WorldWideScience

Sample records for unmanned work system

  1. Unmanned Ground Systems Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    quality metric tracking history . 1.4.3.4 Technical Management Division The mission of the RS JPO Technical Management (Tech Mgt) Division is to...missions dictate radio capabilities. IP version 4 ( IPv4 ) is the common IP standard used on IP addressable devices of UGVs, however, Unmanned Ground...Systems Roadmap UNCLASSIFIED 26 UNCLASSIFIED July 2011 IPv4 addresses are projected to run out and UGV systems will need to migrate to IP version 6

  2. Unmanned Systems in Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-22

    36Gertler, 41-42. 37Gertler, 42; Spencer Ackerman, “Exclusive Pics: The Navy’s Unmanned, Autonomous ‘ UFO ’,” Wired, 31 July 2012, http...Pics: The Navy’s Unmanned, Autonomous ‘ UFO ’.” Wired, 31 July 2012. http://www.wired.com/dangerroom/2012/07/x47b (accessed 1 March 2014). Air Force

  3. Natural interaction for unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Glenn; Purman, Ben; Schermerhorn, Paul; Garcia-Sampedro, Guillermo; Lanting, Matt; Quist, Michael; Kawatsu, Chris

    2015-05-01

    Military unmanned systems today are typically controlled by two methods: tele-operation or menu-based, search-andclick interfaces. Both approaches require the operator's constant vigilance: tele-operation requires constant input to drive the vehicle inch by inch; a menu-based interface requires eyes on the screen in order to search through alternatives and select the right menu item. In both cases, operators spend most of their time and attention driving and minding the unmanned systems rather than on being a warfighter. With these approaches, the platform and interface become more of a burden than a benefit. The availability of inexpensive sensor systems in products such as Microsoft Kinect™ or Nintendo Wii™ has resulted in new ways of interacting with computing systems, but new sensors alone are not enough. Developing useful and usable human-system interfaces requires understanding users and interaction in context: not just what new sensors afford in terms of interaction, but how users want to interact with these systems, for what purpose, and how sensors might enable those interactions. Additionally, the system needs to reliably make sense of the user's inputs in context, translate that interpretation into commands for the unmanned system, and give feedback to the user. In this paper, we describe an example natural interface for unmanned systems, called the Smart Interaction Device (SID), which enables natural two-way interaction with unmanned systems including the use of speech, sketch, and gestures. We present a few example applications SID to different types of unmanned systems and different kinds of interactions.

  4. Development of a Geospatial Data-Sharing Method for Unmanned Vehicles Based on the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    the Office of the Secretary of Defense chartered the Joint Architecture for Unmanned Ground Systems ( JAUGS ) Working Group to address these concerns...The JAUGS Working Group was tasked with developing an initial standard for interoperable unmanned ground systems. In 2002, the charter of the... JAUGS Working Group was 1 2 modified such that their efforts would extend to all unmanned systems, not only ground systems. The standard was

  5. Unmanned Maritime Systems Incremental Acquisition Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA professional report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH 5. FUNDING...Approved for public release. Distribution is unlimited. UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH Thomas Driscoll, Lieutenant...UNMANNED MARITIME SYSTEMS INCREMENTAL ACQUISITION APPROACH ABSTRACT The purpose of this MBA report is to explore and understand the issues

  6. Analysis of Unmanned Systems in Military Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    performance measures: customer satisfaction , flexibility, visibility, and trust. If we apply this explanation of Li and Schulze (2011) to the military...unmanned systems, initially, we aimed to define current and proposed unmanned applications in civilian-sector logistics and current military...aimed to define current and proposed unmanned applications in civilian-sector logistics and current military logistics challenges. Then, justifying

  7. Vision enhanced navigation for unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wampler, Brandon Loy

    A vision based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) algorithm is evaluated for use on unmanned systems. SLAM is a technique used by a vehicle to build a map of an environment while concurrently keeping track of its location within the map, without a priori knowledge. The work in this thesis is focused on using SLAM as a navigation solution when global positioning system (GPS) service is degraded or temporarily unavailable. Previous work on unmanned systems that lead up to the determination that a better navigation solution than GPS alone is first presented. This previous work includes control of unmanned systems, simulation, and unmanned vehicle hardware testing. The proposed SLAM algorithm follows the work originally developed by Davidson et al. in which they dub their algorithm MonoSLAM [1--4]. A new approach using the Pyramidal Lucas-Kanade feature tracking algorithm from Intel's OpenCV (open computer vision) library is presented as a means of keeping correct landmark correspondences as the vehicle moves through the scene. Though this landmark tracking method is unusable for long term SLAM due to its inability to recognize revisited landmarks, as opposed to the Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) and Speeded Up Robust Features (SURF), its computational efficiency makes it a good candidate for short term navigation between GPS position updates. Additional sensor information is then considered by fusing INS and GPS information into the SLAM filter. The SLAM system, in its vision only and vision/IMU form, is tested on a table top, in an open room, and finally in an outdoor environment. For the outdoor environment, a form of the slam algorithm that fuses vision, IMU, and GPS information is tested. The proposed SLAM algorithm, and its several forms, are implemented in C++ using an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF). Experiments utilizing a live video feed from a webcam are performed. The different forms of the filter are compared and conclusions are made on

  8. Unmanned systems win unexpected support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneiderman, R.

    1991-09-01

    A review of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is presented in which emphasis is given to recent mission accomplishments and current directions of research. Existing and new military UAV programs are listed with reference to funding, the type of vehicle, and level of development. Several trends are established including the reliance of UVAs on global positioning satellites and advanced electronics and the growth of the UVA industry. UVAs that are in advanced stages of development or have been deployed include short-range UAV such as the Pioneer, the Pointer, the Sky Owl, and the Hunter. Key UAV systems are described such as the Advanced Tactical Airborne Reconnaissance System, the Maritime Vertical Takeoff and Landing, and other VTOL systems. Very small UVAs and Exdrones are also discussed, and a weather reconnaissance system and surveillance systems are mentioned.

  9. International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems (ICIUS)

    CERN Document Server

    Kartidjo, Muljowidodo; Yoon, Kwang-Joon; Budiyono, Agus; Autonomous Control Systems and Vehicles : Intelligent Unmanned Systems

    2013-01-01

    The International Conference on Intelligent Unmanned Systems 2011 was organized by the International Society of Intelligent Unmanned Systems and locally by the Center for Bio-Micro Robotics Research at Chiba University, Japan. The event was the 7th conference continuing from previous conferences held in Seoul, Korea (2005, 2006), Bali, Indonesia (2007), Nanjing, China (2008), Jeju, Korea (2009), and Bali, Indonesia (2010). ICIUS 2011 focused on both theory and application, primarily covering the topics of robotics, autonomous vehicles, intelligent unmanned technologies, and biomimetics. We invited seven keynote speakers who dealt with related state-of-the-art technologies including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and micro air vehicles (MAVs), flapping wings (FWs), unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs), underwater vehicles (UVs), bio-inspired robotics, advanced control, and intelligent systems, among others. This book is a collection of excellent papers that were updated after presentation at ICIUS2011. All papers ...

  10. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-01-01

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results

  11. Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.L.; Keiswetter, D.

    1995-12-31

    Ground-based surveys place personnel at risk due to the proximity of buried unexploded ordnance (UXO) items or by exposure to radioactive materials and hazardous chemicals. The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This non-intrusive system will provide stand-off capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak geophysical anomalies can be detected. The Geophex Airborne Unmanned Survey System (GAUSS) is designed to detect and locate small-scale anomalies at hazardous sites using magnetic and electromagnetic survey techniques. The system consists of a remotely-piloted, radio-controlled, model helicopter (RCH) with flight computer, light-weight geophysical sensors, an electronic positioning system, a data telemetry system, and a computer base-station. The report describes GAUSS and its test results.

  12. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap, 2005-2030

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    UCAV Unmanned Combat Air Vehicle ISS Integrated Sensor Suite UCS Unmanned Control System ITU International Telecommunications Union UFO UHF...RDC) at Groton, CT. These have included alien and drug interdiction along the Texas coast and in the Caribbean, UA launch and recovery systems...altitude aircraft and UA; and narrowband services to support mobile and handheld services as a replacement or follow-on for the UHF Follow-On ( UFO

  13. ARM Unmanned Aerial Systems Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Recent advances in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) coupled with changes in the regulatory environment for operations of UAS in the National Airspace increase the potential value of UAS to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility. UAS include unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and tethered balloon systems (TBS). The roles UAVs and TBSs could play within the ARM Facility, particularly science questions they could help address, have been discussed in several workshops, reports, and vision documents, including: This document describes the implementation of a robust and vigorous program for use of UAV and TBS for the science missions ARM supports.

  14. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems for Disaster Relief: Tornado Alley

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBusk, Wesley M.

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle systems are currently in limited use for public service missions worldwide. Development of civil unmanned technology in the United States currently lags behind military unmanned technology development in part because of unresolved regulatory and technological issues. Civil unmanned aerial vehicle systems have potential to augment disaster relief and emergency response efforts. Optimal design of aerial systems for such applications will lead to unmanned vehicles which provide maximum potentiality for relief and emergency response while accounting for public safety concerns and regulatory requirements. A case study is presented that demonstrates application of a civil unmanned system to a disaster relief mission with the intent on saving lives. The concept utilizes unmanned aircraft to obtain advanced warning and damage assessments for tornados and severe thunderstorms. Overview of a tornado watch mission architecture as well as commentary on risk, cost, need for, and design tradeoffs for unmanned aerial systems are provided.

  15. Delegation control of multiple unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Susan R.; Shively, Robert J.

    2010-04-01

    Maturing technologies and complex payloads coupled with a future objective to reduce the logistics burden of current unmanned aerial systems (UAS) operations require a change to the 2-crew employment paradigm. Increased automation and operator supervisory control of unmanned systems have been advocated to meet the objective of reducing the crew requirements, while managing future technologies. Specifically, a delegation control employment strategy has resulted in reduced workload and higher situation awareness for single operators controlling multiple unmanned systems in empirical studies1,2. Delegation control is characterized by the ability for an operator to call a single "play" that initiates prescribed default actions for each vehicle and associated sensor related to a common mission goal. Based upon the effectiveness of delegation control in simulation, the U.S. Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) developed a Delegation Control (DelCon) operator interface with voice recognition implementation for play selection, real-time play modification, and play status with automation transparency to enable single operator control of multiple unmanned systems in flight. AFDD successfully demonstrated delegation control in a Troops-in-Contact mission scenario at Ft. Ord in 2009. This summary showcases the effort as a beneficial advance in single operator control of multiple UAS.

  16. CADASTRAL AUDIT AND ASSESSMENTS USING UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Cunningham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ground surveys and remote sensing are integral to establishing fair and equitable property valuations necessary for real property taxation. The International Association of Assessing Officers (IAAO has embraced aerial and street-view imaging as part of its standards related to property tax assessments and audits. New technologies, including unmanned aerial systems (UAS paired with imaging sensors, will become more common as local governments work to ensure their cadastre and tax rolls are both accurate and complete. Trends in mapping technology have seen an evolution in platforms from large, expensive manned aircraft to very small, inexpensive UAS. Traditional methods of photogrammetry have also given way to new equipment and sensors: digital cameras, infrared imagers, light detection and ranging (LiDAR laser scanners, and now synthetic aperture radar (SAR. At the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF, we work extensively with unmanned aerial systems equipped with each of these newer sensors. UAF has significant experience flying unmanned systems in the US National Airspace, having begun in 1969 with scientific rockets and expanded to unmanned aircraft in 2003. Ongoing field experience allows UAF to partner effectively with outside organizations to test and develop leading-edge research in UAS and remote sensing. This presentation will discuss our research related to various sensors and payloads for mapping. We will also share our experience with UAS and optical systems for creating some of the first cadastral surveys in rural Alaska.

  17. Applications for Navy Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    comunication intelligence (COMINT) collection, and airborne electronic attack applications. If the UCAS-D program is successful in addressing many of the...position navigation and timing RF radio frequency RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition SAB Scientific Advisory Board SAR synthetic...Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005–2030 and Unmanned Systems Roadmap 2007–2032, and the 2003 Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (SAB) UAS study

  18. ICAROUS: Integrated Configurable Architecture for Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) project aims at enabling near-term, safe operations of small UAS vehicles in uncontrolled airspace, i.e., Class G airspace. A far-term goal of UTM research and development is to accommodate the expected rise in small UAS traffic density throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) at low altitudes for beyond visual line-of-sight operations. This video describes a new capability referred to as ICAROUS (Integrated Configurable Algorithms for Reliable Operations of Unmanned Systems), which is being developed under the auspices of the UTM project. ICAROUS is a software architecture comprised of highly assured algorithms for building safety-centric, autonomous, unmanned aircraft applications. Central to the development of the ICAROUS algorithms is the use of well-established formal methods to guarantee higher levels of safety assurance by monitoring and bounding the behavior of autonomous systems. The core autonomy-enabling capabilities in ICAROUS include constraint conformance monitoring and autonomous detect and avoid functions. ICAROUS also provides a highly configurable user interface that enables the modular integration of mission-specific software components.

  19. Unmanned Systems Roadmap 2007-2032

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    advances in each of the three fields, as shown from the following selected summaries from the study: Transgenic biopolymers fall at the intersection...cowlings) for unmanned systems. As an example, the silk -producing gene of spiders has been spliced into the mammary gland gene of sheep, from whose...subsequent milk the silk protein can be extracted. Breeding herds of such sheep enable spider silk , known for its light weight and high strength, to be

  20. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an increasing need to fly Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) to perform missions of vital importance to national security...

  1. An intelligent navigation system for an unmanned surface vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Xu , Tao

    2007-01-01

    Merged with duplicate record 10026.1/2768 on 27.03.2017 by CS (TIS) A multi-disciplinary research project has been carried out at the University of Plymouth to design and develop an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) named ýpringer. The work presented herein relates to formulation of a robust, reliable, accurate and adaptable navigation system to enable opringei to undertake various environmental monitoring tasks. Synergistically, sensor mathematical modelling, fuzzy logic, Multi-S...

  2. Intelligent autonomy for unmanned naval systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Marc

    2006-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development and demonstration of intelligent autonomy technologies for control of heterogeneous unmanned naval air and sea vehicles and describes some of the current limitations of such technologies. The focus is on modular technologies that support highly automated retasking and fully autonomous dynamic replanning for up to ten heterogeneous unmanned systems based on high-level mission objectives, priorities, constraints, and Rules-of-Engagement. A key aspect of the demonstrations is incorporating frequent naval operator evaluations in order to gain better understanding of the integrated man/machine system and its tactical utility. These evaluations help ensure that the automation can provide information to the user in a meaningful way and that the user has a sufficient level of control and situation awareness to task the system as needed to complete complex mission tasks. Another important aspect of the program is examination of the interactions of higher-level autonomy algorithms with other relevant components that would be needed within the decision-making and control loops. Examples of these are vision and other sensor processing algorithms, sensor fusion, obstacle avoidance, and other lower level vehicle autonomous navigation, guidance, and control functions. Initial experiments have been completed using medium and high-fidelity vehicle simulations in a virtual warfare environment and inexpensive surrogate vehicles in flight and in-water demonstrations. Simulation experiments included integration of multi-vehicle task allocation, dynamic replanning under constraints, lower level autonomous vehicle control, automatic assessment of the impact of contingencies on plans, management of situation awareness data, operator alert management, and a mixed-initiative operator interface. In-water demonstrations of a maritime situation awareness capability were completed in both a river and a harbor environment using unmanned surface

  3. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide open-quotes stand-offclose quotes capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected

  4. Geophex airborne unmanned survey system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, I.J.; Taylor, D.W.A.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of this effort is to design, construct, and evaluate a portable, remotely-piloted, airborne, geophysical survey system. This nonintrusive system will provide {open_quotes}stand-off{close_quotes} capability to conduct surveys and detect buried objects, structures, and conditions of interest at hazardous locations. This system permits two operators to rapidly conduct geophysical characterization of hazardous environmental sites. During a survey, the operators remain remote from, but within visual distance, of, the site. The sensor system never contacts the Earth, but can be positioned near the ground so that weak anomalies can be detected.

  5. Multi-Agent Management System (MAMS) for Air-Launched, Unmanned Vehicles, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main goal of this work is to design, implement, and demonstrate a guidance and mission planning toolbox for air-launched, unmanned systems, such as guided...

  6. Classification of robotic battery service systems for unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Existing examples of prototypes of ground-based robotic platforms used as a landing site for unmanned aerial vehicles are considered. In some cases, they are equipped with a maintenance mechanism for the power supply module. The main requirements for robotic multi-copter battery maintenance systems depending on operating conditions, required processing speed, operator experience and other parameters are analyzed. The key issues remain questions of the autonomous landing of the unmanned aerial vehicles on the platform and approach to servicing battery. The existing prototypes of service robotic platforms are differed in the complexity of internal mechanisms, speed of service, algorithms of joint work of the platform and unmanned aerial vehicles during the landing and maintenance of the battery. The classification of robotic systems for servicing the power supply of multi-copter batteries criteria is presented using the following: the type of basing, the method of navigation during landing, the shape of the landing pad, the method of restoring the power supply module. The proposed algorithmic model of the operation of battery power maintenance system of the multi-copter on ground-based robotic platform during solving the target agrarian problem is described. Wireless methods of battery recovery are most promising, so further development and prototyping of a wireless charging station for multi-copter batteries will be developed.

  7. Unmanned Aerial System, New System Manning Prediction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunn, Bruce P

    2006-01-01

    .... System safety and effectiveness, training, contractor operations and working conditions were evaluated for current UASs, including Hunter, Shadow, Predator, Improved Gnat, and to a lesser degree...

  8. Bioinspired optical sensors for unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahl, Javaan; Rosser, Kent; Mizutani, Akiko

    2011-04-01

    Insects are dependant on the spatial, spectral and temporal distributions of light in the environment for flight control and navigation. This paper reports on flight trials of implementations of insect inspired behaviors on unmanned aerial vehicles. Optical flow methods for maintaining a constant height above ground and a constant course have been demonstrated to provide navigation capabilities that are impossible using conventional avionics sensors. Precision control of height above ground and ground course were achieved over long distances. Other vision based techniques demonstrated include a biomimetic stabilization sensor that uses the ultraviolet and green bands of the spectrum, and a sky polarization compass. Both of these sensors were tested over long trajectories in different directions, in each case showing performance similar to low cost inertial heading and attitude systems. The behaviors demonstrate some of the core functionality found in the lower levels of the sensorimotor system of flying insects and shows promise for more integrated solutions in the future.

  9. National Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goplen, Susan E.; Sloan, Jeff L.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office leads the implementation of UAS technology in the Department of the Interior (DOI). Our mission is to support the transition of UAS into DOI as a new cost-effective tool for collecting remote-sensing data to monitor environmental conditions, respond to natural hazards, recognize the consequences and benefits of land and climate change and conduct wildlife inventories. The USGS is teaming with all DOI agencies and academia as well as local, State, and Tribal governments with guidance from the Federal Aviation Administration and the DOI Office of Aviation Services (OAS) to lead the safe, efficient, costeffective and leading-edge adoption of UAS technology into the scientific research and operational activities of the DOI.

  10. Defining Handling Qualities of Unmanned Aerial Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) are here to stay and operators are demanding access to the National Airspace System (NAS) for a wide variety of missions. This includes a...

  11. Development of an Unmanned Aircraft Systems Program: ACUASI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Cahill, C. F.; Rogers, M.; Hatfield, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    The Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) has developed a comprehensive program that incorporates pilots, flight/mission planners, geoscientists, university undergraduate and graduate students, and engineers together as one. We lead and support unmanned aircraft system (UAS) missions for geoscience research, emergency response, humanitarian needs, engineering design, and policy development. We are the University of Alaska's UAS research program, lead the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Pan-Pacific UAS Test Range Complex (PPUTRC) with Hawaii, Oregon, and Mississippi and in 2015 became a core member of the FAA Center of Excellence for UAS Research, managed by Mississippi State University. ACUASI's suite of aircraft include small hand-launched/vertical take-off and landing assets for short-term rapid deployment to large fixed-wing gas powered systems that provide multiple hours of flight time. We have extensive experience in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments and will present on how we have used our aircraft and payloads in numerous missions that include beyond visual line of sight flights, mapping the river ice-hazard in Alaska during spring break-up, and providing UAS-based observations for local Alaskans to navigate through the changing ice shelf of Northern Alaska. Several sensor developments of interest in the near future include building payloads for thermal infrared mapping at high spatial resolutions, combining forward and nadir looking cameras on the same UAS aircraft for topographic mapping, and using neutral density and narrow band filters to map very high temperature thermally active hazards, such as forest fires and volcanic eruptions. The ACUASI team working together provide us the experience, tools, capabilities, and personnel to build and maintain a world class research center for unmanned aircraft systems as well as support both real-time operations and geoscience research.

  12. Windhover Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Software Ecosystem, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The safety of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) flights is currently the responsibility of the pilot who is required to keep the vehicle within their line of sight...

  13. Core Flight Software for Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) is increasing worldwide, but multiple technical barriers restrict the greater use of UASs. The safe operation of UASs in the...

  14. Defining Handling Qualities of Unmanned Aerial Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned Air Systems (UAS) are no longer coming, they are here, and operators from first responders to commercial operators are demanding access to the National...

  15. Conceptual Design of a Small Hybrid Unmanned Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umberto Papa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UAS (Unmanned Aircraft System technologies are today extremely required in various fields of interest, from military to civil (search and rescue, environmental surveillance and monitoring, and entertainment. Besides safety and legislative issues, the main obstacle to civilian applications of UAS systems is the short time of flight (endurance, which depends on the equipped power system (battery pack and the flight mission (low/high speed or altitude. Long flight duration is fundamental, especially with tasks that require hovering capability (e.g., river flow monitoring, earthquakes, devastated areas, city traffic monitoring, and archeological sites inspection. This work presents the conceptual design of a Hybrid Unmanned Aircraft System (HUAS, merging a commercial off-the-shelf quadrotor and a balloon in order to obtain a good compromise between endurance and weight. The mathematical models for weights estimation and balloon static performance analysis are presented, together with experimental results in different testing scenarios and complex environments, which show 50% improvement of the flight duration.

  16. Integrated flight path planning system and flight control system for unmanned helicopters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM).

  17. Integrated Flight Path Planning System and Flight Control System for Unmanned Helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Shau Shiun; Lin, Yu Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of an integrated navigation and guidance system for unmanned helicopters. The integrated navigation system comprises two systems: the Flight Path Planning System (FPPS) and the Flight Control System (FCS). The FPPS finds the shortest flight path by the A-Star (A*) algorithm in an adaptive manner for different flight conditions, and the FPPS can add a forbidden zone to stop the unmanned helicopter from crossing over into dangerous areas. In this paper, the FPPS computation time is reduced by the multi-resolution scheme, and the flight path quality is improved by the path smoothing methods. Meanwhile, the FCS includes the fuzzy inference systems (FISs) based on the fuzzy logic. By using expert knowledge and experience to train the FIS, the controller can operate the unmanned helicopter without dynamic models. The integrated system of the FPPS and the FCS is aimed at providing navigation and guidance to the mission destination and it is implemented by coupling the flight simulation software, X-Plane, and the computing software, MATLAB. Simulations are performed and shown in real time three-dimensional animations. Finally, the integrated system is demonstrated to work successfully in controlling the unmanned helicopter to operate in various terrains of a digital elevation model (DEM). PMID:22164029

  18. System Architecture of Small Unmanned Aerial System for Flight Beyond Visual Line-of-Sight

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    International Conference on Mechatronic and Embedded Systems and Applications (MESA 2011), 28-31 (August 2011) Maddalon Jeffrey M., Kelly J... SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE OF SMALL UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEM FOR FLIGHT BEYOND VISUAL LINE-OF-SIGHT THESIS...is declared a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT-ENV-MS-15-S-047 SYSTEM

  19. Advanced Fiber Optic-Based Sensing Technology for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Lance; Parker, Allen R.; Piazza, Anthony; Ko, William L.; Chan, Patrick; Bakalyar, John

    2011-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of fiber optic sensing technology development activities performed at NASA Dryden in support of Unmanned Aircraft Systems. Examples of current and previous work are presented in the following categories: algorithm development, system development, instrumentation installation, ground R&D, and flight testing. Examples of current research and development activities are provided.

  20. Unmanned systems to support the human exploration of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.

    2010-04-01

    Robots and other unmanned systems will play many critical roles in support of a human presence on Mars, including surveying candidate landing sites, locating ice and mineral resources, establishing power and other infrastructure, performing construction tasks, and transporting equipment and supplies. Many of these systems will require much more strength and power than exploration rovers. The presence of humans on Mars will permit proactive maintenance and repair, and allow teleoperation and operator intervention, supporting multiple dynamic levels of autonomy, so the critical challenges to the use of unmanned systems will occur before humans arrive on Mars. Nevertheless, installed communications and navigation infrastructure should be able to support structured and/or repetitive operations (such as excavation, drilling, or construction) within a "familiar" area with an acceptable level of remote operator intervention. This paper discusses some of the factors involved in developing and deploying unmanned systems to make humans' time on Mars safer and more productive, efficient, and enjoyable.

  1. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bland, Geoffrey [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2016-06-30

    The use of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) with miniature sensor systems for atmospheric research is an important capability to develop. The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) project, lead by Dr. Gijs de Boer of the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES- a partnership of NOAA and CU-Boulder), is a significant milestone in realizing this new potential. This project has clearly demonstrated that the concept of sUAS utilization is valid, and miniature instrumentation can be used to further our understanding of the atmospheric boundary layer in the arctic.

  2. Enabling Use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Arctic Environmental Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storvold, Rune; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Mulac, Brenda

    , technical and logistical challenges facing scientists intending to use UAS in their arctic work. Future planned campaigns and science goals under the Coordinated Investigation of Climate-Cryosphere Interactions (CICCI) umbrella will be outlined. A new AMAP report on conducting safe UAS operations......, poor resolution, and the complicated surface of snow and ice. Measurements made from manned aircraft are also limited because of range and endurance, as well as the danger and costs presented by operating manned aircraft in harsh and remote environments like the Arctic. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS...... on the environment. Operating UAS present unique challenges and it is necessary to understand and overcome those challenges. Based on the recommendations put forth by the Arctic scientists, the Arctic Council created a UAS Expert Group under the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program (AMAP) to help address...

  3. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    OpenAIRE

    Colomina, Ismael; Molina, Pere

    2014-01-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last...

  4. Unmanned Aerial System Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Aerial System (UAS) Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device: Training Effectiveness Assessment (James & Miller, in press). 31 Technical ...Research Product 2018-05 Unmanned Aerial System Four-Dimensional Gunnery Training Device Development David R. James...for the Department of the Army by Northrop Grumman Corporation. Technical review by Thomas Rhett Graves, Ph.D., U.S. Army Research Institute

  5. Unmanned aircraft system bridge inspection demonstration project phase II final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    An Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) is defined by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) as an aircraft operated without the possibility of direct human intervention from within the aircraft. Unmanned aircraft are familiarly referred to as drones, a...

  6. Evaluating the Impact of Unrestricted Operation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems in the National Airspace System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) can be used for scientific, emergency management, and defense missions, among others. The existing federal air regulations,...

  7. Mechanical Design of a Manipulation System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keemink, A.Q.L.; Fumagalli, M.; Stramigioli, S.; Carloni, R.

    In this paper, we present the mechanical design and modeling of a manipulation system for unmanned aerial vehicles, which have to physically interact with environments and perform ultrasonic non-destructive testing experiments and other versatile tasks at unreachable locations for humans. The

  8. A new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Molina, J.C.; Guerrero González, A.; Gilabert, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper a new electronic control system for unmanned underwater vehicles is presented. This control system is characterized by a distribution in control over two network of type CANBus and Ethernet. This new electronic control system integrates functionalities of AUVs, as the automatic execution of preprogrammed trajectories. The control system also integrates an acoustic positioning system based on USBL. The information of relative positioning is sent through specific...

  9. Focused Lens on Unmanned Aerial Systems: An Evaluation of Department of Defense’s Unmanned Aerial Vision 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    Break Free of Regulations.” 69Barbara Opall -Rome, “ Israel Tackles The Last Frontier Of UAS Technology: Israel Moves Closer Toward Flying UASs In...with the new F-35 Joint Strike Fighter once it comes online, or with helicopters aboard the Littoral Combat Ship. Unmanned mine hunters could operate...Office, 2002. ———. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2005-2030. Washington, DC: Government Publishing Office, 2005. Opall -Rome, Barbra. “Israel

  10. Neurobiomimetic constructs for intelligent unmanned systems and robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Jerome J.; Shah, Danelle C.; DeAngelus, Marianne A.

    2014-06-01

    This paper discusses a paradigm we refer to as neurobiomimetic, which involves emulations of brain neuroanatomy and neurobiology aspects and processes. Neurobiomimetic constructs include rudimentary and down-scaled computational representations of brain regions, sub-regions, and synaptic connectivity. Many different instances of neurobiomimetic constructs are possible, depending on various aspects such as the initial conditions of synaptic connectivity, number of neuron elements in regions, connectivity specifics, and more, and we refer to these instances as `animats'. While downscaled for computational feasibility, the animats are very large constructs; the animats implemented in this work contain over 47,000 neuron elements and over 720,000 synaptic connections. The paper outlines aspects of the animats implemented, spatial memory and learning cognitive task, the virtual-reality environment constructed to study the animat performing that task, and discussion of results. In a broad sense, we argue that the neurobiomimetic paradigm pursued in this work constitutes a particularly promising path to artificial cognition and intelligent unmanned systems. Biological brains readily cope with challenges of real-life tasks that consistently prove beyond even the most sophisticated algorithmic approaches known. At the cross-over point of neuroscience, cognitive science and computer science, paradigms such as the one pursued in this work aim to mimic the mechanisms of biological brains and as such, we argue, may lead to machines with abilities closer to those of biological species.

  11. Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-28

    Wilhelm, A. N., Surgenor, B. W., and Pharoah, J. G., “Design and evaluation of a micro-fuel-cell-based power system for a mobile robot,” Mechatronics ... Embedded Control Systems ], Control Engineering, 91–116, Birkhuser Boston (2005). [12] Alur, R., Courcoubetis, C., Halbwachs, N., Henzinger, T., Ho, P.-H...Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Ground Vehicle Power System John Brodericka∗, Jack Hartnerb, Dawn Tilburya, and Ella Atkinsa aThe University

  12. Design of Sail-Assisted Unmanned Surface Vehicle Intelligent Control System

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Yong; Zhao, Yujiao; Diao, Jiantao; Gan, Langxiong; Bi, Huaxiong; Zhao, Jingming

    2016-01-01

    To achieve the wind sail-assisted function of the unmanned surface vehicle (USV), this work focuses on the design problems of the sail-assisted USV intelligent control systems (SUICS) and illustrates the implementation process of the SUICS. The SUICS consists of the communication system, the sensor system, the PC platform, and the lower machine platform. To make full use of the wind energy, in the SUICS, we propose the sail angle of attack automatic adjustment (Sail_4A) algorithm and present ...

  13. Trace Gas Quantification with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuyler, T. J.; Guzman, M. I.; Bailey, S.; Jacob, J.

    2017-12-01

    Measurements of atmospheric composition are generally performed with advanced instrumentation from ground stations using tall towers and weather balloons or with manned aircraft. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are a promising technology for atmospheric monitoring of trace atmospheric gases as they can bridge the gap between the regions of the atmospheric boundary layer measured by ground stations and aircraft. However, in general, the sophisticated instrumentation required for these measurements are heavy, preventing its deployment with small UAS. In order to successfully detect and quantify these gases, sensor packages aboard UAS must be lightweight, have low-power consumption, and possess limits of detection on the ppm scale or below with reasonably fast response times. Thus, a new generation of portable instrument is being developed in this work to meet these requirements employing new sensing packages. The cross sensitivity of these sensors to several gases is examined through laboratory testing of the instrument under variable environmental conditions prior to performing field measurements. Datasets include timestamps with position, temperature, relative humidity, pressure, along with variable mixing ratio values of important greenhouse gases. The work will present an analysis of the results gathered during authorized flights performed during the second CLOUD-MAP§ field campaign held in June 2017. §CLOUD-MAP: Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics, a 4-year NSF funded effort.

  14. Vision-Based SLAM System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguía

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes a vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping system to be applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs. The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel estimator relying on an Extended Kalman Filter. The estimator is designed in order to fuse the measurements obtained from: (i an orientation sensor (AHRS; (ii a position sensor (GPS; and (iii a monocular camera. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: position and orientation and their first derivatives, as well as the location of the landmarks observed by the camera. The position sensor will be used only during the initialization period in order to recover the metric scale of the world. Afterwards, the estimated map of landmarks will be used to perform a fully vision-based navigation when the position sensor is not available. Experimental results obtained with simulations and real data show the benefits of the inclusion of camera measurements into the system. In this sense the estimation of the trajectory of the vehicle is considerably improved, compared with the estimates obtained using only the measurements from the position sensor, which are commonly low-rated and highly noisy.

  15. Vision-Based SLAM System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguía, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Bolea, Yolanda; Grau, Antoni

    2016-03-15

    The present paper describes a vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping system to be applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). The main contribution of this work is to propose a novel estimator relying on an Extended Kalman Filter. The estimator is designed in order to fuse the measurements obtained from: (i) an orientation sensor (AHRS); (ii) a position sensor (GPS); and (iii) a monocular camera. The estimated state consists of the full state of the vehicle: position and orientation and their first derivatives, as well as the location of the landmarks observed by the camera. The position sensor will be used only during the initialization period in order to recover the metric scale of the world. Afterwards, the estimated map of landmarks will be used to perform a fully vision-based navigation when the position sensor is not available. Experimental results obtained with simulations and real data show the benefits of the inclusion of camera measurements into the system. In this sense the estimation of the trajectory of the vehicle is considerably improved, compared with the estimates obtained using only the measurements from the position sensor, which are commonly low-rated and highly noisy.

  16. ICAROUS - Integrated Configurable Algorithms for Reliable Operations Of Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consiglio, María; Muñoz, César; Hagen, George; Narkawicz, Anthony; Balachandran, Swee

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) project aims at enabling near-term, safe operations of small UAS vehicles in uncontrolled airspace, i.e., Class G airspace. A far-term goal of UTM research and development is to accommodate the expected rise in small UAS traffic density throughout the National Airspace System (NAS) at low altitudes for beyond visual line-of-sight operations. This paper describes a new capability referred to as ICAROUS (Integrated Configurable Algorithms for Reliable Operations of Unmanned Systems), which is being developed under the UTM project. ICAROUS is a software architecture comprised of highly assured algorithms for building safety-centric, autonomous, unmanned aircraft applications. Central to the development of the ICAROUS algorithms is the use of well-established formal methods to guarantee higher levels of safety assurance by monitoring and bounding the behavior of autonomous systems. The core autonomy-enabling capabilities in ICAROUS include constraint conformance monitoring and contingency control functions. ICAROUS also provides a highly configurable user interface that enables the modular integration of mission-specific software components.

  17. FY2009-2034 Unmanned Systems Integrated Roadmap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-20

    to vocal and forceful remonstrations by the threatened communities. Unmanned systems offer as yet largely unseen operational capabilities, and these...flexible wings, which fold around its fuselage, allowing the entire UAS to be stored in a 22- inch long, 5-inch diameter tube and carried in the user’s...wounded soldiers on the battlefield who might otherwise die from loss of airway, hemorrhage , or other acute injuries, such as a tension pneumothorax

  18. Unmanned aerial systems for photogrammetry and remote sensing: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colomina, I.; Molina, P.

    2014-06-01

    We discuss the evolution and state-of-the-art of the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in the field of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (PaRS). UAS, Remotely-Piloted Aerial Systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles or simply, drones are a hot topic comprising a diverse array of aspects including technology, privacy rights, safety and regulations, and even war and peace. Modern photogrammetry and remote sensing identified the potential of UAS-sourced imagery more than thirty years ago. In the last five years, these two sister disciplines have developed technology and methods that challenge the current aeronautical regulatory framework and their own traditional acquisition and processing methods. Navety and ingenuity have combined off-the-shelf, low-cost equipment with sophisticated computer vision, robotics and geomatic engineering. The results are cm-level resolution and accuracy products that can be generated even with cameras costing a few-hundred euros. In this review article, following a brief historic background and regulatory status analysis, we review the recent unmanned aircraft, sensing, navigation, orientation and general data processing developments for UAS photogrammetry and remote sensing with emphasis on the nano-micro-mini UAS segment.

  19. Intelligent Unmanned Vehicle Systems Suitable For Individual or Cooperative Missions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew O. Anderson; Mark D. McKay; Derek C. Wadsworth

    2007-04-01

    The Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching autonomous unmanned vehicle systems for the past several years. Areas of research have included unmanned ground and aerial vehicles used for hazardous and remote operations as well as teamed together for advanced payloads and mission execution. Areas of application include aerial particulate sampling, cooperative remote radiological sampling, and persistent surveillance including real-time mosaic and geo-referenced imagery in addition to high resolution still imagery. Both fixed-wing and rotary airframes are used possessing capabilities spanning remote control to fully autonomous operation. Patented INL-developed auto steering technology is taken advantage of to provide autonomous parallel path swathing with either manned or unmanned ground vehicles. Aerial look-ahead imagery is utilized to provide a common operating picture for the ground and air vehicle during cooperative missions. This paper will discuss the various robotic vehicles, including sensor integration, used to achieve these missions and anticipated cost and labor savings.

  20. The Ethics of Robotic, Autonomous, and Unmanned Systems Technologies in Life Saving Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-12

    Figure 4. Boeing’s Unmanned Undersea Cargo Vehicle, “Echo Voyager.”22 In the future closed loop automated patient care systems like ACCS could... closed - loop controls, buying just enough time to transport the wounded to the next level of care. Patient abandonment could be solved by using robotic...CASEVAC and medical resupply missions. The DoD should work with the Federal Emergency Management Agency to design CONOPS for using RAS in non-military

  1. Intelligent Terrain Analysis and Tactical Support System (ITATSS) for Unmanned Ground Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Randolph M; Arkin, Ron; Sidki, Nahid

    2005-01-01

    ...). The system enable unmanned combat and support vehicles to achieve significant new levels of autonomy, mobility, rapid response, coordination and effectiveness, while simultaneously enriching human...

  2. Semi-autonomous unmanned ground vehicle control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jonathan; Lee, Dah-Jye; Schoenberger, Robert; Wei, Zhaoyi; Archibald, James

    2006-05-01

    Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) have advantages over people in a number of different applications, ranging from sentry duty, scouting hazardous areas, convoying goods and supplies over long distances, and exploring caves and tunnels. Despite recent advances in electronics, vision, artificial intelligence, and control technologies, fully autonomous UGVs are still far from being a reality. Currently, most UGVs are fielded using tele-operation with a human in the control loop. Using tele-operations, a user controls the UGV from the relative safety and comfort of a control station and sends commands to the UGV remotely. It is difficult for the user to issue higher level commands such as patrol this corridor or move to this position while avoiding obstacles. As computer vision algorithms are implemented in hardware, the UGV can easily become partially autonomous. As Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) become larger and more powerful, vision algorithms can run at frame rate. With the rapid development of CMOS imagers for consumer electronics, frame rate can reach as high as 200 frames per second with a small size of the region of interest. This increase in the speed of vision algorithm processing allows the UGVs to become more autonomous, as they are able to recognize and avoid obstacles in their path, track targets, or move to a recognized area. The user is able to focus on giving broad supervisory commands and goals to the UGVs, allowing the user to control multiple UGVs at once while still maintaining the convenience of working from a central base station. In this paper, we will describe a novel control system for the control of semi-autonomous UGVs. This control system combines a user interface similar to a simple tele-operation station along with a control package, including the FPGA and multiple cameras. The control package interfaces with the UGV and provides the necessary control to guide the UGV.

  3. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS FOR RAPID NEAR SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Stoll

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at some of the unmanned aircraft systems (UAS options and deals with a magnetometer sensor system which might be of interest in conducting rapid near surface geophysical measurements. Few of the traditional airborne geophysical sensors are now capable of being miniaturized to sizes and payload within mini UAS limits (e.g. airborne magnetics, gamma ray spectrometer. Here the deployment of a fluxgate magnetometer mounted on an UAS is presented demonstrating its capability of detecting metallic materials that are buried in the soil. The effectiveness in finding ferrous objects (e.g. UXO, landslides is demonstrated in two case studies.

  4. Integrated Unmanned Air-Ground Robotics System, Volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-08-20

    3) IPT Integrated Product Team IRP Intermediate Power Rating JAUGS TBD JCDL TBD Joint Vision 2020 TBD Km Kilometer lbs. pounds MAE Mechanical and...compatible with emerging JCDL and/or JAUGS . 2.3.2.2. Payload must be “plug and play.” 2.3.3. Communications 2.3.3.1. System communications shall be robust...Power JCDL JAUGS Joint Architecture for Unmanned Ground Systems JP-8 Jet Propulsion Fuel 8 km Kilometer lbs. Pounds LOS Line Of Sight MAE Mechanical

  5. Tracking of a Fluorescent Dye in a Freshwater Lake with an Unmanned Surface Vehicle and an Unmanned Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Powers

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent catastrophic events in our oceans, including the spill of toxic oil from the explosion of the Deepwater Horizon drilling rig and the rapid dispersion of radioactive particulates from the meltdown of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant, underscore the need for new tools and technologies to rapidly respond to hazardous agents. Our understanding of the movement and aerosolization of hazardous agents from natural aquatic systems can be expanded upon and used in prevention and tracking. New technologies with coordinated unmanned robotic systems could lead to faster identification and mitigation of hazardous agents in lakes, rivers, and oceans. In this study, we released a fluorescent dye (fluorescein into a freshwater lake from an anchored floating platform. A fluorometer (fluorescence sensor was mounted underneath an unmanned surface vehicle (USV, unmanned boat and was used to detect and track the released dye in situ in real-time. An unmanned aircraft system (UAS was used to visualize the dye and direct the USV to sample different areas of the dye plume. Image processing tools were used to map concentration profiles of the dye plume from aerial images acquired from the UAS, and these were associated with concentration measurements collected from the sensors onboard the USV. The results of this project have the potential to transform monitoring strategies for hazardous agents, enabling timely and accurate exposure assessment and response in affected areas. Fast response is essential in reacting to the introduction of hazardous agents, in order to quickly predict and contain their spread.

  6. Simulating Sustainment for an Unmanned Logistics System Concept of Operation in Support of Distributed Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    SYSTEM CONCEPT OF OPERATION IN SUPPORT OF DISTRIBUTED OPERATIONS by Elle M. Ekman June 2017 Thesis...UNMANNED LOGISTICS SYSTEM CONCEPT OF OPERATION IN SUPPORT OF DISTRIBUTED OPERATIONS Elle M. Ekman Captain, United States Marine Corps B.S...Corps CO company CONEPS concept of employment CONOPS concept of operations CP command post CUAS cargo unmanned aircraft system DES discrete

  7. Energy harvesting concepts for small electric unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qidwai, Muhammad A.; Thomas, James P.; Kellogg, James C.; Baucom, Jared N.

    2004-07-01

    In this study, we identify and survey energy harvesting technologies for small electrically powered unmanned systems designed for long-term (>1 day) time-on-station missions. An environmental energy harvesting scheme will provide long-term, energy additions to the on-board energy source. We have identified four technologies that cover a broad array of available energy sources: solar, kinetic (wind) flow, autophagous structure-power (both combustible and metal air-battery systems) and electromagnetic (EM) energy scavenging. We present existing conceptual designs, critical system components, performance, constraints and state-of-readiness for each technology. We have concluded that the solar and autophagous technologies are relatively matured for small-scale applications and are capable of moderate power output levels (>1 W). We have identified key components and possible multifunctionalities in each technology. The kinetic flow and EM energy scavenging technologies will require more in-depth study before they can be considered for implementation. We have also realized that all of the harvesting systems require design and integration of various electrical, mechanical and chemical components, which will require modeling and optimization using hybrid mechatronics-circuit simulation tools. This study provides a starting point for detailed investigation into the proposed technologies for unmanned system applications under current development.

  8. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system

  9. Synthesis of the unmanned aerial vehicle remote control augmentation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomczyk, Andrzej, E-mail: A.Tomczyk@prz.edu.pl [Department of Avionics and Control Systems, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Aeronautics, Rzeszów University of Technology, Al. Powstañców Warszawy 12, 35-959 Rzeszów (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    Medium size Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) usually flies as an autonomous aircraft including automatic take-off and landing phases. However in the case of the on-board control system failure, the remote steering is using as an emergency procedure. In this reason, remote manual control of unmanned aerial vehicle is used more often during take-of and landing phases. Depends on UAV take-off mass and speed (total energy) the potential crash can be very danger for airplane and environment. So, handling qualities of UAV is important from pilot-operator point of view. In many cases the dynamic properties of remote controlling UAV are not suitable for obtaining the desired properties of the handling qualities. In this case the control augmentation system (CAS) should be applied. Because the potential failure of the on-board control system, the better solution is that the CAS algorithms are placed on the ground station computers. The method of UAV handling qualities shaping in the case of basic control system failure is presented in this paper. The main idea of this method is that UAV reaction on the operator steering signals should be similar - almost the same - as reaction of the 'ideal' remote control aircraft. The model following method was used for controller parameters calculations. The numerical example concerns the medium size MP-02A UAV applied as an aerial observer system.

  10. CRUSER (Consortium for Robotics and Unmanned Systems Education and Research)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    LPI) comms: covert and innovative networks – such as the “Digital Semaphore ” concept being taken to field experimentation in FY13. 3)  UxS support of...Resolution Full Motion Video for Unmanned Systems and Remote Sensing Jeff Weekley, NPS Digital Semaphore Dr. Don Brutzman, NPS •  7-10 May 2012... Semaphore CRUSER  Thread  1   Sept  2011   Warfare   InnovaKon   Workshop   May  2012   Technical   ConKnuum   Apr  2013

  11. Initial Study of An Effective Fast-Time Simulation Platform for Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Min; Rios, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (sUAVs), typically 55 lbs and below, are envisioned to play a major role in surveilling critical assets, collecting important information, and delivering goods. Large scale small UAV operations are expected to happen in low altitude airspace in the near future. Many static and dynamic constraints exist in low altitude airspace because of manned aircraft or helicopter activities, various wind conditions, restricted airspace, terrain and man-made buildings, and conflict-avoidance among sUAVs. High sensitivity and high maneuverability are unique characteristics of sUAVs that bring challenges to effective system evaluations and mandate such a simulation platform different from existing simulations that were built for manned air traffic system and large unmanned fixed aircraft. NASA's Unmanned aircraft system Traffic Management (UTM) research initiative focuses on enabling safe and efficient sUAV operations in the future. In order to help define requirements and policies for a safe and efficient UTM system to accommodate a large amount of sUAV operations, it is necessary to develop a fast-time simulation platform that can effectively evaluate requirements, policies, and concepts in a close-to-reality environment. This work analyzed the impacts of some key factors including aforementioned sUAV's characteristics and demonstrated the importance of these factors in a successful UTM fast-time simulation platform.

  12. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project KDP-C Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindle, Laurie; Sakahara, Robert; Hackenberg, Davis; Johnson, William

    2017-01-01

    safety and operational challenges of national airspace access by unmanned aircraft systems, or UAS. In the process, the project will work with other key stakeholders to define necessary deliverables and products to help enable such access. Within the project, NASA is focusing on five sub-projects. These five focus areas include assurance of safe separation of unmanned aircraft from manned aircraft when flying in the national airspace; safety-critical command and control systems and radio frequencies to enable safe operation of UAS; human factors issues for ground control stations; airworthiness certification standards for UAS avionics and integrated tests and evaluation designed to determine the viability of emerging UAS technology. Five Focus Areas of the UAS Integration in the NAS Project Separation Assurance Provide an assessment of how planned Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) separation assurance systems, with different functional allocations, perform for UAS in mixed operations with manned aircraft Assess the applicability to UAS and the performance of NASA NextGen separation assurance systems in flight tests with realistic latencies and uncertain trajectories Assess functional allocations ranging from today's ground-based, controller-provided aircraft separation to fully autonomous airborne self-separation Communications Develop data and rationale to obtain appropriate frequency spectrum allocations to enable safe and efficient operation of UAS in the NAS Develop and validate candidate secure safety-critical command and control system/subsystem test equipment for UAS that complies with UAS international/national frequency regulations, standards and recommended practices and minimum operational and aviation system performance standards for UAS Perform analysis to support recommendations for integration of safety-critical command and control systems and air traffic control communications to ensure safe and efficient operation of UAS in the NAS

  13. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Sensor and Targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    Identify an uncoiled garden hose lying on the ground. 8.2 Identify specific type of truck crop being grown (e.g., tomatoes, peppers, lettuce ). 8.2... lettuce ). (NIIRS 8.2) Detect scoring of poppy bulbs. (NIIRS 8.5) Detect tubing (approximately 1-inch diameter) for drip irrigation systems. (NIIR5 8.5...trial can be presented as a time history for each axis. A sample is shown in Figures C.1-3 and C.1-4. TOP 07-1-003 27 July 2010 C-2

  14. ARV robotic technologies (ART): a risk reduction effort for future unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Jeffrey F.

    2006-05-01

    The Army's ARV (Armed Robotic Vehicle) Robotic Technologies (ART) program is working on the development of various technological thrusts for use in the robotic forces of the future. The ART program will develop, integrate and demonstrate the technology required to advance the maneuver technologies (i.e., perception, mobility, tactical behaviors) and increase the survivability of unmanned platforms for the future force while focusing on reducing the soldiers' burden by providing an increase in vehicle autonomy coinciding with a decrease in the total number user interventions required to control the unmanned assets. This program will advance the state of the art in perception technologies to provide the unmanned platform an increasingly accurate view of the terrain that surrounds it; while developing tactical/mission behavior technologies to provide the Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) the capability to maneuver tactically, in conjunction with the manned systems in an autonomous mode. The ART testbed will be integrated with the advanced technology software and associated hardware developed under this effort, and incorporate appropriate mission modules (e.g. RSTA sensors, MILES, etc.) to support Warfighter experiments and evaluations (virtual and field) in a military significant environment (open/rolling and complex/urban terrain). The outcome of these experiments as well as other lessons learned through out the program life cycle will be used to reduce the current risks that are identified for the future UGV systems that will be developed under the Future Combat Systems (FCS) program, including the early integration of an FCS-like autonomous navigation system onto a tracked skid steer platform.

  15. Low Cost Integrated Navigation System for Unmanned Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Changsong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Large errors of low-cost MEMS inertial measurement unit (MIMU lead to huge navigation errors, even wrong navigation information. An integrated navigation system for unmanned vessel is proposed. It consists of a low-cost MIMU and Doppler velocity sonar (DVS. This paper presents an integrated navigation method, to improve the performance of navigation system. The integrated navigation system is tested using simulation and semi-physical simulation experiments, whose results show that attitude, velocity and position accuracy has improved awfully, giving exactly accurate navigation results. By means of the combination of low-cost MIMU and DVS, the proposed system is able to overcome fast drift problems of the low cost IMU.

  16. Diagnostic Reasoning using Prognostic Information for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Roychoudhury, Indranil; Kulkarni, Chetan

    2015-01-01

    With increasing popularity of unmanned aircraft, continuous monitoring of their systems, software, and health status is becoming more and more important to ensure safe, correct, and efficient operation and fulfillment of missions. The paper presents integration of prognosis models and prognostic information with the R2U2 (REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, and UNOBTRUSIVE Unit) monitoring and diagnosis framework. This integration makes available statistically reliable health information predictions of the future at a much earlier time to enable autonomous decision making. The prognostic information can be used in the R2U2 model to improve diagnostic accuracy and enable decisions to be made at the present time to deal with events in the future. This will be an advancement over the current state of the art, where temporal logic observers can only do such valuation at the end of the time interval. Usefulness and effectiveness of this integrated diagnostics and prognostics framework was demonstrated using simulation experiments with the NASA Dragon Eye electric unmanned aircraft.

  17. The development of ground unmanned vehicles, driver assistance systems and components according to patent publications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saykin, A. M.; Tuktakiev, G. S.; Zhuravlev, A. V.; Zaitseva, E. P.

    2018-02-01

    The paper contains the analysis of the main trends in the patenting of ground unmanned vehicles, driver assistance systems (ADAS) and unmanned vehicle components abroad during the period from 2010 to 2016. The conclusion was made that the intensity of their patenting abroad increased.

  18. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.

    2016-04-28

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU; an application executable by the computing device comprising: logic that estimates an angle of attack; a slip angle; and a speed of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based at least in part on data received from the UAV. A method can comprise estimating, via a computing device, flight data of a UAV based at least in part on data received from an IMU; comparing the estimated flight data with measured flight data; and triggering an error indication in response to a determination that the measured flight data exceeds a predefined deviation of the estimated flight data. The estimated speed can comprise an estimated airspeed, vertical speed and/or ground velocity.

  19. The use of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS in combat operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz GUGAŁA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this publication has been presented selected aspects of the wide spectrum of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS/UAV adaptation within the military structures. With regard to many years of experience of the author within the national and NATO Integrated Air Defence Command and Control System, the objective paper is also related to the Airspace Management (ASM in the light of present and future use of UAS in this environment. Wider and wider application of UAS in many areas of human life as well as in military and civilian services is forcing to take the definite steps in connection with elaboration of “New Concept of Polish Airspace Management in Context of UAS Development”, what is currently under consideration of the author. The respective publication is simultaneously the specific trial for inspiration of the civilian society to take an initiative heading for implementation of UAS out of military service.

  20. Concept development of control system for perspective unmanned aerial vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koryanov Vsevolod V.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Presented actual aspects of the development of the control system of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs in the example of perspective. Because the current and future UAV oriented to implementation of a wide range of tasks, taking into account the use of several types of payload, in this paper discusses the general principles of construction of onboard control complex, in turn, a hardware implementation of the automatic control system has been implemented in the microcontroller Arduino platform and the Raspberry Pi. In addition, in the paper presents the most common and promising way to ensure the smooth and reliable communication of the command post with the UAV as well as to the ways of parry considered and abnormal situations.

  1. Integrating the Unmanned Aircraft System into the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-18

    HALE High Altitude Long Endurance IFR Instrument Flight Rules ISR Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance JFC Joint Force Commander JP...many advantages and disadvantages of unmanned aircraft now made national headlines as UAS executed missions, once reserved for manned aircraft...of this research. To operate above 18,000 feet MSL the UAS must be filed under Instrument Flight Rules, or IFR flight plan. Additionally, the

  2. Synthetic Diagnostics Of The JET System Of The JET-2 Unmanned Drone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabak Ryszard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, , newer and newer designs of unmanned air vehicles have been appeared and in a spread and spread area. That is why, their service and in particular their diagnostics should be carried out both before and in each flight. In this paper, a description of both unmanned air vehicle JET-2 and its units and control system are presented. The paper includes also description of signals which are transmitted in a real time from the dron to the flight control station. These signals enable to state whether the vehicle works in a correct way. An interactive diagnostics model is presented as two united equations of state which are based on an observation that the usable value of the UAV resulting from its working standards, depends on its technical condition and what is more, technical condition depends on its working condition (intensity of usage. It should be stated that technical conditions are an environment for working conditions and working conditions are an environments for technical conditions. Presented model gives a comprehensive information about technical and working capability of a vehicle. It enables to plan next flights taking into account their currant potential and capability.

  3. Analysis of the Sustainment Organization and Process for the Marine Corps’ RQ-11B Raven Small Unmanned Aircraft System (SUAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Vehicle UAS Unmanned Aircraft System UCAV Unmanned Combat Air Vehicles xvii UNS Universal Needs Statement USMC United States Marine Corps VLC ...she helped motivate me to finish this project—as challenging as it may be to work under the conditions set by an infant. And, finally, thanks to...In every aspect of program management, the DoD acquisition workforce is constantly challenged to balance cost, schedule, and performance. In a

  4. Formal Methods in Air Traffic Management: The Case of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, Cesar A.

    2015-01-01

    As the technological and operational capabilities of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continue to grow, so too does the need to introduce these systems into civil airspace. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration in the National Airspace System is a NASA research project that addresses the integration of civil UAS into non-segregated airspace operations. One of the major challenges of this integration is the lack of an onboard pilot to comply with the legal requirement that pilots see and avoid other aircraft. The need to provide an equivalent to this requirement for UAS has motivated the development of a detect and avoid (DAA) capability to provide the appropriate situational awareness and maneuver guidance in avoiding and remaining well clear of traffic aircraft. Formal methods has played a fundamental role in the development of this capability. This talk reports on the formal methods work conducted under NASA's Safe Autonomous System Operations project in support of the development of DAA for UAS. This work includes specification of low-level and high-level functional requirements, formal verification of algorithms, and rigorous validation of software implementations. The talk also discusses technical challenges in formal methods research in the context of the development and safety analysis of advanced air traffic management concepts.

  5. Layered autonomous overwatch: the necessity and feasability of multiple unmanned systems in combat support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monckton, Simon; Digney, Bruce; Broten, Greg; Penzes, Steve

    2007-04-01

    Unmanned systems simultaneously reduce risk and magnify the impact of soldier-operators. For example, in Afghanistan UAVs routinely provide overwatch to manned units while UGVs support IED identification and disposal roles. Expanding these roles requires greater autonomy with a coherent unmanned "system of systems" approach that leverages one platform's strengths against the weakness of another. Specific collaborative unmanned systems such as shared sensing, communication relay, and distributed computing to achieve greater autonomy are often presented as possible solutions. By surveying currently deployed systems, this paper shows that the spectrum of air and ground systems provide an important mixture of range, speed, payload, and endurance with significant implications on mission structure. Rather than proposing UxV teams collaborating towards specific autonomous capabilities, this paper proposes that basic physical and environmental constraints will drive tactics towards a layered, unmanned battlespace that provides force protection and reconnaissance in depth to a manned core.

