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Sample records for universal time utc

  1. TWSTFT Data Treatment for UTC Time Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    BUREAU INTERNATIONAL DES POIDS ET MESURES ORGANISATION INTERGOUVERNEMENTALE DE LA CONVENTION DU METRE...in [UTC-UTC(k)],” Metrologia , 43, 278-286. [4] BIPM Circular T 244, Section 6, May 2008, http://www.bipm.org [5] D. Piester, A. Bauch, L... Metrologia , 45, 185-198. [6] F. Arias, Z. Jiang, G. Petit, and W. Lewandowski, 2005, “BIPM Comparison of Time Transfer Techniques,” in Proceedings

  2. SynUTC - high precision time synchronization over ethernet networks

    CERN Document Server

    Höller, R; Horauer, M; Kerö, N; Schmid, U; Schossmaier, K

    2002-01-01

    This article describes our SynUTC (Synchronized Universal Time Coordinated) technology, which enables high-accuracy distribution of GPS time and time synchronization of network nodes connected via standard Ethernet LANs. By means of exchanging data packets in conjunction with moderate hardware support at nodes and switches, an overall worst-case accuracy in the range of some 100 ns can be achieved, with negligible communication overhead. Our technology thus improves the 1 ms-range accuracy achievable by conventional, software-based approaches like NTP by 4 orders of magnitude. Applications can use the high-accuracy global time provided by SynUTC for event timestamping and event generation both at hardware and software level. SynUTC is based upon inserting highly accurate time information into dedicated data packets at the media-independent interface (MII) between the physical layer transceiver and the network controller upon packet transmission and reception, respectively. As a consequence, every node has acc...

  3. 76 FR 37191 - Notice of Competition for University Transportation Centers (UTC) Program Grants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... capability, the use of peer review, and effective partnerships to advance diversity. The Research and... Competition for University Transportation Centers (UTC) Program Grants AGENCY: Research and Innovative... conduct a competition for University Transportation Centers (UTC) Program grants for the purpose of...

  4. ITU-R Special Rapporteur Group on the Future of the UTC Time Scale

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beard, Ron

    2004-01-01

    .... A major change to the UTC timescale as defined in the current recommendations could have a potentially significant impact on broadcast time and frequency services, synchronization of communications...

  5. Nanosecond Level UTC Timing Generation and Stamping in CERN's LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez, P; Lewis, J; Serrano, J

    2003-01-01

    The General Machine Timing (GMT) at CERN uses an RS-485 multi-drop network through which messages are broadcast by a Central Timing Generator (CTG) module at a rate of 500 kb/s and decoded by many receiver modules in different form factors. For long distance transmission, optical fibers are used. As a result of cabling and capacitive loading of the receivers' inputs, the timing message signal presents an average jitter of 14 ns at any receiver input. For the LHC era, the 500 kb/s rate will be maintained to ensure compatibility with old receivers. However, a special kind of Phase Locked Loop (PLL), involving digital control in a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a DAC to control a Voltage Controlled Crystal Oscillator (VCXO), has been developed to generate a 40 MHz square wave at the receiving side which is locked on average to the timing message signal but presents a jitter of less than 1 ns. This 40 MHz signal is locked to UTC because the encoder in the CTG card uses a 40 MHz clock coming from a GPS r...

  6. UTC(OP) based on LNE-SYRTE atomic fountain primary frequency standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovera, G.D.; Bize, S.; Chupin, B.; Guena, J.; Laurent, Ph; Rosenbusch, Ph.; Uhrich, P.; Abgrall, M.

    2016-01-01

    UTC(OP), the French national realization of the international coordinated universal time, was redesigned and rebuilt. The first step was the implementation in October 2012 of a new algorithm based on a H-maser and on atomic fountain data. Thanks to the new implementation, the stability of UTC(OP) was dramatically improved and UTC(OP) competes with the best time scales available today. Then the hardware generation and distribution of the UTC(OP) physical signals were replaced. Part of the new hardware is composed of commercial devices, but the key elements were specifically developed. One of them is a special switch that allows the UTC(OP) signals to be derived from one of two time scales, based on two different H-masers, which are generated simultaneously. This insures the continuity of the UTC(OP) signal even when a change of the reference H-maser is required. With the new hardware implementation, UTC(OP) is made available through three coherent signals: 100 MHz, 10 MHz and 1 PPS. For more than 3 years, UTC(OP) remained well below 10 ns close to UTC, with a difference even less than 5 ns if we except a short period around MJD 56650. (authors)

  7. DOTD support for UTC project : travel time estimation using bluetooth, [research project capsule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Travel time estimates are useful tools for measuring congestion in an urban area. Current : practice involves using probe vehicles or video cameras to measure travel time, but this is a laborintensive and expensive means of obtaining the information....

  8. Improved network monitoring using UTC detector data 'RAID'

    OpenAIRE

    Cherrett, Tom; Waterson, Ben; McDonald, Mike; Clarke, Russell; Bangert, Alex; Morris, Ray

    2002-01-01

    As part of the 5th Framework PRIME project1 (Prediction Of Congestion And Incidents In Real Time, For Intelligent Incident Management And Emergency Traffic Management), a new incident detection algorithm has been developed using the 250-ms digital data produced by UTC detectors. The contributors to this part of the project were the University of Southampton, Southampton City Council and Siemens Traffic Controls.

  9. 75 FR 1681 - University Transportation Centers (UTC) Program Grants (49 U.S.C. 5506); Suspension of Competitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Research and Innovative Technology Administration University..., Office of Research, Development and Technology, RDT-30, Research and Innovative Technology Administration... amended by Pub. L. 110-244) requires the Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA) of the U...

  10. Prediction of UT1-UTC, LOD and AAM χ3 by combination of least-squares and multivariate stochastic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, Tomasz; Kosek, Wiesław

    2008-02-01

    This article presents the application of a multivariate prediction technique for predicting universal time (UT1-UTC), length of day (LOD) and the axial component of atmospheric angular momentum (AAM χ 3). The multivariate predictions of LOD and UT1-UTC are generated by means of the combination of (1) least-squares (LS) extrapolation of models for annual, semiannual, 18.6-year, 9.3-year oscillations and for the linear trend, and (2) multivariate autoregressive (MAR) stochastic prediction of LS residuals (LS + MAR). The MAR technique enables the use of the AAM χ 3 time-series as the explanatory variable for the computation of LOD or UT1-UTC predictions. In order to evaluate the performance of this approach, two other prediction schemes are also applied: (1) LS extrapolation, (2) combination of LS extrapolation and univariate autoregressive (AR) prediction of LS residuals (LS + AR). The multivariate predictions of AAM χ 3 data, however, are computed as a combination of the extrapolation of the LS model for annual and semiannual oscillations and the LS + MAR. The AAM χ 3 predictions are also compared with LS extrapolation and LS + AR prediction. It is shown that the predictions of LOD and UT1-UTC based on LS + MAR taking into account the axial component of AAM are more accurate than the predictions of LOD and UT1-UTC based on LS extrapolation or on LS + AR. In particular, the UT1-UTC predictions based on LS + MAR during El Niño/La Niña events exhibit considerably smaller prediction errors than those calculated by means of LS or LS + AR. The AAM χ 3 time-series is predicted using LS + MAR with higher accuracy than applying LS extrapolation itself in the case of medium-term predictions (up to 100 days in the future). However, the predictions of AAM χ 3 reveal the best accuracy for LS + AR.

  11. GEOS seismograms recorded for aftershocks of the earthquakes of December 7, 1988, near Spitak, Armenia SSR, during the time period 3 January 1989 through 2 February 1988 (UTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Glassmoyer, Gary; Cranswick, Edward

    1989-01-01

    The earthquakes of December 7, 1988, near Spitak, Armenia SSR, serve as another grim reminder of the serious hazard that earthquakes pose throughout the world. We extend our heartfelt sympathies to the families of the earthquake victims and intend that our cooperative scientific endeavours will help reduce losses in future earthquakes. Only through a better understanding of earthquake hazards can earthquake losses be reduced for all peoples in seismically active regions of the world.The tragic consequences of these earthquakes remind scientists and public officials alike of their urgent responsibilities to understand and mitigate the effects of earthquakes. On behalf of the U.S. Geological Survey, I would like to express appreciation to our Soviet colleagues for their kind invitation to participate in joint scientific and engineering studies. Without their cooperation and generous assistance, the conduct of these studies would not have been possible.This report provides seismologic and geologic data collected during the time period December 21, 1988, through February 2, 1989. These data are presented in their entirety to expedite analysis of the data set for inferences regarding hazard mitigation actions, applicable not only in Armenia but other regions of the world exposed to high seismic risk

  12. UTC Power/Delphi SECA CBS Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, Michael; Kerr, Rich

    2013-04-04

    The subject report summarizes the results of solid oxide fuel cell development conducted by UTC Power in conjunction with Delphi Automotive Systems under a cost-share program with from October 2008 through March of 2013. Over that period Delphi Automotive Systems developed a nearly four times larger area solid oxide fuel cell stack capable of operating on pre-reformed natural gas and simulated coal gas with durability demonstrated to 5,000 hours and projected to exceed 10,000 hours. The new stack design was scaled to 40-cell stacks with power output in excess of 6.25kW. Delphi also made significant strides in improving the manufacturability, yield and production cost of these solid oxide fuel cells over the course of the program. Concurrently, UTC Power developed a conceptual design for a 120 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) operating on coal syngas with as high as 57% Higher Heating Value (HHV) efficiency as a measure of the feasibility of the technology. Subsequently a 400 kW on-site system preliminary design with 55% Lower Heating Value (LHV) efficiency operating on natural gas was down-selected from eighteen candidate designs. That design was used as the basis for a 25kW breadboard power plant incorporating four Delphi cell stacks that was tested on natural gas before the program was discontinued due to the sale of UTC Power in early 2013. Though the program was cut short of the endurance target of 3,000 hours, many aspects of the technology were proven including: large-area, repeatable cell manufacture, cell stack operation on simulated coal gas and natural gas and integrated power plant operation on natural gas. The potential of the technology for high efficiency stationary electric power generation is clear. Acceptable production costs, durability, and reliability in real world environments are the remaining challenges to commercialization.

  13. UTC(SU) and EOP(SU) - the only legal reference frames of Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelyaevsky, Nikolay B.; Blinov, Igor Yu; Pasynok, Sergey L.

    2015-08-01

    There are two legal time reference frames in Russian Federation. UTC(SU) deals with atomic time and play a role of reference for legal timing through the whole country. The other one, EOP(SU), deals with Earth's orientation parameters and provides the official EOP data for scientific, technical and metrological applications in Russia.The atomic time is based on two essential hardware components: primary Cs fountain standards and ensemble of continuously operating H-masers as a time unit/time scale keeper. Basing on H-maser intercomparison system data, regular H-maser frequency calibration against Cs standards and time algorithm autonomous TA(SU) time scale is maintained by the Main Metrological Center. Since 2013 time unit in TA(SU) is the second (SU) reproduced independently by VNIIFTRI Cs primary standards in accordance to it’s definition in the SI. UTC(SU) is relied on TA(SU) and steering to UTC basing on TWSTFT/GNSS time link data. As a result TA(SU) stability level relative to TT considerably exceeds 1×10-15 for sample time one month and more, RMS[UTC-UTC(SU)] ≤ 3 ns for the period of 2013-2015. UTC(SU) is broadcasted by different national means such as specialized radio and TV stations, NTP servers and GLONASS. Signals of Russian radio stations contains DUT1 and dUT1 values at 0.1s and 0.02s resolution respectively.The definitive EOP(SU) are calculated by the Main Metrological Center basing on composition of the eight independent individual EOP data streams delivered by four Russian analysis centers: VNIIFTRI, Institute of Applied Astronomy, Information-Analytical Center of Russian Space Agency and Analysis Center of Russian Space Agency. The accuracy of ultra-rapid EOP values for 2014 is estimated ≤ 0.0006" for polar motion, ≤ 70 microseconds for UT1-UTC and ≤ 0.0003" for celestial pole offsets respectively.The other VNIIFTRI EOP activities can be grouped in three basic directions:- arrangement and carrying out GNSS and SLR observations at five

  14. A comparison of LOD and UT1-UTC forecasts by different combined prediction techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosek, W.; Kalarus, M.; Johnson, T. J.; Wooden, W. H.; McCarthy, D. D.; Popiński, W.

    Stochastic prediction techniques including autocovariance, autoregressive, autoregressive moving average, and neural networks were applied to the UT1-UTC and Length of Day (LOD) International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Servive (IERS) EOPC04 time series to evaluate the capabilities of each method. All known effects such as leap seconds and solid Earth zonal tides were first removed from the observed values of UT1-UTC and LOD. Two combination procedures were applied to predict the resulting LODR time series: 1) the combination of the least-squares (LS) extrapolation with a stochastic predition method, and 2) the combination of the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) filtering and a stochastic prediction method. The results of the combination of the LS extrapolation with different stochastic prediction techniques were compared with the results of the UT1-UTC prediction method currently used by the IERS Rapid Service/Prediction Centre (RS/PC). It was found that the prediction accuracy depends on the starting prediction epochs, and for the combined forecast methods, the mean prediction errors for 1 to about 70 days in the future are of the same order as those of the method used by the IERS RS/PC.

  15. Analysis of the Effect of UTI-UTC to High Precision Orbit Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongseok Shin

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available As the spatial resolution of remote sensing satellites becomes higher, very accurate determination of the position of a LEO (Low Earth Orbit satellite is demanding more than ever. Non-symmetric Earth gravity is the major perturbation force to LEO satellites. Since the orbit propagation is performed in the celestial frame while Earth gravity is defined in the terrestrial frame, it is required to convert the coordinates of the satellite from one to the other accurately. Unless the coordinate conversion between the two frames is performed accurately the orbit propagation calculates incorrect Earth gravitational force at a specific time instant, and hence, causes errors in orbit prediction. The coordinate conversion between the two frames involves precession, nutation, Earth rotation and polar motion. Among these factors, unpredictability and uncertainty of Earth rotation, called UTI-UTC, is the largest error source. In this paper, the effect of UTI-UTC on the accuracy of the LEO propagation is introduced, tested and analzed. Considering the maximum unpredictability of UTI-UTC, 0.9 seconds, the meaningful order of non-spherical Earth harmonic functions is derived.

  16. Analysis of the Effect of UTI-UTC to High Precision Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongseok; Kwak, Sunghee; Kim, Tag-Gon

    1999-12-01

    As the spatial resolution of remote sensing satellites becomes higher, very accurate determination of the position of a LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite is demanding more than ever. Non-symmetric Earth gravity is the major perturbation force to LEO satellites. Since the orbit propagation is performed in the celestial frame while Earth gravity is defined in the terrestrial frame, it is required to convert the coordinates of the satellite from one to the other accurately. Unless the coordinate conversion between the two frames is performed accurately the orbit propagation calculates incorrect Earth gravitational force at a specific time instant, and hence, causes errors in orbit prediction. The coordinate conversion between the two frames involves precession, nutation, Earth rotation and polar motion. Among these factors, unpredictability and uncertainty of Earth rotation, called UTI-UTC, is the largest error source. In this paper, the effect of UTI-UTC on the accuracy of the LEO propagation is introduced, tested and analzed. Considering the maximum unpredictability of UTI-UTC, 0.9 seconds, the meaningful order of non-spherical Earth harmonic functions is derived.

  17. The Universe, Time, Eternity and Infinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lolaev T. P.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The conceptions of «universe», «eternity», «time» and «infinity» belong to the list of the most fundamental and complex characteristics of the matter. The concepts of "universe", "eternity", "time" and "infinity" is defined in article in fundamentally new interpretation. This was made possible thanks to the identification by the author the nature of time, and formulation and theoretically and experimentally justification of the Law of the Universe functioning.

  18. GEOS seismograms recorded for aftershocks of the earthquakes of December 7, 1988, near Spitak, Armenia SSR, during the time period 26 December 1988 14:00 through 29 December 1988 (UTC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Glassmoyer, Gary; Cranswick, Edward

    1989-01-01

    The earthquakes of December 7, 1988, near Spitak, Armenia SSR, serve as another grim reminder of the serious hazard that earthquakes pose throughout the world. We extend our heartfelt sympathies to the families of the earthquake victims and intend that our cooperative scientific endeavours will help reduce losses in future earthquakes. Only through a better understanding of earthquake hazards can earthquake losses be reduced for all peoples in seismically active regions of the world.The tragic consequences of these earthquakes remind scientists and public officials alike of their urgent responsibilities to understand and mitigate the effects of earthquakes. On behalf of the U.S. Geological Survey, I would like to express appreciation to our Soviet colleagues for their kind invitation to participate in joint scientific and engineering studies. Without their cooperation and generous assistance, the conduct of these studies would not have been possible.This report provides seismologic and geologic data collected during the time period December 21, 1988, through February 2, 1989. These data are presented in their entirety to expedite analysis of the data set for inferences regarding hazard mitigation actions, applicable not only in Armenia but other regions of the world exposed to high seismic risk.

  19. Double universe and the arrow of time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfinito, Eleonora [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universitta di Lecce, 73100 Lecce and CNISM-Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia. Universita di Lecce (Italy); Vitiello, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, 84100 Salerno (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    The canonical quantum field theory formalism for the expanding geometry universe leads to the 'Double Universe' scenario envisaged by quantum loop gravity. Thermal properties of inflating universe and the classicality of the time-evolution trajectories in the space of the representations of the canonical commutation relations are also discussed.

  20. Universal algorithm of time sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, I.N.; Fedyun'kin, E.D.

    1979-01-01

    Timesharing system algorithm is proposed for the wide class of one- and multiprocessor computer configurations. Dynamical priority is the piece constant function of the channel characteristic and system time quantum. The interactive job quantum has variable length. Characteristic recurrent formula is received. The concept of the background job is introduced. Background job loads processor if high priority jobs are inactive. Background quality function is given on the base of the statistical data received in the timesharing process. Algorithm includes optimal trashing off procedure for the jobs replacements in the memory. Sharing of the system time in proportion to the external priorities is guaranteed for the all active enough computing channels (back-ground too). The fast answer is guaranteed for the interactive jobs, which use small time and memory. The external priority control is saved for the high level scheduler. The experience of the algorithm realization on the BESM-6 computer in JINR is discussed

  1. The Labyrinth of Time Introducing the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lockwood, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Modern physics has revealed the universe as a much stranger place than we could have imagined. The puzzle at the centre of our knowledge of the universe is time. Michael Lockwood takes the reader on a fascinating journey into the nature of things. He investigates philosophical questions about past, present, and future, our experience of time, and the possibility of time travel. And he provides the most careful, lively, and up-to-date introduction to the physics of time and thestructure of the universe. He guides us step by step through relativity theory and quantum physics, introducing and exp

  2. Stochastic time scale for the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szydlowski, M.; Golda, Z.

    1986-01-01

    An intrinsic time scale is naturally defined within stochastic gradient dynamical systems. It should be interpreted as a ''relaxation time'' to a local potential minimum after the system has been randomly perturbed. It is shown that for a flat Friedman-like cosmological model this time scale is of order of the age of the Universe. 7 refs. (author)

  3. Universal data compression and repetition times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Frans M J

    1989-01-01

    A new universal data compression algorithm is described. This algorithm encodes L source symbols at a time. For the class of binary stationary sources, its rate does not exceed [formula omitted] [formula omitted] bits per source symbol. In our analysis, a property of repetition times turns out to be

  4. A Time Allocation Study of University Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Albert N.; Swann, Christopher A.; Bozeman, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Many previous time allocation studies treat work as a single activity and examine trade-offs between work and other activities. This paper investigates the at-work allocation of time among teaching, research, grant writing and service by science and engineering faculty at top US research universities. We focus on the relationship between tenure…

  5. 'Universal' Distribution of Interearthquake Times Explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saichev, A.; Sornette, D.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a simple theory for the 'universal' scaling law previously reported for the distributions of waiting times between earthquakes. It is based on a largely used benchmark model of seismicity, which just assumes no difference in the physics of foreshocks, mainshocks, and aftershocks. Our theoretical calculations provide good fits to the data and show that universality is only approximate. We conclude that the distributions of interevent times do not reveal more information than what is already known from the Gutenberg-Richter and the Omori power laws. Our results reinforce the view that triggering earthquakes by other earthquakes is a key physical mechanism to understand seismicity

  6. Black-hole universe: time evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Chul-Moon; Okawa, Hirotada; Nakao, Ken-ichi

    2013-10-18

    Time evolution of a black hole lattice toy model universe is simulated. The vacuum Einstein equations in a cubic box with a black hole at the origin are numerically solved with periodic boundary conditions on all pairs of faces opposite to each other. Defining effective scale factors by using the area of a surface and the length of an edge of the cubic box, we compare them with that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. It is found that the behavior of the effective scale factors is well approximated by that in the Einstein-de Sitter universe. In our model, if the box size is sufficiently larger than the horizon radius, local inhomogeneities do not significantly affect the global expansion law of the Universe even though the inhomogeneity is extremely nonlinear.

  7. Forecasting irregular variations of UT1-UTC and LOD data caused by ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedzielski, T.; Kosek, W.

    2008-04-01

    The research focuses on prediction of LOD and UT1-UTC time series up to one-year in the future with the particular emphasis on the prediction improvement during El Nĩ o or La Nĩ a n n events. The polynomial-harmonic least-squares model is applied to fit the deterministic function to LOD data. The stochastic residuals computed as the difference between LOD data and the polynomial- harmonic model reveal the extreme values driven by El Nĩ o or La Nĩ a. These peaks are modeled by the n n stochastic bivariate autoregressive prediction. This approach focuses on the auto- and cross-correlations between LOD and the axial component of the atmospheric angular momentum. This technique allows one to derive more accurate predictions than purely univariate forecasts, particularly during El Nĩ o/La n Nĩ a events. n

  8. Time change and universality in turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    of the probability densities of turbulent velocity increments. Furthermore, the application of a time change in terms of the scale parameter δ of the normal inverse Gaussian distribution results in a collapse of the densities of velocity increments onto Reynolds number independent distributions. We discuss this kind...... experiment. Taylor Reynolds numbers range from Rλ = 80 for the wind tunnel experiment up to Rλ = 17000 for the atmospheric boundary layer experiment. Empirical findings strongly support the appropriateness of normal inverse Gaussian distributions for a parsimonious and universal description...

  9. Zero-bias 32 Gb/s evanescently coupled InGaAs/InP UTC-PDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Siwei; Liang, Song; Xie, Xiao; Xu, Junjie; Guo, Lu; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Wei

    2018-05-01

    We report the design and fabrication of high speed evanescently coupled InGaAs/InP uni-traveling-carrier-photodiodes (UTC-PDs). A self-aligned passive waveguide is integrated with the PDs by a simple fabrication procedure. Open eye diagrams at 32 Gb/s under zero bias are demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, from evanescently or edge coupled InP based PDs, which are easier to be integrated with other optical components than surface illuminated PDs. When used for photonic integrated circuits (PICs) applications, our PDs help to lower the electrical cross talk and power consumption of PICs chips.

  10. University Technology Transfer: In Tough Economic Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Joshua B.; Campbell, Eric G.

    2009-01-01

    In 1907, Frederick Cottrell, professor of chemistry at the University of California-Berkeley and father of the modern academic patent, worried that if universities became too directly involved in patenting and licensing operations, their thirst for profits could lead to the erosion of the openness necessary for academic science to flourish. For…

  11. A 'Universal Time' system for ASDEX upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raupp, Gerhard; Cole, R.; Behler, K.; Fitzek, M.; Heimann, P.; Lohs, A.; Lueddecke, K.; Neu, G.; Schacht, J.; Treutterer, W.; Zasche, D.; Zehetbauer, Th.; Zilker, M.

    2003-01-01

    For the new generation of intelligent controllers for plasma diagnostics, discharge control and long-pulse experiment control a new time system supporting steady state real-time operation has been devised. A central unit counts time at nanosecond resolution, covering more than the experiment lifetime. The broadcast time information serves local units to perform application functions such as current time readout, trigger generation and sample time measurement. Time is treated as a precisely measured quantity like other physical quantities. Tagging all detected events and sampled values with measured times as [value; time]-entities facilitates real-time data analysis, steady state protocolling and time-sorted archiving

  12. Universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon gases

    OpenAIRE

    Pelc, M.; Marciak-Kozlowska, J.; Kozlowski, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we calculate the universal relaxation times for electron and nucleon fermionic gases. We argue that the universal relaxation time tau(i) is equal tau(i)=h/m square v(i) where v(i)=alpha(i)c and alpha(1)=0.15 for nucleon gas and alpha(2)=1/137 for electron gas, c=light velocity. With the universal relaxation time we formulate the thermal Proca equation for fermionic gases. Key words: universal relaxation time, thermal universal Proca equation.

  13. Optimal time travel in the Godel universe

    OpenAIRE

    Natario, Jose

    2011-01-01

    Using the theory of optimal rocket trajectories in general relativity, recently developed in arXiv:1105.5235, we present a candidate for the minimum total integrated acceleration closed timelike curve in the Godel universe, and give evidence for its minimality. The total integrated acceleration of this curve is lower than Malament's conjectured value (Malament, 1984), as was already implicit in the work of Manchak (Manchak, 2011); however, Malament's conjecture does seem to hold for periodic ...

  14. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm 3 or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future

  15. Biodistribution of p-borophenylalanine (BPA) in dogs with spontaneous undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagrosa, M.A. E-mail: aledagrosa@fibertel.com.ar; Viaggi, M.; Rebagliati, R. Jimenez; Castillo, V.A.; Batistoni, D.; Cabrini, R.L.; Castiglia, S.; Juvenal, G.J.; Pisarev, M.A

    2004-11-01

    Human undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) is a very aggressive tumor which lacks an adequate treatment. The UTC human cell line ARO has a selective uptake of BPA in vitro and after transplanting into nude mice. Applications of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) to mice showed a 100% control of growth and a 50% histological cure of tumors with an initial volume of 50 mm{sup 3} or less. As a further step towards the potential application in humans we have performed the present studies. Four dogs with diagnosis of spontaneous UTC were studied. A BPA-fructose solution was infused during 60 min and dogs were submitted to thyroidectomy. Samples of blood and from different areas of the tumors (and in one dog from normal thyroid) were obtained and the boron was determined by ICP-OES. Selective BPA uptake by the tumor was found in all animals, the tumor/blood ratios ranged between 2.02 and 3.76, while the tumor/normal thyroid ratio was 6.78. Individual samples had tumor/blood ratios between 8.36 and 0.33. These ratios were related to the two histological patterns observed: homogeneous and heterogeneous tumors. We confirm the selective uptake of BPA by spontaneous UTC in dogs and plan to apply BNCT in the future.

  16. Time-dependent, Bianchi II, rotating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboucas, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    An exact cosmological solution of Einstein's equations which has time-dependent rotation is presented. The t-constant sections are of Bianchi type II. The source of this geometry is a fluid which has not been thermalized. (Author) [pt

  17. A time-symmetric Universe model and its observational implication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamase, T.; Matsuda, T.

    1987-01-01

    A time-symmetric closed-universe model is discussed in terms of the radiation arrow of time. The time symmetry requires the occurrence of advanced waves in the recontracting phase of the Universe. The observational consequences of such advanced waves are considered, and it is shown that a test observer in the expanding phase can observe a time-reversed image of a source of radiation in the future recontracting phase

  18. Time-symmetric universe model and its observational implication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamase, T.; Matsuda, T.

    1987-08-01

    A time-symmetric closed-universe model is discussed in terms of the radiation arrow of time. The time symmetry requires the occurrence of advanced waves in the recontracting phase of the Universe. We consider the observational consequences of such advanced waves, and it is shown that a test observer in the expanding phase can observe a time-reversed image of a source of radiation in the future recontracting phase.

  19. Universities in times of confusion and hope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jonas Andreasen; Læssøe, Jeppe

    respond to it. While the techno-sciences often are accused for being affirmative and technocratic, they at least offer their students opportunities for working with concrete innovative problem solutions. SSH, has mostly taken the cultural role (Biesta, 2009) of deconstructing, relativizing, complicating...... and criticizing socio-cultural systems, discourses and practices. This is indeed a much needed way of addressing the political. However, at the same time it risks to oppose and exclude the hopeful search for sustainable ways forward rather than to qualify and empower it. Looking for potential ways to rethink SSH...

  20. Before time began the Big Bang and the emerging universe

    CERN Document Server

    Satz, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    What is the origin of the universe? What was there before the universe appeared? We are currently witnessing a second Copernican revolution: neither our Earth and Sun, nor our galaxy, nor even our universe, are the end of all things. Beyond our world, in an endless multiverse, are innumerable other universes, coming and going, like ours or different. Fourteen billion years ago, one of the many bubbles constantly appearing and vanishing in the multiverse exploded to form our universe. The energy liberated in the explosion provided the basis for all the matter our universe now contains. But how could this hot, primordial plasma eventually produce the complex structure of our present world? Does not order eventually always lead to disorder, to an increase of entropy? Modern cosmology is beginning to find out how it all came about and where it all might lead. Before Time Began tells that story.

  1. Outpatient waiting time in Jos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Problem Long waiting time for services has been identified as a reason people avoid presenting to for care in African countries. Design Examination of causes for long outpatient waiting time and the effect of measures to reduce waiting time. Setting Outpatient department of the Jos University Teaching Hospital.

  2. Quantum universe on extremely small space-time scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmichev, V.E.; Kuzmichev, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    The semiclassical approach to the quantum geometrodynamical model is used for the description of the properties of the Universe on extremely small space-time scales. Under this approach, the matter in the Universe has two components of the quantum nature which behave as antigravitating fluids. The first component does not vanish in the limit h → 0 and can be associated with dark energy. The second component is described by an extremely rigid equation of state and goes to zero after the transition to large spacetime scales. On small space-time scales, this quantum correction turns out to be significant. It determines the geometry of the Universe near the initial cosmological singularity point. This geometry is conformal to a unit four-sphere embedded in a five-dimensional Euclidean flat space. During the consequent expansion of the Universe, when reaching the post-Planck era, the geometry of the Universe changes into that conformal to a unit four-hyperboloid in a five-dimensional Lorentzsignatured flat space. This agrees with the hypothesis about the possible change of geometry after the origin of the expanding Universe from the region near the initial singularity point. The origin of the Universe can be interpreted as a quantum transition of the system from a region in the phase space forbidden for the classical motion, but where a trajectory in imaginary time exists, into a region, where the equations of motion have the solution which describes the evolution of the Universe in real time. Near the boundary between two regions, from the side of real time, the Universe undergoes almost an exponential expansion which passes smoothly into the expansion under the action of radiation dominating over matter which is described by the standard cosmological model.

  3. Real-Time PCR for Universal Phytoplasma Detection and Quantification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Nynne Meyn; Nyskjold, Henriette; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the most efficient detection and precise quantification of phytoplasmas is by real-time PCR. Compared to nested PCR, this method is less sensitive to contamination and is less work intensive. Therefore, a universal real-time PCR method will be valuable in screening programs and in other...

  4. The evolving block universe and the meshing together of times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, George F R

    2014-10-01

    It has been proposed that spacetime should be regarded as an evolving block universe, bounded to the future by the present time, which continually extends to the future. This future boundary is defined at each time by measuring proper time along Ricci eigenlines from the start of the universe. A key point, then, is that physical reality can be represented at many different scales: hence, the passage of time may be seen as different at different scales, with quantum gravity determining the evolution of spacetime itself at the Planck scale, but quantum field theory and classical physics determining the evolution of events within spacetime at larger scales. The fundamental issue then arises as to how the effective times at different scales mesh together, leading to the concepts of global and local times. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  5. The Singular Universe and the Reality of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangabeira Unger, Roberto; Smolin, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Introduction; Part I. Roberto Mangabeira Unger: 1. The science of the one universe in time; 2. The context and consequences of the argument; 3. The singular existence of the universe; 4. The inclusive reality of time; 5. The mutability of the laws of nature; 6. The selective realism of mathematics; Part II. Lee Smolin: 1. Cosmology in crisis; 2. Principles for a cosmological theory; 3. The setting: the puzzles of contemporary cosmology; 4. Hypotheses for a new cosmology; 5. Mathematics; 6. Approaches to solving the metalaw dilemma; 7. Implications of temporal naturalism for philosophy of mind; 8. An agenda for science; 9. Concluding remarks; A note concerning disagreements between our views.

  6. Compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factors in human undifferentiated thyroid cancer (UTC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, M.A.; Pisarev, M.; Chung, Y.; Coderre, J.; Riley, K.; Binns, P.; Kahl, S.

    2006-01-01

    We determined the CBE values for BPA an BOPP both individually and combined in a human UTC cell line as preliminary data for future treatments with BNCT. In these studies the exponentially growing cell line (ARO) were distributed into the following groups: 1) BPA (10 ppm 10 B) +neutrons; 2) BOPP (10 ppm 10 B) + neutrons; 3) BPA (5 ppm 10 B) + BOPP (5 ppm 10 B) + neutrons; 4) neutrons alone; 5) X-rays. The cells were irradiated in the thermal neutron beam of the MIT Research Reactor (flux=8.5 10 9 n/cm 2 sec). Surviving fraction (SF) was studied as the endpoint from colony forming assays. The RBE of the beam as well as the CBEs for BPA and BOPP both individually and in combination were determined for two different endpoints. At SF of 0.02 and 0.07 respectively the results were beam RBE: 1.2 and 1.2; CBE for BPA: 3.0 and 3.9; CBE for BOPP: 1.6 and 1.7; and the CBE for BPA and BOPP in combination: 2.4 and 2.6. The CBE values for BPA in combination with BOPP appear additive. These are the first measured data for CBEs for UTC that should prove useful for future clinical studies. (author)

  7. Professional Learning in Part-time University Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Palle

    2007-01-01

    The theme of this article is adult students' learning in part-time studies at university level in Denmark. One issue discussed is the interplay of research and teaching in this kind of study programme. Examples are presented from the Master of Learning Processes study programme at Aalborg...

  8. Chameleon field and the late time acceleration of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chameleon field and the late time acceleration of the Universe. NARAYAN BANERJEE1,∗, SUDIPTA DAS2 and KOYEL GANGULY3. 1IISER-Kolkata, Mohanpur Campus, P.O. BCKV Main Office, District Nadia 741 252,. India. 2Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019, India.

  9. Clinical improvements are not explained by changes in tendon structure on UTC following an exercise program for patellar tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ark, Mathijs; Rio, Ebonie; Cook, Jill; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Gaida, James E; Zwerver, Johannes; Docking, Sean

    2018-04-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week in-season exercise program of isometric or isotonic exercises on tendon structure and dimensions as quantified by Ultrasound Tissue Characterization (UTC). Randomized clinical trial. Volleyball and basketball players (16-31 years, n=29) with clinically diagnosed patellar tendinopathy were randomized to a 4-week isometric or isotonic exercise program. The programs were designed to decrease patellar tendon pain. A baseline and 4-week UTC scan was used to evaluate change in tendon structure. No significant change in tendon structure or dimensions on UTC was detected after the exercise program, despite patellar tendinopathy symptoms improving. The percentage and mean cross-sectional area (mCSA) of aligned fibrillar structure (echo-types I+II) (Z=-0.414,p=0.679) as well as disorganized structure (echo-types III + IV) (Z=-0.370,p=0.711) did not change over the 4-week exercise program. Change in tendon structure and dimensions on UTC did not differ significantly between the groups. Structural properties and dimensions of the patellar tendon on UTC did not change after a 4-week isometric or isotonic exercise program for athletes with patellar tendinopathy in-season, despite an improvement of symptoms. It seems that structural improvements are not required for a positive clinical outcome.

  10. Achilles tendon structure improves on UTC imaging over a 5-month pre-season in elite Australian football players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docking, S I; Rosengarten, S D; Cook, J

    2016-05-01

    Pre-season injuries are common and may be due to a reintroduction of training loads. Tendons are sensitive to changes in load, making them vulnerable to injury in the pre-season. This study investigated changes in Achilles tendon structure on ultrasound tissue characterization (UTC) over the course of a 5-month pre-season in elite male Australian football players. Eighteen elite male Australian football players with no history of Achilles tendinopathy and normal Achilles tendons were recruited. The left Achilles tendon was scanned with UTC to quantify the stability of the echopattern. Participants were scanned at the start and completion of a 5-month pre-season. Fifteen players remained asymptomatic over the course of the pre-season. All four echo-types were significantly different at the end of the pre-season, with the overall echopattern suggesting an improvement in Achilles tendon structure. Three of the 18 participants developed Achilles tendon pain that coincided with a change in the UTC echopattern. This study demonstrates that the UTC echopattern of the Achilles tendon improves over a 5-month pre-season training period, representing increased fibrillar alignment. However, further investigation is needed to elucidate with this alteration in the UTC echopattern results in improved tendon resilience and load capacity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Universe before Planck time: A quantum gravity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmanabhan, T.

    1983-01-01

    A model for quantum gravity can be constructed by treating the conformal degree of freedom of spacetime as a quantum variable. An isotropic, homogeneous cosmological solution in this quantum gravity model is presented. The spacetime is nonsingular for all the three possible values of three-space curvature, and agrees with the classical solution for time scales larger than the Planck time scale. A possibility of quantum fluctuations creating the matter in the universe is suggested

  12. GEOS seismograms for aftershocks of the earthquakes of December 7, 1988, near Spitak, Armenia SSR, during the time period 30 December 1988 14:00 through 2 January 1989 (UTC): Chapter D in Results and data from seismologic and geologic studies following earthquakes of December 7, 1988, near Spitak, Armenia SSR (Open-File Report 89-163)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borcherdt, R.D.; Glassmoyer, Gary; Cranswick, Edward

    1989-01-01

    The earthquakes of December 7, 1988, near Spitak, Armenia SSR, serve as another grim reminder of the serious hazard that earthquakes pose throughout the world. We extend our heartfelt sympathies to the families of the earthquake victims and intend that our cooperative scientific endeavours will help reduce losses in future earthquakes. Only through a better understanding of earthquake hazards can earthquake losses be reduced for all peoples in seismically active regions of the world.The tragic consequences of these earthquakes remind scientists and public officials alike of their urgent responsibilities to understand and mitigate the effects of earthquakes. On behalf of the U.S. Geological Survey, I would like to express appreciation to our Soviet colleagues for their kind invitation to participate in joint scientific and engineering studies. Without their cooperation and generous assistance, the conduct of these studies would not have been possible.This report provides seismologic and geologic data collected during the time period December 21, 1988, through February 2, 1989. These data are presented in their entirety to expedite analysis of the data set for inferences regarding hazard mitigation actions, applicable not only in Armenia but other regions of the world exposed to high seismic risk

  13. Time variable cosmological constants from the age of universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Lixin; Lu Jianbo; Li Wenbo

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, time variable cosmological constant, dubbed age cosmological constant, is investigated motivated by the fact: any cosmological length scale and time scale can introduce a cosmological constant or vacuum energy density into Einstein's theory. The age cosmological constant takes the form ρ Λ =3c 2 M P 2 /t Λ 2 , where t Λ is the age or conformal age of our universe. The effective equation of state (EoS) of age cosmological constant are w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c and w Λ eff =-1+2/3 (√(Ω Λ ))/c (1+z) when the age and conformal age of universe are taken as the role of cosmological time scales respectively. The EoS are the same as the so-called agegraphic dark energy models. However, the evolution histories are different from the agegraphic ones for their different evolution equations.

  14. The cosmological slingshot scenario: a stringy early times universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germani, Cristiano [D.A.M.T.P., Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Grandi, Nicolas [SISSA, via Beirut 4, 34014 Trieste (Italy); Kehagias, Alex [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens, 15780 Zografou Campus, Athens (Greece)], E-mail: Germani@sissa.it, E-mail: grandi@fisica.unlp.edu.ar, E-mail: kehagias@central.ntua.gr

    2008-07-07

    A cosmological model for the early time universe is proposed. In this model, the universe is a wandering brane moving in a warped throat of a Calabi-Yau space. A nonzero angular momentum induces a turning point in the brane trajectory, and leads to a bouncing cosmology as experienced by an observer living on the brane. The universe undergoes a decelerated contraction followed by an accelerating expansion and no big-bang singularity. Although the number of e-folds of accelerated motion is low (less than 2), standard cosmological problems are not present in our model; thanks to the absence of an initial singularity and the violation of energy conditions of mirage matter at high energies. Density perturbations are also calculated in our model and we find a slightly red spectral index with negligible tensorial perturbations in compatibility with WMAP data.

  15. Pluto occultation on 2015 June 29 UTC with central flash and atmospheric spikes just before the New Horizons flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, Bryce A.; Durst, Rebecca F.; Seeger, Christina H.; Levine, Stephen E.; Bosh, Amanda S.; Person, Michael J.; Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Zuluaga, Carlos A.; Kosiarek, Molly R.; Abe, Fumio; Nagakane, Masayuki; Suzuki, Daisuke; Tristram, Paul J.; Arredondo, Anicia

    2017-11-01

    We observed the occultation by Pluto of a 12th magnitude star, one of the two brightest occultation stars ever in our dozen years of continual monitoring of Pluto's atmosphere through such studies, on 2015 June 29 UTC. At the Univ. of Canterbury Mt. John Observatory (New Zealand), under clear skies throughout, we used a POETS frame-transfer CCD at 10 Hz with GPS timing on the 1-m McLellan telescope as well as an infrared camera on an 0.6-m telescope and three-color photometry at a slower cadence on a second 0.6-m telescope. At the Auckland Observatory, we used a POETS and a PICO on 0.5-m and 0.4-m telescopes, with 0.4 s and 2 s cadences, respectively, obtaining ingress observations before clouds moved in. The Mt. John light curves show a central flash, indicating that we were close to the center of the occultation path. Analysis of our light curves show that Pluto's atmosphere remains robust. The presence of spikes at both sites in the egress and ingress shows atmospheric layering. We coordinated our observations with aircraft observations (Bosh et al., 2017) with the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). Our chords helped constrain the path across Pluto that SOFIA saw. Our ground-based and airborne stellar-occultation effort came only just over two weeks of Earth days and two Pluto days before the flyby of NASA's New Horizons spacecraft.

  16. Beyond the dynamical universe unifying block universe physics and time as experienced

    CERN Document Server

    Silberstein, Michael; McDevitt, Timothy

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical physics and foundations of physics have not made much progress in the last few decades. Whether we are talking about unifying general relativity and quantum field theory (quantum gravity), explaining so-called dark energy and dark matter (cosmology), or the interpretation and implications of quantum mechanics and relativity, there is no consensus in sight. In addition, both enterprises are deeply puzzled about various facets of time including above all, time as experienced. The authors argue that, across the board, this impasse is the result of the "dynamical universe paradigm," the idea that reality is fundamentally made up of physical entities that evolve in time from some initial state according to dynamical laws. Thus, in the dynamical universe, the initial conditions plus the dynamical laws explain everything else going exclusively forward in time. In cosmology, for example, the initial conditions reside in the Big Bang and the dynamical law is supplied by general relativity. Accordingly, th...

  17. Continuous-Time Symmetric Hopfield Nets are Computationally Universal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šíma, Jiří; Orponen, P.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 3 (2003), s. 693-733 ISSN 0899-7667 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAB2030007; GA ČR GA201/02/1456 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : continuous-time Hopfield network * Liapunov function * analog computation * computational power * Turing universality Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.747, year: 2003

  18. Phenomenology of the Gowdy Universe on $T^3 \\times R$

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Beverly K.; Garfinkle, David

    1997-01-01

    Numerical studies of the plane symmetric, vacuum Gowdy universe on $T^3 \\times R$ yield strong support for the conjectured asymptotically velocity term dominated (AVTD) behavior of its evolution toward the singularity except, perhaps, at isolated spatial points. A generic solution is characterized by spiky features and apparent ``discontinuities'' in the wave amplitudes. It is shown that the nonlinear terms in the wave equations drive the system generically to the ``small velocity'' AVTD regi...

  19. Pre-Big Bang, space-time structure, asymptotic Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Planck and other recent data in Cosmology and Particle Physics can open the way to controversial analyses concerning the early Universe and its possible ultimate origin. Alternatives to standard cosmology include pre-Big Bang approaches, new space-time geometries and new ultimate constituents of matter. Basic issues related to a possible new cosmology along these lines clearly deserve further exploration. The Planck collaboration reports an age of the Universe t close to 13.8 Gyr and a present ratio H between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale around 67.3 km/s/Mpc. The product of these two measured quantities is then slightly below 1 (about 0.95, while it can be exactly 1 in the absence of matter and cosmological constant in patterns based on the spinorial space-time we have considered in previous papers. In this description of space-time we first suggested in 1996-97, the cosmic time t is given by the modulus of a SU(2 spinor and the Lundmark-Lemaître-Hubble (LLH expansion law turns out to be of purely geometric origin previous to any introduction of standard matter and relativity. Such a fundamental geometry, inspired by the role of half-integer spin in Particle Physics, may reflect an equilibrium between the dynamics of the ultimate constituents of matter and the deep structure of space and time. Taking into account the observed cosmic acceleration, the present situation suggests that the value of 1 can be a natural asymptotic limit for the product H t in the long-term evolution of our Universe up to possible small corrections. In the presence of a spinorial space-time geometry, no ad hoc combination of dark matter and dark energy would in any case be needed to get an acceptable value of H and an evolution of the Universe compatible with observation. The use of a spinorial space-time naturally leads to unconventional properties for the space curvature term in Friedmann-like equations. It therefore suggests a major modification of

  20. Universal time versus relativistic time in four-dimensional symmetry framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, C.B.; Hsu, J.P.; Sherry, T.N.

    1976-12-01

    A new four-dimensional symmetry framework with a universal time is investigated which can be realized by a radioactive clock--the measured survival fraction of unstable particles gives the elapsed time. The world picture turns out to be quite different from that in special relativity. The general space-light transformation and the nonuniversal speed of light in this framework are discussed. The difference between the one-way speed and the two-way speed of a light signal is considered in detail. Moreover, the discussion sheds light on the connection between the universality of the light speed and the clock which does not read universal time. The relation with special relativity theory is examined in a few cases

  1. Stress and Time Management Settings in University of Maroua, Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph BESONG BESONG

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine stress and time in educational management in Maroua University. These two phenomena are profound in educational issues in Cameroon due to the complex administration or management. Education comprised of diversity of activities ranging from administration, discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning. Each of these activities requires time schedule to avoid stress in the face of pressure. Administration requires planning, organizing, controlling, commanding, coordinating, reporting and budgeting. Each of these managing variables requires time, just as discipline, teaching, evaluation and learning should need. The situation may be affected by higher authority interference and cause a rush thus affecting every schedule in the system on this note, it is necessary that every administrator on management cadre should develop a list of activities such as admissions, examinations, sports, vacations and other ceremonies which requires his attention on daily, weekly, or monthly bases and there after allocate in a tentative fashion the most appropriate times for dealing with such activities. Some profile recommendations are: strict adhering to schedules to avoid overlapping or prolongation to other programs; the schedules should be pasted or placed at a convenient point in the office for reference to avoid forgetfulness: as an administrator, time should be allocated for meeting or consulting with visitors and subordinates; he should delegate functions to his accredited subordinates to crave chance or time for essential duty; he should review the school or organization programs on daily, weekly or monthly bases the degree to which his administration goals have been attained and he (i.e. administrator should crave time for rest i.e. holidays, relaxation and various forms of physical exercises to revitalizes the body for subsequent activities. The paper recommends planning which is vital in management to avoid time waste

  2. Time to Tenure in Spanish Universities: An Event History Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Menéndez, Luis; Cruz-Castro, Laura; Alva, Kenedy

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how institutional incentives and mechanisms for assigning recognition shape access to a permanent job is important. This study, based on data from questionnaire survey responses and publications of 1,257 university science, biomedical and engineering faculty in Spain, attempts to understand the timing of getting a permanent position and the relevant factors that account for this transition, in the context of dilemmas between mobility and permanence faced by organizations. Using event history analysis, the paper looks at the time to promotion and the effects of some relevant covariates associated to academic performance, social embeddedness and mobility. We find that research productivity contributes to career acceleration, but that other variables are also significantly associated to a faster transition. Factors associated to the social elements of academic life also play a role in reducing the time from PhD graduation to tenure. However, mobility significantly increases the duration of the non-tenure stage. In contrast with previous findings, the role of sex is minor. The variations in the length of time to promotion across different scientific domains is confirmed, with faster career advancement for those in the Engineering and Technological Sciences compared with academics in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Results show clear effects of seniority, and rewards to loyalty, in addition to some measurements of performance and quality of the university granting the PhD, as key elements speeding up career advancement. Findings suggest the existence of a system based on granting early permanent jobs to those that combine social embeddedness and team integration with some good credentials regarding past and potential future performance, rather than high levels of mobility. PMID:24116199

  3. Time to tenure in Spanish universities: an event history analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Menéndez, Luis; Cruz-Castro, Laura; Alva, Kenedy

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how institutional incentives and mechanisms for assigning recognition shape access to a permanent job is important. This study, based on data from questionnaire survey responses and publications of 1,257 university science, biomedical and engineering faculty in Spain, attempts to understand the timing of getting a permanent position and the relevant factors that account for this transition, in the context of dilemmas between mobility and permanence faced by organizations. Using event history analysis, the paper looks at the time to promotion and the effects of some relevant covariates associated to academic performance, social embeddedness and mobility. We find that research productivity contributes to career acceleration, but that other variables are also significantly associated to a faster transition. Factors associated to the social elements of academic life also play a role in reducing the time from PhD graduation to tenure. However, mobility significantly increases the duration of the non-tenure stage. In contrast with previous findings, the role of sex is minor. The variations in the length of time to promotion across different scientific domains is confirmed, with faster career advancement for those in the Engineering and Technological Sciences compared with academics in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Results show clear effects of seniority, and rewards to loyalty, in addition to some measurements of performance and quality of the university granting the PhD, as key elements speeding up career advancement. Findings suggest the existence of a system based on granting early permanent jobs to those that combine social embeddedness and team integration with some good credentials regarding past and potential future performance, rather than high levels of mobility.

