in adult patients with mandibular deviation, and compared the finding to those in healthy volunteers. 35 adult patients with skeletal mandibular deviation and 10 healthy volunteers underwent anterior X-ray films of the head and posteroanterior X-ray films of the spine. Landmarks and lines were drawn and measured on these films. The axis distance method was used to measure the degree of scoliosis and the balance angle method was used to measure trunk balance. The relationship of mandibular deviation, spine coronal morphology and trunk balance was evaluated with the Pearson correlation method. The spine coronal morphology of patients with mandibular deviation demonstrated an "S" type curve, while a straight line parallel with the gravity line was found in the control group (significant difference, p1°, while the control group had a normal trunk balance (imbalance angle <1°. There was a significant difference between the two groups (p<0.01. The degree of scoliosis and shoulder imbalance correlated with the degree of mandibular deviation, and presented a linear trend. The direction of mandibular deviation was the same as that of the lateral bending of thoracolumbar vertebrae, which was opposite to the direction of lateral bending of cervical vertebrae. Our study shows the degree of mandibular deviation has a high correlation with the degree of scoliosis and trunk imbalance, all the three deformities should be clinically evaluated in the management of mandibular deviation.
Pinhas, Alexander; Linderman, Rachel; Mo, Shelley; Krawitz, Brian D; Geyman, Lawrence S; Carroll, Joseph; Rosen, Richard B; Chui, Toco Y
2018-01-01
To present a method for age-matched deviation mapping in the assessment of disease-related changes to the radial peripapillary capillaries (RPCs). We reviewed 4.5x4.5mm en face peripapillary OCT-A scans of 133 healthy control eyes (133 subjects, mean 41.5 yrs, range 11-82 yrs) and 4 eyes with distinct retinal pathologies, obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography angiography. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of age on RPC perfusion densities. RPC density group mean and standard deviation maps were generated for each decade of life. Deviation maps were created for the diseased eyes based on these maps. Large peripapillary vessel (LPV; noncapillary vessel) perfusion density was also studied for impact of age. Average healthy RPC density was 42.5±1.47%. ANOVA and pairwise Tukey-Kramer tests showed that RPC density in the ≥60yr group was significantly lower compared to RPC density in all younger decades of life (pDeviation mapping enabled us to quantitatively and visually elucidate the significance of RPC density changes in disease. It is important to consider changes that occur with aging when analyzing RPC and LPV density changes in disease. RPC density, coupled with age-matched deviation mapping techniques, represents a potentially clinically useful method in detecting changes to peripapillary perfusion in disease.
Linear maps preserving maximal deviation and the Jordan structure of quantum systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamhalter, Jan
2012-01-01
In the algebraic approach to quantum theory, a quantum observable is given by an element of a Jordan algebra and a state of the system is modelled by a normalized positive functional on the underlying algebra. Maximal deviation of a quantum observable is the largest statistical deviation one can obtain in a particular state of the system. The main result of the paper shows that each linear bijective transformation between JBW algebras preserving maximal deviations is formed by a Jordan isomorphism or a minus Jordan isomorphism perturbed by a linear functional multiple of an identity. It shows that only one numerical statistical characteristic has the power to determine the Jordan algebraic structure completely. As a consequence, we obtain that only very special maps can preserve the diameter of the spectra of elements. Nonlinear maps preserving the pseudometric given by maximal deviation are also described. The results generalize hitherto known theorems on preservers of maximal deviation in the case of self-adjoint parts of von Neumann algebras proved by Molnár.
Deviations in human gut microbiota
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Casén, C; Vebø, H C; Sekelja, M
2015-01-01
microbiome profiling. AIM: To develop and validate a novel diagnostic test using faecal samples to profile the intestinal microbiota and identify and characterise dysbiosis. METHODS: Fifty-four DNA probes targeting ≥300 bacteria on different taxonomic levels were selected based on ability to distinguish......, and potential clinically relevant deviation in the microbiome from normobiosis. This model was tested in different samples from healthy volunteers and IBS and IBD patients (n = 330) to determine the ability to detect dysbiosis. RESULTS: Validation confirms dysbiosis was detected in 73% of IBS patients, 70...
9 CFR 381.308 - Deviations in processing.
2010-01-01
...) must be handled according to: (1)(i) A HACCP plan for canned product that addresses hazards associated... (d) of this section. (c) [Reserved] (d) Procedures for handling process deviations where the HACCP... accordance with the following procedures: (a) Emergency stops. (1) When retort jams or breakdowns occur...
Process Measurement Deviation Analysis for Flow Rate due to Miscalibration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oh, Eunsuk; Kim, Byung Rae; Jeong, Seog Hwan; Choi, Ji Hye; Shin, Yong Chul; Yun, Jae Hee [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co., Deajeon (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-15
An analysis was initiated to identify the root cause, and the exemption of high static line pressure correction to differential pressure (DP) transmitters was one of the major deviation factors. Also the miscalibrated DP transmitter range was identified as another major deviation factor. This paper presents considerations to be incorporated in the process flow measurement instrumentation calibration and the analysis results identified that the DP flow transmitter electrical output decreased by 3%. Thereafter, flow rate indication decreased by 1.9% resulting from the high static line pressure correction exemption and measurement range miscalibration. After re-calibration, the flow rate indication increased by 1.9%, which is consistent with the analysis result. This paper presents the brief calibration procedures for Rosemount DP flow transmitter, and analyzes possible three cases of measurement deviation including error and cause. Generally, the DP transmitter is required to be calibrated with precise process input range according to the calibration procedure provided for specific DP transmitter. Especially, in case of the DP transmitter installed in high static line pressure, it is important to correct the high static line pressure effect to avoid the inherent systematic error for Rosemount DP transmitter. Otherwise, failure to notice the correction may lead to indicating deviation from actual value.
Upper plenum dump during reflood in PWR loss-of-coolant accident
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudo, Yukio; Griffith, Peter.
1981-01-01
Upper plenum dump during reflood in a large break loww-of-coolant accident of PWR is studied with the emergency core coolant injection into the upper plenum in addition to the cold leg. Transient experiments were carried out by injecting water into the upper plenum and the simple analysis based on a one-dimensional model was done using the drift flux model in order to investigate the conditions under which water dump through the core occurs during reflood. The most significant result is an upper plenum dump occurs when the pressure (hydrostatic head) in the upper plenum is greater than that in the lower plenum. Under those circumstances the flow regime isco-current down flow in which the upper plenum is rapidly emptied. On the other hand, when the upper plenum pressure (hydrostatic head) is less than the lower plenum pressure (hydrostatic head), the co-current down flow is not realized but a counter-current flow occurs. With subcooled water injection to the upper plenum, co-current down flow is realized even when the upper plenum hydrostatic head is less than the lower plenum hydrostatic head. The importance of this effect varies according to the magnetude of water subcooling. (author)
Advantages of heavy metal collars in directional drilling and deviation control
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bradley, W.B.; Murphey, C.E.; McLamore, R.T.; Dickson, L.L.
1976-01-01
A heavy, stiff-bottom drill collar can substantially improve deviation performance, theoretically increasing penetration rates by 50 to 100 percent in deviation-prone areas. This paper presents the underlying theory, practical charts on performance characteristics, and Shell Development Co.'s experience in fabricating and field testing two depleted-uranium alloy, heavy metal collars
The Analysis of a Deviation of Investment and Corporate Governance
Shoichi Hisa
2008-01-01
Investment of firms is affected by not only fundamentals factors, but liquidity constraint, ownership or corporate structure. Information structure between manager and owner is a significant factor to decide the level of investment, and deviation of investment from optimal condition. The reputation model between manager and owner suggest that the separate of ownership and management may induce the deviation of investment, and indicate that governance structure is important to reduce it. In th...
The Role of External Environment in Upper Echelons Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yamak, Sibel; Nielsen, Sabina; Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro
2014-01-01
and industrial organization theories, a cross-level conceptual model outlining the direct, mediating, and moderating effects of the external environment on upper echelons is developed. This review distinguishes between industry and institutional levels of analysis and three types of environmental characteristics......Upper echelons research has largely focused on the antecedents and consequences of top management teams (TMTs) from the team and firm levels of analysis. This paper reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. Applying institutional...
Higgs mass upper bound in the O(4) approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, L.
1991-01-01
In this paper the theoretical breakdown of the minimal standard model in four dimension is investigated when the mass of the Higgs particle is larger than the weak interaction scale. The triviality arguement for an upper bound on the Higgs mass is made quantitative on the lattice in large scale simulations of the spontaneously broken Higgs sector. The authors obtain an upper bound m H ≅640 GeV on the Higgs mass at a dimensionless correlation length ξ = 2 in lattice units.units
Prevalence of upper limb disorders among female librarians.
Pandy, R
2013-09-01
Work as a librarian involves exposure to potential risk factors for developing upper limb disorders. The prevalence of upper limb symptoms has, however, not previously been assessed in this occupational group. To estimate the 7-day and annual prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb symptoms in librarians and to examine associations with specific tasks and ergonomic risk factors. A cross-sectional study using components of the standardized Nordic questionnaire. The study population consisted of librarians employed by a large local authority, and data collection was by means of a self-administered questionnaire. from studies on keyboard workers and on the general population were used as comparators. The 7-day prevalence of self-reported neck and upper limb pain in female librarians was 42% (95% confidence interval (CI) 33.7-50.5) and the annual prevalence was 65% (95% CI 56.6-72.8). The prevalence of reported wrist and hand pain increased with increased working involving a wide thumb-index span (P librarians was high, but there was insufficient evidence to confirm whether the prevalence was higher than in the general population or among keyboard workers. Working with a wide thumb-index span was associated with reporting upper limb symptoms.
Isometric arm strength and subjective rating of upper limb fatigue in two-handed carrying tasks.
Li, Kai Way; Chiu, Wen-Sheng
2015-01-01
Sustained carrying could result in muscular fatigue of the upper limb. Ten male and ten female subjects were recruited for measurements of isometric arm strength before and during carrying a load for a period of 4 minutes. Two levels of load of carrying were tested for each of the male and female subjects. Exponential function based predictive equations for the isometric arm strength were established. The mean absolute deviations of these models in predicting the isometric arm strength were in the range of 3.24 to 17.34 N. Regression analyses between the subjective ratings of upper limb fatigue and force change index (FCI) for the carrying were also performed. The results indicated that the subjective rating of muscular fatigue may be estimated by multiplying the FCI with a constant. The FCI may, therefore, be adopted as an index to assess muscular fatigue for two-handed carrying tasks.
Bodily Deviations and Body Image in Adolescence
Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Kristjansdottir, Gudrun; Ward, Dianne S.
2012-01-01
Adolescents with unusually sized or shaped bodies may experience ridicule, rejection, or exclusion based on their negatively valued bodily characteristics. Such experiences can have negative consequences for a person's image and evaluation of self. This study focuses on the relationship between bodily deviations and body image and is based on a…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trelia Boel
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. Some clinicians believed that mandibular deviation leads to facial asymmetry and it also had a correlation with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs. Posteroanterior (PA cephalogram was widely reported as a regular record in treating facial asymmetry and craniofacial anomalies. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship of menton deviation in PA cephalogram with temporomandibular disorders (TMDs symptoms. Materials and Methods. TMJ function was initially screened based on TMD-DI questionnaire. PA cephalogram of volunteer subjects with TMDs (n=37 and without TMDs (n=33 with mean age of 21.61±2.08 years was taken. The menton deviation was measured by the distance (mm from menton point to midsagittal reference (MSR horizontally, using software digitized measurement, and categorized as asymmetric if the value is greater than 3 mm. The prevalence and difference of menton deviation in both groups were evaluated by unpaired t-test. Result. The prevalence of symmetry group showed that 65.9% had no TMDs with mean of 1,815 ± 0,71 mm; in contrast, the prevalence of asymmetry group showed that 95.5% reported TMDs with mean of 3,159 ± 1,053 mm. There was a significant difference of menton deviation to TMDs (p=0.000 in subjects with and without TMDs. Conclusion. There was a significant relationship of menton deviation in PA cephalogram with TMDs based on TMD-DI index.
Why do lesser toes deviate laterally in hallux valgus? A radiographic study.
Roan, Li-Yi; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Taniguchi, Akira; Tomiwa, Kiyonori; Kumai, Tsukasa; Cheng, Yuh-Min
2015-06-01
Hallux valgus foot with laterally deviated lesser toes is a complex condition to treat. Ignoring the laterally deviated lesser toes in hallux valgus might result in unsatisfactory foot shape. Without lateral support of the lesser toes, it might increase the risk of recurrence of hallux valgus. We sought to identify associated radiographic findings in patients where lesser toes follow the great toe in hallux valgus and deviate laterally. The weight-bearing, anteroposterior foot radiographs of 24 female hallux valgus feet with laterally deviated lesser toes (group L), 34 female hallux valgus feet with normal lesser toes (group H), and 43 normal female feet (group N) were selected for the study. A 2-dimensional coordinated system was used to analyze the shapes and angles of these feet by converting each dot made on the radiographs onto X and Y coordinates. Diagrams of the feet in each group were drawn for comparison. The hallux valgus angle, lateral deviation angle of the second toe, intermetatarsal angles, toe length, metatarsal length, and metatarsus adductus were calculated according to the coordinates of the corresponding points. The mapping showed the bases of the second, third, and fourth toe in group L shifted laterally away from their corresponding metatarsal head (P hallux valgus angles (P hallux valgus angle, more adducted first metatarsal, and divergent lateral splaying of the lesser metatarsals were associated with lateral deviation of the lesser toes in hallux valgus. Level III, comparative study. © The Author(s) 2015.
A study on the deviation aspects of the poem “The Eightieth Stage”
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soghra Salmaninejad Mehrabadi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract One of the methods of literature review is addressing the literary forms that deeply attracted formalists’ attention. Formalists emphasizes certain shapes and forms and methods of literary language. In their view, the task of literature and art is not making known but representing the elements in the realm of art. So, for creating an outstanding work, novelty is not just important, but modes of expression can show a new dimension of the world to audience. Shklovsky raised for the first time the term “de familiarization”. In his opinion, art renews sensory perception and transforms the familiar rules and seemingly enduring structures of reality. He believes defamiliarization is seeing things out of their natural context. According to Leach, the two usual methods to distinguish the general language from the language of arts are rule-increasing and rule-decreasing. In deviation occurs a resurrection of words and the author creates a double pleasure through language games in contact with the audience. Imagery, music and syntax can produce a kind of defamiliarization. Akhavan in the poem “The Eightieth Stag e ” has used a variety of deviations. The first is in the name of poetry. In this paper, the norms of lexical, semantic and stylistic in the poem “Eightieth Stage” is checked. Lexical deviation Sartre says the poet does not use the words, but sometimes words would use the new syntax. Akhavan in the words sometimes making terms such as “mardestan (masculinity, faramoshzar (plains of oblivion, gandomand (Robust, golazin (inflorescence, parhib (deception and ...” and sometimes new compounds alters magically the effect of poetry. His compounds like talaei makhmal avayan (golden voices and velvet, pak ayin (clean rituals, malmalin dastar (silver turban, marde mardestan (men of masculinity, rakhshe rakhshande (the brilliant horse and…" makes illustration that in some of synergistic base has helped to the poet
OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giblin, John T. Jr. [Department of Physics, Kenyon College, 201 N College Road Gambier, OH 43022 (United States); Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D. [CERCA/ISO, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44106 (United States)
2016-12-20
How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.
OBSERVABLE DEVIATIONS FROM HOMOGENEITY IN AN INHOMOGENEOUS UNIVERSE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giblin, John T. Jr.; Mertens, James B.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2016-01-01
How does inhomogeneity affect our interpretation of cosmological observations? It has long been wondered to what extent the observable properties of an inhomogeneous universe differ from those of a corresponding Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) model, and how the inhomogeneities affect that correspondence. Here, we use numerical relativity to study the behavior of light beams traversing an inhomogeneous universe, and construct the resulting Hubble diagrams. The universe that emerges exhibits an average FLRW behavior, but inhomogeneous structures contribute to deviations in observables across the observer’s sky. We also investigate the relationship between angular diameter distance and the angular extent of a source, finding deviations that grow with source redshift. These departures from FLRW are important path-dependent effects, with implications for using real observables in an inhomogeneous universe such as our own.
Comparisons of Upper Tropospheric Humidity Retrievals from TOVS and METEOSAT
Escoffier, C.; Bates, J.; Chedin, A.; Rossow, W. B.; Schmetz, J.
1999-01-01
Two different methods for retrieving Upper Tropospheric Humidities (UTH) from the TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder) instruments aboard NOAA polar orbiting satellites are presented and compared. The first one, from the Environmental Technology Laboratory, computed by J. Bates and D. Jackson (hereafter BJ method), estimates UTH from a simplified radiative transfer analysis of the upper tropospheric infrared water vapor channel at wavelength measured by HIRS (6.3 micrometer). The second one results from a neural network analysis of the TOVS (HIRS and MSU) data developed at, the Laboratoire de Meteorologie Dynamique (hereafter the 3I (Improved Initialization Inversion) method). Although the two methods give very similar retrievals in temperate regions (30-60 N and S), an absolute bias up to 16% appears in the convective zone of the tropics. The two datasets have also been compared with UTH retrievals from infrared radiance measurements in the 6.3 micrometer channel from the geostationary satellite METEOSAT (hereafter MET method). The METEOSAT retrievals are systematically drier than the TOVS-based results by an absolute bias between 5 and 25%. Despite the biases, the spatial and temporal correlations are very good. The purpose of this study is to explain the deviations observed between the three datasets. The sensitivity of UTH to air temperature and humidity profiles is analysed as are the clouds effects. Overall, the comparison of the three retrievals gives an assessment of the current uncertainties in water vapor amounts in the upper troposphere as determined from NOAA and METEOSAT satellites.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gordon, J. J.; Gardner, J. K.; Wang, S.; Siebers, J. V.
2012-01-01
Purpose: This work uses repeat images of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) fields to quantify fluence anomalies (i.e., delivery errors) that can be reliably detected in electronic portal images used for IMRT pretreatment quality assurance. Methods: Repeat images of 11 clinical IMRT fields are acquired on a Varian Trilogy linear accelerator at energies of 6 MV and 18 MV. Acquired images are corrected for output variations and registered to minimize the impact of linear accelerator and electronic portal imaging device (EPID) positioning deviations. Detection studies are performed in which rectangular anomalies of various sizes are inserted into the images. The performance of detection strategies based on pixel intensity deviations (PIDs) and gamma indices is evaluated using receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results: Residual differences between registered images are due to interfraction positional deviations of jaws and multileaf collimator leaves, plus imager noise. Positional deviations produce large intensity differences that degrade anomaly detection. Gradient effects are suppressed in PIDs using gradient scaling. Background noise is suppressed using median filtering. In the majority of images, PID-based detection strategies can reliably detect fluence anomalies of ≥5% in ∼1 mm 2 areas and ≥2% in ∼20 mm 2 areas. Conclusions: The ability to detect small dose differences (≤2%) depends strongly on the level of background noise. This in turn depends on the accuracy of image registration, the quality of the reference image, and field properties. The longer term aim of this work is to develop accurate and reliable methods of detecting IMRT delivery errors and variations. The ability to resolve small anomalies will allow the accuracy of advanced treatment techniques, such as image guided, adaptive, and arc therapies, to be quantified.
Upper respiratory infections and barotrauma among commercial pilots
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boel, Nina Monrad; Klokker, Mads
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: Health incapacitation is a serious threat to flight safety. Therefore, a study conducted 10 yr ago examined the incidents of ear-nose-throat (ENT) barotrauma and upper respiratory infection (URI) among commercial pilots and found that a large number continued to carry out their duties...
1 CFR 21.14 - Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations.
2010-01-01
... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviations from standard organization of the... CODIFICATION General Numbering § 21.14 Deviations from standard organization of the Code of Federal Regulations. (a) Any deviation from standard Code of Federal Regulations designations must be approved in advance...