  6. SMA-Based System for Environmental Sensors Released from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pellone

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work at hand, a shape memory alloy (SMA-based system is presented. The system, conceived for releasing environmental sensors from ground or small unmanned aerial vehicles, UAV (often named UAS, unmanned aerial system, is made of a door, integrated into the bottom of the fuselage, a device distributor, operated by a couple of antagonistic SMA springs, and a kinematic chain, to synchronize the deployment operation with the system movement. On the basis of the specifications (weight, available space, energy supply, sensors size, etc., the system design was addressed. After having identified the main system characteristics, a representative mock-up was manufactured, featuring the bottom part of the reference fuselage. Functionality tests were performed to prove the system capability to release the sensors; a detailed characterization was finally carried out, mainly finalized at correlating the kinematic chain displacement with the SMA spring temperature and the supplied electrical power. A comparison between theoretical predictions and experimental outcomes showed good agreement.

  7. Plotting the Flight Envelope of an Unmanned Aircraft System Air Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glīzde Nikolajs

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The research is focused on the development of an Unmanned Aircraft System. One of the design process steps in the preliminary design phase is the calculation of the flight envelope for the Unmanned Aircraft System air vehicle. The results obtained will be used in the further design process. A flight envelope determines the minimum requirements for the object in Certification Specifications. The present situation does not impose any Certification Specification requirements for the class of the Unmanned Aircraft System under the development of the general European Union trend defined in the road map for the implementation of the Unmanned Aircraft System. However, operation in common European Aerospace imposes the necessity for regulations for micro class systems as well.

  8. Water Plume Temperature Measurements by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony DeMario

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on the development and testing of a proof of principle water temperature measurement system deployed on an unmanned aerial system (UAS, for field measurements of thermal discharges into water. The primary elements of the system include a quad-copter UAS to which has been integrated, for the first time, both a thermal imaging infrared (IR camera and an immersible probe that can be dipped below the water surface to obtain vertical water temperature profiles. The IR camera is used to take images of the overall water surface to geo-locate the plume, while the immersible probe provides quantitative temperature depth profiles at specific locations. The full system has been tested including the navigation of the UAS, its ability to safely carry the sensor payload, and the performance of both the IR camera and the temperature probe. Finally, the UAS sensor system was successfully deployed in a pilot field study at a coal burning power plant, and obtained images and temperature profiles of the thermal effluent.

  9. Water Plume Temperature Measurements by an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMario, Anthony; Lopez, Pete; Plewka, Eli; Wix, Ryan; Xia, Hai; Zamora, Emily; Gessler, Dan; Yalin, Azer P

    2017-02-07

    We report on the development and testing of a proof of principle water temperature measurement system deployed on an unmanned aerial system (UAS), for field measurements of thermal discharges into water. The primary elements of the system include a quad-copter UAS to which has been integrated, for the first time, both a thermal imaging infrared (IR) camera and an immersible probe that can be dipped below the water surface to obtain vertical water temperature profiles. The IR camera is used to take images of the overall water surface to geo-locate the plume, while the immersible probe provides quantitative temperature depth profiles at specific locations. The full system has been tested including the navigation of the UAS, its ability to safely carry the sensor payload, and the performance of both the IR camera and the temperature probe. Finally, the UAS sensor system was successfully deployed in a pilot field study at a coal burning power plant, and obtained images and temperature profiles of the thermal effluent.

  10. Trajectory Management of the Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS in Emergency Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Majka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aircraft must be characterized by a level of safety, similar to that of manned aircraft, when performing flights over densely populated areas. Dangerous situations or emergencies are frequently connected with the necessity to change the profiles and parameters of a flight as well as the flight plans. The aim of this work is to present the methods used to determine an Unmanned Aircraft System’s (UAS flight profile after a dangerous situation or emergency occurs. The analysis was limited to the possibility of an engine system emergency and further flight continuing along a trajectory of which the shape depends on the type of the emergency. The suggested method also enables the determination of an optimal flying trajectory, based on the territory of a special protection zone (for example, large populated areas, in the case of an emergency that would disable continuation of the performed task. The method used in this work allows researchers, in a simplified way, to solve a variation task using the Ritz–Galerkin method, consisting of an approximate solution of the boundary value problem to determine the optimal flight path. The worked out method can become an element of the on-board system supporting UAS flight control.

  11. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project FY16 Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindle, Laurie; Hackenberg, Davis

    2016-01-01

    This presentation gives insight into the research activities and efforts being executed in order to integrate unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system. This briefing is to inform others of the UAS-NAS FY16 progress and future directions.

  12. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Road to Effective Integration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrock, Christopher T; Huizenga, Thomas D

    2006-01-01

    ...) sharing airspace with manned assets. There have been at least two recent collisions between unmanned and rotary-wing aircraft at lower altitudes in Iraq, as well as numerous near misses with fixed-wing aircraft at higher altitudes...

  13. Platform Innovations and System Integration for Unmanned Air, Land and Sea Vehicles Symposium. Technical Evaluation Report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Decuypere, Roland; Selegan, David

    2007-01-01

    ...) of the Research and Technology Organization (RTO) of NATO organized a joint symposium on Platform Innovations and System Integration for Unmanned Air, Land and Sea Vehicles which met from 14-18 May 2007 in Florence Italy...

  14. Non-Parametric, Closed-Loop Testing of Autonomy in Unmanned Aircraft Systems, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I program aims to develop new methods to support safety testing for integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace (NAS) with...

  15. Development of an unmanned agricultural robotics system for measuring crop conditions for precision aerial application

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Unmanned Agricultural Robotics System (UARS) is acquired, rebuilt with desired hardware, and operated in both classrooms and field. The UARS includes crop height sensor, crop canopy analyzer, normalized difference vegetative index (NDVI) sensor, multispectral camera, and hyperspectral radiometer...

  16. The Integration of the Fire Scout Tactical Unmanned Aerial System into Littoral Combat Ship Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marsh, James J

    2007-01-01

    ...) is an effective mission multiplier for the Littoral Combat Ship (LCS). The U.S. Navy relies heavily on unmanned systems, such as the Fire Scout UAS, to enable LCS to conduct several complex littoral missions...

  17. Determination of OB/OD/SF Emission Factors Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    A presentation to the Demilitarization Symposium. This proposal will present the methods of tethered aerostat and unmanned aerial system for collection of plume samples and determination of emission factors form open burning, open detonation, and static firing for weapon demilita...

  18. Development of Cursor-on-Target Control for Semi-Autonomous Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Crouse, Joshua D

    2007-01-01

    .... The goal of this research is to develop a preliminary Cursor-on-Target control system to enable the operator to guide the unmanned aircraft with minimal workload during high task phases of flight...

  19. A lightweight hyperspectral mapping system and photogrammetric processing chain for unmanned aerial vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suomalainen, J.M.; Anders, N.S.; Iqbal, S.; Roerink, G.J.; Franke, G.J.; Wenting, P.F.M.; Hünniger, D.; Bartholomeus, H.; Becker, R.; Kooistra, L.

    2014-01-01

    During the last years commercial hyperspectral imaging sensors have been miniaturized and their performance has been demonstrated on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). However currently the commercial hyperspectral systems still require minimum payload capacity of approximately 3 kg, forcing usage of

  20. RQ-21A Blackjack Small Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System (STUAS): Initial Operational Test and Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-29

    Evaluation Report June 2015 This report on the RQ-21A Blackjack Small Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System fulfills the provisions of Title 10...suitability of the RQ-21A Blackjack Small Tactical Unmanned Aircraft System (STUAS) during Initial Operational Test and Evaluation (IOT&E). The Navy’s...66.9 percent). The average service life of the propulsion modules was 48.9 hours, which does not meet the manufacturer’s stated 100-hour

  1. Managing the integration and harmonization of national airspace for unmanned and manned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumm, Hans

    This dissertation examines the leadership challenge created by the requirement to integrate unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) into the national airspace system (NAS). The lack of UAV-related federal rules and regulations is a primary factor prolonging this integration. This effort focuses primarily on the leadership portion of the solution and not the technological requirements. The research explores an adaptation of the complexity theory that offers a potential leadership framework for the government, industry, and academia to use for achieving the full integration of UAVs into the NAS. Due to the large number of stakeholders and the multitude of interrelated issues, a complexity-theory-leadership methodology was created and examined as a potential way to help the FAA accelerate their rule-making efforts. This dissertation focuses on United States UAV issues. The United States is one of the leaders in the unmanned systems arena, to include the first significant use of recoverable autonomous weaponized systems in combat. Issues such as airspace, airworthiness, social issues, privacy issues, regulations, and the lack of policies, procedures, or governance are universal for all countries that are active in this technology area. This qualitative dissertation makes use of the grounded theory methodology as it combines a literature review and research along with interviews with subject matter experts, and information gained from attending UAV related gatherings/discussions. The investigation uncovered significant FAA process impediments as well as some possible break through concepts that could work well with the complexity-theory-leadership methodology. Keywords: Complexity theory, leadership, change management, UAV, unmanned aerial vehicle, National Airspace, NAS, FAA, Federal Aviation Administration.

  2. COCAP: a carbon dioxide analyser for small unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Martin; Lavric, Jost V.; Gerbig, Christoph; Tans, Pieter; Neff, Don; Hummelgård, Christine; Martin, Hans; Rödjegård, Henrik; Wrenger, Burkhard; Heimann, Martin

    2018-03-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UASs) could provide a cost-effective way to close gaps in the observation of the carbon cycle, provided that small yet accurate analysers are available. We have developed a COmpact Carbon dioxide analyser for Airborne Platforms (COCAP). The accuracy of COCAP's carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements is ensured by calibration in an environmental chamber, regular calibration in the field and by chemical drying of sampled air. In addition, the package contains a lightweight thermal stabilisation system that reduces the influence of ambient temperature changes on the CO2 sensor by 2 orders of magnitude. During validation of COCAP's CO2 measurements in simulated and real flights we found a measurement error of 1.2 µmol mol-1 or better with no indication of bias. COCAP is a self-contained package that has proven well suited for the operation on board small UASs. Besides carbon dioxide dry air mole fraction it also measures air temperature, humidity and pressure. We describe the measurement system and our calibration strategy in detail to support others in tapping the potential of UASs for atmospheric trace gas measurements.

  3. Unmanned airborne system in real-time radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafrir, H.; Pernick, A.; Yaffe, U.; Grushka, A.

    1993-01-01

    The unmanned airborne vehicle (UAV) platform, equipped with an appropriate payload and capable of carrying a variety of modular sensors, is an effective tool for real-time control of environmental disasters of different types (e.g. nuclear or chemical accidents). The suggested payloads consist of a miniaturised self-collimating nuclear spectrometry sensor and electro-optical sensors for day and night imagery. The system provides means of both real-time field data acquisition in an endangered environment and on-line hazard assessment computation from the down link raw data. All the processing, including flight planning using an expert system, is performed by a dedicated microcomputer located in a Mobile Ground Control Station (MGCS) situated outside the hazardous area. The UAV equipment is part of a system designed especially for the critically important early phase of emergency response. Decisions by the Emergency Response Manager (ERM) are also based on the ability to estimate the potential dose to individuals and the mitigation of dose when protection measures are implemented. (author)

  4. Evaluation of Forest Health Conditions using Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.

    2016-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks, Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. In July 2016, the team deployed UAS at locations in the Tanana Valley near Fairbanks in order to familiarize FHP staff with capabilities of UAS for evaluating insect and disease damage. While many potential uses of UAS to evaluate and monitor forest health can be envisioned, this project focused on use of a small UAS for rapid assessment of insect and disease damage. Traditional ground-based methods are limited by distance from ground to canopy and inaccessibility of forest stands due to terrain conditions. Observation from fixed-wing aircraft provide a broad overview of conditions but are limited by minimum safe flying altitude (500' AGL) and aircraft speed ( 100 mph). UAS may provide a crucial bridge to fill in gaps between ground and airborne methods, and offer significant cost savings and greater flexibility over helicopter-based observations. Previous uses of UAS for forest health monitoring are limited - this project focuses on optimizing choice of vehicle, sensors, resolution and area scanned from different altitudes, and use of visual spectrum vs NIR image collection. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. Sites were chosen for conditions favorable to UAS operation and presence of forest insect and disease agents including spruce broom rust, aspen leaf miner, birch leaf roller, and willow leafblotch miner. A total of 29 flights were conducted with 9000+ images collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, and medium- (Sony NEX-7) vs low-resolution (GoPro Hero) cameras. Invaluable

  5. Unmanned Aerial System Aids Dry-season Stream Temperature Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, M.; Detweiler, C.; Higgins, J.; Ore, J. P.; Dralle, D.; Thompson, S. E.

    2016-12-01

    In freshwater ecosystems, temperature affects biogeochemistry and ecology, and is thus a primary physical determinant of habitat quality. Measuring temperatures in spatially heterogeneous water bodies poses a serious challenge to researchers due to constraints associated with currently available methods: in situ loggers record temporally continuous temperature measurements but are limited to discrete spatial locations, while distributed temperature and remote sensing provide fine-resolution spatial measurements that are restricted to only two-dimensions (i.e. streambed and surface, respectively). Using a commercially available quadcopter equipped with a 6m cable and temperature-pressure sensor system, we measured stream temperatures at two confluences at the South Fork Eel River, where cold water inputs from the tributary to the mainstem create thermal refugia for juvenile salmonids during the dry season. As a mobile sensing platform, unmanned aerial systems (UAS) can facilitate quick and repeated sampling with minimal disturbance to the ecosystem, and their datasets can be interpolated to create a three-dimensional thermal map of a water body. The UAS-derived data was compared to data from in situ data loggers to evaluate whether the UAS is better able to capture fine-scale temperature dynamics at each confluence. The UAS has inherent limitations defined by battery life and flight times, as well as operational constraints related to maneuverability under wind and streamflow conditions. However, the platform is able to serve as an additional field tool for researchers to capture complex thermal structures in water bodies.

  6. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems in Marine Mammal Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Fiori

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial systems (UAS, commonly referred to as drones, are finding applications in several ecological research areas since remotely piloted aircraft (RPA technology has ceased to be a military prerogative. Fixed-wing RPA have been tested for line transect aerial surveys of geographically dispersed marine mammal species. Despite many advantages, their systematic use is far from a reality. Low altitude, long endurance systems are still highly priced. Regulatory bodies also impose limitations while struggling to cope with UAS rapid technological evolution. In contrast, small vertical take-off and landing (VTOL UAS have become increasingly affordable but lack the flight endurance required for long-range aerial surveys. Although this issue and civil aviation regulations prevent the use of VTOL UAS for marine mammal abundance estimation on a large scale, recent studies have highlighted other potential applications. The present note represents a general overview on the use of UAS as a survey tool for marine mammal studies. The literature pertaining to UAS marine mammal research applications is considered with special concern for advantages and limitations of the survey design. The use of lightweight VTOL UAS to collect marine mammal behavioral data is also discussed.

  7. Building Change Detection from Harvey using Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, A.; Yeom, J.; Jung, J.; Choi, I.

    2017-12-01

    Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) is getting to be the most important technique in recent days since the fine spatial and high temporal resolution data previously unobtainable from traditional remote sensing platforms. Advanced UAS data can provide a great opportunity for disaster monitoring. Especially, building change detection is the one of the most important topics for damage assessment and recovery from disasters. This study is proposing a method to monitor building change with UAS data for Holiday Beach in Texas, where was directly hit by Harvey on 25 August 2017. This study adopted 3D change detection to monitor building damage and recovery levels with building height as well as natural color information. We used a rotorcraft UAS to collect RGB data twice on 9 September and 18 October 2017 after the hurricane. The UAS data was processed using Agisoft Photoscan Pro Software to generate super high resolution dataset including orthomosaic, DSM (Digital Surface Model), and 3D point cloud. We compared the processed dataset with an airborne image considerable as before-hurricane data, which was acquired on January 2016. Building damage and recovery levels were determined by height and color change. The result will show that UAS data is useful to assess building damage and recovery for affected area by the natural disaster such as Harvey.

  8. Assessing Pine Processionary Moth Defoliation Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Cardil

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Pine processionary moth (PPM is one of the most destructive insect defoliators in the Mediterranean for many conifers, causing losses of growth, vitality and eventually the death of trees during outbreaks. There is a growing need for cost-effective monitoring of the temporal and spatial impacts of PPM in forest ecology to better assess outbreak spread patterns and provide guidance on the development of measures targeting the negative impacts of the species on forests, industry and human health. Remote sensing technology mounted on unmanned aerial systems (UASs with high-resolution image processing has been proposed to assess insect outbreak impacts at local and forest stand levels. Here, we used UAS-acquired RGB imagery in two pine sites to quantify defoliation at the tree-level and to verify the accuracy of the estimates. Our results allowed the identification of healthy, infested and completely defoliated trees and suggested that pine defoliation estimates using UASs are robust and allow high-accuracy (79% field-based infestation indexes to be derived that are comparable to those used by forest technicians. When compared to current field-based methods, our approach provides PPM impact assessments with an efficient data acquisition method in terms of time and staff, allowing the quantitative estimation of defoliation at tree-level scale. Furthermore, our method could be expanded to a number of situations and scaled up in combination with satellite remote sensing imagery or citizen science approaches.

  9. On the Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Manfreda, Salvatore; McCabe, Matthew; Miller, Pauline; Lucas, Richard; Pajuelo Madrigal, Victor; Mallinis, Giorgos; Ben Dor, Eyal; Helman, David; Estes, Lyndon; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; Mü llerová , Jana; Tauro, Flavia; De Lima, M. Isabel; De Lima, Joao L.M.P.; Frances, Felix; Caylor, Kelly; Kohv, Marko; Maltese, Antonino; Perks, Matthew; Ruiz-Pé rez, Guiomar; Su, Zhongbo; Vico, Giulia; Toth, Brigitta

    2018-01-01

    Environmental monitoring plays a central role in diagnosing climate and management impacts on natural and agricultural systems, enhancing the understanding hydrological processes, optimizing the allocation and distribution of water resources, and assessing, forecasting and even preventing natural disasters. Nowadays, most monitoring and data collection systems are based upon a combination of ground-based measurements, manned airborne sensors or satellite observations. These data are utilized in describing both small and large scale processes, but have spatiotemporal constraints inherent to each respective collection system. Bridging the unique spatial and temporal divides that limit current monitoring platforms is key to improving our understanding of environmental systems. In this context, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have considerable potential to radically evolve environmental monitoring. UAS-mounted sensors offer an extraordinary opportunity to bridge the existing gap between field observations and traditional air- and space-borne remote sensing, by providing not just high spatial detail over relatively large areas in a cost-effective way, but as importantly providing an entirely new capacity for enhanced temporal retrieval. As well as showcasing recent advances in the field, there is also a need to identify and understand the potential limitations of UAS technology. For these platforms to reach their monitoring potential, a wide spectrum of unresolved issues and applications specific challenges require focused community attention. Indeed, to leverage the full potential of UAS-based approaches, sensing technologies, measurement protocols, post-processing techniques, retrieval algorithms and evaluations techniques need to be harmonized. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive general overview of the existing research on studies and applications of UAS in environmental monitoring in order to suggest users and researchers on future research directions

  10. On the Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems for Environmental Monitoring

    KAUST Repository

    Manfreda, Salvatore

    2018-03-16

    Environmental monitoring plays a central role in diagnosing climate and management impacts on natural and agricultural systems, enhancing the understanding hydrological processes, optimizing the allocation and distribution of water resources, and assessing, forecasting and even preventing natural disasters. Nowadays, most monitoring and data collection systems are based upon a combination of ground-based measurements, manned airborne sensors or satellite observations. These data are utilized in describing both small and large scale processes, but have spatiotemporal constraints inherent to each respective collection system. Bridging the unique spatial and temporal divides that limit current monitoring platforms is key to improving our understanding of environmental systems. In this context, Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have considerable potential to radically evolve environmental monitoring. UAS-mounted sensors offer an extraordinary opportunity to bridge the existing gap between field observations and traditional air- and space-borne remote sensing, by providing not just high spatial detail over relatively large areas in a cost-effective way, but as importantly providing an entirely new capacity for enhanced temporal retrieval. As well as showcasing recent advances in the field, there is also a need to identify and understand the potential limitations of UAS technology. For these platforms to reach their monitoring potential, a wide spectrum of unresolved issues and applications specific challenges require focused community attention. Indeed, to leverage the full potential of UAS-based approaches, sensing technologies, measurement protocols, post-processing techniques, retrieval algorithms and evaluations techniques need to be harmonized. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive general overview of the existing research on studies and applications of UAS in environmental monitoring in order to suggest users and researchers on future research directions

  11. Unmanned Aerial Systems for Monitoring Trace Tropospheric Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis J. Schuyler

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs has changed the composition of the atmosphere during the Anthropocene. Accurately documenting the sources and magnitude of GHGs emission is an important undertaking for discriminating the contributions of different processes to radiative forcing. Currently there is no mobile platform that is able to quantify trace gases at altitudes <100 m above ground level that can achieve spatiotemporal resolution on the order of meters and seconds. Unmanned aerial systems (UASs can be deployed on-site in minutes and can support the payloads necessary to quantify trace gases. Therefore, current efforts combine the use of UASs available on the civilian market with inexpensively designed analytical systems for monitoring atmospheric trace gases. In this context, this perspective introduces the most relevant classes of UASs available and evaluates their suitability to operate three kinds of detectors for atmospheric trace gases. The three subsets of UASs discussed are: (1 micro aerial vehicles (MAVs; (2 vertical take-off and landing (VTOL; and, (3 low-altitude short endurance (LASE systems. The trace gas detectors evaluated are first the vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL, which is an infrared laser-absorption technique; second two types of metal-oxide semiconductor sensors; and, third a modified catalytic type sensor. UASs with wingspans under 3 m that can carry up to 5 kg a few hundred meters high for at least 30 min provide the best cost and convenience compromise for sensors deployment. Future efforts should be focused on the calibration and validation of lightweight analytical systems mounted on UASs for quantifying trace atmospheric gases. In conclusion, UASs offer new and exciting opportunities to study atmospheric composition and its effect on weather patterns and climate change.

  12. Design of Sail-Assisted Unmanned Surface Vehicle Intelligent Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To achieve the wind sail-assisted function of the unmanned surface vehicle (USV, this work focuses on the design problems of the sail-assisted USV intelligent control systems (SUICS and illustrates the implementation process of the SUICS. The SUICS consists of the communication system, the sensor system, the PC platform, and the lower machine platform. To make full use of the wind energy, in the SUICS, we propose the sail angle of attack automatic adjustment (Sail_4A algorithm and present the realization flow for each subsystem of the SUICS. By using the test boat, the design and implementation of the SUICS are fulfilled systematically. Experiments verify the performance and effectiveness of our SUICS. The SUICS enhances the intelligent utility of sustainable wind energy for the sail-assisted USV significantly and plays a vital role in shipping energy-saving emission reduction requirements issued by International Maritime Organization (IMO.

  13. Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI): Operational Support and Geoscience Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Cahill, C. F.; Rogers, M.; Hatfield, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have enormous potential for use in geoscience research and supporting operational needs from natural hazard assessment to the mitigation of critical infrastructure failure. They provide a new tool for universities, local, state, federal, and military organizations to collect new measurements not readily available from other sensors. We will present on the UAS capabilities and research of the Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI, http://acuasi.alaska.edu/). Our UAS range from the Responder with its dual visible/infrared payload that can provide simultaneous data to our new SeaHunter UAS with 90 lb. payload and multiple hour flight time. ACUASI, as a designated US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) test center, works closely with the FAA on integrating UAS into the national airspace. ACUASI covers all aspects of working with UAS from pilot training, airspace navigation, flight operations, and remote sensing analysis to payload design and integration engineers and policy experts. ACUASI's recent missions range from supporting the mapping of sea ice cover for safe passage of Alaskans across the hazardous winter ice to demonstrating how UAS can be used to provide support during oil spill response. Additionally, we will present on how ACUASI has worked with local authorities in Alaska to integrate UAS into search and rescue operations and with NASA and the FAA on their UAS Transport Management (UTM) project to fly UAS within the manned airspace. ACUASI is also working on developing new capabilities to sample volcanic plumes and clouds, map forest fire impacts and burn areas, and develop a new citizen network for monitoring snow extent and depth during Northern Hemisphere winters. We will demonstrate how UAS can be integrated in operational support systems and at the same time be used in geoscience research projects to provide high precision, accurate, and reliable observations.

  14. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) National Campaign II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aweiss, Arwa S.; Owens, Brandon D.; Rios, Joseph L.; Homola, Jeffrey R.; Mohlenbrink, Christoph P.

    2018-01-01

    The Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) effort at NASA aims to enable access to low-altitude airspace for small UAS. This goal is being pursued partly through partnerships that NASA has developed with the UAS stakeholder community, the FAA, other government agencies, and the designated FAA UAS Test Sites. By partnering with the FAA UAS Test Sites, NASA's UTM project has performed a geographically diverse, simultaneous set of UAS operations at locations in six states. The demonstrations used an architecture that was developed by NASA in partnership with the FAA to safely coordinate such operations. These demonstrations-the second or 'Technical Capability Level (TCL 2)' National Campaign of UTM testing-was performed from May 15 through June 9, 2017. Multiple UAS operations occurred during the testing at sites located in Alaska, Nevada, Texas, North Dakota, Virginia, and New York with multiple organizations serving as UAS Service Suppliers and/or UAS Operators per the specifications provided by NASA. By engaging various members of the UAS community in development and operational roles, this campaign provided initial validation of different aspects of the UTM concept including: UAS Service Supplier technologies and procedures; geofencing technologies/conformance monitoring; ground-based surveillance/sense and avoid; airborne sense and avoid; communication, navigation, surveillance; and human factors related to UTM data creation and display. Additionally, measures of performance were defined and calculated from the flight data to establish quantitative bases for comparing flight test activities and to provide potential metrics that might be routinely monitored in future operational UTM systems.

  15. A Summary of NASA Research Exploring the Acoustics of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Christian, Andrew; Cabell, Randolph

    2018-01-01

    Proposed uses of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) have the potential to expose large portions of communities to a new noise source. In order to understand the potential noise impact of sUAS, NASA initiated acoustics research as one component of the 3-year DELIVER project, with the goal of documenting the feasibility of using existing aircraft design tools and methods on this class of vehicles. This paper summarizes the acoustics research conducted within the DELIVER project. The research described here represents an initial study, and subsequent research building on the findings of this work has been proposed for other NASA projects. The paper summarizes acoustics research in four areas: measurements of noise generated by flyovers of small unmanned aerial vehicles, measurements in controlled test facilities to understand the noise generated by components of these vehicles, computational predictions of component and full vehicle noise, and psychoacoustic tests including auralizations conducted to assess human annoyance to the noise generated by these vehicles.

  16. Developing Collective Training for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durlach, Paula J.; Priest, Heather; Martin, Glenn A.; Saffold, Jay

    2010-01-01

    The projected use of small unmanned aerial systems (SUAS) in military operations will produce training requirements which go beyond current capabilities. The paper describes the development of prototype training procedures and accompanying research simulations to address this need. We initially constructed a testbed to develop simulation-based training for an SUAS operator equipped with a simulated vertical-lift and land SUAS. However, the required training will go beyond merely training an operator how to pilot an SUAS. In addition to tactics, techniques, and procedures for employment of SUASs, collective training methods must be trained. Moreover, the leader of a unit equipped with SUAS will need to learn how to plan missions which incorporate the SUAS, and take into account air space and frequency management considerations. The demands of the task require the leader to allocate personnel to the SUAS mission, communicate and coordinate with those personnel during the mission, and make use of the information provided. To help address these training issues, we expanded our research testbed to include a command and control node (C2 node), to enable communications between a leader and the SUAS operator. In addition, we added a virtual environment in which dismounted infantry missions can be conducted. This virtual environment provides the opportunity for interactions among human-controlled avatars and non-player characters (NPCs), plus authoring tools to construct scenarios. Using these NPCs, a collective exercise involving friendly, enemy, and civilian personnel can be conducted without the need for a human role-player for every entity. We will describe the results of our first experiment, which examined the ability of players to negotiate use of the C2 node and the virtual environment at the same time, in order to see if this is a feasible combination of tools for training development.

  17. ARM Aerial Facility ArcticShark Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, B.; Hubbell, M.; Mei, F.; Carroll, P.; Mendoza, A.; Ireland, C.; Lewko, K.

    2017-12-01

    The TigerShark Block 3 XP-AR "ArcticShark" Unmanned Aerial System (UAS), developed and manufactured by Navmar Applied Sciences Corporation (NASC), is a single-prop, 60 hp rotary-engine platform with a wingspan of 6.5 m and Maximum Gross Takeoff Weight of 295 Kg. The ArcticShark is owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and has been operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) since March 2017. The UAS will serve as an airborne atmospheric research observatory for DOE ARM, and, once fully operational, can be requested through ARM's annual call for proposals. The Arctic Shark is anticipated to measure a wide range of radiative, aerosol, and cloud properties using a variable instrument payload weighing up to 46 Kg. SATCOM-equipped, it is capable of taking measurements up to altitudes of 5.5 Km over ranges of up to 500 Km. The ArcticShark operates at airspeeds of 30 to 40 m/s, making it capable of slow sampling. With a full fuel load, its endurance exceeds 8 hours. The aircraft and its Mobile Operations Center (MOC) have been hardened specifically for operations in colder temperatures.ArcticShark's design facilitates rapid integration of various types of payloads. 2500 W of its 4000 W electrical systems is dedicated to payload servicing. It has an interior payload volume of almost 85 L and four wing-mounted pylons capable of carrying external probes. Its payload bay volume, electrical power, payload capacity, and flight characteristics enable the ArcticShark to accommodate multiple combinations of payloads in numerous configurations. Many instruments will be provided by the ARM Aerial Facility (AAF), but other organizations may eventually propose instrumentation for specific campaigns. AAF-provided measurement capabilities will include the following atmospheric state and thermodynamics: temperature, pressure, winds; gases: H2O and CO2; up- and down-welling broadband infrared and visible radiation; surface temperature; aerosol number concentration

  18. BLM Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Resource Management Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatfield, M. C.; Breen, A. L.; Thurau, R.

    2016-12-01

    The Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management is funding research at the University of Alaska Fairbanks to study Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Resource Management Operations. In August 2015, the team conducted flight research at UAF's Toolik Field Station (TFS). The purpose was to determine the most efficient use of small UAS to collect low-altitude airborne digital stereo images, process the stereo imagery into close-range photogrammetry products, and integrate derived imagery products into the BLM's National Assessment, Inventory and Monitoring (AIM) Strategy. The AIM Strategy assists managers in answering questions of land resources at all organizational levels and develop management policy at regional and national levels. In Alaska, the BLM began to implement its AIM strategy in the National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska (NPR-A) in 2012. The primary goals of AIM-monitoring at the NPR-A are to implement an ecological baseline to monitor ecological trends, and to develop a monitoring network to understand the efficacy of management decisions. The long-term AIM strategy also complements other ongoing NPR-A monitoring processes, collects multi-use and multi-temporal data, and supports understanding of ecosystem management strategies in order to implement defensible natural resource management policy. The campaign measured vegetation types found in the NPR-A, using UAF's TFS location as a convenient proxy. The vehicle selected was the ACUASI Ptarmigan, a small hexacopter (based on DJI S800 airframe and 3DR autopilot) capable of carrying a 1.5 kg payload for 15 min for close-range environmental monitoring missions. The payload was a stereo camera system consisting of Sony NEX7's with various lens configurations (16/20/24/35 mm). A total of 77 flights were conducted over a 4 ½ day period, with 1.5 TB of data collected. Mission variables included camera height, UAS speed, transect overlaps, and camera lenses/settings. Invaluable knowledge was gained as to

  19. Building Toward an Unmanned Aircraft System Training Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and fly at altitudes higher than commercial airlines do. They file instrument flight rules flight plans. However, BAMS-D and Triton do not...incorporate sense-and-avoid technology, and conflicts can exist with visual flight rules aircraft in the airspace. Airspace issues exist at some Navy training...MODS, Washington, DC, February 2011, p. 1 of 10. 164 Peter La Franchi , “Directory: Unmanned Air Vehicles,” Flight International, June 21st, 2005, p. 56

  20. Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over Systems Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-24

    Unmanned Carrier-Based Aircraft System: Debate over System’s Role Led to Focus on Aerial Refueling Prior to February 2016, the Navy had planned to...Background In a May 2015 report, we found that the intended mission and required capabilities of UCLASS were under review as there was debate ...environments, or largely strike with limited surveillance capability operating in highly contested environments.2 This debate delayed the expected

  1. A survey of autonomous vision-based See and Avoid for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfadyen, Aaron; Mejias, Luis

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive review of the vision-based See and Avoid problem for unmanned aircraft. The unique problem environment and associated constraints are detailed, followed by an in-depth analysis of visual sensing limitations. In light of such detection and estimation constraints, relevant human, aircraft and robot collision avoidance concepts are then compared from a decision and control perspective. Remarks on system evaluation and certification are also included to provide a holistic review approach. The intention of this work is to clarify common misconceptions, realistically bound feasible design expectations and offer new research directions. It is hoped that this paper will help us to unify design efforts across the aerospace and robotics communities.

  2. M and S supporting unmanned autonomous systems (UAxS) concept development and experimentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, Marco; Scaccianoce, Alfio; Corona, Fabio; Forconi, Sonia; Byrum, Frank; Fowler, Olivia; Sidoran, James L.

    2017-05-01

    The development of the next generation of multi-domain unmanned semi and fully autonomous C4ISR systems involves a multitude of security concerns and interoperability challenges. Conceptual solutions to capability shortfalls and gaps can be identified through Concept Development and Experimentation (CD and E) cycles. Modelling and Simulation (M and S) is a key tool in supporting unmanned autonomous systems (UAxS) CD and E activities and addressing associated security challenges. This paper serves to illustrate the application of M and S to UAxS development and highlight initiatives made by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) M and S Centre of Excellence (CoE) to facilitate interoperability. The NATO M and S CoE collaborates with other NATO and Nations bodies in order to develop UAxS projects such as the Allied Command for Transformation Counter Unmanned Autonomous Systems (CUAxS) project or the work of Science and Technology Organization (STO) panels. Some initiatives, such as Simulated Interactive Robotics Initiative (SIRI) made the baseline for further developments and to study emerging technologies in M and S and robotics fields. Artificial Intelligence algorithm modelling, Robot Operating Systems (ROS), network operations, cyber security, interoperable languages and related data models are some of the main aspects considered in this paper. In particular, the implementation of interoperable languages like C-BML and NIEM MilOps are discussed in relation to a Command and Control - Simulation Interoperability (C2SIM) paradigm. All these technologies are used to build a conceptual architecture to support UAxS CD and E.In addition, other projects that the NATO M and S CoE is involved in, such as the NATO Urbanization Project could provide credible future operational environments and benefit UAxS project development, as dual application of UAxS technology in large urbanized areas.In conclusion, this paper contains a detailed overview regarding how applying

  3. An autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle sensing system for structural health monitoring of bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Daniel; Sabato, Alessandro; Niezrecki, Christopher; Yu, Tzuyang; Wilson, Richard

    2016-04-01

    As civil infrastructure (i.e. bridges, railways, and tunnels) continues to age; the frequency and need to perform inspection more quickly on a broader scale increases. Traditional inspection and monitoring techniques (e.g., visual inspection, mechanical sounding, rebound hammer, cover meter, electrical potential measurements, ultrasound, and ground penetrating radar) may produce inconsistent results, require lane closure, are labor intensive and time-consuming. Therefore, new structural health monitoring systems must be developed that are automated, highly accurate, minimally invasive, and cost effective. Three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation (DIC) systems have the merits of extracting full-field strain, deformation, and geometry profiles. These profiles can then be stitched together to generate a complete integrity map of the area of interest. Concurrently, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have emerged as valuable resources for positioning sensing equipment where it is either difficult to measure or poses a risk to human safety. UAVs have the capability to expedite the optical-based measurement process, offer increased accessibility, and reduce interference with local traffic. Within this work, an autonomous unmanned aerial vehicle in conjunction with 3D DIC was developed for monitoring bridges. The capabilities of the proposed system are demonstrated in both laboratory measurements and data collected from bridges currently in service. Potential measurement influences from platform instability, rotor vibration and positioning inaccuracy are also studied in a controlled environment. The results of these experiments show that the combination of autonomous flight with 3D DIC and other non-contact measurement systems provides a valuable and effective civil inspection platform.

  4. Marginal Ice Zone Processes Observed from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zappa, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent years have seen extreme changes in the Arctic. Marginal ice zones (MIZ), or areas where the "ice-albedo feedback" driven by solar warming is highest and ice melt is extensive, may provide insights into the extent of these changes. Furthermore, MIZ play a central role in setting the air-sea CO2 balance making them a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Incomplete understanding of how the sea-ice modulates gas fluxes renders it difficult to estimate the carbon budget in MIZ. Here, we investigate the turbulent mechanisms driving mixing and gas exchange in leads, polynyas and in the presence of ice floes using both field and laboratory measurements. Measurements from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in the marginal ice zone were made during 2 experiments: 1) North of Oliktok Point AK in the Beaufort Sea were made during the Marginal Ice Zone Ocean and Ice Observations and Processes EXperiment (MIZOPEX) in July-August 2013 and 2) Fram Strait and Greenland Sea northwest of Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard, Norway during the Air-Sea-Ice Physics and Biogeochemistry Experiment (ASIPBEX) April - May 2015. We developed a number of new payloads that include: i) hyperspectral imaging spectrometers to measure VNIR (400-1000 nm) and NIR (900-1700 nm) spectral radiance; ii) net longwave and net shortwave radiation for ice-ocean albedo studies; iii) air-sea-ice turbulent fluxes as well as wave height, ice freeboard, and surface roughness with a LIDAR; and iv) drone-deployed micro-drifters (DDµD) deployed from the UAS that telemeter temperature, pressure, and RH as it descends through the atmosphere and temperature and salinity of the upper meter of the ocean once it lands on the ocean's surface. Visible and IR imagery of melting ice floes clearly defines the scale of the ice floes. The IR imagery show distinct cooling of the skin sea surface temperature (SST) as well as an intricate circulation and mixing pattern that depends on the surface current, wind speed, and near

  5. Structural and Functional Connectivity from Unmanned-Aerial System Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Rens; Heckmann, Tobias; Casalí, Javier; Giménez, Rafael; Cerdá, Artemi; Keesstra, Saskia

    2017-04-01

    Over the past decade there has been an increase in both connectivity research and research involving Unmanned-Aerial systems (UASs). In some studies, UASs were successfully used for the assessment of connectivity, but not yet to their full potential. We present several ways to use data obtained from UASs to measure variables related to connectivity, and use these to assess both structural and functional connectivity. These assessments of connectivity can aid us in obtaining a better understanding of the dynamics of e.g. sediment and nutrient transport. We identify three sources of data obtained from a consumer camera mounted on a fixed-wing UAS, which can be used separately or combined: Visual and near-infrared imagery, point clouds, and digital elevation models (DEMs). Imagery (or: orthophotos) can be used for (automatic) mapping of connectivity features like rills, gullies and soil and water conservation measures using supervised or unsupervised classification methods with e.g. Object-Based Image Analysis. Furthermore, patterns of soil moisture in the top layers can be extracted from visual and near-infrared imagery. Point clouds can be analysed for vegetation height and density, and soil surface roughness. Lastly, DEMs can be used in combination with imagery for a number of tasks, including raster-based (e.g. DEM derivatives) and object-based (e.g., feature detection) analysis: Flow routing algorithms can be used to analyse potential pathways of surface runoff and sediment transport. This allows for the assessment of structural connectivity through indices that are based, for example, on morphometric and other properties of surfaces, contributing areas, and pathways. Third, erosion and deposition can be measured by calculating elevation changes from repeat surveys. From these "intermediate" variables like roughness, vegetation density and soil moisture, structural connectivity and functional connectivity can be assessed by combining them into a dynamic index of

  6. A Distributed Resilient Autonomous Framework for Manned/Unmanned Trajectory-Based Operations, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Resilient Ops, working in collaboration with Metron Aviation, Inc., proposes to develop a prototype system for planning Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) trajectories...

  7. 78 FR 20168 - Twenty Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203, Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... Washington, DC, on March 28, 2013. Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group... Introductions Review Meeting Agenda Review/Approval of Twenty Third Plenary Meeting Summary Leadership Update... for Unmanned Aircraft Systems and Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards Other Business Adjourn...

  8. Validation of landfill methane measurements from an unmanned aerial system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allen, Grant; Williams, Paul; Ricketts, hugo

    Landfill gas is made up of roughly equal amounts of methane and carbon dioxide. Modern UK landfills capture and use much of the methane gas as a fuel. But some methane escapes and is emitted to the atmosphere. Methane is an important greenhouse gas and controls on methane emissions are a part...... of international and national strategies to limit climate change. Better estimates of methane emissions from landfills and other similar sources would allow the UK to improve the quantification and control of greenhouse gas emissions. This project tested the accuracy of methane measurement using an unmanned aerial...

  9. Team performance in networked supervisory control of unmanned air vehicles: effects of automation, working memory, and communication content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKendrick, Ryan; Shaw, Tyler; de Visser, Ewart; Saqer, Haneen; Kidwell, Brian; Parasuraman, Raja

    2014-05-01

    Assess team performance within a net-worked supervisory control setting while manipulating automated decision aids and monitoring team communication and working memory ability. Networked systems such as multi-unmanned air vehicle (UAV) supervision have complex properties that make prediction of human-system performance difficult. Automated decision aid can provide valuable information to operators, individual abilities can limit or facilitate team performance, and team communication patterns can alter how effectively individuals work together. We hypothesized that reliable automation, higher working memory capacity, and increased communication rates of task-relevant information would offset performance decrements attributed to high task load. Two-person teams performed a simulated air defense task with two levels of task load and three levels of automated aid reliability. Teams communicated and received decision aid messages via chat window text messages. Task Load x Automation effects were significant across all performance measures. Reliable automation limited the decline in team performance with increasing task load. Average team spatial working memory was a stronger predictor than other measures of team working memory. Frequency of team rapport and enemy location communications positively related to team performance, and word count was negatively related to team performance. Reliable decision aiding mitigated team performance decline during increased task load during multi-UAV supervisory control. Team spatial working memory, communication of spatial information, and team rapport predicted team success. An automated decision aid can improve team performance under high task load. Assessment of spatial working memory and the communication of task-relevant information can help in operator and team selection in supervisory control systems.

  10. State-of-the-Art System Solutions for Unmanned Underwater Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Yilmaz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned Underwater Vehicles (UUVs have gained popularity for the last decades, especially for the purpose of not risking human life in dangerous operations. On the other hand, underwater environment introduces numerous challenges in navigation, control and communication of such vehicles. Certainly, this fact makes the development of these vehicles more interesting and engineering-wise more attractive. In this paper, we first revisit the existing technology and methodology for the solution of aforementioned problems, then we try to come up with a system solution of a generic unmanned underwater vehicles.

  11. [Micron]ADS-B Detect and Avoid Flight Tests on Phantom 4 Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arteaga, Ricardo; Dandachy, Mike; Truong, Hong; Aruljothi, Arun; Vedantam, Mihir; Epperson, Kraettli; McCartney, Reed

    2018-01-01

    Researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Armstrong Flight Research Center in Edwards, California and Vigilant Aerospace Systems collaborated for the flight-test demonstration of an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast based collision avoidance technology on a small unmanned aircraft system equipped with the uAvionix Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast transponder. The purpose of the testing was to demonstrate that National Aeronautics and Space Administration / Vigilant software and algorithms, commercialized as the FlightHorizon UAS"TM", are compatible with uAvionix hardware systems and the DJI Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The testing and demonstrations were necessary for both parties to further develop and certify the technology in three key areas: flights beyond visual line of sight, collision avoidance, and autonomous operations. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Vigilant Aerospace Systems have developed and successfully flight-tested an Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system on the Phantom 4 small unmanned aircraft system. The Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid system architecture is especially suited for small unmanned aircraft systems because it integrates: 1) miniaturized Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast hardware; 2) radio data-link communications; 3) software algorithms for real-time Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast data integration, conflict detection, and alerting; and 4) a synthetic vision display using a fully-integrated National Aeronautics and Space Administration geobrowser for three dimensional graphical representations for ownship and air traffic situational awareness. The flight-test objectives were to evaluate the performance of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast Detect and Avoid collision avoidance technology as installed on two small unmanned aircraft systems. In December 2016, four flight tests

  12. Proposed tethered unmanned aerial system for the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, J.; McKay, J.; Evans, W.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    This paper is based on a proposed unmanned aerial system platform that is to be outfitted with high-resolution sensors. The proposed system is to be tethered to a moveable ground station, which may be a research vessel or some form of ground vehicle (e.g., car, truck, or rover). The sensors include, at a minimum: camera, infrared sensor, thermal, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) camera, global positioning system (GPS), and a light-based radar (LIDAR). The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of existing methods for pollution detection of failing septic systems, and to introduce the proposed system. Future work will look at the high-resolution data from the sensors and integrating the data through a process called information fusion. Typically, this process is done using the popular and well-published Kalman filter (or its nonlinear formulations, such as the extended Kalman filter). However, future work will look at using a new type of strategy based on variable structure estimation for the information fusion portion of the data processing. It is hypothesized that fusing data from the thermal and NDVI sensors will be more accurate and reliable for a multitude of applications, including the detection of pollution entering the Chesapeake Bay area.

  13. Small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar for small tactical unmanned air systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Alan; Anderson, Scott A.; Wojcik, Michael; Budge, Scott E.

    2015-05-01

    The Space Dynamics Laboratory (SDL), working with Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) and industry leaders Advanced Scientific Concepts (ASC) and Hood Technology Corporation, has developed a small SWAP (size, weight, and power) 3D imaging flash ladar (LAser Detection And Ranging) sensor system concept design for small tactical unmanned air systems (STUAS). The design utilizes an ASC 3D flash ladar camera and laser in a Hood Technology gyro-stabilized gimbal system. The design is an autonomous, intelligent, geo-aware sensor system that supplies real-time 3D terrain and target images. Flash ladar and visible camera data are processed at the sensor using a custom digitizer/frame grabber with compression. Mounted in the aft housing are power, controls, processing computers, and GPS/INS. The onboard processor controls pointing and handles image data, detection algorithms and queuing. The small SWAP 3D imaging flash ladar sensor system generates georeferenced terrain and target images with a low probability of false return and system SWAP estimate of system is modeled using LadarSIM, a MATLAB® and Simulink®- based ladar system simulator designed and developed by the Center for Advanced Imaging Ladar (CAIL) at Utah State University. We will present the concept design and modeled performance predictions.

  14. Review of standard rotor configurations for a micro unmanned aerial system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steele, A

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Angus Steele1 and Johann Treurnicht2 Abstract The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is on the rise with an array of industries finding use for them in a variety of applications. This review hopes to assist potential drone designers in selecting...

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems for Emergency Management: A Guide for Policy Makers and Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-29

    75 Figure 8. New Mexico State University Approved COA ................................ 76 Figure 9. Decision Tree ...APPENDIX B. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS DECISION TREE .......... 107 LIST OF REFERENCES...maritime border, which is patrolled in collaboration with the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG).66 Between 2011 and 2014, the UASs operated by the CBP logged over

  16. Conflict detection and resolution system architecture for unmanned aerial vehicles in civil airspace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.; van Kampen, E.J.; Ellerbroek, J.; Hoekstra, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    A novel architecture for a general Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Conflict Detection and Resolution (CD&R) system, in the context of their integration into the civilian airspace, is proposed in this paper. The architecture consists of layers of safety approaches ,each representing a combination of

  17. Unmanned Aerial Systems: Air Force and Army Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    the best UAS pilot candidates, including by conducting additional research and testing a tool that measures multitasking ability, a competency...UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS Air Force and Army Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces...Should Improve Strategic Human Capital Planning for Pilot Workforces What GAO Found The Air Force and the Army have not fully applied four of the five

  18. 78 FR 59974 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Airspace Operations Challenge (AOC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Unmanned Aircraft Systems... wish to compete may now register. Centennial Challenges is a program of prize competitions to stimulate...: http://www.uasaoc.org For general information on the NASA Centennial Challenges Program please visit...

  19. 78 FR 18932 - Public Meeting: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site Program; Privacy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... discussion about which privacy issues are raised by UAS operations and how law, public policy, and the...-0061] Public Meeting: Unmanned Aircraft Systems Test Site Program; Privacy Approach AGENCY: Federal... a public engagement session on Wednesday, April 3, 2013, on the proposed privacy policy approach for...

  20. Unmanned Aviation Systems Models of the Radio Communications Links: Study Results - Appendices Annex 2. Volume 1 and Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birr, Richard B.; Spencer, Roy; Murray, Jennifer; Lash, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This report describes the analysis of communications between the Control Station and an Unmanned Aircraft (UA) flying in the National Airspace System (NAS). This work is based on the RTCA SC-203 Operational Services and Environment Description (OSED). The OSED document seeks to characterize the highly different attributes of all UAs navigating the airspace and define their relationship to airspace users, air traffic services, and operating environments of the NAS. One goal of this report is to lead to the development of Minimum Aviation System Performance Standards for Control and Communications. This report takes the nine scenarios found in the OSED and analyzes the communication links.

  1. Prospective Architectures for Onboard vs Cloud-Based Decision Making for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Teubert, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates propsective architectures for decision-making in unmanned aerial systems. When these unmanned vehicles operate in urban environments, there are several sources of uncertainty that affect their behavior, and decision-making algorithms need to be robust to account for these different sources of uncertainty. It is important to account for several risk-factors that affect the flight of these unmanned systems, and facilitate decision-making by taking into consideration these various risk-factors. In addition, there are several technical challenges related to autonomous flight of unmanned aerial systems; these challenges include sensing, obstacle detection, path planning and navigation, trajectory generation and selection, etc. Many of these activities require significant computational power and in many situations, all of these activities need to be performed in real-time. In order to efficiently integrate these activities, it is important to develop a systematic architecture that can facilitate real-time decision-making. Four prospective architectures are discussed in this paper; on one end of the spectrum, the first architecture considers all activities/computations being performed onboard the vehicle whereas on the other end of the spectrum, the fourth and final architecture considers all activities/computations being performed in the cloud, using a new service known as Prognostics as a Service that is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The four different architectures are compared, their advantages and disadvantages are explained and conclusions are presented.

  2. Ikhana: Unmanned Aircraft System Western States Fire Missions. Monographs in Aerospace History, Number 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Peter W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006, NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif., obtained a civil version of the General Atomics MQ-9 unmanned aircraft system and modified it for research purposes. Proposed missions included support of Earth science research, development of advanced aeronautical technology, and improving the utility of unmanned aerial systems in general. The project team named the aircraft Ikhana a Native American Choctaw word meaning intelligent, conscious, or aware in order to best represent NASA research goals. Building on experience with these and other unmanned aircraft, NASA scientists developed plans to use the Ikhana for a series of missions to map wildfires in the western United States and supply the resulting data to firefighters in near-real time. A team at NASA Ames Research Center, Mountain View, Calif., developed a multispectral scanner that was key to the success of what became known as the Western States Fire Missions. Carried out by team members from NASA, the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service, National Interagency Fire Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Federal Aviation Administration, and General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc., these flights represented an historic achievement in the field of unmanned aircraft technology.

  3. Safely Enabling Civilian Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace by Unmanned Aerial System Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal Hemchandra

    2015-01-01

    Many UAS will operate at lower altitude (Class G, below 2000 feet). There is an urgent need for a system for civilian low-altitude airspace and UAS operations. Stakeholders want to work with NASA to enable safe operations.

  4. Detection of unmanned aerial vehicles using a visible camera system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shuowen; Goldman, Geoffrey H; Borel-Donohue, Christoph C

    2017-01-20

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flown by adversaries are an emerging asymmetric threat to homeland security and the military. To help address this threat, we developed and tested a computationally efficient UAV detection algorithm consisting of horizon finding, motion feature extraction, blob analysis, and coherence analysis. We compare the performance of this algorithm against two variants, one using the difference image intensity as the motion features and another using higher-order moments. The proposed algorithm and its variants are tested using field test data of a group 3 UAV acquired with a panoramic video camera in the visible spectrum. The performance of the algorithms was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic curves. The results show that the proposed approach had the best performance compared to the two algorithmic variants.

  5. Analysis of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Monitoring System for Resurveying of Shipping Routes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbahs Aleksandrs

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives brief description of the conventional and innovative hydrography survey methods and constraints connected with the realization. Proposed hydrographic survey system based on the use of Unmanned Aerial and Maritime systems provides functionality to conduct hydrographic measurements and environment monitoring. System can be easily adapted to fulfil marine safety and security operations, e.g. intrusion threat monitoring, hazardous pollutions monitoring and prevention operations, icing conditions monitoring.

  6. High Assurance Control of Cyber-Physical Systems with Application to Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Cheolhyeon

    With recent progress in the networked embedded control technology, cyber attacks have become one of the major threats to Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) due to their close integration of physical processes, computational resources, and communication capabilities. While CPSs have various applications in both military and civilian uses, their on-board automation and communication afford significant advantages over a system without such abilities, but these benefits come at the cost of possible vulnerability to cyber attacks. Traditionally, most cyber security studies in CPSs are mainly based on the computer security perspective, focusing on issues such as the trustworthiness of data flow, without rigorously considering the system's physical processes such as real-time dynamic behaviors. While computer security components are key elements in the hardware/software layer, these methods alone are not sufficient for diagnosing the healthiness of the CPSs' physical behavior. In seeking to address this problem, this research work proposes a control theoretic perspective approach which can accurately represent the interactions between the physical behavior and the logical behavior (computing resources) of the CPS. Then a controls domain aspect is explored extending beyond just the logical process of the CPS to include the underlying physical behavior. This approach will allow the CPS whose physical operations are robust/resilient to the damage caused by cyber attacks, successfully complementing the existing CPS security architecture. It is important to note that traditional fault-tolerant/robust control methods could not be directly applicable to achieve resiliency against malicious cyber attacks which can be designed sophisticatedly to spoof the security/safety monitoring system (note this is different from common faults). Thus, security issues at this layer require different risk management to detect cyber attacks and mitigate their impact within the context of a unified

  7. U.S. Geological Survey Emerging Applications of Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutt, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    tools are becoming available that can produce a robust set of products including a geo-referenced base for value added investigations. Much like the use of global positioning systems, unmanned aircraft systems have the potential of enabling us to be better stewards of the land. We are actively working to develop applications of the traditional full motion video capabilities and are engaged in developing additional sensor capabilities for sUAS including- magnetometers, temperature, radio telemetry, chemical and biological gas detection, and gimbal mounted "photogrammetric" cameras.

  8. Efficient Forest Fire Detection Index for Application in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Cruz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a novel method for detecting forest fires, through the use of a new color index, called the Forest Fire Detection Index (FFDI, developed by the authors. The index is based on methods for vegetation classification and has been adapted to detect the tonalities of flames and smoke; the latter could be included adaptively into the Regions of Interest (RoIs with the help of a variable factor. Multiple tests have been performed upon database imagery and present promising results: a detection precision of 96.82% has been achieved for image sizes of 960 × 540 pixels at a processing time of 0.0447 seconds. This achievement would lead to a performance of 22 f/s, for smaller images, while up to 54 f/s could be reached by maintaining a similar detection precision. Additional tests have been performed on fires in their early stages, achieving a precision rate of p = 96.62%. The method could be used in real-time in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs, with the aim of monitoring a wider area than through fixed surveillance systems. Thus, it would result in more cost-effective outcomes than conventional systems implemented in helicopters or satellites. UASs could also reach inaccessible locations without jeopardizing people’s safety. On-going work includes implementation into a commercially available drone.

  9. Requirements to micro-unmanned aircraft systems in civil protection and environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer-Stabel, Peter; Hardt, Christopher [Univ. of Applied Sciences Trier, Birkenfeld (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning

    2013-07-01

    Especially in application fields such as environmental monitoring or in the field of information and operations management with technical or natural disasters, increased demands on communication and sensor technology to micro unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are given. These are currently covered by the system manufacturers, however inadequately. The use case of wildlife monitoring with micro UAS comes with some special requirements and problems, addressed in this paper. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, G [University of Colorado, Boulder/CIRES; Argrow, B [University of Colorado; Bland, G [NASA - Goddard Space Flight Center - Wallops Flight Facility; Elston, J [University of Colorado, Boulder; Lawrence, D [University of Colorado; Maslanik, J [University of Colorado; Palo, S [University of Colorado; Tschudi, M [NCAR

    2015-12-01

    The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is becoming increasingly popular for a variety of applications. One way in which these systems can provide revolutionary scientific information is through routine measurement of atmospheric conditions, particularly properties related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation. Improved understanding of these topics at high latitudes, in particular, has become very relevant because of observed decreases in ice and snow in polar regions.

