WorldWideScience

Sample records for universal thermal climate

  1. The Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI compared to ergonomics standards for assessing the thermal environment.

    Bröde, Peter; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Fiala, Dusan; Havenith, George; Holmér, Ingvar; Jendritzky, Gerd; Kuklane, Kalev; Kampmann, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    The growing need for valid assessment procedures of the outdoor thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, urban planning, tourism & recreation and climate impact research raised the idea to develop the Universal Thermal Climate Index UTCI based on the most recent scientific progress both in thermo-physiology and in heat exchange theory. Following extensive validation of accessible models of human thermoregulation, the advanced multi-node 'Fiala' model was selected to form the basis of UTCI. This model was coupled with an adaptive clothing model which considers clothing habits by the general urban population and behavioral changes in clothing insulation related to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was developed conceptually as an equivalent temperature. Thus, for any combination of air temperature, wind, radiation, and humidity, UTCI is defined as the air temperature in the reference condition which would elicit the same dynamic response of the physiological model. This review analyses the sensitivity of UTCI to humidity and radiation in the heat and to wind in the cold and compares the results with observational studies and internationally standardized assessment procedures. The capabilities, restrictions and potential future extensions of UTCI are discussed.

  2. Spatial differentiation of China's summer tourist destinations based on climatic suitability using the Universal Thermal Climate Index

    Yang, Jun; Zhang, Zhenchao; Li, Xueming; Xi, Jianchao; Feng, Zhangxian

    2017-11-01

    As a result of global warming and the gradual exacerbation of the urban heat island effect, vacationing in the summer to escape the heat has become a compelling tourism demand. This study examines the spatial differentiation of China's summer tourist destinations based on meteorological observations and tourism resources data from 1960 to 2014. The Universal Thermal Climate Index and analytic hierarchy process model were used to analyze climatic suitability. The findings are as follows. First, the spatial distribution of China's summer tourism resources exhibits a double-peak characteristic, with concentrations in the mid- and high-latitude and high-altitude regions. Second, the most influential destinations in China based on the composite index were Guiyang, Qingdao, Harbin, and Dalian. These findings can helpful for people who are planning their summer vacations, as well as tourism managers who benefit from such increases in the number of tourists.

  3. Assessing heat-related health risk in Europe via the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI)

    Di Napoli, Claudia; Pappenberger, Florian; Cloke, Hannah L.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, the potential of the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) as a heat-related health risk indicator in Europe is demonstrated. The UTCI is a bioclimate index that uses a multi-node human heat balance model to represent the heat stress induced by meteorological conditions to the human body. Using 38 years of meteorological reanalysis data, UTCI maps were computed to assess the thermal bioclimate of Europe for the summer season. Patterns of heat stress conditions and non-thermal stress regions are identified across Europe. An increase in heat stress up to 1 °C is observed during recent decades. Correlation with mortality data from 17 European countries revealed that the relationship between the UTCI and death counts depends on the bioclimate of the country, and death counts increase in conditions of moderate and strong stress, i.e., when UTCI is above 26 and 32 °C. The UTCI's ability to represent mortality patterns is demonstrated for the 2003 European heatwave. These findings confirm the importance of UTCI as a bioclimatic index that is able to both capture the thermal bioclimatic variability of Europe, and relate such variability with the effects it has on human health.

  4. Application of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) for assessment of occupational heat stress in open-pit mines.

    Nassiri, Parvin; Monazzam, Mohammad Reza; Golbabaei, Farideh; Dehghan, Somayeh Farhang; Rafieepour, Athena; Mortezapour, Ali Reza; Asghari, Mehdi

    2017-10-07

    The purpose of this article is to examine the applicability of Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) index as an innovative index for evaluating of occupational heat stress in outdoor environments. 175 workers of 12 open-pit mines in Tehran, Iran were selected for this research study. First, the environmental variables such as air temperature, wet-bulb temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity and air flow rate were measured; then UTCI, wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT) and heat stress index (HSI) indices were calculated. Simultaneously, physiological parameters including heart rate, oral temperature, tympanic temperature and skin temperature of workers were measured. UTCI and WBGT are positively significantly correlated with all environmental parameters (p0.05). Moreover, a strong significant relationship was found between UTCI and WBGT (r=0.95; p<0.001). The significant positive correlations exist between physiological parameters including oral temperature, tympanic and skin temperatures and heart rate and both the UTCI and WBGT indices (p<0.029). The highest correlation coefficient has been found between the UTCI and physiological parameters. Due to the low humidity and air velocity (~<1 m/s) in understudied mines, UTCI index appears to be appropriate to assess the occupational heat stress in these outdoor workplaces.

  5. The Monash University Interactive Simple Climate Model

    Dommenget, D.

    2013-12-01

    The Monash university interactive simple climate model is a web-based interface that allows students and the general public to explore the physical simulation of the climate system with a real global climate model. It is based on the Globally Resolved Energy Balance (GREB) model, which is a climate model published by Dommenget and Floeter [2011] in the international peer review science journal Climate Dynamics. The model simulates most of the main physical processes in the climate system in a very simplistic way and therefore allows very fast and simple climate model simulations on a normal PC computer. Despite its simplicity the model simulates the climate response to external forcings, such as doubling of the CO2 concentrations very realistically (similar to state of the art climate models). The Monash simple climate model web-interface allows you to study the results of more than a 2000 different model experiments in an interactive way and it allows you to study a number of tutorials on the interactions of physical processes in the climate system and solve some puzzles. By switching OFF/ON physical processes you can deconstruct the climate and learn how all the different processes interact to generate the observed climate and how the processes interact to generate the IPCC predicted climate change for anthropogenic CO2 increase. The presentation will illustrate how this web-base tool works and what are the possibilities in teaching students with this tool are.

  6. Thermal gravitational waves in accelerating universe

    B Ghayour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational waves are considered in thermal vacuum state. The amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves are found enhanced in thermal vacuum state compared to its zero temperature counterpart. Therefore, the allowed amount of enhancement depends on the upper bound of WMAP-5 and WMAP-7 for the amplitude and spectral energy density of gravitational waves. The enhancement of amplitude and spectral energy density of the waves in thermal vacuum state is consistent with current accelerating phase of the universe. The enhancement feature of amplitude and spectral energy density of the waves is independent of the expansion model of the universe and hence the thermal effect accounts for it. Therefore, existence of thermal gravitational waves is not ruled out

  7. Climate Education at the University of Hamburg

    Dilly, Oliver; Stammer, Detlef; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria

    2010-05-01

    The new graduate School of Integrated Climate Sciences (www.sicss.de) at the KlimaCampus of the University of Hamburg was opened at October 20, 2009 and includes a 2-yr MSc (120 ECTS, 30 compulsory, 90 eligible) and 3-yr doctoral program (12 ECTS). About 40 students were enrolled in early 2010. The interdisciplinary MSc program is based on a number of disciplines such as meteorology, geophysics, oceanography, geosciences and also economics and social sciences. These disciplines are required to address the faced key issues related to climate change effectively. The graduate school is guiding pupils and BSc students with competence in maths and physics on how to become a climate expert. Acquisition is done internationally at fairs, uni days and dircectly at schools and intuitions for higher education. BSc degree in the disciplines listed above is set for positive application. Climate experts are needed for both research and the professional world outside the university and research institutions. In accordance, connection within and outside the university are continuously explored and soft skills for the communication to politics and the public's are included in the MSc and PhD curricula. Since the graduate school was established within the cluster of excellence ‘Integrated Climate Analysis and Predication' (www.clisap.de), this school represents a prototype for graduate programs at the University of Hamburg. Advantages and limitations of this Climate System School concept will be discussed.

  8. The thermal evolution of universe: standard model

    Nascimento, L.C.S. do.

    1975-08-01

    A description of the dynamical evolution of the Universe following a model based on the theory of General Relativity is made. The model admits the Cosmological principle,the principle of Equivalence and the Robertson-Walker metric (of which an original derivation is presented). In this model, the universe is considered as a perfect fluid, ideal and symmetric relatively to the number of particles and antiparticles. The thermodynamic relations deriving from these hypothesis are derived, and from them the several eras of the thermal evolution of the universe are established. Finally, the problems arising from certain specific predictions of the model are studied, and the predictions of the abundances of the elements according to nucleosynthesis and the actual behavior of the universe are analysed in detail. (author) [pt

  9. Thermal tolerance ranges and climate variability : A comparison between bivalves from differing climates

    Compton, Tanya J.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Drent, Jan; Piersma, Theunis

    2007-01-01

    The climate variability hypothesis proposes that in variable temperate climates poikilothermic animals have wide thermal tolerance windows, whereas in constant tropical climates they have small thermal tolerance windows. In this study we quantified and compared the upper and lower lethal thermal

  10. Social climate in diverse university departments

    Lauring, Jakob; Selmer, Jan

    2011-01-01

    sharing engagement (sharing informal knowledge of a personal nature and the staff's application of each other's knowledge to task relevant problems) on diversity climate (openness to linguistic, visual, value and informational diversity) among university teachers. Sample: The study used questionnaire...... to diversity are known to be better integrated and to perform better. While the relation between a positive social climate and group functioning is well documented, we know much less about antecedents for such a climate. Purpose: The aim of this study is to examine the effect of internal learning and knowledge...... knowledge of a personal nature; and (2) their application of each other's knowledge to task relevant problems had strong positive associations with openness to linguistic, visible, value and informational diversity. We conclude that interaction and knowledge sharing among teachers in multicultural...

  11. Thermal history of the universe after inflation

    Watson, Scott, E-mail: gswatson@syr.edu [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY 13244 (United States)

    2016-06-21

    When did the universe thermalize? In this talk I review the status of this issue and its importance in establishing the expected properties of dark matter, the growth of large-scale structure, and the viability of inflation models when confronted with CMB observations. I also present a novel approach to tackling the theoretical challenges surrounding inflationary (p)reheating, which seeks to extend past work on the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to the time of reheating.

  12. Thermal battery for portable climate control

    Narayanan, Shankar; Li, Xiansen; Yang, Sungwoo; Kim, Hyunho; Umans, Ari; McKay, Ian S.; Wang, Evelyn N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ATB is adsorptive thermal battery delivering both heating and cooling via storage. • The novel design promotes transport and maximizes ATB performance. • A general theoretical framework is developed to analyze ATB performance. • NaX–water is used as the adsorbent–refrigerant pair as a specific case study. • The effect of key geometric parameters and operating conditions are presented. - Abstract: Current technologies that provide climate control in the transportation sector are quite inefficient. In gasoline-powered vehicles, the use of air-conditioning is known to result in higher emissions of greenhouse gases and pollutants apart from decreasing the gas-mileage. On the other hand, for electric vehicles (EVs), a drain in the onboard electric battery due to the operation of heating and cooling system results in a substantial decrease in the driving range. As an alternative to the conventional climate control system, we are developing an adsorption-based thermal battery (ATB), which is capable of storing thermal energy, and delivering both heating and cooling on demand, while requiring minimal electric power supply. Analogous to an electrical battery, the ATB can be charged for reuse. Furthermore, it promises to be compact, lightweight, and deliver high performance, which is desirable for mobile applications. In this study, we describe the design and operation of the ATB-based climate control system. We present a general theoretical framework to determine the maximum achievable heating and cooling performance using the ATB. The framework is then applied to study the feasibility of ATB integration in EVs, wherein we analyze the use of NaX zeolite–water as the adsorbent–refrigerant pair. In order to deliver the necessary heating and cooling performance, exceeding 2.5 kW h thermal capacity for EVs, the analysis determines the optimal design and operating conditions. While the use of the ATB in EVs can potentially enhance its driving

  13. Thermal reactionomes reveal divergent responses to thermal extremes in warm and cool-climate ant species

    Stanton-Geddes, John; Nguyen, Andrew; Chick, Lacy

    2016-01-01

    across an experimental gradient. We characterized thermal reactionomes of two common ant species in the eastern U.S, the northern cool-climate Aphaenogaster picea and the southern warm-climate Aphaenogaster carolinensis, across 12 temperatures that spanned their entire thermal breadth.......The distributions of species and their responses to climate change are in part determined by their thermal tolerances. However, little is known about how thermal tolerance evolves. To test whether evolutionary extension of thermal limits is accomplished through enhanced cellular stress response...