A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kock, Peder, E-mail: Peder.Kock@med.lu.s [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden); Finck, Robert R. [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, SE-171 16 Stockholm (Sweden); Nilsson, Jonas M.C.; Ostlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Clinical Sciences, Lund University, University Hospital, SE-221 85 Lund (Sweden)
2010-09-15
A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded {sup 137}Cs and {sup 241}Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPGe). The deviation display enhances positive significant changes while suppressing the natural background fluctuations. After an initialisation time of about 10 min this technique leads to a homogeneous display dominated by the background colour, where even small changes in spectral data are easy to discover. As this paper shows, the deviation display method works well for all tested gamma energies and natural background radiation levels and with both tested detector systems.
A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kock, Peder; Finck, Robert R.; Nilsson, Jonas M.C.; Ostlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer
2010-01-01
A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded 137 Cs and 241 Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPGe). The deviation display enhances positive significant changes while suppressing the natural background fluctuations. After an initialisation time of about 10 min this technique leads to a homogeneous display dominated by the background colour, where even small changes in spectral data are easy to discover. As this paper shows, the deviation display method works well for all tested gamma energies and natural background radiation levels and with both tested detector systems.
Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys
Murphy, S. T.
2010-08-03
Vegard’s law states that, at a constant temperature, the volume of an alloy can be determined from a linear interpolation of its constituent’s volumes. Deviations from this description occur such that volumes are both greater and smaller than the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a tendency, with the exception of AlxGa1−xAs, for the volume of the ternary alloys to be smaller than that determined from the linear interpolation of the volumes of the MAs and BAs binary alloys. Importantly, we establish a simple relationship linking the relative size of the group III atoms in the alloy and the predicted magnitude of the deviation from Vegard’s law.
Importance Sampling, Large Deviations, and Differential Games
2002-01-01
National Science Foundation (NSF- DMS-0072004, NSF-ECS-9979250) and the Army Research Office (DAAD19-00-1-0549, DAAD19-02-1-0425). �Research of this author...supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF- DMS-0103669). Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...Process. Appl., 20:213�229, 1985. [2] S. Asmussen. Risk theory in a Markovian environment. Scand. Acturial J., pages 69�100, 1989. [3] S. Asmussen, R
Solar radiation pressure and deviations from Keplerian orbits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kezerashvili, Roman Ya. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, the City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States); Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F. [Physics Department, New York City College of Technology, City University of New York, Brooklyn, NY 11201 (United States)], E-mail: jporitz@gmail.com
2009-05-04
Newtonian gravity and general relativity give exactly the same expression for the period of an object in circular orbit around a static central mass. However, when the effects of the curvature of spacetime and solar radiation pressure are considered simultaneously for a solar sail propelled satellite, there is a deviation from Kepler's third law. It is shown that solar radiation pressure affects the period of this satellite in two ways: by effectively decreasing the solar mass, thereby increasing the period, and by enhancing the effects of other phenomena, potentially rendering some of them detectable. In particular, we consider deviations from Keplerian orbits due to spacetime curvature, frame dragging from the rotation of the sun, the oblateness of the sun, a possible net electric charge of the sun, and a very small positive cosmological constant.
Differential processing of melodic, rhythmic and simple tone deviations in musicians--an MEG study.
Lappe, Claudia; Lappe, Markus; Pantev, Christo
2016-01-01
Rhythm and melody are two basic characteristics of music. Performing musicians have to pay attention to both, and avoid errors in either aspect of their performance. To investigate the neural processes involved in detecting melodic and rhythmic errors from auditory input we tested musicians on both kinds of deviations in a mismatch negativity (MMN) design. We found that MMN responses to a rhythmic deviation occurred at shorter latencies than MMN responses to a melodic deviation. Beamformer source analysis showed that the melodic deviation activated superior temporal, inferior frontal and superior frontal areas whereas the activation pattern of the rhythmic deviation focused more strongly on inferior and superior parietal areas, in addition to superior temporal cortex. Activation in the supplementary motor area occurred for both types of deviations. We also recorded responses to similar pitch and tempo deviations in a simple, non-musical repetitive tone pattern. In this case, there was no latency difference between the MMNs and cortical activation was smaller and mostly limited to auditory cortex. The results suggest that prediction and error detection of musical stimuli in trained musicians involve a broad cortical network and that rhythmic and melodic errors are processed in partially different cortical streams. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Effect of density deviations of concrete on its attenuation efficiency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szymendera, L.; Wincel, K.; Blociszewski, S.; Kordyasz, D.; Sobolewska, I.
In the work, the influence of concrete density deviation on shield thickness and total dose ratio outside the reactor shield, has--on the basis of numerical analysis--been considered. It has been noticed the possibility of introducing flexible corrections--without additional shielding calculation--to the design thickness of the shield. It has been also found that in common cases of shield design, where any necessity of minimizing the shield thickness does not exist, the tendency to minimize the value of this deviation is hardly substantiable
Improved iterative oscillation tests for first-order deviating differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
George E. Chatzarakis
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, improved oscillation conditions are established for the oscillation of all solutions of differential equations with non-monotone deviating arguments and nonnegative coefficients. They lead to a procedure that checks for oscillations by iteratively computing \\(\\lim \\sup\\ and \\(\\lim \\inf\\ on terms recursively defined on the equation's coefficients and deviating argument. This procedure significantly improves all known oscillation criteria. The results and the improvement achieved over the other known conditions are illustrated by two examples, numerically solved in MATLAB.
Dynamics of upper mantle rocks decompression melting above hot spots under continental plates
Perepechko, Yury; Sorokin, Konstantin; Sharapov, Victor
2014-05-01
Numeric 2D simulation of the decompression melting above the hot spots (HS) was accomplished under the following conditions: initial temperature within crust mantle section was postulated; thickness of the metasomatized lithospheric mantle is determined by the mantle rheology and position of upper asthenosphere boundary; upper and lower boundaries were postulated to be not permeable and the condition for adhesion and the distribution of temperature (1400-2050°C); lateral boundaries imitated infinity of layer. Sizes and distribution of lateral points, their symmetry, and maximum temperature varied between the thermodynamic condition for existences of perovskite - majorite transition and its excess above transition temperature. Problem was solved numerically a cell-vertex finite volume method for thermo hydrodynamic problems. For increasing convergence of iterative process the method of lower relaxation with different value of relaxation parameter for each equation was used. The method of through calculation was used for the increase in the computing rate for the two-layered upper mantle - lithosphere system. Calculated region was selected as 700 x (2100-4900) km. The time step for the study of the asthenosphere dynamics composed 0.15-0.65 Ma. The following factors controlling the sizes and melting degree of the convective upper mantle, are shown: a) the initial temperature distribution along the section of upper mantleb) sizes and the symmetry of HS, c) temperature excess within the HS above the temperature on the upper and lower mantle border TB=1500-2000oC with 5-15% deviation but not exceed 2350oC. It is found, that appearance of decompression melting with HS presence initiate primitive mantle melting at TB > of 1600oC. Initial upper mantle heating influence on asthenolens dimensions with a constant HS size is controlled mainly by decompression melting degree. Thus, with lateral sizes of HS = 400 km the decompression melting appears at TB > 1600oC and HS
Visch, Valentijn T; Tan, Ed S
2009-02-01
The reported study follows the footsteps of Heider, and Simmel (1944) [Heider, F., & Simmel, M. (1944). An experimental study of apparent behavior. American Journal of Psychology, 57, 243-249] and Michotte (1946/1963) [Michotte, A. (1963). The perception of causality (T.R. Miles & E. Miles, Trans.). London: Methuen (Original work published 1946)] who demonstrated the role of object movement in attributions of life-likeness to figures. It goes one step further in studying the categorization of film scenes as to genre as a function of object movements. In an animated film scene portraying a chase, movements of the chasing object were systematically varied as to parameters: velocity, efficiency, fluency, detail, and deformation. The object movements were categorized by viewers into genres: non-fiction, comedy, drama, and action. Besides this categorization, viewers rated their animacy attribution and emotional response. Results showed that non-expert viewers were consistent in categorizing the genres according to object movement parameters. The size of its deviation from the unmanipulated movement scene determined the assignment of any target scene to one of the fiction genres: small and moderate deviations resulted in categorization as drama and action, and large deviations as comedy. The results suggest that genre classification is achieved by, at least, three distinct cognitive processes: (a) animacy attribution, which influences the fiction versus non-fiction classification; (b) emotional responses, which influences the classification of a specific fiction genre; and (c) the amount of deviation from reality, at least with regard to movements.
Design and analysis of control charts for standard deviation with estimated parameters
Schoonhoven, M.; Riaz, M.; Does, R.J.M.M.
2011-01-01
This paper concerns the design and analysis of the standard deviation control chart with estimated limits. We consider an extensive range of statistics to estimate the in-control standard deviation (Phase I) and design the control chart for real-time process monitoring (Phase II) by determining the
Mokkink, H.G.A.
2002-01-01
Standard deviation and standard error have a clear mutual relationship, but at the same time they differ strongly in the type of information they supply. This can lead to confusion and misunderstandings. Standard deviation describes the variability in a sample of measures of a variable, for instance
14 CFR 121.360 - Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system.
2010-01-01
... deviation alerting system. 121.360 Section 121.360 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... Equipment Requirements § 121.360 Ground proximity warning-glide slope deviation alerting system. (a) No... system that meets the performance and environmental standards of TSO-C92 (available from the FAA, 800...
A Note on Standard Deviation and Standard Error
Hassani, Hossein; Ghodsi, Mansoureh; Howell, Gareth
2010-01-01
Many students confuse the standard deviation and standard error of the mean and are unsure which, if either, to use in presenting data. In this article, we endeavour to address these questions and cover some related ambiguities about these quantities.
Wright, J. S.; Fueglistaler, S.
2013-09-01
We present the time mean heat budgets of the tropical upper troposphere (UT) and lower stratosphere (LS) as simulated by five reanalysis models: the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), European Reanalysis (ERA-Interim), Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR), Japanese 25-yr Reanalysis and Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System (JRA-25/JCDAS), and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) Reanalysis 1. The simulated diabatic heat budget in the tropical UTLS differs significantly from model to model, with substantial implications for representations of transport and mixing. Large differences are apparent both in the net heat budget and in all comparable individual components, including latent heating, heating due to radiative transfer, and heating due to parameterised vertical mixing. We describe and discuss the most pronounced differences. Discrepancies in latent heating reflect continuing difficulties in representing moist convection in models. Although these discrepancies may be expected, their magnitude is still disturbing. We pay particular attention to discrepancies in radiative heating (which may be surprising given the strength of observational constraints on temperature and tropospheric water vapour) and discrepancies in heating due to turbulent mixing (which have received comparatively little attention). The largest differences in radiative heating in the tropical UTLS are attributable to differences in cloud radiative heating, but important systematic differences are present even in the absence of clouds. Local maxima in heating and cooling due to parameterised turbulent mixing occur in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. Stemmann
2008-03-01
Full Text Available The French JGOFS BIOSOPE cruise crossed the South Pacific Gyre (SPG on a transect between the Marquesas Islands and the Chilean coast on a 7500 km transect (8° S–34° S and 8° W–72° W. The number and volume distributions of small (3.5<d<30 μm and large particles (d>100 μm were analysed combining two instruments, the HIAC/Royco Counter (for the small particles and the Underwater Video Profiler (UVP, for the large particles. For the HIAC analysis, samples were collected from 12 L CTD Rosette bottles and immediately analysed on board while the UVP provided an estimate of in situ particle concentrations and size in a continuous profile. Out of 76 continuous UVP and 117 discrete HIAC vertical profiles, 25 had both sets of measurements, mostly at a site close to the Marquesas Islands (site MAR and one in the center of the gyre (site GYR. At GYR, the particle number spectra from few μm to few mm were fit with power relationships having slopes close to −4. At MAR, the high abundance of large objects, probably living organisms, created a shift in the full size spectra of particles such that a single slope was not appropriate. The small particle pool at both sites showed a diel pattern while the large did not, implying that the movement of mass toward the large particles does not take place at daily scale in the SPG area. Despite the relatively simple nature of the number spectra, the volume spectra were more variable because what were small deviations from the straight line in a log-log plot were large variations in the volume estimates. In addition, the mass estimates from the size spectra are very sensitive to crucial parameters such as the fractal dimension and the POC/Dry Weight ratio. Using consistent values for these parameters, we show that the volume of large particles can equal the volume of the smaller particles. However the proportion of material in large particles decreased from the mesotrophic conditions at the
Khamis, Sam; Carmeli, Eli
2017-09-01
Controversy still exists as to the clinical significance of leg length discrepancy (LLD) in spite of the fact that further evidence has been emerging regarding the relationship between several clinical conditions and LLD. The objectives of our study were to review the available research with regard to LLD as a cause of clinically significant gait deviations, to determine if there is a relationship between the magnitude of LLD and the presence of gait deviations and to identify the most common gait deviations associated with LLD. In line with the PRISMA guidelines, a literature search was carried out throughout the Medline, CINAHL and EMBASE databases. Twelve articles met the predetermined inclusion criteria and were included in the review. Quality assessment using the Methodological Index for Non-Randomized Studies (MINORS) scale was completed for all included studies. Two main methodologies were found in 4 studies evaluating gait asymmetry in patients or healthy participants with anatomic LLD and 8 studies evaluating gait deviations while simulating LLD by employing artificial lifts of 1-5cm on healthy subjects. A significant relationship was found between anatomic LLD and gait deviation. Evidence suggests that gait deviations may occur with discrepancies of >1cm, with greater impact seen as the discrepancy increases. Compensatory strategies were found to occur in both the shorter and longer limb, throughout the lower limb. As the discrepancy increases, more compensatory strategies occur. Sagittal plane deviations seem to be the most effective deviations, although, frontal plane compensations also occur in the pelvis, hip and foot. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
40 CFR 60.2780 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emissions Guidelines and... the deviation report? In each report required under § 60.2775, for any pollutant or parameter that...
40 CFR 60.2958 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Operator Training and Qualification Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2958 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report...
FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES GARDEN I AND II: EVALUATION OF THE DEVIATION IN LATERAL VIEW.
Leonhardt, Natália Zalc; Melo, Lucas da Ponte; Nordon, David Gonçalves; Silva, Fernando Brandão de Andrade E; Kojima, Kodi Edson; Silva, Jorge Santos
2017-01-01
To evaluate the rate of deviation in the lateral radiographic incidence in patients with femoral neck fracture classified as non-diverted in the anteroposterior view (Garden I and II). Nineteen selected patients with femoral neck fractures classified as Garden I and II were retrospectively evaluated, estimating the degree of deviation in the lateral view. Fifteen cases (79%) presented deviations in lateral view, with a mean of 18.6 degrees (±15.5). Most fractures of the femoral neck classified as Garden I and II present some degree of posterior deviation in the X-ray lateral view. Level of Evidence III, Retrospective Comparative Study.
ON COMPUTING UPPER LIMITS TO SOURCE INTENSITIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kashyap, Vinay L.; Siemiginowska, Aneta; Van Dyk, David A.; Xu Jin; Connors, Alanna; Freeman, Peter E.; Zezas, Andreas
2010-01-01
A common problem in astrophysics is determining how bright a source could be and still not be detected in an observation. Despite the simplicity with which the problem can be stated, the solution involves complicated statistical issues that require careful analysis. In contrast to the more familiar confidence bound, this concept has never been formally analyzed, leading to a great variety of often ad hoc solutions. Here we formulate and describe the problem in a self-consistent manner. Detection significance is usually defined by the acceptable proportion of false positives (background fluctuations that are claimed as detections, or Type I error), and we invoke the complementary concept of false negatives (real sources that go undetected, or Type II error), based on the statistical power of a test, to compute an upper limit to the detectable source intensity. To determine the minimum intensity that a source must have for it to be detected, we first define a detection threshold and then compute the probabilities of detecting sources of various intensities at the given threshold. The intensity that corresponds to the specified Type II error probability defines that minimum intensity and is identified as the upper limit. Thus, an upper limit is a characteristic of the detection procedure rather than the strength of any particular source. It should not be confused with confidence intervals or other estimates of source intensity. This is particularly important given the large number of catalogs that are being generated from increasingly sensitive surveys. We discuss, with examples, the differences between these upper limits and confidence bounds. Both measures are useful quantities that should be reported in order to extract the most science from catalogs, though they answer different statistical questions: an upper bound describes an inference range on the source intensity, while an upper limit calibrates the detection process. We provide a recipe for computing upper
Hu, Hua; Liu, W. Timothy
1998-01-01
This paper presents an analysis of upper tropospheric humidity, as measured by the Microwave Limb Sounder, and the impact of the humidity on the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes. Enhanced upper tropospheric humidity and an enhanced greenhouse effect occur over the storm tracks in the North Pacific and North Atlantic. In these areas, strong baroclinic activity and the large number of deep convective clouds transport more water vapor to the upper troposphere, and hence increase greenhouse trapping. The greenhouse effect increases with upper tropospheric humidity in areas with a moist upper troposphere (such as areas over storm tracks), but it is not sensitive to changes in upper tropospheric humidity in regions with a dry upper troposphere, clearly demonstrating that there are different mechanisms controlling the geographical distribution of the greenhouse effect in the midlatitudes.
Upper bounds on entangling rates of bipartite Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bravyi, Sergey
2007-01-01
We discuss upper bounds on the rate at which unitary evolution governed by a nonlocal Hamiltonian can generate entanglement in a bipartite system. Given a bipartite Hamiltonian H coupling two finite dimensional particles A and B, the entangling rate is shown to be upper bounded by c log(d) parallel H parallel, where d is the smallest dimension of the interacting particles parallel H parallel is the operator norm of H, and c is a constant close to 1. Under certain restrictions on the initial state we prove an analogous upper bound for the ancilla-assisted entangling rate with a constant c that does not depend upon dimensions of local ancillas. The restriction is that the initial state has at most two distinct Schmidt coefficients (each coefficient may have arbitrarily large multiplicity). Our proof is based on analysis of a mixing rate - a functional measuring how fast entropy can be produced if one mixes a time-independent state with a state evolving unitarily
Method for solving fully fuzzy linear programming problems using deviation degree measure
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Haifang Cheng; Weilai Huang; Jianhu Cai
2013-01-01
A new ful y fuzzy linear programming (FFLP) prob-lem with fuzzy equality constraints is discussed. Using deviation degree measures, the FFLP problem is transformed into a crispδ-parametric linear programming (LP) problem. Giving the value of deviation degree in each constraint, the δ-fuzzy optimal so-lution of the FFLP problem can be obtained by solving this LP problem. An algorithm is also proposed to find a balance-fuzzy optimal solution between two goals in conflict: to improve the va-lues of the objective function and to decrease the values of the deviation degrees. A numerical example is solved to il ustrate the proposed method.
40 CFR 60.2220 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for... Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.2220 What must I include in the deviation report? In each report required under...
40 CFR 60.3053 - What must I include in the deviation report?
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What must I include in the deviation... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Emission Guidelines and Compliance... Model Rule-Recordkeeping and Reporting § 60.3053 What must I include in the deviation report? In each...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Kravets
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The construction of underground communications in urban conditions is very difficult due to the large number of existing communications. Thus, it is necessary to change the trajectory of the horizontal well during soil thrust boring. An analytical method for determining soil reactions and the deviation of the trajectory of an asymmetric soil thrust working body, which can be used to correct or control the trajectory during puncture, is suggested.
Some common indices of group diversity: upper boundaries.