  11. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM) Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM) Enabling Civilian Low-Altitude Airspace and Unmanned Aircraft System Operations What is the problem? Many beneficial civilian applications of UAS have been proposed, from goods delivery and infrastructure surveillance, to search and rescue, and agricultural monitoring. Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations, regardless of the type of UAS. A UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace may be needed, perhaps leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today, whether the vehicles are driven by humans or are automated. What system technologies is NASA exploring? Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management for crewed aircraft, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that could develop airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. While incorporating lessons learned from the today's well-established air traffic management system, which was a response that grew out of a mid-air collision over the Grand Canyon in the early days of commercial aviation, the UTM system would enable safe and efficient low-altitude airspace operations by providing services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning and re-routing, separation management, sequencing and spacing, and contingency management. One of the attributes of the UTM system is that it would not require human operators to monitor every vehicle continuously. The system could provide to human managers the data to make strategic decisions related to initiation, continuation, and termination of airspace operations. This approach would ensure that only authenticated UAS could operate

  12. A Review of Current and Prospective Factors for Classification of Civil Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Maddalon, Jeffrey M.; Morris, A. Terry; Neogi, Natasha; Verstynen, Harry A.

    2014-01-01

    While progress is being made on integrating unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into our national airspace on a broad scale, much work remains to establish appropriate certification standards and operational procedures, particularly with respect to routine commercial operations. This paper summarizes research to examine the extent to which today's civil aircraft taxonomy applies to UAS, and, if needed, how that taxonomy could be amended to better cover different UAS designs and operations. Factors that shape the current taxonomy, as defined in the Federal Aviation Regulations, were assessed for applicability to UAS, potential incompatibilities were identified, and additional factors were proposed that might be useful for an updated aircraft taxonomy intended to cover UAS. The results suggest the possibility of constructing new groups in the taxonomy for UAS under a restricted category that share common airworthiness standards. Establishing distinct groups for UAS and associated standards that enable low risk operations for compensation or hire could be a timely step toward full integration. Such a step would allow the civil aviation industry and regulators to gain valuable experience with UAS while carefully controlling access and potential harm to the aviation system as a whole.

  13. Vibration control of a camera mount system for an unmanned aerial vehicle using piezostack actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jong-Seok; Choi, Seung-Bok; Han, Young-Min

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes an active mount for the camera systems of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) in order to control unwanted vibrations. An active actuator of the proposed mount is devised as an inertial type, in which a piezostack actuator is directly connected to the inertial mass. After evaluating the actuating force of the actuator, it is combined with the rubber element of the mount, whose natural frequency is determined based on the measured vibration characteristics of UAV. Based on the governing equations of motion of the active camera mount, a robust sliding mode controller (SMC) is then formulated with consideration of parameter uncertainties and hysteresis behavior of the actuator. Subsequently, vibration control performances of the proposed active mount are experimentally evaluated in the time and frequency domains. In addition, a full camera mount system of UAVs that is supported by four active mounts is considered and its vibration control performance is evaluated in the frequency domain using a hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) method

  14. Design of a Stability Augmentation System for an Unmanned Helicopter Based on Adaptive Control Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouzhao Sheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The task of control of unmanned helicopters is rather complicated in the presence of parametric uncertainties and measurement noises. This paper presents an adaptive model feedback control algorithm for an unmanned helicopter stability augmentation system. The proposed algorithm can achieve a guaranteed model reference tracking performance and speed up the convergence rates of adjustable parameters, even when the plant parameters vary rapidly. Moreover, the model feedback strategy in the algorithm further contributes to the improvement in the control quality of the stability augmentation system in the case of low signal to noise ratios, mainly because the model feedback path is noise free. The effectiveness and superiority of the proposed algorithm are demonstrated through a series of tests.

  15. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements Using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finnamore, W [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, P [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Al [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Chuck [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Cooperative Inst. for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES); Gao, Rushan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States). Earth System Research Lab.; Hock, T [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) campaign was proposed with two central goals; to obtain scientifically relevant measurements of quantities related to clouds, aerosols, and radiation, including profiles of temperature, humidity, and aerosol particles, the structure of the arctic atmosphere during transitions between clear and cloudy states, measurements that would allow us to evaluate the performance of retrievals from U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility remote sensors in the Arctic atmosphere, and information on the spatial variability of heat and moisture fluxes from the arctic surface; and to demonstrate unmanned aerial system (UAS) capabilities in obtaining measurements relevant to the ARM and ASR programs, particularly for improving our understanding of Arctic clouds and aerosols.

  16. Team Cooperation in a Network of Multi-Vehicle Unmanned Systems Synthesis of Consensus Algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Semsar-Kazerooni, Elham

    2013-01-01

    Team Cooperation in a Network of Multi-Vehicle Unmanned Systems develops a framework for modeling and control of a network of multi-agent unmanned systems in a cooperative manner and with consideration of non-ideal and practical considerations. The main focus of this book is the development of “synthesis-based” algorithms rather than on conventional “analysis-based” approaches to the team cooperation, specifically the team consensus problems. The authors provide a set of modified “design-based” consensus algorithms whose optimality is verified through introduction of performance indices. This book also: Provides synthesis-based methodology for team cooperation Introduces a consensus-protocol optimized performance index  Offers comparisons for use of proper indices in measuring team performance Analyzes and predicts  performance of  previously designed consensus algorithms Analyses and predicts team behavior in the presence of non-ideal considerations such as actuator anomalies and faults as wel...

  17. Analysis of the Hybrid Power System for High-Altitude Unmanned Aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of single solar array on high-altitude unmanned aircraft will waste energy because of its low conversion efficiency. Furthermore, since its energy utilization is limited, the surface temperature of solar array will rise to 70°C due to the waste solar energy, thus reducing the electrical performance of the solar array. In order to reuse the energy converted into heat by solar array, a hybrid power system is presented in this paper. In the hybrid power system, a new electricity-generating method is adopted to spread the photovoltaic cell on the wing surface and arrange photothermal power in the wing box section. Because the temperature on the back of photovoltaic cell is high, it can be used as the high-temperature heat source. The lower wing surface can be a low-temperature cold source. A high-altitude unmanned aircraft was used to analyze the performances of pure solar-powered aircraft and hybrid powered aircraft. The analysis result showed that the hybrid system could reduce the area of wing by 19% and that high-altitude unmanned aircraft with a 35 m or less wingspan could raise the utilization rate of solar energy per unit area after adopting the hybrid power system.

  18. The Proposed Use of Unmanned Aerial System Surrogate Research Aircraft for National Airspace System Integration Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles T., III

    2011-01-01

    Research is needed to determine what procedures, aircraft sensors and other systems will be required to allow Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to safely operate with manned aircraft in the National Airspace System (NAS). This paper explores the use of Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft to serve as platforms for UAS systems research, development, and flight testing. These aircraft would be manned with safety pilots and researchers that would allow for flight operations almost anywhere in the NAS without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). With pilot override capability, these UAS Surrogate aircraft would be controlled from ground stations like true UAS s. It would be possible to file and fly these UAS Surrogate aircraft in the NAS with normal traffic and they would be better platforms for real world UAS research and development over existing vehicles flying in restricted ranges or other sterilized airspace. These UAS surrogate aircraft could be outfitted with research systems as required such as computers, state sensors, video recording, data acquisition, data link, telemetry, instrumentation, and Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B). These surrogate aircraft could also be linked to onboard or ground based simulation facilities to further extend UAS research capabilities. Potential areas for UAS Surrogate research include the development, flight test and evaluation of sensors to aide in the process of air traffic "see-and-avoid". These and other sensors could be evaluated in real-time and compared with onboard human evaluation pilots. This paper examines the feasibility of using UAS Surrogate research aircraft as test platforms for a variety of UAS related research.

  19. An integrated command and control architecture concept for unmanned systems in the year 2030

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Jamarr J.; Buckley, Omari D.; Cunningham, Dustin; Matthews, Adam; Quincy, Keith E.; Fontenot, Dion G.; Moran, Michael G.; Tham, Gabriel; Wong, Jason; Quah, Raymond; Chia, Tommy; Costica, Yionon; Gho, Delvin; Seet, Henry; Ang, Teo Hong

    2010-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. U.S. Forces require an integrated Command and Control Architecture that enables operations of a dynamic mix of manned and unmanned systems. The level of autonomous behavior correlates to: 1) the amount of trust with the reporting vehicles, and 2) the multi-spectral perspective of the observations. The intent to illuminate the architectural issues for force protection in 2030 was based on a multi-phased analytical model of High Value ...

  20. Real-Time Risk Assessment Framework for Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancel, Ersin; Capristan, Francisco M.; Foster, John V.; Condotta, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    The new Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Small Unmanned Aircraft rule (Part 107) marks the first national regulations for commercial operation of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) under 55 pounds within the National Airspace System (NAS). Although sUAS flights may not be performed beyond visual line-of-sight or over non- participant structures and people, safety of sUAS operations must still be maintained and tracked at all times. Moreover, future safety-critical operation of sUAS (e.g., for package delivery) are already being conceived and tested. NASA's Unmanned Aircraft System Trac Management (UTM) concept aims to facilitate the safe use of low-altitude airspace for sUAS operations. This paper introduces the UTM Risk Assessment Framework (URAF) which was developed to provide real-time safety evaluation and tracking capability within the UTM concept. The URAF uses Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to propagate off -nominal condition probabilities based on real-time component failure indicators. This information is then used to assess the risk to people on the ground by calculating the potential impact area and the effects of the impact. The visual representation of the expected area of impact and the nominal risk level can assist operators and controllers with dynamic trajectory planning and execution. The URAF was applied to a case study to illustrate the concept.

  1. Application of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for phenotypic mapping of white spruce genotypes along environmental gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, P.; Wong, C. Y.; Besik, A.; Earon, E.; Isabel, N.; Ensminger, I.

    2017-12-01

    Rapid climate change is expected to cause a mismatch between locally adapted tree populations and the optimal climatic conditions to which they have adapted. Plant breeding and reforestation programs will increasingly need to rely on high-throughput precision phenotyping tools for the selection of genotypes with increased drought and stress tolerance. In this work, we present the possibilities offered by Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) carrying optical sensors to monitor and assess differences in performance among white spruce genotypes. While high-throughput precision phenotyping using UAS has gained traction in agronomic crop research during the last few years, to our knowledge it is still at its infancy in forestry applications. UAS surveys were performed at different times during the growing season over large white spruce common garden experiments established by the Canadian Forest Service at four different sites, each characterized by 2000 clonally replicated genotypes. Sites are distributed over a latitudinal gradient, in Ontario and Quebec, Canada. The UAS payload consisted of a custom-bands multispectral sensor acquiring radiation at wavelength at which the reflectance spectrum of vegetation is known to capture physiological change under disturbance and stress. Ground based tree-top spectral reflectances and leaf level functional traits were also acquired for validation purposes parallel to UAS surveys. We will discuss the potential and the challenges of using optical sensors on UAS to infer genotypic variation in tree response to stress events and show how spectral data can function as the link between large-scale phenotype and genotype data.

  2. System modeling of an air-independent solid oxide fuel cell system for unmanned undersea vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, A. Alan; Carreiro, Louis G.

    To examine the feasibility of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)-powered unmanned undersea vehicle (UUV), a system level analysis is presented that projects a possible integration of the SOFC stack, fuel steam reformer, fuel/oxidant storage and balance of plant components into a 21-in. diameter UUV platform. Heavy hydrocarbon fuel (dodecane) and liquid oxygen (LOX) are chosen as the preferred reactants. A maximum efficiency of 45% based on the lower heating value of dodecane was calculated for a system that provides 2.5 kW for 40 h. Heat sources and sinks have been coupled to show viable means of thermal management. The critical design issues involve proper recycling of exhaust steam from the fuel cell back into the reformer and effective use of the SOFC stack radiant heat for steam reformation of the hydrocarbon fuel.

  3. Unmanned aircraft systems in wildlife research: Current and future applications of a transformative technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christie, Katherine S.; Gilbert, Sophie L.; Brown, Casey L.; Hatfield, Michael; Hanson, Leanne

    2016-01-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) – also called unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones – are an emerging tool that may provide a safer, more cost-effective, and quieter alternative to traditional research methods. We review examples where UAS have been used to document wildlife abundance, behavior, and habitat, and illustrate the strengths and weaknesses of this technology with two case studies. We summarize research on behavioral responses of wildlife to UAS, and discuss the need to understand how recreational and commercial applications of this technology could disturb certain species. Currently, the widespread implementation of UAS by scientists is limited by flight range, regulatory frameworks, and a lack of validation. UAS are most effective when used to examine smaller areas close to their launch sites, whereas manned aircraft are recommended for surveying greater distances. The growing demand for UAS in research and industry is driving rapid regulatory and technological progress, which in turn will make them more accessible and effective as analytical tools.

  4. An Innovative Unmanned System for Advanced Environmental Monitoring: Design and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsella, Ennio; Giordano, Laura; Evangelista, Lorenza; Iengo, Antonio; di Filippo, Alessandro; Coppola, Aniello

    2015-04-01

    The paper summarizes the design and development of a new technology and tools for real-time coordination and control of unmanned vehicles for advanced environmental monitoring. A new Unmanned System has been developed at Institute for Coastal Marine Environmental - National Research Council (Italy), in the framework of two National Operational Programs (PON): Technological Platform for Geophysical and Environmental Marine Survey-PITAM and Integrated Systems and Technologies for Geophysical and Environmental Monitoring in coastal-marine areas-STIGEAC. In particular, the system includes one Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and two Unmanned Marine Vehicles (UMV). Major innovations concern the implementation of a new architecture to control each drone and/or to allow the cooperation between heterogeneous vehicles, the integration of distributed sensing techniques and real-time image processing capabilities. Part of the research in these projects involves, therefore, an architecture, where the ground operator can communicate with the Unmanned Vehicles at various levels of abstraction using pointing devices and video viewing. In detail, a Ground Control Station (GCS) has been design and developed to allow the government in security of the drones within a distance up to twenty kilometers for air explorations and within ten nautical miles for marine activities. The Ground Control Station has the following features: 1. hardware / software system for the definition of the mission profiles; 3. autonomous and semi-autonomous control system by remote control (joystick or other) for the UAV and UMVs; 4. integrated control system with comprehensive visualization capabilities, monitoring and archiving of real-time data acquired from scientific payload; 5. open structure to future additions of systems, sensors and / or additional vehicles. In detail, the UAV architecture is a dual-rotor, with an endurance ranging from 55 to 200 minutes, depending on payload weight (maximum 26 kg) and

  5. Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for Weather and Climate using the Multi-testbed approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, B.; Lee, T.; Buban, M.; Dumas, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for Weather and Climate using the Multi-testbed approachC. Bruce Baker1, Ed Dumas1,2, Temple Lee1,2, Michael Buban1,21NOAA ARL, Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division, Oak Ridge, TN2Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, TN The development of a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) testbeds that can be used to validate, integrate, calibrate and evaluate new technology and sensors for routine boundary layer research, validation of operational weather models, improvement of model parameterizations, and recording observations within high-impact storms is important for understanding the importance and impact of using sUAS's routinely as a new observing platform. The goal of the multi-testbed approach is to build a robust set of protocols to assess the cost and operational feasibility of unmanned observations for routine applications using various combinations of sUAS aircraft and sensors in different locations and field experiments. All of these observational testbeds serve different community needs, but they also use a diverse suite of methodologies for calibration and evaluation of different sensors and platforms for severe weather and boundary layer research. The primary focus will be to evaluate meteorological sensor payloads to measure thermodynamic parameters and define surface characteristics with visible, IR, and multi-spectral cameras. This evaluation will lead to recommendations for sensor payloads for VTOL and fixed-wing sUAS.

  6. LiPo battery energy studies for improved flight performance of unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, K.; Rammos, P.; Wilkerson, S. A.; Bundy, M.; Gadsden, S. Andrew

    2016-05-01

    Energy storage is one of the most important determinants of how long and far a small electric powered unmanned aerial system (UAS) can fly. For years, most hobby and experimentalists used heavy fuels to power small drone-like systems. Electric motors and battery storage prior to the turn of the century were either too heavy or too inefficient for flight times of any usable duration. However, with the availability of brushless electric motors and lithium-based batteries everything has changed. Systems like the Dragon Eye, Pointer, and Raven are in service performing reconnaissance, intelligence, surveillance, and target acquisition (RISTA) for more than an hour at a time. More recently, multi-rotor vehicles have expanded small UAS capabilities to include activities with hovering and persistent surveillance. Moreover, these systems coupled with the surge of small, low-cost electronics can perform autonomous and semi-autonomous missions not possible just ten years ago. This paper addresses flight time limitation issues by proposing an experimental method with procedures for system identification that may lead to modeling of energy storage in electric UAS'. Consequently, this will allow for energy storage to be used more effectively in planning autonomous missions. To achieve this, a set of baseline experiments were designed to measure the energy consumption of a mid-size UAS multi-rotor. Several different flight maneuvers were considered to include different lateral velocities, climbing, and hovering. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to create baseline flight data for each maneuver to be characterized with a certain rate of energy usage. Experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed approach. Future work will include the development of mission planning algorithms that provide realistic estimates of possible mission flight times and distances given specific mission parameters.

  7. On Board Data Acquisition System with Intelligent Transducers for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochala, Zdzisław

    2012-02-01

    This report presents conclusions from research project no. ON50900363 conducted at the Mechatronics Department, Military University of Technology in the years 2007-2010. As the main object of the study involved the preparation of a concept and the implementation of an avionics data acquisition system intended for research during flight of unmanned aerial vehicles of the mini class, this article presents a design of an avionics system and describes equipment solutions of a distributed measurement system intended for data acquisition consisting of intelligent transducers. The data collected during a flight controlled by an operator confirmed proper operation of the individual components of the data acquisition system.

  8. Development of offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system. Dump truck mujin soko system no kaihatsu ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horii, Z [Nittetsu Mining Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-08-25

    A large offroad unmanned dump truck navigation system has been developed, and is in practical operation mounted on dump trucks at Torigatayama Limestone Quarry of Nittetsu Mining Company. The system functions in a manual dump truck navigation mode, wireless navigation mode, and unmanned control mode. The unmanned control mode further includes a mode to navigate the truck on a predetermined course with its data having been input in a computer and a mode that when the truck was moved on a course under a wireless control, the computer learns the course and drives the truck autonomously thereafter. The safety measures are divided into the hardware safety function to detect abnormalities in brakes and other vehicle parts, and the software safety functions of data communications, sensor action check, and prevention of collision of trucks with each other. The system has resulted in a productivity of average one-way travel distance of 345 m, and average unmanned navigation cycle time of 9 minutes and 26 seconds for a transportation efficiency of 541 t/hour/truck, having reached at least the manned operation level. 4 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Autonomous urban reconnaissance ingress system (AURIS): providing a tactically relevant autonomous door-opening kit for unmanned ground vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, David J.; Rufo, Michael A.; Berkemeier, Matthew D.; Alberts, Joel A.

    2012-06-01

    The Autonomous Urban Reconnaissance Ingress System (AURIS™) addresses a significant limitation of current military and first responder robotics technology: the inability of reconnaissance robots to open doors. Leveraging user testing as a baseline, the program has derived specifications necessary for military personnel to open doors with fielded UGVs (Unmanned Ground Vehicles), and evaluates the technology's impact on operational mission areas: duration, timing, and user patience in developing a tactically relevant, safe, and effective system. Funding is provided through the US ARMY Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) and the project represents a leap forward in perception, autonomy, robotic implements, and coordinated payload operation in UGVs. This paper describes high level details of specification generation, status of the last phase of development, an advanced view of the system autonomy capability, and a short look ahead towards the ongoing work on this compelling and important technology.

  10. Exploration of the Trade Space Between Unmanned Aircraft Systems Descent Maneuver Performance and Sense-and-Avoid System Performance Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Devin P.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Johnson, Sally C.

    2014-01-01

    A need exists to safely integrate Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the United States' National Airspace System. Replacing manned aircraft's see-and-avoid capability in the absence of an onboard pilot is one of the key challenges associated with safe integration. Sense-and-avoid (SAA) systems will have to achieve yet-to-be-determined required separation distances for a wide range of encounters. They will also need to account for the maneuver performance of the UAS they are paired with. The work described in this paper is aimed at developing an understanding of the trade space between UAS maneuver performance and SAA system performance requirements, focusing on a descent avoidance maneuver. An assessment of current manned and unmanned aircraft performance was used to establish potential UAS performance test matrix bounds. Then, near-term UAS integration work was used to narrow down the scope. A simulator was developed with sufficient fidelity to assess SAA system performance requirements. The simulator generates closest-point-of-approach (CPA) data from the wide range of UAS performance models maneuvering against a single intruder with various encounter geometries. Initial attempts to model the results made it clear that developing maneuver performance groups is required. Discussion of the performance groups developed and how to know in which group an aircraft belongs for a given flight condition and encounter is included. The groups are airplane, flight condition, and encounter specific, rather than airplane-only specific. Results and methodology for developing UAS maneuver performance requirements are presented for a descent avoidance maneuver. Results for the descent maneuver indicate that a minimum specific excess power magnitude can assure a minimum CPA for a given time-to-go prediction. However, smaller amounts of specific excess power may achieve or exceed the same CPA if the UAS has sufficient speed to trade for altitude. The results of this study will

  11. Flight envelope protection system for unmanned aerial vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Claudel, Christian G.; Shaqura, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods to protect the flight envelope in both manual flight and flight by a commercial autopilot are provided. A system can comprise: an inertial measurement unit (IMU); a computing device in data communication with the IMU

  12. Radio Tracking Fish with Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, R. P.; Anderson, K. R.; Hanson, L.; Pinsker, E. A.; Jonsson, J.; Chapman, D. C.; Witten, D. M.; O'Connor, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    Tracking radio tagged fish by boat or on foot in riverine systems is difficult and time consuming, particularly in large braided island complexes, shallow wetlands, and rocky reaches. Invasive Asian carp are commonly found in these hard to reach areas, but their near-surface feeding behavior makes radio tracking possible. To identify new methods of fish tracking that could same time and money, this study tested the feasibility of tracking Asian carp with Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) in areas generally inaccessible to traditional tracking equipment. The U.S. Geological Survey worked with NanoElectromagnetics LLC and WWR Development to create and integrate a lightweight custom radio receiver, directional antenna, and accompanying software into a sUAS platform. The receiver includes independent GPS, software defined radio, and compass. The NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) completed payload integration, electromagnetic-interference and airworthiness testing, and provided a DJI Matrice 600 sUAS for this study. Additionally, ARC provided subject matter experts, airworthiness and flight readiness evaluation, and flight test facilities during preparation; and a pilot, range safety officer, and aircraft engineer during field deployment. Results demonstrate that this custom sUAS and sensor combination can detect radio tags at 100m above ground level and at horizontal ranges of 100m and 300m, with operators in either onshore or offshore locations. With this combination of sUAS and radio receiver, fish can be tracked in areas previously inaccessible and during flooding, providing new insights into riverine fish movement and habitat utilization.

  13. An Application of Computer Vision Systems to Solve the Problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aksenov Alexey Y.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers an approach for application of computer vision systems to solve the problem of unmanned aerial vehicle control. The processing of images obtained through onboard camera is required for absolute positioning of aerial platform (automatic landing and take-off, hovering etc. used image processing on-board camera. The proposed method combines the advantages of existing systems and gives the ability to perform hovering over a given point, the exact take-off and landing. The limitations of implemented methods are determined and the algorithm is proposed to combine them in order to improve the efficiency.

  14. Lightweight carbon nanotube-based structural-energy storage devices for micro unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Monica; Cole, Daniel P.; Hahm, Myung Gwan; Reddy, Arava L. M.; Vajtai, Robert; Ajayan, Pulickel M.; Karna, Shashi P.; Bundy, Mark L.

    2012-06-01

    There is a strong need for small, lightweight energy storage devices that can satisfy the ever increasing power and energy demands of micro unmanned systems. Currently, most commercial and developmental micro unmanned systems utilize commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) lithium polymer batteries for their energy storage needs. While COTS lithium polymer batteries are the industry norm, the weight of these batteries can account for up to 60% of the overall system mass and the capacity of these batteries can limit mission durations to the order of only a few minutes. One method to increase vehicle endurance without adding mass or sacrificing payload capabilities is to incorporate multiple system functions into a single material or structure. For example, the body or chassis of a micro vehicle could be replaced with a multifunctional material that would serve as both the vehicle structure and the on-board energy storage device. In this paper we present recent progress towards the development of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based structural-energy storage devices for micro unmanned systems. Randomly oriented and vertically aligned CNT-polymer composite electrodes with varying degrees of flexibility are used as the primary building blocks for lightweight structural-supercapacitors. For the purpose of this study, the mechanical properties of the CNT-based electrodes and the charge-discharge behavior of the supercapacitor devices are examined. Because incorporating multifunctionality into a single component often degrades the properties or performance of individual structures, the performance and property tradeoffs of the CNT-based structural-energy storage devices will also be discussed.

  15. Design Multi-Sides System Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Rocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam, Rafiudin; Sutresman, Onny; Mappaita, Abdullah; Amiruddin; Wiranata, Ardi

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to design and test USV multislide forms. This system is excellent for maneuvering on the x-y-z coordinates. The disadvantage of a single side USV is that it is very difficult to maneuver to achieve very dynamic targets. While for multi sides system easily maneuvered though x-y-z coordinates. In addition to security defense purposes, multi-side system is also good for maritime intelligence, surveillance. In this case, electric deducted fan with Multi-Side system so that the vehicle can still operate even in reverse condition. Multipleside USV experiments have done with good results. In a USV study designed to use two propulsions.

  16. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR UNMANNED AIRCRAFT EQUIPPED WITH ROBOTICS ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei A. Margun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the problem of control system synthesis for multi rotational UAV equipped with robotics arm. Control algorithm is proposed based on the method of feedback linearization and synthesis of proportional-differential controller with the real time computation of the inertia tensor and center of mass changes and compensation of the reactive torque generated by the dynamics of the manipulator. Quadrocopter with attached articulated manipulator is selected as a model of the control object. Systems of equations describing the behavior of considered dynamical system are obtained according to the Newton and Euler-Lagrange laws. Expressions are offered, defining the inertia tensor and the position of the system center of mass depending on the current position of the manipulator, and the torque acting on the quadrocopter from the manipulator. Feedback linearization with arm influence compensation on quadrocopter is applied for the resulting nonlinear coupled system. As a result, robot dynamics equations have been converted to a linear stationary system. Converted system control is achieved by a proportional-differential controller. Examined system simulation is done with control method described in the paper and the classical method based on a proportional-differential controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach and demonstrate that the proposed approach provides higher accuracy of the tracking error, than control method by means of proportional-differential regulator.

  17. A hybrid power system for unmanned aerial vehicle electromagnetic launcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiren; Wu, Jun; Huang, Shengjun

    2018-06-01

    According to the UAV electromagnetic catapult with fixed timing, a hybrid energy storage system consist with battery and super capacitor is designed, in order to reduce the volume and weight of the energy storage system. The battery is regarded as the energy storage device and the super capacitor as power release device. Firstly, the battery charges the super capacitor, and then the super capacitor supplies power to electromagnetic catapult separately. The strategy is using the Buck circuit to charge the super capacitor with constant current and using the Boost circuit to make super capacitor provide a stable voltage circuit for electromagnetic catapult. The Simulink simulation results show that the designed hybrid energy storage system can meet the requirements of electromagnetic catapult. Compared with the system powered by the battery alone, the proposed scheme can reduce the number of batteries, and greatly reduce the volume and weight of the energy storage system.

  18. Time for Centralized Control of Unmanned Aerial Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Leister, Barry P

    2007-01-01

    .... The increased use of UAVs in military operations in Kosovo, Afghanistan, and Iraq since prior to the turn of the century has brought the advantages and disadvantages of these systems to the forefront for military users...

  19. Unmanned Surface Sea Vehicle Power System Design and Modeling

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pritpal, Singh

    2005-01-01

    .... The power system of the USV is chosen to be a hybrid power source comprising a diesel generator and a lithium-ion battery pack Optimal sizing of the diesel generator and battery pack is important...

  20. Development of a flight data acquisition system for small unmanned aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Scott

    Current developments surrounding the use of unmanned aerial vehicles have produced a need for a high quality data acquisition platform developed specifically a research environment. This work was undertaken to produce such a system that is low cost, extensible, and better supports fixed wing research through the inclusion of a custom vane based air data probe capable of measuring airspeed, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. This was accomplished by starting with the open source Pixhawk system as the core and then modifying the device firmware and adding sensors to suit the needs of current aerospace research at OSU. An overview of each component of the system is presented, as well as a description of various firmware modifications to the stock Pixhawk system. Tests were then performed on all of the major sensors using bench testing, wind tunnel analysis, and flight maneuvers to determine the final performance of each part of the system. This research shows that all of the critical sensors on the data acquisition platform produce data acceptable for flight research. The accelerometer has been shown to have an overall tolerance of +/-0.0545 m/s², with +/-0.223 deg/s for the gyroscopic sensor, +/-1.32 hPa for the barometric sensor, +/-0.318 m/s for the airspeed sensor, +/-1.65 °C for the outside air temperature sensor, and +/-0.00115 V for the analog to digital converter. The stock calibration curve for the airspeed sensor was determined to be correct to within +/-0.5 in H2O through wind tunnel testing, and an experimental step input analysis on the flow direction vanes showed that worst case steady state error and time to damp are acceptable for the system. Power spectral density and spectral coherence analysis of flight data was used to show that the custom air data probe is capable of following the flight dynamics of a given aircraft to within a 10 percent tolerance across a range of frequencies. Finally, general performance of the system was proven using

  1. Integrating unmanned aerial systems and LSPIV for rapid, cost-effective stream gauging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Quinn W.; Lindroth, Evan M.; Rhoads, Bruce L.

    2018-05-01

    Quantifying flow in rivers is fundamental to assessments of water supply, water quality, ecological conditions, hydrological responses to storm events, and geomorphological processes. Image-based surface velocity measurements have shown promise in extending the range of discharge conditions that can be measured in the field. The use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) in image-based measurements of surface velocities has the potential to expand applications of this method. Thus far, few investigations have assessed this potential by evaluating the accuracy and repeatability of discharge measurements using surface velocities obtained from UAS. This study uses large-scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) derived from videos captured by cameras on a UAS and a fixed tripod to obtain discharge measurements at ten different stream locations in Illinois, USA. Discharge values are compared to reference values measured by an acoustic Doppler current profiler, a propeller meter, and established stream gauges. The results demonstrate the effects of UAS flight height, camera steadiness and leveling accuracy, video sampling frequency, and LSPIV interrogation area size on surface velocities, and show that the mean difference between fixed and UAS cameras is less than 10%. Differences between LSPIV-derived and reference discharge values are generally less than 20%, not systematically low or high, and not related to site parameters like channel width or depth, indicating that results are relatively insensitive to camera setup and image processing parameters typically required of LSPIV. The results also show that standard velocity indices (between 0.85 and 0.9) recommended for converting surface velocities to depth-averaged velocities yield reasonable discharge estimates, but are best calibrated at specific sites. The study recommends a basic methodology for LSPIV discharge measurements using UAS that is rapid, cost-efficient, and does not require major preparatory work at a

  2. Detecting Surface Changes from an Underground Explosion in Granite Using Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz-Fellenz, Emily S.; Coppersmith, Ryan T.; Sussman, Aviva J.; Swanson, Erika M.; Cooley, James A.

    2017-08-01

    Efficient detection and high-fidelity quantification of surface changes resulting from underground activities are important national and global security efforts. In this investigation, a team performed field-based topographic characterization by gathering high-quality photographs at very low altitudes from an unmanned aerial system (UAS)-borne camera platform. The data collection occurred shortly before and after a controlled underground chemical explosion as part of the United States Department of Energy's Source Physics Experiments (SPE-5) series. The high-resolution overlapping photographs were used to create 3D photogrammetric models of the site, which then served to map changes in the landscape down to 1-cm-scale. Separate models were created for two areas, herein referred to as the test table grid region and the nearfield grid region. The test table grid includes the region within 40 m from surface ground zero, with photographs collected at a flight altitude of 8.5 m above ground level (AGL). The near-field grid area covered a broader area, 90-130 m from surface ground zero, and collected at a flight altitude of 22 m AGL. The photographs, processed using Agisoft Photoscan® in conjunction with 125 surveyed ground control point targets, yielded a 6-mm pixel-size digital elevation model (DEM) for the test table grid region. This provided the ≤3 cm resolution in the topographic data to map in fine detail a suite of features related to the underground explosion: uplift, subsidence, surface fractures, and morphological change detection. The near-field grid region data collection resulted in a 2-cm pixel-size DEM, enabling mapping of a broader range of features related to the explosion, including: uplift and subsidence, rock fall, and slope sloughing. This study represents one of the first works to constrain, both temporally and spatially, explosion-related surface damage using a UAS photogrammetric platform; these data will help to advance the science of

  3. Vertical Sampling Scales for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Measurements from Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Hemingway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The lowest portion of the Earth’s atmosphere, known as the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL, plays an important role in the formation of weather events. Simple meteorological measurements collected from within the ABL, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, and wind velocity, are key to understanding the exchange of energy within this region, but conventional surveillance techniques such as towers, radar, weather balloons, and satellites do not provide adequate spatial and/or temporal coverage for monitoring weather events. Small unmanned aircraft, or aerial, systems (sUAS provide a versatile, dynamic platform for atmospheric sensing that can provide higher spatio-temporal sampling frequencies than available through most satellite sensing methods. They are also able to sense portions of the atmosphere that cannot be measured from ground-based radar, weather stations, or weather balloons and have the potential to fill gaps in atmospheric sampling. However, research on the vertical sampling scales for collecting atmospheric measurements from sUAS and the variabilities of these scales across atmospheric phenomena (e.g., temperature and humidity is needed. The objective of this study is to use variogram analysis, a common geostatistical technique, to determine optimal spatial sampling scales for two atmospheric variables (temperature and relative humidity captured from sUAS. Results show that vertical sampling scales of approximately 3 m for temperature and 1.5–2 m for relative humidity were sufficient to capture the spatial structure of these phenomena under the conditions tested. Future work is needed to model these scales across the entire ABL as well as under variable conditions.

  4. Communication Architecture in Mixed-Reality Simulations of Unmanned Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selecký, Martin; Faigl, Jan; Rollo, Milan

    2018-03-14

    Verification of the correct functionality of multi-vehicle systems in high-fidelity scenarios is required before any deployment of such a complex system, e.g., in missions of remote sensing or in mobile sensor networks. Mixed-reality simulations where both virtual and physical entities can coexist and interact have been shown to be beneficial for development, testing, and verification of such systems. This paper deals with the problems of designing a certain communication subsystem for such highly desirable realistic simulations. Requirements of this communication subsystem, including proper addressing, transparent routing, visibility modeling, or message management, are specified prior to designing an appropriate solution. Then, a suitable architecture of this communication subsystem is proposed together with solutions to the challenges that arise when simultaneous virtual and physical message transmissions occur. The proposed architecture can be utilized as a high-fidelity network simulator for vehicular systems with implicit mobility models that are given by real trajectories of the vehicles. The architecture has been utilized within multiple projects dealing with the development and practical deployment of multi-UAV systems, which support the architecture's viability and advantages. The provided experimental results show the achieved similarity of the communication characteristics of the fully deployed hardware setup to the setup utilizing the proposed mixed-reality architecture.

  5. Communication Architecture in Mixed-Reality Simulations of Unmanned Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Selecký

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Verification of the correct functionality of multi-vehicle systems in high-fidelity scenarios is required before any deployment of such a complex system, e.g., in missions of remote sensing or in mobile sensor networks. Mixed-reality simulations where both virtual and physical entities can coexist and interact have been shown to be beneficial for development, testing, and verification of such systems. This paper deals with the problems of designing a certain communication subsystem for such highly desirable realistic simulations. Requirements of this communication subsystem, including proper addressing, transparent routing, visibility modeling, or message management, are specified prior to designing an appropriate solution. Then, a suitable architecture of this communication subsystem is proposed together with solutions to the challenges that arise when simultaneous virtual and physical message transmissions occur. The proposed architecture can be utilized as a high-fidelity network simulator for vehicular systems with implicit mobility models that are given by real trajectories of the vehicles. The architecture has been utilized within multiple projects dealing with the development and practical deployment of multi-UAV systems, which support the architecture’s viability and advantages. The provided experimental results show the achieved similarity of the communication characteristics of the fully deployed hardware setup to the setup utilizing the proposed mixed-reality architecture.

  6. Using Multimodal Input for Autonomous Decision Making for Unmanned Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilan, James H.; Cross, Charles; Rothhaar, Paul; Tran, Loc; Motter, Mark; Qualls, Garry; Trujillo, Anna; Allen, B. Danette

    2016-01-01

    Autonomous decision making in the presence of uncertainly is a deeply studied problem space particularly in the area of autonomous systems operations for land, air, sea, and space vehicles. Various techniques ranging from single algorithm solutions to complex ensemble classifier systems have been utilized in a research context in solving mission critical flight decisions. Realized systems on actual autonomous hardware, however, is a difficult systems integration problem, constituting a majority of applied robotics development timelines. The ability to reliably and repeatedly classify objects during a vehicles mission execution is vital for the vehicle to mitigate both static and dynamic environmental concerns such that the mission may be completed successfully and have the vehicle operate and return safely. In this paper, the Autonomy Incubator proposes and discusses an ensemble learning and recognition system planned for our autonomous framework, AEON, in selected domains, which fuse decision criteria, using prior experience on both the individual classifier layer and the ensemble layer to mitigate environmental uncertainty during operation.

  7. Unmanned Surface Sea Vehicle Power System Design and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-29

    Singh, C.J. Fennie , Jr., A.J. Salkind, and D.E. Reisner, "A Fuzzy Logic Methodology to Determine State-of-Charge (SOC) in Electric and Hybrid Vehicle...Systems", 16th IEEE Photovoltaic same length of 10 meters. Specialists Conference, pp. 513-518, 1982. [5] Pritpal Singh, Craig J. Fennie , Jr., Alvin J...34Estimation of Battery Charge in Photovoltaic Systems", 16th IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, pp. 513-518, 1982. [5] Pritpal Singh, Craig J. Fennie , Jr

  8. Implementation of unmanned aircraft systems by the U.S. Geological Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, J.J.; Sloan, J.L.; Hutt, M.E.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Project Office is leading the implementation of UAS technology in anticipation of transforming the research methods and management techniques employed across the Department of the Interior. UAS technology is being made available to monitor environmental conditions, analyse the impacts of climate change, respond to natural hazards, understand landscape change rates and consequences, conduct wildlife inventories and support related land management missions. USGS is teaming with the Department of the Interior Aviation Management Directorate (AMD) to lead the safe and cost-effective adoption of UAS technology by the Department of the Interior Agencies and USGS scientists.

  9. Counter Unmanned Aerial Systems Testing: Evaluation of VIS SWIR MWIR and LWIR passive imagers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birch, Gabriel Carlisle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Woo, Bryana Lynn [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This report contains analysis of unmanned aerial systems as imaged by visible, short-wave infrared, mid-wave infrared, and long-wave infrared passive devices. Testing was conducted at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) during the week of August 15, 2016. Target images in all spectral bands are shown and contrast versus background is reported. Calculations are performed to determine estimated pixels-on-target for detection and assessment levels, and the number of pixels needed to cover a hemisphere for detection or assessment at defined distances. Background clutter challenges are qualitatively discussed for different spectral bands, and low contrast scenarios are highlighted for long-wave infrared imagers.

  10. A Franco-German unmanned countermine system demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gusquet, F.; Neugebauer, K.; Gerard, F.; Marion, V.; Kaspari, A.; Hembise, D.

    2005-05-01

    In May 2003, the Federal Republic of Germany and the Republic of France awarded a contract to RHEINMETALL LANDSYSTEME GmbH, Germany), MBDA (France; THALES, France) for the joint development and manufacturing of a technology demonstrator for a vehicle-based close-in countermine system. The objective of this cooperation project, known as MMSR-SYDERA, is to show that, in a full-scale development program, it will be possible to fulfill the joint operational requirements issued by the German and French armies, which are based on the following missions: Fast route opening, Sensitive route opening and Area Clearing . In order to fulfill the three different missions and deal with an extensive array of mine threats, the MMSR-SYDERA countermine system combines two modes of countermine operation, i.e. triggering mines by decoying or detecting mines with sensors for low-order clearing. Thus, the plan calls for the MMSR-SYDERA system to be composed of five vehicles deployed in different configurations in a convoy on the roads to be cleared. This program takes advantage of the latest technologies to reach the objective performances: some innovative decoy tools already validated during real trials and optimized for MMSRSYDERA program, the latest ambitious technologies for detection and confirmation, and state-of-the-art remote-control capabilities, including tele-operation and semi-autonomous autofollow mode, with the highest established performances. An evaluation of the system demonstrator will be carried out at the beginning of 2007.

  11. GaN-based THz advanced quantum cascade lasers for manned and unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, A. F. M.; Manzur, Tariq; Lefebvre, Kevin R.; Carapezza, Edward M.

    2009-09-01

    In recent years the use of Unmanned Autonomous Vehicles (UAV) has seen a wider range of applications. However, their applications are restricted due to (a) advanced integrated sensing and processing electronics and (b) limited energy storage or on-board energy generation to name a few. The availability of a wide variety of sensing elements, operating at room temperatures, provides a great degree of flexibility with an extended application domain. Though sensors responding to a variable spectrum of input excitations ranging from (a) chemical, (b) biological, (c) atmospheric, (d) magnetic and (e) visual/IR imaging have been implemented in UAVs, the use of THz as a technology has not been implemented due to the absence of systems operating at room temperature. The integration of multi-phenomenological onboard sensors on small and miniature unmanned air vehicles will dramatically impact the detection and processing of challenging targets, such as humans carrying weapons or wearing suicide bomb vests. Unmanned air vehicles have the potential of flying over crowds of people and quickly discriminating non-threat humans from treat humans. The state of the art in small and miniature UAV's has progressed to vehicles of less than 1 pound in weight but with payloads of only a fraction of a pound. Uncooled IR sensors, such as amorphous silicon and vanadium oxide microbolometers with MRT's of less than 70mK and requiring power of less than 250mW, are available for integration into small UAV's. These sensors are responsive only up to approximately 14 microns and do not favorably compare with THz imaging systems for remotely detecting and classifying concealed weapons and bombs. In the following we propose the use of THz GaN-based QCL operating at room temperature as a possible alternative.

  12. Enhancing Combat Survivability of Existing Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    1 With efforts underway to develop rules integrating UAS’s into the National Airspace System, and...realizing that Federal Aviation Administration rule -making authority applied only to "aircraft," the term Remotely Operated Aircraft (ROA) was coined in...http://www.af.mil/factsheets/factsheet.asp?id=122 [10] Peter La Franchi , “US study recommends self-protection for UAVs”, Flight International, 7

  13. Unmanned Systems In Integrating Cross domain Naval Fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    2014a). .............................77 Figure 24. A Worker Installs Rotors on the DP-14 Hawk. Source: DPI Systems (2014b...Discrete Event Plotter Results for a Link-16 Equipped DP-5X Wasp and SAG with Organic MH-60R Seahawk Helicopters (Average). ........107 Figure 44. The...and Support Costs in Fiscal Year 206 Dollars. ......126 xv LIST OF TABLES Table 1. SEA23 Project Team Composition

  14. Multispectral and DSLR sensors for assessing crop stress in corn and cotton using fixed-wing unmanned air systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valasek, John; Henrickson, James V.; Bowden, Ezekiel; Shi, Yeyin; Morgan, Cristine L. S.; Neely, Haly L.

    2016-05-01

    As small unmanned aircraft systems become increasingly affordable, reliable, and formally recognized under federal regulation, they become increasingly attractive as novel platforms for civil applications. This paper details the development and demonstration of fixed-wing unmanned aircraft systems for precision agriculture tasks. Tasks such as soil moisture content and high throughput phenotyping are considered. Rationale for sensor, vehicle, and ground equipment selections are provided, in addition to developed flight operation procedures for minimal numbers of crew. Preliminary imagery results are presented and analyzed, and these results demonstrate that fixed-wing unmanned aircraft systems modified to carry non-traditional sensors at extended endurance durations can provide high quality data that is usable for serious scientific analysis.

  15. Autonomous Cargo Transport System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, using Visual Servoing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noah Kuntz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and testing of a system for autonomous tracking, pickup, and delivery of cargo via an unmanned helicopter. The tracking system uses a visual servoing algorithm and is tested using open loop velocity control of a six degree of freedom gantry system with a camera mounted via a pan-tilt unit on the end effecter. The pickup system uses vision to direct the camera pan tilt unit to track the target, and uses a hook attached to a second pan tilt unit to pick up the cargo. The ability of the pickup system to hook a target is tested by mounting it on the Systems Integrated Sensor Test Rig gantry system while recorded helicopter velocities are played back by the test rig.

  16. System of technical vision for autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarchuk, A. S.

    2018-05-01

    This paper is devoted to the implementation of image recognition algorithm using the LabVIEW software. The created virtual instrument is designed to detect the objects on the frames from the camera mounted on the UAV. The trained classifier is invariant to changes in rotation, as well as to small changes in the camera's viewing angle. Finding objects in the image using particle analysis, allows you to classify regions of different sizes. This method allows the system of technical vision to more accurately determine the location of the objects of interest and their movement relative to the camera.

  17. Development of Flight-Test Performance Estimation Techniques for Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, Matthew Henry

    This dissertation provides a flight-testing framework for assessing the performance of fixed-wing, small-scale unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) by leveraging sub-system models of components unique to these vehicles. The development of the sub-system models, and their links to broader impacts on sUAS performance, is the key contribution of this work. The sub-system modeling and analysis focuses on the vehicle's propulsion, navigation and guidance, and airframe components. Quantification of the uncertainty in the vehicle's power available and control states is essential for assessing the validity of both the methods and results obtained from flight-tests. Therefore, detailed propulsion and navigation system analyses are presented to validate the flight testing methodology. Propulsion system analysis required the development of an analytic model of the propeller in order to predict the power available over a range of flight conditions. The model is based on the blade element momentum (BEM) method. Additional corrections are added to the basic model in order to capture the Reynolds-dependent scale effects unique to sUAS. The model was experimentally validated using a ground based testing apparatus. The BEM predictions and experimental analysis allow for a parameterized model relating the electrical power, measurable during flight, to the power available required for vehicle performance analysis. Navigation system details are presented with a specific focus on the sensors used for state estimation, and the resulting uncertainty in vehicle state. Uncertainty quantification is provided by detailed calibration techniques validated using quasi-static and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) ground based testing. The HIL methods introduced use a soft real-time flight simulator to provide inertial quality data for assessing overall system performance. Using this tool, the uncertainty in vehicle state estimation based on a range of sensors, and vehicle operational environments is

  18. Unmanned solar systems exploration - An arena for international cooperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, D. H.; Pacault, R.

    1974-01-01

    Mission profiles for a Mars Surface Sample Return (MSSR) mission are considered. A profile using separate launches for a lander/ascent module and an orbiter/return system could use present technology and is appropriate for international cooperation. The achievement of clean interfaces between major building blocks and ease of controlling back contamination are advantages offered by the concept. A spatially distributed surface sample could be obtained by using multiple landers delivering samples to a common orbiter. The Pioneer Venus program, originally planned as a cooperative NASA-ESRO project, resulted in development of a standardized spacecraft bus yielding benefits at minimized cost. The first joint US-European planetary mission now planned is the launch of a Pioneer class orbiter to Jupiter in 1980. Feasibility studies are being conducted.

  19. Fault tolerant attitude control for small unmanned aircraft systems equipped with an airflow sensor array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, H; Xu, Y; Dickinson, B T

    2014-11-18

    Inspired by sensing strategies observed in birds and bats, a new attitude control concept of directly using real-time pressure and shear stresses has recently been studied. It was shown that with an array of onboard airflow sensors, small unmanned aircraft systems can promptly respond to airflow changes and improve flight performances. In this paper, a mapping function is proposed to compute aerodynamic moments from the real-time pressure and shear data in a practical and computationally tractable formulation. Since many microscale airflow sensors are embedded on the small unmanned aircraft system surface, it is highly possible that certain sensors may fail. Here, an adaptive control system is developed that is robust to sensor failure as well as other numerical mismatches in calculating real-time aerodynamic moments. The advantages of the proposed method are shown in the following simulation cases: (i) feedback pressure and wall shear data from a distributed array of 45 airflow sensors; (ii) 50% failure of the symmetrically distributed airflow sensor array; and (iii) failure of all the airflow sensors on one wing. It is shown that even if 50% of the airflow sensors have failures, the aircraft is still stable and able to track the attitude commands.

  20. Towards routine measurements of meteorological and aerosol parameters using small unmanned aerial and tethered balloon systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, F.; Dexheimer, D.; Hubbe, J. M.; deBoer, G.; Schmid, B.; Ivey, M.; Longbottom, C.; Carroll, P.

    2017-12-01

    The Inaugural Campaigns for ARM Research using Unmanned Systems (ICARUS) had been launched in 2016 and then the effort has been continued in 2017. ICARUS centered on Oliktok Point, Alaska focusses on developing routine operations of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) and Tethered Balloon Systems (TBS). The operation routine practiced during ICARUS 2016 provided valuable guidance for the ICARUS 2017 deployment. During two intensive operation periods in 2017, a small DataHawk II UAS has been deployed to collect data for two weeks each in May and August. Coordinated with DataHawk flights, the TBS has been launched with meteorology sensors such as iMet and Tethersondes, therefore vertical profiles of the basic atmospheric state (temperature, humidity, and horizontal wind) were observed simultaneously by UAS and TBS. In addition, an aerosol payload was attached and launched with 2 TBS flights in April and 7 TBS flights in May, which include a condensation particle counter (CPC, TSI 3007) and two printed optical particle spectrometers (POPS, Handix TBS version). The two POPS were operated at different inlet temperatures. This approach provided potential measurements for aerosol optical closure in future. Measured aerosol properties include total particle number concentrations, particle size distribution, at different ambient temperature and relative humidity. Vertical profiles of atmospheric state and aerosol properties will be discussed based on the coordinated flights. Monthly variation will be assessed with data from the upcoming August flights.

  1. Development of a Data Acquisition System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) System Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Donald Joseph

    Aircraft system identification techniques are developed for fixed wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The use of a designed flight experiment with measured system inputs/outputs can be used to derive aircraft stability derivatives. This project set out to develop a methodology to support an experiment to model pitch damping in the longitudinal short-period mode of a UAV. A Central Composite Response Surface Design was formed using angle of attack and power levels as factors to test for the pitching moment coefficient response induced by a multistep pitching maneuver. Selecting a high-quality data acquisition platform was critical to the success of the project. This system was designed to support fixed wing research through the addition of a custom air data vane capable of measuring angle of attack and sideslip, as well as an airspeed sensor. A Pixhawk autopilot system serves as the core and modification of the device firmware allowed for the integration of custom sensors and custom RC channels dedicated to performing system identification maneuvers. Tests were performed on all existing Pixhawk sensors to validate stated uncertainty values. The air data system was calibrated in a low speed wind tunnel and dynamic performance was verified. The assembled system was then installed in a commercially available UAV known as an Air Titan FPV in order to test the Pixhawk's automated flight maneuvers and determine the final performance of each sensor. Flight testing showed all the critical sensors produced acceptable data for further research. The Air Titan FPV airframe was found to be very flexible and did not lend itself well to accurate measurement of inertial properties. This realization prohibited the construction of the required math models for longitudinal dynamics. It is recommended that future projects using the developed methods choose an aircraft with a more rigid airframe.

  2. Dhaksha, the Unmanned Aircraft System in its New Avatar-Automated Aerial Inspection of INDIA'S Tallest Tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, K. S.; Rasheed, A. Mohamed; Krishna Kumar, R.; Giridharan, M.; Ganesh

    2013-08-01

    DHAKSHA, the unmanned aircraft system (UAS), developed after several years of research by Division of Avionics, Department of Aerospace Engineering, MIT Campus of Anna University has recently proved its capabilities during May 2012 Technology demonstration called UAVforge organised by Defence Research Project Agency, Department of Defence, USA. Team Dhaksha with its most stable design outperformed all the other contestants competing against some of the best engineers from prestigi ous institutions across the globe like Middlesex University from UK, NTU and NUS from Singapore, Tudelft Technical University, Netherlands and other UAV industry participants in the world's toughest UAV challenge. This has opened up an opportunity for Indian UAVs making a presence in the international scenario as well. In furtherance to the above effort at Fort Stewart military base at Georgia,USA, with suitable payloads, the Dhaksha team deployed the UAV in a religious temple festival during November 2012 at Thiruvannamalai District for Tamil Nadu Police to avail the instant aerial imagery services over the crowd of 10 lakhs pilgrims and also about the investigation of the structural strength of the India's tallest structure, the 300 m RCC tower during January 2013. The developed system consists of a custom-built Rotary Wing model with on-board navigation, guidance and control systems (NGC) and ground control station (GCS), for mission planning, remote access, manual overrides and imagery related computations. The mission is to fulfill the competition requirements by using an UAS capable of providing complete solution for the stated problem. In this work the effort to produce multirotor unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for civilian applications at the MIT, Avionics Laboratory is presented

  3. DHAKSHA,THE UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM IN ITS NEW AVATAR-AUTOMATED AERIAL INSPECTION OF INDIA'S TALLEST TOWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Kumar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DHAKSHA, the unmanned aircraft system (UAS, developed after several years of research by Division of Avionics, Department of Aerospace Engineering, MIT Campus of Anna University has recently proved its capabilities during May 2012 Technology demonstration called UAVforge organised by Defence Research Project Agency, Department of Defence, USA. Team Dhaksha with its most stable design outperformed all the other contestants competing against some of the best engineers from prestigi ous institutions across the globe like Middlesex University from UK, NTU and NUS from Singapore, Tudelft Technical University, Netherlands and other UAV industry participants in the world's toughest UAV challenge. This has opened up an opportunity for Indian UAVs making a presence in the international scenario as well. In furtherance to the above effort at Fort Stewart military base at Georgia,USA, with suitable payloads, the Dhaksha team deployed the UAV in a religious temple festival during November 2012 at Thiruvannamalai District for Tamil Nadu Police to avail the instant aerial imagery services over the crowd of 10 lakhs pilgrims and also about the investigation of the structural strength of the India's tallest structure, the 300 m RCC tower during January 2013. The developed system consists of a custom-built Rotary Wing model with on-board navigation, guidance and control systems (NGC and ground control station (GCS, for mission planning, remote access, manual overrides and imagery related computations. The mission is to fulfill the competition requirements by using an UAS capable of providing complete solution for the stated problem. In this work the effort to produce multirotor unmanned aerial systems (UAS for civilian applications at the MIT, Avionics Laboratory is presented

  4. Biologically inspired collision avoidance system for unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Fernando E.; Graham, Brett; Spagnoli, Kyle; Kelmelis, Eric J.

    2009-05-01

    In this project, we collaborate with researchers in the neuroscience department at the University of Delaware to develop an Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-based embedded computer, inspired by the brains of small vertebrates (fish). The mechanisms of object detection and avoidance in fish have been extensively studied by our Delaware collaborators. The midbrain optic tectum is a biological multimodal navigation controller capable of processing input from all senses that convey spatial information, including vision, audition, touch, and lateral-line (water current sensing in fish). Unfortunately, computational complexity makes these models too slow for use in real-time applications. These simulations are run offline on state-of-the-art desktop computers, presenting a gap between the application and the target platform: a low-power embedded device. EM Photonics has expertise in developing of high-performance computers based on commodity platforms such as graphic cards (GPUs) and FPGAs. FPGAs offer (1) high computational power, low power consumption and small footprint (in line with typical autonomous vehicle constraints), and (2) the ability to implement massively-parallel computational architectures, which can be leveraged to closely emulate biological systems. Combining UD's brain modeling algorithms and the power of FPGAs, this computer enables autonomous navigation in complex environments, and further types of onboard neural processing in future applications.

  5. Methods for Evaluating the Temperature Structure-Function Parameter Using Unmanned Aerial Systems and Large-Eddy Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Bonin, Timothy A.; Chilson, Phillip B.; Gibbs, Jeremy A.; Fedorovich, Evgeni; Palmer, Robert D.

    2015-05-01

    Small-scale turbulent fluctuations of temperature are known to affect the propagation of both electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Within the inertial-subrange scale, where the turbulence is locally homogeneous and isotropic, these temperature perturbations can be described, in a statistical sense, using the structure-function parameter for temperature, . Here we investigate different methods of evaluating , using data from a numerical large-eddy simulation together with atmospheric observations collected by an unmanned aerial system and a sodar. An example case using data from a late afternoon unmanned aerial system flight on April 24 2013 and corresponding large-eddy simulation data is presented and discussed.

  6. Human factors considerations for the integration of unmanned aerial vehicles in the National Airspace System : an analysis of reports submitted to the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-06

    Successful integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operations into the National Airspace System requires the identification and mitigation of operational risks. This report reviews human factors issues that have been identified in operational as...

  7. Incorporating Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into High School Curricula in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Lukaczyk, T.; Brendan, B.; Tomita, M.; Ralston, T.; Purdy, G.