  4. Time to tenure in Spanish universities: an event history analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sanz-Menéndez

    Full Text Available Understanding how institutional incentives and mechanisms for assigning recognition shape access to a permanent job is important. This study, based on data from questionnaire survey responses and publications of 1,257 university science, biomedical and engineering faculty in Spain, attempts to understand the timing of getting a permanent position and the relevant factors that account for this transition, in the context of dilemmas between mobility and permanence faced by organizations. Using event history analysis, the paper looks at the time to promotion and the effects of some relevant covariates associated to academic performance, social embeddedness and mobility. We find that research productivity contributes to career acceleration, but that other variables are also significantly associated to a faster transition. Factors associated to the social elements of academic life also play a role in reducing the time from PhD graduation to tenure. However, mobility significantly increases the duration of the non-tenure stage. In contrast with previous findings, the role of sex is minor. The variations in the length of time to promotion across different scientific domains is confirmed, with faster career advancement for those in the Engineering and Technological Sciences compared with academics in the Biological and Biomedical Sciences. Results show clear effects of seniority, and rewards to loyalty, in addition to some measurements of performance and quality of the university granting the PhD, as key elements speeding up career advancement. Findings suggest the existence of a system based on granting early permanent jobs to those that combine social embeddedness and team integration with some good credentials regarding past and potential future performance, rather than high levels of mobility.

  5. Time series analysis of diverse extreme phenomena: universal features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftaxias, K.; Balasis, G.

    2012-04-01

    The field of study of complex systems holds that the dynamics of complex systems are founded on universal principles that may used to describe a great variety of scientific and technological approaches of different types of natural, artificial, and social systems. We suggest that earthquake, epileptic seizures, solar flares, and magnetic storms dynamics can be analyzed within similar mathematical frameworks. A central property of aforementioned extreme events generation is the occurrence of coherent large-scale collective behavior with very rich structure, resulting from repeated nonlinear interactions among the corresponding constituents. Consequently, we apply the Tsallis nonextensive statistical mechanics as it proves an appropriate framework in order to investigate universal principles of their generation. First, we examine the data in terms of Tsallis entropy aiming to discover common "pathological" symptoms of transition to a significant shock. By monitoring the temporal evolution of the degree of organization in time series we observe similar distinctive features revealing significant reduction of complexity during their emergence. Second, a model for earthquake dynamics coming from a nonextensive Tsallis formalism, starting from first principles, has been recently introduced. This approach leads to an energy distribution function (Gutenberg-Richter type law) for the magnitude distribution of earthquakes, providing an excellent fit to seismicities generated in various large geographic areas usually identified as seismic regions. We show that this function is able to describe the energy distribution (with similar non-extensive q-parameter) of solar flares, magnetic storms, epileptic and earthquake shocks. The above mentioned evidence of a universal statistical behavior suggests the possibility of a common approach for studying space weather, earthquakes and epileptic seizures.

  6. Part-Time Lecturers Teaching Part-Time Learners at University: A Transformation Issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    February, C.; Koetsier, J.; Walters, S.

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the academic labour market and the global labour market provides an important context for this research. There appear to be growing numbers of part-time lecturers at universities worldwide, which is seen as an extension of casualisation of labour more generally. From a social justice perspective, it is therefore of concern…

  7. Universal and local time components in Schumann resonance intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P. Nickolaenko

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available We extend the technique suggested by Sentman and Fraser (1991 and discussed by Pechony and Price (2006, the technique for separating the local and universal time variations in the Schumann resonance intensity. Initially, we simulate the resonance oscillations in a uniform Earth-ionosphere cavity with the distribution of lightning strokes based on the OTD satellite data. Different field components were used in the Dayside source model for the Moshiri (Japan, geographic coordinates: 44.365° N, 142.24° E and Lehta (Karelia, Russia, 64.427° N, 33.974° E observatories. We use the extended Fourier series for obtaining the modulating functions. Simulations show that the algorithm evaluates the impact of the source proximity in the resonance intensity. Our major goal was in estimating the universal alteration factors, which reflect changes in the global thunderstorm activity. It was achieved by compensating the local factors present in the initial data. The technique is introduced with the model Schumann resonance data and afterwards we use the long-term experimental records at the above sites for obtaining the diurnal/monthly variations of the global thunderstorms.

  8. The Worldly Space: The Digital University in Network Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the effect of information technology upon teaching, learning and research in the "digital university". In less than a generation the university has become a business like any other. It does so in the determining context of neoliberal globalisation and the computer revolution. The university develops through what we…

  9. Australian football players' Achilles tendons respond to game loads within 2 days: an ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosengarten, Samuel D; Cook, Jill L; Bryant, Adam L; Cordy, Justin T; Daffy, John; Docking, Sean I

    2015-02-01

    The Achilles tendon is a tissue that responds to mechanical loads at a molecular and cellular level. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that the expression of anabolic and/or catabolic proteins can change within hours of loading and return to baseline levels within 72 h. These biochemical changes have not been correlated with changes in whole tendon structure on imaging. We examined the nature and temporal sequence of changes in Achilles tendon structure in response to competitive game loads in elite Australian football players. Elite male Australian football players with no history of Achilles tendinopathy were recruited. Achilles tendon structure was quantified using ultrasound tissue characterisation (UTC) imaging, a valid and reliable measure of intratendinous structure, the day prior to the match (day 0), and then reimaged on days 1, 2 and 4 postgame. Of the 18 participants eligible for this study, 12 had no history of tendinopathy (NORM) and 6 had a history of patellar or hamstring tendinopathy (TEN). Differences in baseline UTC echopattern were observed between the NORM and TEN groups, with the Achilles of the TEN group exhibiting altered UTC echopattern, consistent with a slightly disorganised tendon structure. In the NORM group, a significant reduction in echo-type I (normal tendon structure) was seen on day 2 (p=0.012) that returned to baseline on day 4. There was a transient change in UTC echopattern in the Achilles tendon as a result of an Australian football game in individuals without a history of lower limb tendinopathy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. Application of Grey Model GM(1, 1) to Ultra Short-Term Predictions of Universal Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Guo, Min; Zhao, Danning; Cai, Hongbing; Hu, Dandan

    2016-03-01

    A mathematical model known as one-order one-variable grey differential equation model GM(1, 1) has been herein employed successfully for the ultra short-term (advantage is that the developed method is easy to use. All these reveal a great potential of the GM(1, 1) model for UT1-UTC predictions.

  11. Stochastic nonlinear time series forecasting using time-delay reservoir computers: performance and universality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryeva, Lyudmila; Henriques, Julie; Larger, Laurent; Ortega, Juan-Pablo

    2014-07-01

    Reservoir computing is a recently introduced machine learning paradigm that has already shown excellent performances in the processing of empirical data. We study a particular kind of reservoir computers called time-delay reservoirs that are constructed out of the sampling of the solution of a time-delay differential equation and show their good performance in the forecasting of the conditional covariances associated to multivariate discrete-time nonlinear stochastic processes of VEC-GARCH type as well as in the prediction of factual daily market realized volatilities computed with intraday quotes, using as training input daily log-return series of moderate size. We tackle some problems associated to the lack of task-universality for individually operating reservoirs and propose a solution based on the use of parallel arrays of time-delay reservoirs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Fabrications, Time-Consuming Bureaucracy and Moral Dilemmas--Finnish University Employees' Experiences on the Governance of University Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhiainen, Arto; Jauhiainen, Annukka; Laiho, Anne; Lehto, Reeta

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how the university workers of two Finnish universities experienced the range of neoliberal policymaking and governance reforms implemented in the 2000s. These reforms include quality assurance, system of defined annual working hours, outcome-based salary system and work time allocation system. Our point of view regarding…

  13. Investigation of ELF Signals Associated with Mine Warfare: A University of Idaho and Acoustic Research Detachment Collaboration, Phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-31

    9] [14] Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO Downloaoed on Jury 27.2010 st 20:36:20 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply...VS25.00 © 2009 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF I3AHO. Downtoadeo on July 27.2010 a: 20:34:14 UTC Iron. IEEE Xplore . Restrictions...2010 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO. Downloaded or, July 27.2010 at 17:15:26 UTC from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions

  14. Time travel in the homogeneous Som-Raychaudhuri Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paiva, F.M.; Reboucas, M.J.; Teixeira, A.F.F.

    1987-01-01

    Properties of the rotating Som-Raychaudhuri homogeneous space-time are investigated: time-like and null geodesics, causality features, horizons and invariant characterization. An integral representation of its five isometries is also discussed. (author) [pt

  15. University Leadership during Times of Significant Transformation: A Case of Kyambogo University in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namubiru, Gertrude; Onen, David; Oonyu, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how leadership was exercised at Kyambogo University [KyU] (in Uganda) during its formation that involved the merger of three tertiary institutions and the period immediately thereafter. This was regarded as a period of significant transformation at the institution. The study was prompted by the rampant strikes and protests…

  16. Optimal time travel in the Gödel universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natário, José

    2012-04-01

    Using the theory of optimal rocket trajectories in general relativity, recently developed in Henriques and Natário (2011), we present a candidate for the minimum total integrated acceleration closed timelike curve in the Gödel universe, and give evidence for its minimality. The total integrated acceleration of this curve is lower than Malament's conjectured value (Malament 1984), as was already implicit in the work of Manchak (Gen. Relativ. Gravit. 51-60, 2011); however, Malament's conjecture does seem to hold for periodic closed timelike curves.

  17. Time, gravitation, and the Universe: the evolution of relativistic theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitrow, G J

    1974-12-31

    An account is given of the historical development or the theory of relativity, particularly from Newton' s mechanics and Maxwell's electrodynamics, and with reference to the importance of the work of 19th century mathematicians such as Riemann, Klein and Neumann, leading to the work of Poincare, Minkowski, Lorentz and Einstein. The Michelson-Morley, Kennedy-Thorndike and IvesStillwell experiments are discussed, the use of the radar concept in relativity, and the discovery in 1965 of the universal black-body microwave radiation. Gravitation and cosmological problems are considered in historical review. (UK)

  18. Multitasking, but for What Benefit? The Dilemma Facing Nigerian University Students Regarding Part-Time Working

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbadamosi, Gbolahan; Evans, Carl; Obalola, Musa Adebayo

    2016-01-01

    Students working part-time while studying for a full-time university degree are commonplace in many Western countries. This paper, however, examines the historically uncommon part-time working activities and career aspirations among Nigerian university students. In particular, how working is perceived to contribute to developing employability…

  19. Tracking of In-111-labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of cerebral ischemia using SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbab, Ali S; Chopp, Michael; Thiffault, Christine; Navia, Bradford; Victor, Stephen J; Hong, Klaudyne; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Quan; Varma, Nadimpalli RS; Iskander, ASM

    2012-01-01

    In order to increase understanding of how infused cells work, it becomes important to track their initial movement, localization, and engraftment efficiency following transplantation. However, the available in vivo cell tracking techniques are suboptimal. The study objective was to determine the biodistribution of intravenously administered Indium-111 (In-111) oxine labeled human umbilical tissue-derived cells (hUTC) in a rat model of transient middle cerebral occlusion (tMCAo) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Rats received 3 million In-111 labeled hUTC (i.v.) 48 hrs after tMCAo. Following the administration of either hUTC or equivalent dose of In-111-oxine (18.5 MBq), animals underwent SPECT imaging on days 0, 1, and 3. Radioactivity in various organs as well as in the stroke area and contralateral hemisphere was determined, decay corrected and normalized to the total (whole body including head) radioactivity on day 0. Immunohistochemical analysis was also performed to confirm the beneficial effects of hUTC on vascular and synaptic density, and apoptosis. Most of the radioactivity (43.36±23.07% on day 0) trafficked to the lungs immediately following IV administration of In-111 labeled hUTC (day 0) and decreased drastically to 8.81±7.75 and 4.01±4.52% on days 1 and 3 post-injection, respectively. In contrast, radioactivity measured in the lung of animals that received In-111-oxine alone remained relatively unchanged from day 0 to day 1 (18.38±5.45% at day 0 to 12.59±5.94%) and decreased to 8.34±4.25% on day 3. Significantly higher radioactivity was observed in stroke areas of animals that received In-111 labeled hUTC indicating the presence of cells at the site of injury representing approximately 1% of total administered dose. In addition, there was significant increase in vascular and synaptophysin immunoreactivity in stroke areas of rats that received In-111 labeled hUTC. The present studies showed the tracking of In-111 labeled hUTC

  20. Time Change and Universality in Turbulence and Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Schmiegel, Jürgen; Shephard, Neil

    Empirical time series of turbulent flows and financial markets reveal some common basic stylized features. In particular, the densities of velocity increments and log returns are well fitted within the class of Normal inverse Gaussian distributions and show a similar evolution across time scales ...

  1. Middle and long-term prediction of UT1-UTC based on combination of Gray Model and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Song; Xu, Tian-he; Sun, Zhang-zhen; Li, Jia-jing

    2017-02-01

    UT1-UTC is an important part of the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP). The high-precision predictions of UT1-UTC play a key role in practical applications of deep space exploration, spacecraft tracking and satellite navigation and positioning. In this paper, a new prediction method with combination of Gray Model (GM(1, 1)) and Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) is developed. The main idea is as following. Firstly, the UT1-UTC data are preprocessed by removing the leap second and Earth's zonal harmonic tidal to get UT1R-TAI data. Periodic terms are estimated and removed by the least square to get UT2R-TAI. Then the linear terms of UT2R-TAI data are modeled by the GM(1, 1), and the residual terms are modeled by the ARIMA. Finally, the UT2R-TAI prediction can be performed based on the combined model of GM(1, 1) and ARIMA, and the UT1-UTC predictions are obtained by adding the corresponding periodic terms, leap second correction and the Earth's zonal harmonic tidal correction. The results show that the proposed model can be used to predict UT1-UTC effectively with higher middle and long-term (from 32 to 360 days) accuracy than those of LS + AR, LS + MAR and WLS + MAR.

  2. A novel universal real-time PCR system using the attached universal duplex probes for quantitative analysis of nucleic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Zoe A

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Real-time PCR techniques are being widely used for nucleic acids analysis, but one limitation of current frequently employed real-time PCR is the high cost of the labeled probe for each target molecule. Results We describe a real-time PCR technique employing attached universal duplex probes (AUDP, which has the advantage of generating fluorescence by probe hydrolysis and strand displacement over current real-time PCR methods. AUDP involves one set of universal duplex probes in which the 5' end of the fluorescent probe (FP and a complementary quenching probe (QP lie in close proximity so that fluorescence can be quenched. The PCR primer pair with attached universal template (UT and the FP are identical to the UT sequence. We have shown that the AUDP technique can be used for detecting multiple target DNA sequences in both simplex and duplex real-time PCR assays for gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and genetically modified organism (GMO quantification with comparable sensitivity, reproducibility, and repeatability with other real-time PCR methods. Conclusion The results from GMO quantification, gene expression analysis, genotype identification, and GMO quantification using AUDP real-time PCR assays indicate that the AUDP real-time PCR technique has been successfully applied in nucleic acids analysis, and the developed AUDP real-time PCR technique will offer an alternative way for nucleic acid analysis with high efficiency, reliability, and flexibility at low cost.

  3. Time Management and Professional Identity of Students of Pedagogical Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Ekaterina V.; Shchipanova, Dina Ye.; Konovalova, Maria E.; Kutyin, Anton O.

    2016-01-01

    Topicality of the problem under research is stipulated by the necessity of personal characteristics consideration in the process of organization of educational and vocational activities of the future teachers in the conditions of educational medium, which sets high requirements to the students' time competence. The aim of the article is to study…

  4. Universal entrainment mechanism controls contact times with motile cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Arnold J. T. M.; Jeanneret, Raphaël; Polin, Marco

    2018-03-01

    Contact between particles and motile cells underpins a wide variety of biological processes, from nutrient capture and ligand binding to grazing, viral infection, and cell-cell communication. The window of opportunity for these interactions depends on the basic mechanism determining contact time, which is currently unknown. By combining experiments on three different species—Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Tetraselmis subcordiforms, and Oxyrrhis marina—with simulations and analytical modeling, we show that the fundamental physical process regulating proximity to a swimming microorganism is hydrodynamic particle entrainment. The resulting distribution of contact times is derived within the framework of Taylor dispersion as a competition between advection by the cell surface and microparticle diffusion, and predicts the existence of an optimal tracer size that is also observed experimentally. Spatial organization of flagella, swimming speed, and swimmer and tracer size influence entrainment features and provide tradeoffs that may be tuned to optimize the estimated probabilities for microbial interactions like predation and infection.

  5. Quantum field theory of the universe in the Kantowski-Sachs space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Y.; Tan, Z.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the quantum field theory of the universe in the Kantowski-Sachs space-time is studied. An analogue of proceedings in quantum field theory is applied in curved space-time to the Kantowski-Sachs space-time, obtaining the wave function of the universe satisfied the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Regarding the wave function as a universe field in the minisuperspace, the authors can not only overcome the difficulty of the probabilistic interpretation in quantum cosmology, but also come to the conclusion that there is multiple production of universes. The average number of the produced universes from nothing is calculated. The distribution of created universe is given. It is the Planckian distribution

  6. GPS Precision Timing at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Beetham, C G

    1999-01-01

    For the past decade, the Global Positioning System (GPS) has been used to provide precise time, frequency and position co-ordinates world-wide. Recently, equipment has become available specialising in providing extremely accurate timing information, referenced to Universal Time Co-ordinates (UTC). This feature has been used at CERN to provide time of day information for systems that have been installed in the Proton Synchrotron (PS), Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) and the Large Electron Positron (LEP) machines. The different systems are described as well as the planned developments, particularly with respect to optical transmission and the Inter-Range Instrumentation Group IRIG-B standard, for future use in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC).

  7. Space-time foam as the universal regulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crane, L.; Smolin, L.

    1985-01-01

    A distribution of virtual black holes in the vacuum will induce modifications in the density of states for small perturbations of gravitational and matter fields. If the virtual black holes fill the volume of a typical spacelike surface then perturbation theory becomes more convergent and may even be finite, depending on how fast the number of virtual black holes increases as their size decreases. For distributions of virtual black holes which are scale invariant the effective dimension of space-time is lowered to a noninteger value less than 4, leading to an interpretation in terms of fractal geometry. In this case general relativity is renormalizable in the 1/N expansion without higher derivative terms. As the Hamiltonian is not modified the theory is stable. (author)

  8. Time, space, and disorder in the expanding proteome universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minde, David-Paul; Dunker, A Keith; Lilley, Kathryn S

    2017-04-01

    Proteins are highly dynamic entities. Their myriad functions require specific structures, but proteins' dynamic nature ranges all the way from the local mobility of their amino acid constituents to mobility within and well beyond single cells. A truly comprehensive view of the dynamic structural proteome includes: (i) alternative sequences, (ii) alternative conformations, (iii) alternative interactions with a range of biomolecules, (iv) cellular localizations, (v) alternative behaviors in different cell types. While these aspects have traditionally been explored one protein at a time, we highlight recently emerging global approaches that accelerate comprehensive insights into these facets of the dynamic nature of protein structure. Computational tools that integrate and expand on multiple orthogonal data types promise to enable the transition from a disjointed list of static snapshots to a structurally explicit understanding of the dynamics of cellular mechanisms. © 2017 The Authors. Proteomics Published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Commission 31: Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsakis, Demetrios; Defraigne, Pascale; Hosokawa, M.; Leschiutta, S.; Petit, G.; Zhai, Z.-C.

    2007-03-01

    The most intensely discussed and controversial issue in time keeping has been the proposal before the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to redefine Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) so as to replace leap seconds by leap hours. Should this proposal be adopted, the practice of inserting leap seconds would cease after a specific date. Should the Earth's rotation continue to de-accelerate at its historical rate, the next discontinuity in UTC would be an hour inserted several centuries from now. Advocates of this proposal cite the need to synchronize satellite and other systems, such as GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS, which did not exist and were not envisioned when the current system was adopted. They note that leap second insertions can be and have been incorrectly implemented or accounted for. Such errors have to date had localized impact, but they could cause serious mishaps involving loss of life. For example, some GPS receivers have been known to fail simply because there was no leap second after a long enough interval, other GPS receivers failed because the leap second information was broadcast more than three months in advance, and some commercial software used for internet time-transfer Network Time Protocol (NTP) could either discard all data received after a leap second or interpret it as a frequency change. The ambiguity associated with the extra second could also disrupt financial accounting and certain forms of encryption. Those opposed to the proposal question the need for a change, and also point out the costs of adjusting to the proposed change and its inconvenience to amateur astronomers and others who rely upon astronomical calculations published in advance. Reports have been circulated that the cost of checking and correcting software to accommodate the new definition of UTC would be many millions of dollars for some systems. In October 2005 American Astronomical Society asked the ITU for a year's time to study the issue. This commission has

  10. Time Perspective, Life Satisfaction and Social Comparison Orientation in University Students

    OpenAIRE

    Nazmiye ÇİVİTCİ; Hülya ŞAHİN BALTACI

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the predictive power of time perspective for the life satisfaction and social comparison in university students. The participants (n= 441; 321 female and 120 male) are undergraduate students at a state university. The data of the study were collected through the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, The Satisfaction with Life Scale and IOWA-Netherlands Social Comparison Orientation Measure. In order to determine the prediction power of the time ...

  11. Part-Time Work and Advancement: A Study of Female Professional Staff in Australian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Janis; Troup, Carolyn; Strachan, Glenda

    2017-01-01

    One focus of gender equity policies in universities has been the creation of "retention" part-time work for professional staff, which allows employees to move between full-time and part-time hours at their request. This paper examines whether such "good" part-time jobs can contribute to or at least not impede women's career…

  12. Time maintenance system for the BMDO MSX spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Martin J.

    1994-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) is responsible for designing and implementing a clock maintenance system for the Ballistic Missile Defense Organizations (BMDO) Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft. The MSX spacecraft has an on-board clock that will be used to control execution of time-dependent commands and to time tag all science and housekeeping data received from the spacecraft. MSX mission objectives have dictated that this spacecraft time, UTC(MSX), maintain a required accuracy with respect to UTC(USNO) of +/- 10 ms with a +/- 1 ms desired accuracy. APL's atomic time standards and the downlinked spacecraft time were used to develop a time maintenance system that will estimate the current MSX clock time offset during an APL pass and make estimates of the clock's drift and aging using the offset estimates from many passes. Using this information, the clock's accuracy will be maintained by uplinking periodic clock correction commands. The resulting time maintenance system is a combination of offset measurement, command/telemetry, and mission planning hardware and computing assets. All assets provide necessary inputs for deciding when corrections to the MSX spacecraft clock must be made to maintain its required accuracy without inhibiting other mission objectives. The MSX time maintenance system is described as a whole and the clock offset measurement subsystem, a unique combination of precision time maintenance and measurement hardware controlled by a Macintosh computer, is detailed. Simulations show that the system estimates the MSX clock offset to less than+/- 33 microseconds.

  13. Timing system design and tests for the Gravity Probe B relativity mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J; Keiser, G M; Ohshima, Y; Shestople, P; Lockhart, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the timing system design and tests for the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. The primary clock of GP-B, called the 16f o clock, was an oven-controlled crystal oscillator that produced a 16.368 MHz master frequency 3 . The 16f o clock and the 10 Hz data strobe, which was divided down from the 16f o clock, provided clock signals to all GP-B components and synchronized the data collection, transmission, and processing. The sampled data of science signals were stamped with the vehicle time, a counter of the 10 Hz data strobe. The time latency between the time of data sampling and the stamped vehicle time was compensated in the ground data processing. Two redundant global positioning system receivers onboard the GP-B satellite supplied an external reference for time transfer between the vehicle time and coordinated universal time (UTC), and the time conversion was established in the ground preprocessing of the telemetry timing data. The space flight operation showed that the error of time conversion between the vehicle time and UTC was less than 2 μs. Considering that the constant timing offsets were compensated in the ground processing of the GP-B science data, the time latency between the effective sampling time of GP-B science signals and the stamped vehicle time was verified to within 1 ms in the ground tests. (paper)

  14. Division A Commission 31: Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Mizuhiko; Arias, Elisa Felicitas; Manchester, Richard; Tuckey, Philip; Matsakis, Demetrios; Zhang, Shougang; Zharov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Time is an essential element of fundamental astronomy. In recent years there have been many time-related issues, in scientific and technological aspects as well as in conventions and definitions. At the Commission 31 (Time) business meeting at the XXIX General Assembly, recent progress and many topics, including Pulsar Time Scales WG and Future UTC WG activities, were reviewed and discussed. In this report, we will review the progress of these topics in the past three years. There are many remarkable topics, such as Time scales, Atomic clock development, Time transfer, Future UTC and future redefinition of the second. Among them, scientific highlights are the progress of pulsar time scales and the optical frequency standards. On the other hand, as the social convention, change in the definition of UTC and the second is important.

  15. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Jerome

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5–18years and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p<0.001 when provided access to sit-stand desks (7.2min/h/student; 9.3% of class time spent standing compared to when they had access to seated desks (0.7min/h/student; 1.6% of class time spent standing but no differences were observed for the number of sit-stand transitions (p=0.47. Students reported high favorability for the sit-stand desks and improvements in several student engagement and affective outcomes while using the sit-stand desks. These findings support introducing sit-stand desks in university classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students. Keywords: Sedentary, University students, Sit-stand desk

  16. The role of Inositol Phosphoglycan as a possible mediator of the radiation effects on undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma (UTC) cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagrosa, Maria A.; Crivello, M.; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Pozzi, Emiliano; Juvenal, Guillermo J.; Pisarev, Mario A.; Krawiec, Leon

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In our laboratory we demonstrated that the Inositol Phosphoglycan (IPG) inhibits thyroperoxidase (TPO) activity and other oxidoreductases in normal bovine thyroid gland cultures, thus increasing the H 2 O 2 levels. On the other hand, when a cell is irradiated, damage is caused either by an increase of free radicals (H 2 O 2 and other reactive oxygen species (ROS)) or by the direct ionization of molecules, depending on the radiation quality. With the purpose to establish if the IPG participates in damage mechanisms by radiation, UTC cells of the tumoral line (ARO) in proliferation, were exposed to high and low LET radiation: gamma, neutrons, He and 7 Li nucleus (the lasts ones produced through Boron Neutron Capture Reaction). In each group, the total physical absorbed doses were 3 and 8 Gy (Ra-3 reactor neutrons flux = 7.5 109 n/cm 2 s). The results show a significant increase in the IPG activity in cells irradiated with gamma and neutrons in comparison with control cultures (p 2 O 2 levels (p [es

  17. Influence of Application Time and Etching Mode of Universal Adhesives on Enamel Adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Keiichi; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Imai, Arisa; Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Ishii, Ryo; Barkmeier, Wayne W; Latta, Mark A; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the influence of application time and etching mode of universal adhesives on enamel adhesion. Five universal adhesives, Adhese Universal, Bondmer Lightless, Clearfil Universal Bond Quick, G-Premio Bond, and Scotchbond Universal, were used. Bovine incisors were prepared and divided into four groups of ten teeth each. SBS, Ra, and SFE were determined after the following procedures: 1. self-etch mode with immediate air blowing after application (IA); 2. self-etch mode with prolonged application time (PA); 3. etch-and-rinse mode with IA; 4. etch-and-rinse mode with PA. After 24-h water storage, the bonded assemblies were subjected to shear bond strength (SBS) tests. For surface roughness (Ra) and surface free energy (SFE) measurements, the adhesives were simply applied to the enamel and rinsed with acetone and water before the measurements were carried out. Significantly higher SBS and Ra values were obtained with etch-and-rinse mode than with self-etch mode regardless of the application time or type of adhesive. Although most adhesives showed decreased SFE values with increased application time in self-etch mode, SFE values in etch-and-rinse mode were dependent on the adhesive type and application time. Etching mode, application time, and type of adhesive significantly influenced the SBS, Ra, and SFE values.

  18. Lyra’s cosmology of hybrid universe in Bianchi-V space-time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Anil Kumar; Bhardwaj, Vinod Kumar

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we have searched for the existence of Lyra’s cosmology in a hybrid universe with minimal interaction between dark energy and normal matter using Bianchi-V space-time. To derive the exact solution, the average scale factor is taken as a={({t}n{e}kt)}\\frac{1{m}} which describes the hybrid nature of the scale factor and generates a model of the transitioning universe from the early deceleration phase to the present acceleration phase. The quintessence model makes the matter content of the derived universe remarkably able to satisfy the null, dominant and strong energy condition. It has been found that the time varying displacement β(t) co-relates with the nature of cosmological constant Λ(t). We also discuss some physical and geometrical features of the universe.

  19. Universal behaviour in the stock market: Time dynamics of the electronic orderbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kızılersü, Ayşe; Kreer, Markus; Thomas, Anthony W.; Feindt, Michael

    2016-07-01

    A consequence of the digital revolution is that share trading at the stock exchange takes place via electronic order books which are accessed by traders and investors via the internet. Our empirical findings of the London Stock Exchange demonstrate that once ultra-high frequency manipulation on time scales less than around ten milliseconds is excluded, all relevant changes in the order book happen with time differences that are randomly distributed and well described by a left-truncated Weibull distribution with universal shape parameter (independent of time and same for all stocks). The universal shape parameter corresponds to maximum entropy of the distribution.

  20. Introducing sit-stand desks increases classroom standing time among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerome, Matthew; Janz, Kathleen F; Baquero, Barbara; Carr, Lucas J

    2017-12-01

    Excessive sedentary behavior has been associated with many negative health outcomes. While an understudied health topic, there is evidence that university students are excessively sedentary. Sit-stand desks have been shown to reduce sedentary time among pre-university students (ages 5-18 years) and sedentary workers but have not been tested in university classrooms. This study tested the effects of introducing sit-stand desks into a university classroom on student's classroom sitting and standing behaviors. Using a cross-over design, students received access to both traditional seated desks and sit-stand desks for six weeks. Data were collected between September and December, 2016. We recruited 304 healthy undergraduate university students enrolled in one of two small (25 seats) classrooms at a large Midwestern university during the fall of 2016. Average minutes of standing/hour/student, average percent class time spent standing, and the number of sit-stand transitions/student/hour were directly observed with video camera surveillance. Participants stood significantly more (p classrooms as an approach to reduce sedentary behaviors of university students.

  1. Relations between Self Regulation, Future Time Perspective and the Delay of Gratification in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Suleyman

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted on 508 (331 female, 144 male) first grade university students in order to investigate the relations between self regulation, the future time perspectives, and the delay of gratification in the academic field. A future time perspective scale, an academic delay of gratification scale and a motivational strategies for…

  2. The Expanding Universe: Time, Space and Spirit--Keys to Scientific Literacy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonebarger, Bill

    Nearly every culture has made important discoveries about the universe. Most cultures have searched for a better understanding of the cosmos and how the earth and human life relate. The discussion in this booklet considers time, space, and spirit. Time refers to a sense of history; space refers to geography; and spirit refers to life and thought.…

  3. Determinants of PhD Completion Time at the University of Ibadan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Apart from conducting an extensive exploratory analysis on PhD production in the university, a binary logistic regression model was also fitted. The dichotomous responses were: completion on time and completion over time. The fitted logistic regression shows that only 10% of PhDs have predicted probability of completion ...

  4. Universal behavior of the interoccurrence times between losses in financial markets: independence of the time resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin

    2014-12-01

    We consider representative financial records (stocks and indices) on time scales between one minute and one day, as well as historical monthly data sets, and show that the distribution P(Q)(r) of the interoccurrence times r between losses below a negative threshold -Q, for fixed mean interoccurrence times R(Q) in multiples of the corresponding time resolutions, can be described on all time scales by the same q exponentials, P(Q)(r)∝1/{[1+(q-1)βr](1/(q-1))}. We propose that the asset- and time-scale-independent analytic form of P(Q)(r) can be regarded as an additional stylized fact of the financial markets and represents a nontrivial test for market models. We analyze the distribution P(Q)(r) as well as the autocorrelation C(Q)(s) of the interoccurrence times for three market models: (i) multiplicative random cascades, (ii) multifractal random walks, and (iii) the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity [GARCH(1,1)] model. We find that only one of the considered models, the multifractal random walk model, approximately reproduces the q-exponential form of P(Q)(r) and the power-law decay of C(Q)(s).

  5. Universal behavior of the interoccurrence times between losses in financial markets: Independence of the time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin

    2014-12-01

    We consider representative financial records (stocks and indices) on time scales between one minute and one day, as well as historical monthly data sets, and show that the distribution PQ(r ) of the interoccurrence times r between losses below a negative threshold -Q , for fixed mean interoccurrence times RQ in multiples of the corresponding time resolutions, can be described on all time scales by the same q exponentials, PQ(r ) ∝1 /{[1+(q -1 ) β r ] 1 /(q -1 )} . We propose that the asset- and time-scale-independent analytic form of PQ(r ) can be regarded as an additional stylized fact of the financial markets and represents a nontrivial test for market models. We analyze the distribution PQ(r ) as well as the autocorrelation CQ(s ) of the interoccurrence times for three market models: (i) multiplicative random cascades, (ii) multifractal random walks, and (iii) the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity [GARCH(1,1)] model. We find that only one of the considered models, the multifractal random walk model, approximately reproduces the q -exponential form of PQ(r ) and the power-law decay of CQ(s ) .

  6. Discretization of space and time: mass-energy relation, accelerating expansion of the Universe, Hubble constant

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the gravitational potential energy that at large distance coincides with the Newtonian. In very precise circumstances it coincides with the relativistic mass-energy relation: this shows that the Universe is a black hole in which all bodies are subjected to an acceleration toward the border of the Universe itself. Since the Universe is a black hole with a fixed radius, we can obtain the density of the Unive...

  7. Does Shortened Application Time Affect Long-Term Bond Strength of Universal Adhesives to Dentin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikaew, P; Matsumoto, M; Chowdhury, Afma; Carvalho, R M; Sano, H

    2018-04-09

    This study evaluated the effect of shortened application time on long-term bond strength with universal adhesives. Three universal adhesives were used: Clearfil Universal Bond (CU, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc, Tokyo, Japan), Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SB, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA) or G-Premio Bond (GP, GC Corp, Tokyo, Japan). Sixty molars were cut to expose midcoronal dentin and prepared with a regular diamond bur. Each adhesive was applied either according to the manufacturer's instruction or with shortened time. Specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours and then cut into resin-dentin sticks. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) was tested after either 24 hours or 1 year of water storage. Data were analyzed by the three-way ANOVA and Duncan tests ( α=0.05). Fracture modes were analyzed under a scanning electron microscope (SEM). One dentin stick per group was selected after fracture mode analysis and further observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Six additional dentin discs were prepared and conditioned with each adhesive under the different application time to observe the adhesive-smear layer interaction by SEM. Shortened application time affected the μTBS ( puniversal adhesives to bur-cut dentin. The performance of universal adhesives can be compromised when applied using a shortened application time.

  8. The quantum theory of time, the block universe, and human experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, Joan A

    2018-07-13

    Advances in our understanding of the physical universe have dramatically affected how we view ourselves. Right at the core of all modern thinking about the universe is the assumption that dynamics is an elemental feature that exists without question. However, ongoing research into the quantum nature of time is challenging this view: my recently introduced quantum theory of time suggests that dynamics may be a phenomenological consequence of a fundamental violation of time reversal symmetry. I show here that there is consistency between the new theory and the block universe view. I also discuss the new theory in relation to the human experience of existing in the present moment, able to reflect on the past and contemplate a future that is yet to happen.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'Foundations of quantum mechanics and their impact on contemporary society'. © 2018 The Authors.

  9. The Universe is Like a Hollowed Sphere. The Wave Concept of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej W. Głuszak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There is space for new ideas of the essence and the entity of time. The article refers to our time concept as a special wave type and presents results of our investigations on this subject. Thus, time defined as waves and an energy carrier could give explanation to multiple unclear phenomena. It could explicate gravity, organization in the planetary systems and light speed limit. A hypothesis that matter exists due to time wave motion would emerge from the elementary particle mass generation by the waves. Time becomes the main driving force in the Universe. The discussed thoughts need further analyses and verification but their confirmation may mean civilization changes.

  10. Ricci time in the Lemaître-Tolman model and the block universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahalawy, Yasser; Hellaby, Charles; Ellis, George F. R.

    2015-10-01

    It is common to think of our universe according to the "block universe" concept, which says that spacetime consists of many "stacked" three-surfaces, labelled by some kind of proper time, . Standard ideas do not distinguish past and future, but Ellis' "evolving block universe" tries to make a fundamental distinction. One proposal for this proper time is the proper time measured along the timelike Ricci eigenlines, starting from the big bang. This work investigates the shape of the "Ricci time" surfaces relative to the the null surfaces. We use the Lemaître-Tolman metric as our inhomogeneous spacetime model, and we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for these constant surfaces, , to be spacelike or timelike. Furthermore, we look at the effect of strong gravity domains by determining the location of timelike S regions relative to apparent horizons. We find that constant Ricci time surfaces are always spacelike near the big bang, while at late times (near the crunch or the extreme far future), they are only timelike under special circumstances. At intermediate times, timelike S regions are common unless the variation of the bang time is restricted. The regions where these surfaces become timelike are often adjacent to apparent horizons, but always outside them, and in particular timelike S regions do not occur inside the horizons of black-hole-like models.

  11. A COMPARISON ON THE TIME MANAGEMENT UNDERSTANDINGS OF UNIVERSITY ACADEMIC STAFF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay Çimen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate time management understandings of university academic staff with their participation or not participation in the sports activities, gender and their work year. The sample of the study consisted of 93 university academic staff who Works at Dumlupinar University (37 women and 56 men. As data collection tool in addition to a questionary, which consists 10 items developed by the researchers, “Time Management Scale”, which was developed by Britton and Tesser (1991 and Turkish adaptation was done by Koçak and Alay (2002 was used. The obtained data were analyzed by using SPSS for windows. In addition to descriptive statistics, Mann Whitney U and Kruskal Wallis test were done in order to determine significant differences between time management understandings of the academic staff. As a result, although, there was no significant difference between participants’ time management understanding according to gender (p>.05 there were significant differences between participants’ time management understandings in the “time attitudes” subscale according to their work year and in “time management” and “time attitudes” subscales according to participation /or not participation in sport activities (p<.05.

  12. Universal behaviour in the stock market: Time dynamics of the electronic orderbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kızılersü, Ayşe, E-mail: ayse.kizilersu@adelaide.edu.au [Special Research Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM), Department of Physics, School of Chemistry and Physics, Adelaide University, 5005 (Australia); Kreer, Markus [phi-t products & services, Karlsruher Strasse 88, 76139 Karlsruhe (Germany); Thomas, Anthony W. [CoEPP and CSSM, Department of Physics, Adelaide University, SA 5005 (Australia); Feindt, Michael [Blue Yonder GmbH, Ohiostraße 8, 756139 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2016-07-29

    A consequence of the digital revolution is that share trading at the stock exchange takes place via electronic order books which are accessed by traders and investors via the internet. Our empirical findings of the London Stock Exchange demonstrate that once ultra-high frequency manipulation on time scales less than around ten milliseconds is excluded, all relevant changes in the order book happen with time differences that are randomly distributed and well described by a left-truncated Weibull distribution with universal shape parameter (independent of time and same for all stocks). The universal shape parameter corresponds to maximum entropy of the distribution. - Highlights: • After the ultra-high frequency manipulation is excluded, all the time differences in the EOB described by a left-truncated Weibull distribution. • The Weibull shape parameter is universal i.e. independent of time and same for all stocks and it is equal to Euler–Mascheroni constant. • The universal shape parameter corresponds to maximum entropy of the distribution.

  13. Universal behaviour in the stock market: Time dynamics of the electronic orderbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kızılersü, Ayşe; Kreer, Markus; Thomas, Anthony W.; Feindt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    A consequence of the digital revolution is that share trading at the stock exchange takes place via electronic order books which are accessed by traders and investors via the internet. Our empirical findings of the London Stock Exchange demonstrate that once ultra-high frequency manipulation on time scales less than around ten milliseconds is excluded, all relevant changes in the order book happen with time differences that are randomly distributed and well described by a left-truncated Weibull distribution with universal shape parameter (independent of time and same for all stocks). The universal shape parameter corresponds to maximum entropy of the distribution. - Highlights: • After the ultra-high frequency manipulation is excluded, all the time differences in the EOB described by a left-truncated Weibull distribution. • The Weibull shape parameter is universal i.e. independent of time and same for all stocks and it is equal to Euler–Mascheroni constant. • The universal shape parameter corresponds to maximum entropy of the distribution.

  14. Stability of cylindrical thin shell wormhole during evolution of universe from inflation to late time acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setare, M.R. [Department of Science, Campus of Bijar, University of Kurdistan,Bijar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sepehri, A. [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University,P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we consider the stability of cylindrical wormholes during evolution of universe from inflation to late time acceleration epochs. We show that there are two types of cylindrical wormholes. The first type is produced at the corresponding point where k black F-strings are transited to BIon configuration. This wormhole transfers energy from extra dimensions into our universe, causes inflation, loses it’s energy and vanishes. The second type of cylindrical wormhole is created by a tachyonic potential and causes a new phase of acceleration. We show that wormhole parameters grow faster than the scale factor in this era, overtake it at ripping time and lead to the destruction of universe at big rip singularity.

  15. Physical activity and sedentary time: male perceptions in a university work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Emma S; Kolt, Gregory S; Rosenkranz, Richard R; Guagliano, Justin M

    2014-03-01

    Promoting physical activity and reducing sedentary time in males can be challenging, and interventions tailored specifically for males are limited. Understanding male perceptions of physical activity and sedentary behavior is important to inform development of relevant interventions, especially for males working in an office setting. As part of a larger intervention study to increase physical activity and reduce sedentary time, male university employees aged 35 to 64 years were invited to partake in focus groups to discuss benefits, motivators, and barriers related to physical activity and sedentary time. Five semistructured focus group sessions, ranging from 50 to 70 minutes in duration, were conducted on two campuses at an Australian university. A total of 15 participants (9 academic/faculty staff and 6 professional staff), with a mean (± SD) age of 46.1 (±8.0) years took part in the study. Health and family were commonly discussed motivators for physical activity, whereas time constraints and work commitments were major barriers to physical activity participation. Sedentary time was a perceived "by-product" of participants' university employment, as a substantial proportion of their days were spent sitting, primarily at a computer. Participants believed that physical activity should be recognized as a legitimate activity at work, embedded within the university culture and endorsed using a top-down approach. It is important to encourage breaks in sedentary time and recognize physical activity as a legitimate health-promoting activity that is supported and encouraged during working hours. These findings can be used as a platform from which to develop targeted strategies to promote physical activity in male university employees.

  16. Agility: A Crucial Capability for Universities in Times of Disruptive Change and Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukerjee, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Government funding cuts have provided a new impetus to Australian universities to re-examine their value proposition and corporate focus. While the sector has gone through waves of change in recent times, institutions are now scrambling for their place in a highly competitive market. Institutions explore new revenue opportunities and digital…

  17. Computing Camps for Girls : A First-Time Experience at the University of Limerick

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McInerney, Clare; Lamprecht, A.L.; Margaria, Tiziana

    2018-01-01

    Increasing the number of females in ICT-related university courses has been a major concern for several years. In 2015, we offered a girls-only computing summer camp for the first time, as a new component in our education and outreach activities to foster students’ interest in our discipline. In

  18. Foreign language classroom anxiety : A study of Chinese university students of Japanese and English over time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Yinxing

    2016-01-01

    This PhD project mainly aimed at exploring the relationship between foreign language (FL) anxiety and FL proficiency development, the sources of FL anxiety, and the stability of FL anxiety over time and across target languages. To this end, 146 L1 Chinese university students, who had been learning

  19. Effects of solvent evaporation time on immediate adhesive properties of universal adhesives to dentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luque-Martinez, Issis V; Perdigão, Jorge; Muñoz, Miguel A; Sezinando, Ana; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) and nanoleakage (NL) of three universal or multi-mode adhesives, applied with increasing solvent evaporation times. One-hundred and forty caries-free extracted third molars were divided into 20 groups for bond strength testing, according to three factors: (1) Adhesive - All-Bond Universal (ABU, Bisco, Inc.), Prime&Bond Elect (PBE, Dentsply), and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive (SBU, 3M ESPE); (2) Bonding strategy - self-etch (SE) or etch-and-rinse (ER); and (3) Adhesive solvent evaporation time - 5s, 15s, and 25s. Two extra groups were prepared with ABU because the respective manufacturer recommends a solvent evaporation time of 10s. After restorations were constructed, specimens were stored in water (37°C/24h). Resin-dentin beams (0.8mm(2)) were tested at 0.5mm/min (μTBS). For NL, forty extracted molars were randomly assigned to each of the 20 groups. Dentin disks were restored, immersed in ammoniacal silver nitrate, sectioned and processed for evaluation under a FESEM in backscattered mode. Data from μTBS were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (adhesive vs. drying time) for each strategy, and Tukey's test (α=0.05). NL data were computed with non-parametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests, α=0.05). Increasing solvent evaporation time from 5s to 25s resulted in statistically higher mean μTBS for all adhesives when used in ER mode. Regarding NL, ER resulted in greater NL than SE for each of the evaporation times regardless of the adhesive used. A solvent evaporation time of 25s resulted in the lowest NL for SBU-ER. Residual water and/or solvent may compromise the performance of universal adhesives, which may be improved with extended evaporation times. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Late time acceleration of the universe in f(R) gravity model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Ankan

    2014-01-01

    In this work, a new way to look at the nature of late time dynamics of the universe for f(R) gravity models using the contracted Bianchi Identity has been proposed. As the Einstein field equations contain derivatives of the curvature scalar R, the contracted Bianchi identity yields a second order nonlinear differential equation in H, the Hubble parameter. This equation is studied for two particular forms of f(R), and the late time behaviour of the model is discussed. (author)

  1. Leisure Times Status Amongst Students of Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences –Yazd, Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hassan Lotfi; Amir Houssain Aminian; Aghdasea Ghomizadea

    2011-01-01

    A large number of the selected students are admitting for the Iranian University to acquire scientific and insight subjects annually. In this way, exposing to different cultural manners, new conditions of educational and dormitory residence place can affect psycho-social aspects of students where a not good planning for fulfilling times of leisure can produce psycho-social problems. This analytic cross sectional study was planned to evaluate the status of lesiure time amongst students of Shah...

  2. Time diary and questionnaire assessment of factors associated with academic and personal success among university undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Darren; Dixon, Sinikka; Stansal, Emory; Gelb, Shannon Lund; Pheri, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    A sample of 231 students attending a private liberal arts university in central Alberta, Canada, completed a 5-day time diary and a 71-item questionnaire assessing the influence of personal, cognitive, and attitudinal factors on success. The authors used 3 success measures: cumulative grade point average (GPA), Personal Success--each participant's rating of congruence between stated goals and progress toward those goals--and Total Success--a measure that weighted GPA and Personal Success equally. The greatest predictors of GPA were time-management skills, intelligence, time spent studying, computer ownership, less time spent in passive leisure, and a healthy diet. Predictors of Personal Success scores were clearly defined goals, overall health, personal spirituality, and time-management skills. Predictors of Total Success scores were clearly defined goals, time-management skills, less time spent in passive leisure, healthy diet, waking up early, computer ownership, and less time spent sleeping. Results suggest alternatives to traditional predictors of academic success.

  3. The time to degree or dropout amongst full-time master's students at University of KwaZulu-Natal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Zewotir

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Universities around the world are grappling with strategies to increase throughput and minimise dropout rates of postgraduate students. This study focuses on students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and we attempt to estimate the time that it takes for these students to successfully complete or drop out from a master's programme. We used survival analysis to identify the factors which affect this. The results of this analysis showed that having some form of financial aid and/or being a student in the Faculties of Humanities or Management, all significantly shortened the length of time that it took to eventually drop out from a master's programme. For students who successfully completed a master's degree, having some form of financial aid, being of international origin and/or being registered in the Faculties of Health, Humanities, Law or Management, all helped to significantly shorten the length of time it took to successfully complete a master's programme. Students in the Faculty of Medicine, however, took longer to successfully complete their studies. Black Africans took less time to complete their master's degrees when compared with otherwise identical students from the other race groups.

  4. The association between time perspective and alcohol consumption in university students: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beenstock, Jane; Adams, Jean; White, Martin

    2011-08-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Levels of alcohol consumption among students and young people are particularly high. Time perspective describes the varying value individuals place on outcomes in the present and future. In general, it has been found that individuals prefer to receive a gain today rather than in the future. There is evidence that time perspective is associated with addictive health behaviours, including alcoholism and cigarette smoking, but less evidence of its association with non-addictive, but hazardous, levels of alcohol consumption. The objective was to determine if there is an association between time perspective and hazardous alcohol consumption. A cross-sectional survey using a self-completion questionnaire was administered to willing undergraduate students attending a convenience sample of lectures in two university faculties. Hazardous alcohol consumption was defined as a score of ≥8 on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and time perspective was measured using the Consideration of Future Consequences Scale (CFCS). Participants were 322 undergraduate university students in two faculties at a university in Northern England, UK. Hazardous alcohol consumption was reported by 264 (82%) respondents. After controlling for potential confounding by socio-demographic variables, greater consideration of future consequences was associated with lower odds of reporting hazardous drinking [odds ratio = 0.28; 95% confidence interval 0.15-0.54]. Interventions aimed at increasing future orientated time perspective may be effective in decreasing hazardous alcohol consumption in students.

  5. The universe in your hand a journey through space, time and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Galfard, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Imagine if The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy were a real, practical book about the mysteries of the universe...The Universe In Your Hand takes us on a wonder-filled journey to the surface of our dying Sun, shrinks us to the size of an atom and puts us in the deathly grip of distant Black Holes. Along the way you might come to understand, really understand, the mind-bending science that underpins modern life, from Quantum Mechanics to Einstein's theory of General Relativity. Through brilliant storytelling and humour rather than graphs and equations, internationally renowned astrophysicist Christophe Galfard has written an instant classic that brings the astonishing beauty of the universe to life - and takes us deep into questions about the beginning of time and the future of humanity.

  6. Kennedy Space Center Timing and Countdown Interface to Kennedy Ground Control Subsystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, James C.