Solanas, Antonio; Selvam, Rejina M; Navarro, José; Leiva, David
2012-12-01
Workgroup diversity can be conceptualized as variety, separation, or disparity. Thus, the proper operationalization of diversity depends on how a diversity dimension has been defined. Analytically, the minimal diversity must be obtained when there are no differences on an attribute among the members of a group, however maximal diversity has a different shape for each conceptualization of diversity. Previous work on diversity indexes indicated maximum values for variety (e.g., Blau's index and Teachman's index), separation (e.g., standard deviation and mean Euclidean distance), and disparity (e.g., coefficient of variation and the Gini coefficient of concentration), although these maximum values are not valid for all group characteristics (i.e., group size and group size parity) and attribute scales (i.e., number of categories). We demonstrate analytically appropriate upper boundaries for conditional diversity determined by some specific group characteristics, avoiding the bias related to absolute diversity. This will allow applied researchers to make better interpretations regarding the relationship between group diversity and group outcomes.
Hazards and preventive measures of well deviation in well construction of in-situ leaching
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zou Wenjie; Chen Shihe
2006-01-01
Whether the in-situ leaching method is successful depends on the quality of borehole engineering to a great extent. There are lots of factors that affect the quality, and the well deviation is one of notable problems. The hazards and causes of the well deviation are analyzed. The preventive measures and the methods of rectifying the deviation are put forward. (authors)
Cheng, Wan
2015-06-30
We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the main flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that developed by Chung & Pullin (2009). Flow separation and re-attachment of the incoming boundary layer is induced by prescribing wall-normal velocity distribution on the upper boundary of the flow domain that produces an adverse-favorable stream-wise pressure distribution at the wall. The LES predicts the distribution of mean shear stress along the wall including the interior of the separation bubble. Several properties of the separation/reattachment flow are discussed.
Ran, Yang; Su, Rongtao; Ma, Pengfei; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei
2016-05-10
We present a new quantitative index of standard deviation to measure the homogeneity of spectral lines in a fiber amplifier system so as to find the relation between the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and the homogeneity of the corresponding spectral lines. A theoretical model is built and a simulation framework has been established to estimate the SBS threshold when input spectra with different homogeneities are set. In our experiment, by setting the phase modulation voltage to a constant value and the modulation frequency to different values, spectral lines with different homogeneities can be obtained. The experimental results show that the SBS threshold increases negatively with the standard deviation of the modulated spectrum, which is in good agreement with the theoretical results. When the phase modulation voltage is confined to 10 V and the modulation frequency is set to 80 MHz, the standard deviation of the modulated spectrum equals 0.0051, which is the lowest value in our experiment. Thus, at this time, the highest SBS threshold has been achieved. This standard deviation can be a good quantitative index in evaluating the power scaling potential in a fiber amplifier system, which is also a design guideline in suppressing the SBS to a better degree.
Wavelength selection method with standard deviation: application to pulse oximetry.
Vazquez-Jaccaud, Camille; Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija
2011-07-01
Near-infrared spectroscopy provides useful biological information after the radiation has penetrated through the tissue, within the therapeutic window. One of the significant shortcomings of the current applications of spectroscopic techniques to a live subject is that the subject may be uncooperative and the sample undergoes significant temporal variations, due to his health status that, from radiometric point of view, introduce measurement noise. We describe a novel wavelength selection method for monitoring, based on a standard deviation map, that allows low-noise sensitivity. It may be used with spectral transillumination, transmission, or reflection signals, including those corrupted by noise and unavoidable temporal effects. We apply it to the selection of two wavelengths for the case of pulse oximetry. Using spectroscopic data, we generate a map of standard deviation that we propose as a figure-of-merit in the presence of the noise introduced by the living subject. Even in the presence of diverse sources of noise, we identify four wavelength domains with standard deviation, minimally sensitive to temporal noise, and two wavelengths domains with low sensitivity to temporal noise.
Computation of standard deviations in eigenvalue calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gelbard, E.M.; Prael, R.
1990-01-01
In Brissenden and Garlick (1985), the authors propose a modified Monte Carlo method for eigenvalue calculations, designed to decrease particle transport biases in the flux and eigenvalue estimates, and in corresponding estimates of standard deviations. Apparently a very similar method has been used by Soviet Monte Carlo specialists. The proposed method is based on the generation of ''superhistories'', chains of histories run in sequence without intervening renormalization of the fission source. This method appears to have some disadvantages, discussed elsewhere. Earlier numerical experiments suggest that biases in fluxes and eigenvalues are negligibly small, even for very small numbers of histories per generation. Now more recent experiments, run on the CRAY-XMP, tend to confirm these earlier conclusions. The new experiments, discussed in this paper, involve the solution of one-group 1D diffusion theory eigenvalue problems, in difference form, via Monte Carlo. Experiments covered a range of dominance ratios from ∼0.75 to ∼0.985. In all cases flux and eigenvalue biases were substantially smaller than one standard deviation. The conclusion that, in practice, the eigenvalue bias is negligible has strong theoretical support. (author)
Temperature Profile of the Upper Mantle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, O.L.
1980-01-01
Following the procedure outlined by Magnitsky [1971], thermal profiles of the upper mantle are computed by deriving the thermal gradient from the seismic data given as dv/sub s//drho used along with the values of (dv/sub s//dT9/sub p/ and (dv/sub s//dP)/sub T/ of selected minerals, measured at high temperature. The resulting values of dT/dZ are integrated from 380 km upward toward the surface, where the integrating constant is taken from Akagi and Akimoto's work, T=1400 0 C at 380 km. The resulting geotherms for minerals are used to derive geotherms for an eclogite mantle and a lherzolite mantle, with and without partial melting in the low-velocity zone. The geotherms are all subadiabatic, and some are virtually isothermal in the upper mantle. Some are characterized by a large thermal hump at the lithosphere boundary
Transmission-type angle deviation microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, M.-H.; Lai, C.-W.; Tan, C.-T.; Lai, C.-F.
2008-01-01
We present a new microscopy technique that we call transmission angle deviation microscopy (TADM). It is based on common-path heterodyne interferometry and geometrical optics. An ultrahigh sensitivity surface plasmon resonance (SPR) angular sensor is used to expand dynamic measurement ranges and to improve the axial resolution in three-dimensional optical microscopy. When transmitted light is incident upon a specimen, the beam converges or diverges because of refractive and/or surface height variations. Advantages include high axial resolution (∼32 nm), nondestructive and noncontact measurement, and larger measurement ranges (± 80 μm) for a numerical aperture of 0.21in a transparent measurement medium. The technique can be used without conductivity and pretreatment
International asset pricing under segmentation and PPP deviations
Chaieb, I.; Errunza, V.
2007-01-01
We analyze the impact of both purchasing power parity (PPP) deviations and market segmentation on asset pricing and investor's portfolio holdings. The freely traded securities command a world market risk premium and an inflation risk premium. The securities that can be held by only a subset of
The standard deviation method: data analysis by classical means and by neural networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugmann, G.; Stockar, U. von; Lister, J.B.
1989-08-01
The Standard Deviation Method is a method for determining particle size which can be used, for instance, to determine air-bubble sizes in a fermentation bio-reactor. The transmission coefficient of an ultrasound beam through a gassy liquid is measured repetitively. Due to the displacements and random positions of the bubbles, the measurements show a scatter whose standard deviation is dependent on the bubble-size. The precise relationship between the measured standard deviation, the transmission and the particle size has been obtained from a set of computer-simulated data. (author) 9 figs., 5 refs
Management of Contract Waivers and Deviations for Defense Systems
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
1998-01-01
This report is the fourth and final in a series of reports resulting from our audit of management of contract waivers and deviations for Defense systems and summarizes our overall evaluation. Report...
Imaging performance of annular apertures. VI - Limitations by optical surface deviations
Tschunko, Hubert F. A.
1987-01-01
The performance of optical systems is limited by imperfect optical surfaces that degrade the images below the level set by wave theoretical limits. The central irradiance functions are derived for slit and circular apertures with five distributions of wavefront errors and for a range of maximal wavefront deviations. For practical frequency of occurrence distributions of wavefront deviations, the point spread and the image energy integral functions are determined. Practical performances of optical systems are derived and performance limits discussed.
[Study on physical deviation factors on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurement].
Wan, Xiong; Wang, Peng; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Zhi-Min; Zhang, Hua-Ming
2013-10-01
In order to eliminate the deviation between the measured LIBS spectral line and the standard LIBS spectral line, and improve the accuracy of elements measurement, a research of physical deviation factors in laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technology was proposed. Under the same experimental conditions, the relationship of ablated hole effect and spectral wavelength was tested, the Stark broadening data of Mg plasma laser induced breakdown spectroscopy with sampling time-delay from 1.00 to 3.00 micros was also studied, thus the physical deviation influences such as ablated hole effect and Stark broadening could be obtained while collecting the spectrum. The results and the method of the research and analysis can also be applied to other laser induced breakdown spectroscopy experiment system, which is of great significance to improve the accuracy of LIBS elements measuring and is also important to the research on the optimum sampling time-delay of LIBS.
Applicability of Hilt's law to the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Czech Republic)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivek, Martin; Caslavsky, Marek; Jirasek, Jakub
2008-01-01
Hilt's law (dependence of the coalification degree on depth) is a substantial and long-acknowledged rule. Its validity in the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Carboniferous, Mississippian to Pennsylvanian - Lower Namurian to Westphalian A) is the subject of this study. It is based on over 29,000 analyses of the volatile matter moisture- and ash-free (V daf ) from surface and underground boreholes drilled in 1946-1989. Vitrinite reflectance (R max ) cannot be used as a measure of coalification in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin: the number of reflectance measurements is small and their distribution over the basin area is very uneven. Statistical data on V daf for the individual stratal units were processed. Modelling of the trends in the volatile matter moisture- and ash-free (V daf ) depending on ''stratigraphic depth'' proved the general applicability of Hilt's law. The distribution of this parameter in selected boreholes and segments of the basin was also studied, and coalification gradients were calculated. Coalification in specific examples (boreholes) is, however, highly variable and shows numerous deviations from Hilt's law even within individual boreholes, which is documented on a real example. The causes of some of the deviations are relatively well known (e.g., effect of elevated pressure in tectonically deformed areas, effect of effusive rocks or paleoweathering zones) while others can be presumed (heat flows due to Variscan and Carpathian orogenies affected by the lithology of the Carboniferous massif). The contribution of these effects in specific examples can be determined with great difficulty only. (author)
Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.
Lin, Joseph; Chen, Dar-Ren; Wang, Yu-Fen; Lai, Hung-Wen
2016-01-01
Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group) and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group). The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6%) ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1%) to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, M.; Waynert, J.A.
1994-01-01
The magnetic multipole sensitivity to asymmetric and symmetric deviations is analyzed in the two-dimensional cross-section of SSC quadrupole magnets. Deviations in the 2D cross-section caused by variations in the superconducting cable locations due to changes in the thickness of the pole sheet, mid plane insulation, inter-layer spacer, backing sheet, and copper wedges have direct impact on the magnetic field gradient and multipoles in the straight section of the magnets. Asymmetric deviations due to different coil sizes in a cross-section are also analyzed. The analyses are performed mainly with the software package AHARM. SSCMAG and finite element software PE2D were also used to obtain baselines and to verify the results. The results provide information essential to an understanding of the deviations of the multipoles resulting from manufacturing processes, and suggest possibilities for tuning the multipoles to meet the magnetic requirements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. S. Wright
2013-09-01
Full Text Available We present the time mean heat budgets of the tropical upper troposphere (UT and lower stratosphere (LS as simulated by five reanalysis models: the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA, European Reanalysis (ERA-Interim, Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR, Japanese 25-yr Reanalysis and Japan Meteorological Agency Climate Data Assimilation System (JRA-25/JCDAS, and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1. The simulated diabatic heat budget in the tropical UTLS differs significantly from model to model, with substantial implications for representations of transport and mixing. Large differences are apparent both in the net heat budget and in all comparable individual components, including latent heating, heating due to radiative transfer, and heating due to parameterised vertical mixing. We describe and discuss the most pronounced differences. Discrepancies in latent heating reflect continuing difficulties in representing moist convection in models. Although these discrepancies may be expected, their magnitude is still disturbing. We pay particular attention to discrepancies in radiative heating (which may be surprising given the strength of observational constraints on temperature and tropospheric water vapour and discrepancies in heating due to turbulent mixing (which have received comparatively little attention. The largest differences in radiative heating in the tropical UTLS are attributable to differences in cloud radiative heating, but important systematic differences are present even in the absence of clouds. Local maxima in heating and cooling due to parameterised turbulent mixing occur in the vicinity of the tropical tropopause.
Higher-order geodesic deviations applied to the Kerr metric
Colistete, R J; Kerner, R
2002-01-01
Starting with an exact and simple geodesic, we generate approximate geodesics by summing up higher-order geodesic deviations within a general relativistic setting, without using Newtonian and post-Newtonian approximations. We apply this method to the problem of closed orbital motion of test particles in the Kerr metric spacetime. With a simple circular orbit in the equatorial plane taken as the initial geodesic, we obtain finite eccentricity orbits in the form of Taylor series with the eccentricity playing the role of a small parameter. The explicit expressions of these higher-order geodesic deviations are derived using successive systems of linear equations with constant coefficients, whose solutions are of harmonic oscillator type. This scheme gives best results when applied to orbits with low eccentricities, but with arbitrary possible values of (GM/Rc sup 2).
A large-area scintillation detector with matrix readout for experiments at COSY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolke, M.
1993-12-01
For the requirement of a time-of-flight measurement in the framework of the experiment E5 at the proton synchrotron COSY Juelich by means of a Monte-Carlo simulation the geometrical parameters of a large-area scintillator plane with matrix-arrangement of the read-out photomultipliers could be optimized. A system for the monitoring of the tube amplifications, basing on short light pulses emitted by luminescence diodes, was modificatedly transeferred to this application and successfully tested. For the time resolution of the detector values could be determined, which lie in the mean by about 30 % above the theoretical expectations. For minimally ionizing particles an accuracy of the time-of-flight information from the combination of start and stop scintillator of the experiment E5 in a range σ tof ∼240-260 ps dependent on the incident position of the particle to be analyzed, was measured. On the base of this measurement for protons of a momentum of 1 GeV/c at application of the detector in its second construction stage an upper limit of the time-of-flight resolution of correspondingly σ tof ∼195-220 ps is to be expected. From this a crude upper estimation of the momentum resolution of σ p /p∼1.0-1.2 % results. A position reconstruction by means of the c. m. method showed qualitatively an expected behaviour of the systematic deviations between reconstructed and real incidence positions. Quantitativeley a mean fluctuation of the reconstructed positions of 1.3 respectively 0.8 cm for the horizontal respectively vertical direction is reached
Linear Estimation of Standard Deviation of Logistic Distribution ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The paper presents a theoretical method based on order statistics and a FORTRAN program for computing the variance and relative efficiencies of the standard deviation of the logistic population with respect to the Cramer-Rao lower variance bound and the best linear unbiased estimators (BLUE\\'s) when the mean is ...
The one-shot deviation principle for sequential rationality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hendon, Ebbe; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen; Sloth, Birgitte
1996-01-01
We present a decentralization result which is useful for practical and theoretical work with sequential equilibrium, perfect Bayesian equilibrium, and related equilibrium concepts for extensive form games. A weak consistency condition is sufficient to obtain an analogy to the well known One-Stage......-Stage-Deviation Principle for subgame perfect equilibrium...
Lin, Li-Fong; Lin, Yi-Jia; Lin, Zi-Hao; Chuang, Li-Yun; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Lin, Yuan-Hsiang
2017-06-19
Wearable devices based on inertial measurement units through wireless sensor networks have many applications such as real-time motion monitoring and functional outcome assessment of stroke rehabilitation. However, additional investigations are warranted to validate their clinical value, particularly in detecting the synergy patterns of movements after stroke. To explore the feasibility and efficacy of wearable devices for upper limb rehabilitation in patients with chronic stroke and to compare the intervention effects (e.g., neurological recovery, active range of motion, and deviation angle) with those in a control group. A single-blind, randomized-controlled pilot study. Rehabilitation ward. A total of 18 patients with chronic stroke were randomly distributed into a device group and control group. Both groups received conventional rehabilitation; nevertheless, the device group was additionally subjected to 15 daily sessions at least three times a week for 5 weeks. The outcome measures included the upper extremity subscores of the Fugl-Meyer assessment, active range of motion, and deviation angle. These measurements were performed pre- and post-treatment. All five Fugl-Meyer assessment subscores improved in both the device and control groups after intervention; in particular, the "shoulder/elbow/forearm" subscore (p = 0.02, 0.03) and "total score" (p = 0.03, 0.03) substantially improved. The active range of motion of shoulder flexion and abduction substantially improved at pre-post treatment in both the device (p = 0.02, 0.03) and control (p = 0.02, 0.03) groups. The deviation angle of shoulder external rotation during shoulder abduction substantially improved in the device group (p = 0.02), but not in the control group. The designed wearable devices are practical and efficient for use in chronic patients with stroke. Wearable devices are expected to be useful for future internet-of-things rehabilitation clinical trials at home and in long-term care institutions.
Hessian matrix approach for determining error field sensitivity to coil deviations
Zhu, Caoxiang; Hudson, Stuart R.; Lazerson, Samuel A.; Song, Yuntao; Wan, Yuanxi
2018-05-01
The presence of error fields has been shown to degrade plasma confinement and drive instabilities. Error fields can arise from many sources, but are predominantly attributed to deviations in the coil geometry. In this paper, we introduce a Hessian matrix approach for determining error field sensitivity to coil deviations. A primary cost function used for designing stellarator coils, the surface integral of normalized normal field errors, was adopted to evaluate the deviation of the generated magnetic field from the desired magnetic field. The FOCUS code (Zhu et al 2018 Nucl. Fusion 58 016008) is utilized to provide fast and accurate calculations of the Hessian. The sensitivities of error fields to coil displacements are then determined by the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix. A proof-of-principle example is given on a CNT-like configuration. We anticipate that this new method could provide information to avoid dominant coil misalignments and simplify coil designs for stellarators.
The Absolute Deviation Rank Diagnostic Approach to Gear Tooth Composite Fault
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guangbin Wang
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming at nonlinear and nonstationary characteristics of the different degree with single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, a method for the diagnosis of absolute deviation of gear faults is presented. The method uses ADAMS, respectively, set-up dynamics model of single fault gear tooth broken, pitting, and composite fault gear tooth broken-pitting, to obtain the result of different degree of broken teeth, pitting the single fault and compound faults in the meshing frequency, and the amplitude frequency doubling through simulating analysis. Through the comparison with the normal state to obtain the sensitive characteristic of the fault, the absolute value deviation diagnostic approach is used to identify the fault and validate it through experiments. The results show that absolute deviation rank diagnostic approach can realize the recognition of gear single faults and compound faults with different degrees and provide quick reference to determine the degree of gear fault.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boyarchuk, A.A.; Lyubimkov, L.S.; Sakhibullin, N.A.
1985-01-01
For a number of class F supergiants and dwarfs, non-LTE calculations have been made of the Fe I-Fe II ionization balance. It is shown that deviations from local thermodynamic equilibrium lead to a strong overionization of the Fe I atoms in the upper layers of the atmosphere. This confirms the conclusion obtained by Lyubimkov and Boyarchuk on the basis of an investigation of microturbulence in F supergiants. The reason for the overionization (compared with LTE) is the nonequality of the recombination and photoionization temperatures: To recombination processes there corresponds a local temperature T(/tau/), whereas the photoionization takes place under the influence of ultraviolet radiation from deeper and hotter layers of the atmosphere. The equivalent widths of some Fe I lines have been calculated. It is shown that neglect of the overionization in the analysis of sufficiently strong lines may lead to an underestimation of the iron abundance by an order of magnitude
Derancourt, C; Bourdon-Lanoy, E; Grob, J-J; Guillaume, J-C; Bernard, P; Bastuji-Garin, S
2007-01-01
Multiple solar lentigos commonly seen on the upper back and shoulders of adults are classically considered as a sign of photodamage, although epidemiological studies are scarce. To assess whether these lesions are clinical markers of past severe sunburn. A case-control study in two outpatient dermatology clinics in French university hospitals. Past episodes of moderate and severe sunburn were compared between 145 adult patients with multiple solar lentigos on the upper back and 145 matched controls. In multivariate analysis adjusted for potential confounders, recalled episodes of sunburn during childhood, adolescence and adulthood were independently associated with the presence of multiple solar lentigos (adjusted odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals: 2.3 (1.1-5.2) and 28.1 (10.4-75.6) for moderate and severe sunburn, respectively). Multiple solar lentigos on the upper back and shoulders of adults are potential clinical markers of past severe sunburn which may thus be used to identify a population at higher risk of developing cutaneous malignant melanoma.