  14. Solar Thermal | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    building can still be designed and constructed to be solar ready with roof exposures and slopes that accept Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Solar thermal applications can be simple, cost effective, and diverse for research campuses. The following links go to sections that describe when and where solar thermal

  15. The Effect of Thermal Mass on Annual Heat Load and Thermal Comfort in Cold Climate Construction

    Stevens, Vanessa; Kotol, Martin; Grunau, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    been shown to reduce the annual heating demand. However, few studies exist regarding the effects of thermal mass in cold climates. The purpose of this research is to determine the effect of high thermal mass on the annual heat demand and thermal comfort in a typical Alaskan residence using energy......Thermal mass in building construction refers to a building material's ability to absorb and release heat based on changing environmental conditions. In building design, materials with high thermal mass used in climates with a diurnal temperature swing around the interior set-point temperature have...... modeling software. The model simulations show that increased thermal mass can decrease the risk of summer overheating in Alaskan residences. They also show that increased thermal mass does not significantly decrease the annual heat load in residences located in cold climates. These results indicate...

  16. Mechanical and Thermal Properties of the AH of FRW Universe

    Yi-Huan, Wei

    2010-01-01

    We calculate the work made out by the apparent horizon (AH) of the Friedmann–Robertson–Walker (FRW) universe and the heat flux through the AH from the first law of thermodynamics. We discuss the mechanical properties of the AH and analyze the universe model for which the mechanical properties can change. Finally, the thermal properties of the AH of FRW universe are discussed

  17. Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan

    Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2008-03-01

    Bioclimate conditions at Sun Moon Lake, one of Taiwan’s most popular tourist destinations, are presented. Existing tourism-related climate is typically based on mean monthly conditions of air temperature and precipitation and excludes the thermal perception of tourists. This study presents a relatively more detailed analysis of tourism climate by using a modified thermal comfort range for both Taiwan and Western/Middle European conditions, presented by frequency analysis of 10-day intervals. Furthermore, an integrated approach (climate tourism information scheme) is applied to present the frequencies of each facet under particular criteria for each 10-day interval, generating a time-series of climate data with temporal resolution for tourists and tourism authorities.

  18. Non-climatic thermal adaptation: implications for species' responses to climate warming.

    Marshall, David J; McQuaid, Christopher D; Williams, Gray A

    2010-10-23

    There is considerable interest in understanding how ectothermic animals may physiologically and behaviourally buffer the effects of climate warming. Much less consideration is being given to how organisms might adapt to non-climatic heat sources in ways that could confound predictions for responses of species and communities to climate warming. Although adaptation to non-climatic heat sources (solar and geothermal) seems likely in some marine species, climate warming predictions for marine ectotherms are largely based on adaptation to climatically relevant heat sources (air or surface sea water temperature). Here, we show that non-climatic solar heating underlies thermal resistance adaptation in a rocky-eulittoral-fringe snail. Comparisons of the maximum temperatures of the air, the snail's body and the rock substratum with solar irradiance and physiological performance show that the highest body temperature is primarily controlled by solar heating and re-radiation, and that the snail's upper lethal temperature exceeds the highest climatically relevant regional air temperature by approximately 22°C. Non-climatic thermal adaptation probably features widely among marine and terrestrial ectotherms and because it could enable species to tolerate climatic rises in air temperature, it deserves more consideration in general and for inclusion into climate warming models.

  19. Local thermal equilibrium and ideal gas Stephani universes

    Coll, Bartolomé; Ferrando, Joan Josep

    2004-01-01

    The Stephani universes that can be interpreted as an ideal gas evolving in local thermal equilibrium are determined. Five classes of thermodynamic schemes are admissible, which give rise to five classes of regular models and three classes of singular models. No Stephani universes exist representing an exact solution to a classical ideal gas (one for which the internal energy is proportional to the temperature). But some Stephani universes may approximate a classical ideal gas at first order i...

  20. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Kawai, Shinsuke, E-mail: shinsuke.kawai@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 16419 (Korea, Republic of); Nakayama, Yu [California Institute of Technology, 452-48, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2016-08-10

    Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  1. Reheating of the Universe as holographic thermalization

    Shinsuke Kawai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Assuming gauge/gravity correspondence we study reheating of the Universe using its holographic dual. Inflaton decay and thermalisation of the decay products correspond to collapse of a spherical shell and formation of a blackhole in the dual anti-de Sitter (AdS spacetime. The reheating temperature is computed as the Hawking temperature of the developed blackhole probed by a dynamical boundary, and is determined by the inflaton energy density and the AdS radius, with corrections from the dynamics of the shell collapse. For given initial energy density of the inflaton field the holographic model typically gives lower reheating temperature than the instant reheating scenario, while it is shown to be safely within phenomenological bounds.

  2. Tributaries affect the thermal response of lakes to climate change

    Råman Vinnå, Love; Wüest, Alfred; Zappa, Massimiliano; Fink, Gabriel; Bouffard, Damien

    2018-01-01

    Thermal responses of inland waters to climate change varies on global and regional scales. The extent of warming is determined by system-specific characteristics such as fluvial input. Here we examine the impact of ongoing climate change on two alpine tributaries, the Aare River and the Rhône River, and their respective downstream peri-alpine lakes: Lake Biel and Lake Geneva. We propagate regional atmospheric temperature effects into river discharge projections. These, together with anthropogenic heat sources, are in turn incorporated into simple and efficient deterministic models that predict future water temperatures, river-borne suspended sediment concentration (SSC), lake stratification and river intrusion depth/volume in the lakes. Climate-induced shifts in river discharge regimes, including seasonal flow variations, act as positive and negative feedbacks in influencing river water temperature and SSC. Differences in temperature and heating regimes between rivers and lakes in turn result in large seasonal shifts in warming of downstream lakes. The extent of this repressive effect on warming is controlled by the lakes hydraulic residence time. Previous studies suggest that climate change will diminish deep-water oxygen renewal in lakes. We find that climate-related seasonal variations in river temperatures and SSC shift deep penetrating river intrusions from summer towards winter. Thus potentially counteracting the otherwise negative effects associated with climate change on deep-water oxygen content. Our findings provide a template for evaluating the response of similar hydrologic systems to on-going climate change.

  3. Tributaries affect the thermal response of lakes to climate change

    L. Råman Vinnå

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal responses of inland waters to climate change varies on global and regional scales. The extent of warming is determined by system-specific characteristics such as fluvial input. Here we examine the impact of ongoing climate change on two alpine tributaries, the Aare River and the Rhône River, and their respective downstream peri-alpine lakes: Lake Biel and Lake Geneva. We propagate regional atmospheric temperature effects into river discharge projections. These, together with anthropogenic heat sources, are in turn incorporated into simple and efficient deterministic models that predict future water temperatures, river-borne suspended sediment concentration (SSC, lake stratification and river intrusion depth/volume in the lakes. Climate-induced shifts in river discharge regimes, including seasonal flow variations, act as positive and negative feedbacks in influencing river water temperature and SSC. Differences in temperature and heating regimes between rivers and lakes in turn result in large seasonal shifts in warming of downstream lakes. The extent of this repressive effect on warming is controlled by the lakes hydraulic residence time. Previous studies suggest that climate change will diminish deep-water oxygen renewal in lakes. We find that climate-related seasonal variations in river temperatures and SSC shift deep penetrating river intrusions from summer towards winter. Thus potentially counteracting the otherwise negative effects associated with climate change on deep-water oxygen content. Our findings provide a template for evaluating the response of similar hydrologic systems to on-going climate change.

  4. Thermal barriers constrain microbial elevational range size via climate variability.

    Wang, Jianjun; Soininen, Janne

    2017-08-01

    Range size is invariably limited and understanding range size variation is an important objective in ecology. However, microbial range size across geographical gradients remains understudied, especially on mountainsides. Here, the patterns of range size of stream microbes (i.e., bacteria and diatoms) and macroorganisms (i.e., macroinvertebrates) along elevational gradients in Asia and Europe were examined. In bacteria, elevational range size showed non-significant phylogenetic signals. In all taxa, there was a positive relationship between niche breadth and species elevational range size, driven by local environmental and climatic variables. No taxa followed the elevational Rapoport's rule. Climate variability explained the most variation in microbial mean elevational range size, whereas local environmental variables were more important for macroinvertebrates. Seasonal and annual climate variation showed negative effects, while daily climate variation had positive effects on community mean elevational range size for all taxa. The negative correlation between range size and species richness suggests that understanding the drivers of range is key for revealing the processes underlying diversity. The results advance the understanding of microbial species thermal barriers by revealing the importance of seasonal and diurnal climate variation, and highlight that aquatic and terrestrial biota may differ in their response to short- and long-term climate variability. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Climate Science Program at California State University, Northridge

    Steele Cox, H.; Klein, D.; Cadavid, A. C.; Foley, B.

    2012-12-01

    Due to its interdisciplinary nature, climate science poses wide-ranging challenges for science and mathematics students seeking careers in this field. There is a compelling need for universities to provide coherent programs in climate science in order to train future climate scientists. With funding from NASA Innovations in Climate Education (NICE), California State University, Northridge (CSUN), is creating the CSUN Climate Science Program. An interdisciplinary team of faculty members is working in collaboration with UCLA, Santa Monica College and NASA/JPL partners to create a new curriculum in climate science. The resulting sequence of climate science courses, or Pathway for studying the Mathematics of Climate Change (PMCC), is integrated into a Bachelor of Science degree program in the Applied Mathematical Sciences offered by the Mathematics Department at CSUN. The PMCC consists of courses offered by the departments of Mathematics, Physics, and Geography and is designed to prepare students for Ph.D. programs in technical fields relevant to global climate change and related careers. The students who choose to follow this program will be guided to enroll in the following sequence of courses for their 12 units of upper division electives: 1) A newly created course junior level course, Math 396CL, in applied mathematics which will introduce students to applications of vector calculus and differential equations to the study of thermodynamics and atmospheric dynamics. 2) An already existing course, Math 483, with new content on mathematical modeling specialized for this program; 3) An improved version of Phys 595CL on the mathematics and physics of climate change with emphasis on Radiative Transfer; 4) A choice of Geog 407 on Remote Sensing or Geog 416 on Climate Change with updated content to train the students in the analysis of satellite data obtained with the NASA Earth Observing System and instruction in the analysis of data obtained within a Geographical

  6. Evaluation of thermal comfort in university classrooms through objective approach and subjective preference analysis.

    Nico, Maria Anna; Liuzzi, Stefania; Stefanizzi, Pietro

    2015-05-01

    Assessing thermal comfort becomes more relevant when the aim is to maximise learning and productivity performances, as typically occurs in offices and schools. However, if, in the offices, the Fanger model well represents the thermal occupant response, then on the contrary, in schools, adaptive mechanisms significantly influence the occupants' thermal preference. In this study, an experimental approach was performed in the Polytechnic University of Bari, during the first days of March, in free running conditions. First, the results of questionnaires were compared according to the application of the Fanger model and the adaptive model; second, using a subjective scale, a complete analysis was performed on thermal preference in terms of acceptability, neutrality and preference, with particular focus on the influence of gender. The user possibility to control the indoor plant system produced a significant impact on the thermal sensation and the acceptability of the thermal environment. Gender was also demonstrated to greatly influence the thermal judgement of the thermal environment when an outdoor cold climate occurs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental research on thermal comfort in the university classroom of regular semesters in Korea

    Jung, Gun Joo; Oh, Geun Sug; Im, Young Bin; Song, Sung Ki; Ahn, Young Chull

    2011-01-01

    This research has investigated physical variables affecting indoor thermal comfort and subjective responses of thermal comfort of students in a university in Korea in which the weather is oceanic temperate climate, and has been performed to contribute to the research fields of Sustainable Thermal Standard and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC). This research is based on the ISO 7730-2005 standard and the ATC theories and 4 main variables of PMV such as dry bulb temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), black bulb temperature (Tg), and air velocity (Va) are measured once a week during two regular semesters. A clothing insulation, a thermal sensation vote (TSV), an acceptability of thermal environment, and a preference for cooling and heating are investigated at the same time using a questionnaire. This study was carried out for 26 weeks during the spring season, from March to June 2009, and the autumn season, from September to December 2009. The main achievements of this study are as follows. Monthly Mean Outdoor Temperature (MMOT) and Operative Temperature (OT) in the classroom during research periods are 7.4∼23.3 .deg. C and 17.5∼29.0 .deg. C, respectively. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment shows over 80% when the range of OT in the classroom is 17∼25 .deg. C, and the range can be applicable to operative index of heating and cooling of classroom. The mean TSV of respondents is almost 'neutral (0)' when the PMV in the classroom moves to 'neutral (0)' and 'slightly cool (-1)', and the TSV is almost '+1.5' when the PMV moves to 'slightly warm (+1)'. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment is slightly different from ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. So it is necessary to more investigate standard range of acceptability of thermal environment in oceanic temperate climate region using much more databases