    2016-12-01

    The availability of low-cost unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) permits their integration in educational programs. We report on experiences and future opportunities for incorporating UAS into High School curricula in Hawaii. We first review existing high school UAS programs and teaching material to highlight curricula options and needs. By working on the privately owned Island of Lana'i, we had permission for extensive UAS operation. Our initial focus of UAS educational outreach was on coastal ecosystems where erosion of overgrazed lands affects coral reefs and traditional coastal Hawaiian fishpond restoration projects which include high school students. We provide results of our classroom approach allowing students to learn to fly small, inexpensive UAS and discuss the different results at different grade levels. In addition to providing basic concepts of flight aeronautics, we reviewed information on safe and legal operation of UAS, as well as data management issues including geo-registration and imaging mosaics. We recommend science projects where UAS can study short-term events (e.g. storm runoff) or can be used for routine environmental monitoring over longer periods. Additionally, by linking students with local drone and drone racing clubs student participation and interest in UAS was extended beyond the classroom in a complementary manner. We propose inclusion of UAS into a future high school curriculum via a program called the Moonshot Laboratory which strives to repurpose traditional education structures toward design thinking, making use of individual and group collaborations to address self-selected projects relevant to local community interests. A Moonshot facility allows students to spend a portion of their week in a technology equipped makerspace, with access to university, business and community mentors, both local and remote. UAS projects are expected to address basic student questions, such as: how can I build a drone to take water samples?; how can I

  8. A third-party casualty risk model for unmanned aircraft system operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnyk, Richard; Schrage, Daniel; Volovoi, Vitali; Jimenez, Hernando

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) integration into the National Airspace System (NAS) is an important goal of many members of the Aerospace community including stakeholders such as the military, law enforcement and potential civil users of UAS. However, integration efforts have remained relatively limited due to safety concerns. Due to the nature of UAS, safety predictions must look beyond the system itself and take the operating environment into account. A framework that can link UAS reliability and physical characteristics to the effects on the bystander population is required. This study proposes using a Target Level of Safety approach and an event tree format, populated with data from existing studies that share characteristics of UAS crashes to enable casualty prediction for UAS operations. - Highlights: • A framework for predicting bystander casualties caused by UAS mishaps. • A method to facilitate UAS integration by linking system reliability to system safety. • A tool to help develop UAS certification standards

  9. Steps Towards Scalable and Modularized Flight Software for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C. Dauer

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aircraft (UA applications impose a variety of computing tasks on the on-board computer system. From a research perspective, it is often more convenient to evaluate algorithms on bigger aircraft as they are capable of lifting heavier loads and thus more powerful computational units. On the other hand, smaller systems are often less expensive and operation is less restricted in many countries. This paper thus presents a conceptual design for flight software that can be evaluated on the UA of convenient size. The integration effort required to transfer the algorithm to different sized UA is significantly reduced. This scalability is achieved by using exchangeable payload modules and a flexible process distribution on different processing units. The presented approach is discussed using the example of the flight software of a 14 kg unmanned helicopter and an equivalent of 1.5 kg. The proof of concept is shown by means of flight performance in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation.

  10. Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems to Study Atmospheric Processes During Sea Ice Freeze Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, G.; Lawrence, D.; Weibel, D.; Borenstein, S.; Bendure, A.; Solomon, A.; Intrieri, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    In October 2016, a team of scientists deployed to Oliktok Point, Alaska to make atmospheric measurements as part of the Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) and Inaugural Campaigns for ARM Research using Unmanned Systems (ICARUS) campaigns. The deployment included operations using the University of Colorado DataHawk2 UAS. The DataHawk2 was configured to make measurements of atmospheric thermodynamics, wind and surface temperature, providing information on lower tropospheric thermodynamic structure, turbulent surface fluxes, and surface temperature. During this campaign, the team experienced a variety of weather regimes and witnessed the development of near shore sea ice. In this presentation, we will give an overview of the measurements obtained during this time and how they were used to better understand freeze up processes in this coastal environment. Additionally, we will provide insight into how these platforms are being used for evaluation of a fully-coupled sea ice forecast model operated by NOAA's Physical Sciences Division.

  11. Collaborative Unmanned Vehicles for Maritime Domain Awareness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Healey, A. J; Horner, D. P; Kragelund, S. P

    2005-01-01

    Unmanned vehicles are becoming a critical component of military operations. As the vehicles develop in capability, there will be a trend for heterogeneous classes of unmanned vehicles to be able to work in a more collaborative fashion...

  12. NASA Unmanned Aircraft (UA) Control and Non-Payload Communication (CNPC) System Waveform Trade Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Carlos; Hammel, Bruce; Hammel, Allan; Moore, John R.

    2014-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) represent a new capability that will provide a variety of services in the government (public) and commercial (civil) aviation sectors. The growth of this potential industry has not yet been realized due to the lack of a common understanding of what is required to safely operate UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS). To address this deficiency, NASA has established a project called UAS Integration in the NAS (UAS in the NAS), under the Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) of the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). This project provides an opportunity to transition concepts, technology, algorithms, and knowledge to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other stakeholders to help them define the requirements, regulations, and issues for routine UAS access to the NAS. The safe, routine, and efficient integration of UAS into the NAS requires new radio frequency (RF) spectrum allocations and a new data communications system which is both secure and scalable with increasing UAS traffic without adversely impacting the Air Traffic Control (ATC) communication system. These data communications, referred to as Control and Non-Payload Communications (CNPC), whose purpose is to exchange information between the unmanned aircraft and the ground control station to ensure safe, reliable, and effective unmanned aircraft flight operation. A Communications Subproject within the UAS in the NAS Project has been established to address issues related to CNPC development, certification and fielding. The focus of the Communications Subproject is on validating and allocating new RF spectrum and data link communications to enable civil UAS integration into the NAS. The goal is to validate secure, robust data links within the allocated frequency spectrum for UAS. A vision, architectural concepts, and seed requirements for the future commercial UAS CNPC system have been developed by RTCA Special Committee 203 (SC-203) in the process

  13. A continuous hyperspatial monitoring system of evapotranspiration and gross primary productivity from Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Bandini, Filippo; Jakobsen, Jakob; Zarco-Tejada, Pablo J.; Köppl, Christian Josef; Haugård Olesen, Daniel; Ibrom, Andreas; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Garcia, Monica

    2017-04-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can collect optical and thermal hyperspatial (challenges for an operational monitoring using UAS compared to satellites: the payload capacity of most commercial UAS is less than 2 kg, but miniaturized sensors have low signal to noise ratios and small field of view requires mosaicking hundreds of images and accurate orthorectification. In addition, wind gusts and lower platform stability require appropriate geometric and radiometric corrections. Finally, modeling fluxes on days without images is still an issue for both satellite and UAS applications. This study focuses on designing an operational UAS-based monitoring system including payload design, sensor calibration, based on routine collection of optical and thermal images in a Danish willow field to perform a joint monitoring of ET and GPP dynamics over continuous time at daily time steps. The payload (approach (Potter et al., 1993). Both models estimate ET and GPP under optimum potential conditions down-regulated by the same biophysical constraints dependent on remote sensing and atmospheric data to reflect multiple stresses. Vegetation indices were calculated from the multispectral data to assess vegetation conditions, while thermal infrared imagery was used to compute a thermal inertia index to infer soil moisture constraints. To interpolate radiometric temperature between flights, a prognostic Surface Energy Balance model (Margulis et al., 2001) based on the force-restore method was applied in a data assimilation scheme to obtain continuous ET and GPP fluxes. With this operational system, regular flight campaigns with a hexacopter (DJI S900) have been conducted in a Danish willow flux site (Risø) over the 2016 growing season. The observed energy, water and carbon fluxes from the Risø eddy covariance flux tower were used to validate the model simulation. This UAS monitoring system is suitable for agricultural management and land-atmosphere interaction studies.

  14. Parameter Estimation and Verification of Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ab Rashid Mohd Zamzuri

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This project is mainly about the dynamic modelling and parameter estimation of Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV. The purpose of developing mathematical model of the Unmanned Air Cushion Vehicle (UACV is due to its under actuated nonlinearities where it has less input compared to the output required. This system able to maneuver over land, water and other surfaces either at certain speed or maintain at a stationary position. In order to model the UACV, the system is set to have two propellers which are responsible to lift the vehicle by forcing high pressure air under the system. The air inflates the “skirt” under the vehicle, causing it to rise above the surface while another two propellers are used to steer the UACV forward. UACV system can be considered as under actuated since it possess fewer controller inputs that its degree of freedom. The system’s motions are defined by the six degrees of freedom which are; heaved, sway and surge. Another three components are rotational motions which can be elaborated as roll, pitch and yaw. The problem related to UACV is normally related to obtaining accurate parameters of the system to be included into the mathematical model of the system. This is due to the body inertia of the system during the static and moving condition. Besides, the air that flows into the UACV skirt to create the cushion causes imbalance and will affect the system stability and controllability. In this research, UACV need to be mathematically modelled using Euler-Lagrange method. Then, parameters of the system can be obtained through direct calculation and Solidworks software. The parameters acquired are compared and verified using simulation and experimental studies.

  15. On Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System Issues, Challenges, Operational Restrictions, Certification, and Recommendations

    CERN Document Server

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos; Piegl, Les A

    2012-01-01

    This book presents, in a comprehensive way, current unmanned aviation regulation, airworthiness certification, special aircraft categories, pilot certification, federal aviation requirements, operation rules, airspace classes and regulation development models. It discusses unmanned aircraft systems levels of safety derived mathematically based on the corresponding levels for manned aviation. It provides an overview of the history and current status of UAS airworthiness and operational regulation worldwide. Existing regulations have been developed considering the need for a complete regulatory framework for UAS. It focuses on UAS safety assessment and functional requirements, achieved in terms of defining an “Equivalent Level of Safety”, or ELOS, with that of manned aviation, specifying what the ELOS requirement entails for UAS regulations. To accomplish this, the safety performance of manned aviation is first evaluated, followed by a novel model to derive reliability requirements for achieving target lev...

  16. AUTONOMOUS UNMANNED HELICOPTER SYSTEM FOR REMOTE SENSING MISSIONS IN UNKNOWN ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Merz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of an autonomous unmanned helicopter system for low-altitude remote sensing. The proposed concepts and methods are generic and not limited to a specific helicopter. The development was driven by the need for a dependable, modular, and affordable system with sufficient payload capacity suitable for both research and real-world deployment. The helicopter can be safely operated without a backup pilot in a contained area beyond visual range. This enables data collection in inaccessible or dangerous areas. Thanks to its terrain following and obstacle avoidance capability, the system does not require a priori information about terrain elevation and obstacles. Missions are specified in state diagrams and flight plans. We present performance characteristics of our system and show results of its deployment in real-world scenarios. We have successfully completed several dozen infrastructure inspection missions and crop monitoring missions facilitating plant phenomics studies.

  17. The application of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) in geophysical investigations of geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, J. M.; Egger, A. E.; Ippolito, C.; Phelps, G. A.; Berthold, R.; Lee, R.; Spritzer, J. M.; Tchernychev, M.

    2012-12-01

    Investigations of geothermal systems typically involve ground-based geological and geophysical studies in order to map structures that control and facilitate fluid flow. The spatial extent of ground-based investigations can be limited, however, by surficial hot springs, dense foliage, and roadless or private lands. This can result in data gaps in key areas, particularly around active hydrothermal springs. Manned aircraft can provide access to these areas and can yield broad and uniform data coverage, but high-resolution surveys are costly and relatively inflexible to changes in the survey specifications that may arise as data are collected. Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are well suited for conducting these surveys, but until recently, various factors (scientific instrumentation requirements, platform limitations, and size of the survey area) have required the use of large UAS platforms, rendering unmanned aerial surveys unsuitable for most investigations. We have developed and tested a new cesium magnetometer system to collect magnetic data using two different small-platform UAS that overcomes many of the challenges described above. We are deploying this new system in Surprise Valley, CA, to study the area's active geothermal field. Surprise Valley is ideally suited to testing UAS due to its low population density, accessible airspace, and broad playa that provides ample opportunity to safely land the aircraft. In combination with gravity and topographic data, magnetic data are particularly useful for identifying buried, intra-basin structures, especially in areas such as Surprise Valley where highly magnetic, dense mafic volcanic rocks are interbedded with and faulted against less magnetic, less dense sedimentary rock. While high-resolution gravity data must be collected at point locations on the ground, high-resolution magnetic data can be obtained by UAS that provide continuous coverage. Once acquired, the magnetic data obtained by the UAS will be combined with

  18. NPP post-accident monitoring system based on unmanned aircraft vehicle:concept, design principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sachenko, A.A.; Kochan, V.V.; Kharchenko, V.S.; Yanovskij, M.Eh.; Yastrebenetskij, M.A.; Fesenko, G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a concept of designing the post-accident system for monitoring the equipment and territory of nuclear power plant after a severe accident based on unmanned aircraft vehicle (UAVs). Wired power and communications networks are found out as the most vulnerable ones during the accident monitoring, and informativity, reliability and veracity are recognized as system basic parameters. It is proposed to equip measurement and control modules with backup wireless communication channels and deploy the repeaters network based on UAVs to ensure the informativity. Modules possess the backup power battery, and repeaters appear in the appropriate places after the accident to provide the survivability. Moreover, an optimization of UAVs' location is proposed according to the minimum energy consumption criterion. To ensure the veracity, it is expected to design the noise-immune protocol for message exchange and archiving and self-diagnostics of all system components

  19. The development and validation of an unmanned aerial system (UAS) for the measurement of methane flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, G.; Shah, A.; Williams, P. I.; Ricketts, H.; Hollingsworth, P.; Kabbabe, K.; Bourn, M.; Pitt, J. R.; Helmore, J.; Lowry, D.; Robinson, R. A.; Finlayson, A.

    2017-12-01

    Emission controls for CH4are a part of the Paris Agreement and other national emissions strategies. This work represents a new method for precise quantification of point-source and facility-level methane emissions flux rates to inform both the climate science community and policymakers. In this paper, we describe the development of an integrated Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) for the measurement of high-precision in-situ CH4 concentrations. We also describe the development of a mass balance flux calculation model tailored to UAS plume sampling downwind; and the validation of this method using a known emission flux from a controlled release facility. A validation field trial was conducted at the UK Met Office site in Cardington, UK, between 31 Oct and 4 Nov 2016 using the UK National Physical Laboratory's Controlled Release Facility (CRF). A modified DJI-S900 hexrotor UAS was tethered via an inlet to a ground-based Los Gatos Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyser to record geospatially-referenced methane (and carbon dioxide) concentrations. Methane fluxes from the CRF were emitted at 5 kg/hr and 10 kg/hr in a series of blind trials (fluxes were not reported to the team prior to the calculation of UAS-derived flux) for a total of 7 UAS flights, which sampled 200 m downwind of source(s), each lasting around 20 minutes. The flux calculation method was adapted for sampling considerations downwind of an emission source that has not had sufficient time to develop a Gaussian morphology. The UAS-measured methane fluxes, and representative flux uncertainty (derived from an error propagation model), were found to compare well with the controlled CH4 emission rate. For the 7 experiments, the standard error between the measured and emitted CH4 flux was found to be +/-6% with a mean bias of +0.4 kg/hr. Limits of flux sensitivity (to within 25% uncertainty) were found to extend to as little as 0.12 kg/h. Further improvements to the accuracy of flux calculation could be made by

  20. Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) 2.0 Unmanned Vacuum Environment Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Carly; Vogel, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    For the first time in more than 30 years, an advanced space suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) design was operated inside a vacuum chamber representative of the flight operating environment. The test article, PLSS 2.0, was the second system-level integrated prototype of the advanced PLSS design, following the PLSS 1.0 Breadboard that was developed and tested throughout 2011. Whereas PLSS 1.0 included five technology development components with the balance the system simulated using commercial-off-the-shelf items, PLSS 2.0 featured first generation or later prototypes for all components less instrumentation, tubing and fittings. Developed throughout 2012, PLSS 2.0 was the first attempt to package the system into a flight-like representative volume. PLSS 2.0 testing included an extensive functional evaluation known as Pre-Installation Acceptance (PIA) testing, Human-in-the-Loop testing in which the PLSS 2.0 prototype was integrated via umbilicals to a manned prototype space suit for 19 two-hour simulated EVAs, and unmanned vacuum environment testing. Unmanned vacuum environment testing took place from 1/9/15-7/9/15 with PLSS 2.0 located inside a vacuum chamber. Test sequences included performance mapping of several components, carbon dioxide removal evaluations at simulated intravehicular activity (IVA) conditions, a regulator pressure schedule assessment, and culminated with 25 simulated extravehicular activities (EVAs). During the unmanned vacuum environment test series, PLSS 2.0 accumulated 378 hours of integrated testing including 291 hours of operation in a vacuum environment and 199 hours of simulated EVA time. The PLSS prototype performed nominally throughout the test series, with two notable exceptions including a pump failure and a Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME) leak, for which post-test failure investigations were performed. In addition to generating an extensive database of PLSS 2.0 performance data, achievements included requirements and

  1. Real-Time Implementation of an Asynchronous Vision-Based Target Tracking System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    Chin Khoon Quek. “Vision Based Control and Target Range Estimation for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle.” Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School...December 2005. [6] Kwee Chye Yap. “Incorporating Target Mensuration System for Target Motion Estimation Along a Road Using Asynchronous Filter

  2. A meta-analysis of human-system interfaces in unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) swarm management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocraffer, Amy; Nam, Chang S

    2017-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to systematically evaluate the current state of research on human-system interfaces for users controlling semi-autonomous swarms composed of groups of drones or unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). UAV swarms pose several human factors challenges, such as high cognitive demands, non-intuitive behavior, and serious consequences for errors. This article presents findings from a meta-analysis of 27 UAV swarm management papers focused on the human-system interface and human factors concerns, providing an overview of the advantages, challenges, and limitations of current UAV management interfaces, as well as information on how these interfaces are currently evaluated. In general allowing user and mission-specific customization to user interfaces and raising the swarm's level of autonomy to reduce operator cognitive workload are beneficial and improve situation awareness (SA). It is clear more research is needed in this rapidly evolving field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Traffic Management (UTM): Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace and UAS Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2014-01-01

    Many civilian applications of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) have been imagined ranging from remote to congested urban areas, including goods delivery, infrastructure surveillance, agricultural support, and medical services delivery. Further, these UAS will have different equipage and capabilities based on considerations such as affordability, and mission needs applications. Such heterogeneous UAS mix, along with operations such as general aviation, helicopters, gliders must be safely accommodated at lower altitudes. However, key infrastructure to enable and safely manage widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS operations therein does not exist. Therefore, NASA is exploring functional design, concept and technology development, and a prototype UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system. UTM will support safe and efficient UAS operations for the delivery of goods and services

  4. Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems for transportation engineering: Current practice and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanouil N. Barmpounakis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acquiring and processing video streams from static cameras has been proposed as one of the most efficient tools for visualizing and gathering traffic information. With the latest advances in technology and visual media, combined with the increased needs in dealing with congestion more effectively and directly, the use of Unmanned Aerial Aircraft Systems (UAS has emerged in the field of traffic engineering. In this paper, we review studies and applications that incorporate UAS in transportation research and practice with the aim to set the grounds from the proper understanding and implementation of UAS related surveillance systems in transportation and traffic engineering. The studies reviewed are categorized in different transportation engineering areas. Additional significant applications from other research fields are also referenced to identify other promising applications. Finally, issues and emerging challenges in both a conceptual and methodological level are revealed and discussed.

  5. R2U2: Monitoring and Diagnosis of Security Threats for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Moosbruger, Patrick; Rozier, Kristin Y.

    2015-01-01

    We present R2U2, a novel framework for runtime monitoring of security properties and diagnosing of security threats on-board Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). R2U2, implemented in FPGA hardware, is a real-time, REALIZABLE, RESPONSIVE, UNOBTRUSIVE Unit for security threat detection. R2U2 is designed to continuously monitor inputs from the GPS and the ground control station, sensor readings, actuator outputs, and flight software status. By simultaneously monitoring and performing statistical reasoning, attack patterns and post-attack discrepancies in the UAS behavior can be detected. R2U2 uses runtime observer pairs for linear and metric temporal logics for property monitoring and Bayesian networks for diagnosis of security threats. We discuss the design and implementation that now enables R2U2 to handle security threats and present simulation results of several attack scenarios on the NASA DragonEye UAS.

  6. Development of a non-contextual model for determining the autonomy level of intelligent unmanned systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, Phillip J.; Gray, Wendell; Trentini, Michael

    2013-05-01

    A simple, quantitative measure for encapsulating the autonomous capabilities of unmanned systems (UMS) has yet to be established. Current models for measuring a UMS's autonomy level require extensive, operational level testing, and provide a means for assessing the autonomy level for a specific mission/task and operational environment. A more elegant technique for quantifying autonomy using component level testing of the robot platform alone, outside of mission and environment contexts, is desirable. Using a high level framework for UMS architectures, such a model for determining a level of autonomy has been developed. The model uses a combination of developmental and component level testing for each aspect of the UMS architecture to define a non-contextual autonomous potential (NCAP). The NCAP provides an autonomy level, ranging from fully non- autonomous to fully autonomous, in the form of a single numeric parameter describing the UMS's performance capabilities when operating at that level of autonomy.

  7. Toward the Experimental Characterization of an Unmanned Air System Flow Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, John-Michael; Connors, Jacob; Glauser, Mark

    2017-11-01

    The velocity flow field around a small unmanned air system (sUAS) is investigated in a series of experiments at Syracuse University. Experiments are conducted in the 2'x2' sub-sonic wind tunnel at Syracuse University and the Indoor Flow Lab. The goal of these experiments is to gain a better understanding of the rich, turbulent flow field that a sUAS creates. Comparison to large, multi-rotor manned vehicles is done to gain a better understanding of the flow physics that could be occurring with the sUAS. Regions of investigation include the downwash, above the vehicle, and far downstream. Characterization of the flow is performed using hotwire anemometry. Investigation of several locations around the sUAS show that dominant frequencies exist within the flow field. Analysis of the flow field using power spectral density will be presented as well as looking at which parameters have an effect on these dominant frequencies.

  8. First Report of Using Portable Unmanned Aircraft Systems (Drones) for Search and Rescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tilburg, Christopher

    2017-06-01

    Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), colloquially called drones, are used commonly for military, government, and civilian purposes, including both commercial and consumer applications. During a search and rescue mission in Oregon, a UAS was used to confirm a fatality in a slot canyon; this eliminated the need for a dangerous rappel at night by rescue personnel. A second search mission in Oregon used several UAS to clear terrain. This allowed search of areas that were not accessible or were difficult to clear by ground personnel. UAS with cameras may be useful for searching, observing, and documenting missions. It is possible that UAS might be useful for delivering equipment in difficult areas and in communication. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Altitude control performance improvement via preview controller for unmanned airplane for radiation monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masayuki; Muraoka, Koji; Hozumi, Koki; Sanada, Yukihisa; Yamada, Tsutomu; Torii, Tatsuo

    2017-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the design problem of preview altitude controller for Unmanned Airplane for Radiation Monitoring System (UARMS) to improve its control performance. UARMS has been developed for radiation monitoring around Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant which spread radiation contaminant due to the huge tsunamis caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The monitoring area contains flat as well as mountain areas. The basic flight controller has been confirmed to have satisfactory performance with respect to altitude holding; however, the control performance for variable altitude commands is not sufficient for practical use in mountain areas. We therefore design preview altitude controller with only proportional gains by considering the practicality and the strong requirement of safety for UARMS. Control performance of the designed preview controller was evaluated by flight tests conducted around Fukushima Sky Park. (author)

  10. Chaotic Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm for System Identification of a Small-Scale Unmanned Helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ding

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is devoted to developing a chaotic artificial bee colony algorithm (CABC for the system identification of a small-scale unmanned helicopter state-space model in hover condition. In order to avoid the premature of traditional artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC, which is stuck in local optimum and can not reach the global optimum, a novel chaotic operator with the characteristics of ergodicity and irregularity was introduced to enhance its performance. With input-output data collected from actual flight experiments, the identification results showed the superiority of CABC over the ABC and the genetic algorithm (GA. Simulations are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of our proposed algorithm and the accuracy of the identified helicopter model.

  11. Adapting astronomical source detection software to help detect animals in thermal images obtained by unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longmore, S. N.; Collins, R. P.; Pfeifer, S.; Fox, S. E.; Mulero-Pazmany, M.; Bezombes, F.; Goodwind, A.; de Juan Ovelar, M.; Knapen, J. H.; Wich, S. A.

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we describe an unmanned aerial system equipped with a thermal-infrared camera and software pipeline that we have developed to monitor animal populations for conservation purposes. Taking a multi-disciplinary approach to tackle this problem, we use freely available astronomical source detection software and the associated expertise of astronomers, to efficiently and reliably detect humans and animals in aerial thermal-infrared footage. Combining this astronomical detection software with existing machine learning algorithms into a single, automated, end-to-end pipeline, we test the software using aerial video footage taken in a controlled, field-like environment. We demonstrate that the pipeline works reliably and describe how it can be used to estimate the completeness of different observational datasets to objects of a given type as a function of height, observing conditions etc. - a crucial step in converting video footage to scientifically useful information such as the spatial distribution and density of different animal species. Finally, having demonstrated the potential utility of the system, we describe the steps we are taking to adapt the system for work in the field, in particular systematic monitoring of endangered species at National Parks around the world.

  12. Unmanned Aerial Systems and Spectroscopy for Remote Sensing Applications in Archaeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Themistocleous, K.; Agapiou, A.; Cuca, B.; Hadjimitsis, D. G.

    2015-04-01

    Remote sensing has open up new dimensions in archaeological research. Although there has been significant progress in increasing the resolution of space/aerial sensors and image processing, the detection of the crop (and soil marks) formations, which relate to buried archaeological remains, are difficult to detect since these marks may not be visible in the images if observed over different period or at different spatial/spectral resolution. In order to support the improvement of earth observation remote sensing technologies specifically targeting archaeological research, a better understanding of the crop/soil marks formation needs to be studied in detail. In this paper the contribution of both Unmanned Aerial Systems as well ground spectroradiometers is discussed in a variety of examples applied in the eastern Mediterranean region (Cyprus and Greece) as well in Central Europe (Hungary). In- situ spectroradiometric campaigns can be applied for the removal of atmospheric impact to simultaneous satellite overpass images. In addition, as shown in this paper, the systematic collection of ground truth data prior to the satellite/aerial acquisition can be used to detect the optimum temporal and spectral resolution for the detection of stress vegetation related to buried archaeological remains. Moreover, phenological studies of the crops from the area of interest can be simulated to the potential sensors based on their Relative Response Filters and therefore prepare better the satellite-aerial campaigns. Ground data and the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can provide an increased insight for studying the formation of crop and soil marks. New algorithms such as vegetation indices and linear orthogonal equations for the enhancement of crop marks can be developed based on the specific spectral characteristics of the area. As well, UAS can be used for remote sensing applications in order to document, survey and model cultural heritage and archaeological sites.

  13. Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid system analysis for high-altitude long-endurance unmanned aerial vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguiar, P.; Brandon, N.P. [Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Brett, D.J.L. [The Centre for CO{sub 2} Technology, University College London, London WC1E 7JE (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    High-altitude long-endurance (HALE) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are ideally suited to provide surveillance, remote sensing and communication relay capabilities for both military and civilian applications. HALE UAVs typically cruise at an altitude between 15 km and 20 km, travelling at low speed and circling specific areas of interest. The work reported aims to investigate alternative power system architectures that enable an efficiency increase and consequent fuel consumption reduction to realise a one-week endurance target. Specifically, the application of a solid oxide fuel cell combined with a gas turbine is considered; with different system configurations modelled with a view to maximising overall efficiency. It is found that modularising the fuel cell capacity into a number of discrete stacks such that the fuel is distributed in parallel and air is fed in series results in an increased system efficiency compared with a single-stack design. An overall system efficiency of 66.3% (LHV) when operating on hydrogen is predicted for a three-stack system. (author)

  14. The Intelligent Control System and Experiments for an Unmanned Wave Glider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yulei; Wang, Leifeng; Li, Yiming; Li, Ye; Jiang, Quanquan

    2016-01-01

    The control system designing of Unmanned Wave Glider (UWG) is challenging since the control system is weak maneuvering, large time-lag and large disturbance, which is difficult to establish accurate mathematical model. Meanwhile, to complete marine environment monitoring in long time scale and large spatial scale autonomously, UWG asks high requirements of intelligence and reliability. This paper focuses on the "Ocean Rambler" UWG. First, the intelligent control system architecture is designed based on the cerebrum basic function combination zone theory and hierarchic control method. The hardware and software designing of the embedded motion control system are mainly discussed. A motion control system based on rational behavior model of four layers is proposed. Then, combining with the line-of sight method(LOS), a self-adapting PID guidance law is proposed to compensate the steady state error in path following of UWG caused by marine environment disturbance especially current. Based on S-surface control method, an improved S-surface heading controller is proposed to solve the heading control problem of the weak maneuvering carrier under large disturbance. Finally, the simulation experiments were carried out and the UWG completed autonomous path following and marine environment monitoring in sea trials. The simulation experiments and sea trial results prove that the proposed intelligent control system, guidance law, controller have favorable control performance, and the feasibility and reliability of the designed intelligent control system of UWG are verified.

  15. The Intelligent Control System and Experiments for an Unmanned Wave Glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yulei; Wang, Leifeng; Li, Yiming; Li, Ye; Jiang, Quanquan

    2016-01-01

    The control system designing of Unmanned Wave Glider (UWG) is challenging since the control system is weak maneuvering, large time-lag and large disturbance, which is difficult to establish accurate mathematical model. Meanwhile, to complete marine environment monitoring in long time scale and large spatial scale autonomously, UWG asks high requirements of intelligence and reliability. This paper focuses on the “Ocean Rambler” UWG. First, the intelligent control system architecture is designed based on the cerebrum basic function combination zone theory and hierarchic control method. The hardware and software designing of the embedded motion control system are mainly discussed. A motion control system based on rational behavior model of four layers is proposed. Then, combining with the line-of sight method(LOS), a self-adapting PID guidance law is proposed to compensate the steady state error in path following of UWG caused by marine environment disturbance especially current. Based on S-surface control method, an improved S-surface heading controller is proposed to solve the heading control problem of the weak maneuvering carrier under large disturbance. Finally, the simulation experiments were carried out and the UWG completed autonomous path following and marine environment monitoring in sea trials. The simulation experiments and sea trial results prove that the proposed intelligent control system, guidance law, controller have favorable control performance, and the feasibility and reliability of the designed intelligent control system of UWG are verified. PMID:28005956

  16. The 3D Mesonet Concept: Extending Networked Surface Meteorological Tower Observations Through Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilson, P. B.; Fiebrich, C. A.; Huck, R.; Grimsley, J.; Salazar-Cerreno, J.; Carson, K.; Jacob, J.

    2017-12-01

    Fixed monitoring sites, such as those in the US National Weather Service Automated Surface Observing System (ASOS) and the Oklahoma Mesonet provide valuable, high temporal resolution information about the atmosphere to forecasters and the general public. The Oklahoma Mesonet is comprised of a network of 120 surface sites providing a wide array of atmospheric measurements up to a height of 10 m with an update time of five minutes. The deployment of small unmanned aircraft to collect in-situ vertical measurements of the atmospheric state in conjunction with surface conditions has potential to significantly expand weather observation capabilities. This concept can enhance the safety of individuals and support commerce through improved observations and short-term forecasts of the weather and other environmental variables in the lower atmosphere. We report on a concept of adding the capability of collecting vertical atmospheric measurements (profiles) through the use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) at remote Oklahoma sites deemed suitable for this application. While there are a number of other technologies currently available that can provide measurements of one or a few variables, the proposed UAS concept will be expandable and modular to accommodate several different sensor packages and provide accurate in-situ measurements in virtually all weather conditions. Such a system would facilitate off-site maintenance and calibration and would provide the ability to add new sensors as they are developed or as new requirements are identified. The small UAS must be capable of accommodating the weight of all sensor packages and have lighting, communication, and aircraft avoidance systems necessary to meet existing or future FAA regulations. The system must be able to operate unattended, which necessitates the inclusion of risk mitigation measures such as a detect and avoid radar and the ability to transmit and receive transponder signals. Moreover, the system should be able to

  17. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from “how many systems can a single operator control” to “how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way”. The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed. PMID:27252662

  18. Development of a low cost unmanned aircraft system for atmospheric carbon dioxide leak detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Taylor Austin

    Carbon sequestration, the storage of carbon dioxide gas underground, has the potential to reduce global warming by removing a greenhouse gas from the atmosphere. These storage sites, however, must first be monitored to detect if carbon dioxide is leaking back out to the atmosphere. As an alternative to traditional large ground-based sensor networks to monitor CO2 levels for leaks, unmanned aircraft offer the potential to perform in-situ atmospheric leak detection over large areas for a fraction of the cost. This project developed a proof-of-concept sensor system to map relative carbon dioxide levels to detect potential leaks. The sensor system included a Sensair K-30 FR CO2 sensor, GPS, and altimeter connected an Arduino microcontroller which logged data to an onboard SD card. Ground tests were performed to verify and calibrate the system including wind tunnel tests to determine the optimal configuration of the system for the quickest response time (4-8 seconds based upon flowrate). Tests were then conducted over a controlled release of CO 2 in addition to over controlled rangeland fires which released carbon dioxide over a large area as would be expected from a carbon sequestration source. 3D maps of carbon dioxide were developed from the system telemetry that clearly illustrated increased CO2 levels from the fires. These tests demonstrated the system's ability to detect increased carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere.

  19. Supervising and Controlling Unmanned Systems: A Multi-Phase Study with Subject Matter Experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porat, Talya; Oron-Gilad, Tal; Rottem-Hovev, Michal; Silbiger, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Proliferation in the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) in civil and military operations has presented a multitude of human factors challenges; from how to bridge the gap between demand and availability of trained operators, to how to organize and present data in meaningful ways. Utilizing the Design Research Methodology (DRM), a series of closely related studies with subject matter experts (SMEs) demonstrate how the focus of research gradually shifted from "how many systems can a single operator control" to "how to distribute missions among operators and systems in an efficient way". The first set of studies aimed to explore the modal number, i.e., how many systems can a single operator supervise and control. It was found that an experienced operator can supervise up to 15 UASs efficiently using moderate levels of automation, and control (mission and payload management) up to three systems. Once this limit was reached, a single operator's performance was compared to a team controlling the same number of systems. In general, teams led to better performances. Hence, shifting design efforts toward developing tools that support teamwork environments of multiple operators with multiple UASs (MOMU). In MOMU settings, when the tasks are similar or when areas of interest overlap, one operator seems to have an advantage over a team who needs to collaborate and coordinate. However, in all other cases, a team was advantageous over a single operator. Other findings and implications, as well as future directions for research are discussed.

  20. Acoustic Characterization and Prediction of Representative, Small-Scale Rotary-Wing Unmanned Aircraft System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawodny, Nikolas S.; Boyd, D. Douglas, Jr.; Burley, Casey L.

    2016-01-01

    In this study, hover performance and acoustic measurements are taken on two different isolated rotors representative of small-scale rotary-wing unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for a range of rotation rates. Each rotor system consists of two fixed-pitch blades powered by a brushless motor. For nearly the same thrust condition, significant differences in overall sound pressure level (OASPL), up to 8 dB, and directivity were observed between the two rotor systems. Differences are shown to be in part attributed to different rotor tip speeds, along with increased broadband and motor noise levels. In addition to acoustic measurements, aeroacoustic predictions were implemented in order to better understand the noise content of the rotor systems. Numerical aerodynamic predictions were computed using the unsteady Reynoldsaveraged Navier Stokes code OVERFLOW2 on one of the isolated rotors, while analytical predictions were computed using the Propeller Analysis System of the Aircraft NOise Prediction Program (ANOPP-PAS) on the two rotor configurations. Preliminary semi-empirical frequency domain broadband noise predictions were also carried out based on airfoil self-noise theory in a rotational reference frame. The prediction techniques further supported trends identified in the experimental data analysis. The brushless motors were observed to be important noise contributors and warrant further investigation. It is believed that UAS acoustic prediction capabilities must consider both rotor and motor components as part of a combined noise-generating system.

  1. Applying Required Navigation Performance Concept for Traffic Management of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaewoo; D'Souza, Sarah N.; Johnson, Marcus A.; Ishihara, Abraham K.; Modi, Hemil C.; Nikaido, Ben; Hasseeb, Hashmatullah

    2016-01-01

    In anticipation of a rapid increase in the number of civil Unmanned Aircraft System(UAS) operations, NASA is researching prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that will investigate airspace integration requirements for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude operations. One aspect a UTM system must consider is the correlation between UAS operations (such as vehicles, operation areas and durations), UAS performance requirements, and the risk to people and property in the operational area. This paper investigates the potential application of the International Civil Aviation Organizations (ICAO) Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concept to relate operational risk with trajectory conformance requirements. The approach is to first define a method to quantify operational risk and then define the RNP level requirement as a function of the operational risk. Greater operational risk corresponds to more accurate RNP level, or smaller tolerable Total System Error (TSE). Data from 19 small UAS flights are used to develop and validate a formula that defines this relationship. An approach to assessing UAS-RNP conformance capability using vehicle modeling and wind field simulation is developed to investigate how this formula may be applied in a future UTM system. The results indicate the modeled vehicles flight path is robust to the simulated wind variation, and it can meet RNP level requirements calculated by the formula. The results also indicate how vehicle-modeling fidelity may be improved to adequately verify assessed RNP level.

  2. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian [Silesian University of Technology, Akademicka 2A, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2014-12-10

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization.

  3. Concept and realization of unmanned aerial system with different modes of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czyba, Roman; Szafrański, Grzegorz; Janusz, Wojciech; Niezabitowski, Michał; Czornik, Adam; Błachuta, Marian

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development process of unmanned aerial system, its mechanical components, electronics and software solutions. During the stage of design, we have formulated some necessary requirements for the multirotor vehicle and ground control station in order to build an optimal system which can be used for the reconnaissance missions. Platform is controlled by use of the ground control station (GCS) and has possibility of accomplishing video based observation tasks. In order to fulfill this requirement the on-board payload consists of mechanically stabilized camera augmented with machine vision algorithms to enable object tracking tasks. Novelty of the system are four modes of flight, which give full functionality of the developed UAV system. Designed ground control station is consisted not only of the application itself, but also a built-in dedicated components located inside the chassis, which together creates an advanced UAV system supporting the control and management of the flight. Mechanical part of quadrotor is designed to ensure its robustness while meeting objectives of minimizing weight of the platform. Finally the designed electronics allows for implementation of control and estimation algorithms without the needs for their excessive computational optimization

  4. Mapping of a river using close range photogrammetry technique and unmanned aerial vehicle system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Room, M H M; Ahmad, A

    2014-01-01

    Photogrammetry is a technique that can be used to record the information of any feature without direct contact. Nowadays, a combination of photogrammetry and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) systems is widely used for various applications, especially for large scale mapping. UAV systems offer several advantages in terms of cost and image resolution compared to terrestrial photogrammetry and remote sensing system. Therefore, a combination of photogrammetry and UAV created a new term which is UAV photogrammetry. The aim of this study is to investigate the ability of a UAV system to map a river at very close distance. A digital camera is attached to the Hexacopter UAV and it is flown at 2 m above the ground surface to produce aerial photos. Then, the aerial photos are processed to create two photogrammetric products as output. These are mosaicked orthophoto and digital image. Both products are assessed (RSME). The RSME of X and Y coordinates are ±0.009 m and ±0.033 m respectively. As a conclusion, photogrammetry and the UAV system offer a reliable accuracy for mapping a river model and advantages in term of cost-efficient, high ground resolution and rapid data acquisition

  5. Integrated vehicle control and guidance systems in unmanned ground vehicles for commercial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Chase H.

    1995-01-01

    While there is a lot of recent development in the entire IVHS field, very few have had the opportunity to combine the many areas of development into a single integrated `intelligent' unmanned vehicle. One of our systems was developed specifically to serve a major automobile manufacturer's need for an automated vehicle chassis durability test facility. Due to the severity of the road surface human drivers could not be used. A totally automated robotic vehicle driver and guidance system was necessary. In order to deliver fixed price commercial projects now, it was apparent system and component costs were of paramount importance. Cyplex has developed a robust, cost effective single wire guidance system. This system has inherent advantages in system simplicity. Multi-signal (per vehicle lane) systems complicate path planning and layout when multiple lanes and lane changes are required, as on actual highways. The system has demonstrated high enough immunity to rain and light snow cover that normal safety reductions in speed are adequate to stay within the required system performance envelope. This system and it's antenna interface have shown the ability to guide the vehicle at slow speeds (10 MPH) with a tracking repeatability of plus or minus 1/8 of an inch. The basic guide and antenna system has been tested at speeds up to 80 mph. The system has inherently superior abilities for lane changes and precision vehicle placement. The operation of this system will be described and the impact of a system that is commercially viable now for highway and off road use will be discussed.

  6. Optimal Remote Sensing with Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems and Risk Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Brandon

    Over the past decade, the rapid rise of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) has blossomed into a new component of the aviation industry. Though regulations within the United States lagged, the promise of the ability of Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (SUASs), or those UAS that weigh less than 55 lbs, has driven significant advances in small scale aviation technology. The dream of a small, low-cost aerial platform that can fly anywhere and keep humans safely away from the `dull, dangerous and dirty' jobs, has encouraged many to examine the possibilities of utilizing SUAS in new and transformative ways, especially as a new tool in remote sensing. However, as with any new tool, there remains significant challenges in realizing the full potential of SUAS-based remote sensing. Within this dissertation, two specific challenges are addressed: validating the use of SUAS as a remote sensing platform and improving the safety and management of SUAS. The use of SUAS in remote sensing is a relatively new challenge and while it has many similarities to other remote sensing platforms, the dynamic nature of its operation makes it unique. In this dissertation, a closer look at the methodology of using SUAS reveals that while many view SUAS as an alternative to satellite imagery, this is an incomplete view and that the current common implementation introduces a new source of error that has significant implications on the reliability of the data collected. It can also be seen that a new approach to remote sensing with an SUAS can be developed by addressing the spatial, spectral and temporal factors that can now be more finely adjusted with the use of SUAS. However, to take the full advantage of the potential of SUAS, they must uphold the promise of improved safety. This is not a trivial challenge, especially for the integration into the National Airspace System (NAS) and for the safety management and oversight of diverse UAS operations. In this dissertation, the challenge of integrating

  7. 2017 NOAA/OCM Unmanned Aerial System Lidar: Grand Bay NERR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial (QSI) and PrecisionHawk (PH) collected lidar for test sites within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) using an unmanned aerial...

  8. Regulation of Unmanned Aerial Systems and Related Privacy Issues in Lithuania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pūraitė Aurelija

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years the use of unmanned aerial vehicles in Lithuania has significantly increased. However, enjoying the advantages of this technology, which improves society’s socio-economical safety (public safety in a broad sense, raises some privacy concerns. This article analyses European Union and national legal regulations regarding the use of unmanned aerial vehicles as well as legal tools for defence of the right to privacy or prevention from its breaches in the Republic of Lithuania. Unmanned aerial vehicles have become popular only recently; thus, legislation regarding their use has not yet become a common topic among lawyers. Furthermore, case law of the Republic of Lithuania is silent about it. Thus, the authors model a situation of breach of privacy using an unmanned aerial vehicle and analyse possible defence mechanisms.

  9. 2017 NOAA/OCM Unmanned Aerial System Lidar DEM: Grand Bay NERR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial (QSI) and PrecisionHawk (PH) collected lidar for test sites within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) using an unmanned aerial...

  10. Deployment of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) in Emergency and Disaster Response Scenarios to Support Local Emergency Management Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calamaio, C. L.; Walker, J.; Beck, J. M.; Graves, S. J.; Johnson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Researchers at the Information Technology and Systems Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville are working closely with the Madison County Emergency Management Agency (EMA), GeoHuntsville's UAS Working Group, and the NOAA UAS Program Office, to conduct a series of practical demonstrations testing the use of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) for emergency response activities in Madison County, Alabama. These exercises demonstrate the use of UAS to detect and visualize hazards in affected areas via the delivery of aerial imagery and associated data products to law enforcement first responders in a variety of different scenarios, for example, search and rescue, tornado track mapping, damage assessment, and situational awareness/containment during active shooter incidents. In addition to showcasing the use of UAS as a tool for emergency services, these pilot exercises provide the opportunity to engage the appropriate stakeholders from several communities including first responders, geospatial intelligence, active members of the unmanned systems industry, and academia. This presentation will showcase the challenges associated with delivering quality data products for emergency services in a timely manner as well as the related challenges in integrating the technology into local emergency management.

  11. Validation of morphing wing methodologies on an unmanned aerial system and a wind tunnel technology demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabor, Oliviu Sugar

    To increase the aerodynamic efficiency of aircraft, in order to reduce the fuel consumption, a novel morphing wing concept has been developed. It consists in replacing a part of the wing upper and lower surfaces with a flexible skin whose shape can be modified using an actuation system placed inside the wing structure. Numerical studies in two and three dimensions were performed in order to determine the gains the morphing system achieves for the case of an Unmanned Aerial System and for a morphing technology demonstrator based on the wing tip of a transport aircraft. To obtain the optimal wing skin shapes in function of the flight condition, different global optimization algorithms were implemented, such as the Genetic Algorithm and the Artificial Bee Colony Algorithm. To reduce calculation times, a hybrid method was created by coupling the population-based algorithm with a fast, gradient-based local search method. Validations were performed with commercial state-of-the-art optimization tools and demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed methods. For accurately determining the aerodynamic characteristics of the morphing wing, two new methods were developed, a nonlinear lifting line method and a nonlinear vortex lattice method. Both use strip analysis of the span-wise wing section to account for the airfoil shape modifications induced by the flexible skin, and can provide accurate results for the wing drag coefficient. The methods do not require the generation of a complex mesh around the wing and are suitable for coupling with optimization algorithms due to the computational time several orders of magnitude smaller than traditional three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics methods. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional optimizations of the Unmanned Aerial System wing equipped with the morphing skin were performed, with the objective of improving its performances for an extended range of flight conditions. The chordwise positions of the internal actuators

  12. REAL-TIME MONITORING SYSTEM USING UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE INTEGRATED WITH SENSOR OBSERVATION SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Witayangkurn

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV is an emerging technology being adapted for a wide range of applications. Real-time monitoring is essential to enhance the effectiveness of UAV applications. Sensor networks are networks constructed from various sensor nodes. International standard such as OGC's SOS (Sensor Observation Service makes it possible to share sensor data with other systems as well as to provide accessibility to globally distributed users. In this paper, we propose a system combining UAV technology and sensor network technology to use an UAV as a mobile node of sensor network so that the sensor data from UAV is published and shared real-time. A UAV can extend the observation range of a sensor network to remote areas where it is usually difficult to access such as disaster area. We constructed a UAV system using remote-controlled helicopter and various sensors such as GPS, gyrocompass, laser range finder, Digital camera and Thermometer. Furthermore, we extended the Sensor Observation Service (SOS and Sensor Service Grid (SSG to support mobile sensor nodes. Then, we conducted experiments of flying the helicopter over an area of the interest. During the flight, the system measured environmental data using its sensors and captured images of the ground. The data was sent to a SOS node as the ground station via Wi-Fi which was published using SSG to give real- time access to globally distributed users.

  13. Systems Engineering of Unmanned DoD Systems: Following the Joint Capabilities Integration and Development System/Defense Acquisition System Process to Develop an Unmanned Ground Vehicle System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Manual D-A-1). APAs are “Performance attributes of a system not important enough to be considered KPPs or KSAs, but still appropriate to include in...the CDD or CPD are designated as APAs ” (JCIDS Manual D-A-1). The requirements are expressed using Thresholds (T) and Objectives (O). “Performance...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA SYSTEMS ENGINEERING CAPSTONE PROJECT REPORT Approved for public release; distribution is

  14. Control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyong Zhai

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flight control and navigation system for a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV with low-cost micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS sensors. The system is designed under the inner loop and outer loop strategy. The trajectory tracking navigation loop is the outer loop of the attitude loop, while the attitude control loop is the outer loop of the stabilization loop. The proportional-integral-derivative (PID control was adopted for stabilization and attitude control. The three-dimensional (3D trajectory tracking control of a UAV could be approximately divided into lateral control and longitudinal control. The longitudinal control employs traditional linear PID feedback to achieve the desired altitude of the UAV, while the lateral control uses a non-linear control method to complete the desired trajectory. The non-linear controller can automatically adapt to ground velocity change, which is usually caused by gust disturbance, thus the UAV has good wind resistance characteristics. Flight tests and survey missions were carried out with our self-developed delta fixed-wing UAV and MEMS-based autopilot to confirm the effectiveness and practicality of the proposed navigation method.

  15. Self-Contained Avionics Sensing and Flight Control System for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Qamar A. (Inventor); Logan, Michael J. (Inventor); Fox, Robert L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Christopher L. (Inventor); Fox, legal representative, Melanie L. (Inventor); Ingham, John C. (Inventor); Laughter, Sean A. (Inventor); Kuhn, III, Theodore R. (Inventor); Adams, James K. (Inventor); Babel, III, Walter C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A self-contained avionics sensing and flight control system is provided for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system includes sensors for sensing flight control parameters and surveillance parameters, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver. Flight control parameters and location signals are processed to generate flight control signals. A Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) is configured to provide a look-up table storing sets of values with each set being associated with a servo mechanism mounted on the UAV and with each value in each set indicating a unique duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. Each value in each set is further indexed to a bit position indicative of a unique percentage of a maximum duty cycle for the servo mechanism associated therewith. The FPGA is further configured to provide a plurality of pulse width modulation (PWM) generators coupled to the look-up table. Each PWM generator is associated with and adapted to be coupled to one of the servo mechanisms.

  16. Data Acquisition (DAQ) system dedicated for remote sensing applications on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keleshis, C.; Ioannou, S.; Vrekoussis, M.; Levin, Z.; Lange, M. A.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous advances in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) and the increased complexity of their applications raise the demand for improved data acquisition systems (DAQ). These improvements may comprise low power consumption, low volume and weight, robustness, modularity and capability to interface with various sensors and peripherals while maintaining the high sampling rates and processing speeds. Such a system has been designed and developed and is currently integrated on the Autonomous Flying Platforms for Atmospheric and Earth Surface Observations (APAESO/NEA-YΠOΔOMH/NEKΠ/0308/09) however, it can be easily adapted to any UAV or any other mobile vehicle. The system consists of a single-board computer with a dual-core processor, rugged surface-mount memory and storage device, analog and digital input-output ports and many other peripherals that enhance its connectivity with various sensors, imagers and on-board devices. The system is powered by a high efficiency power supply board. Additional boards such as frame-grabbers, differential global positioning system (DGPS) satellite receivers, general packet radio service (3G-4G-GPRS) modems for communication redundancy have been interfaced to the core system and are used whenever there is a mission need. The onboard DAQ system can be preprogrammed for automatic data acquisition or it can be remotely operated during the flight from the ground control station (GCS) using a graphical user interface (GUI) which has been developed and will also be presented in this paper. The unique design of the GUI and the DAQ system enables the synchronized acquisition of a variety of scientific and UAV flight data in a single core location. The new DAQ system and the GUI have been successfully utilized in several scientific UAV missions. In conclusion, the novel DAQ system provides the UAV and the remote-sensing community with a new tool capable of reliably acquiring, processing, storing and transmitting data from any sensor integrated

  17. Development of multi copter based autonomous unmanned aerial radiation monitoring system for the remote impact assessment of radiation emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jose, Jis Romal; Gupta, Ashutosh; Bahadur, Shuchita; Chaudhury, Probal; Pradeepkumar, K.S.

    2016-01-01

    During any radiation emergency, the level and extent of radioactive contamination need to be monitored for the timely and effective implementation of countermeasures to reduce the radiation exposure to public. In such a scenario, radiation surveillance can be carried out using either ground based mobile monitoring techniques or aerial radiation monitoring. Aerial radiation monitoring is quick and capable of scanning the areas which are not easily accessible by the ground based mobile monitoring. Compact unmanned aerial vehicle based radiation surveillance system is ideal in above mentioned radiation emergency scenarios as it can be rapidly deployed in the affected area and radiation exposure to the monitoring personal can be totally avoided. This paper describes development of multi copter based autonomous unmanned aerial radiation monitoring system for the remote impact assessment of radiation emergencies

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project FY17 Annual Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakahara, Robert; Hackenberg, Davis; Johnson, William

    2017-01-01

    This presentation was presented to the Integrated Aviation Systems Program at the FY17 Annual Review of the UAS-NAS project. The presentation captures the overview of the work completed by the UAS-NAS project and its subprojects.

  19. Evaluation of Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) to Monitor Forest Health Conditions in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webley, P. W.; Hatfield, M. C.; Heutte, T. M.; Winton, L. M.

    2017-12-01

    US Forest Service Alaska Region Forest Health Protection (FHP) and University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF), Alaska Center for Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration (ACUASI) are evaluating the capability of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS, "drone" informally) to monitor forest health conditions in Alaska's Interior Region. On July 17-20 2017, FHP and ACUASI deployed two different UAS at permanent forest inventory plots managed by the UAF programs Bonanza Creek Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) and Cooperative Alaska Forest Inventory (CAFI). The purpose of the mission was to explore capabilities of UAS for evaluating aspen tree mortality at inaccessible locations and at a scale and precision not generally achievable with currently used ground- or air-based methods. Drawing from experience gained during the initial 2016 campaign, this year emphasized the efficient use of UAS to accomplish practical field research in a variety of realistic situations. The vehicles selected for this years' effort included the DJI Matrice quadcopter with the Zenmuse-X3 camera to quickly capture initial video of the site and tree conditions; followed by the ING Responder (single rotor electric helicopter based on the Gaui X7 airframe) outfitted with a Nikon D810 camera to collect high-resolution stills suitable for construction of orthomosaic models. A total of 12 flights were conducted over the campaign, with two full days dedicated to the Delta Junction Gerstle River Intermediate (GRI) sites and the remaining day at the Bonanza Creek site. In addition to demonstrating the ability of UAS to operate safely and effectively in various canopy conditions, the effort also validated the ability of teams to deliver UAS and scientific payloads into challenging terrain using all-terrain vehicles (ATV) and foot traffic. Analysis of data from the campaign is underway. Because the permanent plots have been recently evaluated it is known that nearly all aspen mortality is caused by an aggressive canker

  20. U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) - A Historical Perspective to Identifying and Understanding Stakeholder Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    U.S. Army (USA) to train Nike anti-aircraft missile crews and others through the 1970s. Mach 2 UAV targets consisted of several prototypes such as...manufacturers with the largest share of the global UAS market include General Atomics (20.4 percent), Northrop Grumman (18.9 percent), Boeing (1.5... mix of both manned and unmanned aircraft systems. By combining advanced sensors, tactical RSTA, MUM teaming of UAS, attack and reconnaissance

  1. The Effect of Appropriately and Inappropriately Applied Automation for the Control of Unmanned Systems on Operator Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    2.1 Participants Twelve civilians (7 men and 5 women ) with no prior experience with the Robotic NCO simulation participated in this study. The mean...operators in a multitasking environment. 15. SUBJECT TERMS design guidelines, robotics, simulation, unmanned systems, automation 16. SECURITY...model of operator performance, or a hybrid method which combines one or more of these different invocation techniques (e.g., critical events and

  2. Innovation from the Sea: A Net Assessment of the Development of U.S. Navy Unmanned Aerial System Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Armstrong, 135. 132 William E. Burrows , By Any Means Necessary: America’s Secret Air War in the Cold War (New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2001...216 Captain Larry Seaquist, USN (Ret.) interview by Thomas P. Ehrhard, 25 May 1999, quoted in Ehrhard, 359. 217 Lehman, 339...D. Unmanned Aerial Systems: A Historical Perspective. Ft. Leavenworth, KS: Combat Studies Institute Press, September 2010. Burrows , William E. By

  3. An Early Survey of Best Practices for the Use of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems by the Electric Utility Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lusk, Rick M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Monday, William [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-02-01

    This technical manual is about doing things safely. It isn’t so much a how-to guide as it is a collection of best practices from unmanned aerial system (UAS) operators from all over the world. The desired end state is to provide a touchstone for utility businesses, directors, managers, and operators that will inform them as they begin to strategize, plan, and incorporate this technology into day-to-day operations.

  4. THE GENERATION OF BUILDING FLOOR PLANS USING PORTABLE AND UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Tsai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Indoor navigation or positioning systems have been widely developed for Location-Based Services (LBS applications and they come along with a keen demand of indoor floor plans for displaying results even improving the positioning performance. Generally, the floor plans produced by robot mapping focus on perceiving the environment to avoid obstacles and using the feature landmarks to update the robot position in the relative coordinate frame. These maps are not accurate enough to incorporate to the indoor positioning system. This study aims at developing Indoor Mobile Mapping System (Indoor MMS and concentrates on generating the highly accurate floor plans based on the robot mapping technique using the portable, robot and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV platform. The proposed portable mapping system prototype can be used in the chest package and the handheld approach. In order to evaluate and correct the generated floor plans from robot mapping techniques, this study builds the testing and calibration field using the outdoor control survey method implemented in the indoor environments. Based on control points and check points from control survey, this study presents the map rectification method that uses the affine transformation to solve the scale and deformation problems and also transfer the local coordinate system into world standard coordinate system. The preliminary results illustrate that the final version of the building floor plan reach 1 meter absolute positioning accuracy using the proposed mapping systems that combines with the novel map rectification approach proposed. These maps are well geo-referenced with world coordinate system thus it can be applied for future seamless navigation applications including indoor and outdoor scenarios.

  5. Educational Projects in Unmanned Aerial Systems at the NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlgren, Robert P.