Oncoplastic Surgery for Upper/Upper Inner Quadrant Breast Cancer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph Lin
Full Text Available Tumors located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast warrant more attention. A small lesion relative to the size of breast in this location may be resolved by performing a level I oncoplastic technique. However, a wide excision may significantly reduce the overall quality of the breast shape by distorting the visible breast line. From June 2012 to April 2015, 36 patients with breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant underwent breast-conservation surgery with matrix rotation mammoplasty. According to the size and location of the tumor relative to the nipple-areola complex, 11 patients underwent matrix rotation with periareolar de-epithelialization (donut group and the other 25 underwent matrix rotation only (non-donut group. The cosmetic results were self-assessed by questionnaires. The average weights of the excised breast lumps in the donut and non-donut groups were 104.1 and 84.5 g, respectively. During the 3-year follow-up period, local recurrence was observed in one case and was managed with nipple-sparing mastectomy followed by breast reconstruction with prosthetic implants. In total, 31 patients (88.6% ranked their postoperative result as either acceptable or satisfactory. The treated breasts were also self-evaluated by 27 patients (77.1% to be nearly identical to or just slightly different from the untreated side. Matrix rotation is an easy breast-preserving technique for treating breast cancer located in the upper/upper inner quadrant of the breast that requires a relatively wide excision. With this technique, a larger breast tumor could be removed without compromising the breast appearance.
Deviation in âVis and RÄminâ by Fakhruddin As'ad Gurgani
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masoud Forouzandeh
2016-09-01
Finally, from among all the norm deviations proposed by Leech, temporal, style, written, lexical and, particularly, semantic norm deviations are the ones that can be considered norm deviations to compose poems. It should be said that there were no evidence to indicate the existence of written and style norm deviations in Vis and Ramin. Totally, by analyzing the verses order of occurrence of norm deviations in Vis and Ramin is as follow: syntactic, phonetic, semantic, lexical, temporal and dialectic norm deviations. It is worth mentioning that the poet has observed the elements of conductivity and aesthetic in applying norm deviations.
A summary of the low upper shelf toughness safety margin issue
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Merkle, J.G.
1991-01-01
The low upper shelf toughness issue has a long history, beginning with the choice of materials for the submerged arc welding process, but also potentially involving the use of A302-B plate. Criteria for vessels containing low upper shelf materials have usually been expressed in terms of the Charpy upper shelf impact energy. Although these criteria have had several different bases, the range of limiting values for wall thicknesses approaching 229 mm (9 in.) has remained between 54 to 68J (40 to 50 ft lbs). Allowable values for vessels with thinner walls and/or only circumferential low upper shelf welds might conceivably be less. A decision on criteria to be incorporated into the ASME Code is now being made. Choices to be made concern the method for estimating the decrease in upper shelf impact energy, flaw geometry for circumferential welds, statistical significance of toughness values, the choice between J D and J M , reference pressure, safety factors and the inclusion of tearing stability calculations by means of R curve extrapolation. NRC research programs have contributed significantly to the resolution of the low upper shelf issue. These programs embrace all aspects of the issue, including material characterization, large scale testing, analysis and criteria development. 52 refs., 5 figs
Energy Dissipation in the Upper Atmospheres of TRAPPIST-1 Planets
Cohen, Ofer; Glocer, Alex; Garraffo, Cecilia; Drake, Jeremy J.; Bell, Jared M.
2018-03-01
We present a method to quantify the upper limit of the energy transmitted from the intense stellar wind to the upper atmospheres of three of the TRAPPIST-1 planets (e, f, and g). We use a formalism that treats the system as two electromagnetic regions, where the efficiency of the energy transmission between one region (the stellar wind at the planetary orbits) to the other (the planetary ionospheres) depends on the relation between the conductances and impedances of the two regions. Since the energy flux of the stellar wind is very high at these planetary orbits, we find that for the case of high transmission efficiency (when the conductances and impedances are close in magnitude), the energy dissipation in the upper planetary atmospheres is also very large. On average, the Ohmic energy can reach 0.5–1 W m‑2, about 1% of the stellar irradiance and 5–15 times the EUV irradiance. Here, using constant values for the ionospheric conductance, we demonstrate that the stellar wind energy could potentially drive large atmospheric heating in terrestrial planets, as well as in hot Jupiters. More detailed calculations are needed to assess the ionospheric conductance and to determine more accurately the amount of heating the stellar wind can drive in close-orbit planets.
Accardo, N.; Wiens, D. A.; Hernandez, S.; Aster, R. C.; Nyblade, A.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Huerta, A. D.; Wilson, T. J.
2011-12-01
subparallel to the inferred WARS extension direction. Stations located in the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains (EWM) show fast directions parallel to those found within WARS. Furthermore, results from WARS and from EWM all show relatively large splitting times of 0.6 - 1.33 s. These results suggest upper mantle anisotropy that results from mantle flow and deformation related to the extensional deformation of the region. Two stations were installed in the Pensacola Mountains which are located grid-north of the EWM. The results from this region deviate from the dominant fast orientation seen in WARS but appear to be approximately perpendicular to the strike of the mountain range. Stations in Marie Byrd Land (MBL) show inconsistent fast directions and a wide range of delay times (0.3 - 0.9 s), perhaps as a result of complex mantle fabric related to a possible MBL hotspot.
Attacks exploiting deviation of mean photon number in quantum key distribution and coin tossing
Sajeed, Shihan; Radchenko, Igor; Kaiser, Sarah; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Pappa, Anna; Monat, Laurent; Legré, Matthieu; Makarov, Vadim
2015-03-01
The security of quantum communication using a weak coherent source requires an accurate knowledge of the source's mean photon number. Finite calibration precision or an active manipulation by an attacker may cause the actual emitted photon number to deviate from the known value. We model effects of this deviation on the security of three quantum communication protocols: the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol without decoy states, Scarani-Acín-Ribordy-Gisin 2004 (SARG04) QKD protocol, and a coin-tossing protocol. For QKD we model both a strong attack using technology possible in principle and a realistic attack bounded by today's technology. To maintain the mean photon number in two-way systems, such as plug-and-play and relativistic quantum cryptography schemes, bright pulse energy incoming from the communication channel must be monitored. Implementation of a monitoring detector has largely been ignored so far, except for ID Quantique's commercial QKD system Clavis2. We scrutinize this implementation for security problems and show that designing a hack-proof pulse-energy-measuring detector is far from trivial. Indeed, the first implementation has three serious flaws confirmed experimentally, each of which may be exploited in a cleverly constructed Trojan-horse attack. We discuss requirements for a loophole-free implementation of the monitoring detector.
On the Horizontal Deviation of a Spinning Projectile Penetrating into Granular Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Waseem Ghazi Alshanti
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The absence of a general theory that describes the dynamical behavior of the particulate materials makes the numerical simulations the most current powerful tool that can grasp many mechanical problems relevant to the granular materials. In this paper, based on a two-dimensional soft particle discrete element method (DEM, a numerical approach is developed to investigate the consequence of the orthogonal impact into various granular beds of projectile rotating in both clockwise (CW and counterclockwise (CCW directions. Our results reveal that, depending on the rotation direction, there is a significant deviation of the x-coordinate of the final stopping point of a spinning projectile from that of its original impact point. For CW rotations, a deviation to the right occurs while a left deviation has been recorded for CCW rotation case.
A Positional Deviation Sensor for Training of Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fredrik Dessen
1988-04-01
Full Text Available A device for physically guiding a robot manipulator through its task is described. It consists of inductive, contact-free positional deviation sensors. The sensor will be used in high performance sensory control systems. The paper describes problems concerning multi-dimensional, non-linear measurement functions and the design of the servo control system.
Risk assessment of sleeping disorder breathing based on upper airway centerline evaluation
Alsufyani, Noura; Shen, Rui; Cheng, Irene; Major, Paul
2013-02-01
One of the most important breathing disorders in childhood is obstructive sleep apnea syndrome which affects 2-3% of children, and the reported failure rate of surgical treatment was as high as 54%. A possible reason in respiratory complications is having reduced dimensions of the upper airway which are further compressed when muscle tone is decreased during sleep. In this study, we use Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to assess the location or cause of the airway obstruction. To date, all studies analyzing the upper airway in subjects with Sleeping Disorder Breathing were based on linear, area, or volumetric measurements, which are global computations and can easily ignore local significance. Skeletonization was initially introduced as a 3D modeling technique by which representative medial points of a model are extracted to generate centerlines for evaluations. Although centerlines have been commonly used in guiding surgical procedures, our novelty lies in comparing its geometric properties before and after surgeries. We apply 3D data refinement, registration and projection steps to quantify and localize the geometric deviation in target airway regions. Through cross validation with corresponding subjects' therapy data, we expect to quantify the tolerance threshold beyond which reduced dimensions of the upper airway are not clinically significant. The ultimate goal is to utilize this threshold to identify patients at risk of complications. Outcome from this research will also help establish a predictive model for training and to estimate treatment success based on airway measurements prior to intervention. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of our approach.
14 CFR 99.17 - Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions. 99.17 Section 99.17 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... TRAFFIC General § 99.17 Deviation from flight plans and ATC clearances and instructions. (a) No pilot may...
New g-2 measurement deviates further from Standard Model
2004-01-01
"The latest result from an international collaboration of scientists investigating how the spin of a muon is affected as this type of subatomic particle moves through a magnetic field deviates further than previous measurements from theoretical predictions" (1 page).
Beam deviation method as a diagnostic tool for the plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, H.; Rueckle, B.
1978-01-01
The application of an optical method for density measurements in cylindrical plasmas is described. The angular deviation of a probing light beam sent through the plasma is proportional to the maximum of the density in the plasma column. The deviation does not depend on the plasma dimensions, however, it is influenced to a certain degree by the density profile. The method is successfully applied to the investigation of a dense plasma focus with a time resolution of 2 ns and a spatial resolution (in axial direction) of 2 mm. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blum, Daniel B; Voth, Greg A; Bewley, Gregory P; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Gibert, Mathieu; Xu Haitao; Gylfason, Ármann; Mydlarski, Laurent; Yeung, P K
2011-01-01
We present a systematic comparison of conditional structure functions in nine turbulent flows. The flows studied include forced isotropic turbulence simulated on a periodic domain, passive grid wind tunnel turbulence in air and in pressurized SF 6 , active grid wind tunnel turbulence (in both synchronous and random driving modes), the flow between counter-rotating discs, oscillating grid turbulence and the flow in the Lagrangian exploration module (in both constant and random driving modes). We compare longitudinal Eulerian second-order structure functions conditioned on the instantaneous large-scale velocity in each flow to assess the ways in which the large scales affect the small scales in a variety of turbulent flows. Structure functions are shown to have larger values when the large-scale velocity significantly deviates from the mean in most flows, suggesting that dependence on the large scales is typical in many turbulent flows. The effects of the large-scale velocity on the structure functions can be quite strong, with the structure function varying by up to a factor of 2 when the large-scale velocity deviates from the mean by ±2 standard deviations. In several flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are similar at all the length scales we measured, indicating that the large-scale effects are scale independent. In a few flows, the effects of the large-scale velocity are larger on the smallest length scales. (paper)
Patterns of deviation in Niyi Osundare's poetry | Dick | Mgbakoigba ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... A critical stylistic study of the poetry of Niyi Osundare from Nigeria reveals that he has made an exemplary ... deviate from norms and conventions of language thereby creating aesthetics ...
Radiation dose estimates for oral agents used in upper gastrointestinal disease
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Siegel, J.A.; Wu, R.K.; Knight, L.C.; Zelac, R.E.; Stern, H.S.; Malmud, L.S.
1983-01-01
Radiation dosimetry was calculated for a number of orally administered radiopharmaceuticals used for study of upper gastrointestinal function. These include: Tc-99m sulfur colloid in water, in a cooked egg, and in chicken liver labeled in vivo; In-111 DTPA; Tc-99m DTPA; In-113m DTPA; Tc-99m ovalbumin in cooked egg; and In-111 colloid in chicken liver labeled in vivo. Radiation burdens to the stomach, small intestine, upper and lower large intestine, ovaries, testes, and total body are calculated for each preparation
Deviations of the lepton mapping matrix form the harrison-perkins-scott form
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedberg, R.; Lee, T.D.
2010-01-01
We propose a simple set of hypotheses governing the deviations of the leptonic mapping matrix from the Harrison-Perkins-Scott (HPS) form. These deviations are supposed to arise entirely from a perturbation of the mass matrix in the charged lepton sector. The perturbing matrix is assumed to be purely imaginary (thus maximally T-violating) and to have a strength in energy scale no greater (but perhaps smaller) than the muon mass. As we shall show,it then follows that the absolute value of the mapping matrix elements pertaining to the tau lepton deviate by no more than O((m μ /m τ ) 2 ) ≅ 3.5 x 10 -3 from their HPS values. Assuming that(m μ /m τ ) 2 can be neglected, we derive two simple constraints on the four parameters θ12, θ23, θ31, and δ of the mapping matrix. These constraints are independent of the details of the imaginary T-violating perturbation of the charged lepton mass matrix. We also show that the e and μ parts of the mapping matrix have a definite form governed by two parameters α and β; any deviation of order m μ /m τ can be accommodated by adjusting these two parameters. (authors)
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang; Golzarian, Jafar
2007-01-01
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burke, Stephen J.; Weldon, Derik; Sun, Shiliang [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); Golzarian, Jafar [University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Iowa, IA (United States); University of Iowa, Department of Radiology, Carver College of Medicine, Iowa, IA (United States)
2007-07-15
Nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NUGB) remains a major medical problem even after advances in medical therapy with gastric acid suppression and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) inhibitors. Although the incidence of upper gastrointestinal bleeding presenting to the emergency room has slightly decreased, similar decreases in overall mortality and rebleeding rate have not been experienced over the last few decades. Many causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding have been identified and will be reviewed. Endoscopic, radiographic and angiographic modalities continue to form the basis of the diagnosis of upper gastrointestinal bleeding with new research in the field of CT angiography to diagnose gastrointestinal bleeding. Endoscopic and angiographic treatment modalities will be highlighted, emphasizing a multi-modality treatment plan for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (orig.)
Zhong, Jian; Cai, Xiao-Ming; Bloss, William James
2015-05-01
This study investigates the dispersion and transport of reactive pollutants in a deep urban street canyon with an aspect ratio of 2 under neutral meteorological conditions using large-eddy simulation. The spatial variation of pollutants is significant due to the existence of two unsteady vortices. The deviation of species abundance from chemical equilibrium for the upper vortex is greater than that for the lower vortex. The interplay of dynamics and chemistry is investigated using two metrics: the photostationary state defect, and the inferred ozone production rate. The latter is found to be negative at all locations within the canyon, pointing to a systematic negative offset to ozone production rates inferred by analogous approaches in environments with incomplete mixing of emissions. This study demonstrates an approach to quantify parameters for a simplified two-box model, which could support traffic management and urban planning strategies and personal exposure assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Upper Gastrointestinal (GI) Series
... standard barium upper GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast upper GI series, which uses both air and ... evenly coat your upper GI tract with the barium. If you are having a double-contrast study, you will swallow gas-forming crystals that ...
Deviation of longitudinal and shear waves in austenitic stainless steel weld metal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kupperman, D.S.; Reimann, K.J.
1980-01-01
One of the difficulties associated with the ultrasonic inspection of stainless steel weld metal is the deviation of the ultrasonic beams. This can lead to errors in determining both the location and size of reflectors. The present paper compares experimental and theoretical data related to beam steering for longitudinal and shear waves in a sample of 308 SS weld metal. Agreement between predicted and measured beam deviations is generally good. Reasons for discrepancies are discussed
Upper-Level Waves of Synoptic Scale at Midlatitudes
Rivest, Chantal
1990-01-01
Upper-level waves of synoptic scale are important dynamical entities at midlatitudes. They often induce surface cyclogenesis (cf. Peterssen and Smebye, 1971), and their life duration is typically longer than time scales for disruption by the ambient shear (Sanders, 1988). The objectives of the present thesis are to explain the maintenance and genesis of upper-level synoptic-scale waves in the midlatitude flow. We develop an analytical model of waves on generalized Eady basic states that have uniform tropospheric and stratospheric potential vorticity, but allow for the decay of density with height. The Eady basic state represents the limiting case of infinite stratospheric stability and constant density. We find that the Eady normal mode characteristics hold in the presence of realistic tropopause and stratosphere. In particular, the basic states studied support at the synoptic scale upper-level normal modes. These modes provide simple models for the dynamics of upper-level synoptic-scale waves, as waves supported by the large latitudinal gradients of potential vorticity at the tropopause. In the presence of infinitesimal positive tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity, the upper-level normal mode solutions no longer exist, as was demonstrated in Green (1960). Disappearance of the normal mode solution when a parameter changes slightly represents a dilemma that we seek to understand. We examine what happens to the upper-level normal modes in the presence of tropospheric gradients of potential vorticity in a series of initial -value experiments. Our results show that the normal modes become slowly decaying quasi-modes. Mathematically the quasi-modes consist of a superposition of singular modes sharply peaked in the phase speed domain, and their decay proceeds as the modes interfere with one another. We repeat these experiments in basic states with a smooth tropopause in the presence of tropospheric and stratospheric gradients, and similar results are obtained
Progressive Derechos in the Presence of Closed Upper-level Subtropical Anticyclones
Guastini, C.; Bosart, L. F.
2013-12-01
Progressive derechos are a type of long-lived mesoscale convective system that produces large swaths of wind damage. In contrast to their serial derecho counterparts, which form in association with extratropical cyclones, progressive derechos often occur in the presence of benign synoptic conditions on the poleward side of closed upper-level subtropical anticyclones. Forecasters have been known to struggle predicting progressive derechos with any certainty due to the common lack of large-scale support for severe weather in regimes dominated by anticyclonic conditions. This study will classify a group of days on which there was a closed upper-level anticyclone over the United States and a progressive derecho did not occur and a group of days on which there was a closed upper-level anticyclone over the United States and a progressive derecho did occur, examine the synoptic environments of the two groups, and identify derecho null cases. By analyzing the null cases, derecho failure modes will be determined, which will help forecaster situational awareness and reveal the science behind the environmental conditions necessary for, and detrimental to, derecho development. This presentation will include climatologies of both derechos and closed upper-level anticyclones over the United States for June, July, and August of the years 1994-2013 (the modern radar era). The presentation will also include closed anticyclone-relative composites of both derecho cases and derecho null cases. The composites will elucidate which conditions are necessary for, and which are detrimental to, derecho development. The hypothesis is that derecho failure days occur due either to the lack of a triggering mechanism or other phenomena working against convective development such as a strong capping inversion or transverse ageostrophic circulations around an upper-level jet creating subsidence in an otherwise favorable environment. A representative case study will be included to highlight a common
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ming-Yu Si
2015-06-01
Full Text Available AIM: To analyse the variation of horizontal deviation in the primary position after the inferior oblique muscle weakening, and to explore the effect of the inferior oblique muscle recession on horizontal deviations in primary position.METHODS:, In the study, 30 cases in the Department of ophthalmology of our hospital from January 2014 to September 2014 underwent the inferior oblique muscle recession as the sole without horizontal muscles surgery, who were superior obliquer paralysis and V pattern strabismus with small angle of horizontal strabismus, were analyzed. Of the 30 patients, 25 had unilateral inferior oblique muscle surgery, and then 5 had bilateral surgeries.Followed up for three to six mo, all patients were received full ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, including measurement of the deviation in the diagnostic positions of gaze at near 33cm and at distance 6m by prism and alternate cover test, synoptophore, Titmus stereo graph examination, Worth four lighting inspection, eye movement examination, and fundus photography preoperatively and postoperatively. The changes of horizontal deviations in the primary position after procedures were investigated. RESULT:(1The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre- and post-operation in the exotropia group(P=0.00. It was postoperative respectively to reduce the original in external oblique average 3.35±2.87△ and 4.37±2.65△.(2The comparison of horizontal deviation showed significant difference pre-and post-operation in the esotropia group(P=0.02, and it decreased postoperatively in average 2.43±1.99△. There was no significant difference for horizontal deviation position between pre- and post-operation(P=0.089. CONCLUSION:The horizontal deviation in primary position, either exotropia or esotropia, will decrease after the Inferior oblique muscle recession. This change can be compensated by the gradually improving and establishing the fusion function.