  8. Experimental research on thermal comfort in the university classroom of regular semesters in Korea

    Jung, Gun Joo; Oh, Geun Sug; Im, Young Bin [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Sung Ki [Hiroshima Institute of Technology, Hiroshima (Japan); Ahn, Young Chull [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This research has investigated physical variables affecting indoor thermal comfort and subjective responses of thermal comfort of students in a university in Korea in which the weather is oceanic temperate climate, and has been performed to contribute to the research fields of Sustainable Thermal Standard and Adaptive Thermal Comfort (ATC). This research is based on the ISO 7730-2005 standard and the ATC theories and 4 main variables of PMV such as dry bulb temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), black bulb temperature (Tg), and air velocity (Va) are measured once a week during two regular semesters. A clothing insulation, a thermal sensation vote (TSV), an acceptability of thermal environment, and a preference for cooling and heating are investigated at the same time using a questionnaire. This study was carried out for 26 weeks during the spring season, from March to June 2009, and the autumn season, from September to December 2009. The main achievements of this study are as follows. Monthly Mean Outdoor Temperature (MMOT) and Operative Temperature (OT) in the classroom during research periods are 7.4{approx}23.3 .deg. C and 17.5{approx}29.0 .deg. C, respectively. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment shows over 80% when the range of OT in the classroom is 17{approx}25 .deg. C, and the range can be applicable to operative index of heating and cooling of classroom. The mean TSV of respondents is almost 'neutral (0)' when the PMV in the classroom moves to 'neutral (0)' and 'slightly cool (-1)', and the TSV is almost '+1.5' when the PMV moves to 'slightly warm (+1)'. The acceptability ratio of thermal environment is slightly different from ASHRAE Standard 55-2004. So it is necessary to more investigate standard range of acceptability of thermal environment in oceanic temperate climate region using much more databases.

  9. Assessment of nurses' work climate at Alexandria Main University Hospital.

    Emam, Sanaa Abdel-aziz; Nabawy, Zeinab Mohamed; Mohamed, Azzaa Hassan; Sbeira, Walaa Hashem

    2005-01-01

    Work climate is indicative of how well the organization is realizing its full potential. An accurate assessment of work climate can identify the unnecessary obstacles to nurses interfering with their best performance. The present study aims to assess nurses' work climate at Alexandria Main University Hospital. The study sample included all nurses (N=400) who were working in inpatient medical and surgical units at the Alexandria Main University Hospital who were available at the time of data collection. A structured questionnaire was developed to assess nurses' perceptions regarding the dimensions of work climate. Data was collected by individual interview using the structured questionnaire. Results indicated that the highest percentages of nurses in medical and surgical units perceived that their work climate is characterized by good way of performance management, feeling of responsibility, warmth and supportive relationships, quality of communication, morale, organizational clarity and feeling of identity and belongness to the hospital. Nurses perceived that they are lacking work climate conducive to conflict resolution, participation in decision making, opportunity for training and development, fair rewards and recognition, calculated risks, sufficient resources, effective leadership and teamwork. There were no significant difference between nurses perceptions in medical and surgical units regarding all dimensions of work climate. The highest percentage of nurses in all units were satisfied only with the feeling of responsibility, way of performance management, and quality of communication. Conflict and identity were perceived as the most important areas that need improvement in the hospital. Based on the results recommendations were given to enhance work climate through designing compensation and recognition systems, and negotiate their requirements and accomplishment based on established standards and outcomes measures. Also, encouragement of and planning for

  10. The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern

    Martin, L.

    2012-04-01

    The Graduate School of Climate Sciences, University of Bern, offers a specialised M.Sc. and a Ph.D. study programme in climate sciences. The graduate school has a highly interdisciplinary profile involving not only natural sciences, but also humanities/history, economics and law. The ten participating institutes with a total of 45 academics provide expertise in long-term climate variability, climate modelling, climate reconstruction, predictability of the future climate and extreme events, the impact of climate change on ecosystems and climate risks for society and economy. The graduate school is fully compliant with the Bologna Accords and collaborates closely with the sister institution C2SM at ETH Zurich by, e.g., jointly organised lectures. There are currently 23 master and 37 doctoral students in the programme. These originate from the University of Bern (28 %), from other Swiss universities (30 %) and from foreign universities (42 %). Comprehensive information about the Graduate School of Climate Sciences is available at http://www.climatestudies.unibe.ch . The M.Sc. in Climate Sciences programme (120 ECTS credits) is designed to attract students from all disciplines in natural sciences and offers them a tailor-made curriculum to reach their career aspirations. The students make their own course selection according to their profile envisaged (specialised versus broad education) and ideally already guided by a job perspective. Selecting the courses and the topic of the master thesis they specialise in one of five fields: climate and earth system science; atmospheric science; economics; economic, social and environmental history; statistics. Several courses are organised jointly with public authorities and the private industry, e.g. from experts working in the insurance business, in weather forecasting or in environmental pollution control. This provides the students hands-on experience and contacts to future employers. The master thesis (60 ECTS) involves the

  11. Thermal Effectiveness of Wall Indoor Fountain in Warm Humid Climate

    Seputra, J. A. P.

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays, many buildings wield indoor water features such as waterfalls, fountains, and water curtains to improve their aesthetical value. Despite the provision of air cooling due to water evaporation, this feature also has adverse effect if applied in warm humid climate since evaporation might increase air humidity beyond the comfort level. Yet, there are no specific researches intended to measure water feature’s effect upon its thermal condition. In response, this research examines the influence of evaporative cooling on indoor wall fountain toward occupant’s thermal comfort in warm humid climate. To achieve this goal, case study is established in Waroeng Steak Restaurant’s dining room in Surakarta-Indonesia. In addition, SNI 03-6572-2001 with comfort range of 20.5–27.1°C and 40-60% of relative humidity is utilized as thermal criterion. Furthermore, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is employed to process the data and derive conclusions. Research variables are; feature’s height, obstructions, and fan types. As results, Two Bumps Model (ToB) is appropriate when employs natural ventilation. However, if the room is mechanically ventilated, Three Bumps Model (TeB) becomes the best choice. Moreover, application of adaptive ventilation is required to maintain thermal balance.

  12. Indoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Climate Residential Building

    Jamaludin Nazhatulzalkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal environment is one of the criteria in sustainable building. This criterion is important in ensuring a healthy indoor environment for the occupants. The consideration of environmental concerns at the early design stage would effectively integrate the sustainability of the building environment. Global climate changes such as global warming do affect human comfort since people spend most of their time and activities in the building. The increasing of urban population required additional housing for households, as well as places to shop, office and other facilities. Occupants are now more conscious the importance of sustainability for a better quality of life. Good thermal environment is essential for human wellness and comfort. A residential environment will influence residents’ health and safety. The global warming increase the earth’s temperature and greenhouse emission to the atmosphere cause adverse effects to the outdoor environment. Residential developments modify the materials, structure and energy balance in urban climate effects of human economic activities. As an indoor environment is influenced by the outdoor condition, the factors affecting indoor thermal environment are crucial in improving a comfortable and healthy environment in residential building. The microclimatic of a site such as temperature and relative humidity, and wind movement led to the variation of indoor thermal environment in the building.

  13. Late Lutetian Thermal Maximum—Crossing a Thermal Threshold in Earth's Climate System?

    Westerhold, T.; Röhl, U.; Donner, B.; Frederichs, T.; Kordesch, W. E. C.; Bohaty, S. M.; Hodell, D. A.; Laskar, J.; Zeebe, R. E.

    2018-01-01

    Recognizing and deciphering transient global warming events triggered by massive release of carbon into Earth's ocean-atmosphere climate system in the past are important for understanding climate under elevated pCO2 conditions. Here we present new high-resolution geochemical records including benthic foraminiferal stable isotope data with clear evidence of a short-lived (30 kyr) warming event at 41.52 Ma. The event occurs in the late Lutetian within magnetochron C19r and is characterized by a ˜2°C warming of the deep ocean in the southern South Atlantic. The magnitudes of the carbon and oxygen isotope excursions of the Late Lutetian Thermal Maximum are comparable to the H2 event (53.6 Ma) suggesting a similar response of the climate system to carbon cycle perturbations even in an already relatively cooler climate several million years after the Early Eocene Climate Optimum. Coincidence of the event with exceptionally high insolation values in the Northern Hemisphere at 41.52 Ma might indicate that Earth's climate system has a thermal threshold. When this tipping point is crossed, rapid positive feedback mechanisms potentially trigger transient global warming. The orbital configuration in this case could have caused prolonged warm and dry season leading to a massive release of terrestrial carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system initiating environmental change.

  14. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  15. Climate Literacy: Progress in AMS Climate Studies Undergraduate Course in Meteorology Program at Jackson State University

    Reddy, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    AMS Climate Studies is an introductory college-level course developed by the American Meteorological Society for implementation at undergraduate institutions nationwide and increasing involvement of under-represented groups The course places students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate Earth's climate system using real-world environmental data. The AMS Climate Studies course package consists of a textbook, investigations manual, course website, and course management system-compatible files. Instructors can use these resources in combinations that make for an exciting learning experience for their students. The AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project Workshop participation is on a first-come, first-serve basis as determined by the date-of-receipt of the License Order Form. To grow AMS Diversity Programs to their fullest extent, institutions are encouraged to nominate course instructors who did not previously attend Diversity Project workshops. Until three months before the workshop, two-thirds of the workshop positions would be reserved for institutions new to AMS Diversity Projects. The AMS five day course implementation workshop was held in Washington, DC, during May 24-29, 2012. It covered essential course topics in climate science and global climate change, and strategies for course implementation. Talks would feature climate science and sustainability experts from Federal agencies and area research institutions, such as NASA, NOAA, University of Maryland, Howard University, George Mason University, and other Washington, DC, area institutions. The workshop would also include visits to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and NOAA's Climate Prediction Center. JSU Meteorology Program will be offering AMS Climate Studies undergraduate course under MET 210: Climatology in spring 2014. AMS Climate Studies is offered as a 3 credit hour laboratory course with 2 lectures and 1 lab sessions per week. Although this course places

  16. Quantifying the relevance of adaptive thermal comfort models in moderate thermal climate zones

    Hoof, Joost van; Hensen, Jan L.M. [Faculty of Architecture, Building and Planning, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Vertigo 6.18, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-01-15

    Standards governing thermal comfort evaluation are on a constant cycle of revision and public review. One of the main topics being discussed in the latest round was the introduction of an adaptive thermal comfort model, which now forms an optional part of ASHRAE Standard 55. Also on a national level, adaptive thermal comfort guidelines come into being, such as in the Netherlands. This paper discusses two implementations of the adaptive comfort model in terms of usability and energy use for moderate maritime climate zones by means of literature study, a case study comprising temperature measurements, and building performance simulation. It is concluded that for moderate climate zones the adaptive model is only applicable during summer months, and can reduce energy for naturally conditioned buildings. However, the adaptive thermal comfort model has very limited application potential for such climates. Additionally we suggest a temperature parameter with a gradual course to replace the mean monthly outdoor air temperature to avoid step changes in optimum comfort temperatures. (author)

  17. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus.

    Wang, Yafei; de Groot, Rudolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed in five different green spaces. We aimed to analyze people's thermal comfort perception and preference in outdoor urban green spaces, and to specify the combined effects between the thermal environmental and personal factors. The results imply that non-physical environmental and subjective factors (e.g., natural view, quiet environment, and emotional background) were more important in perceiving comfort than the actual thermal conditions. By applying a linear regression and probit analysis, the comfort temperature was found to be 22.2 °C and the preferred temperature was at a surprisingly high 35.7 °C. This can be explained by the observation that most respondents, who live in temperate regions, have a natural tendency to describe their preferred state as "warmer" even when feeling "warm" already. Using the Kruskal-Wallis H test, the four significant factors influencing thermal comfort were people's exposure time in green spaces, previous thermal environment and activity, and their thermal history. However, the effect of thermal history needs further investigation due to the unequal sample sizes of respondents from different climate regions. By providing evidence for the role of the objective and subjective factors on human thermal comfort, the relationship between UGI, microclimate, and thermal comfort can assist urban planning to make better use of green spaces for microclimate regulation.