    2015-01-01

    Kennedy Ground Control System (KGCS) engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Kennedy Space Center (KSC) are developing a time-tagging process to enable reconstruction of the events during a launch countdown. Such a process can be useful in the case of anomalies or other situations where it is necessary to know the exact time an event occurred. It is thus critical for the timing information to be accurate. KGCS will synchronize all items with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) obtained from the Timing and Countdown (T&CD) organization. Network Time Protocol (NTP) is the protocol currently in place for synchronizing UTC. However, NTP has a peak error that is too high for today's standards. Precision Time Protocol (PTP) is a newer protocol with a much smaller peak error. The focus of this project has been to implement a PTP solution on the network to increase timing accuracy while introducing and configuring the implementation of a firewall between T&CD and the KGCS network.

  7. Universal SaaS platform of internet of things for real-time monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tongke; Wu, Gang

    2018-04-01

    Real-time monitoring service, as a member of the IoT (Internet of Things) service, has a wide range application scenario. To support rapid construction and deployment of applications and avoid repetitive development works in these processes, this paper designs and develops a universal SaaS platform of IoT for real-time monitoring. Evaluation shows that this platform can provide SaaS service to multiple tenants and achieve high real-time performance under the situation of large amount of device access.

  8. Universe

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  9. How the universe got its spots diary of a finite time in a finite space

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Janna

    2002-01-01

    Is the universe infinite, or is it just really big? Does nature abhor infinity? In startling and beautiful prose, Janna Levin's diary of unsent letters to her mother describes what we know about the shape and extent of the universe, about its beginning and its end. She grants the uninitiated access to the astounding findings of contemporary theoretical physics and makes tangible the contours of space and time--those very real curves along which apples fall and planets orbit. Levin guides the reader through the observations and thought-experiments that have enabled physicists to begin charting the universe. She introduces the cosmic archaeology that makes sense of the pattern of hot spots left over from the big bang, a pursuit on the verge of discovering the shape of space itself. And she explains the topology and the geometry of the universe now coming into focus--a strange map of space full of black holes, chaotic flows, time warps, and invisible strings. Levin advances the controversial idea that this map ...

  10. Primordial inhomogeneities in the expanding universe. II - General features of spherical models at late times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, D. W.; Silk, J.

    1979-01-01

    This paper studies the density profile that forms around a spherically symmetric bound central core immersed in a homogeneous-background k = 0 or k = -1 Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological model, with zero pressure. Although the density profile in the linearized regime is almost arbitrary, in the nonlinear regime certain universal features of the density profile are obtained that are independent of the details of the initial conditions. The formation of 'halos' ('holes') with densities greater than (less than) the average cosmological density is discussed. It is shown that in most regions 'halos' form, and universal values are obtained for the slope of the ln (density)-ln (radius) profile in those 'halos' at late times, independently of the shape of the initial density profile. Restrictions are derived on where it is possible for 'holes' to exist at late times and on how such 'holes' must have evolved.

  11. Spanish version of the Time Management Behavior Questionnaire for university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ros, Rafael; Pérez-González, Francisco

    2012-11-01

    The main objective of the study is to analyze the psychometric properties and predictive capacity on academic performance in university contexts of a Spanish adaptation of the Time Management Behavior Questionnaire. The scale was applied to 462 students newly admitted at the Universitat de València in the 2006-2007 school year. The analyses performed made it possible to reproduce the factorial structure of the original version of the questionnaire with slight modifications in the ascription of various items. The underlying factorial structure includes four interrelated dimensions (Establishing objectives and priorities, Time management tools, Perception of time control and Preference for disorganization), which present satisfactory levels of reliability and an adequate convergent validity with the Time management subscale of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. The scores on the dimensions of time management show significant levels of association with academic performance in the first year of university studies, especially highlighting the predictive capacity of the subscale dealing with the Establishment of objectives and priorities. These results show the reliability and validity of this adaptation of the scale for evaluating how the students manage their academic time, and predicting their performance in the year they initiate the degree program, thus aiding in the development of intervention proposals directed towards improving these skills.

  12. Superluminal Kinematics in the Milne Universe Causality in the Cosmic Time Order

    CERN Document Server

    Tomaschitz, R

    2000-01-01

    The causality of superluminal signal transfer in the galaxy background is scrutinized. The cosmic time of the comoving galaxy frame determines a distinguished time order for events connected by superluminal signals. Every observer can relate his rest frame to the galaxy frame, and compare so the time order of events in his proper time to the cosmic time order. In this way all observers arrive at identical conclusions on the causality of events connected by superluminal signals. The energy of tachyons (superluminal particles) is defined in the comoving galaxy frame analogous to the energy of subluminal particles. It is positive in the galaxy frame and bounded from below in the rest frames of geodesically moving observers, so that particle-tachyon interactions can be based on energy-momentum conservation. We study tachyons in a Robertson-Walker cosmology with linear expansion factor and open, negatively curved 3-space (Milne universe). This cosmology admits globally geodesic rest frames for uniformly moving obs...

  13. The Influence of Personal Well-Being on Learning Achievement in University Students Over Time: Mediating or Moderating Effects of Internal and External University Engagement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Yu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the relationship between students' personal well-being and their learning achievement during university study, and whether such relationship would be mediated or moderated by university engagement. A total of 434 university students from one public university in Hong Kong participated in the study. The participants completed an online survey consisting of personal well-being (cognitive behavioral competence and general positive youth development, university engagement, and learning achievement measures (personal growth, and accumulated GPA as academic achievement at four time points with a 1-year interval. Results showed that personal well-being measured at the beginning of university study positively predicted students' personal growth and academic achievement after 3 years' study. While the internal dimensions of university engagement (academic challenge and learning with peers showed longitudinal significant mediational effect, the external dimensions (experience with faculty and campus environment did not have significant longitudinal moderating effect. Nevertheless, external dimensions of student engagement also showed direct effect on personal growth and academic achievement. The long-standing positive effects of personal well-being on university engagement and subsequently, learning achievement during university years call for more attention to the promotion of holistic development among university students in Hong Kong.

  14. The Influence of Personal Well-Being on Learning Achievement in University Students Over Time: Mediating or Moderating Effects of Internal and External University Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Shek, Daniel T. L.; Zhu, Xiaoqin

    2018-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between students' personal well-being and their learning achievement during university study, and whether such relationship would be mediated or moderated by university engagement. A total of 434 university students from one public university in Hong Kong participated in the study. The participants completed an online survey consisting of personal well-being (cognitive behavioral competence and general positive youth development), university engagement, and learning achievement measures (personal growth, and accumulated GPA as academic achievement) at four time points with a 1-year interval. Results showed that personal well-being measured at the beginning of university study positively predicted students' personal growth and academic achievement after 3 years' study. While the internal dimensions of university engagement (academic challenge and learning with peers) showed longitudinal significant mediational effect, the external dimensions (experience with faculty and campus environment) did not have significant longitudinal moderating effect. Nevertheless, external dimensions of student engagement also showed direct effect on personal growth and academic achievement. The long-standing positive effects of personal well-being on university engagement and subsequently, learning achievement during university years call for more attention to the promotion of holistic development among university students in Hong Kong. PMID:29375421

  15. Universal Earthquake-Occurrence Jumps, Correlations with Time, and Anomalous Diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corral, Alvaro

    2006-01-01

    Spatiotemporal properties of seismicity are investigated for a worldwide (WW) catalog and for southern California in the stationary case (SC), showing a nearly universal scaling behavior. Distributions of distances between consecutive earthquakes (jumps) are magnitude independent and show two power-law regimes, separated by jump values about 200 (WW) and 15 km (SC). Distributions of waiting times conditioned to the value of jumps show that both variables are correlated, in general, but turn out to be independent when only short or long jumps are considered. Finally, diffusion profiles are found to be independent on the magnitude, contrary to what the waiting-time distributions suggest

  16. Leisure-time physical activity and psychological well-being in university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, J; Castillo, I; Queralt, A

    2011-10-01

    An analysis of psychological well-being (self-esteem and subjective vitality) of 639 Spanish university students was performed, while accounting for the amount of leisure-time physical activity. The Spanish versions of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and Subjective Vitality Scale were employed. Participants were divided into four groups (Low, Moderate, High, and Very high) depending on estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity. Men and women having higher physical activity rated higher mean subjective vitality; however, differences in self-esteem were observed only in men, specifically between Very high and the other physical activity groups.

  17. Influence of Conditioning Time of Universal Adhesives on Adhesive Properties and Enamel-Etching Pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenas, A M; Siqueira, F; Rocha, J; Szesz, A L; Anwar, M; El-Askary, F; Reis, A; Loguercio, A

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of application protocol in resin-enamel microshear bond strength (μSBS), in situ degree of conversion, and etching pattern of three universal adhesive systems. Sixty-three extracted third molars were sectioned in four parts (buccal, lingual, and proximals) and divided into nine groups, according to the combination of the main factors-Adhesive (Clearfil Universal, Kuraray Noritake Dental Inc, Tokyo, Japan; Futurabond U, VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany; and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, 3M ESPE, St Paul, MN, USA)-and enamel treatment/application time (etch-and-rinse mode [ER], self-etch [SE] application for 20 seconds [SE20], and SE application for 40 seconds [SE40]). Specimens were stored in water (37°C/24 h) and tested at 1.0 mm/min (μSBS). The degree of conversion of the adhesives at the resin-enamel interfaces was evaluated using micro-Raman spectroscopy. The enamel-etching pattern was evaluated under a scanning electron microscope. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (α=0.05). In general, the application of the universal adhesives in the SE40 produced μSBS and degree of conversion that were higher than in the SE20 (puniversal adhesives in the SE mode may be a viable alternative to increase the degree of conversion, etching pattern, and resin-enamel bond strength.

  18. Time reborn from the crisis in physics to the future of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Smolin, Lee

    2013-01-01

    One of our foremost thinkers and public intellectuals offers a radical new view of the nature of time and the cosmos. The fact that time is real may seem obvious. You experience it passing every day when you watch clocks tick, bread toast, and children grow. But most physicists see things differently, from Newton to Einstein to today’s quantum theorists. For them, time isn’t real. You may think you experience time passing, but they say it’s just an illusion. Lee Smolin, author of the controversial bestseller The Trouble with Physics, argues this limited notion of time is holding physics back. It’s time for a major revolution in scientific thought. The reality of time could be the key to the next big breakthrough in theoretical physics. What if the laws of physics themselves were not timeless? What if they could evolve? Time Reborn offers a radical new approach to cosmology that embraces the reality of time and opens up a whole new universe of possibilties. There are few ideas that, like our noti...

  19. Time Resolution Dependence of Information Measures for Spiking Neurons: Scaling and Universality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Crutchfield

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The mutual information between stimulus and spike-train response is commonly used to monitor neural coding efficiency, but neuronal computation broadly conceived requires more refined and targeted information measures of input-output joint processes. A first step towards that larger goal is todevelop information measures for individual output processes, including information generation (entropy rate, stored information (statisticalcomplexity, predictable information (excess entropy, and active information accumulation (bound information rate. We calculate these for spike trains generated by a variety of noise-driven integrate-and-fire neurons as a function of time resolution and for alternating renewal processes. We show that their time-resolution dependence reveals coarse-grained structural properties of interspike interval statistics; e.g., $tau$-entropy rates that diverge less quickly than the firing rate indicate interspike interval correlations. We also find evidence that the excess entropy and regularized statistical complexity of different types of integrate-and-fire neurons are universal in the continuous-time limit in the sense that they do not depend on mechanism details. This suggests a surprising simplicity in the spike trains generated by these model neurons. Interestingly, neurons with gamma-distributed ISIs and neurons whose spike trains are alternating renewal processes do not fall into the same universality class. These results lead to two conclusions. First, the dependence of information measures on time resolution reveals mechanistic details about spike train generation. Second, information measures can be used as model selection tools for analyzing spike train processes.

  20. Value of H, space-time patterns, vacuum, matter, expansion of the Universe, alternative cosmologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez-Mestres Luis

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To the experimental uncertainties on the present value H0 of the Lundmark - Lemaître-Hubble constant, fundamental theoretical uncertainties of several kinds should also be added. In standard Cosmology, consistency problems are really serious. The cosmological constant is a source of well-known diffculties while the associated dark energy is assumed to be at the origin of the observed acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. But in alternative cosmologies, possible approaches without these problems exist. An example is the pattern based on the spinorial space-time (SST we introduced in 1996-97 where the H t = 1 relation (t = cosmic time = age of the Universe is automatically generated by a pre-existing cosmic geometry before standard matter and conventional forces, including gravitation and relativity, are introduced. We analyse present theoretical, experimental and observational uncertainties, focusing also on the possible sources of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe as well as on the structure of the physical vacuum and its potential cosmological role. Particular attention is given to alternative approaches to both Particle Physics and Cosmology including possible preonic constituents of the physical vacuum and associated pre-Big Bang patterns. A significant example is provided by the cosmic SST geometry together with the possibility that the expanding cosmological vacuum releases energy in the form of standard matter and dark matter, thus modifying the dependence of the matter energy density with respect to the age and size of our Universe. The SST naturally generates a new leading contribution to the value of H. If the matter energy density decreases more slowly than in standard patterns, it can naturally be at the origin of the observed acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. The mathematical and dynamical structure of standard Physics at very short distances can also be modified by an underlying preonic

  1. Value of H, space-time patterns, vacuum, matter, expansion of the Universe, alternative cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2017-12-01

    To the experimental uncertainties on the present value H0 of the Lundmark - Lemaître-Hubble constant, fundamental theoretical uncertainties of several kinds should also be added. In standard Cosmology, consistency problems are really serious. The cosmological constant is a source of well-known diffculties while the associated dark energy is assumed to be at the origin of the observed acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. But in alternative cosmologies, possible approaches without these problems exist. An example is the pattern based on the spinorial space-time (SST) we introduced in 1996-97 where the H t = 1 relation (t = cosmic time = age of the Universe) is automatically generated by a pre-existing cosmic geometry before standard matter and conventional forces, including gravitation and relativity, are introduced. We analyse present theoretical, experimental and observational uncertainties, focusing also on the possible sources of the acceleration of the expansion of the Universe as well as on the structure of the physical vacuum and its potential cosmological role. Particular attention is given to alternative approaches to both Particle Physics and Cosmology including possible preonic constituents of the physical vacuum and associated pre-Big Bang patterns. A significant example is provided by the cosmic SST geometry together with the possibility that the expanding cosmological vacuum releases energy in the form of standard matter and dark matter, thus modifying the dependence of the matter energy density with respect to the age and size of our Universe. The SST naturally generates a new leading contribution to the value of H. If the matter energy density decreases more slowly than in standard patterns, it can naturally be at the origin of the observed acceleration of the expansion of the Universe. The mathematical and dynamical structure of standard Physics at very short distances can also be modified by an underlying preonic structure. If preons are

  2. Accrediting High-School Students' Part-Time Work to Support Effective Transitions to, through and beyond University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Carl; Richardson, Mark

    2018-01-01

    Models of accrediting work-based learning are now commonplace in universities. The purpose of this viewpoint article is to highlight an opportunity for universities not only to accredit students' part-time work against the degree award but also to extend the process into schools by accrediting the part-time work undertaken by year 12 and 13…

  3. Universal time-dependence of the mean-square displacement in extremely rugged energy landscapes with equal minima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Jacobsen, Jacob M.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents a calculation of the time dependence of the mean-square displacement for symmetric random energy barrier hopping models at low temperatures, where the frequency dependence of the normalized diffusion constant D-tilde becomes universal, i.e., independent of the energy barrier...... probability distribution [J. C. Dyre, Phys. Rev. B 49, 11 709 (1994)]. The universal time dependence of the mean-square displacement is calculated from the effective medium approximation (EMA) universality equation, D-tilde lnD-tilde=s-tilde, where s-tilde is the dimensionless imaginary frequency, as well...... as for the approximation to the EMA universality equation D-tilde~=s-tilde/ln(1+s-tilde). At long times the universal mean-square displacement is linear in time, corresponding to ordinary diffusion, whereas the mean-square displacement at short times t in dimensionless units varies as 2/ln(t-1)....

  4. The pattern of time management in college students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in the year 2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Ravari; Fatemeh Alhani; Monireh Anoosheh; Tayebeh Mirzaie-Khalilabadi

    2008-01-01

    Background: One potential coping strategy frequently offered by university counseling services is time management for studying. Besides stress relief, time management skills will positively influence key outcomes such as academic performance, problem-solving ability, and health. Thus, it is necessary to investigate how college students manage their timing for studying. The aim of the present study was to assess the pattern of college students' time management in Kerman University of Medical S...

  5. Measuring the universe our historic quest to chart the horizons of space and time

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, Kitty

    1999-01-01

    More than 2,000 years ago, Eratosthenes, in Alexandria, used a stick, a hole in the ground, sunllght at summer solstice, and elementary geometry to measure the circumference of the Earth with surprising accuracy, long before anyone was able to circumnavigate it. Today, scientists are attempting to measure the entire universe and to determine its origin. Although the methods have changed, the quest to chart the horizons of space and time continues to be one of the great adventures of science. Measuring the Universe is an eloquent chronicle of the men and women– from Aristarchus to Cassini, Sir Isaac Newton to Henrietta Leavitt and Stephen Hawking–who have gradually unlocked the mysteries of "how far" and in so doing have changed our ideas about the size and nature of the universe and our place in it. Kitty Ferguson reveals their methods to have been as inventive as their results were–and are–eye-opening. Advances such as Copernicus's revolutionary insights about the arrangement of the solar system, Wi...

  6. The need for time management training is universal: evidence from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Adnan; Ersoy, Korkut

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, healthcare administrators are currently facing challenges that are representative of those in the United States. Most healthcare administrators here are physicians with no formal training in healthcare administration, and this is perhaps most apparent in their difficulties with time management. The authors' purpose in this study was to characterize the time management difficulties of administrators working in primary healthcare facilities of the Ministry of Healthcare. In the study, 67 healthcare administrators each completed a 31-item time management questionnaire. Of the participants, 79.1% reported that they have never attended time management courses or workshops. Although 76.1% said they were free to choose the priority of their daily tasks, only 44.8% felt they knew how much time they should allow for each activity in their daily life. These and other findings in the study suggest that the need for time management education is a well-defined target for intervention, both in university-based programs for future healthcare administrators and in workplace-based programs, such as in-service training for healthcare administrators who are already working.

  7. Universality and the dynamical space-time dimensionality in the Lorentzian type IIB matrix model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yuta [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Nishimura, Jun [KEK Theory Center, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization,1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Graduate University for Advanced Studies (SOKENDAI),1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Tsuchiya, Asato [Department of Physics, Shizuoka University,836 Ohya, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka 422-8529 (Japan)

    2017-03-27

    The type IIB matrix model is one of the most promising candidates for a nonperturbative formulation of superstring theory. In particular, its Lorentzian version was shown to exhibit an interesting real-time dynamics such as the spontaneous breaking of the 9-dimensional rotational symmetry to the 3-dimensional one. This result, however, was obtained after regularizing the original matrix integration by introducing “infrared” cutoffs on the quadratic moments of the Hermitian matrices. In this paper, we generalize the form of the cutoffs in such a way that it involves an arbitrary power (2p) of the matrices. By performing Monte Carlo simulation of a simplified model, we find that the results become independent of p and hence universal for p≳1.3. For p as large as 2.0, however, we find that large-N scaling behaviors do not show up, and we cannot take a sensible large-N limit. Thus we find that there is a certain range of p in which a universal large-N limit can be taken. Within this range of p, the dynamical space-time dimensionality turns out to be (3+1), while for p=2.0, where we cannot take a sensible large-N limit, we observe a (5+1)d structure.

  8. Iranian Students’ Specific Life Style and Leisure Time; a Case Study of University of Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Ramazaniandarzi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Leisure time as a modern social is being focused these days, albeit any sort of interest isn't specifically arranged under it. Inside this exploration the framing encounters of necessities and styles of college students were examined. In this examination it has been attempted by using Bourdieu hypothesis the exploration questions are proposed. The members of the examination are for the most part female and male understudies University of Tehran. The specimen was picked by the use of Cochran with the standard deviation of 0.4.5% 470 students. The outcomes demonstrated that members can isolate in two sections dynamic and idle style which the vast majority of interviewees are willing toward a dormant style of relaxation time. While the significant piece of understudies' chance is spent on the utilization of innovative devices conveniently. For sure, watching satellite motion pictures and arrangement, investing energy in broad daylight talk rooms, PC amusements, are only a misuse of understudies' opportunity.

  9. Mathematics in energy related research at the Tennessee Valley Authority, at Union Carbide's Oak Ridge Facilities, and at University of Tennessee College of Engineering. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barett, L.K.

    1979-05-01

    This report contains a description of the work performed under the Department of Energy Contract No. ER078-S-05-5944 to the University of Tennessee. The major objective of this contract was to survey and to classify a selection of the mathematics used in energy-related activities at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), at Union Carbide's Oak Ridge Facilities (UCORF), and at the University of Tennessee College of Engineering (UTCE). Eighty-seven projects were identified at these organizations in which mathematics plays a significant modeling or problem-solving role. Uniform abstracts of these projects are included in this report, as well as abstracts of twenty-seven presentations by TVA and UCORF personnel on the topic of mathematics in energy research, at the 1978 Fall SIAM meeting. Classifications of these one hundred and fourteen abstracts are given in terms of the energy area or function involved and in terms of the mathematical disciplines used in the activity. Only a selection of the mathematical activity at the TVA, UCORF, and UTCE involved in energy research was obtained due to time and budget constraints. However, it was possible to make some important observations and recommendations based upon these sample data, and these are included in the summary of this report

  10. A study on evacuation time from lecture halls in Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, W. N. A. W.; Tohir, M. Z. M.

    2018-04-01

    An evacuation situation in any building involves many risks. The geometry of building and high potential of occupant load may affect the efficiency of evacuation process. Although fire safety rules and regulations exist, they remain insufficient to guarantee the safety of all building occupants and do not prevent the dramatic events to be repeated. The main objective of this project is to investigate the relationship between the movement time, travel speed and occupant density during a series of evacuation drills specifically for lecture halls. Generally, this study emphasizes on the movement of crowd within a limited space and includes the aspects of human behaviour. A series of trial evacuations were conducted in selected lecture halls at Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia with the aim of collecting actual data for numerical analysis. The numerical data obtained during trial evacuations were used to determine the evacuation time, crowd movement and behaviour during evacuation process particularly for lecture halls. The evacuation time and number of occupants exiting from each exit were recorded. Video camera was used to record and observe the movement behaviour of occupants during evacuations. EvacuatioNZ was used to simulate the trials evacuations of DK 5 and the results predicted were compared with experimental data. EvacuatioNZ was also used to predict the evacuation time and the flow of occupants exiting from each door for DK 4 and DK 8.

  11. Running vacuum in the Universe and the time variation of the fundamental constants of Nature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsch, Harald [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Munich (Germany); Sola, Joan [Nanyang Technological University, Institute for Advanced Study, Singapore (Singapore); Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Universitat de Barcelona (ICCUB), Institute of Cosmos Sciences, Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain); Nunes, Rafael C. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Dept. de Fisica, Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    We compute the time variation of the fundamental constants (such as the ratio of the proton mass to the electron mass, the strong coupling constant, the fine-structure constant and Newton's constant) within the context of the so-called running vacuum models (RVMs) of the cosmic evolution. Recently, compelling evidence has been provided that these models are able to fit the main cosmological data (SNIa+BAO+H(z)+LSS+BBN+CMB) significantly better than the concordance ΛCDM model. Specifically, the vacuum parameters of the RVM (i.e. those responsible for the dynamics of the vacuum energy) prove to be nonzero at a confidence level >or similar 3σ. Here we use such remarkable status of the RVMs to make definite predictions on the cosmic time variation of the fundamental constants. It turns out that the predicted variations are close to the present observational limits. Furthermore, we find that the time evolution of the dark matter particle masses should be crucially involved in the total mass variation of our Universe. A positive measurement of this kind of effects could be interpreted as strong support to the ''micro-macro connection'' (viz. the dynamical feedback between the evolution of the cosmological parameters and the time variation of the fundamental constants of the microscopic world), previously proposed by two of us (HF and JS). (orig.)

  12. The Construction of Professional Identity and Pathways of Participation of Full Time Faculty Members in University Restructuring in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Hernandez, Virginia

    2010-01-01

    Since the 1990s, the federal government required public state universities in Mexico to recruit full time faculty members with doctoral degrees and research productivity to increase the academic competitiveness of higher education. After two decades of the implementation of federal mandates, public state universities have not improved their…

  13. Perceived Quality of Service and Behavioral Intentions of First-Time Students Enrolled at The University of North Carolina Asheville

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Patrice Black

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the SERVQUAL (Service Quality Instrument) to examine the perceptions of first-time enrolled students at University of North Carolina Asheville regarding the services they receive from a selected group of departments in the university's One Stop area. In addition, the study examined whether a relationship…

  14. Is It Time Well Spent? The Relationship between Time Management Behaviours, Perceived Effectiveness and Work-Related Morale and Distress in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Hugh; Gardiner, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Despite the high "guru-factor" in time management, few claims have been subjected to empirical investigation. This study tests the claims that people who manage their time well perceive themselves to be more effective and feel less stressed. University staff and students were utilized to investigate the relationship between time management related…

  15. Real-Time Climate Simulations in the Interactive 3D Game Universe Sandbox ²

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenson, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Exploration in an open-ended computer game is an engaging way to explore climate and climate change. Everyone can explore physical models with real-time visualization in the educational simulator Universe Sandbox ² (universesandbox.com/2), which includes basic climate simulations on planets. I have implemented a time-dependent, one-dimensional meridional heat transport energy balance model to run and be adjustable in real time in the midst of a larger simulated system. Universe Sandbox ² is based on the original game - at its core a gravity simulator - with other new physically-based content for stellar evolution, and handling collisions between bodies. Existing users are mostly science enthusiasts in informal settings. We believe that this is the first climate simulation to be implemented in a professionally developed computer game with modern 3D graphical output in real time. The type of simple climate model we've adopted helps us depict the seasonal cycle and the more drastic changes that come from changing the orbit or other external forcings. Users can alter the climate as the simulation is running by altering the star(s) in the simulation, dragging to change orbits and obliquity, adjusting the climate simulation parameters directly or changing other properties like CO2 concentration that affect the model parameters in representative ways. Ongoing visuals of the expansion and contraction of sea ice and snow-cover respond to the temperature calculations, and make it accessible to explore a variety of scenarios and intuitive to understand the output. Variables like temperature can also be graphed in real time. We balance computational constraints with the ability to capture the physical phenomena we wish to visualize, giving everyone access to a simple open-ended meridional energy balance climate simulation to explore and experiment with. The software lends itself to labs at a variety of levels about climate concepts including seasons, the Greenhouse effect

  16. Median Survival Time of Endometrial Cancer Patients with Lymphovascular Invasion at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asyikeen, Wan Adnan Wan Nor; Siti-Azrin, Ab Hamid; Jalil, Nur Asyilla Che; Zin, Anani Aila Mat; Othman, Nor Hayati

    2016-11-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecologic malignancy among females worldwide. The purpose of this study was to determine the median survival time of endometrial cancer patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM). A list of 121 endometrial cancer cases registered at Hospital USM between 2000 until 2011 was retrospectively reviewed. The survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was estimated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Log-rank tests were performed to compare the survival of the patients based on socio-demographics and clinical presentation. Only 108 patients, 87.0%, were included who were of Malay ethnicity. Previous history included menopause in 67.6% of patients and diabetes mellitus in 39.8% of patients; additionally, 63.4% of patients were nulliparous. Tumour staging was as follows: 24.5% stage I, 10.8% stage II, 26.5% stage III and 38.2% stage IV. The overall median survival time of the endometrial cancer patients was 70.20 months (95% confidence interval (CI): 51.79, 88.61). The significant factors were age, the presence of lymphovascular invasion and treatment received. The overall survival of endometrial cancer was low. A prospective study needs to be carried out to discover more effective and accurate tests for the early detection of endometrial cancer.

  17. Academics as Part-Time Marketers in University Offshore Programs: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, David; Ewan, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Australian universities maintain almost 900 offshore programs delivered to more than 100 000 students, primarily in the nations of Singapore, Malaysia, China, and Hong Kong (Universities Australia, 2009; IDP, 2009a). Although offshore students comprise an estimated 30 per cent of international student enrolments at Australian universities (IDP,…

  18. The real-time neutron radiography system at Texas A and M University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuscher, Jon A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the development and fabrication of a real-time system at Texas A and M University using commercially available and relatively inexpensive components. The real-time neutron radiography system consists of two major components: a camera and image processing equipment. The neutron beam provides a thermal neutron flux of 10 neutrons/cm -sec (cadmium ratio of 4.0) with the TRIGA reactor operating at a power of 1 MW. A remotely operated turntable is used to position the sample in the neutron beam for optimum viewing and ease of changing position. The front surface mirror at 45 deg. to the neutron beam reflects the scintillation image to the lens. The IRO and CCD camera are placed behind shielding out of the neutron. Results using the imaging system for a cadmium plate (0.032 inch thick) with several holes of different diameters are presented. Applications of this neutron radiography system include sensitivity indicators for the spatial resolution of bubbles in water-filled tubes, moisture content of zeolite samples, operating heat pipes and the freezing and thawing of metallic samples

  19. The High Time Resolution Universe surveys for pulsars and fast transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Michael J.

    2013-03-01

    The High Time Resolution Universe survey for pulsars and transients is the first truly all-sky pulsar survey, taking place at the Parkes Radio Telescope in Australia and the Effelsberg Radio Telescope in Germany. Utilising multibeam receivers with custom built all-digital recorders the survey targets the fastest millisecond pulsars and radio transients on timescales of 64 μs to a few seconds. The new multibeam digital filter-bank system at has a factor of eight improvement in frequency resolution over previous Parkes multibeam surveys, allowing us to probe further into the Galactic plane for short duration signals. The survey is split into low, mid and high Galactic latitude regions. The mid-latitude portion of the southern hemisphere survey is now completed, discovering 107 previously unknown pulsars, including 26 millisecond pulsars. To date, the total number of discoveries in the combined survey is 135 and 29 MSPs These discoveries include the first magnetar to be discovered by it's radio emission, unusual low-mass binaries, gamma-ray pulsars and pulsars suitable for pulsar timing array experiments.

  20. Universal behaviour of interoccurrence times between losses in financial markets: An analytical description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, J.; Tsallis, C.; Bunde, A.

    2011-09-01

    We consider 16 representative financial records (stocks, indices, commodities, and exchange rates) and study the distribution PQ(r) of the interoccurrence times r between daily losses below negative thresholds -Q, for fixed mean interoccurrence time RQ. We find that in all cases, PQ(r) follows the form PQ(r)~1/[(1+(q- 1)βr]1/(q-1), where β and q are universal constants that depend only on RQ, but not on a specific asset. While β depends only slightly on RQ, the q-value increases logarithmically with RQ, q=1+q0 ln(RQ/2), such that for RQ→2, PQ(r) approaches a simple exponential, PQ(r)cong2-r. The fact that PQ does not scale with RQ is due to the multifractality of the financial markets. The analytic form of PQ allows also to estimate both the risk function and the Value-at-Risk, and thus to improve the estimation of the financial risk.

  1. Universal Linear Scaling of Permeability and Time for Heterogeneous Fracture Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Cardenas, M. B.

    2017-12-01

    Fractures are dynamically changing over geological time scale due to mechanical deformation and chemical reactions. However, the latter mechanism remains poorly understood with respect to the expanding fracture, which leads to a positively coupled flow and reactive transport processes, i.e., as a fracture expands, so does its permeability (k) and thus flow and reactive transport processes. To unravel this coupling, we consider a self-enhancing process that leads to fracture expansion caused by acidic fluid, i.e., CO2-saturated brine dissolving calcite fracture. We rigorously derive a theory, for the first time, showing that fracture permeability increases linearly with time [Wang and Cardenas, 2017]. To validate this theory, we resort to the direct simulation that solves the Navier-Stokes and Advection-Diffusion equations with a moving mesh according to the dynamic dissolution process in two-dimensional (2D) fractures. We find that k slowly increases first until the dissolution front breakthrough the outbound when we observe a rapid k increase, i.e., the linear time-dependence of k occurs. The theory agrees well with numerical observations across a broad range of Peclet and Damkohler numbers through homogeneous and heterogeneous 2D fractures. Moreover, the theory of linear scaling relationship between k and time matches well with experimental observations of three-dimensional (3D) fractures' dissolution. To further attest to our theory's universality for 3D heterogeneous fractures across a broad range of roughness and correlation length of aperture field, we develop a depth-averaged model that simulates the process-based reactive transport. The simulation results show that, regardless of a wide variety of dissolution patterns such as the presence of dissolution fingers and preferential dissolution paths, the linear scaling relationship between k and time holds. Our theory sheds light on predicting permeability evolution in many geological settings when the self

  2. Universal time dependence of nighttime F region densities at high latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beaujardiere, O.D.L.; Wickwar, V.B.; Caudal, G.

    1985-01-01

    Coordinated EISCAT, Chatanika, and Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar observations have revealed that in the auroral zone, the nighttime F region densities vary substantially with the longitude of the observing site: EISCAT's densities are the largest and Millstone Hill's are the lowest. The nighttime F region densities measured by the individual radars are not uniform: the regions where the densities are maximum are the so-called ''blobs'' or ''patches'' that have been reported previously. The observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the nighttime densities are produced in significant amounts not by particle precipitation, but by solar EUV radiation, and that they have been transported across the polar cap. The observed differences can be explained by the offset of the geographic and geomagnetic poles. A larger portion of the magnetospheric convection pattern is sunlit when EISCAT is in the midnight sector than when Chatanika is. In winter, when Millstone Hill is in the midnight sector, almost all the auroral oval is in darkness. This universal time effect, which was observed on all coordinated three-radar experiments (September 1981 to February 1982), is illustrated using two periods of coincident radar and satellite observations: November 18--19, and December 15--16, 1981. These two periods were selected because they corresponded to relatively steady conditions. Dynamics Explorer (DE) measurements are used to aid in interpreting the radar observations. De 1 auroral images show what portion of the oval was sunlit. DE 2 data are used to measure the ion drift across the polar cap. Because the altitude of the ionization peak was high, the decay time of the F region density was substantially longer than the transit time across the polar cap

  3. Space-Time Uncertainty and Cosmology: a Proposed Quantum Model of the Universe [ 245Kb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosto S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a cosmological model of the quantum universe. The aim of the model is (i to identify the possible mechanism that governs the matter/antimatter ratio existing in the universe and concurrently to propose (ii a reasonable growth mechanism of the universe and (iii a possible explanation of the dark energy. The concept of timespace uncertainty, on which is based the present quantum approach, has been proven able to bridge quantum mechanics and relativity.

  4. Verification of time-delay interferometry techniques using the University of Florida LISA interferometry simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitryk, Shawn J; Wand, Vinzenz; Mueller, Guido, E-mail: smitryk@phys.ufl.ed, E-mail: mueller@phys.ufl.ed [Department of Physics, University of Florida, PO Box 118440, Gainesville, FL 32611-8440 (United States)

    2010-04-21

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a cooperative NASA/ESA mission proposed to directly measure gravitational waves (GW) in the frequency range from 30 muHz to 1 Hz with an optimal strain sensitivity of 10{sup -21}/sq root(Hz) at 3 mHz. LISA will utilize a modified Michelson interferometer to measure length changes of 40 pm/sq root(Hz) between drag-free proof masses located on three separate spacecraft (SC) separated by a distance of 5 Gm. The University of Florida has developed a hardware-in-the-loop simulator of the LISA constellation to verify the laser noise cancellation technique known as time-delay interferometry (TDI). We replicate the frequency stabilization of the laser on the local SC and the phase-locking of the lasers on the far SC. The laser photodetector beatnotes are electronically delayed, Doppler shifted and applied with a mock GW signal to simulate the laser link between the SC. The beatnotes are also measured with a LISA-like phasemeter and the data are used to extract the laser phase and residual phase-lock loop noise in post-processing through TDI. This uncovers the GW modulation signal buried under the laser noise. The results are then compared to the requirements defined by the LISA science collaboration.

  5. THE DIMENSIONLESS AGE OF THE UNIVERSE: A RIDDLE FOR OUR TIME

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avelino, Arturo; Kirshner, Robert P., E-mail: aavelino@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 02138 (United States)

    2016-09-01

    We present the interesting coincidence of cosmology and astrophysics that points toward a dimensionless age of the Universe H {sub 0} t {sub 0} that is close to one. Despite cosmic deceleration for 9 Gyr and acceleration since then, we find H {sub 0} t {sub 0} = 0.96 ± 0.01 for the ΛCDM model that fits SN Ia data from Pan-STARRS, CMB power spectra, and baryon acoustic oscillations. Similarly, astrophysical measures of stellar ages and the Hubble constant derived from redshifts and distances point to H {sub 0} t ∼ 1.0 ± 0.1. The wide range of possible values for H {sub 0} t {sub 0} realized during cosmic evolution means that we live at what appears to be a special time. This “synchronicity problem” is not precisely the same as the usual coincidence problem , because there are combinations of Ω{sub M} and Ω{sub Λ} for which the usual coincidence problem holds but for which H {sub 0} t {sub 0} is not close to 1.

  6. Simulation of the Universal-Time Diurnal Variation of the Global Electric Circuit Charging Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackerras, D.; Darvenzia, M.; Orville, R. E.; Williams, E. R.; Goodman, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    A global lightning model that includes diurnal and annual lightning variation, and total flash density versus latitude for each major land and ocean, has been used as the basis for simulating the global electric circuit charging rate. A particular objective has been to reconcile the difference in amplitude ratios [AR=(max-min)/mean] between global lightning diurnal variation (AR approx. = 0.8) and the diurnal variation of typical atmospheric potential gradient curves (AR approx. = 0.35). A constraint on the simulation is that the annual mean charging current should be about 1000 A. The global lightning model shows that negative ground flashes can contribute, at most, about 10-15% of the required current. For the purpose of the charging rate simulation, it was assumed that each ground flash contributes 5 C to the charging process. It was necessary to assume that all electrified clouds contribute to charging by means other than lightning, that the total flash rate can serve as an indirect indicator of the rate of charge transfer, and that oceanic electrified clouds contribute to charging even though they are relatively inefficient in producing lightning. It was also found necessary to add a diurnally invariant charging current component. By trial and error it was found that charging rate diurnal variation curves in Universal time (UT) could be produced with amplitude ratios and general shapes similar to those of the potential gradient diurnal variation curves measured over ocean and arctic regions during voyages of the Carnegie Institute research vessels.

  7. LEASURE TIME ACTIVITY AMONG STUDENTS FROM UNIVERSITY OF PRISHTINA, FAKULTY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION AND SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besnik Morina

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research on the physical activity of students in the Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, University of Prishtina “Hasan Prishtina” Kosovo. The purpose of this cognitive study was to diagnose certain aspects of the lifestyle of students, with a particular focus on physical activity and, the difference in sex. The practical aim, however, was an indication of such actions, arising from past experience that would aim at improving lifestyle, and could lead to the elimination or prevention of certain causes of not making movement activity by the students in our country. The research was conducted by the use of diagnostic survey in the group of 120 people aged 18-37, among whom there were 56 girls and 64 boys. The research material was collected in 2014. The research that was carried out shows that the level of wealth (not so much of the family, but of the whole country may have an impact on the choice of activities taken by the students. Undoubtedly socio-cultural factors and the tradition of social life, which impose certain ways of spending leisure time (particularly in the case of the students as we can see in the results obtained, where we also found that there is no statistically significant differences between girls and boys. The above observations, taking into account local conditions, should be the starting point for all those who plan introducing changes in physical education systems in my country in the future.

  8. Using business process redesign to reduce wait times at a university hospital in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkhuizen, Sylvia G; Burger, Matthe P M; Jonkers, Rene E; Limburg, Martien; Klazinga, Niek; Bakker, Piet J M

    2007-06-01

    Business process redesign (BPR) has been applied to implement more customer-focused and cost-effective care. In 2002, two pilot projects to improve patient care processes for two specific patient groups were conducted at the Academic Medical Center, a 1,000-bed university hospital in Amsterdam. The BPR consisted of process analysis, identification of bottlenecks and goals for redesign, selection of interventions, and evaluation of effects. After identifying and selecting interventions with the greatest expected benefits, changes were implemented and effects were evaluated. For gynecologic oncology patients, access time (from telephone call to first visit) was reduced from 14 days to changes in communication and planning were sufficient to eliminate bottlenecks in the gynecologic oncology project, the dyspnea project required a radical redesign of processes. Experience since these projects suggests that process redesign may have only marginal impact when the greatest bottleneck occurs, as was the case for the two BPR projects, at the point of access to central diagnostic facilities.

  9. Targeted, Timely, Learning Support for International Students: One Australian University's Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Craig

    2012-01-01

    This paper documents the approach taken by an Australian University to enhance student study skills, development of academic language, and writing skills. The Curtin Business School (CBS) has the only fully faculty-based student learning support centre at Curtin University in Western Australia. Called the CBS Communication Skills Centre (CSC) it…

  10. Gauge theories, time-dependence of the gravitational constant and antigravity in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that the interaction of the gravitational field with matter leads to a strong modification of the effective gravitational constant in the early universe. In certain cases this leads even to the change of sign of the gravitational constant, i.e. to antigravity in the early universe. (orig.)

  11. The University's Statement of Goals. An Idea Whose Time Has Arrived.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKelvie, Brenda D.

    1986-01-01

    The need for colleges and universities to clarify goals in light of current financial constraints is discussed. The goal formulation strategies and techniques of the Institutional Goals Inventory and the Dephi technique are examined in the context of their application at the University of Ottawa. (MSE)

  12. Assessment of operative times of multiple surgical specialties in a public university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Altair da Silva

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the indicators duration of anesthesia, operative time and time patients stay in the operating rooms of different surgical specialties at a public university hospital. It was done by a descriptive cross-sectional study based on the operating room database. The following stages were measured: duration of anesthesia, procedure time and patient length of stay in the room of the various specialties. We included surgeries carried out in sequence in the same room, between 7:00 a.m. and 5 p.m., either elective or emergency. We calculated the 80th percentile of the stages, where 80% of procedures were below this value. The study measured 8,337 operations of 12 surgical specialties performed within one year. The overall mean duration of anesthesia of all specialties was 178.12±110.46 minutes, and the 80th percentile was 252 minutes. The mean operative time was 130.45±97.23 minutes, and the 80th percentile was 195 minutes. The mean total time of the patient in the operating room was 197.30±113.71 minutes, and the 80th percentile was 285 minutes. Thus, the variation of the overall mean compared to the 80th percentile was 41% for anesthesia, 49% for surgeries and 44% for operating room time. In average, anesthesia took up 88% of the operating room period, and surgery, 61%. This study identified patterns in the duration of surgery stages. The mean values of the specialties can assist with operating room planning and reduce delays. Avaliar os indicadores de tempo da anestesia, da operação e da permanência do paciente em sala de diversas especialidades do centro cirúrgico de um hospital universitário. Foi realizado em estudo descritivo transversal a partir da base de dados do centro cirúrgico e mensuradas as seguintes etapas: duração de anestesia, tempo do procedimento e tempo de permanência do paciente em sala das diversas especialidades. Foram incluídas as operações realizadas em sequência na mesma sala, das 7h às 17h, eletivas ou de urg

  13. Is the hypothesis about a low entropy initial state of the Universe necessary for explaining the arrow of time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sheldon; Tumulka, Roderich; Zanghı, Nino

    2016-07-01

    According to statistical mechanics, microstates of an isolated physical system (say, a gas in a box) at time t0 in a given macrostate of less-than-maximal entropy typically evolve in such a way that the entropy at time t increases with |t -t0| in both time directions. In order to account for the observed entropy increase in only one time direction, the thermodynamic arrow of time, one usually appeals to the hypothesis that the initial state of the Universe was one of very low entropy. In certain recent models of cosmology, however, no hypothesis about the initial state of the Universe is invoked. We discuss how the emergence of a thermodynamic arrow of time in such models can nevertheless be compatible with the above-mentioned consequence of statistical mechanics, appearances to the contrary notwithstanding.

  14. Going Global? Internationalizing Australian Universities in a Time of Global Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    Analyzes the past decade's internationalization of Australian universities against a backdrop of increasing globalization, particularly the expansion of global capitalism. Examines international student flows, faculty, and programs, assessing the relative presence of internationalization (mutuality and reciprocal cultural relations) versus…

  15. Who's Qualified? Seeing Race in Color-Blind Times: Lessons from Fisher v. University of Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnor, Jamel K.

    2015-01-01

    Using Howard Winant's racial dualism theory, this chapter explains how race was discursively operationalized in the recent U.S. Supreme Court higher education antiracial diversity case Fisher v. University of Texas at Austin.

  16. Quantum computing without wavefunctions: time-dependent density functional theory for universal quantum computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tempel, David G; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán

    2012-01-01

    We prove that the theorems of TDDFT can be extended to a class of qubit Hamiltonians that are universal for quantum computation. The theorems of TDDFT applied to universal Hamiltonians imply that single-qubit expectation values can be used as the basic variables in quantum computation and information theory, rather than wavefunctions. From a practical standpoint this opens the possibility of approximating observables of interest in quantum computations directly in terms of single-qubit quantities (i.e. as density functionals). Additionally, we also demonstrate that TDDFT provides an exact prescription for simulating universal Hamiltonians with other universal Hamiltonians that have different, and possibly easier-to-realize two-qubit interactions. This establishes the foundations of TDDFT for quantum computation and opens the possibility of developing density functionals for use in quantum algorithms.

  17. Comparison of two-way satellite time transfer and GPS common-view time transfer between OCA and TUG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Dieter; Thyr, U.; Ressler, H.; Robnik, R.; Grudler, P.; Baumont, Francoise S.; Veillet, Christian; Lewandowski, Wlodzimierz W.; Hanson, W.; Clements, A.

    1992-01-01

    For about one year the time scales UTC(OCA) and UTC(TUG) were compared by means of GPS and two-way satellite time transfer. At the end of the experiment both links were independently 'calibrated' by measuring the differential delays of the GPS receivers and of the satellite earth stations by transportation of a GPS receiver and of one of the satellite terminals. The results obtained by both methods differ by about 3 ns, but reveal a seasonal variation of about 8 ns peak-to-peak which is likely the result of a temperature-dependence of the delays of the GPS receivers used. For the comparison of both methods the stabilities of the timescales are of great importance. Unfortunately, during the last three months of the experiment a less stable clock had to be used for the generation of UTC(TUG).

  18. UNIVERSITY STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF TRANSFER OF ACADEMIC WRITING SKILLS ACROSS TIME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tharwat EL-Sakran

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates university students' perceptions towards an English for advanced academic writing purposes (AAW course taught in a private university in the United Arab Emirates. It probes into the relevance of the skills taught to the students' academic disciplines. Data was gathered through a short survey administered to students who successfully completed the course. The transferability of skills was measured in light of some of the learning objectives of the AAW stated in its syllabus. Findings indicated positive students' attitudes towards the AAW course. They also revealed that some learning outcomes did transfer to students' writing tasks in their major courses. However, transfer of these skills was more noticeable in some university disciplines (e.g. English more than others (e.g. Business Administration. Detailed explanations of reasons and contexts for skill transfer are presented. This research concludes with some pedagogical recommendations and suggestions for course improvement and further research.

  19. Design and Delivery of Quality Study Programs for Adult Part Time Students in Scandinavian Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentsen, Annette

    2007-01-01

     The transformation of universities from being educators of primarily young people before their entrance into the job market to modern educational institutions with a multitude of educational offers for diverse target groups must be built on knowledge and leadership in order to succeed (Jarvis 1995...... collection of empirical data on the adult learner in Scandinavian university study programs will be presented, analysed and discussed. This data collection has taken place in 2005-2006 in parallel in Norway, Sweden and Denmark by a research network supported by the Norwegian Netuniversity (Grepperud et el....... 2006) . Themes which will be introduced are how adult students experience combining everyday life, job obligations and academic study programs at university level, and how study programs should be designed and delivered to make such a combination as successful as possible. Different kinds...

  20. Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing for Inter-Library Services: A Case Study in a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernot, Eli; Roodhooft, Filip; Van den Abbeele, Alexandra

    2007-01-01

    Although the true costs of inter-library loans (ILL) are unknown, universities increasingly rely on them to provide better library services at lower costs. Through a case study, we show how to perform a time-driven activity-based costing analysis of ILL and provide evidence of the benefits of such an analysis.

  1. [Work satisfaction, quality of life and leisure time of residents at the Soroka University Medical Center, Beer Sheba, Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Asaf; Perry, Zvi; Reuveni, Haim; Toker, Asaf

    2009-02-01

    Work dissatisfaction among physicians worldwide continues to rise over the last few decades, mainly due to declining professional prestige, tack of self fulfillment, time pressure and tack of leisure time. Physicians' burnout is a major result of dissatisfaction, causing doctors to leave the medical profession, and to provide lower quality of care. To examine the work satisfaction, quality of life and leisure time of residents in the Soroka University Medical Center. A validated questionnaire was delivered during the second half of 2004 to 252 residents in the Soroka University Medical Center The data was analyzed using the SPSS 12 for windows program. Descriptive analysis, parametric Students' T Test [where pleisure time. Further attention must be given to these matters--a step which will eventually improve patient care, and delay, to some extent, the burnout of physicians.

  2. A Universe of Information, One Citation at a Time: How Students Engage with Scholarly Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovico, Carrie; Wittig, Carol

    2015-01-01

    We spend hours teaching students where to go to find resources, but how do students really use those scholarly resources--and other resources--in their papers? Inspired by the Citation Project, University of Richmond liaison librarians examined First-Year Seminar papers to see what types of sources students used in their writing, how they…

  3. The Value Paradox--Inducting Undergraduate University Students in a Time of Austerity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tim; Upton, Penney; Wilkinson, Dean J.