Deviation from the superparamagnetic behaviour of fine-particle systems
Malaescu, I
2000-01-01
Studies concerning superparamagnetic behaviour of fine magnetic particle systems were performed using static and radiofrequency measurements, in the range 1-60 MHz. The samples were: a ferrofluid with magnetite particles dispersed in kerosene (sample A), magnetite powder (sample B) and the same magnetite powder dispersed in a polymer (sample C). Radiofrequency measurements indicated a maximum in the imaginary part of the complex magnetic susceptibility, for each of the samples, at frequencies with the magnitude order of tens of MHz, the origin of which was assigned to Neel-type relaxation processes. The static measurements showed a Langevin-type dependence of magnetisation M and of susceptibility chi, on the magnetic field for sample A. For samples B and C deviations from this type of dependence were found. These deviations were analysed qualitatively and explained in terms of the interparticle interactions, dispersion medium influence and surface effects.
An upper bound on right-chiral weak interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.; Maltman, K.
1990-01-01
Weak vertex corrections to the quark-gluon vertex functions produce differing form-factor corrections for quarks of differing chiralities. These differences grow with increasing four-momentum transfer in the gluon leg. Consequently, inclusive polarized proton--proton scattering to a final state jet should show a large parity-violating asymmetry at high energies. The absence of large signals at sufficiently high energies can be interpreted as being due to balancing vertex corrections from a right-handed weak vector boson of limited mass, and limits on the strength of such signals can, in principle, give upper bounds on that mass. 2 refs
An upper bound on right-Chiral weak interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephenson, G.J.; Goldman, T.; Maltman, K.
1990-01-01
Weak vertex corrections to the quark-gluon vertex functions produce differing form-factor corrections for quarks of differing chiralities. These differences grow with increasing four-momentum transfer in the gluon leg. Consequently, inclusive polarized proton-proton scattering to a final state jet should show a large parity-violating asymmetry at high energies. The absence of large signals at sufficiently high energies can be interpreted as being due to balancing vertex corrections from a right-handed weak vector boson of limited mass, and limits on the strength of such signals can, in principle, give upper bounds on that mass
Implementation of an Algorithm for Prosthetic Joint Infection: Deviations and Problems.
Mühlhofer, Heinrich M L; Kanz, Karl-Georg; Pohlig, Florian; Lenze, Ulrich; Lenze, Florian; Toepfer, Andreas; von Eisenhart-Rothe, Ruediger; Schauwecker, Johannes
The outcome of revision surgery in arthroplasty is based on a precise diagnosis. In addition, the treatment varies based on whether the prosthetic failure is caused by aseptic or septic loosening. Algorithms can help to identify periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) and standardize diagnostic steps, however, algorithms tend to oversimplify the treatment of complex cases. We conducted a process analysis during the implementation of a PJI algorithm to determine problems and deviations associated with the implementation of this algorithm. Fifty patients who were treated after implementing a standardized algorithm were monitored retrospectively. Their treatment plans and diagnostic cascades were analyzed for deviations from the implemented algorithm. Each diagnostic procedure was recorded, compared with the algorithm, and evaluated statistically. We detected 52 deviations while treating 50 patients. In 25 cases, no discrepancy was observed. Synovial fluid aspiration was not performed in 31.8% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.1%-45.6%), while white blood cell counts (WBCs) and neutrophil differentiation were assessed in 54.5% of patients (95% CI, 39.8%-69.3%). We also observed that the prolonged incubation of cultures was not requested in 13.6% of patients (95% CI, 3.5%-23.8%). In seven of 13 cases (63.6%; 95% CI, 35.2%-92.1%), arthroscopic biopsy was performed; 6 arthroscopies were performed in discordance with the algorithm (12%; 95% CI, 3%-21%). Self-critical analysis of diagnostic processes and monitoring of deviations using algorithms are important and could increase the quality of treatment by revealing recurring faults.
Semiparametric Bernstein–von Mises for the error standard deviation
Jonge, de R.; Zanten, van J.H.
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein–von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a
Semiparametric Bernstein-von Mises for the error standard deviation
de Jonge, R.; van Zanten, H.
2013-01-01
We study Bayes procedures for nonparametric regression problems with Gaussian errors, giving conditions under which a Bernstein-von Mises result holds for the marginal posterior distribution of the error standard deviation. We apply our general results to show that a single Bayes procedure using a
48 CFR 552.252-6 - Authorized Deviations in Clauses.
2010-10-01
... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation (48 CFR chapter 5). (2) This... published in the General Services Administration Acquisition Regulation by the addition of “(DEVIATION (FAR... ADMINISTRATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 552...
A deviation display method for visualising data in mobile gamma-ray spectrometry.
Kock, Peder; Finck, Robert R; Nilsson, Jonas M C; Östlund, Karl; Samuelsson, Christer
2010-01-01
A real time visualisation method, to be used in mobile gamma-spectrometric search operations using standard detector systems is presented. The new method, called deviation display, uses a modified waterfall display to present relative changes in spectral data over energy and time. Using unshielded (137)Cs and (241)Am point sources and different natural background environments, the behaviour of the deviation displays is demonstrated and analysed for two standard detector types (NaI(Tl) and HPG...
Schoch, Anna; Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Hoffmann, Thomas; Schrott, Lothar
2018-02-01
There is a notable discrepancy between detailed sediment budget studies in small headwater catchments ( 103 km2) in higher order catchments applying modeling and/or remote sensing based approaches for major sediment storage delineation. To bridge the gap between these scales, we compiled an inventory of sediment and bedrock coverage from field mapping, remote sensing analysis and published data for five key sites in the Upper Rhone Basin (Val d'Illiez, Val de la Liène, Turtmanntal, Lötschental, Goms; 360.3 km2, equivalent to 6.7% of the Upper Rhone Basin). This inventory was used as training and testing data for the classification of sediment and bedrock cover. From a digital elevation model (2 × 2 m ground resolution) and Landsat imagery we derived 22 parameters characterizing local morphometry, topography and position, contributing area, and climatic and biotic factors on different spatial scales, which were used as inputs for different statistical models (logistic regression, principal component logistic regression, generalized additive model). Best prediction results with an excellent performance (mean AUROC: 0.8721 ± 0.0012) and both a high spatial and non-spatial transferability were achieved applying a generalized additive model. Since the model has a high thematic consistency, the independent input variables chosen based on their geomorphic relevance are suitable to model the spatial distribution of sediment. Our high-resolution classification shows that 53.5 ± 21.7% of the Upper Rhone Basin are covered with sediment. These are by no means evenly distributed: small headwaters (analysis.
Axial power deviation control strategy and computer simulation for Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao Yehong; Zhou Xiaoling, Xiao Min
2004-01-01
Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station has very tight operation diagram especially at its right side. Therefore the successful control of axial power deviation for PWR is crucial to nuclear safety. After analyzing various core characters' effect on axial power distribution, several axial power deviation control strategies has been proposed to comply with different power varying operation scenario. Application and computer simulation of the strategies has shown that our prediction of axial power deviation evolution are comparable to the measurement values, and that our control strategies are effective. Engineering experience shows that the application of our methodology can predict accurately the transient of axial power deviation, and therefore has become a useful tool for reactor operation and safety control. This paper presents the axial power control characteristics, reactor operation strategy research, computer simulation, and comparison to measurement results in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station. (author)
Radiographic study on maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation in cleft palate patient
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Sam Sun; You, Dong Soo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1992-08-15
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation on diseases of maxillary sinus with cleft palate. The materials was 152 cephalometric Waters' projections consist of 76 cleft patients and 76 normal subjects. The results were as follows: 1. The disease of maxillary sinus was present in 49% of a cleft group and 14% of a control group, and prevalent in cleft side. 2. It showed no statistically significant difference in size of the maxillary sinus in cleft palate patients compared to the control population and in the cleft side to the noncleft side (p<0.05). 3. Nasal septum deviation was more severe in the cleft patient its average value was 3.55mm, compared to the control group, 0.99 mm (p<0.01) and 77% of the deviated nasal septum was deviated to the cleft side.
Radiographic study on maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation in cleft palate patient
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Sam Sun; You, Dong Soo
1992-01-01
This study was designed to investigate the effects of the maxillary sinus development and nasal septum deviation on diseases of maxillary sinus with cleft palate. The materials was 152 cephalometric Waters' projections consist of 76 cleft patients and 76 normal subjects. The results were as follows: 1. The disease of maxillary sinus was present in 49% of a cleft group and 14% of a control group, and prevalent in cleft side. 2. It showed no statistically significant difference in size of the maxillary sinus in cleft palate patients compared to the control population and in the cleft side to the noncleft side (p<0.05). 3. Nasal septum deviation was more severe in the cleft patient its average value was 3.55mm, compared to the control group, 0.99 mm (p<0.01) and 77% of the deviated nasal septum was deviated to the cleft side.
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the oral cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlos Bortoluzzi, Marcelo
2010-01-01
The authors report a case of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL) of the oral cavity. The patient was a 73-year-old white man who first presented at the Division of Stomatology with a large nodular mass in the hard palate and a nodular lesion in the upper lip, which were diagnosed as DLBL. The patient was treated with eight cycles of CHOP chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone), but the disease recurred 22 months after the end of the therapy. Both primary sites hard palate and upper lip were involved again and the patient was resubmitted to chemotherapy. (author)
Fixed J spectral distributions in large shell model spaces. Pt. 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquemin, C.; Auger, G.; Quesne, C.
1982-01-01
A method is developed to exactly calculate the fixed J quasiparticle centroid energies and partial widths. Some results obtained in the even-mass lead isotopes with various interactions are analysed. Fixed J quasiparticle distributions are used to predict an upper limit for the deviations between the quasiparticle approximation and the shell model results for the low-energy levels. The influence of the states with a high quasiparticle number in the low-energy region is seen to strongly depend upon the interaction. The importance of the dimensionalities and the internal widths is explaining the admixtures is stressed. (orig.)
A consistent definition of the Arctic polar vortex breakup in both the lower and upper stratosphere
Choi, W.; Seo, J.
2014-12-01
Breakup of the polar vortex is a dominant feature of the seasonal transition from winter to summer in the stratosphere, which significantly affects stratospheric O3 concentration and tropospheric weather. Previously several criteria for the vortex breakup have been suggested based on the potential vorticity (PV) and wind speed, however, those mainly have focused on the lower stratospheric vortex of which spatiotemporal evolution and decay are more continuous than those of the upper stratospheric vortex. To find a consistent criterion for the vortex breakup in both the lower and upper stratosphere, the present study defined a polar vortex breakup day as when PV gradient at the polar vortex edge becomes lower than that at the subtropical edge on the area equivalent latitude based on PV. With applying the new definition to the UK Met Office reanalysis data, the breakup days of the Arctic polar vortices on 18 isentropic levels from 450 K to 1300 K were calculated for the period of 1993-2005. In comparison with CH4, N2O and O3 measured by the ILAS and POAM II/III satellite instruments, the breakup days are well consistent with changes in the distribution of such tracers as well as their zonal standard deviations associated with the vortex structure breaking and irreversible mixing. The vortex breakup in the upper stratosphere occurs more or less a month prior to that in the middle and lower stratosphere while the stratospheric final warming events occurs simultaneously in the upper and lower stratosphere.
Deviation-based spam-filtering method via stochastic approach
Lee, Daekyung; Lee, Mi Jin; Kim, Beom Jun
2018-03-01
In the presence of a huge number of possible purchase choices, ranks or ratings of items by others often play very important roles for a buyer to make a final purchase decision. Perfectly objective rating is an impossible task to achieve, and we often use an average rating built on how previous buyers estimated the quality of the product. The problem of using a simple average rating is that it can easily be polluted by careless users whose evaluation of products cannot be trusted, and by malicious spammers who try to bias the rating result on purpose. In this letter we suggest how trustworthiness of individual users can be systematically and quantitatively reflected to build a more reliable rating system. We compute the suitably defined reliability of each user based on the user's rating pattern for all products she evaluated. We call our proposed method as the deviation-based ranking, since the statistical significance of each user's rating pattern with respect to the average rating pattern is the key ingredient. We find that our deviation-based ranking method outperforms existing methods in filtering out careless random evaluators as well as malicious spammers.
Skalak, Katherine; Benthem, Adam J.; Schenk, Edward R.; Hupp, Cliff R.; Galloway, Joel M.; Nustad, Rochelle A.; Wiche, Gregg J.
2013-01-01
The Missouri River has had a long history of anthropogenic modification with considerable impacts on river and riparian ecology, form, and function. During the 20th century, several large dam-building efforts in the basin served the needs for irrigation, flood control, navigation, and the generation of hydroelectric power. The managed flow provided a range of uses, including recreation, fisheries, and habitat. Fifteen dams impound the main stem of the river, with hundreds more on tributaries. Though the effects of dams and reservoirs are well-documented, their impacts have been studied individually, with relatively little attention paid to their interaction along a river corridor. We examine the morphological and sedimentological changes in the Upper Missouri River between the Garrison Dam in ND (operational in 1953) and Oahe Dam in SD (operational in 1959). Through historical aerial photography, stream gage data, and cross sectional surveys, we demonstrate that the influence of the upstream dam is still a major control of river dynamics when the backwater effects of the downstream reservoir begin. In the “Anthropocene”, dams are ubiquitous on large rivers and often occur in series, similar to the Garrison Dam Segment. We propose a conceptual model of how interacting dams might affect river geomorphology, resulting in distinct and recognizable morphologic sequences that we term “Inter-Dam sequence” characteristic of major rivers in the US.
Moderate Deviation Analysis for Classical Communication over Quantum Channels
Chubb, Christopher T.; Tan, Vincent Y. F.; Tomamichel, Marco
2017-11-01
We analyse families of codes for classical data transmission over quantum channels that have both a vanishing probability of error and a code rate approaching capacity as the code length increases. To characterise the fundamental tradeoff between decoding error, code rate and code length for such codes we introduce a quantum generalisation of the moderate deviation analysis proposed by Altŭg and Wagner as well as Polyanskiy and Verdú. We derive such a tradeoff for classical-quantum (as well as image-additive) channels in terms of the channel capacity and the channel dispersion, giving further evidence that the latter quantity characterises the necessary backoff from capacity when transmitting finite blocks of classical data. To derive these results we also study asymmetric binary quantum hypothesis testing in the moderate deviations regime. Due to the central importance of the latter task, we expect that our techniques will find further applications in the analysis of other quantum information processing tasks.
Evink, T L; Endres, M I
2017-11-01
Recent trends in dairy farm structure in the United States have included a decreasing number of farms, although farm size has increased, especially the share of milk production from very large herds (>2,500 cows). The objectives of this observational study were to describe common management practices; to characterize labor and operational structure; to measure some aspects of animal health, including lameness, hock lesions, mortality, and mastitis incidence; and to summarize cost of production on farms with more than 2,500 cows in 4 states in the Upper Midwest of the United States. The study included 15 dairy farms in Minnesota, Wisconsin, Iowa, and South Dakota. Farms were visited twice, once each year, and on-farm herd records were collected for those 2 yr. On-farm herd records were used to investigate mortality, culling, pregnancy rate, and clinical mastitis incidence. At least 1 high-producing pen of mature cows and 1 pen of fresh cows were scored for locomotion. Likewise, at least 1 pen of high-producing mature cows was scored for cleanliness and hock lesions. Median herd size was 3,975 cows (range = 2,606-13,266). Milk sold per employee was 1,120,745 kg and the number of cows per employee was 105. Eighty percent of the farms had Holstein cows, 13% had Jersey, and 7% had Jersey-Holstein crosses. All farms used artificial insemination as the sole form of breeding and 100% of the farms used hormonal synchronization or timed artificial insemination programs in their reproductive protocols; 21-d pregnancy rate was 21.7%. Median lameness prevalence was 18.3% and median severe lameness prevalence was 5.1%. Median hock lesion prevalence was 17.4% and median severe hock lesion prevalence was 1.9%; mortality rate was 7.4%. Clinical mastitis incidence was 62.5 cases per 100 cow-years. Feed costs accounted for approximately 53% of the total cost of producing milk, followed by labor at 11%, interest and depreciation expenses at 10%, and replacement costs at 9.5%. Herds in
The Effects of Individual Upper Alpha Neurofeedback in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study
Escolano , Carlos; Navarro-Gil , Mayte; Garcia-Campayo , Javier; Congedo , Marco; Minguez , Javier
2014-01-01
International audience; Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individual...
Atopic dermatitis: immune deviation, barrier dysfunction, IgE autoreactivity and new therapies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masutaka Furue
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic or chronically relapsing, eczematous, severely pruritic skin disorder mostly associated with IgE elevation and skin barrier dysfunction due to decreased filaggrin expression. The lesional skin of AD exhibits Th2- and Th22-deviated immune reactions that are progressive during disease chronicity. Th2 and Th22 cytokines further deteriorate the skin barrier by inhibiting filaggrin expression. Some IgEs are reactive to self-antigens. The IgE autoreactivity may precipitate the chronicity of AD. Upon activation of the ORAI1 calcium channel, atopic epidermis releases large amounts of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, which initiates the Th2 and Th22 immune response. Th2-derived interleukin-31 and TSLP induce an itch sensation. Taken together, TSLP/Th2/Th22 pathway is a promising target for developing new therapeutics for AD. Enhancing filaggrin expression using ligands for the aryl hydrocarbon receptor may also be an adjunctive measure to restore the disrupted barrier function specifically for AD.
External Environment and Upper Echelons Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Escribá-Esteve, Alejandro; Nielsen, Sabina; Yamak, Sibel
This work reviews empirical research on TMTs with a specific emphasis on the role of the external environment. We extend the existing research on upper echelons theory, which has largely focused on the team and firm level of analyses of top management teams (TMT). Considering institutional...... and industrial organization theories, we elaborate a cross-level conceptual model outlining the direct, mediating and moderating effects of the external environment on TMTs and their impact. Our review distinguishes between industry and institutional level of analyses and three types of environmental...