  18. Improvement of thermal comfort by cooling clothing in warm climate

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kolencíková, Sona

    2014-01-01

    on the inner surface. We conducted experiments with human subjects in climate chambers maintained at 30 °C and RH 50% to compare the effectiveness of the cooling clothing with that of other convective cooling devices. The use of cooling clothing with a convective cooling device improved the subjects’ thermal...... comfort compared to convective cooling alone. The supply of a small amount of water allowed the cooling clothing to provide a continuous cooling effect, whereas the effect of convective cooling alone decreased as sweat dried. However, the controllability of the cooling clothing needs to be improved....

  19. Occupants' adaptive responses and perception of thermal environment in naturally conditioned university classrooms

    Yao, Runming [The School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW (United Kingdom); The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Liu, Jing [The School of Construction Management and Engineering, The University of Reading, Whiteknights, PO Box 219, Reading RG6 6AW (United Kingdom); Li, Baizhan [The Faculty of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400042 (China); Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region' s Eco-Environment (Ministry of Education), Chongqing University, Chongqing 400042 (China)

    2010-03-15

    A year-long field study of the thermal environment in university classrooms was conducted from March 2005 to May 2006 in Chongqing, China. This paper presents the occupants' thermal sensation votes and discusses the occupants' adaptive response and perception of the thermal environment in a naturally conditioned space. Comparisons between the Actual Mean Vote (AMV) and Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) have been made as well as between the Actual Percentage of Dissatisfied (APD) and Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD). The adaptive thermal comfort zone for the naturally conditioned space for Chongqing, which has hot summer and cold winter climatic characteristics, has been proposed based on the field study results. The Chongqing adaptive comfort range is broader than that of the ASHRAE Standard 55-2004 in general, but in the extreme cold and hot months, it is narrower. The thermal conditions in classrooms in Chongqing in summer and winter are severe. Behavioural adaptation such as changing clothing, adjusting indoor air velocity, taking hot/cold drinks, etc., as well as psychological adaptation, has played a role in adapting to the thermal environment. (author)

  20. Thermal Condensate Structure and Cosmological Energy Density of the Universe

    Antonio Capolupo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study thermal vacuum condensate for scalar and fermion fields. We analyze the thermal states at the temperature of the cosmic microwave background (CMB and we show that the vacuum expectation value of the energy momentum tensor density of photon fields reproduces the energy density and pressure of the CMB. We perform the computations in the formal framework of the Thermo Field Dynamics. We also consider the case of neutrinos and thermal states at the temperature of the neutrino cosmic background. Consistency with the estimated lower bound of the sum of the active neutrino masses is verified. In the boson sector, nontrivial contribution to the energy of the universe is given by particles of masses of the order of 10−4 eV compatible with the ones of the axion-like particles. The fractal self-similar structure of the thermal radiation is also discussed and related to the coherent structure of the thermal vacuum.

  1. Thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China-impacts of season, climate, and thermal history.

    Zhang, Y; Chen, H; Wang, J; Meng, Q

    2016-10-01

    We conducted a climate chamber study on the thermal comfort of people in the hot and humid area of China. Sixty subjects from naturally ventilated buildings and buildings with split air conditioners participated in the study, and identical experiments were conducted in a climate chamber in both summer and winter. Psychological and physiological responses were observed over a wide range of conditions, and the impacts of season, climate, and thermal history on human thermal comfort were analyzed. Seasonal and climatic heat acclimatization was confirmed, but they were found to have no significant impacts on human thermal sensation and comfort. The outdoor thermal history was much less important than the indoor thermal history in regard to human thermal sensation, and the indoor thermal history in all seasons of a year played a key role in shaping the subjects' sensations in a wide range of thermal conditions. A warmer indoor thermal history in warm seasons produced a higher neutral temperature, a lower thermal sensitivity, and lower thermal sensations in warm conditions. The comfort and acceptable conditions were identified for people in the hot and humid area of China. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Refuge behaviour from outdoor thermal environmental stress and seasonal differences of thermal sense in tropical urban climate

    Kurazumi, Y.; Ishii, J.; Fukagawa, K.; Kondo, E.; Aruninta, A.

    2017-12-01

    Thermal sensation affects body temperature regulation. As a starting point for behavioral body temperature regulation taken to improve from a poor thermal environment to a more pleasant environment, thermal sense of thermal environment stimulus is important. The poupose of this sutudy is to use the outdoor thermal environment evaluation index ETFe to quantify effects on thermal sensations of the human body of a tropical region climate with small annual temperature differences, and to examine seasonal differences in thermal sensation. It was found temperature preferences were lower in the winter season than in the dry season, and that a tolerance for higher temperatures in the dry season than in the winter season. It was found effects of seasonal differences of the thermal environment appear in quantitative changes in thermal sensations. It was found that effects of seasonal differences of the thermal environment do not greatly affect quantitative changes in thermal comfort.

  3. Urban Climate Design: Improving thermal comfort in Dutch neighbourhoods

    Laura Kleerekoper

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This thesis presents research into the possibilities for climate adaptation in Dutch urban areas. We want to know how cities can best prepare for extreme rainfall, droughts, and heat waves in future climates. These events are likely to become more frequent and more extreme. The focus is on heat resistance as this has been a neglected concept in Dutch urban planning. The aim of this study is to extend our knowledge of the effects of climate-adaptation measures and to stimulate the implementation of such measures in the design of public space. Anticipating on the effects of climate change, the research was guided by the question: Which urban design principles can be applied in specific Dutch neighbourhoods to respond to the effects of climate change, especially in terms of outdoor thermal comfort and water management? The three stages of the project are:  • A literature review of existing knowledge on climate adaptation and knowledge gaps • Research into the specific field of urban climatology • Applied research on the broader field of urban planning The urban climate and adaptation measures In the evaluation of measures for climate robust urban areas it is important to gauge the extent of the effects of such measures. These effects are generally expressed in terms of air temperature. However, the comparison of results of measures from various studies is not a simple matter: there are significant differences in spatial, climatological and methodological variations adopted in these studies. Bringing results together from very specific studies may give an impression of the potential of certain measures. For example, most studies support the idea that greening has the highest effect on thermal comfort as it provides both shade and active cooling due to ‘evapotranspiration’1. Nevertheless, vegetation can also retain heat, as we can feel after sundown. Other measures that were investigated for their effects are water, urban morphology

  4. Effectiveness of indirect evaporative cooling and thermal mass in a hot arid climate

    Krueger, Eduardo [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Tecnologia/Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Civil, Departamento de Construcao Civil, Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana - UTFPR, Av. Sete de Setembro, 3165. Curitiba PR, CEP. 80230-901 (Brazil); Gonzalez Cruz, Eduardo [Instituto de Investigaciones de la Facultad de Arquitectura y Diseno (IFAD), Universidad del Zulia, Nucleo Tecnico de LUZ, Av. Goajira (16) con Calle 67, Maracaibo, CP 4011-A-526 (Venezuela); Givoni, Baruch [Department of Architecture, School of Arts and Architecture, UCLA, Los Angeles CA, USA, and Ben Gurion University (Israel)

    2010-06-15

    In this paper, we compare results of a long-term temperature monitoring in a building with high thermal mass to indoor temperature predictions of a second building that uses an indirect evaporative cooling system as a means of passive cooling (Vivienda Bioclimatica Prototipo -VBP-1), for the climatic conditions of Sde Boqer, Negev region of Israel (local latitude 30 52'N, longitude 34 46'E, approximately 480 m above sea level). The high-mass building was monitored from January through September 2006 and belongs to a student dormitory complex located at the Sde Boqer Campus of Ben-Gurion University. VBP-1 was designed and built in Maracaibo, Venezuela (latitude 10 34'N, longitude 71 44'W, elevation 66 m above sea level) and had its indoor air temperatures, below and above a shaded roof pond, as well as the pond temperature monitored from February to September 2006. Formulas were developed for the VBP-1, based on part of the whole monitoring period, which represent the measured daily indoor maximum, average and minimum temperatures. The formulas were then validated against measurements taken independently in different time periods. The developed formulas were here used for estimating the building's thermal and energy performance at the climate of Sde Boqer, allowing a comparison of two different strategies: indirect evaporative cooling and the use of thermal mass. (author)

  5. Dynamic Undergraduate Climate Change Affinity Program: University of Delaware Climate Program for Undergraduates (CPUG)

    Merrill, J.

    2017-12-01

    Multidisciplinary undergraduate climate change education is critical for students entering any sector of the workforce. The University of Delaware has developed a new interdisciplinary affinity program—UD Climate Program for Undergraduates (CPUG)—open to undergraduate students of all majors to provide a comprehensive educational experience designed to educate skilled climate change problem-solvers for a wide range of professional careers. The program is designed to fulfill all General Education requirements, and includes a residential community commitment and experiential learning in community outreach and problem solving. Seminars will introduce current popular press and research materials and provide practice in confirming source credibility, communications training, and psychological support, as well as team building. As undergraduates, members of the UD CPUG team will define, describe, and develop a solution or solutions for a pressing local climate challenge that has the potential for global impact. The choice of a challenge and approach to addressing it will be guided by the student's advisor. Students are expected to develop a practical, multidisciplinary solution to address the challenge as defined, using their educational and experiential training. Solutions will be presented to the UD community during the spring semester of their senior year, as a collaborative team solution, with enhancement through individual portfolios from each team member. The logic model, structure, curricular and co-curricular supports for the CPUG will be provided. Mechanisms of support available through University administration will also be discussed.

  6. The role of clothing in thermal comfort: how people dress in a temperate and humid climate in Brazil

    Renata De Vecchi

    Full Text Available Abstract Thermal insulation from clothing is one of the most important input variables used to predict the thermal comfort of a building's occupants. This paper investigates the clothing pattern in buildings with different configurations located in a temperate and humid climate in Brazil. Occupants of two kinds of buildings (three offices and two university classrooms assessed their thermal environment through 'right-here-right-now' questionnaires, while at the same time indoor climatic measurements were carried out in situ (air temperature and radiant temperature, air speed and humidity. A total of 5,036 votes from 1,161 occupants were collected. Results suggest that the clothing values adopted by occupants inside buildings were influenced by: 1 climate and seasons of the year; 2 different configurations and indoor thermal conditions; and 3 occupants' age and gender. Significant intergenerational and gender differences were found, which might be explained by differences in metabolic rates and fashion. The results also indicate that there is a great opportunity to exceed the clothing interval of the thermal comfort zones proposed by international standards such as ASHRAE 55 (2013 - 0.5 to 1.0 clo - and thereby save energy from cooling and heating systems, without compromising the occupants' indoor thermal comfort.

  7. Climate change impacts on lake thermal dynamics and ecosystem vulnerabilities

    Sahoo, G. B; Forrest, A. L; Schladow, S. G ;; Reuter, J. E; Coats, R.; Dettinger, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Using water column temperature records collected since 1968, we analyzed the impacts of climate change on thermal properties, stability intensity, length of stratification, and deep mixing dynamics of Lake Tahoe using a modified stability index (SI). This new SI is easier to produce and is a more informative measure of deep lake stability than commonly used stability indices. The annual average SI increased at 16.62 kg/m2/decade although the summer (May–October) average SI increased at a higher rate (25.42 kg/m2/decade) during the period 1968–2014. This resulted in the lengthening of the stratification season by approximately 24 d. We simulated the lake thermal structure over a future 100 yr period using a lake hydrodynamic model driven by statistically downscaled outputs of the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Model (GFDL) for two different green house gas emission scenarios (the A2 in which greenhouse-gas emissions increase rapidly throughout the 21st Century, and the B1 in which emissions slow and then level off by the late 21st Century). The results suggest a continuation and intensification of the already observed trends. The length of stratification duration and the annual average lake stability are projected to increase by 38 d and 12 d and 30.25 kg/m2/decade and 8.66 kg/m2/decade, respectively for GFDLA2 and GFDLB1, respectively during 2014–2098. The consequences of this change bear the hallmarks of climate change induced lake warming and possible exacerbation of existing water quality, quantity and ecosystem changes. The developed methodology could be extended and applied to other lakes as a tool to predict changes in stratification and mixing dynamics.

  8. Outdoor human thermal perception in various climates: A comprehensive review of approaches, methods and quantification.