    2017-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS), autonomy and robotics technology have been fertile ground for developing a wide variety of interdisciplinary student learning opportunities. In this talk, several projects will be described that leverage small fixed-wing UAS that have been modified to carry science payloads. These aircraft provide a unique hands-on experience for a wide range of students from college juniors to graduate students pursuing degrees in electrical engineering, aeronautical engineering, mechanical engineering, applied mathematics, physics, structural engineering and other majors. By combining rapid prototyping, design reuse and open-source philosophies, a sustainable educational program has been organized structured as full-time internships during the summer, part-time internships during the school year, short details for military cadets, and paid positions. As part of this program, every summer one or more UAS is developed from concept through design, build and test phases using the tools and facilities at the NASA Ames Research Center, ultimately obtaining statements of airworthiness and flight release from the Agency before test flights are performed. In 2016 and 2017 student projects focused on the theme of 3D printed modular airframes that may be optimized for a given mission and payload. Now in its fifth year this program has served over 35 students, and has provided a rich learning experience as they learn to rapidly develop new aircraft concepts in a highly regulated environment, on systems that will support principal investigators at university, NASA, and other US federal agencies.

  6. Real Time Corner Detection for Miniaturized Electro-Optical Sensors Onboard Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Moccia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the target detection algorithm for the image processor of a vision-based system that is installed onboard an unmanned helicopter. It has been developed in the framework of a project of the French national aerospace research center Office National d’Etudes et de Recherches Aérospatiales (ONERA which aims at developing an air-to-ground target tracking mission in an unknown urban environment. In particular, the image processor must detect targets and estimate ground motion in proximity of the detected target position. Concerning the target detection function, the analysis has dealt with realizing a corner detection algorithm and selecting the best choices in terms of edge detection methods, filtering size and type and the more suitable criterion of detection of the points of interest in order to obtain a very fast algorithm which fulfills the computation load requirements. The compared criteria are the Harris-Stephen and the Shi-Tomasi, ones, which are the most widely used in literature among those based on intensity. Experimental results which illustrate the performance of the developed algorithm and demonstrate that the detection time is fully compliant with the requirements of the real-time system are discussed.

  7. Monocular Vision System for Fixed Altitude Flight of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Lung Huang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The fastest and most economical method of acquiring terrain images is aerial photography. The use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs has been investigated for this task. However, UAVs present a range of challenges such as flight altitude maintenance. This paper reports a method that combines skyline detection with a stereo vision algorithm to enable the flight altitude of UAVs to be maintained. A monocular camera is mounted on the downside of the aircraft’s nose to collect continuous ground images, and the relative altitude is obtained via a stereo vision algorithm from the velocity of the UAV. Image detection is used to obtain terrain images, and to measure the relative altitude from the ground to the UAV. The UAV flight system can be set to fly at a fixed and relatively low altitude to obtain the same resolution of ground images. A forward-looking camera is mounted on the upside of the aircraft’s nose. In combination with the skyline detection algorithm, this helps the aircraft to maintain a stable flight pattern. Experimental results show that the proposed system enables UAVs to obtain terrain images at constant resolution, and to detect the relative altitude along the flight path.

  8. Cross-Correlation-Based Structural System Identification Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungchul Yoon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Computer vision techniques have been employed to characterize dynamic properties of structures, as well as to capture structural motion for system identification purposes. All of these methods leverage image-processing techniques using a stationary camera. This requirement makes finding an effective location for camera installation difficult, because civil infrastructure (i.e., bridges, buildings, etc. are often difficult to access, being constructed over rivers, roads, or other obstacles. This paper seeks to use video from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs to address this problem. As opposed to the traditional way of using stationary cameras, the use of UAVs brings the issue of the camera itself moving; thus, the displacements of the structure obtained by processing UAV video are relative to the UAV camera. Some efforts have been reported to compensate for the camera motion, but they require certain assumptions that may be difficult to satisfy. This paper proposes a new method for structural system identification using the UAV video directly. Several challenges are addressed, including: (1 estimation of an appropriate scale factor; and (2 compensation for the rolling shutter effect. Experimental validation is carried out to validate the proposed approach. The experimental results demonstrate the efficacy and significant potential of the proposed approach.

  9. Experimental flights using a small unmanned aircraft system for mapping emergent sandbars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, Paul J.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Holmquist-Johnson, Christopher; Preston, Todd

    2015-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and Parallel Inc. conducted experimental flights with the Tarantula Hawk (T-Hawk) unmanned aircraft system (UAS ) at the Dyer and Cottonwood Ranch properties located along reaches of the Platte River near Overton, Nebraska, in July 2013. We equipped the T-Hawk UAS platform with a consumer-grade digital camera to collect imagery of emergent sandbars in the reaches and used photogrammetric software and surveyed control points to generate orthophotographs and digital elevation models (DEMS ) of the reaches. To optimize the image alignment process, we retained and/or eliminated tie points based on their relative errors and spatial resolution, whereby minimizing the total error in the project. Additionally, we collected seven transects that traversed emergent sandbars concurrently with global positioning system location data to evaluate the accuracy of the UAS survey methodology. The root mean square errors for the elevation of emergent points along each transect across the DEMS ranged from 0.04 to 0.12 m. If adequate survey control is established, a UAS combined with photogrammetry software shows promise for accurate monitoring of emergent sandbar morphology and river management activities in short (1–2 km) river reaches.

  10. Assessing the Impact of Operational Constraints on the Near-Term Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management Supported Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascik, Parker D.; Jung, Jaewoo

    2016-01-01

    An economic impact market analysis was conducted for 16 leading sectors of commercial Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) applications predicted to be enabled by 2020 through the NASA UAS Traffic Management (UTM) program. Subject matter experts from seven industries were interviewed to validate concept of operations (ConOps) and market adoption assumptions for each sector. The market analysis was used to estimate direct economic impacts for each sector including serviceable addressable market, capital investment, revenue recovery potential, and operations cost savings. The resultant economic picture distinguishes the agricultural, pipeline and railroad inspection, construction, and maritime sectors of the nascent commercial UAS industry as providing the highest potential economic value in the United States. Sensitivity studies characterized the variability of select UAS sectors economic value to key regulatory or UTM ConOps requirements such as weight, altitude, and flight over populated area constraints. Takeaways from the analysis inform the validation of UTM requirements, technologies and timetables from a commercial market need and value viewpoint. This work concluded in August 2015 and reflects the state of the UAS industry and market projections at that time.

  11. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project: Terminal Operations HITL 1B Primary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorie, Conrad; Monk, Kevin; Roberts, Zach; Brandt, Summer

    2018-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the primary results from the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project's second Terminal Operations human-in-the-loop simulation. This talk covers the background of this follow-on experiment, which includes an overview of the first Terminal Operations HITL performed by the project. The primary results include a look at the number and durations of detect and avoid (DAA) alerts issued by the two DAA systems under test. It also includes response time metrics and metrics on the ability of the pilot-in-command (PIC) to maintain sufficient separation. Additional interoperability metrics are included to illustrate how pilots interact with the tower controller. Implications and conclusions are covered at the end.

  12. Overview of solutions and analysis of the ability to evaluate the performance parameters of unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karpiński Dominik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of aircraft engines development is the propulsion which is characterized by high power-to-mass ratio. Therefore, the alternative solutions that provide the required power by the low weight propulsion are sought after. The main advantage of these solutions is improvement of environmental and economic properties. This paper presents the overview of solutions and studies conducted for the unmanned aerial vehicles propulsion. For the purposes of studies a test bench was prepared. Its enables the comparison of the propulsion operating parameters taking into account changes in the values of thrust and propulsion power. The summary includes a proposal to improve the environmental indicators of propulsion systems for unmanned aerial vehicles.

  13. LWIR passive perception system for stealthy unmanned ground vehicle night operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daren; Rankin, Arturo; Huertas, Andres; Nash, Jeremy; Ahuja, Gaurav; Matthies, Larry

    2016-05-01

    Resupplying forward-deployed units in rugged terrain in the presence of hostile forces creates a high threat to manned air and ground vehicles. An autonomous unmanned ground vehicle (UGV) capable of navigating stealthily at night in off-road and on-road terrain could significantly increase the safety and success rate of such resupply missions for warfighters. Passive night-time perception of terrain and obstacle features is a vital requirement for such missions. As part of the ONR 30 Autonomy Team, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory developed a passive, low-cost night-time perception system under the ONR Expeditionary Maneuver Warfare and Combating Terrorism Applied Research program. Using a stereo pair of forward looking LWIR uncooled microbolometer cameras, the perception system generates disparity maps using a local window-based stereo correlator to achieve real-time performance while maintaining low power consumption. To overcome the lower signal-to-noise ratio and spatial resolution of LWIR thermal imaging technologies, a series of pre-filters were applied to the input images to increase the image contrast and stereo correlator enhancements were applied to increase the disparity density. To overcome false positives generated by mixed pixels, noisy disparities from repeated textures, and uncertainty in far range measurements, a series of consistency, multi-resolution, and temporal based post-filters were employed to improve the fidelity of the output range measurements. The stereo processing leverages multi-core processors and runs under the Robot Operating System (ROS). The night-time passive perception system was tested and evaluated on fully autonomous testbed ground vehicles at SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific (SSC Pacific) and Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, California. This paper describes the challenges, techniques, and experimental results of developing a passive, low-cost perception system for night-time autonomous navigation.

  14. Maintenance work management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takahashi, K.; Nishino, M.; Takeshige, R.

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance work management system supports the efficient drawing up of various documents for the maintenance work at nuclear power stations and the speeding up of the permission procedure. In addition, it improves the quality assurance of the safety and reliability of the maintenance work. Key merits of the system are: 1. Efficiently drawing up various documents for the maintenance work by using the stored data for the previous maintenance work and the pipe and instrument diagram (P and ID) data. 2. Supporting the management work for the completion of maintenance work safety by using the isolation information stored on the computer system. 3. Speeding up the permission procedure by electronic mail and electronic permission. 4. Displaying additional information such as the specifications of equipment, maintenance result, and maintenance plan by linking up with the database of another system. 5. Reducing the cost of hardware devices by using client/server network configurations of personal computers and a personal computer server. (author)

  15. PARCEL DELIVERY IN AN URBAN ENVIRONMENT USING UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS: A VISION PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Anbaroğlu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This vision paper addresses the challenges and explores the avenue of solutions regarding the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS for transporting parcels in urban areas. We have already witnessed companies’ delivering parcels using UAS in rural areas, but the challenge of utilizing them for an urban environment is eminent. Nevertheless, the increasing research on the various aspects of UAS, including their battery life, resistance to harsh weather conditions and sensing its environment foresee their common usage in the logistics industry, especially in an urban environment. In addition, the increasing trend on 3D city modelling offer new directions regarding realistic as well as light 3D city models that are easy to modify and distribute. Utilizing UAS for transporting parcels in an urban environment would be a disruptive technological achievement as our roads will be less congested which would lead to less air pollution as well as wasted money and time. In addition, parcels could potentially be delivered much faster. This paper argues, with the support of the state-of-the-art research, that UASs will be used for transporting parcels in an urban environment in the coming decades.

  16. Towards the Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems for Providing Sustainable Services in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Moguel

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability is at the heart of many application fields where the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS is becoming more and more important (e.g., agriculture, fire detection and prediction, environmental surveillance, mapping, etc.. However, their usage and evolution are highly conditioned by the specific application field they are designed for, and thus, they cannot be easily reused among different application fields. From this point of view, being that they are not multipurpose, we can say that they are not fully sustainable. Bearing this in mind, the objective of this paper is two-fold: on the one hand, to identify the whole set of features that must be provided by a UAS to be considered sustainable and to show that there is no UAS satisfying all these features; on the other hand, to present an open and sustainable UAS architecture that may be used to build UAS on demand to provide the features needed in each application field. Since this architecture is mainly based on software and hardware adaptability, it contributes to the technical sustainability of cities.

  17. Comparison and application of wind retrieval algorithms for small unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, T. A.; Chilson, P. B.; Zielke, B. S.; Klein, P. M.; Leeman, J. R.

    2013-07-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) as platforms for conducting fundamental and applied research in the lower atmosphere due to their relatively low cost and ability to collect samples with high spatial and temporal resolution. Concurrent with this development comes the need for accurate instrumentation and measurement methods suitable for small meteorological UASs. Moreover, the instrumentation to be integrated into such platforms must be small and lightweight. Whereas thermodynamic variables can be easily measured using well-aspirated sensors onboard, it is much more challenging to accurately measure the wind with a UAS. Several algorithms have been developed that incorporate GPS observations as a means of estimating the horizontal wind vector, with each algorithm exhibiting its own particular strengths and weaknesses. In the present study, the performance of three such GPS-based wind-retrieval algorithms has been investigated and compared with wind estimates from rawinsonde and sodar observations. Each of the algorithms considered agreed well with the wind measurements from sounding and sodar data. Through the integration of UAS-retrieved profiles of thermodynamic and kinematic parameters, one can investigate the static and dynamic stability of the atmosphere and relate them to the state of the boundary layer across a variety of times and locations, which might be difficult to access using conventional instrumentation.

  18. Development and comparisons of wind retrieval algorithms for small unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, T. A.; Chilson, P. B.; Zielke, B. S.; Klein, P. M.; Leeman, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increase in use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) as platforms for conducting fundamental and applied research in the lower atmosphere due to their relatively low cost and ability to collect samples with high spatial and temporal resolution. Concurrent with this development comes the need for accurate instrumentation and measurement methods suitable for small meteorological UASs. Moreover, the instrumentation to be integrated into such platforms must be small and lightweight. Whereas thermodynamic variables can be easily measured using well aspirated sensors onboard, it is much more challenging to accurately measure the wind with a UAS. Several algorithms have been developed that incorporate GPS observations as a means of estimating the horizontal wind vector, with each algorithm exhibiting its own particular strengths and weaknesses. In the present study, the performance of three such GPS-based wind-retrieval algorithms has been investigated and compared with wind estimates from rawinsonde and sodar observations. Each of the algorithms considered agreed well with the wind measurements from sounding and sodar data. Through the integration of UAS-retrieved profiles of thermodynamic and kinematic parameters, one can investigate the static and dynamic stability of the atmosphere and relate them to the state of the boundary layer across a variety of times and locations, which might be difficult to access using conventional instrumentation.

  19. Drogue pose estimation for unmanned aerial vehicle autonomous aerial refueling system based on infrared vision sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shanjun; Duan, Haibin; Deng, Yimin; Li, Cong; Zhao, Guozhi; Xu, Yan

    2017-12-01

    Autonomous aerial refueling is a significant technology that can significantly extend the endurance of unmanned aerial vehicles. A reliable method that can accurately estimate the position and attitude of the probe relative to the drogue is the key to such a capability. A drogue pose estimation method based on infrared vision sensor is introduced with the general goal of yielding an accurate and reliable drogue state estimate. First, by employing direct least squares ellipse fitting and convex hull in OpenCV, a feature point matching and interference point elimination method is proposed. In addition, considering the conditions that some infrared LEDs are damaged or occluded, a missing point estimation method based on perspective transformation and affine transformation is designed. Finally, an accurate and robust pose estimation algorithm improved by the runner-root algorithm is proposed. The feasibility of the designed visual measurement system is demonstrated by flight test, and the results indicate that our proposed method enables precise and reliable pose estimation of the probe relative to the drogue, even in some poor conditions.

  20. Towards the Use of Unmanned Aerial Systems for Providing Sustainable Services in Smart Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moguel, Enrique; Conejero, José M; Sánchez-Figueroa, Fernando; Hernández, Juan; Preciado, Juan C; Rodríguez-Echeverría, Roberto

    2017-12-27

    Sustainability is at the heart of many application fields where the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) is becoming more and more important (e.g., agriculture, fire detection and prediction, environmental surveillance, mapping, etc.). However, their usage and evolution are highly conditioned by the specific application field they are designed for, and thus, they cannot be easily reused among different application fields. From this point of view, being that they are not multipurpose, we can say that they are not fully sustainable. Bearing this in mind, the objective of this paper is two-fold: on the one hand, to identify the whole set of features that must be provided by a UAS to be considered sustainable and to show that there is no UAS satisfying all these features; on the other hand, to present an open and sustainable UAS architecture that may be used to build UAS on demand to provide the features needed in each application field. Since this architecture is mainly based on software and hardware adaptability, it contributes to the technical sustainability of cities.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Roadmap 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cress, Jill J.; Hutt, Michael E.; Sloan, Jeff L.; Bauer, Mark A.; Feller, Mark R.; Goplen, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is responsible for protecting the natural resources and heritage contained on almost 20 percent of the land in the United States. This responsibility requires acquisition of remotely sensed data throughout vast lands, including areas that are remote and potentially dangerous to access. One promising new technology for data collection is unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), which may be better suited (achieving superior science, safety, and savings) than traditional methods. UAS, regardless of their size, have the same operational components: aircraft, payloads, communications unit, and operator control unit. The aircraft is the platform that flies and carries any required payloads. For Department of the Interior missions these payloads will be either a sensor or set of sensors that can acquire the specific type of remotely sensed data that is needed. The aircraft will also carry the payload that is responsible for transmitting live airborne video images, compass headings, and location information to the operator control unit. The communications unit, which transfers information between the aircraft and the operator control unit, consists of the hardware and software required to establish both uplink and downlink communications. Finally, the operator control unit both controls and monitors the aircraft and can be operated either by a pilot on the ground or autonomously.

  2. Insect detection and nitrogen management for irrigated potatoes using remote sensing from small unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. Raymond; Rondon, Silvia I.; Hamm, Philip B.; Turner, Robert W.; Bruce, Alan E.; Brungardt, Josh J.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing with small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) has potential applications in agriculture because low flight altitudes allow image acquisition at very high spatial resolution. We set up experiments at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center with different platforms and sensors to assess advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for precision farming. In 2013, we conducted an experiment with 4 levels of N fertilizer, and followed the changes in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over time. In late June, there were no differences in chlorophyll content or leaf area index (LAI) among the 3 higher application rates. Consistent with the field data, only plots with the lowest rate of applied N were distinguished by low NDVI. In early August, N deficiency was determined by NDVI, but it was too late to mitigate losses in potato yield and quality. Populations of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) may rapidly increase, devouring the shoots, thus early detection and treatment could prevent yield losses. In 2014, we conducted an experiment with 4 levels of CPB infestation. Over one day, damage from CPB in some plots increased from 0 to 19%. A visual ranking of damage was not correlated with the total number of CPB or treatment. Plot-scale vegetation indices were not correlated with damage, although the damaged area determined by object-based feature extraction was highly correlated. Methods based on object-based image analysis of sUAS data have potential for early detection and reduced cost.

  3. High Throughput Phenotyping of Blueberry Bush Morphological Traits Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping morphological traits of blueberry bushes in the field is important for selecting genotypes that are easily harvested by mechanical harvesters. Morphological data can also be used to assess the effects of crop treatments such as plant growth regulators, fertilizers, and environmental conditions. This paper investigates the feasibility and accuracy of an inexpensive unmanned aerial system in determining the morphological characteristics of blueberry bushes. Color images collected by a quadcopter are processed into three-dimensional point clouds via structure from motion algorithms. Bush height, extents, canopy area, and volume, in addition to crown diameter and width, are derived and referenced to ground truth. In an experimental farm, twenty-five bushes were imaged by a quadcopter. Height and width dimensions achieved a mean absolute error of 9.85 cm before and 5.82 cm after systematic under-estimation correction. Strong correlation was found between manual and image derived bush volumes and their traditional growth indices. Hedgerows of three Southern Highbush varieties were imaged at a commercial farm to extract five morphological features (base angle, blockiness, crown percent height, crown ratio, and vegetation ratio associated with cultivation and machine harvestability. The bushes were found to be partially separable by multivariate analysis. The methodology developed from this study is not only valuable for plant breeders to screen genotypes with bush morphological traits that are suitable for machine harvest, but can also aid producers in crop management such as pruning and plot layout organization.

  4. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle-Based Automobile License Plate Recognition System for Institutional Parking Lots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Dasilva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, also known as drones have many applications and they are a current trend across many industries. They can be used for delivery, sports, surveillance, professional photography, cinematography, military combat, natural disaster assistance, security, and the list grows every day. Programming opens an avenue to automate many processes of daily life and with the drone as aerial programmable eyes, security and surveillance can become more efficient and cost effective. At Barry University, parking is becoming an issue as the number of people visiting the school greatly outnumbers the convenient parking locations. This has caused a multitude of hazards in parking lots due to people illegally parking, as well as unregistered vehicles parking in reserved areas. In this paper, we explain how automated drone surveillance is utilized to detect unauthorized parking at Barry University. The automated process is incorporated into Java application and completed in three steps: collecting visual data, processing data automatically, and sending automated responses and queues to the operator of the system.

  5. A Simple Aerial Photogrammetric Mapping System Overview and Image Acquisition Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenang Anurogo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photogrammetry is one of the Alternative technologies for more detailed data, real time, fast and cheaper. Nowadays, many photogrammetric mapping methods have used UAV / unmanned drones or drones to retrieve and record data from an object in the earth. The application of drones in the field of geospatial science today is in great demand because of its relatively easy operation and relatively affordable cost compared to satellite systems especially high - resolution satellite imagery.  This research aims to determine the stage or overview of data retrieval process with DJI Phantom 4 (multi - rotor quad - copter drone with processing using third party software. This research also produces 2 - dimensional high resolution image data on the research area. Utilization of third party software (Agisoft PhotoScan making it easier to acquire and process aerial photogrammetric data. The results of aerial photogrammetric recording with a flying altitude of 70 meters obtained high resolution images with a spatial resolution of 2 inches / pixels.

  6. Spatio-temporal evaluation of plant height in corn via unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Sebastian; Assefa, Yared; Vara Prasad, P. V.; Peralta, Nahuel R.; Griffin, Terry W.; Sharda, Ajay; Ferguson, Allison; Ciampitti, Ignacio A.

    2017-07-01

    Detailed spatial and temporal data on plant growth are critical to guide crop management. Conventional methods to determine field plant traits are intensive, time-consuming, expensive, and limited to small areas. The objective of this study was to examine the integration of data collected via unmanned aerial systems (UAS) at critical corn (Zea mays L.) developmental stages for plant height and its relation to plant biomass. The main steps followed in this research were (1) workflow development for an ultrahigh resolution crop surface model (CSM) with the goal of determining plant height (CSM-estimated plant height) using data gathered from the UAS missions; (2) validation of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing plant height (measured plant height); and (3) final estimation of plant biomass via integration of CSM-estimated plant height with ground-truthing stem diameter data. Results indicated a correlation between CSM-estimated plant height and ground-truthing plant height data at two weeks prior to flowering and at flowering stage, but high predictability at the later growth stage. Log-log analysis on the temporal data confirmed that these relationships are stable, presenting equal slopes for both crop stages evaluated. Concluding, data collected from low-altitude and with a low-cost sensor could be useful in estimating plant height.

  7. An adaptable, low cost test-bed for unmanned vehicle systems research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goppert, James M.

    2011-12-01

    An unmanned vehicle systems test-bed has been developed. The test-bed has been designed to accommodate hardware changes and various vehicle types and algorithms. The creation of this test-bed allows research teams to focus on algorithm development and employ a common well-tested experimental framework. The ArduPilotOne autopilot was developed to provide the necessary level of abstraction for multiple vehicle types. The autopilot was also designed to be highly integrated with the Mavlink protocol for Micro Air Vehicle (MAV) communication. Mavlink is the native protocol for QGroundControl, a MAV ground control program. Features were added to QGroundControl to accommodate outdoor usage. Next, the Mavsim toolbox was developed for Scicoslab to allow hardware-in-the-loop testing, control design and analysis, and estimation algorithm testing and verification. In order to obtain linear models of aircraft dynamics, the JSBSim flight dynamics engine was extended to use a probabilistic Nelder-Mead simplex method. The JSBSim aircraft dynamics were compared with wind-tunnel data collected. Finally, a structured methodology for successive loop closure control design is proposed. This methodology is demonstrated along with the rest of the test-bed tools on a quadrotor, a fixed wing RC plane, and a ground vehicle. Test results for the ground vehicle are presented.

  8. Parcel Delivery in AN Urban Environment Using Unmanned Aerial Systems: a Vision Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbaroğlu, B.

    2017-11-01

    This vision paper addresses the challenges and explores the avenue of solutions regarding the use of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) for transporting parcels in urban areas. We have already witnessed companies' delivering parcels using UAS in rural areas, but the challenge of utilizing them for an urban environment is eminent. Nevertheless, the increasing research on the various aspects of UAS, including their battery life, resistance to harsh weather conditions and sensing its environment foresee their common usage in the logistics industry, especially in an urban environment. In addition, the increasing trend on 3D city modelling offer new directions regarding realistic as well as light 3D city models that are easy to modify and distribute. Utilizing UAS for transporting parcels in an urban environment would be a disruptive technological achievement as our roads will be less congested which would lead to less air pollution as well as wasted money and time. In addition, parcels could potentially be delivered much faster. This paper argues, with the support of the state-of-the-art research, that UASs will be used for transporting parcels in an urban environment in the coming decades.

  9. RISK DEFINITION IN CIVIL UNMANNED AVIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The risks in unmanned civil aviation are considered as one of the most important. In the article is proved applicability of ensuring the flight safety of aircraft and considered the basic risks of manned civil aviation. Methods: Analyzed statistical data on aviation accidents, organized probabilities distribution of aviation accidents for manned and unmanned civil aviation to identify factors that influence the occurrence of emergency situations in manned and unmanned aviation. Results: We proposed typology of risk components in civil aviation and systematized methods and techniques to reduce risks. Over the analogies defined possible risks, their causes and remedies in civil unmanned aircraft. Weight coefficients distribution was justified between risk types for development of recommendations on risk management in unmanned civil aviation. Discussion: We found that the most probable risk in manned civil aviation is the human factor, organization of air traffic control, design flaws of unmanned aviation system as a whole, as well as maintenance of unmanned aviation system.

  10. PUSHBROOM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING FROM AN UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (UAS) – GEOMETRIC PROCESSINGWORKFLOW AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    KAUST Repository

    Turner, D.

    2017-08-31

    In this study, we assess two push broom hyperspectral sensors as carried by small (10-15 kg) multi-rotor Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). We used a Headwall Photonics micro-Hyperspec push broom sensor with 324 spectral bands (4-5 nm FWHM) and a Headwall Photonics nano-Hyperspec sensor with 270 spectral bands (6 nm FWHM) both in the VNIR spectral range (400-1000 nm). A gimbal was used to stabilise the sensors in relation to the aircraft flight dynamics, and for the micro-Hyperspec a tightly coupled dual frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and Machine Vision Camera (MVC) were used for attitude and position determination. For the nano-Hyperspec, a navigation grade GNSS system and IMU provided position and attitude data. This study presents the geometric results of one flight over a grass oval on which a dense Ground Control Point (GCP) network was deployed. The aim being to ascertain the geometric accuracy achievable with the system. Using the PARGE software package (ReSe - Remote Sensing Applications) we ortho-rectify the push broom hyperspectral image strips and then quantify the accuracy of the ortho-rectification by using the GCPs as check points. The orientation (roll, pitch, and yaw) of the sensor is measured by the IMU. Alternatively imagery from a MVC running at 15 Hz, with accurate camera position data can be processed with Structure from Motion (SfM) software to obtain an estimated camera orientation. In this study, we look at which of these data sources will yield a flight strip with the highest geometric accuracy.

  11. Improving Understanding of Spatial Heterogeneity in Mountain Ecohydrology with Multispectral Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wigmore, O.; Molotch, N. P.

    2017-12-01

    Mountain regions are a critical component of the hydrologic system. These regions are extremely heterogeneous, with dramatic topographic, climatic, ecologic and hydrologic variations occurring over very short distances. This heterogeneity makes understanding changes in these environments difficult. Commonly used satellite data are often too coarse to resolve processes at appropriate scales and point measurements are typically unrepresentative of the wider region. The rapid rise of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) offers a potential solution to the scale-related inadequacies of satellite and ground-based observing systems. Using UAS, spatially distributed datasets can be collected at high resolution (i.e. cm), on demand, and can therefore facilitate improved understanding of mountain ecohydrology. We deployed a custom built multispectral - visible (RGB), near infrared (NIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) - UAS at a weekly interval over the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research (NWT LTER) saddle catchment at 3500masl in the Colorado Rockies. This system was used to map surface water pathways, land cover and topography, and quantify ecohydrologic variables including, snow depth, vegetation productivity and surface soil moisture at 5-50cm resolution across an 80ha study area. This presentation will discuss the techniques, methods and merits of using UAS derived multispectral data for ecohydrologic research in mountain regions. We will also present preliminary findings from our survey time series at NWT LTER and a discussion of the potential insights that these datasets can provide. Key questions to be addressed are: 1) how does spatial variability in snow depth impact soil moisture and vegetation productivity, 2) how can UAS help us to identify ecohydrologic `hotspots' and `hot moments' across heterogeneous landscapes.

  12. Re-examining data-intensive surface water models with high-resolution topography derived from unmanned aerial system photogrammetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Tyler, S.

    2017-12-01

    Small, unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) are quickly becoming a cost-effective and easily deployable tool for high spatial resolution environmental sensing. Land surface studies from sUAS imagery have largely focused on accurate topographic mapping, quantifying geomorphologic changes, and classification/identification of vegetation, sediment, and water quality tracers. In this work, we explore a further application of sUAS-derived topographic mapping to a two-dimensional (2-d), depth-averaged river hydraulic model (Flow and Sediment Transport with Morphological Evolution of Channels, FaSTMECH) along a short, meandering reach of East River, Colorado. On August 8, 2016, we flew a sUAS as part of the Center for Transformative Environmental Monitoring Programs with a consumer-grade visible camera and created a digital elevation map ( 1.5 cm resolution; 5 cm accuracy; 500 m long river corridor) with Agisoft Photoscan software. With the elevation map, we created a longitudinal water surface elevation (WSE) profile by manually delineating the bank-water interface and river bathymetry by applying refraction corrections for more accurate water depth estimates, an area of ongoing research for shallow and clear river systems. We tested both uncorrected and refraction-corrected bathymetries with the steady-state, 2-d model, applying sensitivities for dissipation parameters (bed roughness and eddy characteristics). Model performance was judged from the WSE data and measured stream velocities. While the models converged, performance and insights from model output could be improved with better bed roughness characterization and additional water depth cross-validation for refraction corrections. Overall, this work shows the applicability of sUAS-derived products to a multidimensional river model, where bathymetric data of high resolution and accuracy are key model input requirements.

  13. Vicarious Radiometric Calibration of a Multispectral Camera on Board an Unmanned Aerial System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Del Pozo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Combinations of unmanned aerial platforms and multispectral sensors are considered low-cost tools for detailed spatial and temporal studies addressing spectral signatures, opening a broad range of applications in remote sensing. Thus, a key step in this process is knowledge of multi-spectral sensor calibration parameters in order to identify the physical variables collected by the sensor. This paper discusses the radiometric calibration process by means of a vicarious method applied to a high-spatial resolution unmanned flight using low-cost artificial and natural covers as control and check surfaces, respectively.

  14. Air Traffic Controller Acceptability of Unmanned Aircraft System Detect-and-Avoid Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Eric R.; Isaacson, Douglas R.; Stevens, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A human-in-the-loop experiment was conducted with 15 retired air traffic controllers to investigate two research questions: (a) what procedures are appropriate for the use of unmanned aircraft system (UAS) detect-and-avoid systems, and (b) how long in advance of a predicted close encounter should pilots request or execute a separation maneuver. The controller participants managed a busy Oakland air route traffic control sector with mixed commercial/general aviation and manned/UAS traffic, providing separation services, miles-in-trail restrictions and issuing traffic advisories. Controllers filled out post-scenario and post-simulation questionnaires, and metrics were collected on the acceptability of procedural options and temporal thresholds. The states of aircraft were also recorded when controllers issued traffic advisories. Subjective feedback indicated a strong preference for pilots to request maneuvers to remain well clear from intruder aircraft rather than deviate from their IFR clearance. Controllers also reported that maneuvering at 120 seconds until closest point of approach (CPA) was too early; maneuvers executed with less than 90 seconds until CPA were more acceptable. The magnitudes of the requested maneuvers were frequently judged to be too large, indicating a possible discrepancy between the quantitative UAS well clear standard and the one employed subjectively by manned pilots. The ranges between pairs of aircraft and the times to CPA at which traffic advisories were issued were used to construct empirical probability distributions of those metrics. Given these distributions, we propose that UAS pilots wait until an intruder aircraft is approximately 80 seconds to CPA or 6 nmi away before requesting a maneuver, and maneuver immediately if the intruder is within 60 seconds and 4 nmi. These thresholds should make the use of UAS detect and avoid systems compatible with current airspace procedures and controller expectations.

  15. A survey of COTS wireless transceiver solutions for unmanned/unattended homeland defense systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurth, Timothy J.; Wells, Jeffrey S.; Trimble, Michael L.

    2004-08-01

    As the war on terrorism continues abroad, the need to maintain security at home remains a major concern. Every aspect of the security effort can benefit from rapid information transfer. Advances in Commercial-Off-the-Shelf (COTS) radios make them valuable in applications ranging from deployed sensors on unsecured borders, to organizing an emergency response team. Additionally, the reduced cost and availability of these transceivers make them a viable alternative to custom developments. As an example, COTS radios can serve as the communication element in Unattended Ground Sensor (UGS) and munitions systems. Other applications include networked sonobuoys and networked RFID tracking. An additional advantage of COTS solutions is that they are available in a small form factor. They have extremely small mechanical outlines and are easily installed in systems requiring miniature designs and light payloads such as man-pack emplaced radios for the Army"s Future Combat System (FCS), as well as missions carried out by Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The availability of the COTS radios result in a low-cost alternative for communication links that are applicable to military and Homeland Defense projects. They provide an easily obtainable, low-cost radio alternative enabling quick design cycles to meet mission timeliness. COTS solutions eliminate months from a typical design cycle and have many features already implemented such as ad-hoc routing and encryption. This enables robust hardware to be fielded quickly when a new need arises. The focus of this paper is to identify different COTS modules that can efficiently and cost effectively be applied to these and other various applications.

  16. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Detect and Avoid System: End-to-End Verification and Validation Simulation Study of Minimum Operations Performance Standards for Integrating Unmanned Aircraft into the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatas, Rania W.; Jack, Devin P.; Tsakpinis, Dimitrios; Sturdy, James L.; Vincent, Michael J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Myer, Robert R.; DeHaven, Anna M.

    2017-01-01

    As Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) make their way to mainstream aviation operations within the National Airspace System (NAS), research efforts are underway to develop a safe and effective environment for their integration into the NAS. Detect and Avoid (DAA) systems are required to account for the lack of "eyes in the sky" due to having no human on-board the aircraft. The technique, results, and lessons learned from a detailed End-to-End Verification and Validation (E2-V2) simulation study of a DAA system representative of RTCA SC-228's proposed Phase I DAA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS), based on specific test vectors and encounter cases, will be presented in this paper.

  17. Design Of An Aerodynamic Measurement System For Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Velázquez-Araque

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and validation of a measurement system for aerodynamic characteristics of unmanned aerial vehicles. An aerodynamic balance was designed in order to measure the lift, drag forces and pitching moment for different airfoils. During the design process, several aspects were analyzed in order to produce an efficient design, for instance the range of changes of the angle of attack with and a small increment and the versatility of being adapted to different type of airfoils, since it is a wire balance it was aligned and calibrated as well. Wind tunnel tests of a two dimensional NACA four digits family airfoil and four different modifications of this airfoil were performed to validate the aerodynamic measurement system. The modification of this airfoil was made in order to create a blowing outlet with the shape of a step on the suction surface. Therefore, four different locations along the cord line for this blowing outlet were analyzed. This analysis involved the aerodynamic performance which meant obtaining lift, drag and pitching moment coefficients curves as a function of the angle of attack experimentally for the situation where the engine of the aerial vehicle is turned off, called the no blowing condition, by means of wind tunnel tests. The experiments were performed in a closed circuit wind tunnel with an open test section. Finally, results of the wind tunnel tests were compared with numerical results obtained by means of computational fluid dynamics as well as with other experimental references and found to be in good agreement.

  18. A PRECISE POSITION AND ATTITUDE DETERMINATION SYSTEM FOR LIGHTWEIGHT UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Eling

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy σ σ < 0.5 deg. In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

  19. Unlocking the potential of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) for Earth observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugenholtz, C.; Riddell, K.; Barchyn, T. E.

    2012-12-01

    Small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS, cost, and flexibility for scientists, and provides new opportunities to match the scale of sUAS data to the scale of the geophysical phenomenon under investigation. Although a mechanism is in place to make sUAS available to researchers and other non-military users through the US Federal Aviation Administration's Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (FAAMRA), there are many regulatory hurdles before they are fully accepted and integrated into the National Airspace System. In this talk we will provide a brief overview of the regulatory landscape for sUAS, both in the USA and in Canada, where sUAS regulations are more flexible. We critically outline potential advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for EO applications under current and potential regulations. We find advantages: relatively low cost, potentially high temporal resolution, rapidly improving technology, and operational flexibility. We also find disadvantages: limited temporal and spatial extent, limited accuracy assessment and methodological development, and an immature regulatory landscape. From a case study we show an example of the accuracy of a photogrammetrically-derived digital terrain map (DTM) from sUAS imagery. We also compare the sUAS DTM to a LiDAR DTM. Our results suggest that sUAS-acquired imagery may provide a low-cost, rapid, and flexible alternative to airborne LiDAR. Overall, we are encouraged about the potential of sUAS for geophysical measurements; however, understanding and compliance with regulations is paramount to ensure that research is conducted legally and responsibly. Because UAS are new outside of military operations, we hope researchers will proceed carefully to ensure this great scientific opportunity remains a long term tool.

  20. An Empirical Study of Overlapping Rotor Interference for a Small Unmanned Aircraft Propulsion System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantas Brazinskas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The majority of research into full-sized helicopter overlapping propulsion systems involves co-axial setups (fully overlapped. Partially overlapping rotor setups (tandem, multirotor have received less attention, and empirical data produced over the years is limited. The increase in demand for compact small unmanned aircraft has exposed the need for empirical investigations of overlapping propulsion systems at a small scale (Reynolds Number < 250,000. Rotor-to-rotor interference at the static state in various overlapping propulsion system configurations was empirically measured using off the shelf T-Motor 16 inch × 5.4 inch rotors. A purpose-built test rig was manufactured allowing various overlapping rotor configurations to be tested. First, single rotor data was gathered, then performance measurements were taken at different thrust and tip speeds on a range of overlap configurations. The studies were conducted in a system torque balance mode. Overlapping rotor performance was compared to an isolated dual rotor propulsion system revealing interference factors which were compared to the momentum theory. Tests revealed that in the co-axial torque-balanced propulsion system the upper rotor outperforms the lower rotor at axial separation ratios between 0.05 and 0.85. Additionally, in the same region, thrust sharing between the two rotors changed by 21%; the upper rotor produced more thrust than the lower rotor at all times. Peak performance was recorded as a 22% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was greater than 0.25. The performance of a co-axial torque-balanced system reached a 27% efficiency loss when the axial separation ratio was equal to 0.05. The co-axial system swirl recovery effect was recorded to have a 4% efficiency gain in the axial separation ratio region between 0.05 and 0.85. The smallest efficiency loss (3% was recorded when the rotor separation ratio was between 0.95 and 1 (axial separation ratio was kept at 0

  1. The System Design of a Global Communications System for Military and Commercial use Utilizing High Altitude Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Terrestrial Local Multipoint Distribution Service (LMDS) Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Bradley

    2000-01-01

    This thesis proposes the design of the UAV-LMDS communication system for military and commercial use. The UAV-LMDS system is a digital, wireless communication system that provides service using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) flying at 60,000 ft. acting as communication hubs. This thesis provides background information on UAV-LMDS system elements, a financial analysis, theory, link budgets, system component design and implementation issues. To begin the design, we develop link budgets t...

  2. Unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) activities at the Department of the Interior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirk, Bruce K.; Hutt, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) is responsible for protecting and managing the natural resources and heritage on almost 20% of the land in the United States. The DOI’s mission requires access to remotely sensed data over vast lands, including areas that are remote and potentially dangerous to access. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) technology has the potential to enable the DOI to be a better steward of the land by: (1) Improving natural hazard forecasting and the analysis of the impacts. (2) Improving the understanding of climate change to better plan for likely impacts. (3) Developing precipitation and evaporation forecasting to better manage water resources. (4) Monitoring Arctic ice change and its impacts on ecosystems, coasts, and transportation. (5) Increasing safety and effectiveness of wildland fire management. (6) Enhancing search and rescue capabilities. (7) Broadening the abilities to monitor environmental or landscape conditions and changes. (8) Better understanding and protecting the Nation’s ecosystems. The initial operational testing and evaluations performed by the DOI have proven that UAS technology can be used to support many of the Department’s activities. UAS technology provides scientists a way to look longer, closer and more frequently at some of Earth’s most remote areas—places that were previously too dangerous or expensive to monitor in detail. The flexibility of operations and relative low cost to purchase and operate Small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS) enhances the ability to track long-term landscape and environmental change. The initial testing indicates the operational costs are approximately 10% of traditional manned aircraft. In addition, users can quickly assess landscape-altering events such as wildland fires, floods and volcanoes. UAS technology will allow the DOI to do more with less and in the process enhance the Department’s ability to provide unbiased scientific information to help stakeholders make

  3. STUDY ON SAFETY TECHNOLOGY SCHEME OF THE UNMANNED HELICOPTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays the unmanned helicopter is widely used for its' unique strongpoint, however, the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter seriously limits its further application and development. For solving the above problems, in this paper, the reasons for the high failure rate of unmanned helicopter is analyzed and the corresponding solution schemes are proposed. The main problem of the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is the aircraft engine fault, and the failure cause of the unmanned helicopter is analyzed particularly. In order to improving the safety performance of unmanned helicopter system, the scheme of adding the safety parachute system to the unmanned helicopter system is proposed and introduced. These schemes provide the safety redundancy of the unmanned helicopter system and lay on basis for the unmanned helicopter applying into residential areas.

  4. Improving Rangeland Monitoring and Assessment: Integrating Remote Sensing, GIS, and Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Paul Breckenridge

    2007-05-01

    Creeping environmental changes are impacting some of the largest remaining intact parcels of sagebrush steppe ecosystems in the western United States, creating major problems for land managers. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL), located in southeastern Idaho, is part of the sagebrush steppe ecosystem, one of the largest ecosystems on the continent. Scientists at the INL and the University of Idaho have integrated existing field and remotely sensed data with geographic information systems technology to analyze how recent fires on the INL have influenced the current distribution of terrestrial vegetation. Three vegetation mapping and classification systems were used to evaluate the changes in vegetation caused by fires between 1994 and 2003. Approximately 24% of the sagebrush steppe community on the INL was altered by fire, mostly over a 5-year period. There were notable differences between methods, especially for juniper woodland and grasslands. The Anderson system (Anderson et al. 1996) was superior for representing the landscape because it includes playa/bare ground/disturbed area and sagebrush steppe on lava as vegetation categories. This study found that assessing existing data sets is useful for quantifying fire impacts and should be helpful in future fire and land use planning. The evaluation identified that data from remote sensing technologies is not currently of sufficient quality to assess the percentage of cover. To fill this need, an approach was designed using both helicopter and fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and image processing software to evaluate six cover types on field plots located on the INL. The helicopter UAV provided the best system compared against field sampling, but is more dangerous and has spatial coverage limitations. It was reasonably accurate for dead shrubs and was very good in assessing percentage of bare ground, litter and grasses; accuracy for litter and shrubs is questionable. The fixed wing system proved to be

  5. RQ-2 Pioneer: The Flawed System that Redefined US Unmanned Aviation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Periscope.com, “RQ-2 Pioneer,” http://www.militaryperiscope.com/weapons/aircraft/rpv- dron /w0004685.html 28 Ibid. 29 Jane’s Unmanned Aerial...Military Periscope.com, “RQ-2 Pioneer.” http://www.militaryperiscope.com/weapons/aircraft/rpv- dron /w0004685.html Polmar, Norman, The Naval

  6. Autonomous Conflict Detection and Resolution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles : On integration into the Airspace System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenie, Y.I.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the commercial values of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), defined as devices that are capable of sustainable flights in the atmosphere that do not require to have a human (pilot) on-board, become widely recognized thanks to the advancement of technology in materials, sensors,

  7. Scheduling System for Multiple Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Indoor Environments Using the CSP Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Youngsoo; Khosiawan, Yohanes; Moon, Ilkyeong

    2016-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increased demand in use of multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) for surveillance and material handling tasks in indoor environments. However, only a limited number of studies have been reported on UAV scheduling in an indoor 3D environment. This paper present...

  8. Feasibility study of using the RoboEarth cloud engine for rapid mapping and tracking with small unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Chee-Ming, J.; Armenakis, C.

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the ongoing development of a small unmanned aerial mapping system (sUAMS) that in the future will track its trajectory and perform 3D mapping in near-real time. As both mapping and tracking algorithms require powerful computational capabilities and large data storage facilities, we propose to use the RoboEarth Cloud Engine (RCE) to offload heavy computation and store data to secure computing environments in the cloud. While the RCE's capabilities have been demonstrated with terrestrial robots in indoor environments, this paper explores the feasibility of using the RCE in mapping and tracking applications in outdoor environments by small UAMS. The experiments presented in this work assess the data processing strategies and evaluate the attainable tracking and mapping accuracies using the data obtained by the sUAMS. Testing was performed with an Aeryon Scout quadcopter. It flew over York University, up to approximately 40 metres above the ground. The quadcopter was equipped with a single-frequency GPS receiver providing positioning to about 3 meter accuracies, an AHRS (Attitude and Heading Reference System) estimating the attitude to about 3 degrees, and an FPV (First Person Viewing) camera. Video images captured from the onboard camera were processed using VisualSFM and SURE, which are being reformed as an Application-as-a-Service via the RCE. The 3D virtual building model of York University was used as a known environment to georeference the point cloud generated from the sUAMS' sensor data. The estimated position and orientation parameters of the video camera show increases in accuracy when compared to the sUAMS' autopilot solution, derived from the onboard GPS and AHRS. The paper presents the proposed approach and the results, along with their accuracies.

  9. Assessing the spatial distribution of coral bleaching using small unmanned aerial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Joshua; Hunter, Cynthia; Lukacazyk, Trent; Franklin, Erik C.

    2018-06-01

    Small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) are an affordable, effective complement to existing coral reef monitoring and assessment tools. sUAS provide repeatable low-altitude, high-resolution photogrammetry to address fundamental questions of spatial ecology and community dynamics for shallow coral reef ecosystems. Here, we qualitatively describe the use of sUAS to survey the spatial characteristics of coral cover and the distribution of coral bleaching across patch reefs in Kānéohe Bay, Hawaii, and address limitations and anticipated technology advancements within the field of UAS. Overlapping sub-decimeter low-altitude aerial reef imagery collected during the 2015 coral bleaching event was used to construct high-resolution reef image mosaics of coral bleaching responses on four Kānéohe Bay patch reefs, totaling 60,000 m2. Using sUAS imagery, we determined that paled, bleached and healthy corals on all four reefs were spatially clustered. Comparative analyses of data from sUAS imagery and in situ diver surveys found as much as 14% difference in coral cover values between survey methods, depending on the size of the reef and area surveyed. When comparing the abundance of unhealthy coral (paled and bleached) between sUAS and in situ diver surveys, we found differences in cover from 1 to 49%, depending on the depth of in situ surveys, the percent of reef area covered with sUAS surveys and patchiness of the bleaching response. This study demonstrates the effective use of sUAS surveys for assessing the spatial dynamics of coral bleaching at colony-scale resolutions across entire patch reefs and evaluates the complementarity of data from both sUAS and in situ diver surveys to more accurately characterize the spatial ecology of coral communities on reef flats and slopes.

  10. Real-time unmanned aircraft systems surveillance video mosaicking using GPU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Aldo; Anderson, Kyle; Wang, Yi; Schultz, Richard R.; Fevig, Ronald A.

    2010-04-01

    Digital video mosaicking from Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) is being used for many military and civilian applications, including surveillance, target recognition, border protection, forest fire monitoring, traffic control on highways, monitoring of transmission lines, among others. Additionally, NASA is using digital video mosaicking to explore the moon and planets such as Mars. In order to compute a "good" mosaic from video captured by a UAS, the algorithm must deal with motion blur, frame-to-frame jitter associated with an imperfectly stabilized platform, perspective changes as the camera tilts in flight, as well as a number of other factors. The most suitable algorithms use SIFT (Scale-Invariant Feature Transform) to detect the features consistent between video frames. Utilizing these features, the next step is to estimate the homography between two consecutives video frames, perform warping to properly register the image data, and finally blend the video frames resulting in a seamless video mosaick. All this processing takes a great deal of resources of resources from the CPU, so it is almost impossible to compute a real time video mosaic on a single processor. Modern graphics processing units (GPUs) offer computational performance that far exceeds current CPU technology, allowing for real-time operation. This paper presents the development of a GPU-accelerated digital video mosaicking implementation and compares it with CPU performance. Our tests are based on two sets of real video captured by a small UAS aircraft; one video comes from Infrared (IR) and Electro-Optical (EO) cameras. Our results show that we can obtain a speed-up of more than 50 times using GPU technology, so real-time operation at a video capture of 30 frames per second is feasible.

  11. Meta-image navigation augmenters for unmanned aircraft systems (MINA for UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Òªelik, Koray; Somani, Arun K.; Schnaufer, Bernard; Hwang, Patrick Y.; McGraw, Gary A.; Nadke, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    GPS is a critical sensor for Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UASs) due to its accuracy, global coverage and small hardware footprint, but is subject to denial due to signal blockage or RF interference. When GPS is unavailable, position, velocity and attitude (PVA) performance from other inertial and air data sensors is not sufficient, especially for small UASs. Recently, image-based navigation algorithms have been developed to address GPS outages for UASs, since most of these platforms already include a camera as standard equipage. Performing absolute navigation with real-time aerial images requires georeferenced data, either images or landmarks, as a reference. Georeferenced imagery is readily available today, but requires a large amount of storage, whereas collections of discrete landmarks are compact but must be generated by pre-processing. An alternative, compact source of georeferenced data having large coverage area is open source vector maps from which meta-objects can be extracted for matching against real-time acquired imagery. We have developed a novel, automated approach called MINA (Meta Image Navigation Augmenters), which is a synergy of machine-vision and machine-learning algorithms for map aided navigation. As opposed to existing image map matching algorithms, MINA utilizes publicly available open-source geo-referenced vector map data, such as OpenStreetMap, in conjunction with real-time optical imagery from an on-board, monocular camera to augment the UAS navigation computer when GPS is not available. The MINA approach has been experimentally validated with both actual flight data and flight simulation data and results are presented in the paper.

  12. Application of Unmanned Aerial System-based Photogrammetry to Monitor Landforms Evolution of Mudstone Badlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yichin

    2017-04-01

    Mudstone badlands are the area characteristized by its rapid erosion and steep, fractured, and barren landforms. Monitoring the topography changes in badland help improve our knowledge of the hillslope and river processing on landforms and develop susceptibility model for surface erosion hazards. Recently, advances in unmanned aerial system (UAS) and close-range photogrammetry technology have opened up the possibility of effectively measuring topography changes with high spatiotemporal resolutions. In this study, we used the UAS and close-range photogrammetry technology to monitor the topography changes in a rapidly eroded badland, south-western Taiwan. A small mudstone hillslope with area of 0.2 ha approximately and with slope gradient of 37 degrees was selected as the study site. A widely used and commercial quadcopter equipped non-metric camera was used to take images with ground sampling distance (GSD) 5 mm approximately. The Pix4DMapper, a commercial close-range photogrammetry software, was used to perform stereo matching, extract point clouds, generate digital surface models (DSMs) and orthoimage. To control model accuracy, a set of ground control points was surveyed by using eGPS. The monitoring was carried out after every significant rainfall event that may induced observable erosion in the badland site. The results show that DSMs have the GSDs of 4.0 5.4 mm and vertical accuracy of 61 116 mm. The accuracy largely depends on the quality of ground control points. The spatial averaged erosion rate during six months of monitoring was 328 mm, which is higher in the gully sides than in the ridges. The erosion rate is positively correlated with the slope gradient and drainage contributing area that implies the important role of surface gully erosion in mudstone badland erosion. This study shows that UAS and close-range photogrammetry technology can be used to monitor the topography change in badland areas effectively and can provide high spatiotemporal

  13. Unmanned aerial system nadir reflectance and MODIS nadir BRDF-adjusted surface reflectances intercompared over Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner Burkhart, John; Kylling, Arve; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Wang, Zhuosen; Bogren, Wiley; Storvold, Rune; Solbø, Stian; Pedersen, Christina A.; Gerland, Sebastian

    2017-07-01

    Albedo is a fundamental parameter in earth sciences, and many analyses utilize the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF)/albedo (MCD43) algorithms. While derivative albedo products have been evaluated over Greenland, we present a novel, direct comparison with nadir surface reflectance collected from an unmanned aerial system (UAS). The UAS was flown from Summit, Greenland, on 210 km transects coincident with the MODIS sensor overpass on board the Aqua and Terra satellites on 5 and 6 August 2010. Clear-sky acquisitions were available from the overpasses within 2 h of the UAS flights. The UAS was equipped with upward- and downward-looking spectrometers (300-920 nm) with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, allowing for direct integration into the MODIS bands 1, 3, and 4. The data provide a unique opportunity to directly compare UAS nadir reflectance with the MODIS nadir BRDF-adjusted surface reflectance (NBAR) products. The data show UAS measurements are slightly higher than the MODIS NBARs for all bands but agree within their stated uncertainties. Differences in variability are observed as expected due to different footprints of the platforms. The UAS data demonstrate potentially large sub-pixel variability of MODIS reflectance products and the potential to explore this variability using the UAS as a platform. It is also found that, even at the low elevations flown typically by a UAS, reflectance measurements may be influenced by haze if present at and/or below the flight altitude of the UAS. This impact could explain some differences between data from the two platforms and should be considered in any use of airborne platforms.

  14. Technology Trends in Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) and Counter-UAS: A Five Year Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E ANALYSES Technology Trends in Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS) and Counter-UAS: A Five-Year Outlook...the copyright license under the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [June 2013]. INSTITUTE FOR DEFENSE ANALYSES IDA Paper P-8823 Technology Trends...threats to infrastructure posed across all domains—air, land, sea, and cyber. Although threats and technologies are rapidly evolving across all

  15. Application of unmanned aerial systems for high throughput phenotyping of large wheat breeding nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghighattalab, Atena; González Pérez, Lorena; Mondal, Suchismita; Singh, Daljit; Schinstock, Dale; Rutkoski, Jessica; Ortiz-Monasterio, Ivan; Singh, Ravi Prakash; Goodin, Douglas; Poland, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Low cost unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have great potential for rapid proximal measurements of plants in agriculture. In the context of plant breeding and genetics, current approaches for phenotyping a large number of breeding lines under field conditions require substantial investments in time, cost, and labor. For field-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP), UAS platforms can provide high-resolution measurements for small plot research, while enabling the rapid assessment of tens-of-thousands of field plots. The objective of this study was to complete a baseline assessment of the utility of UAS in assessment field trials as commonly implemented in wheat breeding programs. We developed a semi-automated image-processing pipeline to extract plot level data from UAS imagery. The image dataset was processed using a photogrammetric pipeline based on image orientation and radiometric calibration to produce orthomosaic images. We also examined the relationships between vegetation indices (VIs) extracted from high spatial resolution multispectral imagery collected with two different UAS systems (eBee Ag carrying MultiSpec 4C camera, and IRIS+ quadcopter carrying modified NIR Canon S100) and ground truth spectral data from hand-held spectroradiometer. We found good correlation between the VIs obtained from UAS platforms and ground-truth measurements and observed high broad-sense heritability for VIs. We determined radiometric calibration methods developed for satellite imagery significantly improved the precision of VIs from the UAS. We observed VIs extracted from calibrated images of Canon S100 had a significantly higher correlation to the spectroradiometer (r = 0.76) than VIs from the MultiSpec 4C camera (r = 0.64). Their correlation to spectroradiometer readings was as high as or higher than repeated measurements with the spectroradiometer per se. The approaches described here for UAS imaging and extraction of proximal sensing data enable collection of HTP

  16. Navigation and Remote Sensing Payloads and Methods of the Sarvant Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, P.; Fortuny, P.; Colomina, I.; Remy, M.; Macedo, K. A. C.; Zúnigo, Y. R. C.; Vaz, E.; Luebeck, D.; Moreira, J.; Blázquez, M.

    2013-08-01

    In a large number of scenarios and missions, the technical, operational and economical advantages of UAS-based photogrammetry and remote sensing over traditional airborne and satellite platforms are apparent. Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) or combined optical/SAR operation in remote areas might be a case of a typical "dull, dirty, dangerous" mission suitable for unmanned operation - in harsh environments such as for example rain forest areas in Brazil, topographic mapping of small to medium sparsely inhabited remote areas with UAS-based photogrammetry and remote sensing seems to be a reasonable paradigm. An example of such a system is the SARVANT platform, a fixed-wing aerial vehicle with a six-meter wingspan and a maximumtake- of-weight of 140 kilograms, able to carry a fifty-kilogram payload. SARVANT includes a multi-band (X and P) interferometric SAR payload, as the P-band enables the topographic mapping of densely tree-covered areas, providing terrain profile information. Moreover, the combination of X- and P-band measurements can be used to extract biomass estimations. Finally, long-term plan entails to incorporate surveying capabilities also at optical bands and deliver real-time imagery to a control station. This paper focuses on the remote-sensing concept in SARVANT, composed by the aforementioned SAR sensor and envisioning a double optical camera configuration to cover the visible and the near-infrared spectrum. The flexibility on the optical payload election, ranging from professional, medium-format cameras to mass-market, small-format cameras, is discussed as a driver in the SARVANT development. The paper also focuses on the navigation and orientation payloads, including the sensors (IMU and GNSS), the measurement acquisition system and the proposed navigation and orientation methods. The latter includes the Fast AT procedure, which performs close to traditional Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) and better than Direct Sensor Orientation (Di

  17. Autonomous Conflict Detection and Resolution for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles: On integration into the Airspace System

    OpenAIRE

    Jenie, Y.I.