    2013-01-01

    The challenges facing UK higher education are both well documented and controversial; however, pitted against this context is the requirement for psychology departments to provide an increasingly rich and diverse university experience for students, whilst ensuring progression and retention remain central to undergraduate provision. Despite the…

  4. The Management of Publicly Funded Regional Universities during Times of Fiscal Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Philip Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Strategic financial management is being redefined as a result of the ongoing fiscal challenges facing the nation's public colleges and universities. The Great Recession reached its peak in 2009 and the era of "business as usual" for public higher education quickly faded. A "new normal" has emerged that is causing leaders to…

  5. The aims of initiation ceremonies at universities: Comparisons in time and space1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Jansen van Rensburg

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article initiation practices at South African universities are analysed and compared with initiation ceremonies described in anthropological literature. It is argued that any initiation ceremony has at least the partial aim of preparing initiates for the roles and functions in society or specific organizations. Naturally a reasonable degree of harmony between the intent of initiation on the one hand and the values of an institution on the other hand can be expected. The intention of initiation usually is to prepare one for a position or rote by means of the expression of certain values. On the question whether this harmony between ideas and actions is found in the case of existent initiation ceremonies at South African universities, the answer is negative. These ceremonies do not aim to convey and develop attitudes and values essential to a university and in fact do not prepare first-year students for their new environment and a community of scholars. The way in which universities transcend their authority by condoning and officially allowing the demeaning initiation practices is also questioned.

  6. University of Louisville Holds Fast to Plans for Big-Time Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Libby

    2009-01-01

    For five decades, the University of Louisville men's basketball team has played its home games at the state's fairgrounds, in a modest arena originally built for horse shows. And for just as many seasons, the team's toughest competition for scheduling has come from the livestock--and the flea markets and tractor pulls that also vie for the space.…

  7. Self-Assessment of Governance Teams in an Argentine Private University: Adapting to Difficult Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Julio; Pujadas, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    Argentine Universities like similar institutions all around the world are facing a complex and challenging environment that demands a more sophisticated leadership and the development of complex managerial skills. In this paper we propose that enhancing the quality of collective decision making, and building more complex teams as a way to preserve…

  8. "Free in Time, Not Free in Mind": First-Year University Students Becoming More Independent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Feng

    2017-01-01

    In school-to-university transition literature, autonomy has been implied or explicitly explained as an important factor to predict the persistence and engagement of students in higher education; however, little qualitative research addresses students' transition in relation to autonomy, what these students have to go through in terms of becoming…

  9. Using business process redesign to reduce wait times at a university hospital in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elkhuizen, Sylvia G.; Burger, Matthe P. M.; Jonkers, Rene E.; Limburg, Martien; Klazinga, Niek; Bakker, Piet J. M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Business process redesign (BPR) has been applied to implement more customer-focused and cost-effective care. In 2002, two pilot projects to improve patient care processes for two specific patient groups were conducted at the Academic Medical Center, a 1,000-bed university hospital in

  10. Time and Money Explain Social Class Differences in Students' Social Integration at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark; Wright, Chrysalis L.

    2017-01-01

    Working-class students tend to be less socially integrated at university than middle-class students. The present research investigated two potential reasons for this working-class social exclusion effect. First, working-class students may have fewer finances available to participate in social activities. Second, working-class students tend to be…

  11. Exact solutions, finite time singularities and non-singular universe models from a variety of Λ(t) cosmologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Supriya

    2018-01-01

    Cosmological models with time-dependent Λ (read as Λ(t)) have been investigated widely in the literature. Models that solve background dynamics analytically are of special interest. Additionally, the allowance of past or future singularities at finite cosmic time in a specific model signals for a generic test on its viabilities with the current observations. Following these, in this work we consider a variety of Λ(t) models focusing on their evolutions and singular behavior. We found that a series of models in this class can be exactly solved when the background universe is described by a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) line element. The solutions in terms of the scale factor of the FLRW universe offer different universe models, such as power-law expansion, oscillating, and the singularity free universe. However, we also noticed that a large number of the models in this series permit past or future cosmological singularities at finite cosmic time. At last we close the work with a note that the avoidance of future singularities is possible for certain models under some specific restrictions.

  12. Activity-Based Costing (ABC and Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing (TDABC: Applicable Methods for University Libraries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate-Riin Kont

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective – This article provides an overview of how university libraries research and adapt new cost accounting models, such as “activity-based costing” (ABC and “time-driven activity-based costing” (TDABC, focusing on the strengths and weaknesses of both methods to determine which of these two is suitable for application in university libraries.Methods – This paper reviews and summarizes the literature on cost accounting and costing practices of university libraries. A brief overview of the history of cost accounting, costing, and time and motion studies in libraries is also provided. The ABC and the TDABC method, designed as a revised and easier version of the ABC by Kaplan and Anderson (Kaplan & Anderson 2004 at the beginning of the 21st century, as well as the adoption and adaptation of these methods by university libraries are described, and their strengths and weaknesses, as well as their suitability for university libraries, are analyzed. Results – Cost accounting and costing studies in libraries have a long history, the first of these dating back to 1877. The development of cost accounting and time and motion studies can be seen as a natural evolution of techniques which were created to solve management problems. The ABC method is the best-known management accounting innovation of the last 20 years, and is already widely used in university libraries around the world. However, setting up an ABC system can be very costly, and the system needs to be regularly updated, which further increases its costs. The TDABC system can not only be implemented more quickly (and thus more cheaply, but also can be updated more easily than the traditional ABC, which makes the TDABC the more suitable method for university libraries.Conclusion – Both methods are suitable for university libraries. However, the ABC method can only be implemented in collaboration with an accounting department. The TDABC method can be tested and implemented by

  13. UAB UTC transit related activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    The ITS Strategic Plan outlines a strategy for improving the efficiency of the Region's existing highway and transit systems. The Region's overall goal is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of existing systems so as to reduce the need to bui...

  14. Simplified Real-Time Multiplex Detection of Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Using Novel Mediator Displacement Probes with Universal Reporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becherer, Lisa; Bakheit, Mohammed; Frischmann, Sieghard; Stinco, Silvina; Borst, Nadine; Zengerle, Roland; von Stetten, Felix

    2018-04-03

    A variety of real-time detection techniques for loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) based on the change in fluorescence intensity during DNA amplification enable simultaneous detection of multiple targets. However, these techniques depend on fluorogenic probes containing target-specific sequences. That complicates the adaption to different targets leading to time-consuming assay optimization. Here, we present the first universal real-time detection technique for multiplex LAMP. The novel approach allows simple assay design and is easy to implement for various targets. The innovation features a mediator displacement probe and a universal reporter. During amplification of target DNA the mediator is displaced from the mediator displacement probe. Then it hybridizes to the reporter generating a fluorescence signal. The novel mediator displacement (MD) detection was validated against state-of-the-art molecular beacon (MB) detection by means of a HIV-1 RT-LAMP: MD surpassed MB detection by accelerated probe design (MD: 10 min, MB: 3-4 h), shorter times to positive (MD 4.1 ± 0.1 min shorter than MB, n = 36), improved signal-to-noise fluorescence ratio (MD: 5.9 ± 0.4, MB: 2.7 ± 0.4; n = 15), and showed equally good or better analytical performance parameters. The usability of one universal mediator-reporter set in different multiplex assays was successfully demonstrated for a biplex RT-LAMP of HIV-1 and HTLV-1 and a biplex LAMP of Haemophilus ducreyi and Treponema pallidum, both showing good correlation between target concentration and time to positive. Due to its simple implementation it is suggested to extend the use of the universal mediator-reporter sets to the detection of various other diagnostic panels.

  15. The pattern of time management in college students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences in the year 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ravari

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: One potential coping strategy frequently offered by university counseling services is time management for studying. Besides stress relief, time management skills will positively influence key outcomes such as academic performance, problem-solving ability, and health. Thus, it is necessary to investigate how college students manage their timing for studying. The aim of the present study was to assess the pattern of college students' time management in Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 300 students who were selected by stratified random sampling method among students of Kerman University of Medical Sciences. Information about how students managed their study time during their educational course was collected using a questionnaire which consisted time management stages such as planning, prioritizing, time allocation, listing all study-related tasks and goal setting. Study time management was measured according to Likert scale in range of “never” to “always”. Results: There was a significant difference between the course of study and the mean of study duration (p<0.004. Mean scores of the study time management showed that the medical students (mean=67.5 ±12.87 had the highest scores and the bachelor students (mean= 61.1±15.1 had the lowest scores, but the ANOVA test did not show any significant difference between the mean scores of study time management and the course of study (p=0.07. The majority of students (186 persons=62% “occasionally” and only 48 persons (16% “always” were managing their study time. A total of 26.2% of medical students always managed their study time, and in this criterion they had the highest scores in comparison with others. There was no significant difference between the course of study and the pattern of study management (p<0.05. Conclusion: Most of the students of medical sciences have no scheduled programming for their study time

  16. Universal equations of unsteady two-dimensional MHD boundary layer whose temperature varies with time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boričić Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns with unsteady two-dimensional temperature laminar magnetohydrodynamic (MHD boundary layer of incompressible fluid. It is assumed that induction of outer magnetic field is function of longitudinal coordinate with force lines perpendicular to the body surface on which boundary layer forms. Outer electric filed is neglected and magnetic Reynolds number is significantly lower then one i.e. considered problem is in inductionless approximation. Characteristic properties of fluid are constant because velocity of flow is much lower than speed of light and temperature difference is small enough (under 50ºC . Introduced assumptions simplify considered problem in sake of mathematical solving, but adopted physical model is interesting from practical point of view, because its relation with large number of technically significant MHD flows. Obtained partial differential equations can be solved with modern numerical methods for every particular problem. Conclusions based on these solutions are related only with specific temperature MHD boundary layer problem. In this paper, quite different approach is used. First new variables are introduced and then sets of similarity parameters which transform equations on the form which don't contain inside and in corresponding boundary conditions characteristics of particular problems and in that sense equations are considered as universal. Obtained universal equations in appropriate approximation can be solved numerically once for all. So-called universal solutions of equations can be used to carry out general conclusions about temperature MHD boundary layer and for calculation of arbitrary particular problems. To calculate any particular problem it is necessary also to solve corresponding momentum integral equation.

  17. Lighting and Graphics Effects for Real-Time Visualization of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Ekelin, Jonna; Fernqvist, Lena

    2006-01-01

    This work has been performed at SCISS AB, a company situated in Norrk öping and whose business lies in developing platforms for graphics visualization. SCISS's main software product, UniView, is a fully interactive system allowing the user to explore all parts of the observable universe, from rocks on the surface of a planet to galaxies and quasars in outer space. It is used mainly for astronomical and scientic presentation. The aim of this work has been to enhance the visual appearance of li...

  18. Universal design in diabetes care: an idea whose time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann S

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce diabetes educators to the emerging concept of universal design (UD): the design of products, environments, and services to be used by persons with a wide range of abilities, without needing adaptation or specialized design. Drawing from the use of the term universal design in a variety of types of writing, this article covers the definition of UD, the contrast of average-person design with UD, principles of UD, and implications for diabetes self-management education (DSME). Implications for DSME are (1) diabetes consumer medical devices (such as blood glucose meters and insulin pumps) can be designed using UD principles, with a goal of successful use by the largest number of persons possible, and (2) diabetes educators can use UD principles in the design of diabetes education programs to reach the largest number of learners possible without the need for special accommodations. Adoption of UD principles by designers of diabetes medical devices could benefit persons with disabilities, increase the potential market for the manufacturer, and have unexpected benefits for people of average abilities. Adoption of UD principles for DSME programs would not require a paradigm change because diabetes educators already do many activities that could contribute to UD of an education program. By replacing average-person design of DSME programs with UD, diabetes educators can promote full participation in DSME for individuals with the wide range of abilities normally present in target populations without the need for added adaptations or specialized design.

  19. Future Time Orientation Predicts Academic Engagement among First-Year University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horstmanshof, Louise; Zimitat, Craig

    2007-01-01

    Background: Enhancing student engagement is considered an important strategy for improving retention. Students' Time Perspective is an under-researched factor that may significantly influence student engagement. Aims: This study examines interrelationships between elements of student engagement and relationship with Time Perspective. We propose…

  20. Divided Identity: Part-Time Faculty in Public Colleges and Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, John S.; Montero Hernandez, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    This article addresses the identity claims of part-time faculty at three types of higher education institutions. Using culture theory and professional identity theory, the article documents that part-time faculty members across institutions have a divided sense of identity. On the one hand, they perceive themselves as professionals based on their…

  1. Is it Right Time to Introduce Mumps Vaccine in Indias Universal Immunization Program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, S R; Hamde, V S

    2016-06-08

    Measles, mumps and rubella are vaccine preventable diseases. However, morbidity and mortality due to these diseases remain largely unnoticed in India. Measles has received much attention; mumps and rubella still need to garner attention. According to the World Health Organization, near-elimination of mumps could be achieved by maintaining high vaccine coverage using a two-dose strategy. However, Government of India has not yet decided on mumps vaccine. In this review, we have reviewed sero-prevalence studies, vaccine studies, outbreak investigations, virus isolation and virus genotyping studies on mumps. Overall, mumps seems to be a significant public health problem in India, but does not garner attention due to the absence of a surveillance and documentation system. Thus, inclusion of mumps antigen in the Universal immunization program would have added advantages, the economic burden imposed by the cost of the vaccine offset by a reduction in disease burden.

  2. A man of his time: thorstein veblen and the university of chicago darwinists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymer, Emilie J

    2013-01-01

    The Darwinian economic theory that Thorstein Veblen proposed and refined while he served as a professor of Political Economy at the University of Chicago from 1891 to 1906 should be assessed in the context of the community of Darwinian scientists and social scientists with whom Veblen worked and lived at Chicago. It is important to identify Veblen as a member of this broad community of Darwinian-inclined philosophers, physiologists, geologists, astronomers, and biologists at Chicago because Veblen's involvement with this circle suggests that the possible sources of his engagement with Darwinism extend beyond the pragmatists and Continental socialists to whom scholars have typically ascribed Veblen's Darwinian roots. Additionally, that an extensive community continued to use Darwinian evolutionary theory to construct new models of scientific and social scientific analysis at the turn of the twentieth century, a period during which Darwinism was purportedly in decline, suggests that the "eclipse of Darwinism" narrative has been overstated in literature about Darwinism's intellectual arc.

  3. Acceleration of the universe, vacuum metamorphosis, and the large-time asymptotic form of the heat kernel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Leonard; Vanzella, Daniel A.T.

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that the late acceleration observed in the rate of expansion of the Universe is due to vacuum quantum effects arising in curved spacetime. The theoretical basis of the vacuum cold dark matter (VCDM), or vacuum metamorphosis, cosmological model of Parker and Raval is reexamined and improved. We show, by means of a manifestly nonperturbative approach, how the infrared behavior of the propagator (related to the large-time asymptotic form of the heat kernel) of a free scalar field in curved spacetime leads to nonperturbative terms in the effective action similar to those appearing in the earlier version of the VCDM model. The asymptotic form that we adopt for the propagator or heat kernel at large proper time s is motivated by, and consistent with, particular cases where the heat kernel has been calculated exactly, namely in de Sitter spacetime, in the Einstein static universe, and in the linearly expanding spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. This large-s asymptotic form generalizes somewhat the one suggested by the Gaussian approximation and the R-summed form of the propagator that earlier served as a theoretical basis for the VCDM model. The vacuum expectation value for the energy-momentum tensor of the free scalar field, obtained through variation of the effective action, exhibits a resonance effect when the scalar curvature R of the spacetime reaches a particular value related to the mass of the field. Modeling our Universe by an FRW spacetime filled with classical matter and radiation, we show that the back reaction caused by this resonance drives the Universe through a transition to an accelerating expansion phase, very much in the same way as originally proposed by Parker and Raval. Our analysis includes higher derivatives that were neglected in the earlier analysis, and takes into account the possible runaway solutions that can follow from these higher-derivative terms. We find that the runaway solutions do

  4. Determining the agent factors related with time management of responsible doctors and nurses in clinics at Ankara University hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuner, Ahmet Munir; Nilgun, Sarp; Cifteli, F Gulay

    2006-01-01

    This research has been planned and conducted as a descriptive scanning model field study in order to determine the agent factors related with time management of doctors and nurses in positions of responsibility at Ankara University hospitals. As data collection instruments; the "Personal Information Form" which has been developed to determine the socio-demographical characteristics of the research group, the questionnaire of "Determining the Time Management Attitudes and Behaviour of Managers, Time Management Opportunities of the Managers, Prodcutive Working Times of the Managers and the Factors Causing Them to Lose Time", developed by Erdem has been used. It has been determined that the time management attitudes and behaviour of doctors, nurses and nurse assistants responsible for clinics are all different. It was found that nurse assistants graduated from pre-undergraduate or high schools are the least conscious of time management. In particular, nurse assistants of 36 years old and over with 21 years of work experience and 11 years of management experience show little awareness of time management. The time losing factors of the research group were found to be unnecessary visitors, lack of materials and the excessive amount of time spent on obtaining the necessary equipment.

  5. [Part-time concepts in anaesthesia -example of a department of anaesthesiology at a university hospital in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höltje, Maike; Osthaus, W Alexander; Koppert, Wolfgang

    2015-05-01

    Part-time work concepts are requested for different reasons from an increasing number of employees. Despite this fact there are no systematic part-time work concepts published in the German literature, especially for physicians working in hospitals. This article describes background and circumstances of a part-time work concept which was established two years ago in a department of anaesthesiology at a university hospital in Germany. This concept considers needs of young families as well as older employees. We are convinced that a transparent part-time work concept is a good argument for job-seeking physicians when deciding for an employer. The benefit for the already employed colleagues has at least the same value. © Georg Thieme Verlag Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Ways of spending leisure time by the third year-students of the Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University of Lublin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czabak-Garbacz, Róza; Skibniewska, Agnieszka; Mazurkiewicz, Piotr; Gdula, Agnieszka

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was the assessment of leisure time among third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of the Medical University of Lublin. It analysed quantity of time devoted to school activity and ways of spending free time. The study involved 114 students (82 women and 32 men). The study revealed that women had less free time than men, who, most probably did not attend some lectures. The most popular activities among the questioned students were: sleeping (average 6.8 hours a day), studying (average 3.6 hours a day), listening to the radio (average 2.9 hours a day), talking with friends (average 1.9 hours a day), personal hygiene (average 1.1 hours a day), watching TV (average 1.1 hours a day), housework. Students devoted the least of their free time on active rest, for example walking (women did it more often than men) or practising sport (more popular among men). Cultural life of the students consisted only of meetings with friends and going to the cinema (women did it more often). The least popular way of spending free time was going to the theatre, opera, concerts and exhibitions. Few students spent their time working. Their number increased significantly during holidays. The way of spending free time by third-year students from the Faculty of Pharmacy (both men and women) during the day was similar, differences related only to the amount of time devoted to each activity.

  7. Universal Capacitance Model for Real-Time Biomass in Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Konakovsky

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Capacitance probes have the potential to revolutionize bioprocess control due to their safe and robust use and ability to detect even the smallest capacitors in the form of biological cells. Several techniques have evolved to model biomass statistically, however, there are problems with model transfer between cell lines and process conditions. Errors of transferred models in the declining phase of the culture range for linear models around +100% or worse, causing unnecessary delays with test runs during bioprocess development. The goal of this work was to develop one single universal model which can be adapted by considering a potentially mechanistic factor to estimate biomass in yet untested clones and scales. The novelty of this work is a methodology to select sensitive frequencies to build a statistical model which can be shared among fermentations with an error between 9% and 38% (mean error around 20% for the whole process, including the declining phase. A simple linear factor was found to be responsible for the transferability of biomass models between cell lines, indicating a link to their phenotype or physiology.

  8. Priority Queuing on the Docket: Universality of Judicial Dispute Resolution Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyam Mukherjee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes court priority queuing behavior by examining the time lapse between when a case enters a court's docket and when it is ultimately disposed of. Using data from the Supreme courts of the United States, Massachusetts, and Canada we show that each court's docket features a slow decay with a decreasing tail. This demonstrates that, in each of the courts examined, the vast majority of cases are resolved relatively quickly, while there remains a small number of outlier cases that take an extremely long time to resolve. We discuss the implications for this on legal systems, the study of the law, and future research.

  9. Placement Model for First-Time Freshmen in Calculus I (Math 131): University of Northern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiny, Robert L.; Heiny, Erik L.; Raymond, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Two approaches, Linear Discriminant Analysis, and Logistic Regression are used and compared to predict success or failure for first-time freshmen in the first calculus course at a medium-sized public, 4-year institution prior to Fall registration. The predictor variables are high school GPA, the number, and GPA's of college prep mathematics…

  10. Loran-C time management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justice, Charles; Mason, Norm; Taggart, Doug

    1994-01-01

    As of 1 Oct. 1993, the US Coast Guard (USCG) supports and operates fifteen Loran-C chains. With the introduction of the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) and the termination of the Department of Defense (DOD) overseas need for Loran-C, the USCG will cease operating the three remaining overseas chains by 31 Dec. 1994. Following this date, the USCG Loran-C system will consist of twelve chains. Since 1971, management of time synchronization of the Loran-C system has been conducted under a Memorandum of Agreement between the US Naval Observatory (USNO) and the USCG. The requirement to maintain synchronization with Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) was initially specified as +/- 25 microseconds. This tolerance was rapidly lowered to +/- 2.5 microseconds in 1974. To manage this synchronization requirement, the USCG incorporated administrative practices which kept the USNO appraised of all aspects of the master timing path. This included procedures for responding to timing path failures, timing adjustments, and time steps. Conducting these aspects of time synchronization depended on message traffic between the various master stations and the USNO. To determine clock adjustment the USCG relied upon the USNO's Series 4 and 100 updates so that the characteristics of the master clock could be plotted and controls appropriately applied. In 1987, Public Law 100-223, under the Airport and Airway Improvement Act Amendment, reduced the synchronization tolerance to approximately 100 nanoseconds for chains serving the National Airspace System (NAS). This action caused changes in the previous administrative procedures and techniques. The actions taken by the USCG to meet the requirements of this law are presented.

  11. Pre-Big Bang, space-time structure, asymptotic Universe. Spinorial space-time and a new approach to Friedmann-like equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, Luis

    2014-04-01

    Planck and other recent data in Cosmology and Particle Physics can open the way to controversial analyses concerning the early Universe and its possible ultimate origin. Alternatives to standard cosmology include pre-Big Bang approaches, new space-time geometries and new ultimate constituents of matter. Basic issues related to a possible new cosmology along these lines clearly deserve further exploration. The Planck collaboration reports an age of the Universe t close to 13.8 Gyr and a present ratio H between relative speeds and distances at cosmic scale around 67.3 km/s/Mpc. The product of these two measured quantities is then slightly below 1 (about 0.95), while it can be exactly 1 in the absence of matter and cosmological constant in patterns based on the spinorial space-time we have considered in previous papers. In this description of space-time we first suggested in 1996-97, the cosmic time t is given by the modulus of a SU(2) spinor and the Lundmark-Lemaître-Hubble (LLH) expansion law turns out to be of purely geometric origin previous to any introduction of standard matter and relativity. Such a fundamental geometry, inspired by the role of half-integer spin in Particle Physics, may reflect an equilibrium between the dynamics of the ultimate constituents of matter and the deep structure of space and time. Taking into account the observed cosmic acceleration, the present situation suggests that the value of 1 can be a natural asymptotic limit for the product H t in the long-term evolution of our Universe up to possible small corrections. In the presence of a spinorial space-time geometry, no ad hoc combination of dark matter and dark energy would in any case be needed to get an acceptable value of H and an evolution of the Universe compatible with observation. The use of a spinorial space-time naturally leads to unconventional properties for the space curvature term in Friedmann-like equations. It therefore suggests a major modification of the standard

  12. Universal real-time control framework and Internet of Things for fast-paced research and development based production environments

    KAUST Repository

    Chaoui, Hicham

    2017-05-13

    This paper introduces a universal real-time control platform for complex research and development (R&D) based products design. The inherent complexity in R&D projects makes products development a difficult task to undertake. The use of state of the art development tools for modeling, simulation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation contributes to a complexity reduction. However, R&D projects still require significant development time since many design iterations are usually necessary before final solution, which increases the cost. In most R&D processes, these tools are not used beyond rapid prototyping since development for mass production is usually performed in another environment, using different tools. This paper presents a fast and cost effective way of R&D-based products development, speeding-up time to market.

  13. Universal real-time control framework and Internet of Things for fast-paced research and development based production environments

    KAUST Repository

    Chaoui, Hicham; Aljarboua, Abdullah Abdulaziz; Miah, Suruz

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces a universal real-time control platform for complex research and development (R&D) based products design. The inherent complexity in R&D projects makes products development a difficult task to undertake. The use of state of the art development tools for modeling, simulation, and hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) validation contributes to a complexity reduction. However, R&D projects still require significant development time since many design iterations are usually necessary before final solution, which increases the cost. In most R&D processes, these tools are not used beyond rapid prototyping since development for mass production is usually performed in another environment, using different tools. This paper presents a fast and cost effective way of R&D-based products development, speeding-up time to market.

  14. Quantum field theory in curved space-times: with an application to the reduced model of deSitter universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, I. J.

    1995-06-01

    The work deals with space-times with fixed background metric. The topics were arranged in a straight course, the first chapter collects basic facts on Lorentzian manifolds as time-orientability, causal structure, ... Further free neutral scalar fields and spinor fields described by the Klein-Gordon equation resp. the Dirac equation are dealt with. Having in mind the construction of the Weyl algebra and the Fermi algebra in the second chapter, it was put emphasis on the structure of the spaces of solutions of these equations: In the first case the space of solutions is a symplectic vector space in a canonical manner, in the second case a Hilbert space. It was made some effort to stay as general as possible. Most of the material in the second chapter already exists for several years, but it is largely scattered over various journal articles. In the third chapter the construction of a vacuum on the special example of deSitter universe is described. A close investigation of a recent work by J. Bros and U. Moschella made it possible to refine a result concerning temperature felt by an accelerated observer in deSitter space. The last part of this thesis is concerned with vacua for spinor fields on the two-dimensional deSitter universe. A procedure introduced by R. Haag, H. Narnhofer and U. Stein for four dimensional space-times does not seem to work in two dimensions. (author)

  15. Hyperspace a scientific odyssey through parallel universes, time warps, and the tenth dimension

    CERN Document Server

    Kaku, Michio

    1994-01-01

    Already thoroughly familiar to the seasoned science fiction fan, Hyperspace is that realm which enables a spaceship captain to take his ship on a physics-defying shortcut (or ""wormhole"") to the outer shores of the Galaxy in less time than it takes a 747 to fly from New York to Tokyo. But in the past few years, physicists on the cutting edge of science have found that a 10-dimensional Hyperspace may actually exist, albeit at a scale almost too small to comprehend, smaller even thana quark; and that in spite of its tiny size, it may be the basis on which all the forces of nature will be united

  16. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales

  17. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  18. Universal Exciton Size in Organic Polymers is Determined by Nonlocal Orbital Exchange in Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mewes, Stefanie A; Plasser, Felix; Dreuw, Andreas

    2017-03-16

    The exciton size of the lowest singlet excited state in a diverse set of organic π-conjugated polymers is studied and found to be a universal, system-independent quantity of approximately 7 Å in the single-chain picture. With time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), its value as well as the overall description of the exciton is almost exclusively governed by the amount of nonlocal orbital exchange. This is traced back to the lack of the Coulomb attraction between the electron and hole quasiparticles in pure TDDFT, which is reintroduced only with the admixture of nonlocal orbital exchange.

  19. The National and University Library in Ljubljana - the intersection of Time and Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Mušič

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available As any important architectural work, the libraries from the distant past are vivid organisms that bear in themselves the biological, historical and humanistic experience. Those who live with, and use, such architecture feel its spiritual energy and its vital palpitation. The space accepts them and through symbols and rituals it passes on their idea; it passes on the situation today, however, this is performed from its yesterday's and tomorrow's position. Therefore, good library architecture does not follow changes in trends and fashion, but lives its own time in the continuum of historical consciousness, revealing the spirit and importance of its existence. In the architectural Renaissance taking place during the last years libraries became exactly the same as the important buildings throughout history used to be. They are prestigious architectural achievements that became the visual and symbolic signs of national pride, the cathedrals of our days.

  20. Quality management: reduction of waiting time and efficiency enhancement in an ENT-university outpatients' department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Matthias; Helbig, Silke; Kahla-Witzsch, Heike A; May, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    Background Public health systems are confronted with constantly rising costs. Furthermore, diagnostic as well as treatment services become more and more specialized. These are the reasons for an interdisciplinary project on the one hand aiming at simplification of planning and scheduling patient appointments, on the other hand at fulfilling all requirements of efficiency and treatment quality. Methods As to understanding procedure and problem solving activities, the responsible project group strictly proceeded with four methodical steps: actual state analysis, analysis of causes, correcting measures, and examination of effectiveness. Various methods of quality management, as for instance opinion polls, data collections, and several procedures of problem identification as well as of solution proposals were applied. All activities were realized according to the requirements of the clinic's ISO 9001:2000 certified quality management system. The development of this project is described step by step from planning phase to inauguration into the daily routine of the clinic and subsequent control of effectiveness. Results Five significant problem fields could be identified. After an analysis of causes the major remedial measures were: installation of a patient telephone hotline, standardization of appointment arrangements for all patients, modification of the appointments book considering the reason for coming in planning defined working periods for certain symptoms and treatments, improvement of telephonic counselling, and transition to flexible time planning by daily updates of the appointments book. After implementation of these changes into the clinic's routine success could be demonstrated by significantly reduced waiting times and resulting increased patient satisfaction. Conclusion Systematic scrutiny of the existing organizational structures of the outpatients' department of our clinic by means of actual state analysis and analysis of causes revealed the necessity

  1. An assessment of the quality indicators of operative and non-operative times in a public university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Altair da Silva; Leão, Luiz Eduardo Villaça; Novais, Maykon Anderson Pires de; Zucchi, Paola

    2015-01-01

    To assess the operative time indicators in a public university hospital. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted using data from operating room database. The sample was obtained from January 2011 to January 2012. The operations performed in sequence in the same operating room, between 7:00 am and 5:00 pm, elective or emergency, were included. The procedures with incomplete data in the system were excluded, as well as the operations performed after 5:00 pm or on weekends or holidays. We measured the operative and non-operative time of 8,420 operations. The operative time (mean and standard deviation) of anesthesias and operations were 177.6 ± 110 and 129.8 ± 97.1 minutes, respectively. The total time of the patient in operative room (mean and standard deviation) was 196.8 ± 113.2. The non-operative time, e.g., between the arrival of the patient and the onset of anesthesia was 14.3 ± 17.3 minutes. The time to set the next patient in operating room was 119.8 ± 79.6 minutes. Our total non-operative time was 155 minutes. Delays frequently occurred in our operating room and had a major effect on patient flow and resource utilization. The non-operative time was longer than the operative time. It is possible to increase the operating room capacity by management and training of the professionals involved. The indicators provided a tool to improve operating room efficiency.

  2. Construction and simulation of a multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer at the University of Notre Dame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, B.E., E-mail: bschult4@nd.edu; Kelly, J.M.; Nicoloff, C.; Long, J.; Ryan, S.; Brodeur, M.

    2016-06-01

    One of the most significant problems in the production of rare isotopes is the simultaneous production of contaminants, often time isobaric. Thus, a high-resolution beam purification method is required which needs to be compatible with both the low yield and short half-life of the desired radionuclide. A multi-reflection time-of-flight mass spectrometer meets all these criteria, in addition to boasting a smaller footprint relative to traditional separator dipole magnets. Such a device is currently under construction at the University of Notre Dame and is intended to be coupled to the IG-ISOL source of the planned cyclotron facility. The motivation and conceptual design are presented, as well as the status of simulations to determine the feasibility of using a Bradbury–Nielsen gate for bunching ion beams during initial system testing.

  3. Impact of a University-Based Outpatient Telemedicine Program on Time Savings, Travel Costs, and Environmental Pollutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullet, Navjit W; Geraghty, Estella M; Kaufman, Taylor; Kissee, Jamie L; King, Jesse; Dharmar, Madan; Smith, Anthony C; Marcin, James P

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate travel-related and environmental savings resulting from the use of telemedicine for outpatient specialty consultations with a university telemedicine program. The study was designed to retrospectively analyze the telemedicine consultation database at the University of California Davis Health System (UCDHS) between July 1996 and December 2013. Travel distances and travel times were calculated between the patient home, the telemedicine clinic, and the UCDHS in-person clinic. Travel cost savings and environmental impact were calculated by determining differences in mileage reimbursement rate and emissions between those incurred in attending telemedicine appointments and those that would have been incurred if a visit to the hub site had been necessary. There were 19,246 consultations identified among 11,281 unique patients. Telemedicine visits resulted in a total travel distance savings of 5,345,602 miles, a total travel time savings of 4,708,891 minutes or 8.96 years, and a total direct travel cost savings of $2,882,056. The mean per-consultation round-trip distance savings were 278 miles, average travel time savings were 245 minutes, and average cost savings were $156. Telemedicine consultations resulted in a total emissions savings of 1969 metric tons of CO 2 , 50 metric tons of CO, 3.7 metric tons of NO x , and 5.5 metric tons of volatile organic compounds. This study demonstrates the positive impact of a health system's outpatient telemedicine program on patient travel time, patient travel costs, and environmental pollutants. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Time-Dependent Effects of Acute Exercise on University Students’ Cognitive Performance in Temperate and Cold Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Ji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the acute exercise-induced changes in cognitive performance in different thermal environments and the time course effects.Objective: Investigate the time-dependent effects of acute exercise on university students’ processing speed, working memory and cognitive flexibility in temperate and cold environments.Method: Twenty male university students (age 23.5 ± 2.0 years with moderate physical activity level participated in a repeated-measures within-subjects design. Processing speed, working memory and cognitive flexibility were assessed using CogState test battery at baseline (BASE, followed by a 45-min rest (REST, immediately after (EX and 30 min after (POST-EX 30-min moderate-intensity treadmill running in both temperate (TEMP; 25°C and cold (COLD; 10°C environments. Mean skin temperature (MST and thermal sensation (TS were also recorded. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed to analyze each variable. Spearman’s rho was used to identify the correlations between MST, TS and cognitive performance.Results: Reaction time (RT of processing speed and working memory decreased immediately after exercise in both conditions (processing speed: p = 0.003; working memory: p = 0.007. The facilitating effects on processing speed disappeared within 30 min after exercise in TEMP (p = 0.163 and COLD (p = 0.667, while improvements on working memory remained 30 min after exercise in TEMP (p = 0.047, but not in COLD (p = 0.663. Though RT of cognitive flexibility reduced in both conditions (p = 0.003, no significance was found between EX and REST (p = 0.135. Increased MST and TS were significantly associated with reductions in processing speed RT (MST: r = -0.341, p < 0.001; TS: r = -0.262, p = 0.001 and working memory RT (MST: r = -0.282, p < 0.001; TS: r = -0.2229, p = 0.005, and improvements in working memory accuracy (MST: r = 0.249, p = 0.002; TS: r = 0.255, p = 0.001.Conclusion: The results demonstrate

  5. "I Don't Know Where to Find the Careers Adviser … He Has Disappeared": The Impact of Changes to Careers Advice on 14-16 Year Olds in University Technical Colleges and Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acquah, Daniel K.; Limmer, Hayley; Malpass, Debra

    2017-01-01

    Recent policies in England have enacted significant changes to careers information advice and guidance (CIAG) and work-related learning (WRL). This paper offers insight into these changes from the perspective of young people studying engineering at University Technical Colleges (UTCs) as well as "comprehensive" schools. Face-to-face CIAG…

  6. Legal Time of the Republic of Colombia and its international traceability using the Cesium Atomic Clock - Time and Frequency National Standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Forero, Liz Catherine; Bahamón Cortés, Nelson

    2017-06-01

    Around the world, there are different providers of timestamp (mobile, radio or television operators, satellites of the GPS network, astronomical measurements, etc.), however, the source of the legal time for a country is either the national metrology institute or another designated laboratory. This activity requires a time standard based on an atomic time scale. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) calculates a weighted average of the time kept in more than 60 nations and produces a single international time scale, called Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). This article presents the current time scale that generates Legal Time for the Republic of Colombia produced by the Instituto Nacional de Metrología (INM) using the time and frequency national standard, a cesium atomic oscillator. It also illustrates how important it is for the academic, scientific and industrial communities, as well as the general public, to be synchronized with this time scale, which is traceable to the International System (SI) of units, through international comparisons that are made in real time.

  7. The Times They Are a-Changin': Time for a Major Emphasis on the Three LS of Lifelong Learning at Canadian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Alan

    2011-01-01

    This article contends that university continuing education is in need of a dramatic repositioning in the minds and wallets of most university administrations. In order to respond both to a developed economy's need for the continuous upgrading of skills and knowledge and to universities' needs for new funding sources, the provision of lifelong…

  8. The Relationship between the Development of Time and Effort Management and Experiences of the Teaching-Learning Environment in a University Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parpala, Anna; Asikainen, Henna; Ruohoniemi, Mirja; Lindblom-Ylänne, Sari

    2017-01-01

    Time and effort management skills have proved to be very important in studying, as they provide a foundation for both study success and engagement in university studies across the world. The paper focuses on how these skills develop during university studies in veterinary medicine, and examines possible changes in relation to students' experiences…

  9. The Transition to Full-Time Work of Young People Who Do Not Go to University. Longitudinal Surveys of Australian Youth. Research Report 49

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Gary N.

    2006-01-01

    This report focuses on the transition to full-time employment of young people who do not go to university. The majority of Australia's school leavers do not enroll in university, and it is important to better understand the pathways that they follow. The report uses a substantial longitudinal dataset to map the dynamics of the youth labour market,…

  10. Quantum mechanics of hyperbolic metamaterials: Modeling of quantum time and Everett's “universal wavefunction”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolyaninov, Igor I., E-mail: smoly@umd.edu

    2014-11-15

    Modern advances in transformation optics and electromagnetic metamaterials made possible experimental demonstrations of highly unusual curvilinear “optical spaces”, such as various geometries necessary for electromagnetic cloaking. Recently we demonstrated that mapping light intensity in a hyperbolic metamaterial may also model the flow of time in an effective (2+1) dimensional Minkowski spacetime. Curving such an effective spacetime creates experimental model of a toy “big bang”. Here we demonstrate that at low light levels this model may be used to emulate a fully covariant version of quantum mechanics in a (2+1) dimensional Minkowski spacetime. When quantum mechanical description is applied near the toy “big bang”, the Everett's “universal wave function” formalism arises naturally, in which the wave function of the model “universe” appears to be a quantum superposition of mutually orthogonal “parallel universe” states.

  11. Teaching in Bukovina at the time of the Austrian domination. The Foundation of the University of Tchernivtsi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Baltag

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Teaching is a mirror that reveals how a nation defines and limits its identity in history, taking its landmarks at cultural level. The situation of education in Bukovina during the Austrian occupation was precarious, especially in the presence of the Romanian language in schools. In that sense, the Romanians of Bukovina fought against the preponderance of German language, imposed by the Austrian occupation and against the pressure exerted by the Ukrainians to impose their mother tongue in educational institutions. If the quality of the teaching of the first schools remained at a fairly low level, the time has come when, following the Western model, Bukovina raised the level of its institutions. The Theological Institute which turns into the Faculty of Theology so that the University of Tchernivtsi allowed students to complete their studies in Bukovina, without having to study in the academic centers of Liov or Vienna.

  12. Why we need to find time for digital humanities: presenting a new partnership model at the University of Sussex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Harvell

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing that academic libraries should develop and nurture strong, mutually beneficial relationships with researchers in digital humanities, the authors believe it is strategically important to invest time and resources exploring ideas and partnering with academic colleagues on projects. This approach can provide many unforeseen benefits to both the Library service and to the workforce. The article is based on our experience as Core Associates of the Sussex Humanities Lab at the University of Sussex. It outlines the impact this collaboration has had, including influencing working practices and culture within the Library, involvement in research bids, informing the development of new services, and addressing library questions using digital humanities methods. Most importantly, it exemplifies a new model of the librarian as equal partner in the research process.

  13. GPS Time Synchronization in School-Network Cosmic Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, H.-G.; Burnett, T. H.; Gran, R.; Wilkes, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    The QuarkNet DAQ card for school-network cosmic ray detectors provides a low-cost alternative to using standard particle and nuclear physics fast pulse electronics modules. The board, which can be produced at a cost of less than $500.00 (USD), produces trigger time and pulse edge time data for 2- to 4-fold coincidence levels via a universal RS232 serial port interface, usable with any PC. Individual detector stations, each consisting of four scintillation counter modules, front-end electronics, and a GPS receiver, produce a stream of data in form of ASCII text strings in identifiable set of formats for different functions. The card includes a low-cost GPS receiver module, which permits time-stamping event triggers to about 50 nanosecond accuracy in UTC between widely separated sites. The technique used for obtaining precise GPS time employs the 1PPS signal, which is not normally available to users of the commercial GPS module. We had the stock model slightly custom-modified to access this signal. The method for deriving time values was adapted from methods developed for the K2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. Performance of the low-cost GPS module used is compared to that of a more expensive unit with known quality.

  14. The J-School Debate: Is the Timing Finally Right for University Journalism Programs and the Rest of the University Community to Work Together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Liberal arts universities are under mounting pressure to maintain their position of relevance in an increasingly technological and economically competitive world, while professional journalism is steadily losing ground to social media. This essay argues that a new partnership between journalism schools and the academic community would be…

  15. A universal real-time PCR assay for the quantification of group-M HIV-1 proviral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malnati, Mauro S; Scarlatti, Gabriella; Gatto, Francesca; Salvatori, Francesca; Cassina, Giulia; Rutigliano, Teresa; Volpi, Rosy; Lusso, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Quantification of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) proviral DNA is increasingly used to measure the HIV-1 cellular reservoirs, a helpful marker to evaluate the efficacy of antiretroviral therapeutic regimens in HIV-1-infected individuals. Furthermore, the proviral DNA load represents a specific marker for the early diagnosis of perinatal HIV-1 infection and might be predictive of HIV-1 disease progression independently of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels and CD4(+) T-cell counts. The high degree of genetic variability of HIV-1 poses a serious challenge for the design of a universal quantitative assay capable of detecting all the genetic subtypes within the main (M) HIV-1 group with similar efficiency. Here, we describe a highly sensitive real-time PCR protocol that allows for the correct quantification of virtually all group-M HIV-1 strains with a higher degree of accuracy compared with other methods. The protocol involves three stages, namely DNA extraction/lysis, cellular DNA quantification and HIV-1 proviral load assessment. Owing to the robustness of the PCR design, this assay can be performed on crude cellular extracts, and therefore it may be suitable for the routine analysis of clinical samples even in developing countries. An accurate quantification of the HIV-1 proviral load can be achieved within 1 d from blood withdrawal.

  16. The Impact of quantum technologies on the EU's future policies: Part 1 Quantum Time

    OpenAIRE

    LEWIS ADAM

    2017-01-01

    Atomic clocks are a quantum technology, used in national metrology laboratories to define UTC and in various networked infrastructure. Developments in the clocks themselves, and in the distribution of precise time, can be expected to affect several application areas of importance to European policy.

  17. Allocating limited resources in a time of fiscal constraints: a priority setting case study from Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitton, Craig; Levy, Adrian; Gorsky, Diane; MacNeil, Christina; Dionne, Francois; Marrie, Tom

    2013-07-01

    Facing a projected $1.4M deficit on a $35M operating budget for fiscal year 2011/2012, members of the Dalhousie University Faculty of Medicine developed and implemented an explicit, transparent, criteria-based priority setting process for resource reallocation. A task group that included representatives from across the Faculty of Medicine used a program budgeting and marginal analysis (PBMA) framework, which provided an alternative to the typical public-sector approaches to addressing a budget deficit of across-the-board spending cuts and political negotiation. Key steps to the PBMA process included training staff members and department heads on priority setting and resource reallocation, establishing process guidelines to meet immediate and longer-term fiscal needs, developing a reporting structure and forming key working groups, creating assessment criteria to guide resource reallocation decisions, assessing disinvestment proposals from all departments, and providing proposal implementation recommendations to the dean. All departments were required to submit proposals for consideration. The task group approved 27 service reduction proposals and 28 efficiency gains proposals, totaling approximately $2.7M in savings across two years. During this process, the task group faced a number of challenges, including a tight timeline for development and implementation (January to April 2011), a culture that historically supported decentralized planning, at times competing interests (e.g., research versus teaching objectives), and reductions in overall health care and postsecondary education government funding. Overall, faculty and staff preferred the PBMA approach to previous practices. Other institutions should use this example to set priorities in times of fiscal constraints.

  18. How Need-Based Financial Aid Reduces College Attrition among Low-Income Public University Students: The Role of Time Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara; Harris, Douglas N.; Benson, James

    2011-01-01

    The authors examine whether a need-based financial grant distribution "at random" to 1,500 Wisconsin Pell Grant recipients attending 13 public universities had an impact on how they allocated their time devoted to (a) working, (b) studying, (c) sleeping, and (d) socializing. To test whether time use mediates the relationship between aid…

  19. Multifractality, imperfect scaling and hydrological properties of rainfall time series simulated by continuous universal multifractal and discrete random cascade models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Serinaldi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Discrete multiplicative random cascade (MRC models were extensively studied and applied to disaggregate rainfall data, thanks to their formal simplicity and the small number of involved parameters. Focusing on temporal disaggregation, the rationale of these models is based on multiplying the value assumed by a physical attribute (e.g., rainfall intensity at a given time scale L, by a suitable number b of random weights, to obtain b attribute values corresponding to statistically plausible observations at a smaller L/b time resolution. In the original formulation of the MRC models, the random weights were assumed to be independent and identically distributed. However, for several studies this hypothesis did not appear to be realistic for the observed rainfall series as the distribution of the weights was shown to depend on the space-time scale and rainfall intensity. Since these findings contrast with the scale invariance assumption behind the MRC models and impact on the applicability of these models, it is worth studying their nature. This study explores the possible presence of dependence of the parameters of two discrete MRC models on rainfall intensity and time scale, by analyzing point rainfall series with 5-min time resolution. Taking into account a discrete microcanonical (MC model based on beta distribution and a discrete canonical beta-logstable (BLS, the analysis points out that the relations between the parameters and rainfall intensity across the time scales are detectable and can be modeled by a set of simple functions accounting for the parameter-rainfall intensity relationship, and another set describing the link between the parameters and the time scale. Therefore, MC and BLS models were modified to explicitly account for these relationships and compared with the continuous in scale universal multifractal (CUM model, which is used as a physically based benchmark model. Monte Carlo simulations point out

  20. Effect of Reduced Phosphoric Acid Pre-etching Times 
on Enamel Surface Characteristics and Shear Fatigue Strength Using Universal Adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, Akimasa; Fischer, Nicholas; Barkmeier, Wayne; Baruth, Andrew; Takamizawa, Toshiki; Latta, Mark; Miyazaki, Masashi

    2017-01-01

    To examine the effect of reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times on enamel fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives and surface characteristics by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three universal adhesives were used in this study (Clearfil Universal Bond [C], G-Premio Bond [GP], Scotchbond Universal Adhesive [SU]). Four pre-etching groups were employed: enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid and immediately rinsed with an air-water spray, and enamel pre-etched with phosphoric acid for 5, 10, or 15 s. Ground enamel was used as the control group. For the initial bond strength test, 15 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were used. For the shear fatigue test, 20 specimens per etching group for each adhesive were loaded using a sine wave at a frequency of 20 Hz for 50,000 cycles or until failure occurred. Initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of composite adhesively bonded to ground and pre-etched enamel were determined. AFM observations of ground and pre-etched enamel were also conducted, and surface roughness as well as surface area were evaluated. The initial shear bond strengths and fatigue shear strengths of the universal adhesives in the pre-etched groups were significantly higher than those of the control group, and were not influenced by the pre-etching time. Significantly higher surface roughness and surface area of enamel surfaces in pre-etched groups were observed compared with those in the control group. While the surface area was not significantly influenced by etching time, surface roughness of the enamel surfaces in the pre-etched groups significantly increased with pre-etching time. The results of this in vitro study suggest that reduced phosphoric acid pre-etching times do not impair the fatigue bond strength of universal adhesives. Although fatigue bond strength and surface area were not influenced by phosphoric-acid etching times, surface roughness increased with increasing etching time.

  1. Single-cell time-lapse analysis of depletion of the universally conserved essential protein YgjD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ackermann Martin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The essential Escherichia coli gene ygjD belongs to a universally conserved group of genes whose function has been the focus of a number of recent studies. Here, we put ygjD under control of an inducible promoter, and used time-lapse microscopy and single cell analysis to investigate the phenotypic consequences of the depletion of YgjD protein from growing cells. Results We show that loss of YgjD leads to a marked decrease in cell size and termination of cell division. The transition towards smaller size occurs in a controlled manner: cell elongation and cell division remain coupled, but cell size at division decreases. We also find evidence that depletion of YgjD leads to the synthesis of the intracellular signaling molecule (pppGpp, inducing a cellular reaction resembling the stringent response. Concomitant deletion of the relA and spoT genes - leading to a strain that is uncapable of synthesizing (pppGpp - abrogates the decrease in cell size, but does not prevent termination of cell division upon YgjD depletion. Conclusions Depletion of YgjD protein from growing cells leads to a decrease in cell size that is contingent on (pppGpp, and to a termination of cell division. The combination of single-cell timelapse microscopy and statistical analysis can give detailed insights into the phenotypic consequences of the loss of essential genes, and can thus serve as a new tool to study the function of essential genes.