    Potchter, Oded; Cohen, Pninit; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-08-01

    Over the past century, many research studies have been conducted in an attempt to define thermal conditions for humans in the outdoor environment and to grade thermal sensation. Consequently, a large number of indices have been proposed. The examination of human thermal indices by thermal subjective perception has become recently a methodical issue to confirm the accuracy, applicability and validation of human thermal indices. The aims of this study are: (a) to review studies containing both calculated human thermal conditions and subjective thermal perception in the outdoor environment (b) to identify the most used human thermal indices for evaluating human thermal perception (c) to examine the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions and (d) to compare between categories of thermal sensation in different climatic zones based on subjective perception and levels of thermal strain. A comprehensive literature review identified 110 peer-reviewed articles which investigated in-situ thermal conditions versus subjective thermal perception during 2001-2017. It seems that out of 165 human thermal indices that have been developed, only 4 (PET, PMV, UTCI, SET*) are widely in use for outdoor thermal perception studies. Examination of the relation between human thermal comfort range and outdoor thermal environment conditions for selective indices in different climatic zones shows that the range of the thermal comfort or dis-comfort is affected by the outdoor thermal environment. For the PET index, the "neutral" range for hot climates of 24-26°C is agreed by 95% of the studies where for cold climate, the "neutral" range of 15-20°C is agreed by 89% of the studies. For the UTCI, the "no thermal stress" category is common to all climates. The "no stress category" of 16-23°C is agreed by 80% of the case studies, while 100% of the case studies agreed that the range is between 18 and 23°C. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  9. Academic Service Climate as a Source of Competitive Advantage: Leverage for University Administrators

    Martin, Angela; Kennedy, Barbara; Stocks, Belinda

    2006-01-01

    The psychological climate literature examines links between facets of climate, such as service orientation and a range of individual and organisational outcomes including work attitudes and performance. This study investigated the relationship between the service climate of an Australian university and outcomes important to its key stakeholders. A…

  10. Establishment of educational module “Climate Change” in the University of Liepaja

    Javaitis, Ivars

    2016-01-01

    Increase of awareness and high knowledge base of society in the field of climate change and environment in general in global and local ranges is vital to prevent future possible increase of climate changes in the world. In order to more involve society in prevention of future climate changes, national government has come up with National Climate Policy [1], which includes possibility for educational institutions such as University of Liepaja to develop educational programs, including lifelong...

  11. Investigating the impact of different thermal comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates

    Attia, S.G.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2014-01-01

    The selection of a thermal comfort model has a major impact on energy consumption of Net Zero Energy Buildings (NZEBs) in hot climates. The objective of this paper is to compare the influence of using different comfort models for zero energy buildings in hot climates. The paper compares the impact

  12. Man and room climate. The importance of thermal comfort; Der Mensch und das Raumklima. Zur Bedeutung der thermischen Behaglichkeit

    Hoefte, Klaus [Uponor Academy, Ochtrup (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Room climate has become increasingly important during the past few decades as humans spend about 90 percent of their time inside rooms. Influencing factors are acoustics, lighting, air quality and thermal room climate. The contribution focuses on thermal room climate and room air quality which are the most important of these factors. (orig.)

  13. Thermal sensitivity of cold climate lizards and the importance of distributional ranges.

    Bonino, Marcelo F; Moreno Azócar, Débora L; Schulte, James A; Abdala, Cristian S; Cruz, Félix B

    2015-08-01

    One of the fundamental goals in macroecology is to understand the relationship among species' geographic ranges, ecophysiology, and climate; however, the mechanisms underlying the distributional geographic patterns observed remain unknown for most organisms. In the case of ectotherms this is particularly important because the knowledge of these interactions may provide a robust framework for predicting the potential consequences of climate change in these organisms. Here we studied the relationship of thermal sensitivity and thermal tolerance in Patagonian lizards and their geographic ranges, proposing that species with wider distributions have broader plasticity and thermal tolerance. We predicted that lizard thermal physiology is related to the thermal characteristics of the environment. We also explored the presence of trade-offs of some thermal traits and evaluated the potential effects of a predicted scenario of climate change for these species. We examined sixteen species of Liolaemini lizards from Patagonia representing species with different geographic range sizes. We obtained thermal tolerance data and performance curves for each species in laboratory trials. We found evidence supporting the idea that higher physiological plasticity allows species to achieve broader distribution ranges compared to species with restricted distributions. We also found a trade-off between broad levels of plasticity and higher optimum temperatures of performance. Finally, results from contrasting performance curves against the highest environmental temperatures that lizards may face in a future scenario (year 2080) suggest that the activity of species occurring at high latitudes may be unaffected by predicted climatic changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Capacity for teaching climate change adaptation in the university ...

    The teaching materials employed included textbooks (83.3%), journal (78.3%), conference proceedings (66.7%), articles on Climate Change and agricultural adaptation (80.8%) and lectures/teaching notes (44.2%). The major teaching methods used to communicate climate change concepts were lecture (63.3%) and field ...

  15. Adaptation of thermal power plants: The (ir)relevance of climate (change) information

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, Michelle T.H. van

    2017-01-01

    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate and hydrological projections, is then numerically solved to analyze the adaptation decisions of a selection of real power plants. We find that operators that base their decisions on current climatic conditions are likely to make identical choices and perform just as well as operators that are fully ‘informed’ about climate change. Where electricity supply is mainly generated by thermal power plants, heat waves, droughts and low river flow may impact electricity supply for decades to come. - Highlights: • We analyze adaptation to climate change by thermal power plants. • A numerical investment model is applied to a coal plant and a nuclear power plant. • The numerical analysis is based on climate and hydrological projections. • Climate change information has a relatively small effect on a power plant's NPV. • Uncertainty and no-regret benefits lower the value of climate change information.

  16. The organizational climate in university libraries: a study of sectoral libraries of the Federal University of Pernambuco

    Andréa Maria da Silva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study investigates the perceptions of organizational climate of the employees working in the sector libraries at the Federal University of Pernambuco, in relation to leadership, communication, motivation and teamwork. Method. To achieve the proposed objective a survey was conducted with a questionnaire being answered by forty employees, viewing information on the organizational climate experienced in the sector libraries. Results. The main results of the survey indicated a predominantly satisfactory organizational climate in the analyzed libraries, considering that the organizational atmosphere proved to be sound, mingled with leaders and their teams, open to dialogue with professionals conducive to exercise a job competently. Conclusions. It is understood that the study of organizational climate in academic libraries is of paramount importência in order libraries are living, social and active organizations composed of human, technological, material, financial, which together need to perform with excellence the organizational climate

  17. Quantification of thermal bioclimate for the management of urban design in Mediterranean climate of Barcelona, Spain

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    In order to contribute to the sustainability of the outdoor environment, knowledge about the urban thermal bioclimate should be transferred into climatic guidelines for planning. The general framework of this study responds to the need of analyzing thermal bioclimate in Mediterranean climate regions and its influence as an urban design factor. The paper analyzes the background of the urban climate and thermal bioclimate conditions in Barcelona (Spain), through the effect of shade conditions and wind speed variations. Simulations of shade and wind speed variations were performed to evaluate changes in thermal bioclimate due to modifications in urban morphology. Air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and solar radiation for the period from January, 2001 to January, 2015 were used to calculate physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model. The results demonstrate that shade is the most important strategy to improve urban microclimatic conditions. In Barcelona, human thermal comfort conditions can be improved by shade and wind speed increase in terms of PET above 23 °C and by a wind speed decrease for thresholds of PET below 18 °C. Heat stress situations can be mitigated by shade and wind speed increase in conditions above 35 and 45 °C, respectively. The results of the study are an important contribution for urban planners, due to their possibilities and potential for the description of microclimatic conditions in Mediterranean climate regions. The knowledge is useful for improved human thermal comfort conditions, from the suitable configuration of urban form and architecture.

  18. The science behind Kyoto: the role of universities in the climate change debate. Part I

    O' Keefe, W.F. (American Petroleum Institute, Washington, DC (United States))

    1999-01-01

    In the debate over climate change pseudo-arguments have become more important than scientific evidence, as there is little evidence of fossil fuel burning affecting the climate. The lobbyists claims must be refuted by disinterested scientific analysis, and in this the universities must play their part.

  19. The Construction of an Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire for Academic Departments in Colleges and Universities.

    Borrevik, Berge Andrew, Jr.

    The purpose of this investigation was to construct an Organizational Climate Description Questionnaire-Higher Education that would permit portrayal of the organizational climate of academic departments within colleges and universities. Data collected from the completion of pilot and research instruments was obtained from the faculty members in 72…

  20. Thermal comfort of various building layouts with a proposed discomfort index range for tropical climate.

    Md Din, Mohd Fadhil; Lee, Yee Yong; Ponraj, Mohanadoss; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Iwao, Kenzo; Chelliapan, Shreeshivadasan

    2014-04-01

    Recent years have seen issues related to thermal comfort gaining more momentum in tropical countries. The thermal adaptation and thermal comfort index play a significant role in evaluating the outdoor thermal comfort. In this study, the aim is to capture the thermal sensation of respondents at outdoor environment through questionnaire survey and to determine the discomfort index (DI) to measure the thermal discomfort level. The results indicated that most respondents had thermally accepted the existing environment conditions although they felt slightly warm and hot. A strong correlation between thermal sensation and measured DI was also identified. As a result, a new discomfort index range had been proposed in association with local climate and thermal sensation of occupants to evaluate thermal comfort. The results had proved that the respondents can adapt to a wider range of thermal conditions.Validation of the questionnaire data at Putrajaya was done to prove that the thermal sensation in both Putrajaya and UTM was almost similar since they are located in the same tropical climate region. Hence, a quantitative field study on building layouts was done to facilitate the outdoor human discomfort level based on newly proposed discomfort index range. The results showed that slightly shaded building layouts of type- A and B exhibited higher temperature and discomfort index. The resultant adaptive thermal comfort theory was incorporated into the field studies as well. Finally, the study also showed that the DI values were highly dependent on ambient temperature and relative humidity but had fewer effects for solar radiation intensity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thru-life impacts of driver aggression, climate, cabin thermal management, and battery thermal management on battery electric vehicle utility

    Neubauer, Jeremy; Wood, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Battery electric vehicles (BEVs) offer the potential to reduce both oil imports and greenhouse gas emissions, but have a limited utility that is affected by driver aggression and effects of climate-both directly on battery temperature and indirectly through the loads of cabin and battery thermal management systems. Utility is further affected as the battery wears through life in response to travel patterns, climate, and other factors. In this paper we apply the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Battery Lifetime Analysis and Simulation Tool for Vehicles (BLAST-V) to examine the sensitivity of BEV utility to driver aggression and climate effects over the life of the vehicle. We find the primary challenge to cold-climate BEV operation to be inefficient cabin heating systems, and to hot-climate BEV operation to be high peak on-road battery temperatures and excessive battery degradation. Active cooling systems appear necessary to manage peak battery temperatures of aggressive, hot-climate drivers, which can then be employed to maximize thru-life vehicle utility.

  2. Analysis of student thermal perception evolution in a university classroom during class hour

    Kooi, L.; Loomans, M.G.L.C.; Mishra, A.K.

    2017-01-01

    Current comfort standards are often unable to accurately portray student requirements. To improve the thermal comfort in a university classroom, a better understanding of student thermal perception to temporal transitions in classroom is necessary. Our study tries to address this gap through a mixed

  3. Assessment of monitored energy use and thermal comfort conditions in mosques in hot-humid climates

    Al-Homoud, Mohammad S.; Abdou, Adel A.; Budaiwi, Ismail M. [Architectural Engineering Department, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2009-06-15

    In harsh climatic regions, buildings require air-conditioning in order to provide an acceptable level of thermal comfort. In many situations buildings are over cooled or the HVAC system is kept running for a much longer time than needed. In some other situations thermal comfort is not achieved due to improper operation practices coupled with poor maintenance and even lack it, and consequently inefficient air-conditioning systems. Mosques represent one type of building that is characterized by their unique intermittent operating schedule determined by prayer times, which vary continuously according to the local solar time. This paper presents the results of a study designed to monitor energy use and thermal comfort conditions of a number of mosques in a hot-humid climate so that both energy efficiency and the quality of thermal comfort conditions especially during occupancy periods in such intermittently operated buildings can be assessed accurately. (author)

  4. Effects of simultaneous climate change and geomorphic evolution on thermal characteristics of a shallow Alaskan lake

    Griffiths, Jennifer R.; Schindler, Daniel E.; Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Ruggerone, Gregory T.