    2017-01-01

    In the last decade, the commercial values of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV), defined as devices that are capable of sustainable flights in the atmosphere that do not require to have a human (pilot) on-board, become widely recognized thanks to the advancement of technology in materials, sensors, computation, and telemetry. As UAVs are becoming cheaper and more user-friendly, many companies are motivated to incorporate them in their everyday business, such as for delivery services, journalisms,...

  18. A Reference Software Architecture to Support Unmanned Aircraft Integration in the National Airspace System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    and Avoid ( SAA ) testbed that provides some of the core services . This paper describes the general architecture and a SAA testbed implementation that...that provides data and software services to enable a set of Unmanned Aircraft (UA) platforms to operate in a wide range of air domains which may...implemented by MIT Lincoln Laboratory in the form of a Sense and Avoid ( SAA ) testbed that provides some of the core services . This paper describes the general

  19. Ice nucleating particles over the Eastern Mediterranean measured at ground and by unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniel; Schrod, Jann; Drücke, Jaqueline; Keleshis, Christos; Pikridas, Michael; Ebert, Martin; Cvetkovic, Bojan; Nickovic, Slobodan; Baars, Holger; Marinou, Eleni; Vrekoussis, Mihalis; Sciare, Jean; Mihalopoulos, Nikos; Curtius, Joachim; Bingemer, Heinz G.

    2017-04-01

    During the intensive INUIT-BACCHUS-ACTRIS field campaign focusing on aerosols, clouds and ice nucleation in the Eastern Mediterranean in April 2016, we have measured the abundance of ice nucleating particles (INP) in the lower troposphere both with unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as well as from the ground. Aerosol samples were collected by miniaturized electrostatic precipitators onboard the UAS and were analyzed immediately after collection on site in the ice nucleus counter FRIDGE for INP active at -20˚ C to -30˚ C in the deposition/condensation mode (INPD). Immersion freezing INP (INPI) were sampled on membrane filters and were analysed in aqueous extracts by the drop freezing method on the cold stage of FRIDGE. Ground samples were collected at the Cyprus Atmospheric Observatory (CAO) in Agia Marina Xyliatou (Latitude; 35˚ 2' 8" N; Longitude: 33˚ 3' 26" E; Altitude: 532 m a.s.l.). During the one-month campaign, we encountered a series of Saharan dust plumes that traveled at several kilometers altitude. Here we present INP data from 42 individual flights, together with OPC aerosol number concentrations, backscatter and depolarization retrievals from the Polly-XT Raman Lidar, dust concentrations derived by the dust transport model DREAM (Dust Regional Atmospheric Model), and results from scanning electron microscopy. The effect of the dust plumes is reflected by the coincidence of INP with the particulate mass (PM), the Lidar retrievals and the predicted dust mass of the model. This suggests that mineral dust or a constituent related to dust was a major contributor to the ice nucleating properties of the aerosol. Peak concentrations of above 100 INP std.l-1 were measured at -30˚ C. The INPD concentration in elevated plumes was on average a factor of 10 higher than at ground level. The INPI concentration at ground also agreed with PM levels and exceeded the ground-based INPD concentration by more than one order of magnitude. Since desert dust is transported

  20. A historical overview of the electrical power systems in the US manned and some US unmanned spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisel, J. E.

    1984-01-01

    A historical overview of electrical power systems used in the U.S. manned spacecraft and some of the U.S. unmanned spacecraft is presented in this investigation. A time frame of approximately 25 years, the period for 1959 to 1984, is covered in this report. Results indicate that the nominal bus voltage was 28 volts dc in most spacecraft and all other voltage levels were derived from this voltage through such techniques as voltage inversion or rectification, or a combination. Most spacecraft used solar arrays for the main source of power except for those spacecraft that had a relatively short flight duration, or deep spaceprobes that were designed for very long flight duration. Fuel cells were used on Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle (short duration flights) while radioisotope thermoelectric generators were employed on the Pioneer, Jupiter/Saturn, Viking Lander, and Voyager spacecraft (long duration flights). The main dc bus voltage was unregulated on the manned spacecraft with voltage regulation provided at the user loads. A combination of regulated, semiregulated, and unregulated buses were used on the unmanned spacecraft depending on the type of load. For example, scientific instruments were usually connected to regulated buses while fans, relays, etc. were energized from an unregulated bus. Different forms of voltage regulation, such as shunt, buck/boot, and pulse-width modulated regulators, were used. This report includes a comprehensive bibliography on spacecraft electrical power systems for the space programs investigated.

  1. Well clear: General aviation and commercial pilots' perception of unmanned aerial vehicles in the national airspace system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Joseph T.

    The purpose of this research was to determine how different pilot types perceived the subjective concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and to observe if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as well as the effects of other variables. Pilots' perceptions of the WCB were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Together, these metrics provided quantitative and qualitative data about pilot WCB perception. The objective results of this study showed significant differences in WCB perception between two different pilot types, as well as WCB significant differences when comparing two different intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). These differences were dependent on other manipulated variables, including intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels. Subjectively, there were evident differences in WCB perception across pilot types; general aviation (GA) pilots appeared to trust UAS aircraft slightly more than did the more experienced Airline Transport Pilots (ATPs). Overall, it is concluded that pilots' mental models of the WCB are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, while being more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  2. Tracking Unmanned Aerial Vehicle CTU FTS - Application of equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hůlek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Article which is about the Tracking Unmanned Aerial Vehicle continues in the description of the project development dealing with the utilization of the UAV (unmanned aerial vehicle. Documentation of the project progresses builds on the previous article. In that article the selection of observation and transmission equipment was summarized. In the article, the reader learns about an installation of the equipment on the UAV (helicopter, about an interconnection of the equipment to create complete and functional system, about testing of the UAV, about the solutions of the problems which came into being during testing and about protection of the equipment against unfavourable effects. The location of equipment on the unmanned vehicle was chosen after a considering of several parameters. These parameters are preservation of the functionality or an influence to the balance. To find out how the added equipment affect the centre of gravity of the UAV the tabular method of the centre of gravity calculation was used. The results of the existing work on the project are location and attaching of the equipment to the unmanned vehicle, balance of the unmanned vehicle, solutions of the problems coming into being during the testing and design of the equipment protection against unfavourable effects.

  3. U.S. Army Unmanned Aircraft Systems Roadmap 2010-2035: Eyes of the Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    disadvantages of manned versus unmanned, as well as fixed-wing versus vertical takeoff and landing, capabilities. 9.6 Synchronization Effort The...flight rules ( IFR ) flight plans. As the DoD CONOPS for UAS matures and as the Army ensures the airworthiness of our UAS, we will look toward...Flight Level (FL) 180 (18,000 feet mean sea level [MSL]) to FL600 (60,000 feet MSL). Flights within Class A airspace must be under IFR and under the

  4. THE UNMANNED MISSION AVIONICS TEST HELICIOPTER – A FLEXIBLE AND VERSATILE VTOL-UAS EXPERIMENTAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. H.-W. Schulz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available civil customers. These applications cover a wide spectrum from R&D programs for the military customer to special services for the civil customer. This paper focuses on the technical conversion of a commercially available VTOL-UAS to ESG's Unmanned Mission Avionics Test Helicopter (UMAT, its concept and operational capabilities. At the end of the paper, the current integration of a radar sensor is described as an example of the UMATs flexibility. The radar sensor is developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for High Frequency Physics and Radar Techniques (FHR. It is integrated by ESG together with the industrial partner SWISS UAV.

  5. Control techniques of tilt rotor unmanned aerial vehicle systems: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The tilt rotor unmanned aerial vehicle (TRUAV exhibits special application value due to its unique rotor structure. However, varying dynamics and aerodynamic interference caused by tiltable rotors are great technical challenges and key issues for TRUAV’s high-powered flight controls, which have attracted the attention of many researchers. This paper outlines the concept of TRUAV and some typical TRUAV platforms while focusing on control techniques. TRUAV structural features, dynamics modeling, and flight control methods are discussed, and major challenges and corresponding developmental tendencies associated with TRUAV flight control are summarized.

  6. Arctic Atmospheric Measurements Using Manned and Unmanned Aircraft, Tethered Balloons, and Ground-Based Systems at U.S. DOE ARM Facilities on the North Slope Of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, M.; Dexheimer, D.; Roesler, E. L.; Hillman, B. R.; Hardesty, J. O.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska and an open data archive maintained by the ARM program. In 2016, DOE continued investments in improvements to facilities and infrastructure at Oliktok Point Alaska to support operations of ground-based facilities and unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic. The Third ARM Mobile Facility, AMF3, now deployed at Oliktok Point, was further expanded in 2016. Tethered instrumented balloons were used at Oliktok to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds and to compare measurements with those from the ground and from unmanned aircraft operating in the airspace above AMF3. The ARM facility at Oliktok Point includes Special Use Airspace. A Restricted Area, R-2204, is located at Oliktok Point. Roughly 4 miles in diameter, it facilitates operations of tethered balloons and unmanned aircraft. R-2204 and a new Warning Area north of Oliktok, W-220, are managed by Sandia National Laboratories for DOE Office of Science/BER. These Special Use Airspaces have been successfully used to launch and operate unmanned aircraft over the Arctic Ocean and in international airspace north of Oliktok Point.A steady progression towards routine operations of unmanned aircraft and tethered balloon systems continues at Oliktok. Small unmanned aircraft (DataHawks) and tethered balloons were successfully flown at Oliktok starting in June of 2016. This poster will discuss how principal investigators may apply for use of these Special Use Airspaces, acquire data from the Third ARM Mobile Facility, or bring their own instrumentation for deployment at Oliktok Point, Alaska.

  7. Unmanned Mine of the 21st Centuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semykina, Irina; Grigoryev, Aleksandr; Gargayev, Andrey; Zavyalov, Valeriy

    2017-11-01

    The article is analytical. It considers the construction principles of the automation system structure which realize the concept of «unmanned mine». All of these principles intend to deal with problems caused by a continuous complication of mining-and-geological conditions at coalmine such as the labor safety and health protection, the weak integration of different mining automation subsystems and the deficiency of optimal balance between a quantity of resource and energy consumed by mining machines and their throughput. The authors describe the main problems and neck stage of mining machines autonomation and automation subsystem. The article makes a general survey of the applied «unmanned technology» in the field of mining such as the remotely operated autonomous complexes, the underground positioning systems of mining machines using infrared radiation in mine workings etc. The concept of «unmanned mine» is considered with an example of the robotic road heading machine. In the final, the authors analyze the techniques and methods that could solve the task of underground mining without human labor.

  8. Commercial multicopter unmanned aircraft system as a tool for early stage forest survey after wind damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokros, Martin; Vybostok, Jozef; Merganic, Jan; Tomastik, Julian; Cernava, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    In recent years unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are objects of research in many areas. This trend can be seen also in forest research where researchers are focusing on height, diameter and tree crown measurements, monitoring of forest fire, forest gaps and health condition. Our research is focusing on the use of UAS for detecting areas disturbed by wind and deriving the volume of fallen trees for management purposes. This information is crucial after the wind damage happened. We used DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ and acquired the imagery of one forest stand (5.7 ha). The UAS is a quadcopter "all in one" solution. It has a built-in camera with gimbal and a remote controller. The camera is controlled through the application (android/ios). The built-in camera has an image resolution of 4384×3288 (14 megapixels). We have placed five crosses within the plot to be able to georeference the point cloud from UAS. Their positions were measured by Topcon Hiper GGD survey-grade GNSS receiver. We measured the border of damaged area by four different GNSS devices - GeoExplorer 6000, Trimble Nomad, Garmin GPSMAP 60 CSx and by smartphone Sony Xperia X. To process images from UAS we used Agisoft Photoscan Professional, while ArcGIS 10.2 was used to calculate and compare the areas . From the UAS point cloud we calculated DTM and DSM and deducted them. The areas where the difference was close to zero (-0.2 to 0.2) were signed as potentially wind damage areas. Then we filtered the areas that were not signed correctly (for example routes). The calculated area from UAS was 2.66 ha, GeoExplorer 6000 was 2.20 ha, Nomad was 2.06 ha, Garmin was 2.21 ha and from Xperia was the area 2.24 ha. The differences between UAS and GPS devices vary from 0.42 ha to 0.6 ha. The differences were mostly caused by inability to detect small spots of fallen trees on UAS data. These small spots are difficult to measure by GPS devices because the signal is very poor under tree crowns and also it is difficult to find

  9. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in pest management: Progress in the development of a UAV-deployed mating disruption system for Wisconsin cranberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a powerful new tool for agriculture. Currently, UAVs are used almost exclusively as crop reconnaissance devices (“eyes in the sky”), not as pest control delivery systems. Research in Wisconsin cranberries is taking UAVs in a new direction. The Steffan and Lu...

  10. A New Perspective: Assessing the Spatial Distribution of Coral Bleaching with Unmanned Low Altitude Remote Sensing Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, J.; Franklin, E. C.; Hunter, C. L.

    2016-12-01

    Coral reefs are biodiversity hotspots that are vital to the function of global economic and biological processes. Coral bleaching is a significant contributor to the global decline of reefs and can impact an expansive reef area over short timescales. In order to understand the dynamics of coral bleaching and how these stress events impact reef ecosystems, it is important to conduct rapid bleaching surveys at functionally important spatial scales. Due to the inherent heterogeneity, size, and in some cases, remoteness of coral reefs, it is difficult to routinely monitor coral bleaching dynamics before, during, and after bleaching. Additionally, current in situ survey methods only collect snippets of discrete reef data over small reef areas, which are unable to accurately represent the reef as a whole. We present a new technique using small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) as cost effective, efficient monitoring tools that target small to intermediate-scale reef dynamics to understand the spatial distribution of bleached coral colonies during the 2015 bleaching event on patch reefs in Kaneohe Bay, Oahu. Overlapping low altitude aerial images were collected at four reefs during the bleaching period and processed using Structure-from-Motion techniques to produce georeferenced and spatially accurate orthomosaics of complete reef areas. Mosaics were analyzed using manual and heuristic neural network classification schemes to identify comprehensive populations of bleached and live coral on each patch reef. We found that bleached colonies had random and clumped distributions on patch reefs in Kaneohe Bay depending on local environmental conditions. Our work demonstrates that sUAS provide a low cost, efficient platform that can rapidly and repeatedly collect high-resolution imagery (1 cm/pixel) and map large areas of shallow reef ecosystems (5 hectares). This study proves the feasibility of utilizing sUAS as a tool to collect spatially rich reef data that will provide reef

  11. Assessment of In-Season Cotton Nitrogen Status and Lint Yield Prediction from Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Ballester

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work assessed the usefulness of a set of spectral indices obtained from an unmanned aerial system (UAS for tracking spatial and temporal variability of nitrogen (N status as well as for predicting lint yield in a commercial cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. farm. Organic, inorganic and a combination of both types of fertilizers were used to provide a range of eight N rates from 0 to 340 kg N ha−1. Multi-spectral images (reflectance in the blue, green, red, red edge and near infrared bands were acquired on seven days throughout the season, from 62 to 169 days after sowing (DAS, and data were used to compute structure- and chlorophyll-sensitive vegetation indices (VIs. Above-ground plant biomass was sampled at first flower, first cracked boll and maturity and total plant N concentration (N% and N uptake determined. Lint yield was determined at harvest and the relationships with the VIs explored. Results showed that differences in plant N% and N uptake between treatments increased as the season progressed. Early in the season, when fertilizer applications can still have an effect on lint yield, the simplified canopy chlorophyll content index (SCCCI was the index that best explained the variation in N uptake and plant N% between treatments. Around first cracked boll and maturity, the linear regression obtained for the relationships between the VIs and both plant N% and N uptake was statistically significant, with the highest r2 values obtained at maturity. The normalized difference red edge (NDRE index, and SCCCI were generally the indices that best distinguished the treatments according to the N uptake and total plant N%. Treatments with the highest N rates (from 307 to 340 kg N ha−1 had lower normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI than treatments with 0 and 130 kg N ha−1 at the first measurement day (62 DAS, suggesting that factors other than fertilization N rate affected plant growth at this early stage of the crop. This fact

  12. JAUS to EtherCAT Bridge: Toward Real-Time and Deterministic Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems (JAUS is a communication standard that allows for interoperability between Unmanned Vehicles (UVs. Current research indicates that JAUS-compliant systems do not meet real-time performance guidelines necessary for internal systems in UVs. However, there is a lack of quantitative data illustrating the performance shortcomings of JAUS or clear explanations on what causes these performance issues or comparisons with existing internal communication systems. In this research, we first develop a basic C++ implementation of JAUS and evaluate its performance with quantitative data and compare the results with published performance data of Controller Area Network (CAN to determine the feasibility of the JAUS standard. Our results indicate that the main reason of JAUS’s poor performance lies in the latency inherent in the hierarchical structure of JAUS and the overhead of User Datagram Protocol (UDP messages, which has been used with JAUS and is slower than the high-speed CAN. Additionally, UDP has no scheduling mechanism, which makes it virtually impossible to guarantee messages meeting their deadlines. Considering the slow and nondeterministic JAUS communication from subsystems to components, which is JAUS Level 3 compliance, we then propose a solution by bringing Ethernet for Control Automation Technology (EtherCAT to add speed, deterministic feature, and security. The JAUS-EtherCAT mapping, which we called a JEBridge, is implemented into nodes and components. Both quantitative and qualitative results are provided to show that JEBridge and JAUS Level 3 compliance can bring not only interoperability but also reasonable performance to UVs.

  13. Small space reactor power systems for unmanned solar system exploration missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloomfield, H.S.

    1987-12-01

    A preliminary feasibility study of the application of small nuclear reactor space power systems to the Mariner Mark II Cassini spacecraft/mission was conducted. The purpose of the study was to identify and assess the technology and performance issues associated with the reactor power system/spacecraft/mission integration. The Cassini mission was selected because study of the Saturn system was identified as a high priority outer planet exploration objective. Reactor power systems applied to this mission were evaluated for two different uses. First, a very small 1 kWe reactor power system was used as an RTG replacement for the nominal spacecraft mission science payload power requirements while still retaining the spacecraft's usual bipropellant chemical propulsion system. The second use of reactor power involved the additional replacement of the chemical propulsion system with a small reactor power system and an electric propulsion system. The study also provides an examination of potential applications for the additional power available for scientific data collection. The reactor power system characteristics utilized in the study were based on a parametric mass model that was developed specifically for these low power applications. The model was generated following a neutronic safety and operational feasibility assessment of six small reactor concepts solicited from U.S. industry. This assessment provided the validation of reactor safety for all mission phases and generatad the reactor mass and dimensional data needed for the system mass model

  14. Unmanned Mobile Monitoring for Nuclear Emergency Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, YoungSoo; Park, JongWon; Kim, TaeWon; Jeong, KyungMin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Severe accidents at nuclear power plant have led to significant consequences to the people, the environment or the facility. Therefore, the appropriate response is required for the mitigation of the accidents. In the past, most of responses were performed by human beings, but it was dangerous and risky. In this paper, we proposed unmanned mobile system for the monitoring of nuclear accident in order to response effectively. For the integrity of reactor cooling and containment building, reactor cooling pipe and hydrogen distribution monitoring with unmanned ground vehicle was designed. And, for the safety of workers, radiation distribution monitoring with unmanned aerial vehicle was designed. Unmanned mobile monitoring system was proposed to respond nuclear accidents effectively. Concept of reinforcing the integrity of RCS and containment building, and radiation distribution monitoring were described. RCS flow measuring, hydrogen distribution measuring and radiation monitoring deployed at unmanned vehicle were proposed. These systems could be a method for the preparedness of effective response of nuclear accidents.

  15. Designing Unmanned Systems with Greater Autonomy: Using a Federated, Partially Open Systems Architecture Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    or innovative software products. In this regard, it is inter- esting to note that the first driverless cars have been developed by Google and not by...turer. Although many automobile manufacturers are now working on driverless cars, it appears that a company with unique expertise in software

  16. MEASURING SUNFLOWER NITROGEN STATUS FROM AN UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE-BASED SYSTEM AND AN ON THE GROUND DEVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Agüera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Precision agriculture recognizes the inherent spatial variability associated with soil characteristics, land morphology and crop growth, and uses this information to prescribe the most appropriate management strategy on a site-specific basis. To reach this task, the most important information related with crop growth is nutrient status, weed infestation, disease and pet affectation and water management. The application of fertilizer nitrogen to field crops is of critical importance because it determines plant's gro wth, vigour, colour and yield. Furthermore, nitrogen has been observed as a nutrient with high spatial variability in a single field, related to its high mobility. Some previous works have shown that is possible to measure crop nitrogen status with optical instruments. Since most leaf nitrogen is contained in chlorophyll molecules, there is a strong relationship between leaf nitrogen and leaf chlorophyll content, which is the basis for predicting crop nitrogen status by measuring leaf reflectance. So, sensors that can easily monitor crop nitrogen amount throughout the growing season at a high resolution to allow producers to reach their production goals, will give useful information to prescribe a crop management on a site-specific basis. Sunflower is a crop which is taking importance again because it can be used both for food and biofuel purposes, and it is widely cultivated in the South of Spain and other European countries.The aim of this work was to compare an index related with sunflower nitrogen status, deduced from multispectral images taken from an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV, with optical data collected with a ground-based platform.An ADC Lite Tetracam digital cam was mounted on a md4-200 Microdrones to take pictures of a sunflower field during the crop season. ADC Lite Tetracam is a single sensor digital camera designed for capture of visible light wavelength longer than 520 nm and near-infrared wavelength up to 920 nm. The

  17. Pre-harvest assessment of perennial weeds in cereals based on images from unmanned aerial systems (UAS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egilsson, Jon; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup; Olsen, Søren Ingvor

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) are able to deliver images of agricultural fields of high spatial and temporal resolution. It is, however, not trivial to extract quantitative information about weed infestations from images. This study contributes to weed research by using state-of-the-art computer....... In order to provide ground truth prior to the modeling phase in Python, a subset of 600 images was annotated by experts with 16000 regions of weeds or crop. Following this, images were segmented into regions with weeds or crop by subdividing each image into 64 by 64 pixel patches and classifying each patch...... as either crop or weed. A collection of geo-referenced segmented images may subsequently be used to map weed occurrences in fields. To find a robust and fully automated assessment method both texture and color information was used to build a number of different competing weed-crop classifiers, including...

  18. Potential for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Applications for Identifying Groundwater-Surface Water Exchange in a Meandering River Reach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Malenda, H. F.; Briggs, M. A.; Singha, K.; González-Pinzón, R.; Gooseff, M. N.; Tyler, S. W.

    2017-12-01

    The exchange of groundwater and surface water (GW-SW), including dissolved constituents and energy, represents a critical yet challenging characterization problem for hydrogeologists and stream ecologists. Here we describe the use of a suite of high spatial resolution remote sensing techniques, collected using a small unmanned aircraft system (sUAS), to provide novel and complementary data to analyze GW-SW exchange. sUAS provided centimeter-scale resolution topography and water surface elevations, which are often drivers of exchange along the river corridor. Additionally, sUAS-based vegetation imagery, vegetation-top elevation, and normalized difference vegetation index mapping indicated GW-SW exchange patterns that are difficult to characterize from the land surface and may not be resolved from coarser satellite-based imagery. We combined these data with estimates of sediment hydraulic conductivity to provide a direct estimate of GW "shortcutting" through meander necks, which was corroborated by temperature data at the riverbed interface.

  19. Building Construction Progress Monitoring Using Unmanned Aerial System (uas), Low-Cost Photogrammetry, and Geographic Information System (gis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bognot, J. R.; Candido, C. G.; Blanco, A. C.; Montelibano, J. R. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Monitoring the progress of building's construction is critical in construction management. However, measuring the building construction's progress are still manual, time consuming, error prone, and impose tedious process of analysis leading to delays, additional costings and effort. The main goal of this research is to develop a methodology for building construction progress monitoring based on 3D as-built model of the building from unmanned aerial system (UAS) images, 4D as-planned model (with construction schedule integrated) and, GIS analysis. Monitoring was done by capturing videos of the building with a camera-equipped UAS. Still images were extracted, filtered, bundle-adjusted, and 3D as-built model was generated using open source photogrammetric software. The as-planned model was generated from digitized CAD drawings using GIS. The 3D as-built model was aligned with the 4D as-planned model of building formed from extrusion of building elements, and integration of the construction's planned schedule. The construction progress is visualized via color-coding the building elements in the 3D model. The developed methodology was conducted and applied from the data obtained from an actual construction site. Accuracy in detecting `built' or `not built' building elements ranges from 82-84 % and precision of 50-72 %. Quantified progress in terms of the number of building elements are 21.31% (November 2016), 26.84 % (January 2017) and 44.19 % (March 2017). The results can be used as an input for progress monitoring performance of construction projects and improving related decision-making process.

  20. Unmanned Aerial Systems, Moored Balloons, and the U.S. Department of Energy ARM Facilities in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivey, Mark; Verlinde, Johannes

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), through its scientific user facility, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, provides scientific infrastructure and data to the international Arctic research community via its research sites located on the North Slope of Alaska. Facilities and infrastructure to support operations of unmanned aerial systems for science missions in the Arctic and North Slope of Alaska were established at Oliktok Point Alaska in 2013. Tethered instrumented balloons will be used in the near future to make measurements of clouds in the boundary layer including mixed-phase clouds. The DOE ARM Program has operated an atmospheric measurement facility in Barrow, Alaska, since 1998. Major upgrades to this facility, including scanning radars, were added in 2010. Arctic Observing Networks are essential to meet growing policy, social, commercial, and scientific needs. Calibrated, high-quality arctic geophysical datasets that span ten years or longer are especially important for climate studies, climate model initializations and validations, and for related climate policy activities. For example, atmospheric data and derived atmospheric forcing estimates are critical for sea-ice simulations. International requirements for well-coordinated, long-term, and sustained Arctic Observing Networks and easily-accessible data sets collected by those networks have been recognized by many high-level workshops and reports (Arctic Council Meetings and workshops, National Research Council reports, NSF workshops and others). The recent Sustaining Arctic Observation Network (SAON) initiative sponsored a series of workshops to "develop a set of recommendations on how to achieve long-term Arctic-wide observing activities that provide free, open, and timely access to high-quality data that will realize pan-Arctic and global value-added services and provide societal benefits." This poster will present information on opportunities for members of the

  1. Costing for the Future: Exploring Cost Estimation With Unmanned Autonomous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    country terrain. Control modes include tethered , radio control, teleoperation (NLOS and BLOS), supervised autonomy, and voice command. TRL level is 7–9...Technology Conference and Balloon Systems Conference. Acknowledgments This material is based upon work supported by the Naval Postgraduate School

  2. Analysis of Hybrid-Electric Propulsion System Designs for Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    small EM to provide extra power during acceleration and recharge during deceleration through regenerative braking . Power assist systems are similar...climbing (Fig. 4).18 Like automotive hybrids, the aircraft utilizes a form of regenerative braking by charging its battery pack through propeller...desirable.”5 The inherent risks of all three ISR mission categories lead towards small UAS being the best option in many cases to meet the military’s

  3. The Use of a Satellite Communications System for Command and Control of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Surrogate Unmanned Aerial System Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Charles T.; Jones, Frank; Hutchinson, Brian; Joyce, Claude; Nelson, Skip; Melum, Mike

    2017-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has transformed a Cirrus Design SR22 general aviation (GA) aircraft into an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Surrogate research aircraft which has served for several years as a platform for unmanned systems research and development. The aircraft is manned with a Safety Pilot and a Research Systems Operator (RSO) that allows for flight operations almost any-where in the national airspace system (NAS) without the need for a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Certificate of Authorization (COA). The UAS Surrogate can be remotely controlled from a modular, transportable ground control station (GCS) like a true UAS. Ground control of the aircraft is accomplished by the use of data links that allow the two-way passage of the required data to control the aircraft and provide the GCS with situational awareness. The original UAS Surrogate data-link system was composed of redundant very high frequency (VHF) data radio modems with a maximum range of approximately 40 nautical miles. A new requirement was developed to extend this range beyond visual range (BVR). This new requirement led to the development of a satellite communications system that provided the means to command and control the UAS Surrogate at ranges beyond the limits of the VHF data links. The system makes use of the Globalstar low earth orbit (LEO) satellite communications system. This paper will provide details of the development, implementation, and flight testing of the satellite data communications system on the UAS Surrogate research aircraft.

  4. Detection of rice sheath blight using an unmanned aerial system with high-resolution color and multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongyan; Zhou, Xingen; Zhang, Jian; Lan, Yubin; Xu, Chao; Liang, Dong

    2018-01-01

    Detection and monitoring are the first essential step for effective management of sheath blight (ShB), a major disease in rice worldwide. Unmanned aerial systems have a high potential of being utilized to improve this detection process since they can reduce the time needed for scouting for the disease at a field scale, and are affordable and user-friendly in operation. In this study, a commercialized quadrotor unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), equipped with digital and multispectral cameras, was used to capture imagery data of research plots with 67 rice cultivars and elite lines. Collected imagery data were then processed and analyzed to characterize the development of ShB and quantify different levels of the disease in the field. Through color features extraction and color space transformation of images, it was found that the color transformation could qualitatively detect the infected areas of ShB in the field plots. However, it was less effective to detect different levels of the disease. Five vegetation indices were then calculated from the multispectral images, and ground truths of disease severity and GreenSeeker measured NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) were collected. The results of relationship analyses indicate that there was a strong correlation between ground-measured NDVIs and image-extracted NDVIs with the R2 of 0.907 and the root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.0854, and a good correlation between image-extracted NDVIs and disease severity with the R2 of 0.627 and the RMSE of 0.0852. Use of image-based NDVIs extracted from multispectral images could quantify different levels of ShB in the field plots with an accuracy of 63%. These results demonstrate that a customer-grade UAV integrated with digital and multispectral cameras can be an effective tool to detect the ShB disease at a field scale.

  5. Rapid Object Detection Systems, Utilising Deep Learning and Unmanned Aerial Systems (uas) for Civil Engineering Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, D.; Boehm, J.

    2018-05-01

    With deep learning approaches now out-performing traditional image processing techniques for image understanding, this paper accesses the potential of rapid generation of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) for applied engineering purposes. Three CNNs are trained on 275 UAS-derived and freely available online images for object detection of 3m2 segments of railway track. These includes two models based on the Faster RCNN object detection algorithm (Resnet and Incpetion-Resnet) as well as the novel onestage Focal Loss network architecture (Retinanet). Model performance was assessed with respect to three accuracy metrics. The first two consisted of Intersection over Union (IoU) with thresholds 0.5 and 0.1. The last assesses accuracy based on the proportion of track covered by object detection proposals against total track length. In under six hours of training (and two hours of manual labelling) the models detected 91.3 %, 83.1 % and 75.6 % of track in the 500 test images acquired from the UAS survey Retinanet, Resnet and Inception-Resnet respectively. We then discuss the potential for such applications of such systems within the engineering field for a range of scenarios.

  6. Unmanned Ground Vehicle Tactical Behaviors Technology Assessment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Childers, Marshal A; Bodt, Barry A; Hill, Susan G; Camden, Richard; Dean, Robert M; Dodson, William F; Sutton, Lyle G; Sapronov, Leonid

    2009-01-01

    During 4-14 February 2008, the U.S. Army Research Laboratory and General Dynamics Robotic Systems conducted an unmanned systems tactical behaviors technology assessment at three training areas of Ft. Indiantown Gap, PA...

  7. Neural network control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G.

    2005-11-01

    Parallel hybrid-electric propulsion systems would be beneficial for small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions. The benefits, due to the hybrid and electric-only modes, include increased time-on-station and greater range as compared to electric-powered UAVs and stealth modes not available with gasoline-powered UAVs. This dissertation contributes to the research fields of small unmanned aerial vehicles, hybrid-electric propulsion system control, and intelligent control. A conceptual design of a small UAV with a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system is provided. The UAV is intended for intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) missions. A conceptual design reveals the trade-offs that must be considered to take advantage of the hybrid-electric propulsion system. The resulting hybrid-electric propulsion system is a two-point design that includes an engine primarily sized for cruise speed and an electric motor and battery pack that are primarily sized for a slower endurance speed. The electric motor provides additional power for take-off, climbing, and acceleration and also serves as a generator during charge-sustaining operation or regeneration. The intelligent control of the hybrid-electric propulsion system is based on an instantaneous optimization algorithm that generates a hyper-plane from the nonlinear efficiency maps for the internal combustion engine, electric motor, and lithium-ion battery pack. The hyper-plane incorporates charge-depletion and charge-sustaining strategies. The optimization algorithm is flexible and allows the operator/user to assign relative importance between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging depending on the intended mission. A MATLAB/Simulink model was developed to test the control algorithms. The Cerebellar Model Arithmetic Computer (CMAC) associative memory neural network is applied to the control of the UAVs parallel hybrid

  8. Observations of the Early Evening Boundary-Layer Transition Using a Small Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Timothy; Chilson, Phillip; Zielke, Brett; Fedorovich, Evgeni

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of the lower portion of the planetary boundary layer is investigated using the Small Multifunction Research and Teaching Sonde (SMARTSonde), an unmanned aerial vehicle developed at the University of Oklahoma. The study focuses on the lowest 200 m of the atmosphere, where the most noticeable thermodynamic changes occur during the day. Between October 2010 and February 2011, a series of flights was conducted during the evening hours on several days to examine the vertical structure of the lower boundary layer. Data from a nearby Oklahoma Mesonet tower was used to supplement the vertical profiles of temperature, humidity, and pressure, which were collected approximately every 30 min, starting 2 h before sunset and continuing until dusk. From the profiles, sensible and latent heat fluxes were estimated. These fluxes were used to diagnose the portion of the boundary layer that was most affected by the early evening transition. During the transition period, a shallow cool and moist layer near the ground was formed, and as the evening progressed the cooling affected an increasingly shallower layer just above the surface.

  9. A hybrid system approach to airspeed, angle of attack and sideslip estimation in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqura, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Fixed wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are an increasingly common sensing platform, owing to their key advantages: speed, endurance and ability to explore remote areas. While these platforms are highly efficient, they cannot easily be equipped with air data sensors commonly found on their larger scale manned counterparts. Indeed, such sensors are bulky, expensive and severely reduce the payload capability of the UAVs. In consequence, UAV controllers (humans or autopilots) have little information on the actual mode of operation of the wing (normal, stalled, spin) which can cause catastrophic losses of control when flying in turbulent weather conditions. In this article, we propose a real-time air parameter estimation scheme that can run on commercial, low power autopilots in real-time. The computational method is based on a hybrid decomposition of the modes of operation of the UAV. A Bayesian approach is considered for estimation, in which the estimated airspeed, angle of attack and sideslip are described statistically. An implementation on a UAV is presented, and the performance and computational efficiency of this method are validated using hardware in the loop (HIL) simulation and experimental flight data and compared with classical Extended Kalman Filter estimation. Our benchmark tests shows that this method is faster than EKF by up to two orders of magnitude. © 2015 IEEE.

  10. Aerial release of Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) to control Persicaria perfoliata (Polygonaceae) using an unmanned aerial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yong-Lak; Gururajan, Srikanth; Thistle, Harold; Chandran, Rakesh; Reardon, Richard

    2018-01-01

    Rhinoncomimus latipes (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a major biological control agent against the invasive plant Persicaria perfoliata. Release of R. latipes is challenging with the current visit-and-hand release approach because P. perfoliata shows a high degree of patchiness in the landscape, possesses recurved barbs on its stems, and often spreads into hard-to-access areas. This 3-year study developed and evaluated unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for precise aerial release of R. latipes to control P. perfoliata. We have developed two UAS (i.e. quad-rotor and tri-rotor) and an aerial release system to disseminate R. latipes. These include pods containing R. latipes and a dispenser to accommodate eight pods. Results of field tests to evaluate the systems showed no significant (P > 0.05) effects on survivorship and feeding ability of R. latipes after aerial release. Our study demonstrates the potential of UAS for precision aerial release of biological control agents to control invasive plants. The aerial deployment systems we have developed, including both pods and a dispenser, are low cost, logistically practical, and effective with no negative effects on aerially released R. latipes. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Unmanned Aerial Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no established infrastructure to enable and safely manage the widespread use of low-altitude airspace and UAS flight operations. Given this, and understanding that the FAA faces a mandate to modernize the present air traffic management system through computer automation and significantly reduce the number of air traffic controllers by FY 2020, the FAA maintains that a comprehensive, yet fully automated UAS traffic management (UTM) system for low-altitude airspace is needed. The concept of UTM is to begin by leveraging concepts from the system of roads, lanes, stop signs, rules and lights that govern vehicles on the ground today. Building on its legacy of work in air traffic management (ATM), NASA is working with industry to develop prototype technologies for a UAS Traffic Management (UTM) system that would evolve airspace integration procedures for enabling safe, efficient low-altitude flight operations that autonomously manage UAS operating in an approved low-altitude airspace environment. UTM is a cloud-based system that will autonomously manage all traffic at low altitudes to include UASs being operated beyond visual line of sight of an operator. UTM would thus enable safe and efficient flight operations by providing fully integrated traffic management services such as airspace design, corridors, dynamic geofencing, severe weather and wind avoidance, congestion management, terrain avoidance, route planning re-routing, separation management, sequencing spacing, and contingency management. UTM removes the need for human operators to continuously monitor aircraft operating in approved areas. NASA envisions concepts for two types of UTM systems. The first would be a small portable system, which could be moved between geographical areas in support of operations such as precision agriculture and public safety. The second would be a Persistent system, which would support low-altitude operations in an approved area by providing continuous automated

  12. Transitioning Unmanned Technologies for Earth Science Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, L. J.; Douglas, J.

    2008-12-01

    Development of small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) has progressed dramatically in recent years along with miniaturization of sensor technology. This confluence of development paths has resulted in greater capability in smaller, less expensive platforms allowing research to be performed where manned airborne platforms are impractical or dangerous. Recent applications include small UAS for studies involving hurricanes, volcanic activity, sea ice changes, glacier melt, biological monitoring of land and sea species, wildfire monitoring, and others. However, the majority of UAS employed in these investigations were originally developed for non-civilian applications and many of the required interfaces are locked behind proprietary specifications, requiring expensive customization by the manufacturer to transform a military UAS into one suitable for civilian work. A small UAS for scientific research should be standards-based, low-cost, user friendly, field serviceable, and be designed to accept a range of payloads. The AV8R UAS is one example of an unmanned system that has been developed for specific application to earth observation missions. This system is designed to be operated by the user with difficult environmental conditions and field logistics in mind. Numerous features and innovations that advance this technology as a research tool as well as its planned science missions will be presented. Most importantly, all interfaces to the system required for successful design and integration of various payloads will be openly available. The environment of open, standards based development allow the small technologies companies that serve as the backbone for much of the technology development to participate in the rapid development of industry capabilities. This is particularly true with UAS technologies. Programs within the USA such as the STTR foster collaborations with small businesses and university researchers. Other innovations related to autonomous unmanned systems

  13. Rapid Assessments of Amazon Forest Structure and Biomass Using Small Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Messinger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs can provide new ways to measure forests and supplement expensive or labor-intensive inventory methods. Forest carbon, a key uncertainty in the global carbon cycle and also important for carbon conservation programs, is typically monitored using manned aircraft or extensive forest plot networks to estimate aboveground carbon density (ACD. Manned aircraft are only cost-effective when applied to large areas (>100,000 ha, while plot networks are most effective for total C stock estimation across large areas, not for quantifying spatially-explicit variation. We sought to develop an effective method for frequent and accurate ACD estimation at intermediate scales (100–100,000 ha that would be sensitive to small-scale disturbance. Using small UAVs, we collected imagery of 516 ha of lowland forest in the Peruvian Amazon. We then used a structure-from-motion (SFM approach to create a 3D model of forest canopy. Comparing SFM- and airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR-derived estimates of canopy height and ACD, we found that SFM estimates of top-of-canopy height (TCH and ACD were highly correlated with previous LiDAR estimates (r = 0.86–0.93 and r = 0.73–0.94 for TCH and ACD, respectively, at 0.1–4 ha grain sizes, with r = 0.92 for ACD determination at the 1 ha scale, despite SFM and LiDAR measurements being separated by two years in a dynamic forest. SFM and LiDAR estimates of mean TCH and mean ACD were highly similar, differing by only 0.4% and 0.04%, respectively, within mature forest. The technique allows inexpensive, near-real-time monitoring of ACD for ecological studies, payment for ecosystem services (PES ventures, such as reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+, forestry enterprises, and governance.

  14. The Development of an Open Hardware and Software System Onboard Unmanned Aerial Vehicles to Monitor Concentrated Solar Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesas-Carrascosa, Francisco Javier; Verdú Santano, Daniel; Pérez Porras, Fernando; Meroño-Larriva, José Emilio; García-Ferrer, Alfonso

    2017-06-08

    Concentrated solar power (CSP) plants are increasingly gaining interest as a source of renewable energy. These plants face several technical problems and the inspection of components such as absorber tubes in parabolic trough concentrators (PTC), which are widely deployed, is necessary to guarantee plant efficiency. This article presents a system for real-time industrial inspection of CSP plants using low-cost, open-source components in conjunction with a thermographic sensor and an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The system, available in open-source hardware and software, is designed to be employed independently of the type of device used for inspection (laptop, smartphone, tablet or smartglasses) and its operating system. Several UAV flight missions were programmed as follows: flight altitudes at 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 m above ground level; and three cruising speeds: 5, 7 and 10 m/s. These settings were chosen and analyzed in order to optimize inspection time. The results indicate that it is possible to perform inspections by an UAV in real time at CSP plants as a means of detecting anomalous absorber tubes and improving the effectiveness of methodologies currently being utilized. Moreover, aside from thermographic sensors, this contribution can be applied to other sensors and can be used in a broad range of applications where real-time georeferenced data visualization is necessary.

  15. System identification of a small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle using flight data from low-cost sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffer, Nathan Von

    Remote sensing has traditionally been done with satellites and manned aircraft. While. these methods can yield useful scientificc data, satellites and manned aircraft have limitations in data frequency, process time, and real time re-tasking. Small low-cost unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide greater possibilities for personal scientic research than traditional remote sensing platforms. Precision aerial data requires an accurate vehicle dynamics model for controller development, robust flight characteristics, and fault tolerance. One method of developing a model is system identification (system ID). In this thesis system ID of a small low-cost fixed-wing T-tail UAV is conducted. The linerized longitudinal equations of motion are derived from first principles. Foundations of Recursive Least Squares (RLS) are presented along with RLS with an Error Filtering Online Learning scheme (EFOL). Sensors, data collection, data consistency checking, and data processing are described. Batch least squares (BLS) and BLS with EFOL are used to identify aerodynamic coecoefficients of the UAV. Results of these two methods with flight data are discussed.

  16. Towards Real-time, On-board, Hardware-Supported Sensor and Software Health Management for Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Johann; Rozier, Kristin Y.; Reinbacher, Thomas; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Mbaya, Timmy; Ippolito, Corey

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs) can only be deployed if they can effectively complete their missions and respond to failures and uncertain environmental conditions while maintaining safety with respect to other aircraft as well as humans and property on the ground. In this paper, we design a real-time, on-board system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor sensors, software, and hardware components for detection and diagnosis of failures and violations of safety or performance rules during the flight of a UAS. Our approach to SHM is three-pronged, providing: (1) real-time monitoring of sensor and/or software signals; (2) signal analysis, preprocessing, and advanced on the- fly temporal and Bayesian probabilistic fault diagnosis; (3) an unobtrusive, lightweight, read-only, low-power realization using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) that avoids overburdening limited computing resources or costly re-certification of flight software due to instrumentation. Our implementation provides a novel approach of combining modular building blocks, integrating responsive runtime monitoring of temporal logic system safety requirements with model-based diagnosis and Bayesian network-based probabilistic analysis. We demonstrate this approach using actual data from the NASA Swift UAS, an experimental all-electric aircraft.

  17. Flight Test Result for the Ground-Based Radio Navigation System Sensor with an Unmanned Air Vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jaegyu; Ahn, Woo-Guen; Seo, Seungwoo; Lee, Jang Yong; Park, Jun-Pyo

    2015-11-11

    The Ground-based Radio Navigation System (GRNS) is an alternative/backup navigation system based on time synchronized pseudolites. It has been studied for some years due to the potential vulnerability issue of satellite navigation systems (e.g., GPS or Galileo). In the framework of our study, a periodic pulsed sequence was used instead of the randomized pulse sequence recommended as the RTCM (radio technical commission for maritime services) SC (special committee)-104 pseudolite signal, as a randomized pulse sequence with a long dwell time is not suitable for applications requiring high dynamics. This paper introduces a mathematical model of the post-correlation output in a navigation sensor, showing that the aliasing caused by the additional frequency term of a periodic pulsed signal leads to a false lock (i.e., Doppler frequency bias) during the signal acquisition process or in the carrier tracking loop of the navigation sensor. We suggest algorithms to resolve the frequency false lock issue in this paper, relying on the use of a multi-correlator. A flight test with an unmanned helicopter was conducted to verify the implemented navigation sensor. The results of this analysis show that there were no false locks during the flight test and that outliers stem from bad dilution of precision (DOP) or fluctuations in the received signal quality.

  18. High Performance Work Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.P.P.E.F. Boselie (Paul); A. van der Wiele (Ton)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractResearch, summarized and classified in the work of Delery and Doty (1996), Guest (1997), Paauwe and Richardson (1997) and Boselie et al. (2001), suggests significant impact of Human Resources Management (HRM) on the competitive advantage of organizations. The mainstream research on this

  19. Performance Characterization of a Lithium-ion Gel Polymer Battery Power Supply System for an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Concha M.; Manzo, Michelle A.; Logan, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are currently under development for NASA missions, earth sciences, aeronautics, the military, and commercial applications. The design of an all electric power and propulsion system for small UAVs was the focus of a detailed study. Currently, many of these small vehicles are powered by primary (nonrechargeable) lithium-based batteries. While this type of battery is capable of satisfying some of the mission needs, a secondary (rechargeable) battery power supply system that can provide the same functionality as the current system at the same or lower system mass and volume is desired. A study of commercially available secondary battery cell technologies that could provide the desired performance characteristics was performed. Due to the strict mass limitations and wide operating temperature requirements of small UAVs, the only viable cell chemistries were determined to be lithium-ion liquid electrolyte systems and lithium-ion gel polymer electrolyte systems. Two lithium-ion gel polymer cell designs were selected as candidates and were tested using potential load profiles for UAV applications. Because lithium primary batteries have a higher specific energy and energy density, for the same mass and volume allocation, the secondary batteries resulted in shorter flight times than the primary batteries typically provide. When the batteries were operated at lower ambient temperatures (0 to -20 C), flight times were even further reduced. Despite the reduced flight times demonstrated, for certain UAV applications, the secondary batteries operated within the acceptable range of flight times at room temperature and above. The results of this testing indicate that a secondary battery power supply system can provide some benefits over the primary battery power supply system. A UAV can be operated for hundreds of flights using a secondary battery power supply system that provides the combined benefits of rechargeability and an inherently safer

  20. Final Environmental Assessment for the Beddown and Flight Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at Grand Forks Air Force Base, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    southwest border and assisted in 3,065 apprehensions and the seizure of 14,240 pounds of marijuana . Four Predator B UASs now operate out of Sierra Vista...Sustainable design concepts emphasize state-of-the-art strategies for site development, efficient water and energy use and improved indoor environmental...improved indoor environmental quality. EA for the Beddown and Flight Operations of Unmanned Aircraft Systems at GFAFB, North Dakota Final 6-1 August

  1. Airspace Integration Plan for Unmanned Aviation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2004-01-01

    The Office of the Secretary of Defense Airspace Integration Plan for Unmanned Aviation outlines the key issues that must be addressed to achieve the goal of safe, routine use of the National Airspace System (NAS...

  2. Combined Spectral and Spatial Modeling of Corn Yield Based on Aerial Images and Crop Surface Models Acquired with an Unmanned Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Geipel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Precision Farming (PF management strategies are commonly based on estimations of within-field yield potential, often derived from remotely-sensed products, e.g., Vegetation Index (VI maps. These well-established means, however, lack important information, like crop height. Combinations of VI-maps and detailed 3D Crop Surface Models (CSMs enable advanced methods for crop yield prediction. This work utilizes an Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS to capture standard RGB imagery datasets for corn grain yield prediction at three early- to mid-season growth stages. The imagery is processed into simple VI-orthoimages for crop/non-crop classification and 3D CSMs for crop height determination at different spatial resolutions. Three linear regression models are tested on their prediction ability using site-specific (i unclassified mean heights, (ii crop-classified mean heights and (iii a combination of crop-classified mean heights with according crop coverages. The models show determination coefficients \\({R}^{2}\\ of up to 0.74, whereas model (iii performs best with imagery captured at the end of stem elongation and intermediate spatial resolution (0.04m\\(\\cdot\\px\\(^{-1}\\.Following these results, combined spectral and spatial modeling, based on aerial images and CSMs, proves to be a suitable method for mid-season corn yield prediction.

  3. High clearance phenotyping systems for season-long measurement of corn, sorghum and other row crops to complement unmanned aerial vehicle systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Seth C.; Knox, Leighton; Hartley, Brandon; Méndez-Dorado, Mario A.; Richardson, Grant; Thomasson, J. Alex; Shi, Yeyin; Rajan, Nithya; Neely, Haly; Bagavathiannan, Muthukumar; Dong, Xuejun; Rooney, William L.

    2016-05-01

    The next generation of plant breeding progress requires accurately estimating plant growth and development parameters to be made over routine intervals within large field experiments. Hand measurements are laborious and time consuming and the most promising tools under development are sensors carried by ground vehicles or unmanned aerial vehicles, with each specific vehicle having unique limitations. Previously available ground vehicles have primarily been restricted to monitoring shorter crops or early growth in corn and sorghum, since plants taller than a meter could be damaged by a tractor or spray rig passing over them. Here we have designed two and already constructed one of these self-propelled ground vehicles with adjustable heights that can clear mature corn and sorghum without damage (over three meters of clearance), which will work for shorter row crops as well. In addition to regular RGB image capture, sensor suites are incorporated to estimate plant height, vegetation indices, canopy temperature and photosynthetically active solar radiation, all referenced using RTK GPS to individual plots. These ground vehicles will be useful to validate data collected from unmanned aerial vehicles and support hand measurements taken on plots.

  4. Unmanned and Unarmed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Kristian Søby; Pradhan-Blach, Flemming; Schaub Jr, Gary John

    , the American, British, French, and Danish experiences highlight difficulties developing, acquiring, and operating UAVs. The Danish government should consider the tasks that UAVs are best-suited to perform, the costs associated with the entire UAV system, and the operational, doctrinal, and other challenges...... that must be addressed to integrate UAV capabilities into the Danish armed forces. These are not trivial considerations. Larger UAVs are very complex systems with which the Danish armed forces have limited experience, and introducing radically new technology always comes with substantial risks. Should...... Denmark decide to procure larger unmanned systems, such as Reapers or Global Hawks, it should cooperate with Allies to purchase, operate, and integrate these capabilities as smoothly as possible and mitigate these risks. It should also establish a joint unit dedicated to house, train, educate, and operate...

  5. Design of underwater work systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovelace, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    In the near future, underwater vehicles will replace divers as the principal means for inspection and maintenance work. These vehicles will provide a maneuverable work platform for an underwater viewing system and manipulator/tool package. Some of the problems faced by the underwater designer, and some areas to consider in the design of an integrated underwater work system, are considered

  6. Systems biology at work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins Dos Santos, V.A.P.; Damborsky, J.

    2010-01-01

    In his editorial overview for the 2008 Special Issue on this topic, the late Jaroslav Stark pointedly noted that systems biology is no longer a niche pursuit, but a recognized discipline in its own right “noisily” coming of age [1]. Whilst general underlying principles and basic techniques are now

  7. An intelligent control strategy based on ANFIS techniques in order to improve the performance of a low-cost unmanned aerial vehicle vision system

    OpenAIRE

    Marichal, G. N.; Hernández, A.; Olivares Méndez, Miguel Ángel; Acosta, L.; Campoy Cervera, Pascual

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent control approach based on Neuro-Fuzzy systems is presented. A model of a low-cost vision platform for an unmanned aerial system is taken in the study. A simulation platform including this low-cost vision system and the influence of the helicopter vibrations over this system is shown. The intelligent control approach has been inserted in this simulation platform. Several trials taking these Neuro-Fuzzy systems as a fundamental part of the control strategy have bee...

  8. A Photogrammetric Workflow for the Creation of a Forest Canopy Height Model from Small Unmanned Aerial System Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Lejeune

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of operational small unmanned aerial systems (UASs opens the door for their extensive use in forest mapping, as both the spatial and temporal resolution of UAS imagery better suit local-scale investigation than traditional remote sensing tools. This article focuses on the use of combined photogrammetry and “Structure from Motion” approaches in order to model the forest canopy surface from low-altitude aerial images. An original workflow, using the open source and free photogrammetric toolbox, MICMAC (acronym for Multi Image Matches for Auto Correlation Methods, was set up to create a digital canopy surface model of deciduous stands. In combination with a co-registered light detection and ranging (LiDAR digital terrain model, the elevation of vegetation was determined, and the resulting hybrid photo/LiDAR canopy height model was compared to data from a LiDAR canopy height model and from forest inventory data. Linear regressions predicting dominant height and individual height from plot metrics and crown metrics showed that the photogrammetric canopy height model was of good quality for deciduous stands. Although photogrammetric reconstruction significantly smooths the canopy surface, the use of this workflow has the potential to take full advantage of the flexible revisit period of drones in order to refresh the LiDAR canopy height model and to collect dense multitemporal canopy height series.

  9. Measurements of the Temperature Structure-Function Parameters with a Small Unmanned Aerial System Compared with a Sodar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, Timothy A.; Goines, David C.; Scott, Aaron K.; Wainwright, Charlotte E.; Gibbs, Jeremy A.; Chilson, Phillip B.

    2015-06-01

    The structure function is often used to quantify the intensity of spatial inhomogeneities within turbulent flows. Here, the Small Multifunction Research and Teaching Sonde (SMARTSonde), an unmanned aerial system, is used to measure horizontal variations in temperature and to calculate the structure function of temperature at various heights for a range of separation distances. A method for correcting for the advection of turbulence in the calculation of the structure function is discussed. This advection correction improves the data quality, particularly when wind speeds are high. The temperature structure-function parameter can be calculated from the structure function of temperature. Two case studies from which the SMARTSonde was able to take measurements used to derive at several heights during multiple consecutive flights are discussed and compared with sodar measurements, from which is directly related to return power. Profiles of from both the sodar and SMARTSonde from an afternoon case exhibited generally good agreement. However, the profiles agreed poorly for a morning case. The discrepancies are partially attributed to different averaging times for the two instruments in a rapidly evolving environment, and the measurement errors associated with the SMARTSonde sampling within the stable boundary layer.

  10. Harmful Algal Bloom Characterization at Ultra-High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Using Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deon Van der Merwe

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms (HABs degrade water quality and produce toxins. The spatial distribution of HAbs may change rapidly due to variations wind, water currents, and population dynamics. Risk assessments, based on traditional sampling methods, are hampered by the sparseness of water sample data points, and delays between sampling and the availability of results. There is a need for local risk assessment and risk management at the spatial and temporal resolution relevant to local human and animal interactions at specific sites and times. Small, unmanned aircraft systems can gather color-infrared reflectance data at appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions, with full control over data collection timing, and short intervals between data gathering and result availability. Data can be interpreted qualitatively, or by generating a blue normalized difference vegetation index (BNDVI that is correlated with cyanobacterial biomass densities at the water surface, as estimated using a buoyant packed cell volume (BPCV. Correlations between BNDVI and BPCV follow a logarithmic model, with r2-values under field conditions from 0.77 to 0.87. These methods provide valuable information that is complimentary to risk assessment data derived from traditional risk assessment methods, and could help to improve risk management at the local level.

  11. Modern and prospective technologies for weather modification activities: Developing a framework for integrating autonomous unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFelice, T. P.; Axisa, Duncan

    2017-09-01

    This paper builds upon the processes and framework already established for identifying, integrating and testing an unmanned aircraft system (UAS) with sensing technology for use in rainfall enhancement cloud seeding programs to carry out operational activities or to monitor and evaluate seeding operations. We describe the development and assessment methodologies of an autonomous and adaptive UAS platform that utilizes in-situ real time data to sense, target and implement seeding. The development of a UAS platform that utilizes remote and in-situ real-time data to sense, target and implement seeding deployed with a companion UAS ensures optimal, safe, secure, cost-effective seeding operations, and the dataset to quantify the results of seeding. It also sets the path for an innovative, paradigm shifting approach for enhancing precipitation independent of seeding mode. UAS technology is improving and their application in weather modification must be explored to lay the foundation for future implementation. The broader significance lies in evolving improved technology and automating cloud seeding operations that lowers the cloud seeding operational footprint and optimizes their effectiveness and efficiency, while providing the temporal and spatial sensitivities to overcome the predictability or sparseness of environmental parameters needed to identify conditions suitable for seeding, and how such might be implemented. The dataset from the featured approach will contain data from concurrent Eulerian and Lagrangian perspectives over sub-cloud scales that will facilitate the development of cloud seeding decision support tools.