  2. Role of Leisure Time Physical Activity in Cancer Prevention: Awareness and Practice among Medical Students at Cairo University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Tarek Tawfik; Mohamed Abdelmoaty, Alshaimaa; Fouad Abd El Badei, Alaa; Obaid, Hamzah Ahmed; Mohamed, Esraa Mowafy; abosheab, Alaa; Abdulkarim, Ali; Abdelsadek, Omar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical inactivity is accountable for a sizable proportion of breast and colorectal cancers and other non-communicable diseases. The higher the individual’s awareness about the protective role of physical activity (PA) in reducing chronic disease, the greater the adoption of PA will be. Objectives: To determine the level of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and awareness towards the role of LTPA in cancer prevention among a sample of Medical students at Cairo University, Egypt. Subjects and Methods: A cross-sectional study, with multistage sampling (a total of 519 students from second to six year students) and a self administered questionnaire covering the study objectives. Results: A significant decrease in the actual?? level of LTPA was noted with students’ year of enrollment at the medical school. However, their knowledge about roles of PA in preventing coronary heart, elevated blood pressure, and elevated cholesterol exceeded 80%, with steady increase in relation to the year of enrolment from the second to 6th years. Their knowledge about PA preventive influence for cancer was low irrespective of the year enrolment (32.2% for prevention of colon and 16.2% for breast cancers). The main sources of knowledge about the role of PA in cancer prevention were the internet and media (77%). Conclusion: The students demonstrated a decline in their LTPA coupled with poor knowledge about the role of LTPA in cancer prevention. Revision of the current curricula should be considered with inclusion of more information on the role of LTPA in cancer prevention to facilitate better awareness of medical students and through them their future patients. Creative Commons Attribution License

  3. The High Time Resolution Universe Pulsar Survey - XII. Galactic plane acceleration search and the discovery of 60 pulsars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, C.; Champion, D. J.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bates, S. D.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Flynn, C. M. L.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Keith, M. J.; Kramer, M.; Levin, L.; Petroff, E.; Possenti, A.; Stappers, B. W.; van Straten, W.; Tiburzi, C.; Eatough, R. P.; Lyne, A. G.

    2015-07-01

    We present initial results from the low-latitude Galactic plane region of the High Time Resolution Universe pulsar survey conducted at the Parkes 64-m radio telescope. We discuss the computational challenges arising from the processing of the terabyte-sized survey data. Two new radio interference mitigation techniques are introduced, as well as a partially coherent segmented acceleration search algorithm which aims to increase our chances of discovering highly relativistic short-orbit binary systems, covering a parameter space including potential pulsar-black hole binaries. We show that under a constant acceleration approximation, a ratio of data length over orbital period of ≈0.1 results in the highest effectiveness for this search algorithm. From the 50 per cent of data processed thus far, we have redetected 435 previously known pulsars and discovered a further 60 pulsars, two of which are fast-spinning pulsars with periods less than 30 ms. PSR J1101-6424 is a millisecond pulsar whose heavy white dwarf (WD) companion and short spin period of 5.1 ms indicate a rare example of full-recycling via Case A Roche lobe overflow. PSR J1757-27 appears to be an isolated recycled pulsar with a relatively long spin period of 17 ms. In addition, PSR J1244-6359 is a mildly recycled binary system with a heavy WD companion, PSR J1755-25 has a significant orbital eccentricity of 0.09 and PSR J1759-24 is likely to be a long-orbit eclipsing binary with orbital period of the order of tens of years. Comparison of our newly discovered pulsar sample to the known population suggests that they belong to an older population. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our current pulsar detection yield is as expected from population synthesis.

  4. Eating behaviour of university students in Germany: Dietary intake, barriers to healthy eating and changes in eating behaviour since the time of matriculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Jennifer; Loerbroks, Adrian; Diehl, Katharina

    2017-02-01

    A healthy diet plays a key role in preventing obesity and non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes. This is true for all age groups, including young adults. While unhealthy eating habits among young adults, in particular university students, have been identified in former studies, this group has been neglected in existing health promotion strategies. Our aim was to explore baseline dietary intake, common barriers to healthy eating, and changes in eating behaviour among university students since the time of matriculation. We used data from the quantitative part of the Nutrition and Physical Activity Study (NuPhA), a cross-sectional online survey (data collection: 2014/10/31-2015/01/15). Students were recruited from all over Germany. Overall, 689 university students (30.5% male; mean age: 22.69) from more than 40 universities across Germany participated. We found that there is room for improvement with regard to the consumption of specific food groups, for example, fruits and vegetables. The main barriers to healthy eating were lack of time due to studies, lack of healthy meals at the university canteen, and high prices of healthy foods. Cluster analysis revealed that barriers to healthy eating might affect only specific subgroups, for instance freshmen. Changes in eating behaviour since matriculation were found in the consumption of meat, fish, and regular meals. Future qualitative studies may help to explore why university students change their eating behaviour since the time of matriculation. Such knowledge is necessary to inform health promotion strategies in the university setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The FireWork air quality forecast system with near-real-time biomass burning emissions: Recent developments and evaluation of performance for the 2015 North American wildfire season

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlovic, Radenko; Chen, Jack; Anderson, Kerry; Moran, Michael D.; Beaulieu, Paul-Andr?; Davignon, Didier; Cousineau, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Environment and Climate Change Canada?s FireWork air quality (AQ) forecast system for North America with near-real-time biomass burning emissions has been running experimentally during the Canadian wildfire season since 2013. The system runs twice per day with model initializations at 00 UTC and 12 UTC, and produces numerical AQ forecast guidance with 48-hr lead time. In this work we describe the FireWork system, which incorporates near-real-time biomass burning emissions based on th...

  6. Universe symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souriau, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr

  7. Results of using the global positioning system to maintain the time and frequency synchronization in the Deep Space Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clements, P. A.; Kirk, A.; Unglaub, R.

    1987-01-01

    There are two hydrogen maser clocks located at each signal processing center (SPC) in the DSN. Close coordination of the time and frequency of the SPC clocks is needed to navigate spacecraft to the outer planets. A recent example was the Voyager spacecraft's encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The clocks were adjusted with the goal of minimizing time and frequency offsets between the SPCs at encounter. How time and frequency at each SPC is estimated using data acquired from the Global Positioning System Timing Receivers operating on the NBS-BIH (National Bureau of Standards-Bureau International de l'Heure) tracking schedule is described. These data are combined with other available timing receiver data to calculate the time offset estimates. The adjustment of the clocks is described. It was determined that long range hydrogen maser drift is quite predictable and adjustable within limits. This enables one to minimize time and frequency differences between the three SPCs for many months by matching the drift rates of the three standards. Data acquisition and processing techniques using a Kalman filter to make estimates of time and frequency offsets between the clocks at the SPCs and UTC(NBS) (Coordinated Universal Time realized at NBS) are described.

  8. Awareness of the Faculty Members at Al-Balqa' Applied University to the Concept of Time Management and Its Relation to Some Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabha, Raed Adel; Al-Assaf, Jamal Abdel-Fattah

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to investigate how extent is the time management awareness of the faculty members of the Al-Balqa' Applied university, and its relation to some variables. The study conducted on (150) teachers were selected randomly. For achieving the study goals an appropriate instrument has been built up based on the educational literature and…

  9. Self-Esteem, Locus of Control, and First-Time NCLEX-RN Passage of BSN Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavis, Pamella Ivey

    Relationships between self-esteem, locus of control (LOC), and first-time passage of National Council Licensure Examination for Registered Nurses (NCLEX-RN®) were examined at baccalaureate nursing programs at two historically black colleges and universities. Shortages continue to exceed demands for RNs prepared at the baccalaureate level. Inconsistent pass rates on the NCLEX-RN for graduates of historically black colleges and universities impede the supply of RNs. Surveys and archival data were used to examine characteristics of the sample and explore relationships among variables. All participants (N = 90) reported high self-esteem and internal LOC. Models suggested that all those with high self-esteem and internal LOC would pass the NCLEX-RN; only 85 percent passed the first time. Statistical analysis revealed a lack of statistical significance between self-esteem, LOC, and first-time passage. Variables not included in the study may have affected first-time passage.

  10. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hontelez, J.A.C.; Newell, M.L.; Bland, R.M.; Munnelly, K.; Lessells, R.J.; Barnighausen, T.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV patients in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access) remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years,

  11. Investigating the Possibility of Using TOEFL Scores for University ESL Decision-Making: Placement Trends and Effect of Time Lag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhan, Kateryna

    2012-01-01

    The English Placement Test (EPT) at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) is designed to provide an accurate placement (or exemption) of international students into the ESL writing and pronunciation classes. Over the last five years, UIUC has experienced an increase in the number of international students taking the EPT. Because of…

  12. Universal detection of phytoplasmas and Xylella spp. by TaqMan singleplex and multiplex real-time PCR with dual priming oligonucleotides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Ito

    Full Text Available Phytoplasmas and Xylella spp. are bacteria that cause many economically important plant diseases worldwide. TaqMan probe-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR assays have been utilized to universally detect phytoplasmas or Xylella fastidiosa. To develop a superior universal qPCR method, we used a dual priming oligonucleotide (DPO with two annealing sites as a reverse primer to target the well-conserved bacterial 16S rDNA. The new qPCR assays universally detected various species of phytoplasmas and subspecies of X. fastidiosa as well as Xylella taiwanensis, and generally showed superior threshold cycle values when amplifying specific or non-specific products compared to current universal qPCR assays. The proposed qPCR assays were integrated to develop a multiplex qPCR assay that simultaneously detected phytoplasmas, Xylella spp., and an internal plant DNA positive control within 1 hour. This assay could detect a minimum of ten bacterial cells and was compatible with crude extractions used in the rapid screening of various plants. The amplicons were of sufficient lengths to be directly sequenced for preliminary identification, and the primers could be used in universal conventional PCR assays. Additionally, reverse DPO primers can be utilized to improve other probe-based qPCR assays.

  13. The Role of Part-Time Employment among Young People with a Non-University Education in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales-Herrero, Helena; Rodríguez-Prado, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    For some people, a part-time job is merely an intermediate state that serves as a "stepping stone" to further employment and makes labour market integration easier. Yet, part-time work also appears in highly unstable careers. The present research aims to determine the role of part-time employment for young people with non-university…

  14. Comparison of debris extruded apically and working time used by ProTaper Universal rotary and ProTaper retreatment system during gutta-percha removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kinue Nakamune Uezu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro action of ProTaper retreatment files and ProTaper Universal in the retreatment of mandibular premolars. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The amount of debris extruded apically was measured and the time to reach the working length and to complete the removal of gutta-percha was observed. Thirty teeth had their canals prepared using ProTaper Universal files and were obturated by the single cone technique. The teeth were then stored at 37ºC in a humid environment for 7 days. During the use of the rotary instruments for root canal filling removal, the apical portions of the teeth were attached to the open end of a resin tube to collect the apically extruded debris. RESULTS: ProTaper Universal files were significantly faster (p=0.0011 than the ProTaper retreatment files to perform gutta-percha removal, but no significant difference was found between the files regarding the time to reach the working length or the amount of apical extrusion. CONCLUSIONS: ProTaper Universal rotary had better results for endodontic retreatment, and both techniques promote similar apical extrusion of debris.

  15. First Zenith Total Delay and Integrated Water Vapour Estimates from the Near Real-Time GNSS Data Processing Systems at the University of Luxembourg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F.; Teferle, F. N.; Bingley, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since September 2011 the University of Luxembourg in collaboration with the University of Nottingham has been setting up two near real-time processing systems for ground-based GNSS data for the provision of zenith total delay (ZTD) and integrated water vapour (IWV) estimates. Both systems are based on Bernese v5.0, use the double-differenced network processing strategy and operate with a 1-hour (NRT1h) and 15-minutes (NRT15m) update cycle. Furthermore, the systems follow the approach of the E-GVAP METO and IES2 systems in that the normal equations for the latest data are combined with those from the previous four updates during the estimation of the ZTDs. NRT1h currently takes the hourly data from over 130 GNSS stations in Europe whereas NRT15m is primarily using the real-time streams of EUREF-IP. Both networks include additional GNSS stations in Luxembourg, Belgium and France. The a priori station coordinates for all of these stem from a moving average computed over the last 20 to 50 days and are based on the precise point positioning processing strategy. In this study we present the first ZTD and IWV estimates obtained from the NRT1h and NRT15m systems in development at the University of Luxembourg. In a preliminary evaluation we compare their performance to the IES2 system at the University of Nottingham and find the IWV estimates to agree at the sub-millimetre level.

  16. Effect of Storage Time on Bond Strength and Nanoleakage Expression of Universal Adhesives Bonded to Dentin and Etched Enamel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makishi, P; André, C B; Ayres, Apa; Martins, A L; Giannini, M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate bond strength and nanoleakage expression of universal adhesives (UA) bonded to dentin and etched enamel. Extracted human third molars were sectioned and ground to obtain flat surfaces of dentin (n = 36) and enamel (n = 48). Dentin and etched enamel surfaces were bonded with one of two UAs, All-Bond Universal (ABU) or Scotchbond Universal (SBU); or a two-step self-etching adhesive, Clearfil SE Bond (CSEB). A hydrophobic bonding resin, Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Bond (ASMP Bond) was applied only on etched enamel. Following each bonding procedure, resin composite blocks were built up incrementally. The specimens were sectioned and subjected to microtensile bond strength (MTBS) testing after 24 hours or one year water storage, or immersed into ammoniacal silver nitrate solution after aging with 10,000 thermocycles and observed using scanning electron microscopy. The percentage distribution of silver particles at the adhesive/tooth interface was calculated using digital image-analysis software. The MTBS (CSEB = SBU > ABU, for dentin; and CSEB > ABU = SBU = ASMP Bond, for etched enamel) differed significantly between the adhesives after 24 hours. After one year, MTBS values were reduced significantly within the same adhesive for both substrates (analysis of variance, Bonferroni post hoc, padhesives for etched enamel. Silver particles could be detected within the adhesive/dentin interface of all specimens tested. Kruskal-Wallis mean ranks for nanoleakage in ABU, SBU, and CSEB were 16.9, 18.5 and 11, respectively (p>0.05). In the short term, MTBS values were material and dental-substrate dependent. After aging, a decrease in bonding effectiveness was observed in all materials, with nanoleakage at the adhesive/dentin interface. The bonding of the UAs was equal or inferior to that of the conventional restorative systems when applied to either substrate and after either storage period.

  17. Constraints on the nature of inertial motion arising from the universality of free fall and the conformal causal structure of space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, R.A.; Korte, H.

    1984-01-01

    According to the principle of the universality of free fall, the motions of all neutral monopole particles are governed by one common path structure. This principle does not, however, require the path structure to be geodesic; that is, the path structure need not be a projective structure. It is shown that any equation of motion structure (either a curve or a path structure) that has sufficient microisotropy to be compatible with the conformal causal structure of space-time must be geodesic and must be unique. Hence, the empirically well-supported principles of conformal causality and of the universality of free fall together require the existence of a unique Weyl structure on space-time

  18. A chronicle of just-in-time information: The secret to building first year university student wellbeing and resilience based on a three year initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalee Taylor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available To date, little has been published on the provision of student-driven just-in-time information to support first year students. This chronicle of just-in-time curricular and extra-curricular student support information was designed early in 2014 and successfully disseminated to first year biomedical science students over three years at James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. In 2016, the information was redeveloped to make the support information electronically available to a much broader student audience. This article provides a dissemination template of what just-in-time curricular and extra-curricular information is required by first year university students. In addition, it outlines how students’ need for this information was determined and how information was successfully created and disseminated over these three years to assist the students in their transition to and through university. The intention of this article is to contribute to the growing body of knowledge on student resilience and wellbeing and to provide a guide for anyone interested in supporting their students in a similar manner.

  19. A chronicle of just-in-time information: The secret to building first year university student wellbeing and resilience based on a three year initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donnalee Taylor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available To date, little has been published on the provision of student-driven just-in-time information to support first year students. This chronicle of just-in-time curricular and extra-curricular student support information was designed early in 2014 and successfully disseminated to first year biomedical science students over three years at James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. In 2016, the information was redeveloped to make the support information electronically available to a much broader student audience. This article provides a dissemination template of what just-in-time curricular and extra-curricular information is required by first year university students. In addition, it outlines how students’ need for this information was determined and how information was successfully created and disseminated over these three years to assist the students in their transition to and through university. The intention of this article is to contribute to the growing body of knowledge on student resilience and wellbeing and to provide a guide for anyone interested in supporting their students in a similar manner.

  20. Information Literacy and Digital Divide: The Case of the University of Botswana Students Studying Part-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kgosiemang, Rose T.

    2016-01-01

    In Botswana, the costs and requirements to study full-time are very high. Not everyone can afford to study full-time without forfeiting their current roles, for example, in 1999 the Center for Continuing Education (CCE) in Botswana launched a Diploma in Primary Education distance education programme, to upgrade academic and professional…

  1. Educational Expansion or Credential Inflation? The Evolution of Part-Time Study by Adults at McGill University, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Scott; Rollwagen, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Part-time students have accounted for a significant proportion of rising participation in higher education in many countries. The objectives of this paper are to enrich the empirical literature concerning the inclusion of part-time adult learners in higher education, and to assess the two competing theoretical frameworks that have emerged to…

  2. Education in Time of War: George Johnson and the Commission on American Citizenship of the Catholic University of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Times of war are times of crisis for theologians and educators. This article examines how Msgr. George Johnson, the vice president of the Religious Education Association and the most prominent Catholic educator in the 1930s and 1940s, dealt with the ethical and educational issues surrounding U.S. involvement in the Second World War. It argues that…

  3. Relation of body mass index and body fat mass for Spanish university students, taking into account leisure-time physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos; Queralt, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this cross-sectional study was to analyze the relation of Body Mass Index with body fat mass while taking into account the amount of leisure-time physical activity for 299 male university students. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis. An estimation of energy expenditure in leisure-time physical activity in metabolic equivalents (METs) was obtained so participants were divided into six activity groups by percentile: no physical activity by the first group and participants physically active were divided into five groups by percentiles: 90% group.

  4. A Study of the Ways of Spending Leisure Time and Its Related Variables in the Students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2015, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parisa Sarraf

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Leisure time is an opportunity allowing a person to fill his/her time with mental or entertaining activity according to his/her interest and incentive, when he/she is relatively free. The current study aimed to assess and prioritize the activities of the students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in their leisure time. Methods: This analytical cross-sectional study was conducted on 405 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences in 2015. A total of 325 students were selected using random stratified sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire, which its reliability and validity had been confirmed. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and chi-square test. Results: Ninety percent of the students had leisure time during the day, which was more than 1 hour in 78% of them. The most important priorities of the students for spending their leisure time was recreation and having fun in 261 subjects (70.5%, rest in 239 (64.6%, using social networks in 239 (64.6%, reading non-school related materials in 229 (61.9%, reading school related materials in 220 (59.5%, sport in 201 (54.3%, and using game software in 193 (52.2%, among which, reading school related materials was significantly different between males and females (p<0.05. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most of the students of Qom University of Medical Sciences do not make effective use of cell phone, social networks, and computer games. Also, sport and studying activities have not considerable place in their leisure activities, which necessitates providing accurate planning.

  5. The National Health Services of Brazil and Northern Europe: Universality, Equity, and Integrality-Time Has Come for the Latter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Garibaldi D; de Sousa, Islândia M Carvalho; de Araujo Oliveira, Sydia Rosana; de Assis da Silva Santos, Francisco; Diderichsen, Finn

    2017-10-01

    In 1990 the national health services in the United Kingdom and Sweden started to split up in internal markets with purchasers and providers. It was also the year when Brazil started to implement a national health service (SUS) inspired by the British national health service that aimed at principles of universality, equity, and integrality. While the reform in Brazil aimed at improving equity and effectiveness, reforms in Europe aimed at improving efficiency in order to contain costs. The European reforms increased supply and utilization but never provided the large increase in efficiency that was hoped for, and inequities have increased. The health sector reform in Brazil, on the other hand, contributed to great improvements in population health but never succeeded in changing the fact that more than half of health care spending was private. Demographic and epidemiological changes, with more elderly people having chronic disorders and very unequal comorbidities, bring the issue of integrality in the forefront in all 3 countries, and neither the public purchaser provider markets nor the 2-tier system in Brazil delivers on that front. It will demand political leadership and strategic planning with population responsibility to deal with such challenges.

  6. Gonorrhea: Data on antibiotic resistance and accompanying infections at the University Hospital Dresden over a 10-year time period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Susanne; Poehlmann, Christoph; Spornraft-Ragaller, Petra

    2013-03-01

    Over the last years, growing resistance of gonorrhea to quinolones has emerged worldwide. Currently, cases with resistance to oral and parenteral third-generation cephalosporins are increasingly reported. Because gonorrhea is not a notifiable infection in Germany, data on epidemiology and antimicrobial surveillance of gonorrhea are scarce. We present the results of N. gonorrhoea testing at the University Hospital Dresden over the course of ten years. The results of cultural and nucleic acid amplification testing of gonorrhea and accompanying infections of 1,850 smears between 2001 and 2010 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 181 patients (mean age 30.4 years) 159 had positive PCR analyses for gonorrhea and 50 positive cultures of Neisseria gonorrhoea. The rate of ciprofloxacin resistance was high (in 46% of all isolates), primarily in men. Resistance to cefotaxime and ceftriaxone could not be detected so far. In 40% of the cases at least one accompanying urogenital infection occurred, predominantly with Chlamydia trachomatis. Similar to other regions of Germany, a high percentage of resistance to quinolones was found in gonorrhea, but not to cephalosporins. Additionally, accompanying infections were frequent and warrant screening. In the light of recent cases of resistance to cephalosporins currently emerging in Europe, cultural diagnosis of gonorrhea should definitely be intensified by all means. The results should be integrated into a surveillance system. © The Authors | Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.

  7. Quantum space loop quantum gravity and the search for the structure of space, time, and the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Baggott, Jim

    2018-01-01

    Today we are blessed with two extraordinarily successful theories of physics. The first is Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, which describes the large-scale behaviour of matter in a curved spacetime. This theory is the basis for the standard model of big bang cosmology. The discovery of gravitational waves at the LIGO observatory in the US (and then Virgo, in Italy) is only the most recent of this theory's many triumphs. The second is quantum mechanics. This theory describes the properties and behaviour of matter and radiation at their smallest scales. It is the basis for the standard model of particle physics, which builds up all the visible constituents of the universe out of collections of quarks, electrons and force-carrying particles such as photons. The discovery of the Higgs boson at CERN in Geneva is only the most recent of this theory's many triumphs. But, while they are both highly successful, these two structures leave a lot of important questions unanswered. They are also based on ...

  8. JY1 time scale: a new Kalman-filter time scale designed at NIST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Jian; Parker, Thomas E; Levine, Judah

    2017-01-01

    We report on a new Kalman-filter hydrogen-maser time scale (i.e. JY1 time scale) designed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The JY1 time scale is composed of a few hydrogen masers and a commercial Cs clock. The Cs clock is used as a reference clock to ease operations with existing data. Unlike other time scales, the JY1 time scale uses three basic time-scale equations, instead of only one equation. Also, this time scale can detect a clock error (i.e. time error, frequency error, or frequency drift error) automatically. These features make the JY1 time scale stiff and less likely to be affected by an abnormal clock. Tests show that the JY1 time scale deviates from the UTC by less than  ±5 ns for ∼100 d, when the time scale is initially aligned to the UTC and then is completely free running. Once the time scale is steered to a Cs fountain, it can maintain the time with little error even if the Cs fountain stops working for tens of days. This can be helpful when we do not have a continuously operated fountain or when the continuously operated fountain accidentally stops, or when optical clocks run occasionally. (paper)

  9. Canadian Research Librarians have Little Time for Scholarship. A review of: Fox, David. “Finding Time for Scholarship: A Survey of Canadian Research University Librarians.” Portal: Libraries and the Academy 7.4 (2007: 451-62.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Haley

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To provide comparative data from Canadian research universities regarding the time spent on scholarly activities by research librarians.Design – Qualitative study employing a bilingual survey consisting of thirty-nine questions. Setting – Canadian Association of Research Libraries (CARL located at the twenty-seven CARL universities during the spring and fall of 2006.Subjects – CARL university librarians for whom e-mail addresses could be retrieved.Methods – The survey was distributed to 1052 CARL librarians during the spring and fall of 2006 via e-mail. Problems with the clarity of two questions became evident during the receipt of responses. The questions were revised and resubmitted to the same population.Main Results – Five hundred and twenty responses (49.4% were received, with 441 (84.8% in English and 15.2% in French. A total of 53 surveys were unusable, leaving 467 (44.4% cases as the basis for data analysis. Responses to the survey revealed that 51.4% of participants were required or encouraged to undertake scholarship. Ofthese, 35% were expected, in addition to sabbatical and study leaves, to make scholarship an integral and ongoing part of their professional responsibilities. Due to the individualized and subjective nature of the responses, no clear data emerged on the balance between scholarship and other professional activities. The majority of research librarians, on average, spent less than five hours per week on scholarship activities. For the 290 full-time librarians surveyed, the average time spent per week on all activities (professional and scholarly was 47.4 hours. Almost one third of the full time librarians worked fifty hours or more per week – the equivalent to the time commitment of the average university professor. Participants indicated that in an ideal world they would like to spend 10% less time on assigned duties. Francophone respondents spent 5% more of their time on professional

  10. Dynamical Constants and Time Universals: A First Step toward a Metrical Definition of Ordered and Abnormal Cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Mark A; du Bois, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    From the point of view of the cognitive dynamicist the organization of brain circuitry into assemblies defined by their synchrony at particular (and precise) oscillation frequencies is important for the correct correlation of all independent cortical responses to the different aspects of a given complex thought or object. From the point of view of anyone operating complex mechanical systems, i.e., those comprising independent components that are required to interact precisely in time, it follows that the precise timing of such a system is essential - not only essential but measurable, and scalable. It must also be reliable over observations to bring about consistent behavior, whatever that behavior is. The catastrophic consequence of an absence of such precision, for instance that required to govern the interference engine in many automobiles, is indicative of how important timing is for the function of dynamical systems at all levels of operation. The dynamics and temporal considerations combined indicate that it is necessary to consider the operating characteristic of any dynamical, cognitive brain system in terms, superficially at least, of oscillation frequencies. These may, themselves, be forensic of an underlying time-related taxonomy. Currently there are only two sets of relevant and necessarily systematic observations in this field: one of these reports the precise dynamical structure of the perceptual systems engaged in dynamical binding across form and time; the second, derived both empirically from perceptual performance data, as well as obtained from theoretical models, demonstrates a timing taxonomy related to a fundamental operator referred to as the time quantum. In this contribution both sets of theory and observations are reviewed and compared for their predictive consistency. Conclusions about direct comparability are discussed for both theories of cognitive dynamics and time quantum models. Finally, a brief review of some experimental data

  11. Merits and demerits of engaging in athletic, academic and part-time job roles among university student-athletes in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Mizuno, Motoki; Ebara, Takeshi; Hirosawa, Masataka

    2011-12-01

    Although role conflict management is necessary for the prevention of dropout from participation in sports, little has been known about it, especially regarding Japanese university student-athletes. Hence, this study examined the aspects of merit and demerit involved in their performances of academic, athletic, part-time job, family and human relationship roles. The merits and demerits were evaluated using the theoretical concepts of negative spillover (NSP), positive spillover (PSP), compensation and segmentation. In the research, a total of 108 participants (63 males, 45 females) described information about their multiple roles in the Multiple Roles Map (MRM) form. NSP with high frequency rates (3rd quartile) showed demerit that negative condition in athletic and part-time job roles tended to disturb performance of other roles (male ≥ 17.5%, female ≥ 15.6%). The results of PSP showed merit that positive condition in the athletic, part-time job and academic roles contributes to accomplishment of good performance in other roles (male ≥ 19.0%, female ≥ 17.8%). Compensation indicated that negative conditions in the roles were compensated by satisfaction in the human relationships and family roles and private time (male ≥ 9.5%, female ≥ 11.1%). The family role was segmented from other roles (male ≥ 71.4%, female ≥ 68.9%). Sharing these findings will be effective in helping to solve role conflict problems of university student-athletes in Japan.

  12. Two-dimensional time dependent calculations for the training reactor of Budapest University of Technology and Economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, K.S.; Szatmary, Z.

    2005-01-01

    An iterative method was developed for the numerical solution of the coupled two-dimensional time dependent multigroup diffusion equation and delayed precursor equations. Both forward (Explicit) and backward (Implicit) schemes were used. The second scheme was found to be numerically stable, while the first scheme requires that Δt -10 sec. for stability. An example is given for the second method. (authors)

  13. Investigation of Positional Differences in Fitness of Male University Ice Hockey Players and the Frequency, Time Spent and Heart Rate of Movement Patterns during Competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Jackson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:  Men’s university ice hockey has received little scientific attention over the past 30 years, a time in which the traits of the players and the demands of the game have evolved.  Objectives: This study compared the physiological characteristics of university ice hockey players and examined the frequency and duration of the different movement patterns and heart rate (HR responses during competition. Methods: Twenty male ice hockey players from the same team ( age ± SD = 22±2 years underwent a fitness evaluation and were filmed and HR monitored during regular season games. Results: Forwards and defense had similar fitness and only differed on % fatigue index and peak heart during on-ice sprinting (P<0.05. Defense stood, glided and skated backwards more than forwards and forwards skated at a moderate intensity and glided forward more than defense (P<0.05. All players spent the majority of game time gliding forward (60% of the time followed by skating forward at a moderate intensity (17% and standing with little movement (9%. Average HR during the game reached 96 and 92 % and peak HR was 100 and 96 % of maximum in forwards and defense, respectively. Conclusions: Male university hockey players present with a high level of physical fitness in a variety of categories with few differences between forwards and defense. Movement patterns during games suggest that players are performing low to moderate intensity on-ice activities the majority of the time. Paradoxically, HR continues to climb to near maximum during on ice shifts.

  14. Time Management and Its Relation To Students’ Stress, Gender and Academic Achievement Among Sample of Students at Al Ain University of Science and Technology, UAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Saleh Al Khatib

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between time management, perceived stress, gender and academic achievement among United Arab Emirates college students. The respondents were 352 college students from Al Ain University of Science and Technology. The sample was stratified by sex. Among the respondents, 52.5% were female students and 47.5% were male students. The mean age of the sample was 23.4 years ranging from 18 to 39. Time management was measured by Time Management Questionnaire” developed by Britton and Tesser (1991, while perceived stress was measured by The Perceived Stress Scale developed by Cohen (1985. The findings of the study showed that there was statistically significant negative relationship between time management and perceived stress. Females reported higher time management compared to their males counter mates. Higher time management and lower perceived stress were associated with high levels of academic achievement. However, time management was the most significant predictor of academic achievement accounting for 26 % of the variance while perceived stress accounted for an additional 11.2% of the variance in academic achievement. All three predictors explained 29.4% (R = .543 of total variance. The implications and limitations are reviewed as are the suggestions for future research.   Keywords: Time management, perceived stress, academic achievement, college students.

  15. Real-Time Vehicle Data Logging System Using GPS And GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Minn Thet

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes and implements a low cost Vehicle Data Logging System using GPS and GSM. This system allows a user to trace the present and past positions recorded in SD card. This system also reads the current position of the vehicle using GPS the data is sent via GSM service from the GSM network. The vehicles position including the driving speed the UTC time and data are stored in the SD card for live and past tracking. All of that GPS data is sent to PIC 18F4520 by the Universal Asynchronous ReceiverTransmitter UART and also store in SD card. GSM also uses UART to transmit. To know the position of the vehicle the owner sends a request through a SMS. The SMS sends to the authorized person through the GSM network. The travel history of the vehicle are stored in a file on an SD card in FAT format.This system is very useful for car tracking for adolescent driver being checked by parent speed limit exceeding leaving a specific area. V The developed system is easy to use requires no additional hardware and permits the selection of the amount of data and the time intervals between the data recordings. In addition the collected data can easily be transferred to a computer via a connected serial port.

  16. USE OF TRANS-CONTEXTUAL MODEL-BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY COURSE IN DEVELOPING LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BEHAVIOR OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müftüler, Mine; İnce, Mustafa Levent

    2015-08-01

    This study examined how a physical activity course based on the Trans-Contextual Model affected the variables of perceived autonomy support, autonomous motivation, determinants of leisure-time physical activity behavior, basic psychological needs satisfaction, and leisure-time physical activity behaviors. The participants were 70 Turkish university students (M age=23.3 yr., SD=3.2). A pre-test-post-test control group design was constructed. Initially, the participants were randomly assigned into an experimental (n=35) and a control (n=35) group. The experimental group followed a 12 wk. trans-contextual model-based intervention. The participants were pre- and post-tested in terms of Trans-Contextual Model constructs and of self-reported leisure-time physical activity behaviors. Multivariate analyses showed significant increases over the 12 wk. period for perceived autonomy support from instructor and peers, autonomous motivation in leisure-time physical activity setting, positive intention and perceived behavioral control over leisure-time physical activity behavior, more fulfillment of psychological needs, and more engagement in leisure-time physical activity behavior in the experimental group. These results indicated that the intervention was effective in developing leisure-time physical activity and indicated that the Trans-Contextual Model is a useful way to conceptualize these relationships.

  17. Time perspective, optimistic bias, and self-control among different statuses of university smokers in China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Yang, Yang; Ma, Xiao

    2018-01-09

    Risk behavior often seems 'self-defeating' to the observers. Most people understand the basic health-related knowledge, but some of them still choose to continue risk behaviors, especially for the young. This study aimed to examine time perspective, optimism bias and self control correlated with smoking behavior in Chinese college students. A cross-sectional survey enrolling 3016 university students in Chengdu City, Sichuan Province, China. Influence Factors were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses. Prevalence of current smoking was 20.92% (631 smokers), including 272 daily smokers (9.02%) and 359 non-daily smokers (11.90%). Future-oriented time perspective, general capacity for self-discipline, reliability and ethnicity were protective factors of smoking behavior. Possibility of self-suffering diseases and gender were risk factors of smoking behavior. Smoking in University of Chengdu, China is a severe problem. Results in this research have suggested that irrespective of the smoking level, improving health-related knowledge, time management awareness and self-control ability may contribute to reducing the prevalence of smoking behavior.

  18. ATTITUDES OF MEDICAL STUDENTS TOWARDS TAKING PART-TIME JOBS: A STUDY AMONGST FIRST YEAR CLINICAL STUDENTS OF THE COLLEGE OF MEDICINE, UNIVERSITY OF IBADAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmodi, K K; Akinloye, A G; Aladelusi, T O

    2017-06-01

    Student part-time jobs are employments taken up by students while in school. Students in tertiary institutions do engage in part-time jobs because of the associated benefits. Some of these benefits include work experience, independence, financial support, and job satisfaction. Different studies have reported different attitudes towards taking part-time jobs among university students. To determine the attitudes of medical students in their first clinical year of study at the University of Ibadan medical school towards taking up parttime medical jobs within the university hospital. This study was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted among medical students in their first clinical year of study. Eighty one first clinical - year medical students were recruited to participate in this study. All participants were interviewed using a self-administered questionnaire to obtain information on bio-data, scholarship benefit status, level of satisfaction with monthly income, choices of part-time jobs, and the factors that might informed choice of a part-time job. No questionnaire was discarded because all were correctly filled. Data collected was coded, entered, and analysed using the SPSS version 16 software. Analyses of all variables were done using descriptive statistics. The mean age of the 81 respondents was 20.8 (±1.6) years and 51.9% were males. A higher proportion of the male respondents were studying on scholarship (57.1%), compared to that of the females (31.6%). Respondents studying on scholarship had a higher level of financial satisfaction. Over 90% of the participants supported the idea of part-time medical job creation for medical students. The majority of the respondents (64.2%) prefer to take up the job position of research assistantships. The amount of wages to be earned was the most predominant factor considered among the male respondents in their decision for taking up a part-time medical job, while opportunity to learn new skills was the most

  19. The High Time Resolution Universe Pulsar Survey - XIII. PSR J1757-1854, the most accelerated binary pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, A. D.; Champion, D. J.; Kramer, M.; Bailes, M.; Barr, E. D.; Bassa, C. G.; Bhandari, S.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Burgay, M.; Burke-Spolaor, S.; Eatough, R. P.; Flynn, C. M. L.; Freire, P. C. C.; Jameson, A.; Johnston, S.; Karuppusamy, R.; Keith, M. J.; Levin, L.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lyne, A. G.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Ng, C.; Petroff, E.; Possenti, A.; Ridolfi, A.; Stappers, B. W.; van Straten, W.; Tauris, T. M.; Tiburzi, C.; Wex, N.

    2018-03-01

    We report the discovery of PSR J1757-1854, a 21.5-ms pulsar in a highly-eccentric, 4.4-h orbit with a neutron star (NS) companion. PSR J1757-1854 exhibits some of the most extreme relativistic parameters of any known pulsar, including the strongest relativistic effects due to gravitational-wave damping, with a merger time of 76 Myr. Following a 1.6-yr timing campaign, we have measured five post-Keplerian parameters, yielding the two component masses (mp = 1.3384(9) M⊙ and mc = 1.3946(9) M⊙) plus three tests of general relativity, which the theory passes. The larger mass of the NS companion provides important clues regarding the binary formation of PSR J1757-1854. With simulations suggesting 3-σ measurements of both the contribution of Lense-Thirring precession to the rate of change of the semimajor axis and the relativistic deformation of the orbit within ˜7-9 yr, PSR J1757-1854 stands out as a unique laboratory for new tests of gravitational theories.

  20. An evaluation of the accuracy of modeled and computed streamflow time-series data for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and at a location upstream from Sardis, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2015-01-01

    Between July 2013 and June 2014, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) made 10 streamflow measurements on the Ohio River about 1.5 miles (mi) downstream from the Hannibal Lock and Dam (near Hannibal, Ohio) and 11 streamflow measurements near the USGS Sardis gage (station number 03114306) located approximately 2.4 mi upstream from Sardis, Ohio. The measurement results were used to assess the accuracy of modeled or computed instantaneous streamflow time series created and supplied by the USGS, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), and National Weather Service (NWS) for the Ohio River at Hannibal Lock and Dam and (or) at the USGS streamgage. Hydraulic or hydrologic models were used to create the modeled time series; index-velocity methods or gate-opening ratings coupled with hydropower operation data were used to create the computed time series. The time step of the various instantaneous streamflow time series ranged from 15 minutes to 24 hours (once-daily values at 12:00 Coordinated Universal Time [UTC]). The 15-minute time-series data, computed by the USGS for the Sardis gage, also were downsampled to 1-hour and 24-hour time steps to permit more direct comparisons with other streamflow time series.

  1. Ocupación del tiempo libre del alumnado en la universidad de Huelva. [Use of student´s free time at the University of Huelva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Castillo Viera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Existen estudios señalan cuáles son las actividades que la población joven realiza durante su tiempo libre. En este trabajo, se muestran las actividades que el alumnado universitario realiza, así como las que les gustaría realizar pero no hacen. Se parte de un estudio más amplio sobre estilo de vida, y en este caso se analiza una de las dimensiones del cuestionario utilizado, en concreto "tiempo libre". Con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un error máximo del 3% la muestra seleccionada es de 975 alumnos. Algunas de las categorías analizadas son: cantidad de tiempo libre, grado de satisfacción con dicha cantidad de tiempo libre, tiempo dedicado a diversas actividades, y consumo de deporte como espectáculo en su tiempo libre. Entre los resultados, se puede destacar que casi la mitad del alumnado tiene entre dos y tres horas de tiempo libre al día. Los que practican actividad física manifiestan que tienen más tiempo libre que los no activos, existiendo diferencias significativas. Por orden de prioridad, las actividades que les gustaría hacer en su tiempo libre son: estar con la familia, hacer deporte, escuchar música, entre otras. Palabras clave: Tiempo libre, universitarios, deporte.   Abstract There are studies indicate which are the activities that the young population realizes during their free time. We show the activities that the university student body realizes, as well as those that they would like to realize but they do not do. We depart from a more wide study on way of life, and in this case we centre on one of the dimensions of the used questionnaire, in concretely "free time ". On a population of 11314 pupils / aces, one administers the questionnaire to a sample of 975. Some of the analyzed categories are: quantity of free time, degree of satisfaction with the above mentioned quantity of free time, time dedicated to diverse activities, and consumption of sport like spectacle in free time. Some of the results are

  2. Ocupación del tiempo libre del alumnado en la universidad de Huelva. [Use of student´s free time at the University of Huelva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Castillo Viera

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen Existen estudios señalan cuáles son las actividades que la población joven realiza durante su tiempo libre. En este trabajo, se muestran las actividades que el alumnado universitario realiza, así como las que les gustaría realizar pero no hacen. Se parte de un estudio más amplio sobre estilo de vida, y en este caso se analiza una de las dimensiones del cuestionario utilizado, en concreto "tiempo libre". Con un nivel de confianza del 95% y un error máximo del 3% la muestra seleccionada es de 975 alumnos. Algunas de las categorías analizadas son: cantidad de tiempo libre, grado de satisfacción con dicha cantidad de tiempo libre, tiempo dedicado a diversas actividades, y consumo de deporte como espectáculo en su tiempo libre. Entre los resultados, se puede destacar que casi la mitad del alumnado tiene entre dos y tres horas de tiempo libre al día. Los que practican actividad física manifiestan que tienen más tiempo libre que los no activos, existiendo diferencias significativas. Por orden de prioridad, las actividades que les gustaría hacer en su tiempo libre son: estar con la familia, hacer deporte, escuchar música, entre otras. Palabras clave: Tiempo libre, universitarios, deporte.   Abstract There are studies indicate which are the activities that the young population realizes during their free time. We show the activities that the university student body realizes, as well as those that they would like to realize but they do not do. We depart from a more wide study on way of life, and in this case we centre on one of the dimensions of the used questionnaire, in concretely "free time ". On a population of 11314 pupils / aces, one administers the questionnaire to a sample of 975. Some of the analyzed categories are: quantity of free time, degree of satisfaction with the above mentioned quantity of free time, time dedicated to diverse activities, and consumption of sport like spectacle in free time. Some of the results are

  3. Alpine skiing habitual practices as free time entertainment for the students of West University of Timişoara – case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Sinitean-Singer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The students of the West University of Timişoara represent a numerous social category, thus quite significant, continuously in search of new ways to practice sports in their free time. The winter season brings to our attention a number of specific activities, most appealing, amongst which alpine skiing, too. The present paper aims at defining the students’ habits regarding the way they spend their spare time, mainly as practicing alpine skiing. This sports branch enhances its attractiveness by the very special environment it can be practiced – into the mountains, in the open air, which actually raises the students’ interest for this free time activity, mainly during the winter vacation or the vacation between semesters, when the number of students largely exceeds the number of those practicing ski during the week or in weekends. We must take into account the fact that they prefer mountain resorts in Romania, not being picky at all when it comes to meals and accommodation facilities, but very demanding about the quality of the ski slopes and the correspondent facilities. The window of time allocated for skiing activities, an average between 1-3 hours/day, illustrates the students’ interest in spending their spare time in an active way. The relatively high costs of this sports branch, mainly because of the expensive equipments but also because of the high costs of the activity itself- courses, utilities, etc.- haven’t kept the students away; they have been manifesting their availability to invest the necessary amounts of money in order to be able to practice this sport. An excellent promotion factor of the alpine skiing amongst students has been the Timisoara West University by organizing theme camps – like ski teaching, but also a number of activities related to such a camp.

  4. Time trends in pediatric hospitalizations for hepatitis A in Greece (1999–2013): Assessment of the impact of universal infant immunization in 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaevangelou, V.; Alexopoulou, Z.; Hadjichristodoulou, C.; Kourlamba, G.; Katsioulis, A.; Theodoridou, K.; Spoulou, V.; Theodoridou, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis A vaccine was introduced in the Greek National Immunization Program in 2008. To estimate possible impact of the universal vaccination implementation, time trends of hospitalizations for hepatitis A at the Infectious Diseases Unit of a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Athens during 1999–2013 were analyzed. Hepatitis A hospitalizations were recorded from the discharge database and were expressed as frequencies and rate of annual departmental hospitalizations. Time series analysis (ARIMA) was used to explore trends and the impact of the vaccination. Moreover, changes in patient age, population group distribution and the duration of hospitalization were also examined. Hepatitis A hospitalizations rate significantly decreased between pre-vaccination (1999–2008) and post-vaccination (2009–2013) era from 50.5 to 20.8/1000 hospitalizations (p = 0.005). A 3-year periodicity and a trend of reduction on hepatitis A hospitalizations rates across years were noted. Roma children had significant higher rates of hepatitis A hospitalization, followed by immigrant children. Importantly, possibly due to preceding vaccine availability with considerable uptake in private market and unvaccinated group/pockets of children (Roma), overall vaccination effect was less apparent when compared to data from other countries that implemented universal vaccination. No significant change in patient age, population group distribution, or duration of hospitalization was observed. High risk groups such as Roma children should be targeted for vaccination to reduce future outbreaks. PMID:27141813

  5. Determinants of translation speed are randomly distributed across transcripts resulting in a universal scaling of protein synthesis times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajeet K.; Ahmed, Nabeel; O'Brien, Edward P.

    2018-02-01

    Ribosome profiling experiments have found greater than 100-fold variation in ribosome density along mRNA transcripts, indicating that individual codon elongation rates can vary to a similar degree. This wide range of elongation times, coupled with differences in codon usage between transcripts, suggests that the average codon translation-rate per gene can vary widely. Yet, ribosome run-off experiments have found that the average codon translation rate for different groups of transcripts in mouse stem cells is constant at 5.6 AA/s. How these seemingly contradictory results can be reconciled is the focus of this study. Here, we combine knowledge of the molecular factors shown to influence translation speed with genomic information from Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens to simulate the synthesis of cytosolic proteins in these organisms. The model recapitulates a near constant average translation rate, which we demonstrate arises because the molecular determinants of translation speed are distributed nearly randomly amongst most of the transcripts. Consequently, codon translation rates are also randomly distributed and fast-translating segments of a transcript are likely to be offset by equally probable slow-translating segments, resulting in similar average elongation rates for most transcripts. We also show that the codon usage bias does not significantly affect the near random distribution of codon translation rates because only about 10 % of the total transcripts in an organism have high codon usage bias while the rest have little to no bias. Analysis of Ribo-Seq data and an in vivo fluorescent assay supports these conclusions.

  6. Universal financial protection through National Health Insurance: a stakeholder analysis of the proposed one-time premium payment policy in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiiro, Gilbert Abotisem; McIntyre, Di

    2013-05-01

    Extending coverage to the informal sector is a key challenge to achieving universal coverage through contributory health insurance schemes. Ghana introduced a mandatory National Health Insurance system in 2004 to provide financial protection for both the formal and informal sectors through a combination of taxes and annual premium payments. As part of its election promise in 2008, the current government (then in opposition) promised to make the payment of premiums 'one-time'. This has been a very controversial policy issue in Ghana. This study sought to contribute to assessing the feasibility of the proposed policy by exploring the understandings of various stakeholders on the policy, their interests or concerns, potential positions, power and influences on it, as well as the general prospects and challenges for its implementation. Data were gathered from a review of relevant documents in the public domain, 28 key informant interviews and six focus group discussions with key stakeholders in Accra and two other districts. The results show that there is a lot of confusion in stakeholders' understanding of the policy issue, and, because of the uncertainties surrounding it, most powerful stakeholders are yet to take clear positions on it. However, stakeholders raised concerns that revolved around issues such as: the meaning of a one-time premium within an insurance scheme context, the affordability of the one-time premium, financing sources and sustainability of the policy, as well as the likely impact of the policy on equity in access to health care. Policy-makers need to clearly explain the meaning of the one-time premium policy and how it will be funded, and critically consider the concerns raised by stakeholders before proceeding with further attempts to implement it. For other countries planning universal coverage reforms, it is important that the terminology of their reforms clearly reflects policy objectives.

  7. Comparative bonding ability to dentin of a universal adhesive system and monomer conversion as functions of extended light curing times and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampaio, Paula Costa Pinheiro; Kruly, Paula de Castro; Ribeiro, Clara Cabral; Hilgert, Leandro Augusto; Pereira, Patrícia Nóbrega Rodrigues; Scaffa, Polliana Mendes Candia; Di Hipólito, Vinicius; D'Alpino, Paulo Henrique Perlatti; Garcia, Fernanda Cristina Pimentel

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bonding ability and monomer conversion of a universal adhesive system applied to dentin as functions of different curing times and storage. The results were compared among a variety of commercial adhesives. Flat superficial dentin surfaces were exposed on human molars and assigned into one of the following adhesives (n = 15): total-etch Adper Single Bond 2 (SB) and Optibond Solo Plus (OS), self-etch Optibond All in One (OA) and Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), and Scotchbond Universal Adhesive in self-etch mode (SU). The adhesives were applied following the manufacturers' instructions and cured for 10, 20, or 40s. Specimens were processed for the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) test in accordance with the non-trimming technique and tested after 24h and 2 years. The fractured specimens were classified under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Infrared (IR) spectra were obtained and monomer conversion (%) was calculated by comparing the aliphatic-to-aromatic IR absorption peak ratio before and after polymerization (n=5). Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA/Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). At 24-h evaluation, OA and CSE presented similar bond strength means irrespective of the curing time, whereas SB and SU exhibited significantly higher means when cured for 40s as did OS when cured for 20 or 40s (p storage, only the self-etching adhesive Optibond All-In-One exhibited the same bonding ability when cured for longer periods of time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Level of Bus Performance Based On the Relationship Between Distance and Travel Time of Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM Bus Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasetijo Joewono

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available UTHM bus service is an important transport mode for most students at Universiti Tun Hussein Onn because it such primary public vehicle to support students movements around the campus, within and outside student apartments. This service is often associated with the quality of service in terms of time, stops and comforts. Therefore, this following study is focused on investigation on several UTHM bas routes which was based on bas operations such as distance and travel time/travel distance that would determine the level of service provided. Primary data were collected mainly to obtain information relate to speed, bas position, time movement/circulations of bus and time headway. These were obtained by installing GPS-Slute Gear i-trail along bus travels. In addition, additional data were collected by exploring previous studies regarding to the bus services such as Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010. The approach used was based on assessment of progress used to determine the level of quest service and such obstacle frequently occurs with results on bus delays, volume of unequal that can be overcome according to the assessments that have been provided.