Selkirk, Henry B.; Manyin, Michael; Douglass, Anne R.; Oman, Luke; Pawson, Steven; Ott, Lesley; Benson, Craig; Stolarski, Richard
2010-01-01
In situ measurements in the tropics have shown that in regions of active convection, relative humidity with respect to ice in the upper troposphere is typically close to saturation on average, and supersaturations greater than 20% are not uncommon. Balloon soundings with the cryogenic frost point hygrometer (CFH) at Costa Rica during northern summer, for example, show this tendency to be strongest between 11 and 15.5 km (345-360 K potential temperature, or approximately 250-120 hPa). this is the altitude range of deep convective detrainment. Additionally, simultaneous ozonesonde measurements show that stratospheric air (O3 greater than 150 ppbv) can be found as low as approximately 14 km (350 K/150 hPa). In contrast, results from northern winter show a much drier upper troposphere and little penetration of stratospheric air below the tropopause at 17.5 km (approximately 383 K). We show that these results are consistent with in situ measurements from the Measurement of Ozone and water vapor by Airbus In-service airCraft (MOZAIC) program which samples a wider, though still limited, range of tropical locations. To generalize to the tropics as a whole, we compare our insitu results to data from two A-Train satellite instruments, the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aqua and Aura satellites respectively. Finally, we examine the vertical structure of water vapor, relative humidity and ozone in the NASA Goddard MERRA analysis, an assimilation dataset, and a new version of the GEOS CCM, a free-running chemistry-climate model. We demonstrate that conditional probability distributions of relative humidity and ozone are a sensitive diagnostic for assessing the representation of deep convection and upper troposphere/lower stratosphere mixing processes in large-scale analyses and climate models.
Chun, Bo Young; Kwon, Soon Jae; Chae, Sun Hwa; Kwon, Jung Yoon
2007-09-01
To evaluate changes in ocular alignment in partially accommodative esotropic children age ranged from 3 to 8 years during occlusion therapy for amblyopia. Angle measurements of twenty-two partially accommodative esotropic patients with moderate amblyopia were evaluated before and at 2 years after occlusion therapy. Mean deviation angle with glasses at the start of occlusion treatment was 19.45+/-5.97 PD and decreased to 12.14+/-12.96 PD at 2 years after occlusion therapy (pocclusion therapy, 9 (41%) cases were indications of surgery for residual deviation but if we had planned surgery before occlusion treatment, 18 (82%) of patients would have had surgery. There was a statistical relationship between increase of visual acuity ratio and decrease of deviation angle (r=-0.479, p=0.024). There was a significant reduction of deviation angle of partially accommodative esotropic patients at 2 years after occlusion therapy. Our results suggest that occlusion therapy has an influence on ocular alignment in partially accommodative esotropic patients with amblyopia.
Delayed pneumothorax after stab wound to thorax and upper abdomen: Truth or myth?
Zehtabchi, Shahriar; Morley, Eric J; Sajed, Dana; Greenberg, Oded; Sinert, Richard
2009-01-01
Stab wounds to the thorax and upper abdomen have the potential to cause pneumothorax (PTX). When a CXR (CXR) obtained during initial resuscitation is negative, a second CXR (CXR-2) is commonly performed with the goal of identifying delayed PTX. To assess the diagnostic yield of the CXR-2 in identifying delayed PTX. Prospective observational study of patients (age >or=13 years) with stab wounds to the thorax (chest/back) and upper abdomen with suspected PTX, in a level 1 trauma centre. Patients were included if they had a negative initial CXR followed by a repeat CXR 3-6h after the initial one. patients who died, were transferred out of the ED, or received chest tubes before the second CXR. The outcome of interest was delayed PTX. All CXR were read by an attending radiologist. To test the inter-observer agreement, another blinded radiologist reviewed 20% of CXR. Continuous data is presented as mean+/-standard deviation and categorical data as percentages with 95% confidence interval (CI). Kappa statistics were used to measure the inter-observer agreement between radiologists. Between January 2003 and December 2006 a total of 185 patients qualified for the enrollment (mean age: 28+/-10 years, age range: 13-65, 94% male). Only 2 patients (1.1%, 95% CI, 0.4- 4.1%) had PTX on the CXR-2. Both patients received chest tubes. The inter-observer agreement for radiology reports was high (kappa: 0.79). Occurrence of delayed PTX in patients with stab wounds to the thorax and upper abdomen and negative triage CXR is rare.
Emerging pattern of global change in the upper atmosphere and ionosphere
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Laštovička
2008-05-01
Full Text Available In the upper atmosphere, greenhouse gases produce a cooling effect, instead of a warming effect. Increases in greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to induce substantial changes in the mesosphere, thermosphere, and ionosphere, including a thermal contraction of these layers. In this article we construct for the first time a pattern of the observed long-term global change in the upper atmosphere, based on trend studies of various parameters. The picture we obtain is qualitative, and contains several gaps and a few discrepancies, but the overall pattern of observed long-term changes throughout the upper atmosphere is consistent with model predictions of the effect of greenhouse gas increases. Together with the large body of lower atmospheric trend research, our synthesis indicates that anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases are affecting the atmosphere at nearly all altitudes between ground and space.
The African upper mantle and its relationship to tectonics and surface geology
Priestley, Keith; McKenzie, Dan; Debayle, Eric; Pilidou, Sylvana
2008-12-01
This paper focuses on the upper-mantle velocity structure of the African continent and its relationship to the surface geology. The distribution of seismographs and earthquakes providing seismograms for this study results in good fundamental and higher mode path coverage by a large number of relatively short propagation paths, allowing us to image the SV-wave speed structure, with a horizontal resolution of several hundred kilometres and a vertical resolution of ~50 km, to a depth of about 400 km. The difference in mantle structure between the Archean and Pan-African terranes is apparent in our African upper-mantle shear wave model. High-velocity (4-7 per cent) roots exist beneath the cratons. Below the West African, Congo and Tanzanian Cratons, these extend to 225-250 km depth, but beneath the Kalahari Craton, the high wave speed root extends to only ~170 km. With the exception of the Damara Belt that separates the Congo and Kalahari Cratons, any high-speed upper-mantle lid below the Pan-African terranes is too thin to be resolved by our long-period surface wave technique. The Damara Belt is underlain by higher wave speeds, similar to those observed beneath the Kalahari Craton. Extremely low SV-wave speeds occur to the bottom of our model beneath the Afar region. The temperature of the African upper mantle is determined from the SV-wave speed model. Large temperature variations occur at 125 km depth with low temperatures beneath west Africa and all of southern Africa and warm mantle beneath the Pan-African terrane of northern Africa. At 175 km depth, cool upper mantle occurs below the West African, Congo, Tanzanian and Kalahari Cratons and anomalously warm mantle occurs below a zone in northcentral Africa and beneath the region surrounding the Red Sea. All of the African volcanic centres are located above regions of warm upper mantle. The temperature profiles were fit to a geotherm to determine the thickness of the African lithosphere. Thick lithosphere exists
Selenium in the upper Blackfoot River watershed, southeastern Idaho, 2001-12
Mebane, Christopher A.; Mladenka, Greg; Van Every, Lynn; Williams, Marshall L.; Hardy, Mark A.; Garbarino, John R.
2014-11-05
The upper Blackfoot River in southeastern Idaho receives runoff from 12 large phosphate mines. Waste shales that are removed to access the phosphate ore are highly enriched with selenium, resulting in elevated selenium in runoff from the mine waste dumps. In 2001, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began monitoring streamflow, selenium, and other water-quality parameters at a single location near the outlet of the upper Blackfoot River to the Blackfoot Reservoir. Water samples primarily were collected by a flow triggered, automated pump sampler, supplemented by manual point and equal-width integrated manual samples.
Shchetnikov, A. A.; Klementiev, A. M.; Filinov, I. A.; Semeney, E. Yu.
2015-03-01
This work presents the data on new finds of fossil macrotheriofauna in the reference sections of the Upper Neopleistocene sediments in the Tunka rift valley (southwestern Baikal Region). The osteological material of a number of Late Neopleistocene mammals including extinct species rare for the Baikal region such as Crocuta spelaea, Panthera spelaea, and Spirocerus kiakhtensis (?) was directly dated with a radiocarbon (AMS) method. The obtained 14C data (18000-35000 years) allow one to rejuvenate significantly the upper limit of the common age interval of habitat of these animals in southern part of Eastern Siberia. Cave hyena and spiral-horned antelope lived in the Tunka rift valley in the Baikal region in Late Kargino time (37-24 ka), and cave lion survived the maximum in the Sartan cryochron in the region (21-20 ka). The study of collected paleontological collections provides a basis for selection of independent Kargino (MIS 3) faunal assemblages to use them for regional biostratigraphic analysis of Pleistocene deposits. Radiocarbon age dating of samples allows one to attribute confidently all paleofaunal remains available to the second half of the Late Pleistocene.
Robust Confidence Interval for a Ratio of Standard Deviations
Bonett, Douglas G.
2006-01-01
Comparing variability of test scores across alternate forms, test conditions, or subpopulations is a fundamental problem in psychometrics. A confidence interval for a ratio of standard deviations is proposed that performs as well as the classic method with normal distributions and performs dramatically better with nonnormal distributions. A simple…
Upper aerodigestive tract disorders and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease.
Ciorba, Andrea; Bianchini, Chiara; Zuolo, Michele; Feo, Carlo Vittorio
2015-02-16
A wide variety of symptoms and diseases of the upper aerodigestive tract are associated to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). These disorders comprise a large variety of conditions such as asthma, chronic otitis media and sinusitis, chronic cough, and laryngeal disorders including paroxysmal laryngospasm. Laryngo-pharyngeal reflux disease is an extraoesophageal variant of GORD that can affect the larynx and pharynx. Despite numerous research efforts, the diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal reflux often remains elusive, unproven and controversial, and its treatment is then still empiric. Aim of this paper is to review the current literature on upper aerodigestive tract disorders in relation to pathologic gastro-oesophageal reflux, focusing in particular on the pathophysiology base and results of the surgical treatment of GORD.
Fluctuations and large deviations in non-equilibrium systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
When ρa = ρb = r, the steady state is a Bernoulli measure where all the ... where the function F(x) is the monotone solution of the differential equation ρ(x) = F + .... quantity is conserved (numbers of particles, energy, momentum..) would also be.
Large deviations for Gaussian queues modelling communication networks
Mandjes, Michel
2007-01-01
Michel Mandjes, Centre for Mathematics and Computer Science (CWI) Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and Professor, Faculty of Engineering, University of Twente. At CWI Mandjes is a senior researcher and Director of the Advanced Communications Network group. He has published for 60 papers on queuing theory, networks, scheduling, and pricing of networks.
Stereotactic radiosurgery with an upper partial denture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tayama, Shusaku; Kunieda, Etsuo; Takeda, Atsushi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Oku, Yohei
2009-01-01
A 54-year-old male with partial denture underwent stereotactic radiosurgery with an infrared camera-guided system for a metastatic brain tumor arising from lung cancer. Although this method utilizes a biteplate mounted on the upper jaw to detect head movement, the patient only had four teeth in his upper jaw. In order to stabilize the biteplate, the maxillary denture was fixed to the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. In addition, the rest-occlusal position of the lower jaw was impressed on the inferior surface of the biteplate with an autopolymerizing resin. To assess reproducibility and stability, the distance between the left and right incus and left and right markers was measured during pre-planning, as well as before and after stereotactic irradiation. Wearing the biteplate ensures the accuracy of radiotherapy planning for the implementation of radiosurgery in patients who have many maxillary teeth missing. However, a large degree of error was observed when the biteplate was removed. (author)
S-matrix description of anomalous large-angle heavy-ion scattering
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frahn, W E; Hussein, M S [Sao Paulo Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Canto, L F; Donangelo, R [Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1981-10-12
We present a quantitative description of the well-known anomalous features observed in the large-angle scattering of n..cap alpha.. type heavy ions, in particular of the pronounced structures in the backangle excitation function for /sup 16/O + /sup 28/Si. Our treatment is based on the close connection between these anomalies and particular structural deviations of the partial-wave S-matrix from normal strong-absorption behaviour. The properties of these deviations are found to be rather well specified by the data: they are localized within a narrow 'l-window' centered at a critical angular momentum significantly smaller than the grazing value, and have a parity-dependent as well as a parity-independent part. These properties provide important clues as to the physical processes causing the large-angle enhancement.
S-matrix description of anomalus large-angle heavy-ion scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frahn, W.E.; Hussein, M.S.; Canto, L.F.; Donangelo, R.J.
1981-01-01
A quantitative description of the well-known anomalous features observed in the large-angle scattering of n.α type heavy ions, in particular of the pronounced structures in the backangle excitation function or 16 O + 28 Si is presented. This treatment is based on the close connection between these anomalies and particular structural deviations of the partial-wave S-matrix from normal strong-absorption behaviour. The properties of these deviations are found to be rather well specified by the data: they are localized within a narrow 'l-window' centered at a critical angular momentum significantly smaller than the grazing value, and have a parity-dependent as well as a parity-independent part. These properties provide important clues as to the physical processes causing the large-angle enhancement. (Author) [pt
Large Eddy Simulation of Fluid flow and Heat Transfer in the Upper Plenum of Fast Reactor
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choi, Seokki; Lee, Taeho; Kim, Dongeun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Sungho [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
The important parameters in the thermal striping are the frequency and the amplitude of the temperature fluctuation. Since the sodium used as coolant in the PGSFR has a high thermal conductivity, the temperature fluctuation can be easily transferred to the solid walls of the components in the upper plenum. To remedy these problems, numerical studies are performed in the present study to analyze the thermal striping for possible improvement of the design and safety of the reactor. For the numerical works, Chacko et al. performed LES for the experiment by Nam and Kim, and found that the LES can produce the oscillation of temperature fluctuation properly, while the realizable k - ε model predicts the amplitude and frequency of the temperature fluctuation very poorly indicating that the LES method is an appropriate calculation method for the thermal striping. In this paper, the simulation of thermal striping in the upper plenum of PGSFR is performed using the LES method. The WALE eddy viscosity model by Nicoud and Ducros built in CFX-13 commercial code is employed for the LES eddy viscosity model. The numerical investigation of the thermal striping is performed with the LES method using the CFX-13 commercial code, where the solution domain is the upper plenum of the PGSFR. As the first step, dozens of monitoring points are set to locations that are anticipated to cause thermal striping. Then, the temperature fluctuations were calculated along with the time-averaged variables such as the velocity and temperature. From these results we have obtained the following conclusions. At the side wall of IHX, a slight fluctuation is observed, but it seems that there is no risk of thermal striping. The flows from the reactor core are not mixed when reaching the UIS. So both the first and second plates need to be considered. Among the first grid plate regions, the shape region is the weakest region for thermal striping. The second weakest region for thermal striping is the shape
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tscherning, Carl Christian
2015-01-01
outside the data area. On the other hand, a comparison of predicted quantities with observed values show that the error also varies depending on the local data standard deviation. This quantity may be (and has been) estimated using the GOCE second order vertical derivative, Tzz, in the area covered...... by the satellite. The ratio between the nearly constant standard deviations of a predicted quantity (e.g. in a 25° × 25° area) and the standard deviations of Tzz in smaller cells (e.g., 1° × 1°) have been used as a scale factor in order to obtain more realistic error estimates. This procedure has been applied...
Macke, C; Winkelmann, M; Mommsen, P; Probst, C; Zelle, B; Krettek, C; Zeckey, C
2017-02-01
To analyse the influence of upper extremity trauma on the long-term outcome of polytraumatised patients. A total of 629 multiply injured patients were included in a follow-up study at least ten years after injury (mean age 26.5 years, standard deviation 12.4). The extent of the patients' injury was classified using the Injury Severity Score. Outcome was measured using the Hannover Score for Polytrauma Outcome (HASPOC), Short Form (SF)-12, rehabilitation duration, and employment status. Outcomes for patients with and without a fracture of the upper extremity were compared and analysed with regard to specific fracture regions and any additional brachial plexus lesion. In all, 307 multiply-injured patients with and 322 without upper extremity injuries were included in the study. The groups with and without upper limb injuries were similar with respect to demographic data and injury pattern, except for midface trauma. There were no significant differences in the long-term outcome. In patients with brachial plexus lesions there were significantly more who were unemployed, required greater retraining and a worse HASPOC. Injuries to the upper extremities seem to have limited effect on long-term outcome in patients with polytrauma, as long as no injury was caused to the brachial plexus. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:255-60. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.
Relation between epistaxis, external nasal deformity, and septal deviation following nasal trauma
Daniel, M; Raghavan, U
2005-01-01
Objectives: To find if the presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma can be used to predict post-traumatic external nasal deformity or a symptomatic deviated nasal septum. Methods: Retrospective analysis of all patients seen in the fractured nose clinic by the first author between 17 October 2003 and 27 February 2004. Presence of epistaxis, newly developed external nasal deformity, and the presence of a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction were noted. Results: A total of 139 patients were included in the study. Epistaxis following injury was noted in 106 (76%). Newly developed external nasal deformity was noted in 71 (51%), and 33 (24%) had a deviated nasal septum with new symptoms of nasal obstruction. Of the 106 patients with post-trauma epistaxis, 50 (67%) had newly developed external nasal deformity and of the 33 patients without post-traumatic epistaxis, 11 (33%) had nasal deformity (pepistaxis was not associated with the presence of a newly symptomatic deviated septum (25% in patients with epistaxis after injury versus 18% if there was no epistaxis). Conclusions: Presence of epistaxis after nasal trauma is associated with a statistically significant increase in external nasal deformity. However, one third of patients without epistaxis following nasal trauma also had external nasal deformity and hence all patients with a swollen nose after injury, irrespective of post-trauma epistaxis, still need to be referred to the fractured nose clinic. PMID:16244333
Sood, Ashish; Stremersch, Stefan
2010-01-01
textabstractUnderstanding technological change is of critical importance to marketers, as it bears new markets, new brands, new customers, and new market leaders. This paper examines the deviation among reviews of a technology’s performance and its consequences for inferences on technology evolution patterns. The basic premise of the current paper is that technology evolution literature, while highly relevant, is misguided in that it ignores potential deviation among technology reviews. Using...
Role of solar influences on geomagnetosphere and upper atmosphere
Kumar Tripathi, Arvind
The Earth's magnetosphere and upper atmosphere can be greatly perturbed by variations in the solar luminosity caused by disturbances on the solar surface. The state of near-Earth space environment is governed by the Sun and is very dynamic on all spatial and temporal scale. The geomagnetic field which protects the Earth from solar wind and cosmic rays is also essential to the evolution of life; its variations can have either direct or indirect effect on human physiology and health state even if the magnitude of the disturbance is small. Geomagnetic disturbances are seen at the surface of the Earth as perturbations in the components of the geomagnetic field, caused by electric currents flowing in the magnetosphere and upper atmosphere. Ionospheric and thermospheric storms also result from the redistribution of particles and fields. Global thermospheric storm winds and composition changes are driven by energy injection at high latitudes. These storm effects may penetrate downwards to the lower thermosphere and may even perturb the mesosphere. Many of the ionospheric changes at mid-latitude can be understood as a response to thermospheric perturbations. The transient bursts of solar energetic particles, often associated with large solar transients, have been observed to have effects on the Earth's middle and lower atmosphere, including the large-scale destruction of polar stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. In the present, we have discussed effect of solar influences on earth's magnetosphere and upper atmosphere that are useful to space weather and global warming, on the basis of various latest studies.
Large capacity water and air bath calorimeters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
James, S.J.; Kasperski, P.W.; Renz, D.P.; Wetzel, J.R.