  12. Evaluating remotely sensed plant count accuracy with differing unmanned aircraft system altitudes, physical canopy separations, and ground covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, Josue Nahun; Robbins, James; Saraswat, Dharmendra; She, Ying; Ehsani, Reza

    2017-07-01

    This study evaluated the effect of flight altitude and canopy separation of container-grown Fire Chief™ arborvitae (Thuja occidentalis L.) on counting accuracy. Images were taken at 6, 12, and 22 m above the ground using unmanned aircraft systems. Plants were spaced to achieve three canopy separation treatments: 5 cm between canopy edges, canopy edges touching, and 5 cm of canopy edge overlap. Plants were placed on two different ground covers: black fabric and gravel. A counting algorithm was trained using Feature Analyst®. Total counting error, false positives, and unidentified plants were reported for images analyzed. In general, total counting error was smaller when plants were fully separated. The effect of ground cover on counting accuracy varied with the counting algorithm. Total counting error for plants placed on gravel (-8) was larger than for those on a black fabric (-2), however, false positive counts were similar for black fabric (6) and gravel (6). Nevertheless, output images of plants placed on gravel did not show a negative effect due to the ground cover but was impacted by differences in image spatial resolution.

  13. Analysis of Unmanned Aerial System-Based CIR Images in Forestry—A New Perspective to Monitor Pest Infestation Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Rudolf Karl Lehmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The detection of pest infestation is an important aspect of forest management. In the case of the oak splendour beetle (Agrilus biguttatus infestation, the affected oaks (Quercus sp. show high levels of defoliation and altered canopy reflection signature. These critical features can be identified in high-resolution colour infrared (CIR images of the tree crown and branches level captured by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS. In this study, we used a small UAS equipped with a compact digital camera which has been calibrated and modified to record not only the visual but also the near infrared reflection (NIR of possibly infested oaks. The flight campaigns were realized in August 2013, covering two study sites which are located in a rural area in western Germany. Both locations represent small-scale, privately managed commercial forests in which oaks are economically valuable species. Our workflow includes the CIR/NIR image acquisition, mosaicking, georeferencing and pixel-based image enhancement followed by object-based image classification techniques. A modified Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVImod derived classification was used to distinguish between five vegetation health classes, i.e., infested, healthy or dead branches, other vegetation and canopy gaps. We achieved an overall Kappa Index of Agreement (KIA   of 0.81 and 0.77 for each study site, respectively. This approach offers a low-cost alternative to private forest owners who pursue a sustainable management strategy.

  14. Mathematical model for the technological system of working a thin coal bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isayev, V V

    1979-01-01

    The principle for constructing a mathematical model of working a thin coal bed using the adaptation criterion is examined. Intersecting parameters of the medium and the unit are presented. Based on these parameters, dependences are presented for the adaptation criterion and its maximization. A general mathematical model is presented for the technological system of unmanned extraction of a thin bed D/sub 5/ under conditions of the mine ''Dolinskaya'' of the Karaganda Basin. The work results can be used to plan technological systems for working thin coal beds.

  15. Formation keeping of unmanned ground vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muangmin Kamonwan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling motions of an unmanned ground vehicle becomes more popular in real world practices. Its application is useful for household chores, military services, medical purposes, and industrial revolutions, etc. An analysis of motions by using the Fundamental Equations of Constrained Motion (FECM is one effective tool to determine the motions. Its conceptualization is done in three-step procedure as follows: (I Determining an unconstrained motion (II Assigning constraint equations and (III Computing a constrained motion. The equations of motion obtained are expressed as liner functions of acceleration. Then other kinematical information of the unmanned ground vehicles can be obtained by integration its acceleration. In this work, the FECM is used as a tool to analyze motions of a group of unmanned ground vehicles in various forms. The simulation results show that control forces obtained from the approach can regulate motions of unmanned ground vehicles to maneuver in desired formations.

  16. 76 FR 24957 - Nineteenth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 203: Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-03

    ... Simulation Group Report Safety Workgroup Ad Hoc Activities Update Wednesday, May 18 All Day--Work Group.... ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at RTCA, Inc., Conference Rooms, 1828 L Street, NW., Suite 805... Designated Federal Official (DFO) Update Work Plan Status Work Group Update Overview of Product Team Breakout...

  17. A Mobile System for Measuring Water Surface Velocities Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle and Large-Scale Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. L.

    2015-12-01

    Measurement technologies for velocity of river flow are divided into intrusive and nonintrusive methods. Intrusive method requires infield operations. The measuring process of intrusive methods are time consuming, and likely to cause damages of operator and instrument. Nonintrusive methods require fewer operators and can reduce instrument damages from directly attaching to the flow. Nonintrusive measurements may use radar or image velocimetry to measure the velocities at the surface of water flow. The image velocimetry, such as large scale particle image velocimetry (LSPIV) accesses not only the point velocity but the flow velocities in an area simultaneously. Flow properties of an area hold the promise of providing spatially information of flow fields. This study attempts to construct a mobile system UAV-LSPIV by using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) with LSPIV to measure flows in fields. The mobile system consists of a six-rotor UAV helicopter, a Sony nex5T camera, a gimbal, an image transfer device, a ground station and a remote control device. The activate gimbal helps maintain the camera lens orthogonal to the water surface and reduce the extent of images being distorted. The image transfer device can monitor the captured image instantly. The operator controls the UAV by remote control device through ground station and can achieve the flying data such as flying height and GPS coordinate of UAV. The mobile system was then applied to field experiments. The deviation of velocities measured by UAV-LSPIV of field experiments and handhold Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) is under 8%. The results of the field experiments suggests that the application of UAV-LSPIV can be effectively applied to surface flow studies.

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project: KDP-A for Phase 2 Minimum Operational Performance Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindle, Laurie; Hackenberg, Davis L.

    2016-01-01

    UAS Integration in the NAS Project has: a) Developed Technical Challenges that are crucial to UAS integration, aligned with NASA's Strategic Plan and Thrusts, and support FAA standards development. b) Demonstrated rigorous project management processes through the execution of previous phases. c) Defined Partnership Plans. d) Established path to KDP-C. Request approval of Technical Challenges, execution of partnerships and plans, and execution of near-term FY17 activities. There is an increasing need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to National Security and Defense, Emergency Management, and Science. There is also an emerging need to enable commercial applications such as cargo transport (e.g. FedEx). Unencumbered NAS Access for Civil/Commercial UAS. Provide research findings, utilizing simulation and flight tests, to support the development and validation of DAA and C2 technologies necessary for integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System.

  19. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Minimum Operations Performance Standards End-to-End Verification and Validation (E2-V2) Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatas, Rania W.; Jack, Devin P.; Tsakpinis, Dimitrios; Vincent, Michael J.; Sturdy, James L.; Munoz, Cesar A.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Dutle, Aaron M.; Myer, Robert R.; Dehaven, Anna M.; hide

    2017-01-01

    As Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) make their way to mainstream aviation operations within the National Airspace System (NAS), research efforts are underway to develop a safe and effective environment for their integration into the NAS. Detect and Avoid (DAA) systems are required to account for the lack of "eyes in the sky" due to having no human on-board the aircraft. The current NAS relies on pilot's vigilance and judgement to remain Well Clear (CFR 14 91.113) of other aircraft. RTCA SC-228 has defined DAA Well Clear (DAAWC) to provide a quantified Well Clear volume to allow systems to be designed and measured against. Extended research efforts have been conducted to understand and quantify system requirements needed to support a UAS pilot's ability to remain well clear of other aircraft. The efforts have included developing and testing sensor, algorithm, alerting, and display requirements. More recently, sensor uncertainty and uncertainty mitigation strategies have been evaluated. This paper discusses results and lessons learned from an End-to-End Verification and Validation (E2-V2) simulation study of a DAA system representative of RTCA SC-228's proposed Phase I DAA Minimum Operational Performance Standards (MOPS). NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) was called upon to develop a system that evaluates a specific set of encounters, in a variety of geometries, with end-to-end DAA functionality including the use of sensor and tracker models, a sensor uncertainty mitigation model, DAA algorithmic guidance in both vertical and horizontal maneuvering, and a pilot model which maneuvers the ownship aircraft to remain well clear from intruder aircraft, having received collective input from the previous modules of the system. LaRC developed a functioning batch simulation and added a sensor/tracker model from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) William J. Hughes Technical Center, an in-house developed sensor uncertainty mitigation strategy, and implemented a pilot

  20. An Evaluation of Detect and Avoid (DAA) Displays for Unmanned Aircraft Systems: The Effect of Information Level and Display Location on Pilot Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Lisa; Rorie, R. Conrad; Pack, Jessica S.; Shively, R. Jay; Draper, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    A consortium of government, industry and academia is currently working to establish minimum operational performance standards for Detect and Avoid (DAA) and Control and Communications (C2) systems in order to enable broader integration of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) into the National Airspace System (NAS). One subset of these performance standards will need to address the DAA display requirements that support an acceptable level of pilot performance. From a pilot's perspective, the DAA task is the maintenance of self separation and collision avoidance from other aircraft, utilizing the available information and controls within the Ground Control Station (GCS), including the DAA display. The pilot-in-the-loop DAA task requires the pilot to carry out three major functions: 1) detect a potential threat, 2) determine an appropriate resolution maneuver, and 3) execute that resolution maneuver via the GCS control and navigation interface(s). The purpose of the present study was to examine two main questions with respect to DAA display considerations that could impact pilots' ability to maintain well clear from other aircraft. First, what is the effect of a minimum (or basic) information display compared to an advanced information display on pilot performance? Second, what is the effect of display location on UAS pilot performance? Two levels of information level (basic, advanced) were compared across two levels of display location (standalone, integrated), for a total of four displays. The authors propose an eight-stage pilot-DAA interaction timeline from which several pilot response time metrics can be extracted. These metrics were compared across the four display conditions. The results indicate that the advanced displays had faster overall response times compared to the basic displays, however, there were no significant differences between the standalone and integrated displays. Implications of the findings on understanding pilot performance on the DAA task, the

  1. The potential of unmanned aerial systems for sea turtle research and conservation: a review and future directions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Alan F.; Avens, Larisa; Ballorain, Katia; Bevan, Elizabeth; Broderick, Annette C.; Carthy, Raymond R.; Christianen, Marjolijn J. A.; Duclos, Gwénaël; Heithaus, Michael R.; Johnston, David W.; Mangel, Jeffrey C.; Paladino, Frank V.; Pendoley, Kellie; Reina, Richard D.; Robinson, Nathan J.; Ryan, Robert; Sykora-Bodie, Seth T.; Tilley, Dominic; Varela, Miguel R.; Whitman, Elizabeth R.; Whittock, Paul A.; Wibbels, Thane; Godley, Brendan J.

    2018-01-01

    The use of satellite systems and manned aircraft surveys for remote data collection has been shown to be transformative for sea turtle conservation and research by enabling the collection of data on turtles and their habitats over larger areas than can be achieved by surveys on foot or by boat. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) or drones are increasingly being adopted to gather data, at previously unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions in diverse geographic locations. This easily accessible, low-cost tool is improving existing research methods and enabling novel approaches in marine turtle ecology and conservation. Here we review the diverse ways in which incorporating inexpensive UAVs may reduce costs and field time while improving safety and data quality and quantity over existing methods for studies on turtle nesting, at-sea distribution and behaviour surveys, as well as expanding into new avenues such as surveillance against illegal take. Furthermore, we highlight the impact that high-quality aerial imagery captured by UAVs can have for public outreach and engagement. This technology does not come without challenges. We discuss the potential constraints of these systems within the ethical and legal frameworks which researchers must operate and the difficulties that can result with regard to storage and analysis of large amounts of imagery. We then suggest areas where technological development could further expand the utility of UAVs as data-gathering tools; for example, functioning as downloading nodes for data collected by sensors placed on turtles. Development of methods for the use of UAVs in sea turtle research will serve as case studies for use with other marine and terrestrial taxa.

  2. NASA Activity Update for the 2013 Unmanned Vehicle Systems International (UVSI) Yearbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jeffrey E.

    2013-01-01

    was initiated last year when the Sensor Integrated Environmental Remote Research Aircraft (SIERRA) UAS began surveying faults in California s Surprise Valley. A team of scientists and engineers from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), NASA Ames Research Center, Central Washington University, and Carnegie Mellon University will measure magnetic fields using ground surveys and the SIERRA to map the geophysics below the surface of Surprise Valley. The data collected will be used to generate 3D maps of the geophysical data of the area. The Aeronautics Mission Directorate continues its collaboration with Boeing to conduct UAS flight operations of the X-48C, a modified version of the X-48B originally built by Cranfield Aerospace, United Kingdom. The Aeronautics Mission Directorate utilizes vehicles of this size for a wide variety of research studies. Most of these operations are conducted within restricted airspace. The Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate also sponsors the UAS in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project, which is working in close cooperation with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to address critical challenges associated with routine UAS operations in civil airspace. The project is focused on separation assurance and collision avoidance systems and algorithms, command and control for non-military operations including spectrum allocation requirements, human system interaction issues, and safety and certification topics.

  3. Assembly and Initial Analysis of a Database of the Characteristics of Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    directly (e.g. on their websites or in brochures ) or, in its absence, by Jane’s All the World’s Aircraft: Unmanned [15], as the data it provides is...Proposer Information Pamphlet (PIP) for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Defense Sciences Office (DSO) Nano Air Vehicle (NAV

  4. PUSHBROOM HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING FROM AN UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEM (UAS) – GEOMETRIC PROCESSINGWORKFLOW AND ACCURACY ASSESSMENT

    KAUST Repository

    Turner, D.; Lucieer, A.; McCabe, Matthew; Parkes, Stephen; Clarke, I.

    2017-01-01

    dual frequency Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver, an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and Machine Vision Camera (MVC) were used for attitude and position determination. For the nano-Hyperspec, a navigation grade GNSS system and IMU

  5. Integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into Modern Policing in An Urban Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    45 Admin, “Easy Guide to CCTV Systems Installation and Maintenance ,” Professional, GeekyEdge.com, June 19, 2012, http...www.geekyedge.com/easy-guide-to- cctv -systems- installation-and- maintenance /. 17 combat operations has also ensued.46 For example, they (UAS) have been...Admin. “Easy Guide to CCTV Systems Installation and Maintenance .” GeekyEdge.com. June 19, 2012. http://www.geekyedge.com/easy-guide- to- cctv -systems

  6. Multitemporal Accuracy and Precision Assessment of Unmanned Aerial System Photogrammetry for Slope-Scale Snow Depth Maps in Alpine Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Marc S.; Bühler, Yves; Fromm, Reinhard

    2017-12-01

    Reliable and timely information on the spatio-temporal distribution of snow in alpine terrain plays an important role for a wide range of applications. Unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry is increasingly applied to cost-efficiently map the snow depth at very high resolution with flexible applicability. However, crucial questions regarding quality and repeatability of this technique are still under discussion. Here we present a multitemporal accuracy and precision assessment of UAS photogrammetry for snow depth mapping on the slope-scale. We mapped a 0.12 km2 large snow-covered study site, located in a high-alpine valley in Western Austria. 12 UAS flights were performed to acquire imagery at 0.05 m ground sampling distance in visible (VIS) and near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths with a modified commercial, off-the-shelf sensor mounted on a custom-built fixed-wing UAS. The imagery was processed with structure-from-motion photogrammetry software to generate orthophotos, digital surface models (DSMs) and snow depth maps (SDMs). Accuracy of DSMs and SDMs were assessed with terrestrial laser scanning and manual snow depth probing, respectively. The results show that under good illumination conditions (study site in full sunlight), the DSMs and SDMs were acquired with an accuracy of ≤ 0.25 and ≤ 0.29 m (both at 1σ), respectively. In case of poorly illuminated snow surfaces (study site shadowed), the NIR imagery provided higher accuracy (0.19 m; 0.23 m) than VIS imagery (0.49 m; 0.37 m). The precision of the UASSDMs was 0.04 m for a small, stable area and below 0.33 m for the whole study site (both at 1σ).

  7. Can Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones Be Used for the Routine Transport of Chemistry, Hematology, and Coagulation Laboratory Specimens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy K Amukele

    Full Text Available Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS or drones could potentially be used for the routine transport of small goods such as diagnostic clinical laboratory specimens. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study of the impact of UAS transportation on laboratory tests.Three paired samples were obtained from each one of 56 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event (336 samples total: two tubes each for chemistry, hematology, and coagulation testing respectively. 168 samples were driven to the flight field and held stationary. The other 168 samples were flown in the UAS for a range of times, from 6 to 38 minutes. After the flight, 33 of the most common chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests were performed. Statistical methods as well as performance criteria from four distinct clinical, academic, and regulatory bodies were used to evaluate the results.Results from flown and stationary sample pairs were similar for all 33 analytes. Bias and intercepts were <10% and <13% respectively for all analytes. Bland-Altman comparisons showed a mean difference of 3.2% for Glucose and <1% for other analytes. Only bicarbonate did not meet the strictest (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program performance criteria. This was due to poor precision rather than bias. There were no systematic differences between laboratory-derived (analytic CV's and the CV's of our flown versus terrestrial sample pairs however CV's from the sample pairs tended to be slightly higher than analytic CV's. The overall concordance, based on clinical stratification (normal versus abnormal, was 97%. Length of flight had no impact on the results.Transportation of laboratory specimens via small UASs does not affect the accuracy of routine chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests results from selfsame samples. However it results in slightly poorer precision for some analytes.

  8. Unmanned aerial system nadir reflectance and MODIS nadir BRDF-adjusted surface reflectances intercompared over Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Burkhart

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Albedo is a fundamental parameter in earth sciences, and many analyses utilize the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF/albedo (MCD43 algorithms. While derivative albedo products have been evaluated over Greenland, we present a novel, direct comparison with nadir surface reflectance collected from an unmanned aerial system (UAS. The UAS was flown from Summit, Greenland, on 210 km transects coincident with the MODIS sensor overpass on board the Aqua and Terra satellites on 5 and 6 August 2010. Clear-sky acquisitions were available from the overpasses within 2 h of the UAS flights. The UAS was equipped with upward- and downward-looking spectrometers (300–920 nm with a spectral resolution of 10 nm, allowing for direct integration into the MODIS bands 1, 3, and 4. The data provide a unique opportunity to directly compare UAS nadir reflectance with the MODIS nadir BRDF-adjusted surface reflectance (NBAR products. The data show UAS measurements are slightly higher than the MODIS NBARs for all bands but agree within their stated uncertainties. Differences in variability are observed as expected due to different footprints of the platforms. The UAS data demonstrate potentially large sub-pixel variability of MODIS reflectance products and the potential to explore this variability using the UAS as a platform. It is also found that, even at the low elevations flown typically by a UAS, reflectance measurements may be influenced by haze if present at and/or below the flight altitude of the UAS. This impact could explain some differences between data from the two platforms and should be considered in any use of airborne platforms.

  9. Characterizing sub-arctic peatland vegeation using height estimates from structure from motion and an unmanned aerial system (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; DelGreco, J.; Herrick, C.; Sullivan, F.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    The collapse of permafrost, due to thawing, changes landscape topography, hydrology and vegetation. Changes in plant species composition influence methane production pathways and methane emission rates. The complex spatial heterogeneity of vegetation composition across peatlands proves important in quantifying methane emissions. Effort to characterize vegetation across these permafrost peatlands has been conducted with varied success, with difficulty seen in estimating some cover types that are at opposite ends of the permafrost collapse transition, ie palsa/tall shrub and tall graminoid. This is because some of the species are the same (horsetail) and some of the species have similar structure (horsetail/Carex spp.). High resolution digital elevation maps, developed with airborne LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) have provided insight into some wetland attributes, but lidar collection is costly and requires extensive data processing effort. Lidar information also lacks the spectral information that optical sensors provide. We used an inexpensive Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) with an optical sensor to image a mire in northern Sweden (Stordalen Mire) in 2015. We collected 700 overlapping images that were stitched together using Structure from Motion (SfM). SfM analysis also provided, due to parallax, the ability to develop a height map of vegetation. This height map was used, along with textural analysis, to develop an artificial neural network to predict five vegetation cover types. Using 200 training points, we found improvements in our prediction of these cover types. We suggest that using the digital height model from SfM provides useful information in remotely sensing vegetation across a permafrost collapsing region that exhibit resulting changes in vegetation composition. The ability to rapidly and inexpensively deploy such a UAV system provides the opportunity to examine multiple sites with limited personnel effort in remote areas.

  10. Active AirCore Sampling: Constraining Point Sources of Methane and Other Gases with Fixed Wing Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bent, J. D.; Sweeney, C.; Tans, P. P.; Newberger, T.; Higgs, J. A.; Wolter, S.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate estimates of point source gas emissions are essential for reconciling top-down and bottom-up greenhouse gas measurements, but sampling such sources is challenging. Remote sensing methods are limited by resolution and cloud cover; aircraft methods are limited by air traffic control clearances, and the need to properly determine boundary layer height. A new sampling approach leverages the ability of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) to measure all the way to the surface near the source of emissions, improving sample resolution, and reducing the need to characterize a wide downstream swath, or measure to the full height of the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The "Active-AirCore" sampler, currently under development, will fly on a fixed wing UAS in Class G airspace, spiraling from the surface to 1200 ft AGL around point sources such as leaking oil wells to measure methane, carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. The sampler collects a 100-meter long sample "core" of air in an 1/8" passivated stainless steel tube. This "core" is run on a high-precision instrument shortly after the UAS is recovered. Sample values are mapped to a specific geographic location by cross-referencing GPS and flow/pressure metadata, and fluxes are quantified by applying Gauss's theorem to the data, mapped onto the spatial "cylinder" circumscribed by the UAS. The AirCore-Active builds off the sampling ability and analytical approach of the related AirCore sampler, which profiles the atmosphere passively using a balloon launch platform, but will add an active pumping capability needed for near-surface horizontal sampling applications. Here, we show design elements, laboratory and field test results for methane, describe the overall goals of the mission, and discuss how the platform can be adapted, with minimal effort, to measure other gas species.

  11. Can Unmanned Aerial Systems (Drones) Be Used for the Routine Transport of Chemistry, Hematology, and Coagulation Laboratory Specimens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Sokoll, Lori J; Pepper, Daniel; Howard, Dana P; Street, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS or drones) could potentially be used for the routine transport of small goods such as diagnostic clinical laboratory specimens. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published study of the impact of UAS transportation on laboratory tests. Three paired samples were obtained from each one of 56 adult volunteers in a single phlebotomy event (336 samples total): two tubes each for chemistry, hematology, and coagulation testing respectively. 168 samples were driven to the flight field and held stationary. The other 168 samples were flown in the UAS for a range of times, from 6 to 38 minutes. After the flight, 33 of the most common chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests were performed. Statistical methods as well as performance criteria from four distinct clinical, academic, and regulatory bodies were used to evaluate the results. Results from flown and stationary sample pairs were similar for all 33 analytes. Bias and intercepts were <10% and <13% respectively for all analytes. Bland-Altman comparisons showed a mean difference of 3.2% for Glucose and <1% for other analytes. Only bicarbonate did not meet the strictest (Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia Quality Assurance Program) performance criteria. This was due to poor precision rather than bias. There were no systematic differences between laboratory-derived (analytic) CV's and the CV's of our flown versus terrestrial sample pairs however CV's from the sample pairs tended to be slightly higher than analytic CV's. The overall concordance, based on clinical stratification (normal versus abnormal), was 97%. Length of flight had no impact on the results. Transportation of laboratory specimens via small UASs does not affect the accuracy of routine chemistry, hematology, and coagulation tests results from selfsame samples. However it results in slightly poorer precision for some analytes.

  12. Potential and Limitations of Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial Systems for Monitoring Altitudinal Vegetation Phenology in the Tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T. S. F.; Torres, R. S.; Morellato, P.

    2017-12-01

    Vegetation phenology is a key component of ecosystem function and biogeochemical cycling, and highly susceptible to climatic change. Phenological knowledge in the tropics is limited by lack of monitoring, traditionally done by laborious direct observation. Ground-based digital cameras can automate daily observations, but also offer limited spatial coverage. Imaging by low-cost Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) combines the fine resolution of ground-based methods with and unprecedented capability for spatial coverage, but challenges remain in producing color-consistent multitemporal images. We evaluated the applicability of multitemporal UAS imaging to monitor phenology in tropical altitudinal grasslands and forests, answering: 1) Can very-high resolution aerial photography from conventional digital cameras be used to reliably monitor vegetative and reproductive phenology? 2) How is UAS monitoring affected by changes in illumination and by sensor physical limitations? We flew imaging missions monthly from Feb-16 to Feb-17, using a UAS equipped with an RGB Canon SX260 camera. Flights were carried between 10am and 4pm, at 120-150m a.g.l., yielding 5-10cm spatial resolution. To compensate illumination changes caused by time of day, season and cloud cover, calibration was attempted using reference targets and empirical models, as well as color space transformations. For vegetative phenological monitoring, multitemporal response was severely affected by changes in illumination conditions, strongly confounding the phenological signal. These variations could not be adequately corrected through calibration due to sensor limitations. For reproductive phenology, the very-high resolution of the acquired imagery allowed discrimination of individual reproductive structures for some species, and its stark colorimetric differences to vegetative structures allowed detection of the reproductive timing on the HSV color space, despite illumination effects. We conclude that reliable

  13. Two-Step System Identification and Primitive-Based Motion Planning for Control of Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grymin, David J.

    This dissertation addresses motion planning, modeling, and feedback control for autonomous vehicle systems. A hierarchical approach for motion planning and control of nonlinear systems operating in obstacle environments is presented. To reduce computation time during the motion planning process, dynamically feasible trajectories are generated in real-time through concatenation of pre-specified motion primitives. The motion planning task is posed as a search over a directed graph, and the applicability of informed graph search techniques is investigated. Specifically, a locally greedy algorithm with effective backtracking ability is developed and compared to weighted A* search. The greedy algorithm shows an advantage with respect to solution cost and computation time when larger motion primitive libraries that do not operate on a regular state lattice are utilized. Linearization of the nonlinear system equations about the motion primitive library results in a hybrid linear time-varying model, and an optimal control algorithm using the l 2-induced norm as the performance measure is applied to ensure that the system tracks the desired trajectory. The ability of the resulting controller to closely track the trajectory obtained from the motion planner, despite various disturbances and uncertainties, is demonstrated through simulation. Additionally, an approach for obtaining dynamically feasible reference trajectories and feedback controllers for a small unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) based on an aerodynamic model derived from flight tests is presented. The modeling approach utilizes the two step method (TSM) with stepwise multiple regression to determine relevant explanatory terms for the aerodynamic models. Dynamically feasible trajectories are then obtained through the solution of an optimal control problem using pseudospectral optimal control software. Discretetime feedback controllers are then obtained to regulate the vehicle along the desired reference trajectory

  14. Alternative Work Schedules: Designing Compatible Work Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Pamela L.

    1977-01-01

    Attempts to improve the quality of working life through changes in environmental factors, such as flexible hours, are likely to bring limited and short-term advantages unless the work process itself is well-designed and compatible with the environmental changes. (Author/LBH)

  15. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS): Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Boer, Gijs [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Lawrence, Dale [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Palo, Scott [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Argrow, Brian [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); LoDolce, Gabriel [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Curry, Nathan [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Weibel, Douglas [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Finamore, William [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); D' Amore, Phillip [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Borenstein, Steven [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Nichols, Tevis [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Elston, Jack [Blackswift Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Ivey, Mark [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bendure, Albert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schmid, Beat [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Long, Charles [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Telg, Hagen [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Gao, Ru-Shan [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); Hock, Terry [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Bland, Geoff [NASA Ames Research Center (ARC), Moffett Field, Mountain View, CA (United States)

    2017-03-29

    This final technical report details activities undertaken as part of the referenced project. Included is information on the preparation of aircraft for deployment to Alaska, summaries of the three deployments covered under this project, and a brief description of the dataset and science directions pursued. Additionally, we provide information on lessons learned, publications, and presentations resulting from this work.

  16. A light-weight hyperspectral mapping system for unmanned aerial vehicles - The first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suomalainen, Juha; Anders, Niels; Iqbal, Shahzad; Franke, Jappe; Wenting, Philip; Bartholomeus, Harm; Becker, Rolf; Kooistra, Lammert

    2017-01-01

    Research opportunities using UAV remote sensing techniques are limited by the payload of the platform. Therefore small UAV's are typically not suitable for hyperspectral imaging due to the weight of the mapping system. In this research, we are developing a light-weight hyperspectral mapping system

  17. Defining the Levels of Adjustable Autonomy: A Means of Improving Resilience in an Unmanned Aerial System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    implemented in a system, some level of human-operator involvement will be required in interacting with that system (Glas and Kanda 2012). This is the...September 23–24, 2010. Glas, Dylan F., Takayuki Kanda , Hiroshi Ishiguro, and Norihiro Hagita. 2012. Teleoperation of Multiple Social Robots." IEEE

  18. Design and Evaluation of a Digital Flight Control System for the FROG Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Flood, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    .... This autopilot imposed significant limitations on the responsiveness of the FROG. This project developed and tested an off board digital flight control system for use in lieu of the previous electromechanical device...

  19. Feasibility Study of a Vision-Based Landing System for Unmanned Fixed-Wing Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    similar procedure that closely mirrors the Joint Precision Approach and Landing System (JPALS). JPALS sea -based systems, such as those used on...parameter space via Equation 1.3. co sinsx y    (4.1) 43 This eliminates the possibility of undefined or infinite slopes in the slope...burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instruction, searching

  20. Vulnerability Analysis of the MAVLink Protocol for Command and Control of Unmanned Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    Patton, Nikos Karapanos, Lorenz Meier, Peter Schwabe, Andrew Tridgell, Michael Oborne, Dr. Gareth Owen, and Capt Matthew Vincie, all of whom greatly...Frew and T. Brown . Networking Issues For Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems. In Unmanned Aircraft Systems : International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial

  1. Development project of an automatic sampling system for part time unmanned pipeline terminals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Gullherme O.; De Almelda, Marcio M. G.; Ramos, Ricardo R. [Petrobas, (Brazil); Potten, Gary [Cameron Measurement Systems, (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The Sao Paulo - Brasilia Pipeline (OSBRA) is a highly automated pipeline using a SCADA system which operates from a control room. A new quality management system standard was established for transportation and storage operations. The products had to be sampled on an automatic basis. This paper reports the development of an automatic sampling system (ASS) in accordance with the new quality control standard. The prototype was developed to be implemented through a human-machine interface (HMI) from the control room SCADA screens. A technical cooperation agreement(TCA) was drawn up for development of this new ASS product. The TCA was a joint cooperation between the Holding, the Operator and the cooperators. The prototype will be on-field tested at Senador Canedo tank farm to SPEC requirements. The current performance of the ASS establishes reasonable expectations for further successful development.

  2. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Human-in-the-Loop Controller and Pilot Acceptability Study: Collision Avoidance, Self-Separation, and Alerting Times (CASSAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, James R., Jr.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Vincent, Michael J.; Consiglio, Maria C.; Munoz, Cesar; Chamberlain, James P.; Volk, Paul; Arthur, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been mandated by the Congressional funding bill of 2012 to open the National Airspace System (NAS) to Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS). With the growing use of unmanned systems, NASA has established a multi-center "UAS Integration in the NAS" Project, in collaboration with the FAA and industry, and is guiding its research efforts to look at and examine crucial safety concerns regarding the integration of UAS into the NAS. Key research efforts are addressing requirements for detect-and-avoid (DAA), self-separation (SS), and collision avoidance (CA) technologies. In one of a series of human-in-the-loop experiments, NASA Langley Research Center set up a study known as Collision Avoidance, Self-Separation, and Alerting Times (CASSAT). The first phase assessed active air traffic controller interactions with DAA systems and the second phase examined reactions to the DAA system and displays by UAS Pilots at a simulated ground control station (GCS). Analyses of the test results from Phase I and Phase II are presented in this paper. Results from the CASSAT study and previous human-in-the-loop experiments will play a crucial role in the FAA's establishment of rules, regulations, and procedures to safely, efficiently, and effectively integrate UAS into the NAS.

  3. Integrating dynamic and distributed compressive sensing techniques to enhance image quality of the compressive line sensing system for unmanned aerial vehicles application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Bing; Hou, Weilin; Caimi, Frank M.; Dalgleish, Fraser R.; Vuorenkoski, Anni K.; Gong, Cuiling

    2017-07-01

    The compressive line sensing imaging system adopts distributed compressive sensing (CS) to acquire data and reconstruct images. Dynamic CS uses Bayesian inference to capture the correlated nature of the adjacent lines. An image reconstruction technique that incorporates dynamic CS in the distributed CS framework was developed to improve the quality of reconstructed images. The effectiveness of the technique was validated using experimental data acquired in an underwater imaging test facility. Results that demonstrate contrast and resolution improvements will be presented. The improved efficiency is desirable for unmanned aerial vehicles conducting long-duration missions.

  4. The effect of control and display lag on unmanned air system internal pilot manual landing performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Marshall Everett

    An important characteristic of UASs is lag because it can become a considerable challenge to successful human-in-the-loop control. As such, UASs are designed and configured to minimize system lag, though this can increase acquisition and operation costs considerably. In an effort to cut costs, an organization may choose to accept greater risk and deploy a UAS with high system lag. Before this risk can be responsibly accepted, it must be quantified. While many studies have examined system lag, very few have been able to quantify the risk that various levels of lag pose to an internally piloted, manually landed UAS. This study attempted to do so by evaluating pilot landing performance in a simulator with 0 ms, 240 ms, and 1000 ms of additional lag. Various measures were used, including a novel coding technique. Results indicated that 1000 ms of lag was unsafe by all measures. They also indicate that 240 ms of lag degrades performance, but participants were able to successfully land the simulated aircraft. This study showed the utility of using several measures to evaluate the effect of lag on landing performance and it helped demonstrate that while 1000 ms poses a high risk, 240 ms of lag may be a much more manageable risk. Future research suggested by this research includes: investigating lag between 240 ms and 1000 ms, introducing different weather phenomena, developing system lag training techniques for operators, and investigating the effect of aides such as predictive displays and autopilot-assisted recovery.

  5. Unmanned Aircraft Systems Traffic Management (UTM): Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homola, Jeffrey; Owens, Brandon

    2017-01-01

    This is a presentation for a Cisco Internet of Things (IoT) Systems Engineering Virtual Training (SEVT) event. The presentation provides an overview of the UTM concept, architecture, flight test events, and lessons learned. Networking hardware used in support of flight tests is also described.

  6. Hardening Unmanned Aerial Systems Against High Power Microwave Threats in Support of Forward Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    energy (DE) weapons, HPM are not attenuated greatly by atmospheric obstacles such as clouds , rain and fog. While currently expensive to develop...distributed basing in Japan’s Ryuku Islands as part of a mission package to suppress and destroy the PRC’s batteries of HQ -9A surface-to-air missile systems

  7. User Guide for Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) Operations on the National Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-01

    WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION, PT. MUGU NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER WEAPONS DIVISION, CHINA LAKE NAVAL AIR WARFARE CENTER AIRCRAFT DIVISION, PATUXENT...with IFR Instrument Flight Rules MRTFB Major Range and Test Facility Base NAS National Airspace System NM nautical mile NTIA National...sectional charts, Instrument Flight Rules ( IFR ) enroute charts, and terminal area charts. The floor and ceiling, operating hours, and controlling

  8. Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles into Surveillance Systems in Complex Maritime Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Barcelona Initiative was launched with these objectives in mind and is now a central element of the EU-Mediterranean Policy. Furthermore, the Hellenic Navy...OTOBREDA 40mm/70 2 RHEIMENTALL 20mm 1 STINGER Devices/Systems LIROD MK 2 / TV CAMERA ( FC ) MIRADOR TVT-IRT Camera, Laser Firing Mode VARIANT Air

  9. Towards an Autonomous Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System against Wildlife Poachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Olivares-Mendez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Poaching is an illegal activity that remains out of control in many countries. Based on the 2014 report of the United Nations and Interpol, the illegal trade of global wildlife and natural resources amounts to nearly $ 213 billion every year, which is even helping to fund armed conflicts. Poaching activities around the world are further pushing many animal species on the brink of extinction. Unfortunately, the traditional methods to fight against poachers are not enough, hence the new demands for more efficient approaches. In this context, the use of new technologies on sensors and algorithms, as well as aerial platforms is crucial to face the high increase of poaching activities in the last few years. Our work is focused on the use of vision sensors on UAVs for the detection and tracking of animals and poachers, as well as the use of such sensors to control quadrotors during autonomous vehicle following and autonomous landing.

  10. Towards an Autonomous Vision-Based Unmanned Aerial System against Wildlife Poachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Mendez, Miguel A.; Fu, Changhong; Ludivig, Philippe; Bissyandé, Tegawendé F.; Kannan, Somasundar; Zurad, Maciej; Annaiyan, Arun; Voos, Holger; Campoy, Pascual

    2015-01-01

    Poaching is an illegal activity that remains out of control in many countries. Based on the 2014 report of the United Nations and Interpol, the illegal trade of global wildlife and natural resources amounts to nearly $213 billion every year, which is even helping to fund armed conflicts. Poaching activities around the world are further pushing many animal species on the brink of extinction. Unfortunately, the traditional methods to fight against poachers are not enough, hence the new demands for more efficient approaches. In this context, the use of new technologies on sensors and algorithms, as well as aerial platforms is crucial to face the high increase of poaching activities in the last few years. Our work is focused on the use of vision sensors on UAVs for the detection and tracking of animals and poachers, as well as the use of such sensors to control quadrotors during autonomous vehicle following and autonomous landing. PMID:26703597

  11. Micro Autonomous Systems and Technology: A Methodology for Quantitative Technology Assessment and Prototyping of Unmanned Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Sensors: LIDAR , Camera, SONAR) is qualitatively or quantitatively ranked against the other options in such categories as weight and power consumption...Mapping ( SLAM ) and A*. The second software change in progress is upgrading from Unreal 2004 to is a bridge between an external program that defines a...current simulation setup, a simulated quad-copter with an Inertial Navigation System (INS) and ranging LIDAR sensor spawns within an environment and

  12. MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Range Finder /Laser Designator, Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator, communications relay, and Hellfire Missiles. Ground equipment...equipment strength . Each Gray Eagle company will consist of 125 soldiers within the Divisional CAB and the NTC. Each unit will have three identical...will bring these companies to full Gray Eagle System equipment strength . Each Gray Eagle company will consist of 125 soldiers within the divisional

  13. HOW THE MILITARY CAN INTEGRATE UNMANNED AERIAL SYSTEMS IN THE CIVIL RESERVE AIR FLEET

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    park preservation, agriculture, and precision mapping.4 Online shopping giant Amazon began researching UAS options for package delivery in 2013 and...stationary position, tethered to the ground while providing surveillance and environmental data. The CBP Tethered Aerostat Radar System (TARS) enables...readiness, and have equipment issued for deployment scenarios.84 Despite concerns of heavy involvement in contingencies and the risk of unlawful combatant

  14. Systems Engineering Approach to Develop Guidance, Navigation and Control Algorithms for Unmanned Ground Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Global Positioning System HNA hybrid navigation algorithm HRI human-robot interface IED Improvised Explosive Device IMU inertial measurement unit...Potential Field Method R&D research and development RDT&E Research, development, test and evaluation RF radiofrequency RGB red, green and blue ROE...were radiofrequency (RF) controlled and pneumatically actuated upon receiving the wireless commands from the radio operator. The pairing of such an

  15. Systems engineering and integration of control centers in support of multiple programs. [ground control for STS payloads and unmanned vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.

    1989-01-01

    The NASA Johnson Space Center's new Multiprogram Control Center (MPCC) addresses the control requirements of complex STS payloads as well as unmanned vehicles. An account is given of the relationship of the MPCC to the STS Mission Control Center, with a view to significant difficulties that may be encountered and solutions thus far devised for generic problems. Examples of MPCC workstation applications encompass telemetry decommutation, engineering unit conversion, data-base management, trajectory processing, and flight design.

  16. Small Tactical Unmanned Aerial System (STUAS) Rapid Integration and Fielding Process (RAIN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    standard operating mode in each context 4 N/A • Standard maintenance modes of the system 5 NIA • Standard resupply modes of the ~ stem 6 Lack of, or...34~~utroc j 851,3 % ~ .... ~QbliiC(t~OI’Ihl\\ol"’QQ’- :ll ~rANtt (£ Mt6:M 0 ltl~ ::J lt.dQ....,.It ~Oeti~ Cll «t)(.f.xi~ .!_!!:t ~e 4 ~ Sla6slks ~ - «n...ShcMIN~QbtiiC(t~OI’I--hotqr- ~ IrANI’\\ {Z Mt6:M 0 ltt~ .:J ltdQ....,.It ~Oeti~ Cll «t)(.f.xi~ !.J!! ~e t It! Slrisks .!.......!:. - C<nu< 319

  17. Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace System (NAS) Project - Systems Integration and Operationalization (SIO) Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swieringa, Kurt

    2018-01-01

    The UAS-NAS Project hosted a Systems Integration Operationalization (SIO) Industry Day for the SIO Request for Information (RFI) on November 30, 2017 in San Diego, California. This presentation is being presented to the same group as a follow up regarding the progress that the UAS-NAS project has made on the SIO RFI. The presentation will be virtual with a teleconference

  18. Detection of morphological changes in cliff face surrounding a waterfall using terrestrial laser scanning and unmanned aerial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki

    2015-04-01

    Waterfall or bedrock knickpoint appears as an erosional front in bedrock rivers forming deep v-shaped valley downstream. Following the rapid fluvial erosion of waterfall, rockfalls and gravita-tional collapses often occur in surrounding steep cliffs. Although morphological changes of such steep cliffs are sometimes visually observed, quantitative and precise measurements of their spatio-temporal distribution have been limited due to the difficulties in direct access to such cliffs if with classical measurement methods. However, for the clarification of geomorphological processes oc-curring in the cliffs, multi-temporal mapping of the cliff face at a high resolution is necessary. Re-mote sensing approaches are therefore suitable for the topographic measurements and detection of changes in such inaccessible cliffs. To achieve accurate topographic mapping of cliffs around a wa-terfall, here we perform multi-temporal terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry based on unmanned aerial system (UAS). The study site is Kegon Falls in central Japan, having a vertical drop of surface water from top of its overhanging cliff, as well as groundwater outflows from its lower portions. The bedrock is composed of alternate layers of andesite lava and conglomerates. Minor rockfalls in the cliffs are often ob-served by local people. The latest major rockfall occurred in 1986, causing ca. 8-m upstream propa-gation of the waterfall lip. This provides a good opportunity to examine the changes in the surround-ing cliffs following the waterfall recession. Multi-time point clouds were obtained by TLS measure-ment over years, and the three-dimensional changes of the rock surface were detected, uncovering the locus of small rockfalls and gully developments. Erosion seems particularly frequent in relatively weak the conglomerates layer, whereas small rockfalls seems to have occurred in the andesite layers. Also, shadows in the

  19. Breeding for Increased Water Use Efficiency in Corn (Maize) Using a Low-altitude Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Y.; Veeranampalayam-Sivakumar, A. N.; Li, J.; Ge, Y.; Schnable, J. C.; Rodriguez, O.; Liang, Z.; Miao, C.

    2017-12-01

    Low-altitude aerial imagery collected by unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) at centimeter-level spatial resolution provides great potential to collect high throughput plant phenotyping (HTP) data and accelerate plant breeding. This study is focused on UAS-based HTP for breeding increased water use efficiency in corn in eastern Nebraska. The field trail is part of an effort by the Genomes to Fields consortium effort to grow and phenotype many of the same corn (maize) hybrids at approximately 40 locations across the United States and Canada in order to stimulate new research in crop modeling, the development of new plant phenotyping technologies and the identification of genetic loci that control the adaptation of specific corn (maize) lines to specific environments. It included approximately 250 maize hybrids primary generated using recently off patent material from major seed companies. These lines are the closest material to what farmers are growing today which can be legally used for research purposes and genotyped by the public sector. During the growing season, a hexacopter equipped with a multispectral and a RGB cameras was flown and used to image this 1-hectare field trial near Mead, NE. Sensor data from the UAS were correlated directly with grain yield, measured at the end of the growing season, and were also be used to quantify other traits of interest to breeders including flowering date, plant height, leaf orientation, canopy spectral, and stand count. The existing challenges of field data acquisition (to ensure data quality) and development of effective image processing algorithms (such as detecting corn tassels) will be discussed. The success of this study and others like it will speed up the process of phenotypic data collection, and provide more accurate and detailed trait data for plant biologists, plant breeders, and other agricultural scientists. Employing advanced UAS-based machine vision technologies in agricultural applications have the potential

  20. Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)-based phenotyping of soybean using multi-sensor data fusion and extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimaitijiang, Maitiniyazi; Ghulam, Abduwasit; Sidike, Paheding; Hartling, Sean; Maimaitiyiming, Matthew; Peterson, Kyle; Shavers, Ethan; Fishman, Jack; Peterson, Jim; Kadam, Suhas; Burken, Joel; Fritschi, Felix

    2017-12-01

    Estimating crop biophysical and biochemical parameters with high accuracy at low-cost is imperative for high-throughput phenotyping in precision agriculture. Although fusion of data from multiple sensors is a common application in remote sensing, less is known on the contribution of low-cost RGB, multispectral and thermal sensors to rapid crop phenotyping. This is due to the fact that (1) simultaneous collection of multi-sensor data using satellites are rare and (2) multi-sensor data collected during a single flight have not been accessible until recent developments in Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs) and UAS-friendly sensors that allow efficient information fusion. The objective of this study was to evaluate the power of high spatial resolution RGB, multispectral and thermal data fusion to estimate soybean (Glycine max) biochemical parameters including chlorophyll content and nitrogen concentration, and biophysical parameters including Leaf Area Index (LAI), above ground fresh and dry biomass. Multiple low-cost sensors integrated on UASs were used to collect RGB, multispectral, and thermal images throughout the growing season at a site established near Columbia, Missouri, USA. From these images, vegetation indices were extracted, a Crop Surface Model (CSM) was advanced, and a model to extract the vegetation fraction was developed. Then, spectral indices/features were combined to model and predict crop biophysical and biochemical parameters using Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR), Support Vector Regression (SVR), and Extreme Learning Machine based Regression (ELR) techniques. Results showed that: (1) For biochemical variable estimation, multispectral and thermal data fusion provided the best estimate for nitrogen concentration and chlorophyll (Chl) a content (RMSE of 9.9% and 17.1%, respectively) and RGB color information based indices and multispectral data fusion exhibited the largest RMSE 22.6%; the highest accuracy for Chl a + b content estimation was

  1. Autonomous vertical autorotation for unmanned helicopters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalamagkidis, Konstantinos

    Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are considered the stepping stone for the integration of civil unmanned vehicles in the National Airspace System (NAS) because of their low cost and risk. Such systems are aimed at a variety of applications including search and rescue, surveillance, communications, traffic monitoring and inspection of buildings, power lines and bridges. Amidst these systems, small helicopters play an important role because of their capability to hold a position, to maneuver in tight spaces and to take off and land from virtually anywhere. Nevertheless civil adoption of such systems is minimal, mostly because of regulatory problems that in turn are due to safety concerns. This dissertation examines the risk to safety imposed by UAS in general and small helicopters in particular, focusing on accidents resulting in a ground impact. To improve the performance of small helicopters in this area, the use of autonomous autorotation is proposed. This research goes beyond previous work in the area of autonomous autorotation by developing an on-line, model-based, real-time controller that is capable of handling constraints and different cost functions. The approach selected is based on a non-linear model-predictive controller, that is augmented by a neural network to improve the speed of the non-linear optimization. The immediate benefit of this controller is that a class of failures that would otherwise result in an uncontrolled crash and possible injuries or fatalities can now be accommodated. Furthermore besides simply landing the helicopter, the controller is also capable of minimizing the risk of serious injury to people in the area. This is accomplished by minimizing the kinetic energy during the last phase of the descent. The presented research is designed to benefit the entire UAS community as well as the public, by allowing for safer UAS operations, which in turn also allow faster and less expensive integration of UAS in the NAS.

  2. Age-differentiated work systems

    CERN Document Server

    Frieling, Ekkehart; Wegge, Jürgen

    2013-01-01

    The disproportionate aging of the population of working age in many nations around the world is a unique occurrence in the history of humankind. In the light of demographic change, it is becoming increasingly important to develop and use the potential of older employees. This edited volume Age-differentiated Work Systems provides a final report on a six-year priority program funded by the German Research Foundation (DFG) and presents selected research findings of 17 interdisciplinary project teams. The idea is that it will serve both as a reference book and overview of the current state of research in ergonomics, occupational psychology and related disciplines. It provides new models, methods, and procedures for analyzing and designing age-differentiated work systems with the aim of supporting subject matter experts from different areas in their decisions on labor and employment policies. Therefore over 40 laboratory experiments involving 2,000 participants and 50 field studies involving over 25,000 employees...

  3. Communication, Work Systems and HRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, R. Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to show the foundational place that communication theory and its practice occupies in functioning work systems. Design/methodology/approach: This paper defines the word communication in terms of the creation and interpretation of displays, describes what it means to have a theoretical foundation for a…

  4. TWRS Systems Engineering Working Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiholzer, C.R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this Systems Engineering (SE) Working Plan (SEWP) is to describe how the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) will implement the SE polity and guidance provided in the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Systems Engineering Management Plan (SEMP). Sections 2.0 through 4.0 cover how the SE process and management will be performed to develop a technical baseline within TWRS. Section 5.0 covers the plans and schedules to implement the SE process and management within TWRS. Detailed information contained in the TWRS Program SEMP is not repeated in this document. This SEWP and the SE discipline defined within apply to the TWRS Program and new and ongoing TWRS projects or activities, including new facilities and safety. The SE process will be applied to the existing Tank Farm operations where the Richland TWRS Program Office management determines the process appropriate and where value will be added to existing Tank Farm system and operations

  5. Cooperative path planning of unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Tsourdos, Antonios; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2010-01-01

    An invaluable addition to the literature on UAV guidance and cooperative control, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is a dedicated, practical guide to computational path planning for UAVs. One of the key issues facing future development of UAVs is path planning: it is vital that swarm UAVs/ MAVs can cooperate together in a coordinated manner, obeying a pre-planned course but able to react to their environment by communicating and cooperating. An optimized path is necessary in order to ensure a UAV completes its mission efficiently, safely, and successfully. Focussing on the path planning of multiple UAVs for simultaneous arrival on target, Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles also offers coverage of path planners that are applicable to land, sea, or space-borne vehicles. Cooperative Path Planning of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles is authored by leading researchers from Cranfield University and provides an authoritative resource for researchers, academics and engineers working in...

  6. SIERRA-Flux: Measuring Regional Surface Fluxes of Carbon Dioxide, Methane, and Water Vapor from an Unmanned Aircraft System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fladeland; Yates, Emma Louise; Bui, Thaopaul Van; Dean-Day, Jonathan; Kolyer, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The Eddy-Covariance Method for quantifying surface-atmosphere fluxes is a foundational technique for measuring net ecosystem exchange and validating regional-to-global carbon cycle models. While towers or ships are the most frequent platform for measuring surface-atmosphere exchange, experiments using aircraft for flux measurements have yielded contributions to several large-scale studies including BOREAS, SMACEX, RECAB by providing local-to-regional coverage beyond towers. The low-altitude flight requirements make airborne flux measurements particularly dangerous and well suited for unmanned aircraft.

  7. Development of collaborative system of multicopter and Unmanned-Ground-Vehicle for exploration of the high altitude area in the building. Foldable-Arm-Multicopter and Tethered-Landing-System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiribayashi, Seiga; Nagatani, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Since the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station in 2011, the robots for exploring the power station buildings have been working and developing. Each floor of the building has a high ceiling, and it is important to check the pipes near the ceiling. However, the existing robots used for exploring high places in the building have lift mechanisms attached to them and cannot climb stairs because of their heavy weight and little traveling performance. In this paper, we propose a system for exploring a high place of the upper floor by using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), especially multicopters and UGVs as substitutes for the lift-type robots. In the power station building, robots go through passageways to explore, so the size of the robots is defined by the width of the passageway. On the other hand, the multicopter is more efficient and can carry heavier payload when it uses large propellers. Therefore, we have developed a multicopter whose arm can fold when on the UGV to decrease the width of the robot and automatically extend when it flies. Furthermore, we have developed a tether-winding helipad to land the multicopter automatically with high accuracy. Finally, we have tested and confirmed the availability of the proposed system with the UGV. (author)

  8. L1 Adaptive Manoeuvring Control of Unmanned High-speed Water Craft

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Casper H.; Holck, Niels Ole; Galeazzi, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    This work addresses the issue of designing an adaptive robust control system to govern the steering of a high speed unmanned personal watercraft (PWC) maintaining equal performance across the craft’s envelope of operation. The maneuvering dynamics of a high speed PWC is presented and a strong var......-of-freedom surge-sway-yaw-roll model. An L1 adaptive autopilot is then designed, which allows to achieve fast adaption to system parameters’ changes and robustness of the closed loop system....

  9. The control of a parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system for a small unmanned aerial vehicle using a CMAC neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Frederick G; Frank, Andrew A; Joshi, Sanjay S

    2005-01-01

    A Simulink model, a propulsion energy optimization algorithm, and a CMAC controller were developed for a small parallel hybrid-electric unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The hybrid-electric UAV is intended for military, homeland security, and disaster-monitoring missions involving intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). The Simulink model is a forward-facing simulation program used to test different control strategies. The flexible energy optimization algorithm for the propulsion system allows relative importance to be assigned between the use of gasoline, electricity, and recharging. A cerebellar model arithmetic computer (CMAC) neural network approximates the energy optimization results and is used to control the parallel hybrid-electric propulsion system. The hybrid-electric UAV with the CMAC controller uses 67.3% less energy than a two-stroke gasoline-powered UAV during a 1-h ISR mission and 37.8% less energy during a longer 3-h ISR mission.

  10. Flight Test Evaluation of an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) Concept for Multiple Beyond-Visual-Line-of-Sight (BVLOS) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    Many applications of small Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) have been envisioned. These include surveillance of key assets such as pipelines, rail, or electric wires, deliveries, search and rescue, traffic monitoring, videography, and precision agriculture. These operations are likely to occur in the same airspace in the presence of many static and dynamic constraints such as airports, and high wind areas. Therefore, operations of small UAS need to be managed to ensure safety and operation efficiency is maintained. NASA has advanced a concept for UAS Traffic Management (UTM) and has initiated a research effort to refine that concept and develop operational and system requirements. A UTM research platform is in development and flight test activities to evaluate core functions and key assumptions focusing exclusively on UAS operations in different environments are underway. This seminar will present lessons learned from a recent flight test focused on enabling operations of multiple UAS in lower-risk environments within and beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS).

  11. Flight Test Evaluation of an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) Concept for Multiple Beyond-Visual-Line-of-Sight (BVLOS) Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.

  12. Flight Test Evaluation of an Unmanned Aircraft System Traffic Management (UTM) Concept for Multiple Beyond-Visual-Line-of-Sight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marcus; Jung, Jaewoo; Rios, Joseph; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Prevot, Thomas; Mulfinger, Daniel; Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates a traffic management concept designed to enable simultaneous operations of multiple small unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) in the national airspace system (NAS). A five-day flight-test activity is described that examined the feasibility of operating multiple UAS beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS) of their respective operators in the same airspace. Over the five-day campaign, three groups of five flight crews operated a total of eleven different aircraft. Each group participated in four flight scenarios involving five simultaneous missions. Each vehicle was operated BVLOS up to 1.5 miles from the pilot in command. Findings and recommendations are presented to support the feasibility and safety of routine BVLOS operations for small UAS.

  13. Remote sensing and actuation using unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Chao, Haiyang

    2012-01-01

    Unmanned systems and robotics technologies have become very popular recently owing to their ability to replace human beings in dangerous, tedious, or repetitious jobs. This book fill the gap in the field between research and real-world applications, providing scientists and engineers with essential information on how to design and employ networked unmanned vehicles for remote sensing and distributed control purposes. Target scenarios include environmental or agricultural applications such as river/reservoir surveillance, wind profiling measurement, and monitoring/control of chemical leaks.