  9. Leisure-time physical activity in university students from 23 countries: associations with health beliefs, risk awareness, and national economic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Anne; Steptoe, Andrew; Sallis, James F; Wardle, Jane

    2004-07-01

    Physical inactivity has been linked with chronic disease and obesity in most western populations. However, prevalence of inactivity, health beliefs, and knowledge of the risks of inactivity have rarely been assessed across a wide range of developed and developing countries. A cross-sectional survey was carried out with 19,298 university students from 23 countries varying in culture and level of economic development. Data concerning leisure-time physical activity, health beliefs, and health knowledge were collected. The prevalence of inactivity in leisure time varied with cultural and economic developmental factors, averaging 23% (North-Western Europe and the United States), 30% (Central and Eastern Europe), 39% (Mediterranean), 42% (Pacific Asian), and 44% (developing countries). The likelihood of leisure-time physical activity was positively associated with the strength of beliefs in the health benefits of activity and with national economic development (per capita gross domestic product). Knowledge about activity and health was disappointing, with only 40-60% being aware that physical activity was relevant to risk of heart disease. Leisure-time physical activity is below recommended levels in a substantial proportion of students, and is related to cultural factors and stage of national economic development. The relationship between health beliefs and behavior is robust across cultures, but health knowledge remains deficient. Copyright 2004 The Institute for Cancer Prevention and Elsevier Inc.

  10. Feasibility of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) networking in university hospitals in Brussels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martiny, D; Cremagnani, P; Gaillard, A; Miendje Deyi, V Y; Mascart, G; Ebraert, A; Attalibi, S; Dediste, A; Vandenberg, O

    2014-05-01

    The mutualisation of analytical platforms might be used to address rising healthcare costs. Our study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of networking a unique matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) system for common use in several university hospitals in Brussels, Belgium. During a one-month period, 1,055 successive bacterial isolates from the Brugmann University Hospital were identified on-site using conventional techniques; these same isolates were also identified using a MALDI-TOF MS system at the Porte de Hal Laboratory by sending target plates and identification projects via transportation and the INFECTIO_MALDI software (Infopartner, Nancy, France), respectively. The occurrence of transmission problems (MS networking always provided a faster identification result than conventional techniques, except when chromogenic culture media and oxidase tests were used (p MS networking could lead to substantial annual cost savings. MALDI-TOF MS networking presents many advantages, and few conventional techniques (optochin and oxidase tests) are required to ensure the same quality in patient care from the distant laboratory. Nevertheless, such networking should not be considered unless there is a reorganisation of workflow, efficient communication between teams, qualified technologists and a reliable IT department and helpdesk to manage potential connectivity problems.

  11. A República em tempos de reforma universitária: o desafio do Governo Lula The republic in university reform times the challenge of Lula's Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélgio Trindade

    2004-10-01

    private universities development, and created the current system of federal public institutions (IFES and during the military regime (1968 that reorganized the university system, introduced the post-graduation courses and its ways of public financing. The text takes as reference the concept of university reform settled down in Cordoba's tradition (1918, in the universities mobilization from Brazil (1960-63 and analyze the new context of the current reform, emphasizing that it's carried out for the first time in a democratic regime, utilizing a methodology that try to involve the university community, its representative bodies and sectors of the organized civil society. Analyze the challenges to be faced by the current government proposal, through the discussion of the relevant literature produced by Latin American specialists and draw out about the strategies adopted by the international organizations, especially the World Bank. Finally, shows, as a condition to the viability of the MEC (Ministry of Education and Culture proposal, the directionament of critical questions through a new Organizational Higher Education Law: the effective implementation of the university autonomy, as it is prescribed in the Constitution of 1988; the enlargement of the public financing taking in view to recover and to increase the federal public institutions, and the introduction of a more complete system of evaluation that look for the academic qualification of the whole Brazilian higher education.

  12. Heat release, time required, and cleaning ability of MTwo R and ProTaper universal retreatment systems in the removal of filling material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Fidelis, Natasha Siqueira; Assumpção, Tatiana Santos; Bernardineli, Norberti; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Alexandre Silva; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes

    2010-11-01

    This ex vivo study evaluated the heat release, time required, and cleaning efficacy of MTwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper Universal Retreatment systems (Dentsply/Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and hand instrumentation in the removal of filling material. Sixty single-rooted human teeth with a single straight canal were obturated with gutta-percha and zinc oxide and eugenol-based cement and randomly allocated to 3 groups (n = 20). After 30-day storage at 37 °C and 100% humidity, the root fillings were removed using ProTaper UR, MTwo R, or hand files. Heat release, time required, and cleaning efficacy data were analyzed statistically (analysis of variance and the Tukey test, α = 0.05). None of the techniques removed the root fillings completely. Filling material removal with ProTaper UR was faster but caused more heat release. Mtwo R produced less heat release than the other techniques but was the least efficient in removing gutta-percha/sealer. ProTaper UR and MTwo R caused the greatest and lowest temperature increase on root surface, respectively; regardless of the type of instrument, more heat was released in the cervical third. Pro Taper UR needed less time to remove fillings than MTwo R. All techniques left filling debris in the root canals. Copyright © 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluating Online Tutorials for University Faculty, Staff, and Students: The Contribution of Just-in-Time Online Resources to Learning and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Jennifer; Park, Yeonjeong

    2011-01-01

    The effective integration of current technologies in teaching and research is a high priority for today's universities. To support the technology skills of university faculty, staff, and students, the subject university's office for faculty training and support, provides free, 24/7 access to a collection of online technology tutorials leased from…

  14. Universe unfolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, I.R.

    1976-01-01

    Topics covered the setting; looking at the stars; the earth; time, place and the sky; our satellite, the moon; orbits and motion; the motions of the planets; the Copernican revolution; the planets; the other bodies of the solar system; ages, origins, and life; introducing the stars; sorting out the stars; binary stars--two are better than one; variable stars--inconstancy as a virtue; the secrets of starlight--unraveling the spectrum; the sun--our own star; the structure of a star; interstellar material; the Milky Way, our home galaxy; galaxies--the stellar continents; cosmic violence--from radio galaxies to quasars; the universe; and epilogue. The primary emphasis is on how we have come to know what we know about the universe. Star maps are included

  15. Geometry of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L.Eh.; Gliner, Eh.B.

    1978-01-01

    Problems of investigating the Universe space-time geometry are described on a popular level. Immediate space-time geometries, corresponding to three cosmologic models are considered. Space-time geometry of a closed model is the spherical Riemann geonetry, of an open model - is the Lobachevskij geometry; and of a plane model - is the Euclidean geometry. The Universe real geometry in the contemporary epoch of development is based on the data testifying to the fact that the Universe is infinitely expanding

  16. First Time Rapid and Accurate Detection of Massive Number of Metal Absorption Lines in the Early Universe Using Deep Neural Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yinan; Ge, Jian; Yuan, Xiaoyong; Li, Xiaolin; Zhao, Tiffany; Wang, Cindy

    2018-01-01

    Metal absorption line systems in the distant quasar spectra have been used as one of the most powerful tools to probe gas content in the early Universe. The MgII λλ 2796, 2803 doublet is one of the most popular metal absorption lines and has been used to trace gas and global star formation at redshifts between ~0.5 to 2.5. In the past, machine learning algorithms have been used to detect absorption lines systems in the large sky survey, such as Principle Component Analysis, Gaussian Process and decision tree, but the overall detection process is not only complicated, but also time consuming. It usually takes a few months to go through the entire quasar spectral dataset from each of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data release. In this work, we applied the deep neural network, or “ deep learning” algorithms, in the most recently SDSS DR14 quasar spectra and were able to randomly search 20000 quasar spectra and detect 2887 strong Mg II absorption features in just 9 seconds. Our detection algorithms were verified with previously released DR12 and DR7 data and published Mg II catalog and the detection accuracy is 90%. This is the first time that deep neural network has demonstrated its promising power in both speed and accuracy in replacing tedious, repetitive human work in searching for narrow absorption patterns in a big dataset. We will present our detection algorithms and also statistical results of the newly detected Mg II absorption lines.

  17. Preliminary energy-filtering neutron imaging with time-of-flight method on PKUNIFTY: A compact accelerator based neutron imaging facility at Peking University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hu; Zou, Yubin, E-mail: zouyubin@pku.edu.cn; Wen, Weiwei; Lu, Yuanrong; Guo, Zhiyu

    2016-07-01

    Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility (PKUNIFTY) works on an accelerator–based neutron source with a repetition period of 10 ms and pulse duration of 0.4 ms, which has a rather low Cd ratio. To improve the effective Cd ratio and thus improve the detection capability of the facility, energy-filtering neutron imaging was realized with the intensified CCD camera and time-of-flight (TOF) method. Time structure of the pulsed neutron source was firstly simulated with Geant4, and the simulation result was evaluated with experiment. Both simulation and experiment results indicated that fast neutrons and epithermal neutrons were concentrated in the first 0.8 ms of each pulse period; meanwhile in the period of 0.8–2.0 ms only thermal neutrons existed. Based on this result, neutron images with and without energy filtering were acquired respectively, and it showed that detection capability of PKUNIFTY was improved with setting the exposure interval as 0.8–2.0 ms, especially for materials with strong moderating capability.

  18. 47 CFR 73.701 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-hours. (e) Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). Time scale, based on the second (SI), as defined in... frequency, FOT, is formed with the initial letters of the French words for “optimum working frequency” which...

  19. An Integrated Career Coaching and Time-Banking System Promoting Flexibility, Wellness, and Success: A Pilot Program at Stanford University School of Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassiotto, Magali; Simard, Caroline; Sandborg, Christy; Valantine, Hannah; Raymond, Jennifer

    2018-06-01

    Faculty in academic medicine experience multiple demands on their time at work and home, which can become a source of stress and dissatisfaction, compromising success. A taskforce convened to diagnose the state of work-life flexibility at Stanford University School of Medicine uncovered two major sources of conflict: work-life conflict, caused by juggling demands of career and home; and work-work conflict, caused by competing priorities of the research, teaching, and clinical missions combined with service and administrative tasks. Using human-centered design research principles, the 2013-2014 Academic Biomedical Career Customization (ABCC) pilot program incorporated two elements to mitigate work-life and work-work conflict: integrated career-life planning, coaching to create a customized plan to meet both career and life goals; and a time-banking system, recognizing behaviors that promote team success with benefits that mitigate work-life and work-work conflicts. A matched-sample pre-post evaluation survey found the two-part program increased perceptions of a culture of flexibility (P = .020), wellness (P = .013), understanding of professional development opportunities (P = .036), and institutional satisfaction (P = .020) among participants. In addition, analysis of research productivity indicated that over the two-year program, ABCC participants received 1.3 more awards, on average, compared with a matched set of nonparticipants, a funding difference of approximately $1.1 million per person. These results suggest it is possible to mitigate the effects of extreme time pressure on academic medicine faculty, even within existing institutional structures.

  20. Gambling with the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen

    2002-05-01

    This is an excerpt from Stephen Hawking's book The Universe in a Nutshell. Roger Penrose and Stephen Hawking, Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge, were able to show that Einstein's General Theory of Relativity implied that the universe and time itself must have had a beginning in a tremendous explosion. The discovery of the expansion of the universe is one of the great intellectual revolutions of the twentieth century.

  1. Four-year trends in adiposity and its association with hypertension in serial groups of young adult university students in urban Cameroon: a time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukem, Simeon-Pierre; Kengne, André-Pascal; Nguefack, Maxime-Leolein; Mboue-Djieka, Yannick; Nebongo, Daniel; Guimezap, Jackson T; Mbanya, Jean Claude

    2017-05-23

    Obesity is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and is growing rapidly globally including in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We aimed to assess the trend in adiposity markers in Cameroonian university students, and investigated their associations with hypertension. From 2009 to 2012, we annually measured weight, height, blood pressure, waist (WC) and hip circumferences, and calculated the body mass index (BMI) and other indices of adiposity in consecutive students aged 18 years or above, during their registration. Time-trends in prevalence of overweight and obesity were estimated, and their associations with prevalent hypertension investigated. Among the 2726 participants, the overall prevalence of obesity, overweight and obesity combined, and hypertension was 3.5%, 21.0% and 6.3% respectively. From 2009 to 2012, the prevalence of overweight and obesity increased in men only, from 13.1% to 20.9% (p-trend = 0.002), whereas prevalent abdominal obesity increased in women only, from 6.5% to 11.7% (p-trend = 0.027). The BMI and the WC were independent predictors of hypertension; each kg/m 2 higher BMI was associated with 11% higher odds of hypertension, and each centimeter higher WC was associated with 9% higher odds of hypertension. Our results show that overweight and obesity are rapidly increasing in this population of young sub-Saharan African adults, and are contributing to an increasing burden of hypertension.

  2. Hungry to learn: the prevalence and effects of food insecurity on health behaviors and outcomes over time among a diverse sample of university freshmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruening, Meg; van Woerden, Irene; Todd, Michael; Laska, Melissa N

    2018-01-18

    To examine longitudinal associations between food insecurity (FI) and health behaviors/outcomes among a diverse sample of university freshmen. Freshman students (n = 1138; 65% female; 49% non-white) participating in the Social impact of Physical Activity and nutRition in College study completed surveys on health behaviors and had height/weight measured up to 4 times (T1-T4) in Arizona during 2015-2016. Structural equation models were estimated to determine if, after adjusting for covariates, FI predicted concurrent behaviors/outcomes and subsequent behaviors/outcomes. Analyses reported here were conducted in 2017. The prevalence of FI was significantly higher at the end of each semester (35% and 36%, respectively) than at the start of the year (28%). Longitudinally, FI was not related to any health behaviors/outcomes at future time points. However, FI was significantly and inversely associated with concurrent breakfast consumption on most days of the week (OR = 0.67, 99% CI = 0.46, 0.99), daily evening meal consumption (OR = 0.55, 99% CI = 0.36, 0.86) healthy eating habits on campus (OR = 0.68, 99% CI = 0.46, 1.00), healthy physical activity habits on campus (OR = 0.66, 99% CI = 0.44, 1.00), and positively related to the likelihood of experiencing stress (OR = 1.69, 99% CI = 1.16, 2.46) and depressed mood (OR = 1.98, 99% CI = 1.34, 2.91). Compared with US prevalence rates, the sample FI prevalence was high. FI was related to poorer eating patterns, physical activity behaviors, and mental health, even after adjusting for prior levels of behavior.

  3. Acceptability and feasibility of a low-cost, theory-based and co-produced intervention to reduce workplace sitting time in desk-based university employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Kelly; Goyder, Elizabeth; Eves, Francis

    2015-12-24

    Prolonged sedentary time is linked with poor health, independent of physical activity levels. Workplace sitting significantly contributes to sedentary time, but there is limited research evaluating low-cost interventions targeting reductions in workplace sitting. Current evidence supports the use of multi-modal interventions developed using participative approaches. This study aimed to explore the acceptability and feasibility of a low-cost, co-produced, multi-modal intervention to reduce workplace sitting. The intervention was developed with eleven volunteers from a large university department in the UK using participative approaches and "brainstorming" techniques. Main components of the intervention included: emails suggesting ways to "sit less" e.g. walking and standing meetings; free reminder software to install onto computers; social media to increase awareness; workplace champions; management support; and point-of-decision prompts e.g. by lifts encouraging stair use. All staff (n = 317) were invited to take part. Seventeen participated in all aspects of the evaluation, completing pre- and post-intervention sitting logs and questionnaires. The intervention was delivered over four weeks from 7th July to 3rd August 2014. Pre- and post-intervention difference in daily workplace sitting time was presented as a mean ± standard deviation. Questionnaires were used to establish awareness of the intervention and its various elements, and to collect qualitative data regarding intervention acceptability and feasibility. Mean baseline sitting time of 440 min/workday was reported with a mean reduction of 26 ± 54 min/workday post-intervention (n = 17, 95 % CI = -2 to 53). All participants were aware of the intervention as a whole, although there was a range of awareness for individual elements of the intervention. The intervention was generally felt to be both acceptable and feasible. Management support was perceived to be a strength, whilst specific

  4. Submillisecond fireball timing using de Bruijn timecodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Robert M.; Paxman, Jonathan; Bland, Philip A.; Towner, Martin C.; Sansom, Eleanor K.; Devillepoix, Hadrien A. R.

    2017-08-01

    Long-exposure fireball photographs have been used to systematically record meteoroid trajectories, calculate heliocentric orbits, and determine meteorite fall positions since the mid-20th century. Periodic shuttering is used to determine meteoroid velocity, but up until this point, a separate method of precisely determining the arrival time of a meteoroid was required. We show it is possible to encode precise arrival times directly into the meteor image by driving the periodic shutter according to a particular pattern—a de Bruijn sequence—and eliminate the need for a separate subsystem to record absolute fireball timing. The Desert Fireball Network has implemented this approach using a microcontroller driven electro-optic shutter synchronized with GNSS UTC time to create small, simple, and cost-effective high-precision fireball observatories with submillisecond timing accuracy.

  5. Time in contemporary cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavrides, Stamatia

    1980-01-01

    Cosmological time is defined, as is coordinated universal time against local times of special relativity. The problems of time and matter, age of the universe, Goedel models, arrow of time, are also discussed [fr

  6. The inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, A.; Steinhardt, P.

    1993-01-01

    According to the inflationary model, the universe had a brief period of extraordinary rapid expansion, or inflation, during which its diameter increased by a factor at least 10 25 times larger (and perhaps much larger still) than had been previously thought. All the matter and energy in the universe could have been created from virtually nothing. Features of this article are: comparison of standard and inflationary modes, the horizon problem, the geometry of the universe, spontaneous symmetry breaking and the Higgs mechanism (energy density of the Higgs fields), the flatness problem, the new inflationary universe (new Higgs fields and false vacuum), conserved quantities in the universe. 12 figs., 11 refs

  7. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  8. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 7 December 2009 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Topological insulators and topological superconductors Professor Shoucheng Zhang Department of Physics, Stanford University, CA   Recently, a new class of topological states has been theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. The topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge or surface states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. I shall review the theoretical prediction of the QSH state in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells, and its recent experimental observation. The edge states of the QSH state supports fr...

  9. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 18 November  2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Highlights of the European Strategy Workshop for Future Neutrino Physics Dr Ilias Efthymiopoulos, CERN   Seminar cancelled! Information Organizer : J.-S. Graulich Monday 7 December 2009 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Topological insulators and topological superconductors Professor Shoucheng Zhang Department of Physics, Stanford University, CA   Recently, a new class of topological states has been theoretically predicted and experimentally realized. The topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge or surface states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the edge s...

  10. A lightweight universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.; Fan, Xiaohui

    1998-01-01

    How much matter is there in the universe? Does the universe have the critical density needed to stop its expansion, or is the universe underweight and destined to expand forever? We show that several independent measures, especially those utilizing the largest bound systems known—clusters of galaxies—all indicate that the mass-density of the universe is insufficient to halt the expansion. A promising new method, the evolution of the number density of clusters with time, provides the most powerful indication so far that the universe has a subcritical density. We show that different techniques reveal a consistent picture of a lightweight universe with only ∼20–30% of the critical density. Thus, the universe may expand forever. PMID:9600898

  11. The Advanced LIGO timing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartos, Imre; Factourovich, Maxim; Marka, Szabolcs; Marka, Zsuzsa; Raics, Zoltan; Bork, Rolf; Heefner, Jay; Schwinberg, Paul; Sigg, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational wave detection using a network of detectors relies upon the precise time stamping of gravitational wave signals. The relative arrival times between detectors are crucial, e.g. in recovering the source direction, an essential step in using gravitational waves for multi-messenger astronomy. Due to the large size of gravitational wave detectors, timing at different parts of a given detector also needs to be highly synchronized. In general, the requirement toward the precision of timing is determined such that, upon detection, the deduced (astro-) physical results should not be limited by the precision of timing. The Advanced LIGO optical timing distribution system is designed to provide UTC-synchronized timing information for the Advanced LIGO detectors that satisfies the above criterium. The Advanced LIGO timing system has modular structure, enabling quick and easy adaptation to the detector frame as well as possible changes or additions of components. It also includes a self-diagnostics system that enables the remote monitoring of the status of timing. After the description of the Advanced LIGO timing system, several tests are presented that demonstrate its precision and robustness.

  12. Frequency and Content of Chat Questions by Time of Semester at the University of Central Florida: Implications for Training, Staffing and Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goda, Donna; Bishop, Corinne

    2008-01-01

    The more than 4,000 "chats" received by the University of Central Florida's (UCF) Ask-A-Librarian digital reference service are the subject of this practitioner-based, descriptive case study. Question content from chats received during four semesters between January 2005 and May 2006 are categorized and plotted, by semester, to show the…

  13. Exploring the relationship between university internationalization and university autonomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gullieva, Valeria

    This paper explores a research gap at the intersection of university internationalization and university autonomy. A process model of university internationalization is put forward whereby the process of university internationalization is mediated by university internationalization capacity...... and moderated by target country institutional autonomy and globalization; and entry modes, timing and pace, as well as product mix of internationalization define university’s internationalization pattern. A systematic review is conducted to identify empirical studies at this intersection. One of the questions...

  14. Mathematics at University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winsløw, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is studied in universities by a large number of students. At the same time it is a field of research for a (smaller) number of university teachers. What relations, if any, exist between university research and teaching of mathematics? Can research “support” teaching? What research...... and what teaching? In this presentation we propose a theoretical framework to study these questions more precisely, based on the anthropological theory of didactics. As a main application, the links between the practices of mathematical research and university mathematics teaching are examined...

  15. The future of the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Meadows, AJ

    2007-01-01

    Many books have described how the universe became the way it is today. But what about the future of the universe? How long might the universe as we recognize it survive? The Future of the Universe takes the reader on a journey through space and time, beginning with a long look at the Earth and solar system, voyaging to the outermost galaxies, and finishing with speculations about the life and fate of the entire universe.

  16. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 29 October 2008 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Precision measurements of low-energy neutrino-nucleus interactions with the SciBooNE experiment at Fermilab by Dr Michel Sorel, IFIC (CSIC and University of Valencia) «Do all modern accelerator-based neutrino experiments need to make use of kiloton-scale detectors and decade-long exposure times? In order to study the full pattern of neutrino mixing via neutrino oscillation experiments, the answer is probably yes, together with powerful proton sources. Still, to push the sensitivity of future neutrino oscillation searches into unchartered territory, those are necessary, but not sufficient, ingredients. In addition, accurate knowledge of neutrino interactions and neutrino production is mandatory. This knowledge can be acquired via small-scale and short-term dedicated n...

  17. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tel: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 14 April 2010 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17.00 hrs – Stückelberg Auditorium Dark Matter and the XENON Experiment By Dr. Marc Schumann, Physik Institut, Universität Zürich There is convincing astrophysical and cosmological evidence that most of the matter in the Universe is dark: It is invisible in every band of the electromagnetic spectrum. Weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) are promising Dark Matter candidates that arise naturally in many theories beyond the Standard Model. Several experiments aim to directly detect WIMPs by measuring nuclear recoils from WIMPs scattered on target nuclei. In this talk, I will give an overview on Dark Matter and direct Dark Matter detection. Then I will focus on the XENON100 experiment, a 2-phase liquid/gas time projection chamber (TPC) that ...

  18. Review of technetium chemistry research conducted at the University of Nevada Las Vegas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poineau, F.; Weck, P.F.; Forster, P.; Hartmann, T.; Mausolf, E.; Silva, G.W.C.; Czerwinski, K.R.; Rodriguez, E.E.; Sattelberger, A.P.; Jarvinen, G.D.; Cheetham, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    The chemistry of technetium is being explored at the University of Nevada Las Vegas. Our goal is to investigate both the applied and fundamental aspects of technetium chemistry, with a special emphasis on synthesis, separations, and materials science. The synthetic chemistry focuses on metal-metal multiple bonding, oxides and halides. Synthesis and characterizations of (n-Bu 4 N) 2 Tc 2 X 8 , Tc 2 (O 2 CCH 3 ) 4 X 2 (X = Cl, Br), TcO 2 , Bi 2 Tc 2 O 7 , Bi 3 TcO 8 , TcBr 3 and TcBr 4 have been performed. The applied chemistry is related to the behavior of Tc in the UREX process. Separation of U/Tc has been conducted using anion exchange resin and metallic Tc waste form synthesized and characterized. (author)

  19. Our Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  20. Near-real-time Estimation and Forecast of Total Precipitable Water in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholy, J.; Kern, A.; Barcza, Z.; Pongracz, R.; Ihasz, I.; Kovacs, R.; Ferencz, C.

    2013-12-01

    -called mod06 results (Cloud Product) are assimilated twice a day (at 00 and 12 UTC) by DBCRAS. DBCRAS creates 72 hours long weather forecasts with 48 km horizontal resolution. DBCRAS is operational at the University since 2009 which means that by now sufficient data is available for the verification of the model. In the present study verification results for the DBCRAS total precipitable water forecasts are presented based on analysis data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). Numerical indices are calculated to quantify the performance of DBCRAS. During a limited time period DBCRAS was also ran without assimilating MODIS products which means that there is possibility to quantify the effect of assimilating MODIS physical products on the quality of the forecasts. For this limited time period verification indices are compared to decide whether MODIS data improves forecast quality or not.

  1. Universal short-time motion of a polymer in a random environment: Analytical calculations, a blob picture, and Monte Carlo results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ebert, U.; Baumgärtner, A.; Schäfer, L.

    1996-01-01

    Using a recently established renormalization group approach [U. Ebert, J. Stat. Phys. (to be published)], we analyze the center-of-mass motion of a polymer in a Gaussian disordered potential. While in the long-time limit normal diffusion is found, we concentrate here on shorter times. We discuss the

  2. Intelligent Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyle, F

    1983-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: chance and the universe (synthesis of proteins; the primordial soup); the gospel according to Darwin (discussion of Darwin theory of evolution); life did not originate on earth (fossils from space; life in space); the interstellar connection (living dust between the stars; bacteria in space falling to the earth; interplanetary dust); evolution by cosmic control (microorganisms; genetics); why aren't the others here (a cosmic origin of life); after the big bang (big bang and steady state); the information rich universe; what is intelligence up to; the intelligent universe.

  3. The university with conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ripalda Crespo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The model of the national university is being substituted by that of the global university. At the same time, new dogmas that appear with economic labels are being imposed. All this is accompanied by important cultural changes. The Spanish university was one of the instances that was taken care of by the post-Francoist regime. Now, this regime feels strong against it, and on the other hand this university – as the whole of the productive structure – requires a reform. It is not expected that this reform will go in the direction of the university having more social presence, but rather more presence of companies. It is neither expected that it will imply more internal democracy, but more discipline. All resistance or alternative has to take into account the new situation and join the still dispersed forces that still have, however, a constitutive capacity.

  4. The holographic universe

    CERN Document Server

    Talbot, Michael

    1991-01-01

    'There is evidence to suggest that our world and everything in it - from snowflakes to maple trees to falling stars and spinning electrons - are only ghostly images, projections from a level of reality literally beyond both space and time.' This is the astonishing idea behind the holographic theory of the universe, pioneered by two eminent thinkers: physicist David Bohm, a former protege of Albert Einstein, and quantum physicist Karl Pribram. The holographic theory of the universe encompasses consciousness and reality as we know them, but can also explain such hitherto unexplained phenomena as telepathy, out-of-body experiences and even miraculous healing. In this remarkable book, Michael Talbot reveals the extraordinary depth and power of the holographic theory of the universe, illustrating how it makes sense of the entire range of experiences within our universe - and in other universes beyond our own.

  5. The rotating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, G.; Treder, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    For a long time the question whether the universe rotates or not is discussed. Aspects of Huygens, Newton, Mach and other important historical scientists in this field are reported. The investigations of the mathematician Kurt Groedel in order to prove the rotation of the universe are illustrated. Kurt Groedel has shown that Einstein's gravitational equations of general relativity theory and the cosmological postulate of global homogeneity of cosmic matter (that is the Copernical principle) are not contradictionary to a rotating universe. Abberation measurements, position determination by means of radiointerferometry and methods for the determination of the rotation of the universe from the isotropy of the background radiation are presented. From these experiments it can be concluded that the universe seems not to rotate as already Einstein expected

  6. USAID University

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — USAID University is USAID's learning management system. Features include 1) Access online courses 2) Register for instructor-led courses 3)Access your student...

  7. Runaway universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, P

    1978-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters entitled: the emerging universe (general introduction, history of astronomical and cosmological research, origins, the expanding universe, stars, galaxies, electromagnetic radiation); primeval fire (the big bang model, origin of the elements, properties of the elements and of sub-atomic particles); order out of chaos (galactic evolution, star formation, nuclear fusion, the solar system, origin of life on Earth); a star called Sol (properties of the sun and of other stars); life in the universe; the catastrophe principle (the rise and fall of cosmic order); stardoom (star evolution, neutron stars); black holes and superholes (gravitational collapse); technology and survival; the dying universe (second law of thermodynamics); worlds without end (cosmological models).

  8. Rhodes University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samridhi Sharma

    2013-10-29

    Oct 29, 2013 ... been taken may improve the reception, by the target audience, of the intended communication. This may ... alcohol marketing. Similarly .... of the intended users (Rhodes University support staff ..... Digital Human Modeling and.

  9. Undulant Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela; /Valencia U.; Mena, Olga; Quigg, Chris; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    If the equation of state for ''dark energy'' varies periodically, the expansion of the Universe may have undergone alternating eras of acceleration and deceleration. We examine a specific form that survives existing observational tests, does not single out the present state of the Universe as exceptional, and suggests a future much like the matter-dominated past: a smooth expansion without a final inflationary epoch.

  10. TimeSet: A computer program that accesses five atomic time services on two continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakis, P. L.

    1993-01-01

    TimeSet is a shareware program for accessing digital time services by telephone. At its initial release, it was capable of capturing time signals only from the U.S. Naval Observatory to set a computer's clock. Later the ability to synchronize with the National Institute of Standards and Technology was added. Now, in Version 7.10, TimeSet is able to access three additional telephone time services in Europe - in Sweden, Austria, and Italy - making a total of five official services addressable by the program. A companion program, TimeGen, allows yet another source of telephone time data strings for callers equipped with TimeSet version 7.10. TimeGen synthesizes UTC time data strings in the Naval Observatory's format from an accurately set and maintained DOS computer clock, and transmits them to callers. This allows an unlimited number of 'freelance' time generating stations to be created. Timesetting from TimeGen is made feasible by the advent of Becker's RighTime, a shareware program that learns the drift characteristics of a computer's clock and continuously applies a correction to keep it accurate, and also brings .01 second resolution to the DOS clock. With clock regulation by RighTime and periodic update calls by the TimeGen station to an official time source via TimeSet, TimeGen offers the same degree of accuracy within the resolution of the computer clock as any official atomic time source.

  11. Age of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, B.

    1981-01-01

    The age of the universe is the time that has elapsed since the Big Bang. To calculate the age, the expansion rate of the universe and distance to the galaxies must be determined. Unfortunately, it appears that the expansion rate is not constant but is decelerating. In the 1920's and 30's, Edwin Hubble set out to estimate the age of universe based on the expansion rate and distance to the galaxies. His method is described along with its flaw. Since that time several others have estimated the age of the universe. Their methods as well as results vary. These are discussed in the article. The ages determined from the various methods range from 10 to 20 billion years. There are two independent ways to determine the age of the universe. What they actually do is determine the age of our galaxy which would give a lower limit to the age of the universe. The first method calculates age of globular clusters which yields as age range from 8 to 18 billion years. The second method involves observing the speed at which radioactive substances decay. This also yields and age greater than 10 billion years. It is clear that there is still a lot of work to do before the true age of the universe can be determied

  12. The use of real time ultrasound scanning as a teaching method of anatomy in an undergraduate sonography and medical imaging degree in an Australian university

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, A.; Lawson, C.; McKillup, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Real-time ultrasound scanning is increasing in popularity as a teaching tool for human anatomy because it is non-invasive, offers real-time 3-D anatomy and is cheaper than dissections. Aim: To assess real-time ultrasound scanning as a teaching method of human anatomy, and to determine what teaching methods medical imaging and sonography students consider effective for understanding human anatomy. Method: Surveys were distributed to two consecutive cohorts of first year medical imaging and medical sonography students at CQUniversity. Participation was voluntary. Comparisons among teaching methods were made using repeated measures ANOVA. Results: Real-time ultrasound scanning was the most preferred method of delivery for anatomy classes overall especially compared to computer programs, videos, 3-D radiological images and dissection. Specifically, students indicated that ultrasound scanning was the preferred method to encourage learning from experience (F 7,231  = 2.942, p = 0.006), to develop team skills (F 7,231  = 4.550, p < 0.006), to follow complex instructions (F 7,231  = 4.656 p < 0.001) and to appreciate anatomical variation (F 7,231  = 2.067, p = 0.048). Dissection was the least favoured teaching method. Conclusion: Real-time ultrasound scanning is a useful tool for teaching anatomy, and animal dissections are a poor substitute for the use of human cadavers. - Highlights: • Real-time ultrasound scanning is a valid teaching tool for human anatomy. • Real-time ultrasound is preferred by students compared to other teaching methods. • Dissection is the least favoured method to learn anatomy. • Ultrasound encourages learning from experience and develops team skills.

  13. The Bright Universe Cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surdin, M.

    1980-01-01

    It is shown that viewed from the 'outside', our universe is a black hole. Hence the 'inside' cosmology considered is termed as the Bright Universe Cosmology. The model proposed avoids the singularities of cosmologies of the Big Bang variety, it gives a good account of the redshifts, the cosmic background radiation, the number counts; it also gives a satisfactory explanation of the 'large numbers coincidence' and of the variation in time of fundamental constants. (Auth.)

  14. Universe association between age at the time of radiation exposure and extent of disease in cases of radiation-induced childhood thyroid carcinoma in Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahati, J.; Demidchik, E.P.; Biko, J.; Reiners, C.

    2002-01-01

    Increased incidence of childhood thyroid carcinoma, particularly in the youngest children, has been reported from Belarus since the nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl in 1986. The relation between disease severity and age at the time of the accident, not previously established in this cohort, was analyzed in this study. The authors studied the association between disease severity, expressed by TNM classification, and age at radiation exposure in a cohort of 483 patients younger than 8 years at the time of the Chernobyl accident who have been diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma since 1986 at the Center for Thyroid Cancer in Minsk. The associations between age at radiation exposure and TNM categories were compared among 4 groups of patients who were ages <2, 2.1-4, 4.1-6, and 6.1-8 years at the time of the accident. Multivariate discriminant analysis was performed to examine the effects of age at the time of the accident, gender, histology, tumor stage, and N classification on the frequency of distant metastasis. Younger age at the time of Chernobyl accident was associated with greater extra thyroidal tumor extension (P<0.01) and more lymph node involvement (P<0.0001) and tended to be associated with more distant metastases (P=0.09). Compared with patients who were ages 6.1-8 years at the time of the accident, patients who were younger than 2 years had significantly more extra thyroidal tumor invasion (P = 0.004), lymph node involvement (P =0.004), and distant metastases (P = 0.05). The age at diagnosis increased with older age at the time of radiation exposure (linear regression analysis; correlation coefficient = 0.67; P<0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that younger age at the time of the accident (P = 0.001) and advanced coco regional tumor extension (P<0.001) were the only powerful factors influencing the risk for distant metastasis of this malignancy. The severity of disease was associated inversely with age at the time of radiation exposure

  15. Experience in operation and maintenance of the TRIGA Mark II reactor at the University of Pavia in the time period July 1974 - June 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambieri, A.; Cingoli, F.; Genova, N.; Meloni, S.; Perlini, G.

    1976-01-01

    The operation of the 250 kW steady state/250 MW pulsed TRIGA Mark II Reactor of the University of Pavia over the past two years is presented and discussed. Reactor maintenance activity is presented as well. Data for reactor utilization and a summary of the health physics procedures are also given. Since the third European Conference of TRIGA Reactor Users in 1974, reactor operation took place smoothly without major troubles. Because of the core excess decrease due to reactor operation and consequent burn-up, ten new stainless steel clad fuel elements were bought from General Atomic. Reactor operation license expired at the end of 1975 and it is now under way the bureaucratic work to get its renewal. The aging of the electronic equipment raises minor problems and the predicted switching to a new solid state equipment started by changing the old electromechanical rod position indicators with new digital ones. The installation of the Euracos II facility (Enriched Uranium Converter Source), described at the last TRIGA Users Conference, began at the end of 1975 and it is still under way. The first operation of the facility will take place at reduced power so that the removal of the graphite blocks from thermal column was not accomplished. The installation of the facility is described and the procedures of its operation in connection with reactor operation are presented as well. (author)

  16. Real-Time Vehicle Data Logging System Using GPS And GSM

    OpenAIRE

    Win Minn Thet; MyoMaung Maung; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes and implements a low cost Vehicle Data Logging System using GPS and GSM. This system allows a user to trace the present and past positions recorded in SD card. This system also reads the current position of the vehicle using GPS the data is sent via GSM service from the GSM network. The vehicles position including the driving speed the UTC time and data are stored in the SD card for live and past tracking. All of that GPS data is sent to PIC 18F4520 by the Uni...

  17. From Feshbach-resonance managed Bose-Einstein condensates to anisotropic universes: Applications of the Ermakov-Pinney equation with time-dependent nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, G.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Williams, F.; Christodoulakis, T.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    In this work we revisit the topic of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates under the influence of time-dependent magnetic confinement and time-dependent scattering length. A moment approach reduces the examination of moments of the wavefunction (in particular, of its width) to an Ermakov-Pinney (EP) ordinary differential equation (ODE). We use the well-known structure of the solutions of this nonlinear ODE to 'engineer' trapping and interatomic interaction conditions that lead to condensates dispersing, breathing or even collapsing. The advantage of the approach is that it is fully tractable analytically, in excellent agreement with our numerical observations. As an aside, we also discuss how similar time-dependent EP equations may arise in the description of anisotropic scalar field cosmologies

  18. From Feshbach-resonance managed Bose-Einstein condensates to anisotropic universes: Applications of the Ermakov-Pinney equation with time-dependent nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herring, G.; Kevrekidis, P.G.; Williams, F.; Christodoulakis, T.; Frantzeskakis, D.J.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we revisit the topic of two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensates under the influence of time-dependent magnetic confinement and time-dependent scattering length. A moment approach reduces the examination of moments of the wavefunction (in particular, of its width) to an Ermakov-Pinney (EP) ordinary differential equation (ODE). We use the well-known structure of the solutions of this nonlinear ODE to 'engineer' trapping and interatomic interaction conditions that lead to condensates dispersing, breathing or even collapsing. The advantage of the approach is that it is fully tractable analytically, in excellent agreement with our numerical observations. As an aside, we also discuss how similar time-dependent EP equations may arise in the description of anisotropic scalar field cosmologies

  19. Children, Time, and Play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elkind, David; Rinaldi, Carla; Flemmert Jensen, Anne

    Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003.......Proceedings from the conference "Children, Time, and Play". Danish University of Education, January 30th 2003....

  20. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  1. MULTI-WAVELENGTH OBSERVATIONS OF THE SPATIO-TEMPORAL EVOLUTION OF SOLAR FLARES WITH AIA/SDO. I. UNIVERSAL SCALING LAWS OF SPACE AND TIME PARAMETERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Kai

    2013-01-01

    We extend a previous statistical solar flare study of 155 GOES M- and X-class flares observed with AIA/SDO to all seven coronal wavelengths (94, 131, 171, 193, 211, 304, and 335 Å) to test the wavelength dependence of scaling laws and statistical distributions. Except for the 171 and 193 Å wavelengths, which are affected by EUV dimming caused by coronal mass ejections (CMEs), we find near-identical size distributions of geometric (lengths L, flare areas A, volumes V, and fractal dimension D 2 ), temporal (flare durations T), and spatio-temporal parameters (diffusion coefficient κ, spreading exponent β, and maximum expansion velocities v max ) in different wavelengths, which are consistent with the universal predictions of the fractal-diffusive avalanche model of a slowly driven, self-organized criticality (FD-SOC) system, i.e., N(L)∝L –3 , N(A)∝A –2 , N(V)∝V –5/3 , N(T)∝T –2 , and D 2 = 3/2, for a Euclidean dimension d = 3. Empirically, we find also a new strong correlation κ∝L 0.94±0.01 and the three-parameter scaling law L∝κ T 0.1 , which is more consistent with the logistic-growth model than with classical diffusion. The findings suggest long-range correlation lengths in the FD-SOC system that operate in the vicinity of a critical state, which could be used for predictions of individual extreme events. We find also that eruptive flares (with accompanying CMEs) have larger volumes V, longer flare durations T, higher EUV and soft X-ray fluxes, and somewhat larger diffusion coefficients κ than confined flares (without CMEs)

  2. Baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses how the subject of baby universes and their effects on spacetime coupling constants is in its infancy and rapidly developing. The subject is based on the non-existent (even by physicists' standards) Euclidean formulation of quantum gravity, and it is therefore necessary to make a number of assumptions in order to proceed. Nevertheless, the picture which has emerged is quite appealing: all spacetime coupling constants become dynamical variables when the effects of baby universes are taken into account. This fact might even solve the puzzle of the cosmological constant. The subject therefore seems worth further investigation

  3. The views of part-time clinical teachers regarding their role in undergraduate education at the University of Bristol Dental School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puryer, J; McNally, L; O'Sullivan, D

    2015-01-01

    UK dental schools are reliant on part-time teachers to deliver the clinical educational component of the course, the majority with a background in general dental practice. Opportunities for promotion are limited, as is the support for obtaining educational qualifications. The aim of this study was to ascertain the views of such teachers at a dental school. An anonymous online survey was used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative views. The response rate was 80%. The school has n = 50 part-time clinical teachers, who have been teaching for, on average ten years, and for three sessions per week. Eighteen percent of teachers are recognised specialists. Forty-six percent of respondents have a formal teaching qualification, mostly at certificate level, and 55% thought it necessary to acquire a formal teaching qualification. Eighty-eight percent were happy with their role as clinical teachers. This study demonstrates that despite the lack of support and prospect of career progression, the majority of part-time clinical teachers at this institution are satisfied with their role.

  4. Real-time PCR array as a universal platform for the detection of genetically modified crops and its application in identifying unapproved genetically modified crops in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Junichi; Shigemitsu, Natsuki; Futo, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Teshima, Reiko; Hino, Akihiro; Furui, Satoshi; Kitta, Kazumi

    2009-01-14

    We developed a novel type of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) array with TaqMan chemistry as a platform for the comprehensive and semiquantitative detection of genetically modified (GM) crops. Thirty primer-probe sets for the specific detection of GM lines, recombinant DNA (r-DNA) segments, endogenous reference genes, and donor organisms were synthesized, and a 96-well PCR plate was prepared with a different primer-probe in each well as the real-time PCR array. The specificity and sensitivity of the array were evaluated. A comparative analysis with the data and publicly available information on GM crops approved in Japan allowed us to assume the possibility of unapproved GM crop contamination. Furthermore, we designed a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet application, Unapproved GMO Checker version 2.01, which helps process all the data of real-time PCR arrays for the easy assumption of unapproved GM crop contamination. The spreadsheet is available free of charge at http://cse.naro.affrc.go.jp/jmano/index.html .

  5. An eternal universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Heintzmann, H.

    1983-01-01

    A new generalized solution of Maxwell-Einstein equations (which are non-minimally coupled) which leads to some fascinating aspects of the Universe is presented. The Cosmos has no singularity due to the coupling of longitudinal electromagnetism with space-time. It contains the Milne-Schucking cosmos as a limiting case. This model contains a free parameter (the longitudinal electromagnetic field) which allows one to fix the density of highest compression of the Cosmos. Alternativelly the parameter allows one to adjust our cosmos to the presently observed Hubble constant and the deceleration parameter. The model seems to be a viable candidate for our real cosmos as it allows one to extend the time scale of the Universe to arbitrarily large values i.e., it is able to provide the necessary time scale for the origin of life. It is speculated that the entropy is finite but intelligence in the Universe may be infinite. (Author) [pt

  6. University of TX Bureau of Economic Geology's Core Research Centers: The Time is Right for Registering Physical Samples and Assigning IGSN's - Workflows, Stumbling Blocks, and Successes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averett, A.; DeJarnett, B. B.

    2016-12-01

    The University Of Texas Bureau Of Economic Geology (BEG) serves as the geological survey for Texas and operates three geological sample repositories that house well over 2 million boxes of geological samples (cores and cuttings) and an abundant amount of geoscience data (geophysical logs, thin sections, geochemical analyses, etc.). Material is accessible and searchable online, and it is publically available to the geological community for research and education. Patrons access information about our collection by using our online core and log database (SQL format). BEG is currently undertaking a large project to: 1) improve the internal accuracy of metadata associated with the collection; 2) enhance the capabilities of the database for both BEG curators and researchers as well as our external patrons; and 3) ensure easy and efficient navigation for patrons through our online portal. As BEG undertakes this project, BEG is in the early stages of planning to export the metadata for its collection into SESAR (System for Earth Sample Registration) and have IGSN's (International GeoSample Numbers) assigned to its samples. Education regarding the value of IGSN's and an external registry (SESAR) has been crucial to receiving management support for the project because the concept and potential benefits of registering samples in a registry outside of the institution were not well-known prior to this project. Potential benefits such as increases in discoverability, repository recognition in publications, and interoperability were presented. The project was well-received by management, and BEG fully supports the effort to register our physical samples with SESAR. Since BEG is only in the initial phase of this project, any stumbling blocks, workflow issues, successes/failures, etc. can only be predicted at this point, but by mid-December, BEG expects to have several concrete issues to present in the session. Currently, our most pressing issue involves establishing the most

  7. Frozen section evaluation via dynamic real-time non-robotic Telepathology system in a university Cancer center by resident / faculty cooperation team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosoughi, Aram; Smith, Paul Taylor; Zeitouni, Joseph A; Sodeman, Gregori M; Jorda, Merce; Gomez-Fernandez, Carmen; Garcia-Buitrago, Monica; Petito, Carol K; Chapman, Jennifer R; Campuzano-Zuluaga, German; Rosenberg, Andrew E; Kryvenko, Oleksandr N

    2018-04-30

    Frozen section telepathology interpretation experience has been largely limited to practices with locations significantly distant from one another with sporadic need for frozen section diagnosis. In 2010 we established a real-time non-robotic telepathology system in a very active cancer center for daily frozen section service. Herein, we evaluate its accuracy compared to direct microscopic interpretation performed in the main hospital by the same faculty and its cost-efficiency over a 1-year period. From 643 (1416 parts) cases requiring intraoperative consultation, 333 cases (690 parts) were examined by telepathology and 310 cases (726 parts) by direct microscopy. Corresponding discrepancy rates were 2.6% (18 cases: 6 (0.9%) sampling and 12 (1.7%) diagnostic errors) and 3.2% (23 cases: 8 (1.1%) sampling and 15 (2.1%) diagnostic errors), P=.63. The sensitivity and specificity of intraoperative frozen diagnosis were 0.92 and 0.99, respectively, in telepathology, and 0.90 and 0.99, respectively, in direct microscopy. There was no correlation of error incidence with post graduate year level of residents involved in the telepathology service. Cost analysis indicated that the time saved by telepathology was $19691 over one year of the study period while the capital cost for establishing the system was $8924. Thus, real-time non-robotic telepathology is a reliable and easy to use tool for frozen section evaluation in busy clinical settings, especially when frozen section service involves more than one hospital, and it is cost efficient when travel is a component of the service. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Stiegler's University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In this article, Mark Featherstone proposes to explore Bernard Stiegler's work through the lens of the politics of education and in particular the idea of the university, which becomes a pharmacological space of, on the one hand, utopian possibility, and, on the other hand, dystopian limitation, destruction, and death in his recent "States of…

  9. Newton-Hooke Limit of Beltrami-de Sitter Spacetime, Principles of Galilei-Hooke's Relativity and Postulate on Newton-Hooke Universal Time

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Chao-Guang; Guo, Han-Ying; Tian, Yu; Xu, Zhan; Zhou, Bin

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Beltrami-de Sitter spacetime, we present the Newton-Hooke model under the Newton-Hooke contraction of the $BdS$ spacetime with respect to the transformation group, algebra and geometry. It is shown that in Newton-Hooke space-time, there are inertial-type coordinate systems and inertial-type observers, which move along straight lines with uniform velocity. And they are invariant under the Newton-Hooke group. In order to determine uniquely the Newton-Hooke limit, we propose the Gal...

  10. Time course for memory dysfunction in early-life and late-life major depression: a longitudinal study from the Juntendo University Mood Disorder Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Hitoshi; Baba, Hajime; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Satomura, Emi; Namekawa, Yuki; Takebayashi, Naoko; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihito; Mimura, Masaru; Arai, Heii

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with depression also have memory dysfunctions during depressive episodes. These dysfunctions partially remain immediately after remission from a depressive state; however, it is unclear whether these residual memory dysfunctions may disappear through long-term remission from depression. The present study compared patients during early-life (agelife (age ≥ 60) depression while in their remitted stage with healthy controls to elucidate the impact of a long-term course on memory. Logical memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was administered to 67 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (47 patients with early-life depression and residual 20 patients with late-life depression) and 50 healthy controls. MDD patients received memory assessments at the time of their initial remission and at a follow-up three years after remission. At the time of initial remission, scores for logical memory were significantly lower in both patient groups compared to matched controls. At follow-up, memory dysfunction for early-life MDD patients disappeared, whereas scores in the late-life MDD group remained significantly lower than those of matched controls. All patients in the present study were on antidepressant medications. Our findings suggested that the progress of memory performance in late-life MDD patients may be different from early-life MDD patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 77 FR 60012 - University Transportation Centers Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... comment (or signing the comment if submitted on behalf of an association, a business, a labor union, etc... address critical workforce needs and educate the next generation of transportation leaders. II... applicant for a National UTC must focus its research on one of the Department's five strategic goals: 1...

  12. Chaotic universe model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydiner, Ekrem

    2018-01-15

    In this study, we consider nonlinear interactions between components such as dark energy, dark matter, matter and radiation in the framework of the Friedman-Robertson-Walker space-time and propose a simple interaction model based on the time evolution of the densities of these components. By using this model we show that these interactions can be given by Lotka-Volterra type equations. We numerically solve these coupling equations and show that interaction dynamics between dark energy-dark matter-matter or dark energy-dark matter-matter-radiation has a strange attractor for 0 > w de  >-1, w dm  ≥ 0, w m  ≥ 0 and w r  ≥ 0 values. These strange attractors with the positive Lyapunov exponent clearly show that chaotic dynamics appears in the time evolution of the densities. These results provide that the time evolution of the universe is chaotic. The present model may have potential to solve some of the cosmological problems such as the singularity, cosmic coincidence, big crunch, big rip, horizon, oscillation, the emergence of the galaxies, matter distribution and large-scale organization of the universe. The model also connects between dynamics of the competing species in biological systems and dynamics of the time evolution of the universe and offers a new perspective and a new different scenario for the universe evolution.