1993-01-01
EG and G Mound Applied Technologies has developed an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size water bath and an 11 in. x 17 in. sample size air bath calorimeter which both function under servo control mode of operation. The water bath calorimeter has four air bath preconditioners to increase sample throughput and the air bath calorimeter has two air bath preconditioners. The large capacity calorimeters and preconditioners were unique to Mound design which brought about unique design challenges. Both large capacity systems calculate the optimum set temperature for each preconditioner which is available to the operator. Each system is controlled by a personal computer under DOS which allows the operator to download data to commercial software packages when the calorimeter is idle. Qualification testing yielded a one standard deviation of 0.6% for 0.2W to 3.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the water bath calorimeter and a one standard deviation of 0.3% for the 6.0W to 20.0W Pu-238 heat standard range in the air bath calorimeter
Cemal Süreya Şiirinde Dil Sapmaları Linguistic Deviation In The Poetries Of Cemal Süreya
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abdullah HARMANCI
2013-07-01
Full Text Available It is a fact that one of the most frequently referred methods to raise colloquial language and ordinary language to the literal and fictional language level and to expand literary text/poetry opportunities is “language deviations” Especially, since 1950s, it was started tobenefit from “language deviations” in our poetries that we may defineordinary language rules as writing, phonetic, word, expression,grammar, change in semantic levels. The Second New Poetry that hasbeen effective in our literature for some researchers between 1954 and1959 and for some researchers between 1953 and 1963 put the literaryarts, imaginative pronunciation, abstract language, closed-formexpression and language experience deliberatively ignored by the GaripPoetry Movement at forefront and pushed the limits of language. Heattempted to expand opportunities of Turkish, so largely benefited fromlinguistic deviations. Cemal Süreya who had been one of the importantrepresentatives of the Second Poetry applied these methods in hispoems. In this article, after the theoretical knowledge about the SecondNew Poetry and linguistic deviations, all the poems of Cemal Süreyawere reviewed and linguistic deviations we determined in poetries weresampled, and it was attempted to discuss why the poet needed thismethod, what kind of effects of linguistic deviations have been in hispoetry. Deviations used from the poetry of Cemal Süreya; wereattempted to be examined under seven titles; writing deviations,phonetic deviations, word deviations, grammar deviations,interventions to borrowed texts, meaning deviations or extraordinarysyncretism. Gündelik, ortalama dili; edebi, kurmaca dil seviyesine yükseltmek, edebî metnin/şiirin imkânlarını genişletmek amacıyla şair ve yazarlar tarafından sıkça başvurulan yöntemlerden birinin de “dil sapmaları” olduğu bir gerçektir. Dilin alışılmış kurallarını; yazım, ses, kelime, ifade, dilbilgisi, anlam düzeylerinde de
Computer vision for shoe upper profile measurement via upper and sole conformal matching
Hu, Zhongxu; Bicker, Robert; Taylor, Paul; Marshall, Chris
2007-01-01
This paper describes a structured light computer vision system applied to the measurement of the 3D profile of shoe uppers. The trajectory obtained is used to guide an industrial robot for automatic edge roughing around the contour of the shoe upper so that the bonding strength can be improved. Due to the specific contour and unevenness of the shoe upper, even if the 3D profile is obtained using computer vision, it is still difficult to reliably define the roughing path around the shape. However, the shape of the corresponding shoe sole is better defined, and it is much easier to measure the edge using computer vision. Therefore, a feasible strategy is to measure both the upper and sole profiles, and then align and fit the sole contour to the upper, in order to obtain the best fit. The trajectory of the edge of the desired roughing path is calculated and is then smoothed and interpolated using NURBS curves to guide an industrial robot for shoe upper surface removal; experiments show robust and consistent results. An outline description of the structured light vision system is given here, along with the calibration techniques used.
Upper GI Bleeding in Children What is upper GI Bleeding? Irritation and ulcers of the lining of the esophagus, stomach or duodenum can result in upper GI bleeding. When this occurs the child may vomit blood ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Druzhinin, O; Troitskaya, Yu; Zilitinkevich, S
2016-01-01
The processes of turbulent mixing and momentum and heat exchange occur in the upper ocean at depths up to several dozens of meters and in the atmospheric boundary layer within interval of millimeters to dozens of meters and can not be resolved by known large- scale climate models. Thus small-scale processes need to be parameterized with respect to large scale fields. This parameterization involves the so-called bulk coefficients which relate turbulent fluxes with large-scale fields gradients. The bulk coefficients are dependent on the properties of the small-scale mixing processes which are affected by the upper-ocean stratification and characteristics of surface and internal waves. These dependencies are not well understood at present and need to be clarified. We employ Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) as a research tool which resolves all relevant flow scales and does not require closure assumptions typical of Large-Eddy and Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes simulations (LES and RANS). Thus DNS provides a solid ground for correct parameterization of small-scale mixing processes and also can be used for improving LES and RANS closure models. In particular, we discuss the problems of the interaction between small-scale turbulence and internal gravity waves propagating in the pycnocline in the upper ocean as well as the impact of surface waves on the properties of atmospheric boundary layer over wavy water surface. (paper)
Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain.
Arana, Estanislao; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Mollá, Enrique; Costa, Salvador
2004-01-01
To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean age of 48.6 +/- 14.6 years (range, 19 to 83 years). All MR studies were performed with a large 23-cm FOV covering at least from the body of T4 to the clivus. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion/bulge or extrusion. Degenerative thoracic disc contour changes were observed in 13.4% of patients with cervical pain. T2-3 was the most commonly affected level of the upper thoracic spine, with 15 bulge/protrusions and one extrusion. Upper degenerative thoracic disc contour changes presented in older patients than the cervical levels (Student-Newman-Keuls test, P < 0.001). Degenerative disc contour changes at the C7-T1, T1-2, T2-3 and T3-4 levels were significantly correlated ( P = 0.001), but unrelated to any other disc disease, patient's gender or age. Degenerative cervical disc disease was closely related together ( P < 0.001), but not with any thoracic disc. A statistically significant relation was found within the upper thoracic discs, reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation to cervical segments is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms.
Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Costa, Salvador [Department of Radiology, Clinica Quiron, Avda Blasco Ibanez 14, 46010, Valencia (Spain); Molla, Enrique [Department of Radiology, Clinica Quiron, Avda Blasco Ibanez 14, 46010, Valencia (Spain); Department of Morphological Sciences, University of Valencia, Valencia (Spain)
2004-01-01
To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean age of 48.6{+-}14.6 years (range, 19 to 83 years). All MR studies were performed with a large 23-cm FOV covering at least from the body of T4 to the clivus. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion/bulge or extrusion. Degenerative thoracic disc contour changes were observed in 13.4% of patients with cervical pain. T2-3 was the most commonly affected level of the upper thoracic spine, with 15 bulge/protrusions and one extrusion. Upper degenerative thoracic disc contour changes presented in older patients than the cervical levels (Student-Newman-Keuls test, P<0.001). Degenerative disc contour changes at the C7-T1, T1-2, T2-3 and T3-4 levels were significantly correlated (P=0.001), but unrelated to any other disc disease, patient's gender or age. Degenerative cervical disc disease was closely related together (P<0.001), but not with any thoracic disc. A statistically significant relation was found within the upper thoracic discs, reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation to cervical segments is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)
Upper thoracic-spine disc degeneration in patients with cervical pain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arana, Estanislao; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Costa, Salvador; Molla, Enrique
2004-01-01
To study the relationship of upper thoracic spine degenerative disc contour changes on MR imaging in patients with neck pain. The relation between upper thoracic and cervical spine degenerative disc disease is not well established. One hundred and fifty-six patients referred with cervical pain were studied. There were 73 women and 77 men with a mean age of 48.6±14.6 years (range, 19 to 83 years). All MR studies were performed with a large 23-cm FOV covering at least from the body of T4 to the clivus. Discs were coded as normal, protrusion/bulge or extrusion. Degenerative thoracic disc contour changes were observed in 13.4% of patients with cervical pain. T2-3 was the most commonly affected level of the upper thoracic spine, with 15 bulge/protrusions and one extrusion. Upper degenerative thoracic disc contour changes presented in older patients than the cervical levels (Student-Newman-Keuls test, P<0.001). Degenerative disc contour changes at the C7-T1, T1-2, T2-3 and T3-4 levels were significantly correlated (P=0.001), but unrelated to any other disc disease, patient's gender or age. Degenerative cervical disc disease was closely related together (P<0.001), but not with any thoracic disc. A statistically significant relation was found within the upper thoracic discs, reflecting common pathoanatomical changes. The absence of relation to cervical segments is probably due to differences in their pathomechanisms. (orig.)
2013-09-24
... Development Initiative (SSDI) Grant Program; Single- Case Deviation From Competition Requirements AGENCY...). ACTION: Notice of Single-Case Deviation from Competition Requirements for the Maternal and Child Health... and quality data that is timely. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Intended Recipient of the Award...
2010-06-23
... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9166-1] Notice of Availability of Class Deviation; Disputes... provides notice of availability of a Class Deviation from EPA's assistance agreement dispute procedures and... of performance and potential partial or complete cooperative agreement termination, associated with...
Standard Test Method for Measuring Optical Angular Deviation of Transparent Parts
American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia
1996-01-01
1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular deviation of a light ray imposed by transparent parts such as aircraft windscreens and canopies. The results are uncontaminated by the effects of lateral displacement, and the procedure may be performed in a relatively short optical path length. This is not intended as a referee standard. It is one convenient method for measuring angular deviations through transparent windows. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
McKenna, D; Kadidlo, D; Sumstad, D; McCullough, J
2003-01-01
Errors and accidents, or deviations from standard operating procedures, other policy, or regulations must be documented and reviewed, with corrective actions taken to assure quality performance in a cellular therapy laboratory. Though expectations and guidance for deviation management exist, a description of the framework for the development of such a program is lacking in the literature. Here we describe our deviation management program, which uses a Microsoft Access database and Microsoft Excel to analyze deviations and notable events, facilitating quality assurance (QA) functions and ongoing process improvement. Data is stored in a Microsoft Access database with an assignment to one of six deviation type categories. Deviation events are evaluated for potential impact on patient and product, and impact scores for each are determined using a 0- 4 grading scale. An immediate investigation occurs, and corrective actions are taken to prevent future similar events from taking place. Additionally, deviation data is collectively analyzed on a quarterly basis using Microsoft Excel, to identify recurring events or developing trends. Between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2001 over 2500 products were processed at our laboratory. During this time period, 335 deviations and notable events occurred, affecting 385 products and/or patients. Deviations within the 'technical error' category were most common (37%). Thirteen percent of deviations had a patient and/or a product impact score > or = 2, a score indicating, at a minimum, potentially affected patient outcome or moderate effect upon product quality. Real-time analysis and quarterly review of deviations using our deviation management program allows for identification and correction of deviations. Monitoring of deviation trends allows for process improvement and overall successful functioning of the QA program in the cell therapy laboratory. Our deviation management program could serve as a model for other laboratories in
Linguistics deviation, a tool for teaching English grammar: evidence ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We have always advocated that those teaching the Use of English must seek out novel ways of teaching the grammar of English to take out the drudgery of the present approach. Here, we proposed using Linguistic deviation as a tool for teaching English grammar. This approach will produce students who are both strong in ...
Southern Hemisphere Upper Thermospheric Wind Climatology
Dhadly, M. S.; Emmert, J. T.; Drob, D. P.
2017-12-01
This study is focused on the poorly understood large-scale upper thermospheric wind dynamics in the southern polar cap, auroral, and mid latitudes. The gaps in our understanding of the dynamic high-latitude thermosphere are largely due to the sparseness of thermospheric wind measurements. Using data from current observational facilities, it is unfeasible to construct a synoptic picture of the Southern Hemisphere upper thermospheric winds. However, enough data with wide spatial and temporal coverage have accumulated to construct a meaningful statistical analysis of winds as function of season, magnetic latitude, and magnetic local time. We use long-term data from nine ground-based stations located at different southern high latitudes and three space-based instruments. These diverse data sets possess different geometries and different spatial and solar coverage. The major challenge of the effort is to combine these disparate sources of data into a coherent picture while overcoming the sampling limitations and biases among the datasets. Our preliminary analyses show mutual biases present among some of them. We first address the biases among various data sets and then combine them in a coherent way to construct maps of neutral winds for various seasons. We then validate the fitted climatology against the observational data and compare with corresponding fits of 25 years of simulated winds from the National Center for Atmospheric Research Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model. This study provides critical insight into magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling and sets a necessary benchmark for validating new observations and tuning first-principles models.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yue, Ning J.; Kim, Sung; Jabbour, Salma; Narra, Venkat; Haffty, Bruce G.
2007-01-01
Image guided radiotherapy technologies are being increasingly utilized in the treatment of various cancers. These technologies have enhanced the ability to detect temporal and spatial deviations of the target volume relative to planned radiation beams. Correcting these detected deviations may, in principle, improve the accuracy of dose delivery to the target. However, in many situations, a clinical decision has to be made as to whether it is necessary to correct some of the deviations since the relevant dosimetric impact may or may not be significant, and the corresponding corrective action may be either impractical or time consuming. Ideally this decision should be based on objective and reproducible criteria rather than subjective judgment. In this study, a strategy is proposed for the objective evaluation of the necessity of deviation correction during the treatment verification process. At the treatment stage, without any alteration from the planned beams, the treatment beams should provide the desired dose coverage to the geometric volume identical to the planning target volume (PTV). Given this fact, the planned dose distribution and PTV geometry were used to compute the dose coverage and PTV enclosure of the clinical target volume (CTV) that was detected from imaging during the treatment setup verification. The spatial differences between the detected CTV and the planning CTV are essentially the target deviations. The extent of the PTV enclosure of the detected CTV as well as its dose coverage were used as criteria to evaluate the necessity of correcting any of the target deviations. This strategy, in principle, should be applicable to any type of target deviations, including both target deformable and positional changes and should be independent of how the deviations are detected. The proposed strategy was used on two clinical prostate cancer cases. In both cases, gold markers were implanted inside the prostate for the purpose of treatment setup
7 CFR 1724.52 - Permitted deviations from RUS construction standards.
2010-01-01
... neutrals to provide the required electric service to a consumer, the RUS standard transformer secondary... UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC ENGINEERING, ARCHITECTURAL SERVICES AND DESIGN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Electric System Design § 1724.52 Permitted deviations from RUS construction...
Phylogenetic rooting using minimal ancestor deviation.
Tria, Fernando Domingues Kümmel; Landan, Giddy; Dagan, Tal
2017-06-19
Ancestor-descendent relations play a cardinal role in evolutionary theory. Those relations are determined by rooting phylogenetic trees. Existing rooting methods are hampered by evolutionary rate heterogeneity or the unavailability of auxiliary phylogenetic information. Here we present a rooting approach, the minimal ancestor deviation (MAD) method, which accommodates heterotachy by using all pairwise topological and metric information in unrooted trees. We demonstrate the performance of the method, in comparison to existing rooting methods, by the analysis of phylogenies from eukaryotes and prokaryotes. MAD correctly recovers the known root of eukaryotes and uncovers evidence for the origin of cyanobacteria in the ocean. MAD is more robust and consistent than existing methods, provides measures of the root inference quality and is applicable to any tree with branch lengths.
Hemingway’s Internal Deviation from His Primary Norm in The Old Man and the Sea
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trisnowati Tanto
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Ernest Hemingway is well known for the use of short and simple sentences when writing his novels since he aims at ‘[getting] the most out of the least’. This sentence-simplicity style is Hemingway’s primary norm. The Old Man and the Sea is the perfect example of this. However, in this novel, he sometimes uses long, complex sentences to describe certain points, and this sentence-complexity style can be said to be Hemingway’s secondary norm. In this case, there is a deviation within Hemingway’s own style of writing – an internal deviation. The deviation is obviously done on purpose as a kind of distraction so as to make the readers aware of the special and important ‘message’ that Hemingway wants to convey. In this novel, the deviation is used to build the elements of suspense and foreshadowing in much detail.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheglov, A.
1994-01-01
In the programs of fuel rod computation, fuel and cladding are usually presented in the form of coaxial cylinders, which can change their sizes, mechanical and thermal-physical properties. The real fuel element has some typical deviations from this continuous coaxial cylinders (CCC) model as: axial asymmetry of fuel-cladding system (due to the oval form of the cladding, cracking and other type of fuel pallet damage, axial asymmetry of the volumetric heat release), gaps between the pallets (and heat release peaking in fuel near the gap), chambers in the pallets. As a result of these deviations actual fuel rod parameters of working ability - temperature, stresses, thermal fluxes relieved from the cladding, geometry changes - in some locations can greatly vary from the ones calculated according to CCC model. The influence of these deviations is extremely important while calculating the fuel rod, because they are a part of the mechanical excess coefficient. The author reviews the influence of these factors using specific examples. He applies his own two-dimensional codes based on the Finite Elements Method for calculations of temperature fields, stresses and deformation in the fuel rod elements. It is shown that consideration of these deviations, as a rule, leads to the increase of the maximum fuel temperature in the WWER pellets (characterized by a large central hole), temperature of the cladding, thermal flux, relieved by the coolant from the cladding, and stresses in the cladding. It is necessary to consider these factors for both validation of the fuel element working ability and interpretation of the experimental results. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 5 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheglov, A [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation)
1994-12-31
In the programs of fuel rod computation, fuel and cladding are usually presented in the form of coaxial cylinders, which can change their sizes, mechanical and thermal-physical properties. The real fuel element has some typical deviations from this continuous coaxial cylinders (CCC) model as: axial asymmetry of fuel-cladding system (due to the oval form of the cladding, cracking and other type of fuel pallet damage, axial asymmetry of the volumetric heat release), gaps between the pallets (and heat release peaking in fuel near the gap), chambers in the pallets. As a result of these deviations actual fuel rod parameters of working ability - temperature, stresses, thermal fluxes relieved from the cladding, geometry changes - in some locations can greatly vary from the ones calculated according to CCC model. The influence of these deviations is extremely important while calculating the fuel rod, because they are a part of the mechanical excess coefficient. The author reviews the influence of these factors using specific examples. He applies his own two-dimensional codes based on the Finite Elements Method for calculations of temperature fields, stresses and deformation in the fuel rod elements. It is shown that consideration of these deviations, as a rule, leads to the increase of the maximum fuel temperature in the WWER pellets (characterized by a large central hole), temperature of the cladding, thermal flux, relieved by the coolant from the cladding, and stresses in the cladding. It is necessary to consider these factors for both validation of the fuel element working ability and interpretation of the experimental results. 4 tabs., 3 figs., 5 refs.
Unparticle self-interactions at the Large Hadron Collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bergstroem, Johannes; Ohlsson, Tommy
2009-01-01
We investigate the effect of unparticle self-interactions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Especially, we discuss the three-point correlation function, which is determined by conformal symmetry up to a constant, and study its relation to processes with four-particle final states. These processes could be used as a favorable way to look for unparticle physics, and for weak enough couplings to the standard model, even the only way. We find updated upper bounds on the cross sections for unparticle-mediated 4γ final states at the LHC and novel upper bounds for the corresponding 2γ2l and 4l final states. The size of the allowed cross sections obtained are comparably large for large values of the scaling dimension of the unparticle sector, but they decrease with decreasing values of this parameter. In addition, we present relevant distributions for the different final states, enabling the possible identification of the unparticle scaling dimension if there was to be a large number of events of such final states at the LHC.
Agha, Mickey; Price, Steven J; Nowakowski, A Justin; Augustine, Ben; Todd, Brian D
2017-04-20
Emerging infectious diseases cause population declines in many ectotherms, with outbreaks frequently punctuated by periods of mass mortality. It remains unclear, however, whether thermoregulation by ectotherms and variation in environmental temperature is associated with mortality risk and disease progression, especially in wild populations. Here, we examined environmental and body temperatures of free-ranging eastern box turtles Terrapene carolina during a mass die-off coincident with upper respiratory disease. We recorded deaths of 17 turtles that showed clinical signs of upper respiratory disease among 76 adult turtles encountered in Berea, Kentucky (USA), in 2014. Of the 17 mortalities, 11 occurred approximately 14 d after mean environmental temperature dropped 2.5 SD below the 3 mo mean. Partial genomic sequencing of the major capsid protein from 1 sick turtle identified a ranavirus isolate similar to frog virus 3. Turtles that lacked clinical signs of disease had significantly higher body temperatures (23°C) than sick turtles (21°C) during the mass mortality, but sick turtles that survived and recovered eventually warmed (measured by temperature loggers). Finally, there was a significant negative effect of daily environmental temperature deviation from the 3 mo mean on survival, suggesting that rapid decreases in environmental temperature were correlated with mortality. Our results point to a potential role for environmental temperature variation and body temperature in disease progression and mortality risk of eastern box turtles affected by upper respiratory disease. Given our findings, it is possible that colder or more variable environmental temperatures and an inability to effectively thermoregulate are associated with poorer disease outcomes in eastern box turtles.