    2011-01-01

    We used a hydrodynamics model to assess the consequences of climate warming and contemporary geomorphic evolution for thermal conditions in a large, shallow Alaskan lake. We evaluated the effects of both known climate and landscape change, including rapid outlet erosion and migration of the principal inlet stream, over the past 50 yr as well as future scenarios of geomorphic restoration. Compared to effects of air temperature during the past 50 yr, lake thermal properties showed little sensitivity to substantial (~60%) loss of lake volume, as the lake maximum depth declined from 6 m to 4 m driven by outlet erosion. The direction and magnitude of future lake thermal responses will be driven largely by the extent of inlet stream migration when it occurs simultaneously with outlet erosion. Maintaining connectivity with inlet streams had substantial effects on buffering lake thermal responses to warming climate. Failing to account for changing rates and types of geomorphic processes under continuing climate change may misidentify the primary drivers of lake thermal responses and reduce our ability to understand the consequences for aquatic organisms.

  5. Thermal simulation of different construction types in six climatic regions on heating and cooling loads

    Kumirai, T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available reduces its heating and cooling loads the most. 3. Applying both roof and ceiling insulation should always be avoided. 4. Building insulation is an effective intervention in all climatic regions. 5. Slightly increasing the thermal mass of a wall... were designed to evaluate the following: ? Case A ? base case ? Case B ? insulated walls ? Case C ? insulated walls and insulated ceiling ? Case D ? insulated walls, insulated ceiling and roof ? Case E ? increased thermal mass wall and insulated...

  6. Forest Owners' Response to Climate Change: University Education Trumps Value Profile.

    Blennow, Kristina; Persson, Johannes; Persson, Erik; Hanewinkel, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Do forest owners' levels of education or value profiles explain their responses to climate change? The cultural cognition thesis (CCT) has cast serious doubt on the familiar and often criticized "knowledge deficit" model, which says that laypeople are less concerned about climate change because they lack scientific knowledge. Advocates of CCT maintain that citizens with the highest degrees of scientific literacy and numeracy are not the most concerned about climate change. Rather, this is the group in which cultural polarization is greatest, and thus individuals with more limited scientific literacy and numeracy are more concerned about climate change under certain circumstances than those with higher scientific literacy and numeracy. The CCT predicts that cultural and other values will trump the positive effects of education on some forest owners' attitudes to climate change. Here, using survey data collected in 2010 from 766 private forest owners in Sweden and Germany, we provide the first evidence that perceptions of climate change risk are uncorrelated with, or sometimes positively correlated with, education level and can be explained without reference to cultural or other values. We conclude that the recent claim that advanced scientific literacy and numeracy polarizes perceptions of climate change risk is unsupported by the forest owner data. In neither of the two countries was university education found to reduce the perception of risk from climate change. Indeed in most cases university education increased the perception of risk. Even more importantly, the effect of university education was not dependent on the individuals' value profile.

  7. Forest Owners' Response to Climate Change: University Education Trumps Value Profile.

    Kristina Blennow

    Full Text Available Do forest owners' levels of education or value profiles explain their responses to climate change? The cultural cognition thesis (CCT has cast serious doubt on the familiar and often criticized "knowledge deficit" model, which says that laypeople are less concerned about climate change because they lack scientific knowledge. Advocates of CCT maintain that citizens with the highest degrees of scientific literacy and numeracy are not the most concerned about climate change. Rather, this is the group in which cultural polarization is greatest, and thus individuals with more limited scientific literacy and numeracy are more concerned about climate change under certain circumstances than those with higher scientific literacy and numeracy. The CCT predicts that cultural and other values will trump the positive effects of education on some forest owners' attitudes to climate change. Here, using survey data collected in 2010 from 766 private forest owners in Sweden and Germany, we provide the first evidence that perceptions of climate change risk are uncorrelated with, or sometimes positively correlated with, education level and can be explained without reference to cultural or other values. We conclude that the recent claim that advanced scientific literacy and numeracy polarizes perceptions of climate change risk is unsupported by the forest owner data. In neither of the two countries was university education found to reduce the perception of risk from climate change. Indeed in most cases university education increased the perception of risk. Even more importantly, the effect of university education was not dependent on the individuals' value profile.

  8. The Effect of Diversity Climate Perception on Alienation of Students to University

    Kurtulmus, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine the effect of diversity climate perception on alienation of students to university. The research was carried out with relational survey model. 333 undergraduate students in Faculty of Education, Medical, and Faculty of Theology of Dicle University constituted the participant group. Research data were…

  9. Design study on the efficiency of the thermal scheme of power unit of thermal power plants in hot climates

    Sedlov, A.; Dorokhov, Y.; Rybakov, B.; Nenashev, A.

    2017-11-01

    At the stage of pre-proposals unit of the thermal power plants for regions with a hot climate requires a design study on the efficiency of possible options for the structure of the thermal circuit and a set of key parameters. In this paper, the thermal circuit of the condensing unit powerfully 350 MW. The main feature of the external conditions of thermal power plants in hot climates is the elevated temperature of cooling water of the turbine condensers. For example, in the Persian Gulf region as the cooling water is sea water. In the hot season of the year weighted average sea water temperature of 30.9 °C and during the cold season to 22.8 °C. From the turbine part of the steam is supplied to the distillation-desalination plant. In the hot season of the year heat scheme with pressure fresh pair of 23.54 MPa, temperature 570/560 °C and feed pump with electric drive (EDP) is characterized by a efficiency net of 0.25% higher than thermal schem with feed turbine pump (TDP). However, the supplied power unit with PED is less by 11.6 MW. Calculations of thermal schemes in all seasons of the year allowed us to determine the difference in the profit margin of units of the TDP and EDP. During the year the unit with the TDP provides the ability to obtain the profit margin by 1.55 million dollars more than the unit EDP. When using on the market subsidized price of electricity (Iran) marginal profit of a unit with TDP more at 7.25 million dollars.

  10. Quantifying the relevance of adaptive thermal comfort models in moderate thermal climate zones

    Hoof, van J.; Hensen, J.L.M.

    2007-01-01

    Standards governing thermal comfort evaluation are on a constant cycle of revision and public review. One of the main topics being discussed in the latest round was the introduction of an adaptive thermal comfort model, which now forms an optional part of ASHRAE Standard 55. Also on a national

  11. Monitoring Thermal Performance of Hollow Bricks with Different Cavity Fillers in Difference Climate Conditions

    Pavlík, Zbyšek; Jerman, Miloš; Fořt, Jan; Černý, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Hollow brick blocks have found widespread use in the building industry during the last decades. The increasing requirements to the thermal insulation properties of building envelopes given by the national standards in Europe led the brick producers to reduce the production of common solid bricks. Brick blocks with more or less complex systems of internal cavities replaced the traditional bricks and became dominant on the building ceramics market. However, contrary to the solid bricks where the thermal conductivity can easily be measured by standard methods, the complex geometry of hollow brick blocks makes the application of common techniques impossible. In this paper, a steady-state technique utilizing a system of two climatic chambers separated by a connecting tunnel for sample positioning is used for the determination of the thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal transmittance ( U value) of hollow bricks with the cavities filled by air, two different types of mineral wool, polystyrene balls, and foam polyurethane. The particular brick block is provided with the necessary temperature- and heat-flux sensors and thermally insulated in the tunnel. In the climatic chambers, different temperatures are set. After steady-state conditions are established in the measuring system, the effective thermal properties of the brick block are calculated using the measured data. Experimental results show that the best results are achieved with hydrophilic mineral wool as a cavity filler; the worst performance exhibits the brick block with air-filled cavities.

  12. Determining Thermal Specifications for Vegetated GREEN Roofs in Moderate Winter Climats

    Dr. Christoph Maria Ravesloot

    2015-01-01

    Because local weather conditions in moderate climates are changing constantly, heat transfer specifications of substrate and vegetation in vegetated green roofs also change accordingly. Nevertheless, it is assumed that vegetated green roofs can have a positive effect on the thermal performance of

  13. A control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage system

    Rostampour Samarin, Vahab; Bloemendal, J.M.; Jaxa-Rozen, M.; Keviczky, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a control-oriented model for combined building climate comfort and aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) system. In particular, we first provide a description of building operational systems together with control framework variables. We then focus on the derivation of an

  14. Evaluation of thermal perception in schoolyards under Mediterranean climate conditions

    Antoniadis, D.; Katsoulas, N.; Papanastasiou, D.; Christidou, V.; Kittas, C.

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to study qualitatively and quantitatively the thermal perception and corresponding heat stress conditions that prevail in two schoolyards in a coastal city in central Greece. For this purpose, meteorological parameters (i.e., wind speed, temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation) were recorded at 70 and 55 measuring points in the schoolyards, from 14:00 to 15:30 local time, during May and June of 2011. The measuring points were distributed so as to get measurements at points (a) directly exposed to the sun, (b) under the shadow of trees and building structures, and (c) near building structures. Cluster analysis was applied to group observations and revealed places that are microclimatically homogeneous. Thermal perception and heat stress conditions were assessed by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET, °C), and the results are presented in relevant charts. The impact of material's albedo, radiation's reflection by structures and obstacles, and different tree species on thermal perception and heat stress conditions was also assessed. The analysis showed that trees triggered a reduction of incident solar radiation that ranged between 79 and 94 % depending on tree's species, crown dimension, tree height, and leaf area. PET values were mainly affected by solar radiation and wind speed. Trees caused a reduction of up to 37 % in PET values, while a 1-m s-1 increase in wind speed triggered a reduction of 3.7-5.0 °C in PET value. The effective shading area in the two schoolyards was small, being 27.5 and 11 %. The results of this study could be exploited by urban planning managers when designing or improving the outdoor environment of a school complex.

  15. Simulation of thermal indoor climate in buildings by using human Projected Area Factors

    Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays many new and old buildings in Denmark have large glass surfaces. This is a consequence of the technical development of windows with low U-values that has made it possible to build houses with windows from floor to ceiling in northern climates. On the other hand if one is sitting close to...... for dynamic building thermal analysis. The method is demonstrated in a newer apartment with windows from floor to ceiling and shows how impotent it is to include the radiant effect from the glass sur-faces and how it influences the indoor thermal climate significantly.......Nowadays many new and old buildings in Denmark have large glass surfaces. This is a consequence of the technical development of windows with low U-values that has made it possible to build houses with windows from floor to ceiling in northern climates. On the other hand if one is sitting close...

  16. Squeezing of thermal and quantum fluctuations: Universal features

    Svensmark, Henrik; Flensberg, Karsten

    1993-01-01

    We study the classical and quantum fluctuations of a general damped forced oscillator close to a bifurcation instability. Near the instability point, the fluctuations are strongly phase correlated and are squeezed. In the limit of low damping, it is shown that the system has universal features when...... scaled with the damping. The same scaling law applies to the classical and to the quantum regimes. We furthermore show that the coupling to the environment is crucial in the generation of squeezed fluctuations....

  17. Awareness of Climate Change and Sustainable Development among Undergraduates from Two Selected Universities in Oyo State, Nigeria

    Agboola, Omowunmi Sola; Emmanuel, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated awareness of climate change and sustainable development among undergraduates in two universities: University of Ibadan, Ibadan and Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, Ogbomoso in Oyo State of Nigeria. This was aimed at increasing the knowledge of undergraduates on climate change and sustainable development. The study…

  18. Modifications of the Cornell University TRIGA reactor thermal column

    Aderhold, Howard C.