  13. HLA-A, -B, and -DR zero-mismatched kidneys shipped to the University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1993-2006: superior graft survival despite longer preservation time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlingham, William J; Muñoz del Rio, Alejandro; Lorentzen, David; Sollinger, Hans W; Pirsch, John D; Jankowska-Gan, Ewa; D'Alessandro, Anthony

    2010-08-15

    To determine the impact at a single center of the United Network for Organ Sharing-mandated sharing program for human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-A/-B/-DR 0-mismatched (0MM) kidneys, we analyzed the results of 264 kidney transplants from 0MM distant donors between 1993 and 2006, with a follow-up through January 31, 2007. We compared these results with that of concurrent kidneys transplanted from HLA more than 0MM local donors and with shipped more than 0MM kidneys from "payback" donors. Despite a significantly longer preservation time, we found an 11% increase in 8-year graft survival (63% vs. 52%; P0MM donor kidneys. Graft survival of 0MM shipped kidneys at 8 years was significantly better in nonsensitized (or=20% panel reactive antibodies) recipients, who showed an early (2 years) but short-lived benefit. The benefit of receiving a HLA-A, -B, and -DR 0MM shipped kidney remained strong and statistically significant (0.71 relative risk of graft loss vs. local; POrgan Sharing policy restricting mandated sharing of 0MM kidneys to sensitized and pediatric recipients will give greater flexibility to the local organ procurement organization in allocating organs. However, the survival benefit to nonsensitized patients is real and long lasting and will be lost.

  14. Effects of various timings and concentrations of inhaled nitric oxide in lung ischemia-reperfusion. The Paris-Sud University Lung Transplantation Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, S; Bacha, E A; Mazmanian, G M; Détruit, H; Chapelier, A; Dartevelle, P; Hervé, P

    1997-08-01

    Experimental studies reveal that inhaled nitric oxide (NO) can prevent, worsen, or have no effect on lung injury in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R). We tested the hypothesis that these disparate effects could be related to differences in the timing of administration and/or concentration of inhaled NO during I-R. Isolated rat lungs were subjected to 1-h periods of ischemia followed by 1-h periods of blood reperfusion. We investigated the effects of NO (30 ppm) given during ischemia, NO (30 or 80 ppm) begun immediately at reperfusion, or NO (30 ppm) given 15 min after the beginning of reperfusion, on total pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), the coefficient of filtration (Kfc), the lung wet/dry weight ratio (W/D) of lung tissue, and lung myeloperoxidase activity (MPO). A control group did not receive NO. NO given during ischemia had no effect on Kfc or MPO, but decreased PVR. NO (30 ppm) during reperfusion (early or delayed) decreased PVR, W/D, Kfc and MPO. NO at 80 ppm decreased PVR and MPO but not W/D or Kfc. In conclusion, NO at 30 ppm, given immediately or in a delayed fashion during reperfusion, attenuates I-R-induced lung injury. NO at 30 ppm given during ischemia or at 80 ppm during reperfusion is not protective.

  15. University writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Zabalza Beraza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Writing in the University is a basic necessity and a long-range educational purpose. One of the basic characteristics of the university context is that it requires writing both as a tool of communication and as a source of intellectual stimulation. After establishing the basic features of academic writing, this article analyzes the role of writing for students (writing to learn and for teachers (write to plan, to reflect, to document what has been done. The article also discusses the contributions of writing for both students and teachers together: writing to investigate. Finally, going beyond what writing is as academic tool, we conclude with a more playful and creative position: writing for pleasure and enjoyment.

  16. University physics

    CERN Document Server

    Arfken, George

    1984-01-01

    University Physics provides an authoritative treatment of physics. This book discusses the linear motion with constant acceleration; addition and subtraction of vectors; uniform circular motion and simple harmonic motion; and electrostatic energy of a charged capacitor. The behavior of materials in a non-uniform magnetic field; application of Kirchhoff's junction rule; Lorentz transformations; and Bernoulli's equation are also deliberated. This text likewise covers the speed of electromagnetic waves; origins of quantum physics; neutron activation analysis; and interference of light. This publi

  17. Baby universe theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, H.B.; Ninomiya, Masao

    1989-12-01

    We give an elementary review of the so called 'the theory of baby universes' which is a series of ideas or speculations about some effects in quantum gravity, viz. the effect of a certain type of wormholes, representing the exchange of small 3-space universes called baby universes. We consider this 'theory' as being physically and scientifically a very promising candidate for a theory of everything. It is, however, mathematically lacking any strong foundation at all. It solves several fine-tuning problems: First of all the cosmological constant problem, and also the strong CP-problem and the hierarchy problem. We also speculate that it might predict the possibility of influencing the probability distributions of the outcome of quantum mechanical measurements at one time by acts at a later time. (orig.)

  18. A unified universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Codello, Alessandro; Jain, Rajeev Kumar

    2018-01-01

    We present a unified evolution of the universe from very early times until the present epoch by including both the leading local correction R2 and the leading non-local term R1□2R to the classical gravitational action. We find that the inflationary phase driven by R2 term gracefully exits...... in a transitory regime characterized by coherent oscillations of the Hubble parameter. The universe then naturally enters into a radiation dominated epoch followed by a matter dominated era. At sufficiently late times after radiation–matter equality, the non-local term starts to dominate inducing an accelerated...... expansion of the universe at the present epoch. We further exhibit the fact that both the leading local and non-local terms can be obtained within the covariant effective field theory of gravity. This scenario thus provides a unified picture of inflation and dark energy in a single framework by means...

  19. Human universe

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Human life is a staggeringly strange thing. On the surface of a ball of rock falling around a nuclear fireball in the blackness of a vacuum the laws of nature conspired to create a naked ape that can look up at the stars and wonder where it came from. What is a human being? Objectively, nothing of consequence. Particles of dust in an infinite arena, present for an instant in eternity. Clumps of atoms in a universe with more galaxies than people. And yet a human being is necessary for the question itself to exist, and the presence of a question in the universe - any question - is the most wonderful thing. Questions require minds, and minds bring meaning. What is meaning? I don't know, except that the universe and every pointless speck inside it means something to me. I am astonished by the existence of a single atom, and find my civilisation to be an outrageous imprint on reality. I don't understand it. Nobody does, but it makes me smile. This book asks questions about our origins, our destiny, and our place i...

  20. [Human papilloma virus and Chlamydia trachomatis by number of sexual partners and time of sexual activity on university students in the Region of La Araucanía, Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Angélica; Lagos, Nicole; Montenegro, Sonia; Orellana, Juan José; Vásquez, Ana María; Moreno, Sergio; Liempi, Sandra; Guzmán, Pablo; Fonseca-Salamanca, Flery

    2016-06-01

    Human papilloma virus (HPV) and Chlamydia trachomatis are the most prevalent sexually transmitted infections (STIs), among teenagers and young people, with risk factors: active sex life and multiple partners. Chlamydia trachomatis infection may favor HPV infection and this, the development of cervical cancer. Both infections can lead to consequences on sexual and reproductive health. To determine frequency of HPV and C. trachomatis in asymptomatic university women less than 25 years, associating them with number of sexual partners (n°SxP) and time of sexual activity (TSxA). Material andMethods: 151 cervical samples for HPV and C. trachomatis, were processed by conventional and in real time reaction polymerase chain. HPV 21, 8%, C. trachomatis 11, 2% and co-infection (HPV/C.trachomatis), 4.6%. Aimong HPV +, 80, 6% showed high risk HPV. The n°SxP was strongly associated with HPV. Aimong young coinfected HPV/C. trachomatis, 71.4% had 3 or more PSx. Chlamydia trachomatis was more frequent (64,7%) that HPV within range of 3-5 years according to the TSxA, Discussion: A high prevalence of HPV and C. trachomatis was observed. Young women with coinfection HPV/C. trachomatis could be a high-risk group need to monitor their infections. It suggests the implementation of university programs in education, counseling and prevention in sexual health.

  1. On-the-job, real-time professional development for graduate students and early career scientists at the University of Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, B. C.; Guannel, M.; Wood-Charlson, E.; Choy, A.; Wren, J.; Chang, C.; Alegado, R.; Leon Soon, S.; Needham, H.; Wiener, C.

    2015-12-01

    Here we present an overview of inter-related programs designed to promote leadership and professional development among graduate students and early career scientists. In a very short time, these young scientists have developed into an impressive cohort of leaders. Proposal Writing. The EDventures model combines proposal-writing training with the incentive of seed money. Rather than providing training a priori, the EDventures model encourages students and post-docs to write a proposal based on guidelines provided. Training occurs during a two-stage review stage: proposers respond to panel reviews and resubmit their proposal within a single review cycle. EDventures alumni self-report statistically significant confidence gains on all questions posed. Their subsequent proposal success is envious: of the 12 proposals submitted by program alumni to NSF, 50% were funded. (Wood Charlson & Bruno, in press; cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/education/edventures.htm)Mentoring. The C-MORE Scholars and SOEST Maile Mentoring Bridgeprograms give graduate students the opportunity to serve as research mentors and non-research mentors, respectively, to undergraduates. Both programs aim to develop a "majority-minority" scientist network, where Native Hawaiians and other underrepresented students receive professional development training and personal support through one-on-one mentoring relationships (Gibson and Bruno, 2012; http://cmore.soest.hawaii.edu/scholars; http://maile.soest.hawaii.edu).Outreach & Science Communication. Ocean FEST (Families Exploring Science Together), Ocean TECH (Technology Explores Career Horizons) and the Kapiolani Community College summer bridge program provide opportunities for graduate students and post-docs to design and deliver outreach activities, lead field trips, communicate their research, and organize events (Wiener et al, 2011, Bruno & Wren, 2014; http://oceanfest.soest.hawaii.edu; http://oceantech.soest.hawaii.edu)Professional Development Course. In this

  2. Shock wave lithotripsy outcomes for lower pole and non-lower pole stones from a university teaching hospital: Parallel group comparison during the same time period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, Robert; Burr, Jacob; Simmonds, Nick; Somani, Bhaskar K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) is a treatment option for all locations of renal and ureteric stones. We compared the results of SWL for lower pole renal stones with all other non-lower pole renal and ureteric stones during the same time period. Material and Methods: All SWL procedures were carried out as day case procedures by a mobile lithotripter from January 2012 to August 2013. The follow-up imaging was a combination of KUB X-ray or USS. Following SWL treatment, the stone free rate (SFR) was defined as ≤3 mm fragments. Results: A total of 148 patients with a mean age of 62 years underwent 201 procedures. Of the 201 procedures, 93 (46%) were for lower pole stones. The non-lower pole stones included upper pole (n = 36), mid pole (n = 40), renal pelvis (n = 10), PUJ (n = 8), mid ureter (n = 3), upper ureter (n = 5) and a combination of upper, middle and/or lower pole (n = 6). The mean stone size for lower pole stones (7.4 mm; range: 4-16 mm) was slightly smaller than non-lower pole stones (8 mm; range: 4-17 mm). The stone fragmentation was successful in 124 (62%) of patients. However, the SFR was statistically significantly better (P = 0.023) for non-lower pole stones 43 (40%) compared to lower pole stones 23 (25%). There were 9 (4%) minor complications and this was not significantly different in the two groups. Conclusions: Although SWL achieves a moderately high stone fragmentation rate with a low complication rate, the SFR is variable depending on the location of stone and the definition of SFR, with lower pole stones fairing significantly worse than stones in all other locations. PMID:25657543

  3. Real-Time Very High-Resolution Regional 4D Assimilation in Supporting CRYSTAL-FACE Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghai; Minnis, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    To better understand tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes with a view toward the successful modeling of the Earth's climate, the CRYSTAL-FACE (Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment) field experiment took place over southern Florida from 1 July to 29 July 2002. During the entire field campaign, a very high-resolution numerical weather prediction (NWP) and assimilation system was performed in support of the mission with supercomputing resources provided by NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS). By using NOAA NCEP Eta forecast for boundary conditions and as a first guess for initial conditions assimilated with all available observations, two nested 15/3 km grids are employed over the CRYSTAL-FACE experiment area. The 15-km grid covers the southeast US domain, and is run two times daily for a 36-hour forecast starting at 0000 UTC and 1200 UTC. The nested 3-km grid covering only southern Florida is used for 9-hour and 18-hour forecasts starting at 1500 and 0600 UTC, respectively. The forecasting system provided more accurate and higher spatial and temporal resolution forecasts of 4-D atmospheric fields over the experiment area than available from standard weather forecast models. These forecasts were essential for flight planning during both the afternoon prior to a flight day and the morning of a flight day. The forecasts were used to help decide takeoff times and the most optimal flight areas for accomplishing the mission objectives. See more detailed products on the web site http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/mode/crystal. The model/assimilation output gridded data are archived on the NASA Center for Computational Sciences (NCCS) UniTree system in the HDF format at 30-min intervals for real-time forecasts or 5-min intervals for the post-mission case studies. Particularly, the data set includes the 3-D cloud fields (cloud liquid water, rain water, cloud ice, snow and graupe/hail).

  4. Explore Your Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This warm-up lab is intended to get students familiar with the large numbers encountered in astronomy (e.g. distances, times, numbers of stars and galaxies in the universe). Students will measure the dimensions of the classroom and/or the distance between objects in the classroom, and report their findings in units of millimeters, micrometers and nanometers.

  5. PBL at Aalborg university

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From the preface: "All the articles in this book have been presented at the International Conference PBL 2006 ABP, that was held in Lima, Peru, July 19th-21th 2006. This conference is part of a series of Pan-American conferences. It is the first time that Aalborg University has participated...

  6. Sustainable Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grindsted, Thomas Skou

    2011-01-01

    Declarations on Sustainability in Higher Education (SHE) can be viewed as a piece of international regulation. Over the past 30 years research at universities has produced convincing data to warn about deterioration of the environment, resource scarcity and the need for sustainability. This in turn....... Declarations tend to have impact on three trends. Firstly, there is emerging international consensus on the university’s role and function in relation to sustainable development; secondly, the emergence of national legislation, and thirdly, an emerging international competition to be leader in sustainable...

  7. Open University

    CERN Multimedia

    Pentz,M

    1975-01-01

    Michel Pentz est née en Afrique du Sud et venu au Cern en 1957 comme physicien et président de l'associaion du personnel. Il est également fondateur du mouvement Antiapartheid de Genève et a participé à la fondation de l'Open University en Grande-Bretagne. Il nous parle des contextes pédagogiques, culturels et nationaux dans lesquels la méthode peut s'appliquer.

  8. Wikipedia ranking of world universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, José; Patt, Antoine; Shepelyansky, Dima L.

    2016-03-01

    We use the directed networks between articles of 24 Wikipedia language editions for producing the wikipedia ranking of world Universities (WRWU) using PageRank, 2DRank and CheiRank algorithms. This approach allows to incorporate various cultural views on world universities using the mathematical statistical analysis independent of cultural preferences. The Wikipedia ranking of top 100 universities provides about 60% overlap with the Shanghai university ranking demonstrating the reliable features of this approach. At the same time WRWU incorporates all knowledge accumulated at 24 Wikipedia editions giving stronger highlights for historically important universities leading to a different estimation of efficiency of world countries in university education. The historical development of university ranking is analyzed during ten centuries of their history.

  9. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 9 March 2009 COLLOQUIUM at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Are We Descended From Heavy Neutrinos? Prof. Boris Kayser / Fermilab (Fermi National Accelerator Center, Geneva, Illinois, USA) Neutrinos are among the most abundant particles in the universe. The discovery that they have nonzero masses has raised a number of very interesting questions about them, and about their connections to other areas of physics and to cosmology. After briefly reviewing what has been learned about the neutrinos so far, we will identify the major open questions, explain why they are interesting, and discuss ideas and plans for answering them through future experiments. We will highlight a particularly intriguing question: Are neutrinos the key to understanding why the universe contains matter but almost no antimatter, making it s...

  10. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 13 May 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Observing the extreme universe with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope Prof. Olaf Reimer / Stanford University The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (FGST, formerly GLAST) is an international observatory-type satellite mission with a physics program spanning from gamma-ray astronomy to particle astrophysics and cosmology. FGST was launched on June 11, 2008 and is successfully conducting science observations of the high-energy gamma-ray sky since August 2008. A varienty of discoveries has been made already, including monitoring rapid blazar variability, the existence of GeV gamma-ray bursts, and numerous new gamma-ray sources of different types, including those belonging to previously unknown gamma-ray source classes like msPSRs, globula...

  11. Exponential Cardassian universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Daojun; Sun Changbo; Li Xinzhou

    2006-01-01

    The expectation of explaining cosmological observations without requiring new energy sources is forsooth worthy of investigation. In this Letter, a new kind of Cardassian models, called exponential Cardassian models, for the late-time universe are investigated in the context of the spatially flat FRW universe scenario. We fit the exponential Cardassian models to current type Ia supernovae data and find they are consistent with the observations. Furthermore, we point out that the equation-of-state parameter for the effective dark fluid component in exponential Cardassian models can naturally cross the cosmological constant divide w=-1 that observations favor mildly without introducing exotic material that destroy the weak energy condition

  12. The Classification of Universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J

    2004-01-01

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain essentially all phenomena that can be conceivably measured. The initial time is taken as the epoch when the lowest CMB modes undergo horizon crossing, and the final time taken when the wavelengths of CMB photons are comparable with the Hubble scale, i.e. with the nominal size of the universe. This allows the definition of a local ensemble of similarly constructed universes, using only modest extrapolations of the observed behavior of the cosmos. We then assume that further out in spacetime, similar universes can be constructed but containing different standard model parameters. Within this multiverse ensemble, it is assumed that the standard model parameters are strongly correlated with size, i.e. with the value of the inverse Hubble parameter at the final time, in a manner as previously suggested. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes which allow life as we know it, and invites a speculation regarding the most natural distribution of sizes. If small sizes are favored, this in turn allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Subsequent sections of the paper explore other possible implications. In all cases, the approach is as bottoms up and as phenomenological as possible, and suggests that theories of the multiverse so constructed may in fact lay some claim of being scientific

  13. The Classification of Universes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J

    2004-04-09

    We define a universe as the contents of a spacetime box with comoving walls, large enough to contain essentially all phenomena that can be conceivably measured. The initial time is taken as the epoch when the lowest CMB modes undergo horizon crossing, and the final time taken when the wavelengths of CMB photons are comparable with the Hubble scale, i.e. with the nominal size of the universe. This allows the definition of a local ensemble of similarly constructed universes, using only modest extrapolations of the observed behavior of the cosmos. We then assume that further out in spacetime, similar universes can be constructed but containing different standard model parameters. Within this multiverse ensemble, it is assumed that the standard model parameters are strongly correlated with size, i.e. with the value of the inverse Hubble parameter at the final time, in a manner as previously suggested. This allows an estimate of the range of sizes which allow life as we know it, and invites a speculation regarding the most natural distribution of sizes. If small sizes are favored, this in turn allows some understanding of the hierarchy problems of particle physics. Subsequent sections of the paper explore other possible implications. In all cases, the approach is as bottoms up and as phenomenological as possible, and suggests that theories of the multiverse so constructed may in fact lay some claim of being scientific.

  14. Information as the Fifth Dimension of the Universe which Fundamental Particles (strings), Dark Matter/Energy and Space-time are Floating in it While they are Listening to its Whispering for Getting Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Ghasem; Amirshahkarami, Azim; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2017-01-01

    Four animated sub-particles (sub-strings) as origin of the life and generator of momentum (vibration) of elementary particles (strings) are communicated for transferring information for processing and preparing fundamental particles for the next step. It means that information may be a ``dimension'' of the nature which fundamental particles, dark matter/energy and space-time are floating in it and listening to its whispering and getting quantum information packages about their conditions and laws. So, communication of information which began before the spark to B.B. (Convection Bang), may be a ``Fundamental symmetry'' in the nature because leads other symmetries and supersymmetry as well as other phenomena. The processed information are always carried by fundamental particles as the preserved history and entropy of Universe. So, information wouldn't be destroyed, lost or released by black hole. But the involved fundamental particles of thermal radiation, electromagnetic and gravitational fields carry processed information during emitting from black hole, while they are communicated from fifth dimension for their new movement. AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  15. Clock force. Universe, time, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karb, W.

    2005-01-01

    In a dialog full of esprite two protagonists of the sides of physics and philosophy struggle about answers on great questions. As witnesses occur the great phsicists and philosophers, the theories and discoveries of them Karb recapitulates in easily understandable form and puts together into relation. Karb advertizes for pragmatic and responsible ethics in the sciences. Always within the great theories themselves Karb argumentates that theoretical physics is indeed not at the end, but it should have an end with always new billions expensive collider facilities, which serve lonely for the hybris of scientists

  16. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Ecole de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 28 April 2008 PHYSICS COLLOQUIUM at 17.00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Gravity : an Emergent Perspective by Prof. Thanu Padmanabhan, Pune University Dean, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India I will motivate and describe a novel perspective in which gravity arises as an emergent phenomenon, somewhat like elasticity. This perspective throws light on several issues which are somewhat of a mystery in the conventional approach. Moreover it provides new insights on the dark energy problem. In fact, I will show that it is necessary to have such an alternative perspective in order to solve the cosmological constant problem.Information: http://theory.physics.unige.ch/~fiteo/seminars/COL/collist.html

  17. Universal Alienation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Harvey

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This article is part of a debate between David Harvey, Michael Hardt and Toni Negri. It takes Marx’s bicentenary as occasion for an update of his concept of alienation. The paper asks: how are we to interpret universal alienation and from whence does it come? Marx radically reformulated the concept of alienation in the Grundrisse. The humanism of the early Marx can be re-rooted and reconceptualised in the scientific mode proposed in the Grundrisse. In the Grundrisse, the universality of alienation is specific to capitalism’s historical evolution. Today, alienation exists almost everywhere. It exists at work in production, at home in consumption, and it dominates much of politics and daily life. Such trends intensify through the application of information technologies and artificial intelligence. Widespread alienation has resulted in Occupy movements as well as right-wing populism and bigoted nationalist and racist movements. Donald Trump is the President of alienation. The circulation of capital as totality consists of the three key moments of production, circulation and distribution. A lot of contemporary economic struggles are now occurring at the point of realisation rather than at the point of production. Protests are therefore today often expressions of broad-based discontent. Our future is dictated by the need to redeem our debts. Under such conditions democracy becomes a sham. The big question is what forms of social movement can help us get out of the state-finance nexus. The theory of objective alienation along with an understanding of its subjective consequences is one vital key to unlock the door of a progressive politics for the future.

  18. Universality of the Unruh effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modesto, Leonardo; Myung, Yun Soo; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2018-02-01

    In this paper we prove the universal nature of the Unruh effect in a general class of weakly nonlocal field theories. At the same time we solve the tension between two conflicting claims published in literature. Our universality statement is based on two independent computations based on the canonical formulation as well as path integral formulation of the quantum theory.

  19. Field evaluation of an open and polyvalent universal HIV-1/SIVcpz/SIVgor quantitative RT-PCR assay for HIV-1 viral load monitoring in comparison to Abbott RealTime HIV-1 in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichet, Emilande; Aghokeng, Avelin; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Vidal, Nicole; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Ciaffi, Laura; Peeters, Martine

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing demand of HIV viral load (VL) tests in resource-limited countries (RLCs) there is a need for assays at affordable cost and able to quantify all known HIV-1 variants. VLs obtained with a recently developed open and polyvalent universal HIV-1/SIVcpz/SIVgor RT-qPCR were compared to Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay in Cameroon. On 474 plasma samples, characterized by a wide range of VLs and a broad HIV-1 group M genetic diversity, 97.5% concordance was observed when using the lower detection limit of each assay. When using the threshold of 3.00 log 10 copies/mL, according to WHO guidelines to define virological failure (VF) in RLCs, the concordance was 94.7%, 360/474 versus 339/474 patients were identified with VF with the new assay and Abbott RealTime HIV-1, respectively. Higher VLs were measured with the new assay, +0.47 log 10 copies/mL (95% CI; 0.42-0.52) as shown with Bland-Altman analysis. Eleven samples from patients on VF with drug resistance were not detected by Abbott RealTime HIV-1 versus two only with the new assay. Overall, our study showed that the new assay can be easily implemented in a laboratory in RLCs with VL experience and showed good performance on a wide diversity of HIV-1 group M variants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Einstein's universe

    CERN Document Server

    Calder, Nigel

    1979-01-01

    This brilliantly written book unlocks the astounding implications of Einstein's revolutionary theories on the nature of science, time and motion. It far surpasses any previous explanation of Relativity for laymen.

  1. Sheet universes and the shapes of Friedmann universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynden-Bell, D.; Redmount, I.H.

    1989-01-01

    Unless Ω>1,the Big Bang did not start from a point. Consideration shows sheet universes in which matter is confined to a homogeneous universe. Sheet universes and the corresponding embeddings of FRW universes into Minkowski space are drawn. Their initial singularities are shown to be point-like for the 'closed' case, line-like for the 'flat' (Ω=1) case and surface-like for the 'open' case. In contrast to the cross-sections at constant comoving proper time, typical spacelike cross-sections of the 'flat' universes are closed and encounter their extensive singularities. All cross-sections of the 'closed' universe are closed and only very special cross-sections encounter the point singularities at the Big Bang or the Big Crunch. (author)

  2. Impact of New Shift Models for Doctors Working at a German University Hospital for Gynaecology and Obstetrics Four Years After Implementation. Can They Meet the European Working Time Directive Without Increasing Costs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschmann, J; Holderried, M; Blumenstock, G; Bamberg, M; Rieger, M A; Wallwiener, D; Brucker, S

    2013-07-01

    Background: The impact of the European Working Time Directive and subsequent collective wage agreements for doctors from 2006 onwards were substantial. So far, no systematic evaluation of their application in Germany has been performed. We evaluated the impact four years after implementation of new shift models in a University Hospital for Gynaecology and Obstetrics (UHGO). Methods: A new shift model was created together with doctors of Tübingen UHOG in 2007 and implemented in 2008. Documentation of working hours has hence been done electronically. Adherence to the average weekly working time limit (AWTL) and the maximum of 10 h daily working time (10 h-dwt) was evaluated, as well as staffing costs in relation to case-weight points gathered within the German DRG (diagnosis related groups) System. Results: Staff increased from a mean of 44.7 full time equivalent (FTE) doctors in 2007 to 52.5 FTE in 2009, 50.8 in 2010, and 54.5 in 2011. There was no statistically significant difference of the monthly staff expenditures per case-weight between the years 2009 or 2010 vs. 2007. 2011, however, was significantly more expensive than 2007 (p = 0.02). The internal control group (five other departments of the university hospital) did not show an increase during the same period. AWTL were respected by 90, 96, and 98 % in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Of all shifts 10 h-dwt was exceeded by 7.4 % in 2009, 1.3 % in 2010, and 2.6 % in 2011, with significant differences between 2009 and both, 2010 and 2011 (p < 0.001), and between 2010 and 2011 (p = 0.02). Discussion: AWTL and 10 h-dwt could be continuously respected quite well after implementation of the new shift model without increasing the cost/earnings ratio for the first two years. However, in 2011 the ratio increased significantly (p = 0.02).

  3. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 25 March 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Hunting for the Higgs with D0 at the Tevatron Prof. Gustaaf Brooijmans / Columbia University The search for the Higgs boson is one of the most important endeavors in current experimental particle physics. At the eve of the LHC start, the Tevatron is delivering record luminosity allowing both CDF and D0 to explore a new region of possible Higgs masses. In this seminar, the techniques used to search for the Higgs boson at the Tevatron will be explained, limiting factors will be examined, and the sensitivity in the various channels will be reviewed. The newly excluded values of the standard model Higgs mass will be presented. Information : http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer : J.-S. Graulich

  4. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 6 avril 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR àt 17:00 – Auditoire Stückelberg Hospital superbugs, nanomechanics and statistical physics Prof. Dr G. Aeppli / University College London The alarming growth of the antibiotic-resistant superbug, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is driving the development of new technologies to investigate antibiotics and their modes of action. We report silicon cantilever based studies of self-assembled monolayers of mucopeptides which model drug-sensitive and resistant bacterial walls. The underlying concepts needed to understand the measurements will simplify the design of cantilevers and coatings for biosensing and could even impact our understanding of drug action on bacteria themselves. (Une verrée en compagnie du conférencier sera offerte après le colloque.) Organizer : Prof. Markus Büttiker ...

  5. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél. 022 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 14 October 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Long-lived particle searches at colliders Dr. Philippe Mermod / Oxford University The discovery of exotic long-lived particles would address a number of important questions in modern physics such as the origin and composition of dark matter and the unification of the fundamental forces. This talk will focus on searches for long-lived charged massive particles, where "charged" refers to the magnetic, electric or colour charge. Previous searches at the LEP and Tevatron Colliders allowed to put mass and cross section limits on various kinds of long-lived particles, such as Magnetic Monopoles and metastable leptons and up-type quarks. The new energy regime made available at the LHC will probe physics regions well beyond these limits. F...

  6. Universal algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Grätzer, George

    1979-01-01

    Universal Algebra, heralded as ". . . the standard reference in a field notorious for the lack of standardization . . .," has become the most authoritative, consistently relied on text in a field with applications in other branches of algebra and other fields such as combinatorics, geometry, and computer science. Each chapter is followed by an extensive list of exercises and problems. The "state of the art" account also includes new appendices (with contributions from B. Jónsson, R. Quackenbush, W. Taylor, and G. Wenzel) and a well-selected additional bibliography of over 1250 papers and books which makes this a fine work for students, instructors, and researchers in the field. "This book will certainly be, in the years to come, the basic reference to the subject." --- The American Mathematical Monthly (First Edition) "In this reviewer's opinion [the author] has more than succeeded in his aim. The problems at the end of each chapter are well-chosen; there are more than 650 of them. The book is especially sui...

  7. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corpusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 29 April 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium Search for spin-1 excited bosons at the LHC Mihail V. Chizhov (Physics Department, Sofia University, Bulgaria) I will discuss the resonance production of new type spin-1 excited bosons, Z*, at hadron colliders. They can be observed as a Breit-Wigner resonance peak in the invariant dilepton mass distribution in the same way as the well-known hypothetical gauge bosons, Z�. This makes them very interesting objects for early searches with the LHC first data. Moreover, they have unique signatures in transverse momentum and angular distributions, which allow to distinguish them from other resonances. Information : http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer: J.-S. Graulich

  8. Universality of accelerating change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo; Shlesinger, Michael F.

    2018-03-01

    On large time scales the progress of human technology follows an exponential growth trend that is termed accelerating change. The exponential growth trend is commonly considered to be the amalgamated effect of consecutive technology revolutions - where the progress carried in by each technology revolution follows an S-curve, and where the aging of each technology revolution drives humanity to push for the next technology revolution. Thus, as a collective, mankind is the 'intelligent designer' of accelerating change. In this paper we establish that the exponential growth trend - and only this trend - emerges universally, on large time scales, from systems that combine together two elements: randomness and amalgamation. Hence, the universal generation of accelerating change can be attained by systems with no 'intelligent designer'.

  9. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...

  10. Computational universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svozil, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Suspicions that the world might be some sort of a machine or algorithm existing 'in the mind' of some symbolic number cruncher have lingered from antiquity. Although popular at times, the most radical forms of this idea never reached mainstream. Modern developments in physics and computer science have lent support to the thesis, but empirical evidence is needed before it can begin to replace our contemporary world view

  11. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Monday 2 November 2009 Colloquium at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Laser induced electron tunnel ionization : instantaneous or invalid concept? Prof. Ursula Keller / Physics Department, ETH Zurich It is typically assumed that electrons can escape from atoms through tunneling when exposed to strong laser fields, but the timing of the process has been controversial, and far too rapid to probe in detail. We have used attosecond angular streaking [1] to place an upper limit of 34 attoseconds and an intensity-averaged upper limit of 12 attoseconds on the tunneling delay time in strong field ionization of a helium atom in the non-adiabatic tunneling regime [2]. This is the fastest process that has ever been measured. To achieve this we exploit the exact timing of a close to circular polarized intense laser field in t...

  12. The Impact of Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program on Physical Activity, Sedentary Time and Fruit, Vegetable and Junk Food Consumption among Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Waitlist Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M.; Howie, Erin K.; Smith, Kyla L.; Fenner, Ashley A.; Kerr, Deborah A.; Olds, Tim S.; Abbott, Rebecca A.; Smith, Anne J.

    2014-01-01

    Background To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP), a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents. Methods In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6) years) and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records. Results During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by −5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: −11.0, 0.8) which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014). Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: −0.04, 3.6) during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041). Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56) and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively). Conclusions Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention. Trial Registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932 PMID:25375109

  13. The impact of Curtin University's activity, food and attitudes program on physical activity, sedentary time and fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among overweight and obese adolescents: a waitlist controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straker, Leon M; Howie, Erin K; Smith, Kyla L; Fenner, Ashley A; Kerr, Deborah A; Olds, Tim S; Abbott, Rebecca A; Smith, Anne J

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP), a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents. In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6) years) and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records. During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by -5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: -11.0, 0.8) which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014). Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: -0.04, 3.6) during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041). Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56) and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94) and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively). Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention. Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932.

  14. The impact of Curtin University's activity, food and attitudes program on physical activity, sedentary time and fruit, vegetable and junk food consumption among overweight and obese adolescents: a waitlist controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon M Straker

    Full Text Available To determine the effects of participation in Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program (CAFAP, a community-based, family-centered behavioural intervention, on the physical activity, sedentary time, and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents.In this waitlist controlled clinical trial in Western Australia, adolescents (n = 69, 71% female, mean age 14.1 (SD 1.6 years and parents completed an 8-week intervention followed by 12 months of telephone and text message support. Assessments were completed at baseline, before beginning the intervention, immediately following the intervention, and at 3-, 6-, and 12- months follow-up. The primary outcomes were physical activity and sedentary time assessed by accelerometers and servings of fruit, vegetables and junk food assessed by 3-day food records.During the intensive 8-week intervention sedentary time decreased by -5.1 min/day/month (95% CI: -11.0, 0.8 which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .014. Moderate physical activity increased by 1.8 min/day/month (95% CI: -0.04, 3.6 during the intervention period, which was significantly greater than the rate of change during the waitlist period (p = .041. Fruit consumption increased during the intervention period (monthly incidence rate ratio (IRR 1.3, 95% CI: 1.10, 1.56 and junk food consumption decreased (monthly IRR 0.8, 95% CI: 0.74, 0.94 and these changes were different to those seen during the waitlist period (p = .004 and p = .020 respectively.Participating in CAFAP appeared to have a positive influence on the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviours of overweight and obese adolescents and many of these changes were maintained for one year following the intensive intervention.Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12611001187932.

  15. Vanderbilt University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramayya, A.V.; Hamilton, J.H.; Bindra, K.

    1995-01-01

    An experiment identifying gamma-ray transitions in 183 Hg using γ-γ and recoil-γ coincidences has been performed at the FMA and published. Five bands were observed, of which two are associated with the [624]9/2 + orbital and exhibit signature splitting. Two other bands which do not show signature splitting have been associated with the [514]7/2 - orbital and exhibit transition energies almost identical to bands with the same configuration in 185 Hg. New experiments on identification of bands in 181 Hg and an in-beam study of conversion electrons from 183 Hg have been performed in 1994. Three bands were identified for the first time in 181 Hg. A mini-orange electron spectrometer was used in a test run where background were investigated. One member of the collaboration, K. Bindra, who is a Ph.D. student, and a new student, L. Brown, have been working full-time under the direction of Cary Davids. K. Bindra has now graduated

  16. About time

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Adam

    2012-01-01

    From Stonehenge to beyond the Big Bang, an exhilarating scientific exploration of how we make time Time is the grandest conception of the universe that we humans have been able to imagine – and its most intimate, the very frame of human life. In About Time, astrophysicist and award-winning writer Adam Frank tells the scientific story of this wonderful and tyrannical invention. A Palaeolithic farmer moved through the sun-fuelled day and star-steered night in a radically different way than the Elizabethan merchants who set their pace to the clocks newly installed in their town squares. Since th

  17. The Universe's First Fireworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster VersionFigure 1Figure 2 This is an image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope of stars and galaxies in the Ursa Major constellation. This infrared image covers a region of space so large that light would take up to 100 million years to travel across it. Figure 1 is the same image after stars, galaxies and other sources were masked out. The remaining background light is from a period of time when the universe was less than one billion years old, and most likely originated from the universe's very first groups of objects -- either huge stars or voracious black holes. Darker shades in the image on the left correspond to dimmer parts of the background glow, while yellow and white show the brightest light. Brief History of the Universe In figure 2, the artist's timeline chronicles the history of the universe, from its explosive beginning to its mature, present-day state. Our universe began in a tremendous explosion known as the Big Bang about 13.7 billion years ago (left side of strip). Observations by NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer and Wilkinson Anisotropy Microwave Probe revealed microwave light from this very early epoch, about 400,000 years after the Big Bang, providing strong evidence that our universe did blast into existence. Results from the Cosmic Background Explorer were honored with the 2006 Nobel Prize for Physics. A period of darkness ensued, until about a few hundred million years later, when the first objects flooded the universe with light. This first light is believed to have been captured in data from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope. The light detected by Spitzer would have originated as visible and ultraviolet light, then stretched, or redshifted, to lower-energy infrared wavelengths during its long voyage to reach us across expanding space. The light detected by the Cosmic Background Explorer and the

  18. Second Generation Weather Impacts Decision Aid User’s Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    from the pulldown Base Reference Time menu. Most models start at times based on Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) or Zulu time (Z) with the selections...Effects Matrix Z Zulu time 31 No. of Copies Organization 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL (PDF) INFORMATION CTR DTIC OCA 1 DIRECTOR (PDF) US

  19. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    2005-07-01

    Our love of art, writes John Barrow, is the end product of millions of years of evolution. How we react to a beautiful painting or symphony draws upon instincts laid down long before humans existed. Now, in this enhanced edition of the highly popular The Artful Universe , Barrow further explores the close ties between our aesthetic appreciation and the basic nature of the Universe. Barrow argues that the laws of the Universe have imprinted themselves upon our thoughts and actions in subtle and unexpected ways. Why do we like certain types of art or music? What games and puzzles do we find challenging? Why do so many myths and legends have common elements? In this eclectic and entertaining survey, Barrow answers these questions and more as he explains how the landscape of the Universe has influenced the development of philosophy and mythology, and how millions of years of evolutionary history have fashioned our attraction to certain patterns of sound and color. Barrow casts the story of human creativity and thought in a fascinating light, considering such diverse topics as our instinct for language, the origins and uses of color in nature, why we divide time into intervals as we do, the sources of our appreciation of landscape painting, and whether computer-generated fractal art is really art. Drawing on a wide variety of examples, from the theological questions raised by St. Augustine and C.S. Lewis to the relationship between the pure math of Pythagoras and the music of the Beatles, The Artful Universe Expanded covers new ground and enters a wide-ranging debate about the meaning and significance of the links between art and science.

  20. ULTRA: Universal Grammar as a Universal Parser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, David P

    2018-01-01

    A central concern of generative grammar is the relationship between hierarchy and word order, traditionally understood as two dimensions of a single syntactic representation. A related concern is directionality in the grammar. Traditional approaches posit process-neutral grammars, embodying knowledge of language, put to use with infinite facility both for production and comprehension. This has crystallized in the view of Merge as the central property of syntax, perhaps its only novel feature. A growing number of approaches explore grammars with different directionalities, often with more direct connections to performance mechanisms. This paper describes a novel model of universal grammar as a one-directional, universal parser. Mismatch between word order and interpretation order is pervasive in comprehension; in the present model, word order is language-particular and interpretation order (i.e., hierarchy) is universal. These orders are not two dimensions of a unified abstract object (e.g., precedence and dominance in a single tree); rather, both are temporal sequences, and UG is an invariant real-time procedure (based on Knuth's stack-sorting algorithm) transforming word order into hierarchical order. This shift in perspective has several desirable consequences. It collapses linearization, displacement, and composition into a single performance process. The architecture provides a novel source of brackets (labeled unambiguously and without search), which are understood not as part-whole constituency relations, but as storage and retrieval routines in parsing. It also explains why neutral word order within single syntactic cycles avoids 213-like permutations. The model identifies cycles as extended projections of lexical heads, grounding the notion of phase. This is achieved with a universal processor, dispensing with parameters. The empirical focus is word order in noun phrases. This domain provides some of the clearest evidence for 213-avoidance as a cross

  1. The universal Higgs fit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giardino, P. P.; Kannike, K.; Masina, I.

    2014-01-01

    We perform a state-of-the-art global fit to all Higgs data. We synthesise them into a 'universal' form, which allows to easily test any desired model. We apply the proposed methodology to extract from data the Higgs branching ratios, production cross sections, couplings and to analyse composite...... Higgs models, models with extra Higgs doublets, supersymmetry, extra particles in the loops, anomalous top couplings, and invisible Higgs decays into Dark Matter. Best fit regions lie around the Standard Model predictions and are well approximated by our 'universal' fit. Latest data exclude the dilaton...... as an alternative to the Higgs, and disfavour fits with negative Yukawa couplings. We derive for the first time the SM Higgs boson mass from the measured rates, rather than from the peak positions, obtaining M-h = 124.4 +/- 1.6 GeV....

  2. Atoms against the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senovilla, J.; Raul Vera, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    In Woody Allen's masterpiece Annie Hall the main character is worried about the expansion of the universe. Indeed, during a childhood visit to his psychiatrist, his mother admonishes him: ''You're here in Brooklyn! Brooklyn is not expanding!''. But is that really true? Relativists have attacked this naive question many times and have arrived at different answers. New light has now been thrown on the subject by William Bonnor from Queen Mary and Westfield College in London by considering the influence of the expanding universe on the size of the hydrogen atom (Class. Quantum Grav. 1999 16 1313). According to Bonner's calculations we can conclude that the cosmic expansion does not affect human-scale objects like laboratories and our bodies. In this article the authors explain the reasoning behind this research and its thought provoking consequences. (UK)

  3. Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    École de physique - Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENÈVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 - Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 25 November 2009 PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 – Stückelberg Auditorium Highlights of the European Strategy Workshop for Future Neutrino Physics Dr Ilias Efthymiopoulos, CERN Beginning of October 2009, a 3 day workshop was organized at CERN to consider the future neutrino physics with emphasis on the development work required for accelerator based neutrino physics. The high attendance and the quality of presentations and discussions made it a success also showing the dynamism and motivation of the European neutrino physicist community. The CERN workshop was an important step in a process where ongoing R&D projects and Design Studies in Europe were presented. At the same time it allowed scientific bodies, like the Panel on Future Neutrino Facilities established by ...

  4. A Model of Nonsingular Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjun Gao

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the background of Friedmann–Robertson–Walker Universe, there exists Hawking radiation which comes from the cosmic apparent horizon due to quantum effect. Although the Hawking radiation on the late time evolution of the universe could be safely neglected, it plays an important role in the very early stage of the universe. In view of this point, we identify the temperature in the scalar field potential with the Hawking temperature of cosmic apparent horizon. Then we find a nonsingular universe sourced by the temperature-dependent scalar field. We find that the universe could be created from a de Sitter phase which has the Planck energy density. Thus the Big-Bang singularity is avoided.

  5. Parto vertical em hospital universitário: série histórica, 1996 a 2005 Vertical-position births at a University Hospital: a time-series study, 1996 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odaléa Maria Brüggemann

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: descrever a evolução do número de partos horizontais e verticais na maternidade do Hospital da Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Brasil, e avaliar a associação dos mesmos com a taxa de cesárea, de internações dos recém-nascidos em unidade de tratamento intensivo e semi-intensivo e as transfusões sanguíneas maternas. MÉTODOS: estudo descritivo -série histórica. Foram incluídos todos os partos, as internações dos recémnascidos na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva e as transfusões sanguíneas maternas ocorridas de 1996 até 2005. Para testar as tendências, utilizou-se o método de Prais-Winsten para regressão linear generalizada. RESULTADOS: em 1996 a porcentagem de partos verticais era 5,4% e em 2005 foi 52,3%. A variação média anual dos partos verticais foi de +20,8% (p=0,007 e dos partos horizontais de -15,2% (pOBJECTIVES: to describe the evolution of the number of horizontal and vertical births in the maternity ward of the University Hospital of the Federal University of Santa Catarina, Brazil and to evaluate their correlation with the rates for caesarian, for transfer of newborns to intensive and semi-intensive care units, and maternal blood transfusions. METHODS: a time-series study. All births resulting in newborns being transferred to the Intensive Care Unit, and the maternal blood transfusions obstetrics ward between 1996 and 2005 were included in this study. In order to test the tendencies, the Prais-Winsten generalized linear regression method was used. RESULTS: in 1996 the percentage for vertical births was 5.4% and in 2005 52.3%. The average annual variance for vertical births was +20.8% (p=0.007, and for horizontal births -15.2% (p<0.001. Caesarian births showed a tendency to stabilize (p=0.243. There was a decrease of in the number of newborns transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit, 6.1% per year (p=0.001 and in the need of maternal blood transfusions (5.2% -p<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: the

  6. Innovation of University Teaching Faculty Management Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzheng; Wang, Boyu

    2015-01-01

    With the deepening of university reform in China, the traditional teaching faculty management mode has been exposed more and more defects. To make innovation of the university teaching faculty management mode becomes the voice of the times. Universities should conduct careful research on this issue in the development. Starting from the…

  7. The Learning University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Glenys

    1999-01-01

    As universities make cross-sectoral alliances, various models for integrating postsecondary education into universities arise: contract, brokerage, collaborative, validation, joint program, dual-sector institution, tertiary university, metaphoric, and federal. The integrated, comprehensive university is the learning university of the 21st century.…

  8. Representing time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Poncellini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of natural phenomena applied to architectural planning and design is facing the most fascinating and elusive of the four dimensions through which man attempts to define life within the universe: time. We all know what time is, said St. Augustine, but nobody knows how to describe it. Within architectural projects and representations, time rarely appears in explicit form. This paper presents the results of a research conducted by students of NABA and of the Polytechnic of Milan with the purpose of representing time considered as a key element within architectural projects. Student investigated new approaches and methodologies to represent time using the two-dimensional support of a sheet of paper.

  9. The inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guth, A.; Steinhardt, P.

    1989-01-01

    The new inflationary cosmological model discussed here in terms of grand unified theories (GUTs) seems to offer solutions to all the problems associated with the big bang model, such as the existence of magnetic monopoles. Before the first 10 -30 s of the existence of the universe, a brief period of extraordinarily rapid expansion occurred according to the ''inflation'' model. Successes of the big bang model include the three standard testable predictions, but relate to time a second or two after the big bang, namely red-shifts of distant, receding galaxies, measured in the 1920s, the existence of a microwave background radiation, confirmed in 1964, and the abundance of light atomic nuclei such as Helium, Hydrogen and Lithium. Two problems posed by the big bang theory are the horizon problem which seeks an answer to the large-scale uniformity of the universe and the question of energy density which leads to questions about whether the universe is closed, open, or flat. In this new inflationary model the phase transition is driven by random fluctuations of the Higgs fields, thus overcoming the flaw in the original model. (U.K.)

  10. The Necessary University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ibarra Mendívil

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Because of the complex scenarios brought about by globalization, the necessary university will require flexible models oriented toward problem solving and collaborative work, which will also allow students to enter and leave the institution at different times during their training. Among its main features, there will be collegial work, in the sense of collective teaching experimentation; active follow up of students’ progress; trust in the students’ potential; a close relationship of headmasters, teachers and students; and rules that provide certainty to institutional life.

  11. The relational universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnon, A.

    1998-01-01

    A relational approach to be observable universe is proposed, which precludes the concept of absolute background. Space-time events emerge as dynamical entities which owe their existence to a memorization process, itself inter wind with the availability of cosmological horizons (screening from totality) sourcing long-range correlations. The resulting (and relational) mode of description sheds light on various paradoxes (EPR, Foucault pendolum, light beam effect, etc.), on the problem of instantaneous and global influences (quark deconfinement) as related to the interconnectedness of our cosmos. This scenario leads to comment on living systems vs. robots, and on non-recursive and global aspects of the mathematical intuition

  12. Understanding Our Only Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Marra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In an imaginary dialogue between a professor and a layman about the future of cosmology, the said professor relates the paradoxical story of scientist Zee Prime, a bold thinker of a future civilization, stuck in a lonely galaxy, forever unaware of the larger universe. Zee Prime comes to acknowledge his position and shows how important it is to question standard models and status quo, as only the most imaginative ideas give us the chance to understand what he calls “our only universe” — the special place and time in which we live.

  13. On universal procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a general stochastic model for procrastination with respect to a deadline. The model establishes a universal procrastination pattern that follows an inverse power-law: if the time remaining to the deadline is r then the response is 1/rε , where ɛ is a positive exponent. The model further establishes that the exponent value ε =1 , which yields the harmonic response 1/r , stands out as special and distinguishable. The theoretical results of the model are shown to be in perfect accord with recent empirical findings.