Echenique-Robba, Pablo; Nelo-Bazán, María Alejandra; Carrodeguas, José A
2013-01-01
When the value of a quantity x for a number of systems (cells, molecules, people, chunks of metal, DNA vectors, so on) is measured and the aim is to replicate the whole set again for different trials or assays, despite the efforts for a near-equal design, scientists might often obtain quite different measurements. As a consequence, some systems' averages present standard deviations that are too large to render statistically significant results. This work presents a novel correction method of a very low mathematical and numerical complexity that can reduce the standard deviation of such results and increase their statistical significance. Two conditions are to be met: the inter-system variations of x matter while its absolute value does not, and a similar tendency in the values of x must be present in the different assays (or in other words, the results corresponding to different assays must present a high linear correlation). We demonstrate the improvements this method offers with a cell biology experiment, but it can definitely be applied to any problem that conforms to the described structure and requirements and in any quantitative scientific field that deals with data subject to uncertainty.
Regulation of Tight Junctions in Upper Airway Epithelium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takashi Kojima
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The mucosal barrier of the upper respiratory tract including the nasal cavity, which is the first site of exposure to inhaled antigens, plays an important role in host defense in terms of innate immunity and is regulated in large part by tight junctions of epithelial cells. Tight junction molecules are expressed in both M cells and dendritic cells as well as epithelial cells of upper airway. Various antigens are sampled, transported, and released to lymphocytes through the cells in nasal mucosa while they maintain the integrity of the barrier. Expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function in normal human nasal epithelial cells (HNECs are affected by various stimuli including growth factor, TLR ligand, and cytokine. In addition, epithelial-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, which is a master switch for allergic inflammatory diseases including allergic rhinitis, enhances the barrier function together with an increase of tight junction molecules in HNECs. Furthermore, respiratory syncytial virus infection in HNECs in vitro induces expression of tight junction molecules and the barrier function together with proinflammatory cytokine release. This paper summarizes the recent progress in our understanding of the regulation of tight junctions in the upper airway epithelium under normal, allergic, and RSV-infected conditions.
Rockall, T A; Logan, R F; Devlin, H B; Northfield, T C
1997-11-01
To assess changes in practice and outcome in acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage following the feedback of data, the reemphasis of national guidelines, and specific recommendations following an initial survey. A prospective, multicentre, audit cycle. Forty five hospitals from three health regions participated in two phases of the audit cycle. Phase I: 2332 patients with acute upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage; phase II: 1625 patients with upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Patients were evaluated with respect to management (with reference to the recommendations in the national guidelines), mortality, and length of hospital stay. Following the distribution of data from the first phase of the National Audit and the formulation of specific recommendations for improving practice, the proportion of hospitals with local guidelines or protocols for the management of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage rose from 71% (32/45) to 91% (41/45); 12 of the 32 hospitals with guidelines during the first phase revised their guidelines following the initial survey. There was a small but significant increase in the proportion of all patients who underwent endoscopy (from 81% to 86%), the proportion who underwent endoscopy within 24 hours of admission (from 50% to 56%), and the use of central venous pressure monitoring in patients with organ failure requiring blood transfusion or those with profound shock (from 30% to 43%). There was, however, no change in the use of high dependency beds or joint medical/surgical management in high risk cases. There was no significant change in crude or risk standardised mortality (13.4% in the first phase and 14.4% in the second phase). Although many of the participating hospitals have made efforts to improve practice by producing or updating guidelines or protocols, there has been only a small demonstrable change in some areas of practice during the National Audit. The failure to detect any improvement in mortality may reflect this lack of
Deviations from the O3-NO-NO2 photo-stationary state in Delhi, India
Chate, Dilip M.; Ghude, Sachin D.; Beig, Gurfan; Mahajan, Anoop S.; Jena, Chinmay; Srinivas, Reka; Dahiya, Anita; Kumar, Nandini
2014-10-01
A network of air quality and weather monitoring stations was set-up across Delhi, India, under the System of Air quality Forecasting And Research (SAFAR) project. The objective of this network was to enable better understanding of air quality in terms of atmospheric chemistry, emissions and forecasting in Delhi, one of the largest metropolises in the world. In this study, we focus on the O3-NO-NO2-triad Photo Stationary State (PSS), and investigate site-specific deviations in the Leighton Ratio (Φ) during a short period in 2012 (1-31 December). Large variations were observed in the NO ( 1) were also observed occasionally, and these data were used to estimate the total peroxy radical (PO2) mixing ratios. This is the first estimate of PO2 reported for the city of Delhi and compares well with the results in the literature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beitz Eric
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Recognition of relevant sequence deviations can be valuable for elucidating functional differences between protein subfamilies. Interesting residues at highly conserved positions can then be mutated and experimentally analyzed. However, identification of such sites is tedious because automated approaches are scarce. Results Subfamily logos visualize subfamily-specific sequence deviations. The display is similar to classical sequence logos but extends into the negative range. Positive, upright characters correspond to residues which are characteristic for the subfamily, negative, upside-down characters to residues typical for the remaining sequences. The symbol height is adjusted to the information content of the alignment position. Residues which are conserved throughout do not appear. Conclusion Subfamily logos provide an intuitive display of relevant sequence deviations. The method has proven to be valid using a set of 135 aligned aquaporin sequences in which established subfamily-specific positions were readily identified by the algorithm.
Feeding ecology and morphology of the upper canines in bears (carnivora: Ursidae).
Christiansen, Per
2008-07-01
The morphology and mechanical strength of the upper canines in all eight extant species of ursids is analyzed, and the findings are discussed in relation to feeding ecology. Ursids have proportionally smaller canines than other large carnivores with a specialized feeding ecology, such as large felids, and the upper canine morphology is both canid-like and felid-like. The giant panda is the most divergent species, and its short, blunt, and cone-like canines appear well adapted for tearing into bamboo. The almost equally herbivorous spectacled bear has a less derived canine morphology. The large canines of the sun bear are divergent from other ursine ursids, and may be an adaptation for tearing open tree trunks in search of insects. Discriminant Analysis is successful in separating ursid species on the basis of canine morphology, but the canines of ursine ursids, and also of the spectacled bear, show greater resemblance among the species than the marked differences in feeding ecology would suggest. This could be in part due to a short evolutionary history, and in part due to canines not having been subjected to much evolutionary selection as has been the case among other large carnivores, such as large felids. Ursids are probably evolutionarily and ecologically successful due to physical size and strength rather than a derived craniodental anatomy. Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Cosmological implications of a large complete quasar sample.
Segal, I E; Nicoll, J F
1998-04-28
Objective and reproducible determinations of the probabilistic significance levels of the deviations between theoretical cosmological prediction and direct model-independent observation are made for the Large Bright Quasar Sample [Foltz, C., Chaffee, F. H., Hewett, P. C., MacAlpine, G. M., Turnshek, D. A., et al. (1987) Astron. J. 94, 1423-1460]. The Expanding Universe model as represented by the Friedman-Lemaitre cosmology with parameters qo = 0, Lambda = 0 denoted as C1 and chronometric cosmology (no relevant adjustable parameters) denoted as C2 are the cosmologies considered. The mean and the dispersion of the apparent magnitudes and the slope of the apparent magnitude-redshift relation are the directly observed statistics predicted. The C1 predictions of these cosmology-independent quantities are deviant by as much as 11sigma from direct observation; none of the C2 predictions deviate by >2sigma. The C1 deviations may be reconciled with theory by the hypothesis of quasar "evolution," which, however, appears incapable of being substantiated through direct observation. The excellent quantitative agreement of the C1 deviations with those predicted by C2 without adjustable parameters for the results of analysis predicated on C1 indicates that the evolution hypothesis may well be a theoretical artifact.
Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gao, Junling; Chen, Min
2013-01-01
Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...... that the main cause is the influence of various currents on the produced electromotive potential. A simple and effective calibration method is proposed to minimize the deviations in specifying the maximum power. Experimental results validate the method with improved estimation accuracy....
Why and Where do Large Shallow Slab Earthquakes Occur?
Seno, T.; Yoshida, M.
2001-12-01
Within a shallow portion (20-60 km depth) of subducting slabs, it has been believed that large earthquakes seldom occur because the differential stress is generally expected to be low between bending at the trench-outer rise and unbending at the intermediate-depth. However, there are several regions in which large ( M>=7.0 ) earthquakes, including three events early in this year, have occurred in this portion. Searching such events from published individual studies and Harvard University centroid moment tensor catalogue, we find nineteen events in eastern Hokkaido, Kyushu-SW Japan, Mariana, Manila, Sumatra, Vanuatu, Chile, Peru, El Salvador, Mexico, and Cascadia. Slab stresses revealed from the mechanism solutions of those large events and smaller events are tensional in a slab dip direction. However, ages of the subducting oceanic plates are generally young, which denies a possibility that the slab pull works as a cause. Except for Manila and Sumatra, the stresses in the overriding plates are characterized by the change in {σ }Hmax direction from arc-parallel in the back-arc to arc-perpendicular in the fore-arc, which implies that a horizontal stress gradient exists in the across-arc direction. Peru and Chile, where the back-arc is compressional, can be categorized into this type, because a horizontal stress gradient exists over the continent from tension in east to compression in the west. In these regions, it is expected that mantle drag forces are operating beneath the upper plates, which drive the upper plates to the trenchward overriding the subducting oceanic plates. Assuming that the mantle drag forces beneath the upper plates originate from the mantle convection currents or upwelling plumes, we infer that the upper plates driven by the convection suck the oceanic plates, making the shallow portion of the slabs in extra-tension, thus resulting in the large shallow slab earthquakes in this tectonic regime.
Exact current to a spherical electrode in a collisionless, large-Debye-length magnetoplasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sonmor, L.J.; Laframboise, J.G.
1991-01-01
Exact calculations of the steady-state current drawn from a collisionless, Maxwellian plasma in a uniform magnetic field by a spherical, perfectly absorbing electrode are presented for a range of dimensionless electrode potentials and magnetic-field strengths. These calculations are valid in the limit of large Debye length. The results are compared with the theory of Rubinstein and Laframboise, which gives upper and lower bounds for both the attracted-species and the repelled-species current. It is found that as the electrode potential increases from space potential with magnetic-field strength fixed, the electron (i.e., attracted-species) current decreases, but not as quickly as the adiabatic-limit (effectively lower-bound) current. The ion current also diverges immediately from the adiabatic-limit current. As the electrode potential increases further, the electron current rises and moves monotonically toward the canonical upper bound, which is the warm-plasma generalization of the well-known Parker and Murphy upper bound. It is unclear whether the current approaches the upper bound asymptotically as the electrode potential becomes large, or instead a constant proportion of the upper bound which varies with magnetic-field strength. The dependence on magnetic-field strength is more complicated. As expected for small fixed electrode potentials, the attracted-species current approaches the adiabatic-limit current monotonically as the magnetic-field strength increases. However, for large electrode potentials this pattern reverses: the current approaches the canonical upper bound monotonically as the magnetic-field strength increases. These patterns are expected to persist when the Debye length is finite. Interpretation of these results leads to an inference that for large electrode potentials, the effect of decreasing the Debye length may be to reduce the current, as in the nonmagnetic case
Loope, Walter L.; Loope, Henry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Lytle, David E.; Legg, Robert J.; Wysocki, Douglas A.; Hanson, Paul R.; Young, Aaron R.
2012-01-01
Current models of landscape response to Holocene climate change in midcontinent North America largely reconcile Earth orbital and atmospheric climate forcing with pollen-based forest histories on the east and eolian chronologies in Great Plains grasslands on the west. However, thousands of sand dunes spread across 12,000 km2 in eastern upper Michigan (EUM), more than 500 km east of the present forest-prairie ecotone, present a challenge to such models. We use 65 optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages on quartz sand deposited in silt caps (n = 8) and dunes (n = 57) to document eolian activity in EUM. Dune building was widespread ca. 10–8 ka, indicating a sharp, sustained decline in forest cover during that period. This decline was roughly coincident with hydrologic closure of the upper Great Lakes, but temporally inconsistent with most pollen-based models that imply canopy closure throughout the Holocene. Early Holocene forest openings are rarely recognized in pollen sums from EUM because faint signatures of non-arboreal pollen are largely obscured by abundant and highly mobile pine pollen. Early Holocene spikes in nonarboreal pollen are recorded in cores from small ponds, but suggest only a modest extent of forest openings. OSL dating of dune emplacement provides a direct, spatially explicit archive of greatly diminished forest cover during a very dry climate in eastern midcontinent North America ca. 10–8 ka.
Dopkins, Stephen; Varner, Kaitlin; Hoyer, Darin
2017-10-01
In word recognition semantic priming of test words increased the false-alarm rate and the mean of confidence ratings to lures. Such priming also increased the standard deviation of confidence ratings to lures and the slope of the z-ROC function, suggesting that the priming increased the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. The Unequal Variance Signal Detection (UVSD) model interpreted the priming as increasing the standard deviation of the lure evidence distribution. Without additional parameters the Dual Process Signal Detection (DPSD) model could only accommodate the results by fitting the data for related and unrelated primes separately, interpreting the priming, implausibly, as decreasing the probability of target recollection (DPSD). With an additional parameter, for the probability of false (lure) recollection the model could fit the data for related and unrelated primes together, interpreting the priming as increasing the probability of false recollection. These results suggest that DPSD estimates of target recollection probability will decrease with increases in the lure confidence/evidence standard deviation unless a parameter is included for false recollection. Unfortunately the size of a given lure confidence/evidence standard deviation relative to other possible lure confidence/evidence standard deviations is often unspecified by context. Hence the model often has no way of estimating false recollection probability and thereby correcting its estimates of target recollection probability.
Large deviations and Lifshitz singularity of the integrated density of states of random Hamiltonians
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kirsch, W.; Martinelli, F.
1983-01-01
We consider the integrated density of states (IDS) rhosub(infinite)(lambda) of random Hamiltonian Hsub#betta#=-δ+Vsub#betta#, Vsub#betta# being a random field on Rsup(d) which satisfies a mixing condition. We prove that the probability of large fluctuations of the finite volume IDSvertical stroke#betta#vertical stroke - 1 rho(lambda,Hsub(lambda)(#betta#)), #betta#is contained inRsup(d), around the thermodynamic limit rhosub(infinite)(lambda) is bounded from above by exp[-kvertical stroke#betta#vertical stroke], k>0. In this case rhosub(infinite)(lambda) can be recovered from a variational principle. Furthermore we show the existence of a Lifshitz-type of singularity of rhosub(infinite)(lambda) as lambda->0 + in the case where Vsub#betta# is non-negative. More precisely we prove the following bound: rhosub(infinite)(lambda) 0 + k>0. This last result is then discussed in some examples. (orig.)
Friedel, Michael J.
1998-01-01
During the past 25 years, industry and government made large financial investments that resulted in better water quality across the Nation; however, many water-quality concerns remain. Following a 1986 pilot project, the U.S. Geological Survey began implementation of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program in 1991. This program differs from other national water-quality assessment studies in that the NAWQA integrates monitoring of surface- and ground-water quality with the study of aquatic ecosystems. The goals of the NAWQA Program are to (1) describe current water-quality conditions for a large part of the Nation's freshwater streams and aquifers (water-bearing sediments and rocks), (2) describe how water quality is changing over time, and (3) improve our understanding of the primary natural and human factors affecting water quality.The Upper Illinois River Basin National Water- Quality Assessment (NAWQA) study will increase the scientific understanding of surface- and ground-water quality and the factors that affect water quality in the basin. The study also will provide information needed by water-resource managers to implement effective water-quality management actions and evaluate long-term changes in water quality.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sudo, Yukio; Sobajima, Makoto; Iwamura, Takamichi; Osakabe, Masahiro; Ohnuki, Akira; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi
1983-07-01
Large Scale Reflood Test Program has been performed under contract with the Atomic Energy Bureau of Science and Technology Agency of Japan since 1976. The Slab Core Test Program is a part of the Large Scale Reflood Test Program along with the Cylindrical Core Test Program. Major purpose of the Slab Core Test Program is to investigate two-dimensional, thermo-hydrodynamic behavior in the core and the effect of fluid communication between the core and the upper plenum on the reflood phenomena in a postulated loss-of-coolant accident of a PWR. A significant upper plenum water accumulation was observed in the Base Case Test Sl-01 which was carried out under forced-feed flooding condition. To investigate the effects of upper plenum water accumulation on reflooding phenomena, accumulated water is extracted out of the upper plenum in Test Sl-03 by full opening of valves for extraction lines located just above the upper core support plate. This report presents this effect of upper plenum water accumulation on reflooding phenomena through the comparison of Tests Sl-01 and Sl-03. In spite of full opening of valves for upper plenum water extraction in Test Sl-03, a little water accumulation was observed which is of the same magnitude as in Test Sl-01 for about 200 s after the beginning of reflood. From 200 s after the beginning of reflood, however, the upper plenum water accumulation is much less in Test Sl-03 than in Test Sl-01, showing the following effects of upper plenum water accumulation. In Test Sl-03, (1) the two-dimensionality of horizontal fluid distribution is much less both above and in the core, (2) water carryover through hot leg and water accumulation in the core are less, (3) quench time is rather delayed in the upper part of the core by less water fall back from the upper plenum, and (4) difference in the core thermal behavior and core heat transfer are not significant in the middle and lower part of the core. (author)
Deviations from Vegard’s law in ternary III-V alloys
Murphy, S. T.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Jiang, C.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2010-01-01
the linear relationship would predict. Here we use special quasirandom structures and density functional theory to investigate such deviations for MxN1−xAs ternary alloys, where M and N are group III species (B, Al, Ga, and In). Our simulations predict a
Cho-Hoi Hui; Hans Genberg; Tsz-Kin Chung
2009-01-01
Significant deviations from covered interest parity were observed during the financial crisis of 2007-2009. This paper finds that before the failure of Lehman Brothers the market-wide funding liquidity risk was the main determinant of these deviations in terms of the premiums on swap-implied US dollar interest rates for the euro, British pound, Hong Kong dollar, Japanese yen, Singapore dollar and Swiss Franc. This suggests that the deviations can be explained by the existence and nature of li...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Hee Jin; Lee, Sun Gene; Lee, Eun Joo; Kang, Byung Cheol; Lee, Jae Seo; Lim, Hoi Jeong; Yoon, Suk Ja [School of Dentistry, Dental Science Research Institute, Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Song, In Ja [Dept. of Nursing, Kwangju Women' s University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
2016-03-15
Facial asymmetry has been measured by the severity of deviation of the menton (Me) on posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms and three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT). This study aimed to compare PA cephalograms and 3D CT regarding the severity of Me deviation and the direction of the Me. PA cephalograms and 3D CT images of 35 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery (19 males and 16 females, with an average age of 22.1±3.3 years) were retrospectively reviewed in this study. By measuring the distance and direction of the Me from the midfacial reference line and the midsagittal plane in the cephalograms and 3D CT, respectively, the x-coordinates (x1 and x2) of the Me were obtained in each image. The difference between the x-coordinates was calculated and statistical analysis was performed to compare the severity of Me deviation and the direction of the Me in the two imaging modalities. A statistically significant difference in the severity of Me deviation was found between the two imaging modalities (Δx=2.45±2.03 mm, p<0.05) using the one-sample t-test. Statistically significant agreement was observed in the presence of deviation (k=0.64, p<0.05) and in the severity of Me deviation (k=0.27, p<0.05). A difference in the direction of the Me was detected in three patients (8.6%). The severity of the Me deviation was found to vary according to the imaging modality in 16 patients (45.7%). The measurement of Me deviation may be different between PA cephalograms and 3D CT in some patients.