    1984-01-01

    Full text: The thermal column has been modified to provide a horizontal beam suitable for neutron radiography. A hole of circular cross-section was cut along the axis of the thermal column through graphite and lead from the outer surface of the 'sliding block' to a point about 10 cm short of the curved end of the thermal column. The section through the sliding block is 15.2 cm in diameter and the remaining section is 10.2 cm in diameter. The outer or 15.2-cm section is lined with a 6-mm thick Boral sleeve, and the inner or 10.2-cm section contains a tapered collimator of Pd-Cd alloy inside a 3-mm thick Boral sleeve, a defining aperture formed by a 2.5-cm diameter hole in a 6-mm Boral plate, and, at the core end, a 5.1-cm thick bismuth absorber disk. All of these components are enclosed in an aluminum housing. From the sliding block outwards - a distance of 122 cm across the hohlraum and through the graphite at the exit end, plus another 122 cm through the rolling door - no drilling was necessary since removable plugs could be taken out to form a tapered hole of square cross section with stepped widths of 30.5, 33.0, and 38.1 cm. An aluminum housing fitting snugly in this hole is lined with Boral or a gadolinium-bearing paint and is joined with a rubber gasket to the inner housing, so that the entire length can be purged with helium. This system provides an l/d ratio of 1/140 and a useful beam area at the exposure point of 38 cm x 38 cm. At 480 kW, the neutron flux there is 10 6 n/cm 2 sec and the gamma flux is 17 R/hr. Figure 2 is a reproduction of the first radiograph taken with the facility. (author)

  19. Performativity Double Standards and the Sexual Orientation Climate at a Southern Liberal Arts University.

    Byron, Reginald A; Lowe, Maria R; Billingsley, Brianna; Tuttle, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    This study employs quantitative and qualitative methods to examine how heterosexual, bisexual, and gay students rate and describe a Southern, religiously affiliated university's sexual orientation climate. Using qualitative data, queer theory, and the concept tyranny of sexualized spaces, we explain why non-heterosexual students have more negative perceptions of the university climate than heterosexual male students, in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. Although heterosexual students see few problems with the campus sexual orientation climate, bisexual men and women describe being challenged on the authenticity of their orientation, and lesbian and, to a greater extent, gay male students report harassment and exclusion in a number of settings. These distinct processes are influenced by broader heteronormative standards. We also shed much-needed light on how gendered sexual performativity double standards within an important campus microclimate (fraternity parties) contribute to creating a tyrannical sexualized space and negatively affect overall campus climate perceptions.

  20. Mainstreaming climate adaptation in the Asia-Pacific: Role of networks and universities in promoting climate literacy

    Ling, F. H.; Yasuhara, K.; Tamura, M.; Tabayashi, Y.; Mimura, N.

    2011-12-01

    As the international climate regime continues to evolve, adaptation has emerged as a key component of responding to climate change. Due to limited scientific, financial, and institutional capacities, as well as perceived competition with multiple priorities, strategies for adaptive measures are not being implemented at the pace needed to address current and future climate risks. Adaptation networks, both global and in the Asia-Pacific region, have formed to overcome the lack of sufficient communication and collaboration among different stakeholders and domains of expertise. In this presentation, we discuss various efforts at Ibaraki University in Japan to integrate technical and social aspects of adaptation into a multidisciplinary effort, to foster synergies among various networks, to clarify the roles of developed and developing countries, and to develop a standard for assessing vulnerability and adaptability across various geographical contexts.

  1. Climate-smart agriculture: possible roles of agricultural universities in a strengthened Norwegian climate change engagement in Africa

    Synnevaag, Gry; Lambrou, Jayne Patricia

    2012-02-15

    The recent rise in the number of food insecure people in the world, coupled with incidences of crop failure due to adverse weather, have made world leaders increasingly aware that future climate change may severely limit our ability to feed the growing population towards 2050. So far, in addition to industrial emission control, Norwegian efforts to restrict climate change have focused on mitigation through forest protection (REDD+) and clean energy (Energy+). A third area of attention is climate-smart agriculture. Producing food in a more 'climate smart' way is seen as having three advantages: 1) Providing food for an increasing population, 2) maintaining food production under a changing climate, and 3) reducing greenhouse gas emission from agriculture while absorbing carbon in vegetation and soil. This report explores how Norway can support Africa's efforts to make agriculture more climate-smart through support to African universities.Among the three benefits of climate-smart agriculture, African farmers will be most inclined to focus on the two first, the production increase and the adaptation. Mitigation may require external support. African leaders are in the forefront of developing policies and institutional arrangements for climate-smart agriculture. Among other initiatives, the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme under the African Union is in the process of preparing member states for substantial investments in agriculture. Capacity building and the generation of new knowledge are essential for the achievement of climate-smart agriculture. Given the long history of Norwegian support to agricultural research and higher agricultural education in several African countries, Norway can, without doubt, make significant contributions to African food security, now and in the future.Norwegian support to climate-smart agriculture can be based on its experience with REDD+ and Energy+ initiatives. The possible roles include: 1) Human and institutional

  2. Climate-smart agriculture: possible roles of agricultural universities in a strengthened Norwegian climate change engagement in Africa

    Synnevaag, Gry; Lambrou, Jayne Patricia

    2012-02-15

    The recent rise in the number of food insecure people in the world, coupled with incidences of crop failure due to adverse weather, have made world leaders increasingly aware that future climate change may severely limit our ability to feed the growing population towards 2050. So far, in addition to industrial emission control, Norwegian efforts to restrict climate change have focused on mitigation through forest protection (REDD+) and clean energy (Energy+). A third area of attention is climate-smart agriculture. Producing food in a more 'climate smart' way is seen as having three advantages: 1) Providing food for an increasing population, 2) maintaining food production under a changing climate, and 3) reducing greenhouse gas emission from agriculture while absorbing carbon in vegetation and soil. This report explores how Norway can support Africa's efforts to make agriculture more climate-smart through support to African universities.Among the three benefits of climate-smart agriculture, African farmers will be most inclined to focus on the two first, the production increase and the adaptation. Mitigation may require external support. African leaders are in the forefront of developing policies and institutional arrangements for climate-smart agriculture. Among other initiatives, the Comprehensive Africa Agriculture Development Programme under the African Union is in the process of preparing member states for substantial investments in agriculture. Capacity building and the generation of new knowledge are essential for the achievement of climate-smart agriculture. Given the long history of Norwegian support to agricultural research and higher agricultural education in several African countries, Norway can, without doubt, make significant contributions to African food security, now and in the future.Norwegian support to climate-smart agriculture can be based on its experience with REDD+ and Energy+ initiatives. The possible roles include: 1) Human

  3. Organizational climate with gender equity and burnout among university academics in Japan

    TAKA, Fumiaki; NOMURA, Kyoko; HORIE, Saki; TAKEMOTO, Keisuke; TAKEUCHI, Masumi; TAKENOSHITA, Shinichi; MURAKAMI, Aya; HIRAIKE, Haruko; OKINAGA, Hiroko; SMITH, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relationships between the perception of organizational climate with gender equity and psychological health among 94 women and 211 men in a Japanese private university in 2015 using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (i.e., personal, work-related and student-related burnout). Perceptions of organizational climate with respect to gender equity were measured with two scales including organizational engagement with a gender equal society in the workplace (consisting of three domains...

  4. Chapter 2. The University as a Living Laboratory for Climate Solutions

    Matthew St. Clair

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The story of the University of California’s institutional goal of de-carbonization by 2025, already years in the making, was a key feature of a systemwide Summit on carbon neutrality and climate mitigation in the Fall of 2015. This report, commissioned by the Summit, represents a unique multi-campus, interdisciplinary collaboration, an attempt by one university system to harness its diverse intellectual resources to address the crisis of global climate disruption. This chapter puts the Bending the Curve report into the context of the University of California’s (UC carbon neutrality and sustainability initiatives and offers one example of how a large organization can become a “living laboratory”— a research, teaching and learning, and innovation testbed—for climate solutions.

  5. Field study of thermal comfort in non-air-conditioned buildings in a tropical island climate.

    Lu, Shilei; Pang, Bo; Qi, Yunfang; Fang, Kun

    2018-01-01

    The unique geographical location of Hainan makes its climate characteristics different from inland areas in China. The thermal comfort of Hainan also owes its uniqueness to its tropical island climate. In the past decades, there have been very few studies on thermal comfort of the residents in tropical island areas in China. A thermal environment test for different types of buildings in Hainan and a thermal comfort field investigation of 1944 subjects were conducted over a period of about two months. The results of the survey data show that a high humidity environment did not have a significant impact on human comfort. The neutral temperature for the residents in tropical island areas was 26.1 °C, and the acceptable temperature range of thermal comfort was from 23.1 °C to 29.1 °C. Residents living in tropical island areas showed higher heat resistance capacity, but lower cold tolerance than predicted. The neutral temperature for females (26.3 °C) was higher than for males (25.8 °C). Additionally, females were more sensitive to air temperature than males. The research conclusions can play a guiding role in the thermal environment design of green buildings in Hainan Province. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Organizational Climate and Work Addiction in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, 2014: a Case Study.

    Rafiee, Noora; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Zare, Vahid; Mohammadi, Mahan

    2015-12-01

    The occupational nature of employees in headquarters units of the University requires them to deal with support issues. Thus, there is some pressure on these employees to complete their assignments on time so that employees in the line units can accurately and expeditiously perform their duties. As a result, work addiction behaviors are sometimes observed among the headquarters personnel. Considering the importance of work addiction and recognizing the factors that intensify it, this study investigated the relationship between organizational climate and the work addiction of headquarters personnel at the Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. This descriptive-analytic study was conducted using stratified random sampling of 151 University employees in 2014. The data collection tool was an organizational climate questionnaire, which was supplemented by the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART). The data were analyzed using the Pearson test, Spearman test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Kruskal-Wallis test using IBM-SPSS version 20. The findings of this study showed that the organizational climate was at a moderate level, and employees were in the danger level in terms of work addiction. In addition, among the dimensions of organizational climate, the risk dimension had a significant relationship with work addiction (porganizational climate score was low and the work addiction score was at the high-risk level, this issue demands more attention of senior managers and human resource officers of organizations to improve the organizational climate and increase employees' awareness of work addiction.

  7. School Climate in the Engineering and Architecture Campus of a Mexican Public University: Students’ Perspectives

    María del Carmen Sandoval-Caraveo

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to identify the school climate that prevails in the students of the faculty of Engineering and Architecture in a Mexican public University. This study was conducted in response to a need to take care of the recommendations of the agencies evaluating the educational programs. It was done with a quantitative approach, of a descriptive and correlational type with non-experimental transactional design. The studied dimensions of the school climate were: organization structure, functionality, pedagogical practices, climate between peer interaction and satisfaction. The data were collected using a Likert scale questionnaire, with a reliability of .880 of Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient and validity through confirmatory factorial analysis. The results obtained from the descriptive statistics pointed the favorable school climate in peer interaction and pedagogical practices. Organizational structure, however, was the lowest rated classroom climate dimension. ANOVA results showed significant statistical differences between the school climate and educational programs, the years that the students have remained in the university, the age and the school cycle. Pearson’s correlation analysis revealed weak and negative correlation between school climate and student age.

  8. Climatic zoning for the calculation of the thermal demand of buildings in Extremadura (Spain)

    Moral, Francisco J.; Pulido, Elena; Ruíz, Antonio; López, Fernando

    2017-08-01

    The present work reports on a methodology to assess the climatic severity of a particular geographic region as compared to specific information available in the current regulations. The viability for each of the 387 municipalities in the Autonomous Community of Extremadura (Spain) is analysed, making a distinction between those with reliable climate reports and those for which no such information is available. In the case study, although the weather conditions in Extremadura are quite homogeneous according to the Spanish Technical Building Code (STBC 2015) classification and most areas are associated to zone C4 (soft winters and hot summers), the southern area in the region is associated to zone D1, similar to the north of Spain, where winters and summers are cool, which does not coincide with the actual climate in the south of Extremadura. The general climatic homogeneity in Extremadura was also highlighted with the new procedure, predominating zone C4, but unexpected or unreal climatic zoning was not generated, giving place to a consistent spatial distribution of zones throughout the region. Consequently, the proposed method allows a more accurate climatic zoning of any region in agreement with the Spanish legislation on energy efficiency in buildings, which would enhance the setting of thermal demand rates according to the actual climatic characterisation of the area in which a particular municipality is located.

  9. Thermal history and comfort in a Brazilian subtropical climate: a 'cool' addiction hypothesis

    Renata De Vecchi

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, there is a rising trend for commercial buildings to use air conditioning to provide indoor thermal comfort. This paper focuses on the impact of prolonged exposure to indoor air-conditioned environments on occupants' thermal acceptability and preferences in a mixed-mode building in Brazil. Questionnaires were administered while indoor microclimatic measurements were carried out (i.e., air temperature, radiant air temperature, air speed and humidity. Results suggest significant differences in occupants' thermal acceptability and cooling preferences based on thermal history; differences were found between groups based on different physical characteristics (i.e., different gender and body condition. The findings also indicated a significant potential to implement temperature fluctuations indoors when occupants are exposed to air conditioning environments in warm and humid climates.