  14. The Artful Universe Expanded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassett, B A

    2005-01-01

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great beauty. (book review)

  15. The Artful Universe Expanded

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassett, B A [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-29

    The cosmos is an awfully big place and there is no better guide to its vast expanse and fascinating nooks and crannies than John Barrow. A professor of mathematical sciences at Cambridge University, Barrow embodies that rare combination of highly polished writer and expert scientist. His deft touch brings together the disparate threads of human knowledge and weaves them into a tapestry as rich and interesting for the expert as it is for the layperson. The Artful Universe Expanded is an updated edition of this popular book first published in 1995. It explores the deeply profound manner in which natural law and the nature of the cosmos have moulded and shaped us, our cultures and the very form of our arts and music-a new type of 'cosmic' anthropology. The main themes Barrow chooses for revealing this new anthropology are the subjects of evolution, the size of things, the heavens and the nature of music. The book is a large, eclectic repository of knowledge often unavailable to the layperson, hidden in esoteric libraries around the world. It rivals The Da Vinci Code for entertainment value and insights, but this time it is Nature's code that is revealed. It is rare indeed to find common threads drawn through topics as diverse as The Beetles, Bach and Beethoven or between Jackson Pollock, the Aztecs, Kant, Picasso, Byzantine mosaics, uranium-235 and the helix nebula. Barrow unerringly binds them together, presenting them in a stimulating, conversational style that belies the amount of time that must have gone into researching this book. Dip into it at random, or read it from cover to cover, but do read it. The Artful Universe Expanded is an entertaining antidote to the oft-lamented pressures to know more and more about less and less and the apparently inexorable march of specialization. On reading this book one can, for a short time at least, hold in one's mind a vision that unifies science, art and culture and glimpse a universal tapestry of great

  16. Acceleration of black hole universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, T. X.; Frederick, C.

    2014-01-01

    Recently, Zhang slightly modified the standard big bang theory and developed a new cosmological model called black hole universe, which is consistent with Mach's principle, governed by Einstein's general theory of relativity, and able to explain all observations of the universe. Previous studies accounted for the origin, structure, evolution, expansion, and cosmic microwave background radiation of the black hole universe, which grew from a star-like black hole with several solar masses through a supermassive black hole with billions of solar masses to the present state with hundred billion-trillions of solar masses by accreting ambient matter and merging with other black holes. This paper investigates acceleration of the black hole universe and provides an alternative explanation for the redshift and luminosity distance measurements of type Ia supernovae. The results indicate that the black hole universe accelerates its expansion when it accretes the ambient matter in an increasing rate. In other words, i.e., when the second-order derivative of the mass of the black hole universe with respect to the time is positive . For a constant deceleration parameter , we can perfectly explain the type Ia supernova measurements with the reduced chi-square to be very close to unity, χ red˜1.0012. The expansion and acceleration of black hole universe are driven by external energy.

  17. Quantum field theory of universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoya, Akio; Morikawa, Masahiro.

    1988-08-01

    As is well-known, the wave function of universe dictated by the Wheeler-DeWitt equation has a difficulty in its probabilistic interpretation. In order to overcome this difficulty, we explore a theoretical possibility of the second quantization of universe, following the same passage historically taken for the Klein-Gordon particles and the Nambu-Goto strings. It turns out that multiple production of universes is an inevitable consequence even if the initial state is nothing. The problematical interpretation of wave function of universe is circumvented by introducing an internal comoving model detector, which is an analogue of the DeWitt-Unruh detector in the quantum field theory in curved space-time. (author)

  18. Time-stamp correction of magnetic observatory data acquired during unavailability of time-synchronization services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coïsson, Pierdavide; Telali, Kader; Heumez, Benoit; Lesur, Vincent; Lalanne, Xavier; Jiang Xin, Chang

    2017-09-01

    During magnetic observatory data acquisition, the data time stamp is kept synchronized with a precise source of time. This is usually done using a GPS-controlled pulse per second (PPS) signal. For some observatories located in remote areas or where internet restrictions are enforced, only the magnetometer data are transmitted, limiting the capabilities of monitoring the acquisition operations. The magnetic observatory in Lanzhou (LZH), China, experienced an unnoticed interruption of the GPS PPS starting 7 March 2013. The data logger clock drifted slowly in time: in 6 months a lag of 27 s was accumulated. After a reboot on 2 April 2014 the drift became faster, -2 s per day, before the GPS PPS could be restored on 8 July 2014. To estimate the time lags that LZH time series had accumulated, we compared it with data from other observatories located in East Asia. A synchronization algorithm was developed. Natural sources providing synchronous events could be used as markers to obtain the time lag between the observatories. The analysis of slices of 1 h of 1 s data at arbitrary UTC allowed estimating time lags with an uncertainty of ˜ 11 s, revealing the correct trends of LZH time drift. A precise estimation of the time lag was obtained by comparing data from co-located instruments controlled by an independent PPS. In this case, it was possible to take advantage of spikes and local noise that constituted precise time markers. It was therefore possible to determine a correction to apply to LZH time stamps to correct the data files and produce reliable 1 min averaged definitive magnetic data.

  19. The Global University Press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    The modern world's understanding of American university press has long been shaped by university-press books. American university-press books are good international advertisements for the universities whose logos grace their spines. The growth of transnational scholarship and the expansion of digital communications networks are converging in ways…

  20. Enlistment Propensities of University Students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moskos, Charles

    2004-01-01

    Enlistment propensities of undergraduates were assessed through surveys conducted at Northwestern University, University of Arizona, University of California-Los Angeles, and University of Illinois-Chicago...

  1. Precise timing correlation in telemetry recording and processing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, R. B.; Matthews, F. L.

    1973-01-01

    Independent PCM telemetry data signals received from missiles must be correlated to within + or - 100 microseconds for comparison with radar data. Tests have been conducted to determine RF antenna receiving system delays; delays associated with wideband analog tape recorders used in the recording, dubbing and repdocuing processes; and uncertainties associated with computer processed time tag data. Several methods used in the recording of timing are evaluated. Through the application of a special time tagging technique, the cumulative timing bias from all sources is determined and the bias removed from final data. Conclusions show that relative time differences in receiving, recording, playback and processing of two telemetry links can be accomplished with a + or - 4 microseconds accuracy. In addition, the absolute time tag error (with respect to UTC) can be reduced to less than 15 microseconds. This investigation is believed to be the first attempt to identify the individual error contributions within the telemetry system and to describe the methods of error reduction within the telemetry system and to describe the methods of error reduction and correction.

  2. Influence Of Collapsing Matter On The Enveloping Expanding Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury, A. Latif

    2005-01-01

    Using a collapsing matter model at the center of an expanding universe as described by Weinberg we assume a special type of generated pressure. This pressure transmits into the surrounding expanding universe. Under certain restriction the ensuing hubble parameter is positive. The deacceleration parameter fluctuates with time, indicating that the universe accelerates for certain time and decelerates for other time intervals.

  3. Inhomogeneous dusty Universes and their deceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Exact results stemming directly from Einstein equations imply that inhomogeneous Universes endowed with vanishing pressure density can only decelerate, unless the energy density of the Universe becomes negative. Recent proposals seem to argue that inhomogeneous (but isotropic) space-times, filled only with incoherent matter,may turn into accelerated Universes for sufficiently late times. To scrutinize these scenarios, fully inhomogeneous Einstein equations are discussed in the synchronous system. In a dust-dominated Universe, the inhomogeneous generalization of the deceleration parameter is always positive semi-definite implying that no acceleration takes place.

  4. 40 CFR 273.53 - Storage time limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) STANDARDS FOR UNIVERSAL WASTE MANAGEMENT Standards for Universal Waste Transporters § 273.53 Storage time limits. (a) A universal waste transporter may only store the universal waste at a universal waste transfer facility for ten days or less. (b) If a universal waste transporter stores universal waste for...

  5. Resolution, Scales and Predictability: Is High Resolution Detrimental To Predictability At Extended Forecast Times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesinger, F.

    The traditional views hold that high-resolution limited area models (LAMs) down- scale large-scale lateral boundary information, and that predictability of small scales is short. Inspection of various rms fits/errors has contributed to these views. It would follow that the skill of LAMs should visibly deteriorate compared to that of their driver models at more extended forecast times. The limited area Eta Model at NCEP has an additional handicap of being driven by LBCs of the previous Avn global model run, at 0000 and 1200 UTC estimated to amount to about an 8 h loss in accuracy. This should make its relative skill compared to that of the Avn deteriorate even faster. These views are challenged by various Eta results including rms fits to raobs out to 84 h. It is argued that it is the largest scales that contribute the most to the skill of the Eta relative to that of the Avn.

  6. In Search of Cultural Universals: Translation Universals. Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela DIMA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the world is disclosed under various shapes, among which language is the best representative. Specific to humans, it renders feelings and thoughts concerning different communication contexts where words become dynamic primitives endowed with meanings, which recreate themes and reconfigure space and time as universal coordinates. The main objective of the paper is to provide a tentative analysis of the way in which translation universals are manifest in translating proverbs and sayings in the short novels Popa Tanda (Pope Tanda and Moara cu Noroc (The Lucky Mill by Ioan Slavici.

  7. Emergent universe with wormholes in massive gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B. C.; Majumdar, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    An emergent universe (EU) scenario is proposed to obtain a universe free from big-bang singularity. In this framework the present universe emerged from a static Einstein universe phase in the infinite past. A flat EU scenario is found to exist in Einstein’s gravity with a non-linear equation of state (EoS). It has been shown subsequently that a physically realistic EU model can be obtained considering cosmic fluid composed of interacting fluids with a non-linear equation of state. It results a viable cosmological model accommodating both early inflation and present accelerating phases. In the present paper, the origin of an initial static Einstein universe needed in the EU model is explored in a massive gravity theory which subsequently emerged to be a dynamically evolving universe. A new gravitational instanton solution in a flat universe is obtained in the massive gravity theory which is a dynamical wormhole that might play an important role in realizing the origin of the initial state of the emergent universe. The emergence of a Lorentzian universe from a Euclidean gravity is understood by a Wick rotation τ = i t . A universe with radiation at the beginning finally transits into the present observed universe with a non-linear EoS as the interactions among the fluids set in. Thus a viable flat EU scenario where the universe stretches back into time infinitely, with no big bang is permitted in a massive gravity.

  8. Teaching Function at University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Elena Figueroa Rubalcava

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available A peremptory change in education and the higher education at universities is occurriyng. Since 60´s to date theoretical issues on the role of education are continuously on modification more rapidly than the teaching and learning practices that need more time to be realized. In this paper is presented a broad scope of main national and international organizations that propose, promote and systematize those educational changes since a half century ago and specially, those that impact the formation tendency based on competences. On other side, and not pretending be exhaustive, in this paper is highlighted a list of educational competences that teachers need to develop if they pretend to realize their teaching functions with high quality standards, mainly those related with velocity involvement as curriculum constructor.

  9. Plasma and the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falthammar, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    Hannes Alfven has enjoyed a long and spectacular career in which he has time and again pioneered the path that other workers were able fruitfully to exploit. One thinks of the Alven waves, the concept of gyrocenter drift and the perturbation theory based on it, and the critical velocity phenomenon in the interaction of a plasma with a neutral gas. All of these discoveries have been of fundamental importance. By no means content to rest on his laurels, Alfven has, during the last decade, contributed to science in a major sense, especially in the field of cosmogeny. For example, he has used the latest data from the Voyager spacecraft to test his detailed predictions of the structure of the Saturnian rings. Alfven's current preoccupation is with the Plasma Universe and, as may be expected, some of his concepts are receiving observational support, while others are still controversial

  10. Whither the African University

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sam

    reform. 1. Associate Professor, Department of Philosophy, Addis Ababa University ..... reduce African universities to virtually vocational schools. The World ..... theories, established institutions, and widely held beliefs according to the cannons ...

  11. Origin (?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    cal models of the universe are based on the idea, which is supported by ... Only the continuous distribution was clearly ... displaced from their natural locations, their observed wave- .... universe? Mathematical Models: Basic Assumptions.

  12. The Alien University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    2018-01-01

    - they are alien. The conditions of universities today is not one of crisis and upheaval, as with the postmodern universities, it is one of night travel and exile. The alien university leaves behind the epistemological skirmishes of the postmodern university with all its rhetoric and knowledge activism. Thinking...... in the alien university is a move into a whirlpool of nothingness, a “nocturnal space”, where “[d]arkness fills it like a content; it is full, but full of the nothingness of everything.” (Levinas, 2001, p.53). In the alien university thinking is not situated, and instead of rhizomes, and assemblages of thought......, there is merely an imposing and nightly “swarming of points.” (ibid.). There is no place for the alien university, and exactly this exile of thought makes possible the move beyond postmodernism and the mentality of political crisis. The alien university is not in the future as such, but it is not entirely...

  13. How Isotropic is the Universe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeh, Daniela; Feeney, Stephen M; Pontzen, Andrew; Peiris, Hiranya V; McEwen, Jason D

    2016-09-23

    A fundamental assumption in the standard model of cosmology is that the Universe is isotropic on large scales. Breaking this assumption leads to a set of solutions to Einstein's field equations, known as Bianchi cosmologies, only a subset of which have ever been tested against data. For the first time, we consider all degrees of freedom in these solutions to conduct a general test of isotropy using cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization data from Planck. For the vector mode (associated with vorticity), we obtain a limit on the anisotropic expansion of (σ_{V}/H)_{0}Universe is strongly disfavored, with odds of 121 000:1 against.

  14. Inflation in the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrow, J.D.; California Univ., Berkeley; Turner, M.S.; Chicago Univ., IL

    1981-01-01

    The problems of explaining the observed isotropy, homogeneity, flatness and specific entropy of the Universe are discussed in the context of an inflationary Universe which has recently been suggested. It is shown that the isotropy cannot be ignored as a Universe with a large amount of anisotropy will not undergo the inflationary phase. A Universe with only moderate anistropy will undergo inflation and will be rapidly isotropized. (U.K.)

  15. Entrepreneurship in Finnish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurmi, Piia; Paasio, Kaisu

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss the role of universities in fostering and promoting entrepreneurship in Finland. In particular it seeks to examine the university-entrepreneurship relationship: its nature and how universities are addressing the entrepreneurship agenda. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a large…

  16. Our Particle Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and “why is the universe the way it is?” Not long before ... to each other. The interactions of particles in the universe ... theory by Jean Perrin in 1908 convinced people that atoms and ..... ing the origin and evolution of our universe13. This is an ...

  17. Hybrid Universities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Molly; Wan, Chang Da; Sirat, Morshidi

    2017-01-01

    Are Asian universities different from those in Western countries? Premised on the hypothesis that Asian universities are different because of hybridization between Western academic models and local traditional cultures, this paper investigates the hybrid characteristics in Malaysian universities resulting from interaction between contemporary…

  18. Establishing a University Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemish, Donald L.

    A handbook on how to establish a university foundation is presented. It presupposes that a foundation will be used as the umbrella organization for receiving all private gifts, restricted and unrestricted, for the benefit of a public college or university; and hence it chiefly addresses readers from public colleges and universities. Information is…

  19. The University Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simplicio, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this article the author discusses the role university culture can play on a campus and how it can impact policy and practice. The article explores how a university's history, values, and vision form its culture and how this culture in turn affects its stability and continuity. The article discusses how newcomers within the university are…

  20. Motivating University Researchers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Alves de Sousa, C.A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation into how universities approach the need and means for motivating university researchers through their management practices. The role of work motivation for this group deserves attention because pressures from outside and within the universities are said

  1. A Universal Reactive Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henrik Reif; Mørk, Simon; Sørensen, Morten U.

    1997-01-01

    Turing showed the existence of a model universal for the set of Turing machines in the sense that given an encoding of any Turing machine asinput the universal Turing machine simulates it. We introduce the concept of universality for reactive systems and construct a CCS processuniversal...

  2. The early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steigman, G.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses the physics of the early universe: the production and survival of relics from the big bang. The author comments on relic WIMPs as the dark matter in the universe. The remainder of this discussion is devoted to a review of the status of the only predictions from the early evolution of the universe that are accessible to astronomical observation: primordial nucleosynthesis

  3. Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune

    Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... such dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...

  4. Antimatter in the universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigman, G.

    1973-01-01

    The means of detecting the presence of antimatter in the universe are discussed. Both direct, annihilation processes, and indirect, cosmic ray particles, were analyzed. All results were negative and it was concluded that no antimatter exists, if the universe is in fact symmetric. If the universe is not symmetric then matter and antimatter are well separated from each other.

  5. Universities as Development Hubs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jens Aage; Lindegaard, Klaus; Lehmann, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Capacity-building in environment and development has been implemented and tested over the last decade through university and university consortia networking. Universities from Africa (Botswana and South Africa), Asia (Malaysia and Thailand), Central America (Costa Rica, El Salvador and Nicaragua...

  6. Frontiers of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheeler, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    The author discusses the double-slit experiment and the problem of whether one can choose whether the photon shall have come through both of the slits, or only one of them, after it has already transversed the screen. A proper quantum concept of correlation is formalised as it depends on time. It takes the existence of the dynamic entity under study and the concept of time for granted, and does not transcend the concept of time. Time is absolute and universal in Newtonian physics and in special relativity successive times correspond to successive slices through space-time. Many fingured time is discussed in this context. The concepts of transcending time, causal order without causal order, asymmetry in time and the expansion of the universe, memory and the arrow of time, and the gates of time are all considered. (Auth./C.F.)

  7. Research universities for the 21st century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gover, J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Huray, P.G. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)

    1998-05-01

    The `public outcomes` from research universities are educated students and research that extends the frontiers of knowledge. Measures of these `public outcomes` are inadequate to permit either research or education consumers to select research universities based on quantitative performance data. Research universities annually spend over $20 billion on research; 60% of these funds are provided by Federal sources. Federal funding for university research has recently grown at an annual rate near 6% during a time period when other performers of Federal research have experienced real funding cuts. Ten universities receive about 25% of the Federal funds spent on university research. Numerous studies of US research universities are reporting storm clouds. Concerns include balancing research and teaching, the narrow focus of engineering education, college costs, continuing education, and public funding of foreign student education. The absence of research on the `public outcomes` from university research results in opinion, politics, and mythology forming the basis of too many decisions. Therefore, the authors recommend studies of other nations` research universities, studies of various economic models of university research, analysis of the peer review process and how well it identifies the most capable research practitioners and at what cost, and studies of research university ownership of intellectual property that can lead to increased `public outcomes` from publicly-funded research performed by research universities. They advocate two practices that could increase the `public outcomes` from university research. These are the development of science roadmaps that link science research to `public outcomes` and `public outcome` metrics. Changes in the university research culture and expanded use of the Internet could also lead to increased `public outcomes`. They recommend the use of tax incentives to encourage companies to develop research partnerships with research

  8. University Institutional Autonomy in Moldova

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Bugaian, Larisa

    This book introduces four evaluation studies in which the current status of university institutional autonomy in Moldova is evaluated. For the purpose of these evaluation studies, a research methodology was developed by the EUniAM project team and used by the Task Force teams to collect and analy...... in Moldova. Preliminary findings of the evaluation studies were presented at the International Conference on “A Quest to (Re)define University Autonomy” organized by the EUniAM project. At the same time, these findings had an impact on the context of the new Code of Education....... the data. Unobtrusive data in the form of laws regulating directly or indirectly the higher education system in Moldova, governmental and ministerial decrees, university chapters and organizational structures, and education records were collected and analysed. A total number of 144 documents have been...

  9. Universal map for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2012-01-01

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.

  10. The inflationary universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linde, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    According to the inflationary universe scenario the universe in the very early stages of its evolution was exponentially expanding in the unstable vacuum-like state. At the end of the exponential expansion the energy of the unstable vacuum transforms into the energy of hot dense matter. Recently it was realised that the exponential expansion of the universe naturally occurs in a wide class of realistic theories of elementary particles. The inflationary universe scenario makes it possible to obtain a simple solution to many longstanding cosmological problems and leads to a crucial modification of the standard point of view of the large-scale structure of the universe. (author)

  11. The expanding universe

    CERN Document Server

    Lew, Kristi

    2011-01-01

    People have always been fascinated with the stars above and the universe that contains them. Over the years, astronomers have developed numerous theories to explain how the universe began, how it works, and what its ultimate fate will be. But all of the scientists' questions are far from answered. The Expanding Universe goes beyond the creation of the universe to explain how scientists think the universe works, grows, and changes, including what great thinkers Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein had to say about its fate. Readers will also learn about how researchers are slowly shedding light on

  12. The universe a biography

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    2008-01-01

    The Universe: A Biography makes cosmology accessible to everyone. John Gribbin navigates the latest frontiers of scientific discovery to tell us what we really know about the history of the universe. Along the way, he describes how the universe began; what the early universe looked like; how its structure developed; and what emerged to hold it all together. He describes where the elements came from; how stars and galaxies formed; and the story of how life emerged. He even looks to the future: is the history of the universe going to end with a Big Crunch or a Big Rip.

  13. Status of IGS Ultra-Rapid Products for Real-Time Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J.; Griffiths, J.

    2008-12-01

    Since November 2000 the International GNSS Service (IGS) has produced Ultra-rapid (IGU) products for near real-time and real-time applications. They include GPS orbits, satellite clocks, and Earth rotation parameters for a sliding 48-hr period. The first day of each update is based on the most recent GPS observational data from the IGS hourly tracking network. At the time of release, these observed products have an initial latency of 3 hr. The second day of each update consists of predictions. So the predictions between about 3 and 9 hr into the second half are relevant for true real-time uses. Originally updated twice daily, the IGU products since April 2004 have been issued four times per day, at 3, 9, 15, and 21 UTC. Up to seven Analysis Centers (ACs) contribute to the IGU combinations: Astronomical Institute of the University of Berne (AIUB), European Space Operations Center (ESOC), Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) Potsdam, Natural Resources Canada (NRC), Scripps Insitution of Oceanography (SIO), U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO). This redundancy affords a high measure of reliability and enhanced orbit accuracy. IGU orbit precision has improved markedly since late 2007. This is due to a combination of factors: decommissioning of the old, poorly behaved PRN29 in October 2007; upgraded procedures implemented by GOP around the same time, by SIO in spring 2008, and by USNO in June 2008; better handling of maneuvered satellites at the combination level starting June 2008; and stricter AC rejection criteria since July 2008. As a consequence, the weighted 1D RMS residual of the IGU orbit predictions over their first 6 hr is currently about 20 to 30 mm (after a Helmert transformation) compared to the IGS Rapid orbits, averaged over the constellation. The median residual is about 15 to 20 mm. When extended to the full 24 hr prediction period, the IGU orbit errors approximately double. Systematic rotational offsets are probably more important than

  14. Characterization of the Radiological Environment at J-Village during Operation Tomodachi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). DOD’s use of UTC is traditionally noted by the " Zulu (Z)" designation, e.g., 1630Z. 2 In this report...the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Williams, A. S., 2013. “Info on two people ...of People at Locadoa E\\flmatcd R dum Time 1700 hrs ])cpa;rtun: Date I Ttmc 6. Contact #’s (AFRA T sateUite phones 881676340730 & 0731): AFRATTOC

  15. External meeting: Geneva University

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Université de Genève Ecole de physique 24 quai Ernest Ansermet 1211 Genève 4 Tél : + 41 22 379 63 83 (secrétariat) Tél : + 41 22 379 62 56 (réception) Fax: + 41 22 379 69 22 Lundi 20 novembre 2006 COLLOQUIUM 17:00 - Auditoire Stückelberg Electrical correlation measurements in quantum nano-structures Dr. Stefan Oberholzer / Basel University Measuring the current-voltage characteristics of small conductors is widely used to characterize their electronic transport properties. In addition to such time-averaged measurements, correlation measurements between temporal fluctuations (noise) around the time-averaged mean current provide us with very important supplementary information about electrical transport. In this talk, I review our experimental work on shot noise, noise which originates from the granularity of charge and the diffraction of the electronic wave-function, and especially address the fundamental relation between electronic scattering experiments and the statistical properties of indist...

  16. Nuclear education in Japanese universities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamuro, Nobuhiro

    1981-01-01

    In 1957, the graduate courses for nuclear engineering were established in Kyoto University, Osaka University and the Tokyo Institute of Technology. Since then, the expansion of nuclear education has kept pace with the growth of the nuclear industry in Japan. The nuclear education in universities in more than 20 years can be roughly divided into three periods. In the first period from 1955 to 1965, nuclear education began at undergraduate level, and the facilities required for the research and education were set up. The imported reactor began the commercial operation in 1966 for the first time, and during the period of high economic growth, the request by the nuclear industry was met by providing special studies in addition to the regular curriculum studies. The research committee on nuclear engineering education was formed, and in 1973, Japan-U.S. cooperative seminar on education program for nuclear engineering was held. The first ''oil crisis'' occurred in 1973, and the significance of nuclear power as an alternative to oil increased. But as nuclear power plants became bigger and increased, the safety and the effect on environment have been discussed. Also the research and development of nuclear fusion have been promoted. All these factors were reflected to the nuclear education in universities. The carricula in universities and the tasks and prospects in nuclear engineering education are described. (Kako, I.)

  17. Adaptability, Engagement and Academic Achievement at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collie, Rebecca J.; Holliman, Andrew J.; Martin, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    University entry is a time of great change for students. The extent to which students are able to effectively navigate such change likely has an impact on their success in university. In the current study, we examined this by way of adaptability, the extent to which students' adaptability is associated with their behavioural engagement at…

  18. Geodesic motion and confinement in Goedel's universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Soares, I.D.; Tiomno, J.

    1982-01-01

    A complete study of geodesic motion in Goedel's universe, using the method of the Effective Potential is presented. It then emerges a clear physical picture of free motion and its stability in this universe. Geodesics of a large class have finite intervals in which the particle moves back in time (dt/ds [pt

  19. Social Inclusion: Universities and Regional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    At a time when the OECD (2007) is advocating more local engagement for higher education institutions, this study looks at a number of community initiatives in Australia where local universities have played a key role. All were studied as part of the PASCAL Universities and Regional Engagement (PURE) project, which involves a total of 19 regions…

  20. Formy spędzania czasu wolnego studentów wybranych kierunków Uniwersytetu Kazimierza Wielkiego w Bydgoszczy = Forms of spending free time students of selected fields of the University of Bydgoszcz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martyna Łachacz

    2016-08-01

    still do not understand that regular physical activity helps to reduce the risk of lifestyle diseases, which the majority of the population dies. It is therefore important tests are checking how they spend their free time people of all ages and whether and what forms of recreation take what they approach to physical activity, whether they are aware that their surroundings are organized activities conducive to increasing physical fitness and whether and what differences exist between different social groups. The study was conducted in January 2015 at the University of Bydgoszcz. The study was conducted on students I, II and II, the administration and Tourism and Recreation. The accumulated research material is 102 survey, after 17 on each yearbook and direction. The study involved 74 women and 28 men aged 19 to 25 years. Analyzing the results of the research can conclude that there are small differences in the perception of physical activity student administration and tourism and recreation. Students often choose TiR physical activity. As you can see, students administration have slightly different priorities, or perhaps knowledge of physical recreation is not them so often and effectively passed on to students TiR.   Key words: leisure, physical activity, physical recreation, students.

  1. Cosmology and time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbi Amedeo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Time has always played a crucial role in cosmology. I review some of the aspects of the present cosmological model which are more directly related to time, such as: the definition of a cosmic time; the existence of typical timescales and epochs in an expanding universe; the problem of the initial singularity and the origin of time; the cosmological arrow of time.

  2. [Once upon a time there was a medical faculty--a brief history of the Medical Faculty of the Erzsébet University in Pressburg (1914-1919)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, László

    2010-01-01

    Despite the fact that the idea of expanding the medical faculties of Budapest and Kolozsvár was formed in the 1870s, it only came true in the 1910s. The XXXVI. Law of 1912 ensured establishing new faculties in Pozsony and Debrecen. The medical faculty of Erzsébet University in Pozsony opened in 1914. The first three professors, i.e. Lajos Bakay, Ferenc Herzog and Dezső Velits, who formerly worked as head physicians for the State Hospital in Pozsony and the Institute for Midwives, were appointed then. The appointment of further professors and launching the 3rd, 4th and 5th forms were delayed by the outbreak of the war until 1918. After the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy the newly formed Czechoslovakia dissolved the Hungarian university in 1919. The clinics and institutes of the medical faculty were passed to Czechoslovak ownership, the Hungarian lecturers were dismissed. It is worth mentioning though that Albert Szent-Györgyi and Carl Ferdinand Cori (both Nobel Prize winners) started their scientific career in Pozsony.

  3. Universities scale like cities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony F J van Raan

    Full Text Available Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  4. Universities scale like cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Raan, Anthony F J

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of urban scaling show that important socioeconomic city characteristics such as wealth and innovation capacity exhibit a nonlinear, particularly a power law scaling with population size. These nonlinear effects are common to all cities, with similar power law exponents. These findings mean that the larger the city, the more disproportionally they are places of wealth and innovation. Local properties of cities cause a deviation from the expected behavior as predicted by the power law scaling. In this paper we demonstrate that universities show a similar behavior as cities in the distribution of the 'gross university income' in terms of total number of citations over 'size' in terms of total number of publications. Moreover, the power law exponents for university scaling are comparable to those for urban scaling. We find that deviations from the expected behavior can indeed be explained by specific local properties of universities, particularly the field-specific composition of a university, and its quality in terms of field-normalized citation impact. By studying both the set of the 500 largest universities worldwide and a specific subset of these 500 universities--the top-100 European universities--we are also able to distinguish between properties of universities with as well as without selection of one specific local property, the quality of a university in terms of its average field-normalized citation impact. It also reveals an interesting observation concerning the working of a crucial property in networked systems, preferential attachment.

  5. University Funding: Federal Funding Mechanisms in Support of University Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    disciplines in elec- tronic sciences. DOE supports a team of researchers in high-energy and nuclear physics through contracts to build customized equipment to...data available on up to 15 federal agen- Collges ,19631982cies, support of science research at universities since 1963. Although not all of the...recent Ph.D. Young Investigators in physicists. High Energy Physics Time in Effect: 1975 to present. Fiscal Year 1984 Average Number of Average

  6. Country-specific determinants of world university rankings

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrucha, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines country-specific factors that affect the three most influential world university rankings (the Academic Ranking of World Universities, the QS World University Ranking, and the Times Higher Education World University Ranking). We run a cross sectional regression that covers 42–71 countries (depending on the ranking and data availability). We show that the position of universities from a country in the ranking is determined by the following country-specific variables: econom...

  7. University of Maryland MRSEC - Collaborations

    Science.gov (United States)

    . University of Maryland Materials Research Science and Engineering Center Home About Us Leadership , National Nanotechnology Lab, Neocera, NIST, Rowan University, Rutgers University, Seagate, Tokyo Tech

  8. Change in the pace of universe expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Yeche, C.

    2016-01-01

    During the first 8 billion years the universe expansion was slowed down by gravity, at that time the universe was made up mostly of ordinary matter. The accelerating expansion phase we know dates back to 6 billion years ago and now the content of the universe can be divided into: dark energy (73%), dark matter (23%), gas (3.6%) and stars, planets... (0.4%). Quasars which are among the most luminous objects of the universe and whose light can be detected even after having travelled through the universe for 12 billion years, can be used as markers of the matter all along the history of the universe. 3 international projects (SDSS, DESI and LSST) will study, in a complementary way, the period when dark energy overtook ordinary matter. (A.C.)

  9. Rectors of European universities

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Several rectors of European universities visited CERN recently while in Geneva for a conference on coordination between their institutions. The visit began with a welcome by Roger Cashmore, CERN Director of Collider Programmes,and continued with tours of CMS, ALICE and the LHC magnet assembly hall. Photos 01, 02: The visitors in the ALICE assembly hall: (left to right) Dr. Raymond Werlen, Deputy Secretary-General of the Conference of Rectors of Swiss Universities; visit guide Prof. Alain Blondel, Department of Nuclear and Corpuscular Physics, University of Geneva; Prof. Adriano Pimpão, Rector of the University of Algarve, President of the Council of Rectors of Portuguese Universities; Prof. Jean-Pierre Finance, Conference of University Presidents, France; Prof. Jean-Paul Lehners, Vice-President of the Centre Universitaire, Luxemburg.

  10. Integrated absolute dating approach for terrestrial records of past climate using trapped charge methods (INTERTRAP) - the blessing and turmoil of implementing for the first time an ERC grant at a Romanian university

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2017-04-01

    This year marks European Research Council`s (ERC) 10th anniversary. Romania is celebrating as well 10 years as a member state of the European Union. Over the past decade Romania has made significant progress in supporting research development at the national level. However, when it comes to excellent frontier research as supported by the ERC, Romania`s involvement and visibility at a European level remains very low. Considering only young researchers, according to ERC statistics only 142 proposals hosted by institutions in Romania have been submitted in the Starting and Consolidator Grant schemes in the last 3 years (2014-2016). For corresponding funding schemes at a national level Romania`s Executive Agency for Financing Research, Development and Innovation (UEFISCDI) received over 2000 applications only in 2016. The success rate of ERC proposals hosted by Romania is even more concerning (less than 3%) with only 4 projects out of 142 being granted. In 2015, Dr Alida Timar-Gabor was awarded an ERC starting grant (grant agreement No [678106]; INTERTRAP) which is the first ERC project to be implemented in a Romanian university. In the INTERTRAP project Dr Timar-Gabor and her team aims to achieve significant improvement in quartz based luminescence dating and to develop new absolute dating techniques for Quaternary sediments. During the implementation of the project a new state-of-the-art luminescence and electron spin resonance laboratory, unique in Eastern Europe and one of the only two or three in the world, will be set up. Dr. Alida Timar-Gabor, PI of INTERTRAP, is the founder and leader of the only absolute dating laboratory in Romania that was founded in 2008. She has defended her PhD in 2010 and supervised and co-supervised 10 other PhD students since then. She holds various national and international awards. Her career path has been significantly influenced by a strong network of international collaborations. In this presentation she will give an overview of

  11. Fluctuations in the inflationary universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, S. W.; Moss, I. G.

    1983-08-01

    In the usual treatment of the inflationary universe, it is assumed that the expectation value of some component of the Higgs field develops a non-zero symmetry breaking value Φ0. However, in the models normally considered, the expectation value of Φ will be zero at all times because Φ and -Φ are equally probable. To overcome this difficulty, we calculate the effective action as a function of rather than . This also solves the infra-red problem associated with a Coleman-Weinberg condition in de Sitter space. The expectation value of Φ2 grows linearly with time at first and then as (t2 - t-1). The irregularities in the resulting universe are smaller than those predicted by previous authors, though in the case of the standard SU(5) GUT they are still bigger than the limit set by the microwave background.

  12. Universities as Research Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Bronwyn; Link, Albert; Scott, John

    2010-01-01

    Universities are a key institution in the U.S. innovation system, and an important aspect of their involvement is the role they play in public-private partnerships. This note offers insights into the performance of industry-university research partnerships, using a survey of precommercial research projects funded by the Advanced Technology Program. Although results must be interpreted cautiously because of the small size of the sample, the study finds that projects with university involvement...

  13. University Advertising and Universality in Messaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diel, Stan R.; Katsinas, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    University and college institutional advertisements, which typically are broadcast as public service announcements during the halftime of football games, were the subject of a quantitative analysis focused on commonality in messaging and employment of the semiotic theory of brand advertising. Findings indicate advertisements focus on students'…

  14. From Universal Access to Universal Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anne C.

    2003-01-01

    Panel of five education experts--Elliot Eisner, John Goodlad, Patricia Graham, Phillip Schlechty, and Warren Simons--answer questions related to recent school reform efforts, such as the No Child Left Behind Act, aimed at achieving universal educational proficiency. (PKP)

  15. The triangulation in a perturbed Friedmann universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Masumi.

    1987-12-01

    A formula for the parallax distance in a general space-time is shown and it is applied to the linearly perturbed Friedmann universe. Its invariance under any coordinate-gauge transformations and any infinitesimal affine transformations is also shown. Then it is applied to the Einstein-de Sitter background model, and it is found that the perturbed space-time behaves as a Friedmann-like universe with the direction-dependent H 0 and q 0 . (author)

  16. Imagining the Future University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard; Barnett, Ronald

    'Imagining the Future University' is a special issue in the journal Philosophy and Theory in Higher Education, published by Peter Lang. Editor in Chief of the journal is John Petrovic, University of Alabama. The speciale issue is edited by Søren Bengtsen and Ronald Barnett.......'Imagining the Future University' is a special issue in the journal Philosophy and Theory in Higher Education, published by Peter Lang. Editor in Chief of the journal is John Petrovic, University of Alabama. The speciale issue is edited by Søren Bengtsen and Ronald Barnett....

  17. University of Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The theme of the University of Washington based Center for Child Environmental Health Risks Research (CHC) is understanding the biochemical, molecular and exposure...

  18. University Technology Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Cox

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the experiences and general observations of the author at Heriot-Watt University and concerns the transfer of university technology for the purposes of commercialisation. Full commercial exploitation of a university invention generally requires transferring that technology into the industrial arena, usually either by formation of a new company or licensing into an existing company. Commercialisation activities need to be carried out in unison with the prime activities of the university of research and teaching. Responsibility for commercialising university inventions generally rests with a specific group within the university, typically referred to as the technology transfer group. Each technology transfer should be considered individually and appropriate arrangements made for that particular invention. In general, this transfer process involves four stages: identification, evaluation, protection and exploitation. Considerations under these general headings are outlined from a university viewpoint. A phased approach is generally preferred where possible for the evaluation, protection and exploitation of an invention to balance risk with potential reward. Evaluation of the potential opportunity for a university invention involves essentially the same considerations as for an industrial invention. However, there are a range of commercial exploitation routes and potential deals so that only general guidelines can be given. Naturally, the final deal achieved is that which can be negotiated. The potential rewards for the university and inventor are both financial (via licensing income and equity realisation and non-financial.

  19. Habitable Zones in the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, G.

    2005-01-01

    Habitability varies dramatically with location and time in the universe. This was recognized centuries ago, but it was only in the last few decades that astronomers began to systematize the study of habitability. The introduction of the concept of the habitable zone was key to progress in this area. The habitable zone concept was first applied to the space around a star, now called the Circumstellar Habitable Zone. Recently, other, vastly broader, habitable zones have been proposed. We review...

  20. Rescuing--a universal phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, John

    2014-12-01

    Rescuing, where the person is delivered from the immediacy of their conundrum by another, complicates management. The object of this paper is to understand the difficulty in relinquishing the rescuing role. Rescuing is a universal phenomenon in parenting, teaching and therapy that has developed over time through a variety of interwoven social, economic, psychological and clinical variables. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2014.

  1. Inhomogeneities in a Friedmann universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, G.E.

    1987-08-01

    One of the outstanding problems in cosmology is the growth of inhomogeneities, which are characterized by an anisotropic pressure and density distribution. Following a method developed by McVittie (1967, 1968) it has been possible to find time-dependent spherically symmetric solutions of Einstein's field equations containing an arbitrary pressure and density distribution which connect smoothly to a Friedmann universe for any desired equation of state. (author). 5 refs

  2. Semiclassical universe from first principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambjorn, J.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Loll, R.

    2005-01-01

    Causal dynamical triangulations in four dimensions provide a background-independent definition of the sum over space-time geometries in non-perturbative quantum gravity. We show that the macroscopic four-dimensional world which emerges in the Euclidean sector of this theory is a bounce which satisfies a semiclassical equation. After integrating out all degrees of freedom except for a global scale factor, we obtain the ground state wave function of the universe as a function of this scale factor

  3. The Universe in a nutshell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.

    2002-01-01

    In this new book Hawking takes us to the cutting edge of theoretical physics, where truth is often stranger than fiction, to explain in laymen's terms the principles that control our universe. Like many in the community of theoretical physicists, Professor Hawking is seeking to uncover the grail of science -- the elusive Theory of Everything that lies at the heart of the cosmos. In his accessible and often playful style, he guides us on his search to uncover the secrets of the universe -- from supergravity to supersymmetry, from quantum theory to M-theory, from holography to duality. He takes us to the wild frontiers of science, where superstring theory and p-branes may hold the final clue to the puzzle. And he lets us behind the scenes of one of his most exciting intellectual adventures as he seeks t o combine Einstein's General Theory of Relativity and Richard Feynman's idea of multiple histories into one complete unified theory that will describe everything that happens in the universe. 'With characteristic exuberance, Professor Hawking invites us to be fellow travelers on this extraordinary voyage through space-time'. Copious four-color illustrations help clarify this journey into a surreal wonderland where particles, sheets, and strings move in eleven dimensions; where black holes evaporate and disappear, taking their secret with them; and where the original cosmic seed from which our own universe sprang was a tiny nut. The Universe in a Nutshell is essential reading for all of us who want to understand the universe in which we live

  4. The Universe in a nutshell

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    2001-01-01

    Stephen Hawking's A Brief History of Time was a publishing phenomenon. Translated into thirty languages, it has sold over nine million copies worldwide. It continues to captivate and inspire new readers every year. When it was first published in 1988 the ideas discussed in it were at the cutting edge of what was then known about the universe. In the intervening years there have been extraordinary advances in our understanding of the space and time. The technology for observing the micro- and macro-cosmic world has developed in leaps and bounds. During the same period cosmology and the theoretical sciences have entered a new golden age. Professor Stephen Hawking has been at the heart of this new scientific renaissance. Now, in The Universe in a Nutshell, Stephen Hawking brings us fully up-to-date with the advances in scientific thinking. We are now nearer than we have ever been to a full understanding of the universe. In a fascinating and accessible discussion that ranges from quantum mechanics, to time travel...

  5. university 2012 / krasnoyarsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Grigoryeva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This issue consists of two parts. Both parts are connected with the upcoming review competition of graduation projects, which will be held in Krasnoyarsk in the second half of September.Konstantin Kiyanenko has sent us a map of Russia with architecture schools densely marked in the European part, in the west, and with a decreasing number of such schools further to the east. It is in direct ratio to the population. There are so few (and fewer and fewer of us… The more crucial it is that Krasnoyarsk, the biggest city of Eastern Siberia, was chosen to conduct the review competition.This issue contains a catalogue of the annual East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival and the winning works from Krasnoyarsk presented in detail.The projects for the Ergaki by Alexei Myakota will show us the mountains, which are also visible in the city. Together with the guests, we will have a walk around the two central squares in Krasnoyarsk, along the embankment that connects those squares, and on the islands. Olga Smirnova, a graduate of Leningrad Engineering Construction Institute and a landscape architect, who has been working in Krasnoyarsk for a long time, expresses her love to the city in her frank and sincere talk with her colleagues.The city’s beautiful things are made by those who graduated from Russian, Soviet and again Russian Universities. And the mistakes are also made by us.

  6. Time over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Navarro, Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present essay is designed to be a general introduction to the philosophical problem of time from its very different forms and ways of approaching. In this sense, the article covers the problem from different perspectives and gives a brief account of the plurality and diversity of the time found in the different philosophical definitions, in the different layers of knowledge, in different periods and cultures and also in the different instruments used to measure time itself

  7. Universality in heterogeneous catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Pedersen, Thomas Bligaard; Logadottir, Ashildur

    2002-01-01

    Based on an extensive set of density functional theory calculations it is shown that for a class of catalytic reactions there is a universal, reactant independent relation between the reaction activation energy and the stability of reaction intermediates. This leads directly to a universal relati...

  8. Regionalism in Scottish Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Dougal

    1976-01-01

    It is well-known that Scottish universities are highly local institutions and that over two-fifth of Scottish university students live at home. Attempts to ascertain if this regionalism has relaxed over the past twenty years with student grant regulations, improvement in communications and the increasing affluence of today's society. (Author/RK)

  9. Reeducation at Heidelberg University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Geoffrey J.

    1997-01-01

    Utilizes German archival records to illuminate crucial post-war events at Heidelberg University. The university became the focal point of attempts to define the theoretical and practical meaning of "geistige Umerziehung" (spiritual reeducation). Discusses the conflict between U.S. authorities and such esteemed German scholars as Karl…

  10. Marketing University Outreach Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Ralph S., Jr., Ed.; And Others

    A collection of 12 essays and model program descriptions addresses issues in the marketing of university extension, outreach, and distance education programs. They include: (1) "Marketing and University Outreach: Parallel Processes" (William I. Sauser, Jr. and others); (2) "Segmenting and Targeting the Organizational Market"…

  11. Universe of constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongquan, Han

    2016-10-01

    The ideal gas state equation is not applicable to ordinary gas, it should be applied to the Electromagnetic ``gas'' that is applied to the radiation, the radiation should be the ultimate state of matter changes or initial state, the universe is filled with radiation. That is, the ideal gas equation of state is suitable for the Singular point and the universe. Maybe someone consider that, there is no vessel can accommodate radiation, it is because the Ordinary container is too small to accommodate, if the radius of your container is the distance that Light through an hour, would you still think it can't accommodates radiation? Modern scientific determinate that the radius of the universe now is about 1027 m, assuming that the universe is a sphere whose volume is approximately: V = 4.19 × 1081 cubic meters, the temperature radiation of the universe (cosmic microwave background radiation temperature of the universe, should be the closest the average temperature of the universe) T = 3.15k, radiation pressure P = 5 × 10-6 N / m 2, according to the law of ideal gas state equation, PV / T = constant = 6 × 1075, the value of this constant is the universe, The singular point should also equal to the constant Author: hanyongquan

  12. Knowledge and the University

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnett, Ronald; Bengtsen, Søren Smedegaard

    for the university and the university’s place in the world. However, that presupposition has taken a battering recently from many directions. With the incorporation of the university more fully into the world, knowledge is no longer seen as valuable in-itself but now is viewed only instrumentally, and has to have...

  13. The deep universe

    CERN Document Server

    Sandage, AR; Longair, MS

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the concept of the deep universe from two conflicting theoretical viewpoints: firstly as a theory embracing the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present; and secondly through observations gleaned over the years on stars, galaxies and clusters.

  14. Understanding University Technology Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Association of American Universities, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Federal government agencies provide about $33 billion a year to universities to conduct scientific research. That continuing investment expands human knowledge and helps educate the next generation of science and technology leaders. New discoveries from university research also form the basis for many new products and processes that benefit the…

  15. Talent Management for Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores human resource management practices in the university sector with a specific focus on talent pools and talent management more generally. The paper defines talent management in the context of the university sector and then explores its interdependence with organisational strategy, the metrics used to measure academic performance…

  16. Quantum cosmology and baby universes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grishchuk, L.P.

    1990-01-01

    The contributed papers presented to the workshop on ''Quantum Cosmology and Baby Universes'' have demonstrated the great interest in, and rapid development of, the field of quantum cosmology. In my view, there are at least three areas of active research at present. The first area can be defined as that of practical calculations. Here researchers are dealing with the basic quantum cosmological equation, which is the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. They try to classify all possible solutions to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation or seek a specific integration contour in order to select one particular wave function or generalize the simple minisuperspace models to more complicated cases, including various inhomogeneities, anisotropies, etc. The second area of research deals with the interpretational issues of quantum cosmology. There are still many questions about how to extract the observational consequences from a given cosmological wave function, the role of time in quantum cosmology, and how to reformulate the rules of quantum mechanics in such a way that they could be applicable to the single system which is our Universe. The third area of research is concerned with the so-called ''third quantization'' of gravity. In this approach a wave function satisfying the Wheeler-DeWitt equation becomes an operator acting on a Wave Function of the many-universes system. Within this approach one operates with Euclidean worm-holes joining different Lorentzian universes. (author)

  17. Trends in cosmology: Universal truths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horgan, J.

    1990-01-01

    In June more than 30 prominent cosmologist, astronomers and physicists gathered for six days at an isolated resort in northern Sweden. Their topic: the origin of the universe. While most agreed the big bang theory is still sound, new data are challenging a more detailed scenario: the cold dark matter model. Recent observations are squeezing this model from two sides. First, ever more sensitive probes of the so-called cosmic microwave background, a cool bath of microwaves that is thought to be the faint afterglow of the big bang, have yet to reveal any regional variations in intensity. That has forced modelers to assume the early universe was exceptionally smooth, or homogeneous, with matter spread uniformly through space. At the same time, maps of the universe have revealed ever larger thickets of galaxies surrounded by larger voids. If the universe was so smooth early on, how did it come to be so clumpy? This article addresses how cosmologist at this meeting addressed the big questions

  18. General Topology of the Universe

    OpenAIRE

    Pandya, Aalok

    2002-01-01

    General topology of the universe is descibed. It is concluded that topology of the present universe is greater or stronger than the topology of the universe in the past and topology of the future universe will be stronger or greater than the present topology of the universe. Consequently, the universe remains unbounded.

  19. Postmodernity and the university

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Scott

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The utility of post-modernism as an interpretative framework for understanding the development of contemporary higher education systems is sharply contested. Critics argue that post-modernism is, at best, a set of ideas in aesthetics, literature and critical theory with limited relevance outside these domains and, at worst, a passing intellectual fashion that is now out-of-date. However, post-modernity —or, as some would prefer, late modernity or ‘fluid’ modernity — is perhaps a more useful idea. In 21stcentury society there are a number of trends, some structural such as the growth of a knowledge-based economy and development of new patterns of knowledge production; and some conceptual such as the reconfiguration of time and space and the recognition of ‘difference’ (and risk? as key factor in the constitution of social life (and individual identity, which have a direct impact on the university. This impact is felt in two ways — first, the university is a primary engine of these transformations. Secondly, the university is shaped by these transformations (both normatively and cognitively in terms of teaching and research and structurally in terms of its organisational characteristics, governance and managementLa utilidad del postmodernismo como marco interpretativo para comprender el desarrollo de los sistemas contemporáneos de educación superior ha sido severamente contestada. Los críticos argumentan que el postmodernismo es, como mucho, un conjunto de ideas en los ámbitos de la estética, literatura y teoría crítica con relevancia limitada fuera de esos campos y, a lo peor, una moda intelectual pasajera que actualmente está caducada. No obstante, la postmodernidad —o, como algunos preferirían, la modernidad tardía o modernidad «fluida»— es quizá una idea más útil. En la sociedad del siglo XXI hay un cúmulo de tendencias, algunas estructurales, como el crecimiento de la economía basada en el conocimiento y el

  20. Our Astounding Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Monika

    2016-04-01

    The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment with new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to being a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing, and participating with other children and adults. Children learn through play. From birth, children are active participants in building their own understanding. Teachers prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid that becomes excited and curious to know when we show them the Universe pictures and tell them about the strange objects in our Universe. So my aim is to keep them ignited by doing different activities throughout the year related to Space. I am always a firm believer of: Creativity is the key to success in the future, and primary education is where teachers can bring creativity in children at that level. One of my main ways of teaching is to conduct various presentations on The Solar System and beyond and debates on Space explorations. A Planet making project is one of the all-time favorite project for my students where they dare to dream to fly in the universe, and with their imagination, kids make different celestial objects and present them. To inculcate scientific attitude I arrange film screening, simulation exercises and quizzes on various topics of astronomy. Every year we celebrate World Space Week 4th to 10th of Oct. The motivation among all came through different hands-on activities like-painting, slogan competition, topics related to space, poetry and essay writing on various topics related to astronomy, assembly presentations in school. I am indeed overwhelmed when I started the very special Space and Astronomy club where young toddlers are involved in different activities like a star gazing program, conducting