  14. Mapping of invasive Acacia species in Brazilian Mussununga ecosystems using high- resolution IR remote sensing data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jan Rudolf Karl; Zvara, Ondrej; Prinz, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The biological invasion of Australian Acacia species in natural ecosystems outside Australia has often a negative impact on native and endemic plant species and the related biodiversity. In Brazil, the Atlantic rainforest of Bahia and Espirito Santo forms an associated type of ecosystem, the Mussununga. In our days this biologically diverse ecosystem is negatively affected by the invasion of Acacia mangium and Acacia auriculiformis, both introduced to Brazil by the agroforestry to increase the production of pulp and high grade woods. In order to detect the distribution of Acacia species and to monitor the expansion of this invasion the use of high-resolution imagery data acquired with an autonomous Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) proved to be a very promising approach. In this study, two types of datasets - CIR and RGB - were collected since both types provide different information. In case of CIR imagery attention was paid on spectral signatures related to plants, whereas in case of RGB imagery the focus was on surface characteristics. Orthophoto-mosaics and DSM/DTM for both dataset were extracted. RGB/IHS transformations of the imagery's colour space were utilized, as well as NDVIblue index in case of CIR imagery to discriminate plant associations. Next, two test areas were defined in order validate OBIA rule sets using eCognition software. In case of RGB dataset, a rule set based on elevation distinction between high vegetation (including Acacia) and low vegetation (including soils) was developed. High vegetation was classified using Nearest Neighbour algorithm while working with the CIR dataset. The IHS information was used to mask shadows, soils and low vegetation. Further Nearest Neighbour classification was used for distinction between Acacia and other high vegetation types. Finally an accuracy assessment was performed using a confusion matrix. One can state that the IHS information appeared to be helpful in Acacia detection while the surface elevation

  15. Small Unmanned Aircraft Systems Integration into the National Airspace System Visual-Line-of-Sight Human-in-the-Loop Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Ghatas, Rania W.; Mcadaragh, Raymon; Burdette, Daniel W.; Comstock, James R.; Hempley, Lucas E.; Fan, Hui

    2015-01-01

    As part of the Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) in the National Airspace System (NAS) project, research on integrating small UAS (sUAS) into the NAS was underway by a human-systems integration (HSI) team at the NASA Langley Research Center. Minimal to no research has been conducted on the safe, effective, and efficient manner in which to integrate these aircraft into the NAS. sUAS are defined as aircraft weighing 55 pounds or less. The objective of this human system integration team was to build a UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) and to develop a research test-bed and database that provides data, proof of concept, and human factors guidelines for GCS operations in the NAS. The objectives of this experiment were to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of flying sUAS in Class D and Class G airspace utilizing manual control inputs and voice radio communications between the pilot, mission control, and air traffic control. The design of the experiment included three sets of GCS display configurations, in addition to a hand-held control unit. The three different display configurations were VLOS, VLOS + Primary Flight Display (PFD), and VLOS + PFD + Moving Map (Map). Test subject pilots had better situation awareness of their vehicle position, altitude, airspeed, location over the ground, and mission track using the Map display configuration. This configuration allowed the pilots to complete the mission objectives with less workload, at the expense of having better situation awareness of other aircraft. The subjects were better able to see other aircraft when using the VLOS display configuration. However, their mission performance, as well as their ability to aviate and navigate, was reduced compared to runs that included the PFD and Map displays.

  16. In situ Volcanic Plume Monitoring with small Unmanned Aerial Systems for Cal/Val of Satellite Remote Sensing Data: CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, J. A.; Pieri, D. C.; Bland, G.; Fladeland, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    The development of small unmanned aerial systems (sUAS) with a variety of sensor packages, enables in situ and proximal remote sensing measurements of volcanic plumes. Using Costa Rican volcanoes as a Natural Laboratory, the University of Costa Rica as host institution, in collaboration with four NASA centers, have started an initiative to develop low-cost, field-deployable airborne platforms to perform volcanic gas & ash plume research, and in-situ volcanic monitoring in general, in conjunction with orbital assets and state-of-the-art models of plume transport and composition. Several gas sensors have been deployed into the active plume of Turrialba Volcano including a miniature mass spectrometer, and an electrochemical SO2 sensor system with temperature, pressure, relative humidity, and GPS sensors. Several different airborne platforms such as manned research aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, tethered balloons, as well as man-portable in-situ ground truth systems are being used for this research. Remote sensing data is also collected from the ASTER and OMI spaceborne instruments and compared with in situ data. The CARTA-UAV 2013 Mission deployment and follow up measurements successfully demonstrated a path to study and visualize gaseous volcanic emissions using mass spectrometer and gas sensor based instrumentation in harsh environment conditions to correlate in situ ground/airborne data with remote sensing satellite data for calibration and validation purposes. The deployment of such technology improves on our current capabilities to detect, analyze, monitor, model, and predict hazards presented to aircraft by volcanogenic ash clouds from active and impending volcanic eruptions.

  17. Autonomous, Safe Take-Off and Landing Operations for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have the potential to significantly impact modern society. While the technology for unmanned air vehicles operating day in and day out...

  18. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) Photogrammetry Produces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marinus Boon

    Department of Geography, Environmental Management and Energy Studies, University of ... The technique also only requires a few control measurements and the ... The number of Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) referenced in the 2013 ... model aircraft airfield east of the R25 road, just south of the M6 intersection, up until ...

  19. It's done... or the unmanned operation in hydro power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudy, M.

    2009-01-01

    Looking back at the two years of activities performed while launching the individual Hydro Power Plants (HPP) of the Slovenske elektrarne, a.s. into the unmanned operation, there was 'quantum' of work done during the implementation of each new HPP in the area of group output regulation, substation management, failure and alarm record and evaluation system, technological and information service. It is a good feeling to see the results of the work - when it works. Someone could say that we just test the project at one HPP and the others just get implemented. The fact that the HPPs differ from each other brings its specifics, which needed to be handled individually in the SW or HW area, or in terms of communication. We should definitely mention the enthusiasm and helpfulness of the employees even at the cost of their free time spent in launching the power plants into unmanned operation. The reward for the hours spent dealing with the technical issues and revealing the shortcomings in the whole operation management process is today in the greater possibilities of gaining an overviews of the events in the operation of each HPP or TG generation unit. However, our hands are little less free to perform interventions in the control systems - time for the maintenance - necessary planning of the outages - coordination within the operation preparation. (author)

  20. Autonomous Agricultural Application using Unmanned Aircraft, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Interest in Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) for civilian use has increased greatly in recent years and is expected to grow significantly in the future. NASA is...

  1. Information Exchange Architecture for Integrating Unmanned Vehicles into Maritime Missions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woolsey, Aaron

    2004-01-01

    .... The focus of this study is to analyze the structure of information flow for unmanned systems and suggest an exchange architecture to successfully inform and build decision maker understanding based...

  2. An Autonomous Robotic System for Mapping Weeds in Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karl Damkjær; Garcia Ruiz, Francisco Jose; Kazmi, Wajahat

    2013-01-01

    The ASETA project develops theory and methods for robotic agricultural systems. In ASETA, unmanned aircraft and unmanned ground vehicles are used to automate the task of identifying and removing weeds in sugar beet fields. The framework for a working automatic robotic weeding system is presented...

  3. Meeting of Experts on NASA's Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Integration in the National Airspace Systems (NAS) Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Jean; Bauer, Jeff; Bixby, C.J.; Lauderdale, Todd; Shively, Jay; Griner, James; Hayhurst, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Topics discussed include: Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate Integrated Systems Research Program (ISRP) and UAS Integration in the NAS Project; UAS Integration into the NAS Project; Separation Assurance and Collision Avoidance; Pilot Aircraft Interface Objectives/Rationale; Communication; Certification; and Integrated Tests and Evaluations.

  4. Research on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Composite powered Unmanned Airship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Wang, Yun; Wang, Lu; Ma, Chengyu; Xia, Jun

    2017-10-01

    The main structure of the composite powered unmanned airship is consists of airbags and four-rotor system, which airbag increases the available lift, and has more advantages in terms of load and flight when compared with the traditional four-rotor. In order to compare the aerodynamic performance of the composite powered unmanned airship and the traditional four-rotor, the SIMPLE algorithm and the RNG k-epsilon model method are be used. The energy consumption of the composite powered unmanned airship is lesser than the traditional four-rotor under the same load and range was found.

  5. First Results of a Tandem Terrestrial-Unmanned Aerial mapKITE System with Kinematic Ground Control Points for Corridor Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere Molina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we report about the first results of the mapKITE system, a tandem terrestrial-aerial concept for geodata acquisition and processing, obtained in corridor mapping missions. The system combines an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS and a Terrestrial Mobile Mapping System (TMMS operated in a singular way: real-time waypoints are computed from the TMMS platform and sent to the UAS in a follow-me scheme. This approach leads to a simultaneous acquisition of aerial-plus-ground geodata and, moreover, opens the door to an advanced post-processing approach for sensor orientation. The current contribution focuses on analysing the impact of the new, dynamic Kinematic Ground Control Points (KGCPs, which arise inherently from the mapKITE paradigm, as an alternative to conventional, costly Ground Control Points (GCPs. In the frame of a mapKITE campaign carried out in June 2016, we present results entailing sensor orientation and calibration accuracy assessment through ground check points, and precision and correlation analysis of self-calibration parameters’ estimation. Conclusions indicate that the mapKITE concept eliminates the need for GCPs when using only KGCPs plus a couple of GCPs at each corridor end, achieving check point horizontal accuracy of μ E , N ≈ 1.7 px (3.4 cm and μ h ≈ 4.3 px (8.6 cm. Since obtained from a simplified version of the system, these preliminary results are encouraging from a future perspective.

  6. MODELLING OF DECISION MAKING OF UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLE'S OPERATOR IN EMERGENCY SITUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Kharchenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: lack of recommendation action algorithm of UAV operator in emergency situations; decomposition of the process of decision making (DM by UAV’s Operator in emergency situations; development of the structure of distributed decision support system (DDSS for remotely piloted aircraft; development of a database of local decision support system (DSS operators Remotely Piloted Aircraft Systems (RPAS; working-out of models DM by UAV’s Operator. Methods: Algoritm of actions of UAV operator by Wald criterion, Laplace criterion, Hurwitz criterion. Results: The program "UAV_AS" that gives to UAV operator recommendations on how to act in case of emergency. Discussion: The article deals with the problem of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV flights for decision of different tasks in emergency situation. Based on statistical data it was analyzing the types of emergencies for unmanned aircraft. Defined sequence of actions UAV operator and in case of emergencies.

  7. Effectiveness of work zone intelligent transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    In the last decade, Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) have increasingly been deployed in work zones by state departments of transportation. Also known as smart work zone systems they improve traffic operations and safety by providing real-time...

  8. International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, Paul; Piegl, Les

    2009-01-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) have seen unprecedented levels of growth during the last decade in both military and civilian domains. It is anticipated that civilian applications will be dominant in the future, although there are still barriers to be overcome and technical challenges to be met. Integrating UAS into, for example, civilian space, navigation, autonomy, see-detect-and-avoid systems, smart designs, system integration, vision-based navigation and training, to name but a few areas, will be of prime importance in the near future. This special volume is the outcome of research presented at the International Symposium on Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, held in Orlando, Florida, USA, from June 23-25, 2008, and presents state-of-the-art findings on topics such as: UAS operations and integration into the national airspace system; UAS navigation and control; micro-, mini-, small UAVs; UAS simulation testbeds and frameworks; UAS research platforms and applications; UAS applications. This book aims at serving as ...

  9. Recent advances in research on unmanned aerial vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Le; Yin, George

    2013-01-01

    A team of launched and coordinated Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), requires advanced technologies in sensing, communication, computing, and control to improve their intelligence and robustness towards autonomous operations. To enhance reliability, robustness, and mission capability of a team of UAVs, a system-oriented and holistic approach is desirable in which all components and subsystems are considered in terms of their roles and impact on the entire system.  This volume aims to summarize the recent progress, identify challenges and opportunities, and develop new methodologies and systems on coordinated UAV control. A group of experts working in this area have contributed to this volume in several related aspects of autonomous control of networked UAVs. Their papers introduce new control methodologies, algorithms, and systems that address several important issues in developing intelligent, autonomous or semi-autonomous, networked systems for the next generation of UAVs. The papers share a common focus on...

  10. 1:500 Scale Aerial Triangulation Test with Unmanned Airship in Hubei Province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feifei, Xie; Zongjian, Lin; Dezhu, Gui

    2014-01-01

    A new UAVS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle System) for low altitude aerial photogrammetry is introduced for fine surveying and mapping, including the platform airship, sensor system four-combined wide-angle camera and photogrammetry software MAP-AT. It is demonstrated that this low-altitude aerial photogrammetric system meets the precision requirements of 1:500 scale aerial triangulation based on the test of this system in Hubei province, including the working condition of the airship, the quality of image data and the data processing report. This work provides a possibility for fine surveying and mapping

  11. The Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle for Geothermal Exploitation Monitoring: Khankala Field Example

    OpenAIRE

    Sergey V. Cherkasov; Anvar M. Farkhutdinov; Dmitriy P. Rykovanov; Arbi A. Shaipov

    2018-01-01

    The article is devoted to the use of unmanned aerial vehicle for geothermal waters exploitation monitoring. Development of a geothermal reservoir usually requires a system of wells, pipelines and pumping equipment and control of such a system is quite complicated. In this regard, use of unmanned aerial vehicle is relevant. Two test unmanned aerial vehicle based infrared surveys have been conducted at the Khankala field (Chechen Republic) with the Khankala geothermal plant operating at differe...

  12. Flight controller design of unmanned airplane for radiation monitoring system via structured robust controller design using multiple model approach. Radiation monitoring flight in Namie-machi in Fukushima prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Masayuki; Muraoka, Koji; Hozumi, Koki; Sanada, Yukihisa; Yamada, Tsutomu; Torii, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Due to the tragic accident of radioactive contaminant spread from Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, the necessity of unmanned systems for radiation monitoring has been increasing. This paper concerns the flight controller design of an unmanned airplane which has been developed for radiation monitoring around the power plant. The flight controller consists of conventional control elements, i.e. Stability/Control Augmentation System (S/CAS) with PI controllers and guidance loops with PID controllers. The gains in these controllers are designed by minimizing appropriately defined cost functions for several possible models and disturbances to produce structured robust flight controllers. (This method is called as 'multiple model approach'.) Control performance of our flight controller was evaluated through flight tests and a primitive flight of radiation monitoring in Namie-machi in Fukushima prefecture was conducted in Jan. 2014. Flight results are included in this paper. (author)

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles unique cost estimating requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, P.; Apgar, H.; Stukes, S.; Sterk, S.

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones, are aerial platforms that fly without a human pilot onboard. UAVs are controlled autonomously by a computer in the vehicle or under the remote control of a pilot stationed at a fixed ground location. There are a wide variety of drone shapes, sizes, configurations, complexities, and characteristics. Use of these devices by the Department of Defense (DoD), NASA, civil and commercial organizations continues to grow. UAVs are commonly used for intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR). They are also use for combat operations, and civil applications, such as firefighting, non-military security work, surveillance of infrastructure (e.g. pipelines, power lines and country borders). UAVs are often preferred for missions that require sustained persistence (over 4 hours in duration), or are “ too dangerous, dull or dirty” for manned aircraft. Moreover, they can offer significant acquisition and operations cost savings over traditional manned aircraft. Because of these unique characteristics and missions, UAV estimates require some unique estimating methods. This paper describes a framework for estimating UAV systems total ownership cost including hardware components, software design, and operations. The challenge of collecting data, testing the sensitivities of cost drivers, and creating cost estimating relationships (CERs) for each key work breakdown structure (WBS) element is discussed. The autonomous operation of UAVs is especially challenging from a software perspective.

  14. Work extraction from quantum systems with bounded fluctuations in work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richens, Jonathan G.; Masanes, Lluis

    2016-11-01

    In the standard framework of thermodynamics, work is a random variable whose average is bounded by the change in free energy of the system. This average work is calculated without regard for the size of its fluctuations. Here we show that for some processes, such as reversible cooling, the fluctuations in work diverge. Realistic thermal machines may be unable to cope with arbitrarily large fluctuations. Hence, it is important to understand how thermodynamic efficiency rates are modified by bounding fluctuations. We quantify the work content and work of formation of arbitrary finite dimensional quantum states when the fluctuations in work are bounded by a given amount c. By varying c we interpolate between the standard and minimum free energies. We derive fundamental trade-offs between the magnitude of work and its fluctuations. As one application of these results, we derive the corrected Carnot efficiency of a qubit heat engine with bounded fluctuations.

  15. AN AUTONOMOUS GPS-DENIED UNMANNED VEHICLE PLATFORM BASED ON BINOCULAR VISION FOR PLANETARY EXPLORATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Qin

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vision-based navigation has become an attractive solution for autonomous navigation for planetary exploration. This paper presents our work of designing and building an autonomous vision-based GPS-denied unmanned vehicle and developing an ARFM (Adaptive Robust Feature Matching based VO (Visual Odometry software for its autonomous navigation. The hardware system is mainly composed of binocular stereo camera, a pan-and tilt, a master machine, a tracked chassis. And the ARFM-based VO software system contains four modules: camera calibration, ARFM-based 3D reconstruction, position and attitude calculation, BA (Bundle Adjustment modules. Two VO experiments were carried out using both outdoor images from open dataset and indoor images captured by our vehicle, the results demonstrate that our vision-based unmanned vehicle is able to achieve autonomous localization and has the potential for future planetary exploration.

  16. An Autonomous Gps-Denied Unmanned Vehicle Platform Based on Binocular Vision for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, M.; Wan, X.; Shao, Y. Y.; Li, S. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Vision-based navigation has become an attractive solution for autonomous navigation for planetary exploration. This paper presents our work of designing and building an autonomous vision-based GPS-denied unmanned vehicle and developing an ARFM (Adaptive Robust Feature Matching) based VO (Visual Odometry) software for its autonomous navigation. The hardware system is mainly composed of binocular stereo camera, a pan-and tilt, a master machine, a tracked chassis. And the ARFM-based VO software system contains four modules: camera calibration, ARFM-based 3D reconstruction, position and attitude calculation, BA (Bundle Adjustment) modules. Two VO experiments were carried out using both outdoor images from open dataset and indoor images captured by our vehicle, the results demonstrate that our vision-based unmanned vehicle is able to achieve autonomous localization and has the potential for future planetary exploration.

  17. Motion coordination for VTOL unmanned aerial vehicles attitude synchronisation and formation control

    CERN Document Server

    Abdessameud, Abdelkader

    2013-01-01

    Motion Coordination for VTOL Unmanned Aerial Vehicles develops new control design techniques for the distributed coordination of a team of autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles. In particular, it provides new control design approaches for the attitude synchronization of a formation of rigid body systems. In addition, by integrating new control design techniques with some concepts from nonlinear control theory and multi-agent systems, it presents  a new theoretical framework for the formation control of a class of under-actuated aerial vehicles capable of vertical take-off and landing. Several practical problems related to the systems’ inputs, states measurements, and  restrictions on the interconnection  topology  between the aerial vehicles in the team  are addressed. Worked examples with sufficient details and simulation results are provided to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the theoretical results discussed in the book. The material presented is primarily intended for researchers an...

  18. Your Digestive System and How It Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... System & How it Works Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome Your Digestive System & How it Works What is the digestive system? The digestive system is made up of ... you eat or drink each day. Why is digestion important? Digestion is important because your body needs ...

  19. Use of Unmanned Aerial Assault Vehicles (UAAV) as an Asymmetric Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Eker, Alper Alpaslan; Sallar, Eray; Turan, Yasin

    2014-01-01

    In the 21st century, unmanned systems (especially unmanned aerial vehicles) will play a dominant role in the operational fields. Thanks to the technological developments witnessed in many fields, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles for military purposes is becoming easier. Looking at the operations carried out over the last 25 years, it can be seen that most were conducted in residential areas, where and techniques, tactics and equipment with asymmetric effects will make significant differenc...

  20. Working methodologically on system innovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelezang, J.V.M.; Wijnands, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    Dutch agriculture is facing the challenge to develop into a sustainable sector. To achieve this goal, innovations are needed which force breaks with past trends and speed up the tempo of sustainable development. The System Innovation Programmes developed by Wageningen UR contribute with new,

  1. Deep convolutional neural network training enrichment using multi-view object-based analysis of Unmanned Aerial systems imagery for wetlands classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Abd-Elrahman, Amr

    2018-05-01

    Deep convolutional neural network (DCNN) requires massive training datasets to trigger its image classification power, while collecting training samples for remote sensing application is usually an expensive process. When DCNN is simply implemented with traditional object-based image analysis (OBIA) for classification of Unmanned Aerial systems (UAS) orthoimage, its power may be undermined if the number training samples is relatively small. This research aims to develop a novel OBIA classification approach that can take advantage of DCNN by enriching the training dataset automatically using multi-view data. Specifically, this study introduces a Multi-View Object-based classification using Deep convolutional neural network (MODe) method to process UAS images for land cover classification. MODe conducts the classification on multi-view UAS images instead of directly on the orthoimage, and gets the final results via a voting procedure. 10-fold cross validation results show the mean overall classification accuracy increasing substantially from 65.32%, when DCNN was applied on the orthoimage to 82.08% achieved when MODe was implemented. This study also compared the performances of the support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF) classifiers with DCNN under traditional OBIA and the proposed multi-view OBIA frameworks. The results indicate that the advantage of DCNN over traditional classifiers in terms of accuracy is more obvious when these classifiers were applied with the proposed multi-view OBIA framework than when these classifiers were applied within the traditional OBIA framework.

  2. Open-Source Processing and Analysis of Aerial Imagery Acquired with a Low-Cost Unmanned Aerial System to Support Invasive Plant Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan R. K. Lehmann

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS is a dynamic evolving technology. UAS are particularly useful in environmental monitoring and management because they have the capability to provide data at high temporal and spatial resolutions. Moreover, data acquisition costs are lower than those of conventional methods such as extensive ground sampling, manned airplanes, or satellites. Small fixed-wing UAS in particular offer further potential benefits as they extend the operational coverage of the area under study at lower operator risks and accelerate data deployment times. Taking these aspects into account, UAS might be an effective tool to support management of invasive plant based on early detection and regular monitoring. A straightforward UAS approach to map invasive plant species is presented in this study with the intention of providing ready-to-use field maps essential for action-oriented management. Our UAS utilizes low-cost sensors, free-of-charge software for mission planning and an affordable, commercial aerial platform to reduce operational costs, reducing expenses with personnel while increasing overall efficiency. We illustrate our approach using a real example of invasion by Acacia mangium in a Brazilian Savanna ecosystem. A. mangium was correctly identified with an overall accuracy of 82.7% from the analysis of imagery. This approach provides land management authorities and practitioners with new prospects for environmental restoration in areas where invasive plant species are present.

  3. Estimating chlorophyll with thermal and broadband multispectral high resolution imagery from an unmanned aerial system using relevance vector machines for precision agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elarab, Manal; Ticlavilca, Andres M.; Torres-Rua, Alfonso F.; Maslova, Inga; McKee, Mac

    2015-12-01

    Precision agriculture requires high-resolution information to enable greater precision in the management of inputs to production. Actionable information about crop and field status must be acquired at high spatial resolution and at a temporal frequency appropriate for timely responses. In this study, high spatial resolution imagery was obtained through the use of a small, unmanned aerial system called AggieAirTM. Simultaneously with the AggieAir flights, intensive ground sampling for plant chlorophyll was conducted at precisely determined locations. This study reports the application of a relevance vector machine coupled with cross validation and backward elimination to a dataset composed of reflectance from high-resolution multi-spectral imagery (VIS-NIR), thermal infrared imagery, and vegetative indices, in conjunction with in situ SPAD measurements from which chlorophyll concentrations were derived, to estimate chlorophyll concentration from remotely sensed data at 15-cm resolution. The results indicate that a relevance vector machine with a thin plate spline kernel type and kernel width of 5.4, having LAI, NDVI, thermal and red bands as the selected set of inputs, can be used to spatially estimate chlorophyll concentration with a root-mean-squared-error of 5.31 μg cm-2, efficiency of 0.76, and 9 relevance vectors.

  4. Application and utility of a low-cost unmanned aerial system to manage and conserve aquatic resources in four Texas rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdsong, Timothy W.; Bean, Megan; Grabowski, Timothy B.; Hardy, Thomas B.; Heard, Thomas; Holdstock, Derrick; Kollaus, Kristy; Magnelia, Stephan J.; Tolman, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Low-cost unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have recently gained increasing attention in natural resources management due to their versatility and demonstrated utility in collection of high-resolution, temporally-specific geospatial data. This study applied low-cost UAS to support the geospatial data needs of aquatic resources management projects in four Texas rivers. Specifically, a UAS was used to (1) map invasive salt cedar (multiple species in the genus Tamarix) that have degraded instream habitat conditions in the Pease River, (2) map instream meso-habitats and structural habitat features (e.g., boulders, woody debris) in the South Llano River as a baseline prior to watershed-scale habitat improvements, (3) map enduring pools in the Blanco River during drought conditions to guide smallmouth bass removal efforts, and (4) quantify river use by anglers in the Guadalupe River. These four case studies represent an initial step toward assessing the full range of UAS applications in aquatic resources management, including their ability to offer potential cost savings, time efficiencies, and higher quality data over traditional survey methods.

  5. Estimating Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH from Digital Surface Models and Orthophotos Obtained with an Unmanned Aerial System for a Japanese Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Iizuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for accurately measuring biophysical parameters are a key component for quantitative evaluation regarding to various forest applications. Conventional in situ measurements of these parameters take time and expense, encountering difficultness at locations with heterogeneous microtopography. To obtain precise biophysical data in such situations, we deployed an unmanned aerial system (UAS multirotor drone in a cypress forest in a mountainous area of Japan. The structure from motion (SfM method was used to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the forest (tree structures from aerial photos. Tree height was estimated from the 3D model and compared to in situ ground data. We also analyzed the relationships between a biophysical parameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, of individual trees with canopy width and area measured from orthorectified images. Despite the constraints of ground exposure in a highly dense forest area, tree height was estimated at an accuracy of root mean square error = 1.712 m for observed tree heights ranging from 16 to 24 m. DBH was highly correlated with canopy width (R2 = 0.7786 and canopy area (R2 = 0.7923, where DBH ranged from 11 to 58 cm. The results of estimating forest parameters indicate that drone-based remote-sensing methods can be utilized to accurately analyze the spatial extent of forest structures.

  6. Geomorphological evolution of landslides near an active normal fault in northern Taiwan, as revealed by lidar and unmanned aircraft system data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kuo-Jen; Chan, Yu-Chang; Chen, Rou-Fei; Hsieh, Yu-Chung

    2018-03-01

    Several remote sensing techniques, namely traditional aerial photographs, an unmanned aircraft system (UAS), and airborne lidar, were used in this study to decipher the morphological features of obscure landslides in volcanic regions and how the observed features may be used for understanding landslide occurrence and potential hazard. A morphological reconstruction method was proposed to assess landslide morphology based on the dome-shaped topography of the volcanic edifice and the nature of its morphological evolution. Two large-scale landslides in the Tatun volcano group in northern Taiwan were targeted to more accurately characterize the landslide morphology through airborne lidar and UAS-derived digital terrain models and images. With the proposed reconstruction method, the depleted volume of the two landslides was estimated to be at least 820 ± 20 × 106 m3. Normal faulting in the region likely played a role in triggering the two landslides, because there are extensive geological and historical records of an active normal fault in this region. The subsequent geomorphological evolution of the two landslides is thus inferred to account for the observed morphological and tectonic features that are indicative of resulting in large and life-threatening landslides, as characterized using the recent remote sensing techniques.

  7. Flexible Work Options within the Organisational System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albion, Majella J.; Chee, Munli

    2006-01-01

    The availability of flexible work options provides an opportunity for individuals to shape their careers in order to optimise their work and life goals. This study takes a systems theory approach to examine how the use of flexible work options influences relationships and interactions in the workplace. The "Flexible Work Options…

  8. Participatory simulation in hospital work system design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Simone Nyholm

    When ergonomic considerations are integrated into the design of work systems, both overall system performance and employee well-being improve. A central part of integrating ergonomics in work system design is to benefit from emplo y-ees’ knowledge of existing work systems. Participatory simulation...... (PS) is a method to access employee knowledge; namely employees are involved in the simulation and design of their own future work systems through the exploration of models representing work system designs. However, only a few studies have investigated PS and the elements of the method. Yet...... understanding the elements is essential when analyzing and planning PS in research and practice. This PhD study investigates PS and the method elements in the context of the Danish hospital sector, where PS is applied in the renewal and design of public hospitals and the work systems within the hospitals...

  9. Artificial guide stars for adaptive optics using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basden, A. G.; Brown, Anthony M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Clark, P.; Massey, R.

    2018-06-01

    Astronomical adaptive optics (AO) systems are used to increase effective telescope resolution. However, they cannot be used to observe the whole sky since one or more natural guide stars of sufficient brightness must be found within the telescope field of view for the AO system to work. Even when laser guide stars are used, natural guide stars are still required to provide a constant position reference. Here, we introduce a technique to overcome this problem by using rotary unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) as a platform from which to produce artificial guide stars. We describe the concept that relies on the UAV being able to measure its precise relative position. We investigate the AO performance improvements that can be achieved, which in the cases presented here can improve the Strehl ratio by a factor of at least 2 for a 8 m class telescope. We also discuss improvements to this technique, which is relevant to both astronomical and solar AO systems.

  10. Use of high-resolution imagery acquired from an unmanned aircraft system for fluvial mapping and estimating water-surface velocity in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzel, P. J.; Bauer, M.; Feller, M.; Holmquist-Johnson, C.; Preston, T.

    2013-12-01

    The use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) for environmental monitoring in the United States is anticipated to increase in the coming years as the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) further develops guidelines to permit their integration into the National Airspace System. The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Unmanned Aircraft Systems Project Office routinely obtains Certificates of Authorization from the FAA for utilizing UAS technology for a variety of natural resource applications for the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI). We evaluated the use of a small UAS along two reaches of the Platte River near Overton Nebraska, USA, to determine the accuracy of the system for mapping the extent and elevation of emergent sandbars and to test the ability of a hovering UAS to identify and track tracers to estimate water-surface velocity. The UAS used in our study is the Honeywell Tarantula Hawk RQ16 (T-Hawk), developed for the U.S. Army as a reconnaissance and surveillance platform. The T-Hawk has been recently modified by USGS, and certified for airworthiness by the DOI - Office of Aviation Services, to accommodate a higher-resolution imaging payload than was originally deployed with the system. The T-Hawk is currently outfitted with a Canon PowerShot SX230 HS with a 12.1 megapixel resolution and intervalometer to record images at a user defined time step. To increase the accuracy of photogrammetric products, orthoimagery and DEMs using structure-from-motion (SFM) software, we utilized ground control points in the study reaches and acquired imagery using flight lines at various altitudes (200-400 feet above ground level) and oriented both parallel and perpendicular to the river. Our results show that the mean error in the elevations derived from SFM in the upstream reach was 17 centimeters and horizontal accuracy was 6 centimeters when compared to 4 randomly distributed targets surveyed on emergent sandbars. In addition to the targets, multiple transects were

  11. Morphing unmanned aerial vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, Juan Carlos; Garcia, Ephrahim

    2011-01-01

    Research on aircraft morphing has exploded in recent years. The motivation and driving force behind this has been to find new and novel ways to increase the capabilities of aircraft. Materials advancements have helped to increase possibilities with respect to actuation and, hence, a diversity of concepts and unimagined capabilities. The expanded role of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) has provided an ideal platform for exploring these emergent morphing concepts since at this scale a greater amount of risk can be taken, as well as having more manageable fabrication and cost requirements. This review focuses on presenting the role UAVs have in morphing research by giving an overview of the UAV morphing concepts, designs, and technologies described in the literature. A presentation of quantitative information as well as a discussion of technical issues is given where possible to begin gaining some insight into the overall assessment and performance of these technologies. (topical review)

  12. 3D Reconfigurable MPSoC for Unmanned Spacecraft Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekoulis, George

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes the design of a new lightweight spacecraft navigation system for unmanned space missions. The system addresses the demands for more efficient autonomous navigation in the near-Earth environment or deep space. The proposed instrumentation is directly suitable for unmanned systems operation and testing of new airborne prototypes for remote sensing applications. The system features a new sensor technology and significant improvements over existing solutions. Fluxgate type sensors have been traditionally used in unmanned defense systems such as target drones, guided missiles, rockets and satellites, however, the guidance sensors' configurations exhibit lower specifications than the presented solution. The current implementation is based on a recently developed material in a reengineered optimum sensor configuration for unprecedented low-power consumption. The new sensor's performance characteristics qualify it for spacecraft navigation applications. A major advantage of the system is the efficiency in redundancy reduction achieved in terms of both hardware and software requirements.

  13. Analyzing the Potential for Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Photogrammetry in Estimating Surface Deformations at a Geothermal Fiel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, H.; Burnett, J.; Sladek, C.; Wing, M.; Feigl, K. L.; Selker, J. S.; Tyler, S.; Team, P.

    2016-12-01

    UAS systems equipped with a variety of spectral imaging devices are increasingly incorporated in spatial environmental assessments of continental surfaces (e.g., digital elevation maps, vegetative coverage classifications, surface temperatures). This presented work performed by the UAS team at the Center for Transformative Environmental Monitoring Programs (AirCTEMPS) examines the potential to measure small (sub-cm) deformation from a geothermal injection experiment at Brady's geothermal field in western Nevada (USA). Areal mapping of the 700 x 270 m area of interest was conducted with a nadir pointing Sony A5100 digital camera onboard an autopiloted quadcopter. A total of 16 ground control points were installed using a TopCon GR3 GPS receiver. Two such mapping campaigns were conducted with one before and one after an anticipated surface deformation event. A digital elevation map (DEM) for each time period was created from over 1500 images having 80% overlap/sidelap by using structure from motion (SfM) via Agisoft Photoscan software. The resulting DEM resolution was 8 mm/pixel with residual aerial triangulation errors was < 5 mm. We present preliminary results from an optimized workflow which achieved errors and average differential DEM heights between campaigns at the cm-scale which is broader than the maximum expected deformation. Despite the disconnect between error and deformation severity, this study presents a unique application of sub-cm UAS-based DEMs and further distinguishes itself by comparing results to concurrent Interferometric Synthetic Radar (InSAR). The intent of our study and presentation of results is to streamline, cross-validate, and share methods to encourage further adoption of UAS imagery into the standard toolkit for environmental surface sensing across spatial scales.

  14. Straight-Line Target Tracking for Unmanned Surface Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Breivik

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the subject of straight-line target tracking for unmanned surface vehicles (USVs. Target-tracking represents motion control scenarios where no information about the target behavior is known in advance, i.e., the path that the target traverses is not defined apriori. Specifically, this work presents the design of a motion control system which enables an underactuated USV to track a target that moves in a straight line at high speed. The motion control system employs a guidance principle originally developed for interceptor missiles, as well as a novel velocity controller inspired by maneuverability and agility concepts found in fighter aircraft literature. The performance of the suggested design is illustrated through full-scale USV experiments in the Trondheimsfjord.

  15. MALIBU: A High Spatial Resolution Multi-Angle Imaging Unmanned Airborne System to Validate Satellite-derived BRDF/Albedo Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Roman, M. O.; Pahlevan, N.; Stachura, M.; McCorkel, J.; Bland, G.; Schaaf, C.

    2016-12-01

    Albedo is a key climate forcing variable that governs the absorption of incoming solar radiation and its ultimate transfer to the atmosphere. Albedo contributes significant uncertainties in the simulation of climate changes; and as such, it is defined by the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) as a terrestrial essential climate variable (ECV) required by global and regional climate and biogeochemical models. NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center's Multi AngLe Imaging Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function small-UAS (MALIBU) is part of a series of pathfinder missions to develop enhanced multi-angular remote sensing techniques using small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS). The MALIBU instrument package includes two multispectral imagers oriented at two different viewing geometries (i.e., port and starboard sides) capture vegetation optical properties and structural characteristics. This is achieved by analyzing the surface reflectance anisotropy signal (i.e., BRDF shape) obtained from the combination of surface reflectance from different view-illumination angles and spectral channels. Satellite measures of surface albedo from MODIS, VIIRS, and Landsat have been evaluated by comparison with spatially representative albedometer data from sparsely distributed flux towers at fixed heights. However, the mismatch between the footprint of ground measurements and the satellite footprint challenges efforts at validation, especially for heterogeneous landscapes. The BRDF (Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function) models of surface anisotropy have only been evaluated with airborne BRDF data over a very few locations. The MALIBU platform that acquires extremely high resolution sub-meter measures of surface anisotropy and surface albedo, can thus serve as an important source of reference data to enable global land product validation efforts, and resolve the errors and uncertainties in the various existing products generated by NASA and its national and

  16. Converting a manned LCU into an unmanned surface vehicle (USV): an open systems architecture (OSA) case study

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Montrell F.

    2014-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis demonstrates the process by which the concepts of open systems architecture (OSA) might be applied within the context of an existing systems engineering methodology to result in a flexible system. This is accomplished by combining an existing systems engineering process model with OSA management and business principles to execute a successful asset-repurposing program. To demonstrate utility of this OSA approach to systems ...

  17. Permit to Work System in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyen, A.K.S.; Azwafarina Zarmira Aznan; Md Derus Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    A Permit-To-Work System is an essential part of the job risk assessment process. An effective Permit-To-Work System would help to prevent accident that usually involves maintenance and construction activities. In Malaysian Nuclear Agency, Radiation Safety and Health Division (BKS) has been given the responsibility to implement the system in order to fulfill the requirement of providing a safe and healthy workplace and environment for its employees as pledged in the Occupational Safety, Health and Environmental Policy. This paper presents the roles and functions of Permit-To-Work System, together with the process flow and challenges ahead. (author)

  18. Delayed Monocular SLAM Approach Applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munguia, Rodrigo; Urzua, Sarquis; Grau, Antoni

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, many researchers have addressed the issue of making Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) more and more autonomous. In this context, the state estimation of the vehicle position is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomy. However, the problem of position estimation could not be solved in some scenarios, even when a GPS signal is available, for instance, an application requiring performing precision manoeuvres in a complex environment. Therefore, some additional sensory information should be integrated into the system in order to improve accuracy and robustness. In this work, a novel vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM) method with application to unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed. One of the contributions of this work is to design and develop a novel technique for estimating features depth which is based on a stochastic technique of triangulation. In the proposed method the camera is mounted over a servo-controlled gimbal that counteracts the changes in attitude of the quadcopter. Due to the above assumption, the overall problem is simplified and it is focused on the position estimation of the aerial vehicle. Also, the tracking process of visual features is made easier due to the stabilized video. Another contribution of this work is to demonstrate that the integration of very noisy GPS measurements into the system for an initial short period of time is enough to initialize the metric scale. The performance of this proposed method is validated by means of experiments with real data carried out in unstructured outdoor environments. A comparative study shows that, when compared with related methods, the proposed approach performs better in terms of accuracy and computational time.

  19. Delayed Monocular SLAM Approach Applied to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Munguia

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have addressed the issue of making Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs more and more autonomous. In this context, the state estimation of the vehicle position is a fundamental necessity for any application involving autonomy. However, the problem of position estimation could not be solved in some scenarios, even when a GPS signal is available, for instance, an application requiring performing precision manoeuvres in a complex environment. Therefore, some additional sensory information should be integrated into the system in order to improve accuracy and robustness. In this work, a novel vision-based simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM method with application to unmanned aerial vehicles is proposed. One of the contributions of this work is to design and develop a novel technique for estimating features depth which is based on a stochastic technique of triangulation. In the proposed method the camera is mounted over a servo-controlled gimbal that counteracts the changes in attitude of the quadcopter. Due to the above assumption, the overall problem is simplified and it is focused on the position estimation of the aerial vehicle. Also, the tracking process of visual features is made easier due to the stabilized video. Another contribution of this work is to demonstrate that the integration of very noisy GPS measurements into the system for an initial short period of time is enough to initialize the metric scale. The performance of this proposed method is validated by means of experiments with real data carried out in unstructured outdoor environments. A comparative study shows that, when compared with related methods, the proposed approach performs better in terms of accuracy and computational time.

  20. Influence of Plot Size on Efficiency of Biomass Estimates in Inventories of Dry Tropical Forests Assisted by Photogrammetric Data from an Unmanned Aircraft System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daud Jones Kachamba

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Applications of unmanned aircraft systems (UASs to assist in forest inventories have provided promising results in biomass estimation for different forest types. Recent studies demonstrating use of different types of remotely sensed data to assist in biomass estimation have shown that accuracy and precision of estimates are influenced by the size of field sample plots used to obtain reference values for biomass. The objective of this case study was to assess the influence of sample plot size on efficiency of UAS-assisted biomass estimates in the dry tropical miombo woodlands of Malawi. The results of a design-based field sample inventory assisted by three-dimensional point clouds obtained from aerial imagery acquired with a UAS showed that the root mean square errors as well as the standard error estimates of mean biomass decreased as sample plot sizes increased. Furthermore, relative efficiency values over different sample plot sizes were above 1.0 in a design-based and model-assisted inferential framework, indicating that UAS-assisted inventories were more efficient than purely field-based inventories. The results on relative costs for UAS-assisted and pure field-based sample plot inventories revealed that there is a trade-off between inventory costs and required precision. For example, in our study if a standard error of less than approximately 3 Mg ha−1 was targeted, then a UAS-assisted forest inventory should be applied to ensure more cost effective and precise estimates. Future studies should therefore focus on finding optimum plot sizes for particular applications, like for example in projects under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, plus forest conservation, sustainable management of forest and enhancement of carbon stocks (REDD+ mechanism with different geographical scales.

  1. The development and trial of an unmanned aerial system for the measurement of methane flux from landfill and greenhouse gas emission hotspots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Grant; Hollingsworth, Peter; Kabbabe, Khristopher; Pitt, Joseph R; Mead, Mohammed I; Illingworth, Samuel; Roberts, Gareth; Bourn, Mark; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J

    2018-01-09

    This paper describes the development of a new sampling and measurement method to infer methane flux using proxy measurements of CO 2 concentration and wind data recorded by Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS). The flux method described and trialed here is appropriate to the spatial scale of landfill sites and analogous greenhouse gas emission hotspots, making it an important new method for low-cost and rapid case study quantification of fluxes from currently uncertain (but highly important) greenhouse gas sources. We present a case study using these UAS-based measurements to derive instantaneous methane fluxes from a test landfill site in the north of England using a mass balance model tailored for UAS sampling and co-emitted CO 2 concentration as a methane-emission proxy. Methane flux (and flux uncertainty) during two trials on 27 November 2014 and 5 March 2015, were found to be 0.140 kg s -1 (±61% at 1σ), and 0.050 kg s -1 (±54% at 1σ), respectively. Uncertainty contributing to the flux was dominated by ambient variability in the background (inflow) concentration (>40%) and wind speed (>10%); with instrumental error contributing only ∼1-2%. The approach described represents an important advance concerning the challenging problem of greenhouse gas hotspot flux calculation, and offers transferability to a wide range of analogous environments. This new measurement solution could add to a toolkit of approaches to better validate source-specific greenhouse emissions inventories - an important new requirement of the UNFCCC COP21 (Paris) climate change agreement. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Hyperspatial Thermal Imaging of Surface Hydrothermal Features at Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska using a small Unmanned Aerial System (sUAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselwimmer, C. E.; Wilson, R.; Upton, C.; Prakash, A.; Holdmann, G.; Walker, G.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal remote sensing provides a valuable tool for mapping and monitoring surface hydrothermal features associated with geothermal activity. The increasing availability of low-cost, small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) with integrated thermal imaging sensors offers a means to undertake very high spatial resolution (hyperspatial), quantitative thermal remote sensing of surface geothermal features in support of exploration and long-term monitoring efforts. Results from the deployment of a quadcopter sUAS equipped with a thermal camera over Pilgrim Hot Springs, Alaska for detailed mapping and heat flux estimation for hot springs, seeps, and thermal pools are presented. Hyperspatial thermal infrared imagery (4 cm pixels) was acquired over Pilgrim Hot Springs in July 2013 using a FLIR TAU 640 camera operating from an Aeryon Scout sUAS flying at an altitude of 40m. The registered and mosaicked thermal imagery is calibrated to surface temperature values using in-situ measurements of uniform blackbody tarps and the temperatures of geothermal and other surface pools acquired with a series of water temperature loggers. Interpretation of the pre-processed thermal imagery enables the delineation of hot springs, the extents of thermal pools, and the flow and mixing of individual geothermal outflow plumes with an unprecedented level of detail. Using the surface temperatures of thermal waters derived from the FLIR data and measured in-situ meteorological parameters the hot spring heat flux and outflow rate is calculated using a heat budget model for a subset of the thermal drainage. The heat flux/outflow rate estimates derived from the FLIR data are compared against in-situ measurements of the hot spring outflow rate recorded at the time of the thermal survey.

  3. Early-Season Stand Count Determination in Corn via Integration of Imagery from Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS and Supervised Learning Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Varela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Corn (Zea mays L. is one of the most sensitive crops to planting pattern and early-season uniformity. The most common method to determine number of plants is by visual inspection on the ground but this field activity becomes time-consuming, labor-intensive, biased, and may lead to less profitable decisions by farmers. The objective of this study was to develop a reliable, timely, and unbiased method for counting corn plants based on ultra-high-resolution imagery acquired from unmanned aerial systems (UAS to automatically scout fields and applied to real field conditions. A ground sampling distance of 2.4 mm was targeted to extract information at a plant-level basis. First, an excess greenness (ExG index was used to individualized green pixels from the background, then rows and inter-row contours were identified and extracted. A scalable training procedure was implemented using geometric descriptors as inputs of the classifier. Second, a decision tree was implemented and tested using two training modes in each site to expose the workflow to different ground conditions at the time of the aerial data acquisition. Differences in performance were due to training modes and spatial resolutions in the two sites. For an object classification task, an overall accuracy of 0.96, based on the proportion of corrected assessment of corn and non-corn objects, was obtained for local (per-site classification, and an accuracy of 0.93 was obtained for the combined training modes. For successful model implementation, plants should have between two to three leaves when images are collected (avoiding overlapping between plants. Best workflow performance was reached at 2.4 mm resolution corresponding to 10 m of altitude (lower altitude; higher altitudes were gradually penalized. The latter was coincident with the larger number of detected green objects in the images and the effectiveness of geometry as descriptor for corn plant detection.

  4. A Cyber-Vigilance System for Anti-Terrorist Drives Based on an Unmanned Aerial Vehicular Networking Signal Jammer for Specific Territorial Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhiman Chowdhury

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available During sudden anti-terrorist drives conducted by the law enforcement agencies, a localized cyber security system happens to be a special tactic to avert the unprecedented massacre and gruesome fatalities against the residents of that area by disconnecting the affected territory from the rest of the world; so that the militants and their outside accomplices cannot communicate with each other and also the terrorists cannot go through the ongoing apprehensive operation via wireless communications. This paper presents a novel framework of an unmanned aerial vehicular networking signal jammer which is oriented to block incoming and outgoing signals of all frequencies transmitted from a specifically marginalized territory scanned and explored by the aerial vehicle. During such a cyber-vigilance operation, the aerial vehicle is equipped with a transmitter and an auto-tuning band-pass filter module with automatic regulation of center frequencies according to the surrounding networking signals, which are considered to be the suppressing noise parameters. In order to restrict the signal blocking operation within the militant hub, the aerial vehicle with the network terminator is controlled to navigate within a particular boundary of a residential area and its navigation is continuously mapped and stored for effective evacuation process directed to save the innocent stranded people. A very low frequency (VLF metal detector has been designed to trace the explosives and buried landmines inside the exploration arena. An algorithm for 3-D mapping of the metal traces detected by the aerial navigator has been presented in this paper. Signal blocking, metal tracing and stable confined movements have been tested where the testbed is provided with signals of different frequencies along with variation in dimensions of the testing region to evaluate the reliability of the proposed framework.

  5. NASA work unit system file maintenance manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    The NASA Work Unit System is a management information system for research tasks (i.e., work units) performed under NASA grants and contracts. It supplies profiles on research efforts and statistics on fund distribution. The file maintenance operator can add, delete and change records at a remote terminal or can submit punched cards to the computer room for batch update. The system is designed for file maintenance by a person with little or no knowledge of data processing techniques.

  6. Development of Fast Error Compensation Algorithm for Integrated Inertial-Satellite Navigation System of Small-size Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Complex Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Fomichev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with the structural features of small-size unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and considering the feasibility of this project, the article studies an integrated inertial-satellite navigation system (INS. The INS algorithm development is based on the method of indirect filtration and principle of loosely coupled combination of output data on UAV positions and velocity. Data on position and velocity are provided from the strapdown inertial navigation system (SINS and satellite navigation system (GPS. A difference between the output flows of measuring data on position and velocity provided from the SINS and GPS is used to evaluate SINS errors by means of the basic algorithm of Kalman filtering. Then the outputs of SINS are revised. The INS possesses the following advantages: a simpler mathematical model of Kalman filtering, high reliability, two independently operating navigation systems, and high redundancy of available navigation information.But in case of loosely coupled scheme, INS can meet the challenge of high precision and reliability of navigation only when the SINS and GPS operating conditions are normal all the time. The proposed INS is used with UAV moving in complex environment due to obstacles available, severe natural climatic conditions, etc. This case expects that it is impossible for UAV to receive successful GPS-signals frequently. In order to solve this problem, was developed an algorithm for rapid compensation for errors of INS information, which could effectively solve the problem of failure of the navigation system in case there are no GPS-signals .Since it is almost impossible to obtain the data of the real trajectory in practice, in the course of simulation in accordance with the kinematic model of the UAV and the complex environment of the terrain, the flight path generator is used to produce the flight path. The errors of positions and velocities are considered as an indicator of the INS effectiveness. The results

  7. Enhancing Readiness of the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) System via Use of Simulation Modeling and Contract Incentives

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kasal, Omer

    1999-01-01

    ...) test system of the Turkish Army Command are the failure to address life cycle cost (LCC) considerations during financial resource allocations and the absence of contract reliability incentives...

  8. Design and Implementation of Electric Steering Gear Inspection System for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Based on Virtual Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Xing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A kind of UAV electric servo detection system based on Virtual Instrument is designed in this paper, including the hardware platform based on PC-DAQ virtual instrument architecture and the software platform based on LabVIEW function, structure and system implementation methods. The function, structure and system implementation method of software platform is also described. The gear limits checking, zero testing, time domain characteristics test results showed that the system achieves testing requirements well, and can complete detection of electric steering gear automatically, fast, easy and accurate.

  9. Infrared stereo calibration for unmanned ground vehicle navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harguess, Josh; Strange, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    The problem of calibrating two color cameras as a stereo pair has been heavily researched and many off-the-shelf software packages, such as Robot Operating System and OpenCV, include calibration routines that work in most cases. However, the problem of calibrating two infrared (IR) cameras for the purposes of sensor fusion and point could generation is relatively new and many challenges exist. We present a comparison of color camera and IR camera stereo calibration using data from an unmanned ground vehicle. There are two main challenges in IR stereo calibration; the calibration board (material, design, etc.) and the accuracy of calibration pattern detection. We present our analysis of these challenges along with our IR stereo calibration methodology. Finally, we present our results both visually and analytically with computed reprojection errors.

  10. Small catchments DEM creation using Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gafurov, A. M.

    2018-01-01

    Digital elevation models (DEM) are an important source of information on the terrain, allowing researchers to evaluate various exogenous processes. The higher the accuracy of DEM the better the level of the work possible. An important source of data for the construction of DEMs are point clouds obtained with terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV). In this paper, we present the results of constructing a DEM on small catchments using UAVs. Estimation of the UAV DEM showed comparable accuracy with the TLS if real time kinematic Global Positioning System (RTK-GPS) ground control points (GCPs) and check points (CPs) were used. In this case, the main source of errors in the construction of DEMs are the errors in the referencing of survey results.

  11. Challenges of Integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles In Civil Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, B M; Albatsh, F; Faris, W F; Chebil, J

    2013-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) has evolved rapidly over the past decade. There have been an increased number of studies aiming at improving UAV and in its use for different civil applications. This paper highlights the fundamentals of UAV system and examines the challenges related with the major components such as motors, drives, power systems, communication systems and image processing tools and equipment

  12. Analysis of Dead Time and Implementation of Smith Predictor Compensation in Tracking Servo Systems for Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brashear , Jr, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    .... Gimbaled video camera systems, designed at NPS, use two servo actuators to command line of sight orientation via serial controller while tracking a target and is termed Visual Based Target Tracking (VBTT...

  13. Autonomous, Safe Take-Off and Landing Operations for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Unmanned aerial systems (UAS's) and in particular intelligent, autonomous rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft have the potential to significantly impact modern...

  14. Controlling Unmanned Vehicles : the Human Factors Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erp, J.B.F. van

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments and experiences have proven the usefulness and potential of Unmanned Vehicles (UVs). Emerging technologies enable new missions, broadening the applicability of UVs from simple remote spies towards unmanned combat vehicles carrying lethal weapons. However, despite the emerging

  15. Learning Control of Fixed-Wing Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Using Fuzzy Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Kayacan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A learning control strategy is preferred for the control and guidance of a fixed-wing unmanned aerial vehicle to deal with lack of modeling and flight uncertainties. For learning the plant model as well as changing working conditions online, a fuzzy neural network (FNN is used in parallel with a conventional P (proportional controller. Among the learning algorithms in the literature, a derivative-free one, sliding mode control (SMC theory-based learning algorithm, is preferred as it has been proved to be computationally efficient in real-time applications. Its proven robustness and finite time converging nature make the learning algorithm appropriate for controlling an unmanned aerial vehicle as the computational power is always limited in unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs. The parameter update rules and stability conditions of the learning are derived, and the proof of the stability of the learning algorithm is shown by using a candidate Lyapunov function. Intensive simulations are performed to illustrate the applicability of the proposed controller which includes the tracking of a three-dimensional trajectory by the UAV subject to time-varying wind conditions. The simulation results show the efficiency of the proposed control algorithm, especially in real-time control systems because of its computational efficiency.

  16. Developments and challenges for autonomous unmanned vehicles

    CERN Document Server

    Finn, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    It is widely anticipated that autonomous vehicles will have a transformational impact on military forces and will play a key role in many future force structures. As a result, many tasks have already been identified that unmanned systems could undertake more readily than humans. However, for this to occur, such systems will need to be agile, versatile, persistent, reliable, survivable and lethal. This will require many of the vehicles 'cognitive' or higher order functions to be more fully developed, whereas to date only the 'component' or physical functions have been successfully automated and

  17. Working while incapable to work? Changing concepts of permitted work in the UK disability benefit system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Gulland

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article focusses on the borderland between "work" and "not work" in UK disability benefit systems. People who claim disability benefits often have to prove that they are "incapable of work" in order to qualify. The idea of incapacity for work requires an understanding of the meaning of the term "work," a concept which has a common sense simplicity but which is much more difficult to define in practice. UK disability benefit systems have developed the notion of "permitted work" to allow people to do small amounts of paid work while retaining entitlement to benefit. This concept of "permitted work" has its roots in the early twentieth century when claimants were sometimes entitled to disability benefits if any work that they did was considered to be sufficiently trivial to not count as "work." Policy on this changed over time, with particular developments after the Second World War, as rehabilitation and therapy became the key focus of permitted work rules. Current developments in UK social security policy treat almost everyone as a potential worker, changing the way in which permitted work operates. This article uses archive material on appeals against refusals of benefit, policy documents and case law to consider the social meanings of these moving boundaries of permitted work. Disability benefits are not value neutral: they are measures of social control which divide benefit claimants into those who are required to participate in the labour market and those who are exempted from this requirement.

  18. Detail design of empennage of an unmanned aerial vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Md. Samad; Panday, Shoyon; Rasel, Md; Salam, Md. Abdus; Faisal, Kh. Md.; Farabi, Tanzimul Hasan

    2017-12-01

    In order to maintain the operational continuity of air defense systems, unmanned autonomous or remotely controlled unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) plays a great role as a target for the anti-aircraft weapons. The aerial vehicle must comply with the requirements of high speed, remotely controlled tracking and navigational aids, operational sustainability and sufficient loiter time. It can also be used for aerial reconnaissance, ground surveillance and other intelligence operations. This paper aims to develop a complete tail design of an unmanned aerial vehicle using Systems Engineering approach. The design fulfils the requirements of longitudinal and directional trim, stability and control provided by the horizontal and vertical tail. Tail control surfaces are designed to provide sufficient control of the aircraft in critical conditions. Design parameters obtained from wing design are utilized in the tail design process as required. Through chronological calculations and successive iterations, optimum values of 26 tail design parameters are determined.

  19. Proposed Functional Architecture and Associated Benefits Analysis of a Common Ground Control Station for Unmanned Aircraft Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    systems using the same interface reduces the training time for operators, says Maj. Robert Kadavy, an action officer in the aviation directorate at U.S...Vehicle (VTUAV) and Navy MQ-8B Manpower & Training Requirements [ Raymer , 2009], another thesis titled An Operational Manpower Analysis of the RQ-8 Fire...program_assistance_and_t ools/best_practices_and_lessons_learned Raymer , M. K. (2009). A Comparative Analysis of the Army MQ-8B Fire Scout Vertical Takeoff

  20. Bidirectional Frontoparietal Oscillatory Systems Support Working Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Elizabeth L; Dewar, Callum D; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Endestad, Tor; Meling, Torstein R; Knight, Robert T

    2017-06-19

    The ability to represent and select information in working memory provides the neurobiological infrastructure for human cognition. For 80 years, dominant views of working memory have focused on the key role of prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1-8]. However, more recent work has implicated posterior cortical regions [9-12], suggesting that PFC engagement during working memory is dependent on the degree of executive demand. We provide evidence from neurological patients with discrete PFC damage that challenges the dominant models attributing working memory to PFC-dependent systems. We show that neural oscillations, which provide a mechanism for PFC to communicate with posterior cortical regions [13], independently subserve communications both to and from PFC-uncovering parallel oscillatory mechanisms for working memory. Fourteen PFC patients and 20 healthy, age-matched controls performed a working memory task where they encoded, maintained, and actively processed information about pairs of common shapes. In controls, the electroencephalogram (EEG) exhibited oscillatory activity in the low-theta range over PFC and directional connectivity from PFC to parieto-occipital regions commensurate with executive processing demands. Concurrent alpha-beta oscillations were observed over parieto-occipital regions, with directional connectivity from parieto-occipital regions to PFC, regardless of processing demands. Accuracy, PFC low-theta activity, and PFC → parieto-occipital connectivity were attenuated in patients, revealing a PFC-independent, alpha-beta system. The PFC patients still demonstrated task proficiency, which indicates that the posterior alpha-beta system provides sufficient resources for working memory. Taken together, our findings reveal neurologically dissociable PFC and parieto-occipital systems and suggest that parallel, bidirectional oscillatory systems form the basis of working memory. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.