  10. Low acclimation capacity of narrow-ranging thermal specialists exposes susceptibility to global climate change.

    Markle, Tricia M; Kozak, Kenneth H

    2018-05-01

    Thermal acclimation is hypothesized to offer a selective advantage in seasonal habitats and may underlie disparities in geographic range size among closely-related species with similar ecologies. Understanding this relationship is also critical for identifying species that are more sensitive to warming climates. Here, we study North American plethodontid salamanders to investigate whether acclimation ability is associated with species' latitudinal extents and the thermal range of the environments they inhabit. We quantified variation in thermal physiology by measuring standard metabolic rate (SMR) at different test and acclimation temperatures for 16 species of salamanders with varying latitudinal extents. A phylogenetically-controlled Markov chain Monte Carlo generalized linear mixed model (MCMCglmm) was then employed to determine whether there are differences in SMR between wide- and narrow-ranging species at different acclimation temperatures. In addition, we tested for a relationship between the acclimation ability of species and the environmental temperature ranges they inhabit. Further, we investigated if there is a trade-off between critical thermal maximum (CTMax) and thermal acclimation ability. MCMCglmm results show a significant difference in acclimation ability between wide and narrow-ranging temperate salamanders. Salamanders with wide latitudinal distributions maintain or slightly increase SMR when subjected to higher test and acclimation temperatures, whereas several narrow-ranging species show significant metabolic depression. We also found significant, positive relationships between acclimation ability and environmental thermal range, and between acclimation ability and CTMax. Wide-ranging salamander species exhibit a greater capacity for thermal acclimation than narrow-ranging species, suggesting that selection for acclimation ability may have been a key factor enabling geographic expansion into areas with greater thermal variability. Further

  11. Linking the Climate and Thermal Phase Curve of 55 Cancri e

    Hammond, Mark; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2017-01-01

    The thermal phase curve of 55 Cancri e is the first measurement of the temperature distribution of a tidally locked Super-Earth, but raises a number of puzzling questions about the planet's climate. The phase curve has a high amplitude and peak offset, suggesting that it has a significant eastward hot-spot shift as well as a large day-night temperature contrast. We use a general circulation model to model potential climates, and investigate the relation between bulk atmospheric composition an...

  12. Longitudinal thermal heterogeneity in rivers and refugia for coldwater species: Effects of scale and climate change

    Fullerton, A.H.; Torgersen, Christian E.; Lawer, J.J.; Steel, E. A.; Ebersole, J.L.; Lee, S.Y.

    2018-01-01

    Climate-change driven increases in water temperature pose challenges for aquatic organisms. Predictions of impacts typically do not account for fine-grained spatiotemporal thermal patterns in rivers. Patches of cooler water could serve as refuges for anadromous species like salmon that migrate during summer. We used high-resolution remotely sensed water temperature data to characterize summer thermal heterogeneity patterns for 11,308 km of second–seventh-order rivers throughout the Pacific Northwest and northern California (USA). We evaluated (1) water temperature patterns at different spatial resolutions, (2) the frequency, size, and spacing of cool thermal patches suitable for Pacific salmon (i.e., contiguous stretches ≥ 0.25 km, ≤ 15 °C and ≥ 2 °C, aooler than adjacent water), and (3) potential influences of climate change on availability of cool patches. Thermal heterogeneity was nonlinearly related to the spatial resolution of water temperature data, and heterogeneity at fine resolution ( 2.7 and  5.7 and < 49.4 km. Thermal heterogeneity varied among rivers, some of which had long uninterrupted stretches of warm water ≥ 20 °C, and others had many smaller cool patches. Our models predicted little change in future thermal heterogeneity among rivers, but within-river patterns sometimes changed markedly compared to contemporary patterns. These results can inform long-term monitoring programs as well as near-term climate-adaptation strategies.

  13. A Structural Equation Model of Knowledge Management Based On Organizational Climate in Universities

    F. Nazem; M. Mozaiini; A. Seifi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide a structural model of knowledge management in universities based on organizational climate. The population of the research included all employees of Islamic Azad University (IAU). The sample consisted of 1590 employees selected using stratified and cluster random sampling method. The research instruments were two questionnaires which were administered in 78 IAU branches and education centers: Sallis and Jones’s (2002) Knowledge Management Questi...

  14. A case study to estimate thermal conductivity of ABS in Cold Climate Chamber

    Mughal, Umair Najeeb; Makarova, Marina; Virk, Muhammad Shakeel; Polanco Pinerez, Geanette

    2015-01-01

    Open Access (Romeo Green journal), publishers version / PDF may be used http://www.scirp.org/journal/wjet/ Non steady state thermal conductivity of ABS was estimated using an analytical approach in a Cold Climate Chamber at ?10?C and ?14?C. Two hollow cylinders of ABS of varying thickness were used to estimate the conductivity. The material was porous but the porosity was unknown. This paper is a case study to understand, if it is reasonable to estimate the thermal conductivity using th...

  15. An investigation of thermal comfort inside a bus during heating period within a climatic chamber.

    Pala, Uzeyir; Oz, H Ridvan

    2015-05-01

    By this study, it was aimed to define a testing and calculation model for thermal comfort assessment of a bus HVAC design and to compare effects of changing parameters on passenger's thermal comfort. For this purpose, a combined theoretical and experimental work during heating period inside a coach was carried out. The bus was left under 20 °C for more than 7 h within a climatic chamber and all heat sources were started at the beginning of a standard test. To investigate effects of fast transient conditions on passengers' physiology and thermal comfort, temperatures, air humidity and air velocities were measured. Human body was considered as one complete piece composed of core and skin compartments and the Transient Energy Balance Model developed by Gagge et al. in 1971 was used to calculate changes in thermal parameters between passenger bodies and bus interior environment. Depending on the given initial and environmental conditions, the graphs of passengers Thermal Sensation and Thermal Discomfort Level were found. At the end, a general mathematical model supported with a related experimental procedure was developed for the use of automotive HVAC engineers and scientists working on thermal comfort as a human dimension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  16. Safety climate in university and college laboratories: impact of organizational and individual factors.

    Wu, Tsung-Chih; Liu, Chi-Wei; Lu, Mu-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Universities and colleges serve to be institutions of education excellence; however, problems in the areas of occupational safety may undermine such goals. Occupational safety must be the concern of every employee in the organization, regardless of job position. Safety climate surveys have been suggested as important tools for measuring the effectiveness and improvement direction of safety programs. Thus, this study aims to investigate the influence of organizational and individual factors on safety climate in university and college laboratories. Employees at 100 universities and colleges in Taiwan were mailed a self-administered questionnaire survey; the response rate was 78%. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed that organizational category of ownership, the presence of a safety manager and safety committee, gender, age, title, accident experience, and safety training significantly affected the climate. Among them, accident experience and safety training affected the climate with practical significance. The authors recommend that managers should address important factors affecting safety issues and then create a positive climate by enforcing continuous improvements.

  17. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  18. Real-Time Climate Simulations in the Interactive 3D Game Universe Sandbox ²

    Goldenson, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    Exploration in an open-ended computer game is an engaging way to explore climate and climate change. Everyone can explore physical models with real-time visualization in the educational simulator Universe Sandbox ² (universesandbox.com/2), which includes basic climate simulations on planets. I have implemented a time-dependent, one-dimensional meridional heat transport energy balance model to run and be adjustable in real time in the midst of a larger simulated system. Universe Sandbox ² is based on the original game - at its core a gravity simulator - with other new physically-based content for stellar evolution, and handling collisions between bodies. Existing users are mostly science enthusiasts in informal settings. We believe that this is the first climate simulation to be implemented in a professionally developed computer game with modern 3D graphical output in real time. The type of simple climate model we've adopted helps us depict the seasonal cycle and the more drastic changes that come from changing the orbit or other external forcings. Users can alter the climate as the simulation is running by altering the star(s) in the simulation, dragging to change orbits and obliquity, adjusting the climate simulation parameters directly or changing other properties like CO2 concentration that affect the model parameters in representative ways. Ongoing visuals of the expansion and contraction of sea ice and snow-cover respond to the temperature calculations, and make it accessible to explore a variety of scenarios and intuitive to understand the output. Variables like temperature can also be graphed in real time. We balance computational constraints with the ability to capture the physical phenomena we wish to visualize, giving everyone access to a simple open-ended meridional energy balance climate simulation to explore and experiment with. The software lends itself to labs at a variety of levels about climate concepts including seasons, the Greenhouse effect

  19. University-Level Teaching of Anthropogenic Global Climate Change (AGCC) via Student Inquiry

    Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews university-level efforts to improve understanding of anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) through curricula that enable student scientific inquiry. We examined 152 refereed publications and proceedings from academic conferences and selected 26 cases of inquiry learning that overcome specific challenges to AGCC teaching.…

  20. PCM thermal storage design in buildings: Experimental studies and applications to solaria in cold climates

    Guarino, Francesco; Athienitis, Andreas; Cellura, Maurizio; Bastien, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This paper analyzes the performance of a building-integrated thermal storage system. • A wall opposing a glazed surface serves as phase change materials thermal storage. • The study is based on both experimental and simulation studies. • Heat is stored and released up to 6–8 h after solar irradiation. • Yearly heating requirements are reduced by 17% in a cold climate. - Abstract: As energy availability and demand often do not match, thermal energy storage plays a crucial role to take advantage of solar radiation in buildings: in particular, latent heat storage via phase-change material is particularly attractive due to its ability to provide high energy storage density. This paper analyzes the performance of a building-integrated thermal storage system to increase the energy performances of solaria in a cold climate. A wall opposing a highly glazed façade (south oriented) is used as thermal storage with phase change materials embedded in the wall. The study is based on both experimental and simulation studies. The concept considered is particularly suited to retrofits in a solarium since the PCM can be added as layers facing the large window on the vertical wall directly opposite. Results indicate that this PCM thermal storage system is effective during the whole year in a cold climate. The thermal storage allows solar radiation to be stored and released up to 6–8 h after solar irradiation: this has effects on both the reduction of daily temperature swings (up to 10 °C) and heating requirements (more than 17% on a yearly base). Coupling of the thermal storage system with natural ventilation is important during mid-seasons and summer to improve the PCM charge-discharge cycles and to reduce overheating. Results also show that cooling is less important than heating, reaching up to 20% of the overall annual energy requirements for the city of Montreal, Canada. Moreover, the phase change temperature range of the material used (18–24

  1. Climate Change Education at the University of Washington: Bridging Academic Degrees, Departments and Disciplines

    Thompson, L.; Bertram, M. A.

    2012-12-01

    Education on climate change occurs in many departments at large research universities, but providing a coordinated educational experience for students in this topic is challenging. Departmental boundaries, accounting for student credit hours, and curricula inertia create roadblocks to the creation of interdisciplinary curriculum for both graduate and undergraduate students. We describe a hierarchy of interdisciplinary programs that reach students from seniors in high school to graduate students, targeting students from a variety of disciplines. The UWHS (University of Washington in the High School) program allows high school teachers to be trained to teach UW courses to their own high school students at their own school. The students who enroll receive a UW grade and credit for the course (as well as high school credit). A UWHS course on Climate and Climate Change (Atmospheric Sciences 211) was created in 2011 supported by training to high school science teachers on the fundamentals of climate science. For the 2012-13 academic year we anticipate at least 5 schools in Washington State will be offering this course. Once students matriculate at UW, 211 serves as a prerequisite for the Climate Minor that began in 2011. The minor is hosted by the departments of Atmospheric Sciences, Earth and Space Sciences and Oceanography, offering instruction in three focus areas: climate chemistry and biology, the physical climate, and past climate and ice. Students also take an integrative seminar where they are required to communicate to both scientific and non-scientific audiences some topic in climate science. Students enrolled in graduate programs at UW can participate in the Graduate Certificate in Climate Science that began 2008. The certificate gives students instruction in climate science covering the same topic areas as the minor and with a capstone project where student communicate some aspect of climate science to a non-physical science audience. Projects have included

  2. Fossil Fuel Industry Funding of Climate-Relevant Research at U.S. Universities

    Franta, B.; Supran, G.

    2017-12-01

    Commercial producers of lead, tobacco, petroleum, and other products have funded extensive scholarly research in ways designed to confuse the public about the dangers of those products and thwart regulation [1-3]. For example, strategy documentation of the U.S. oil and gas industry from the late 1990s describes using selective support for scientists as a strategy for creating an atmosphere of debate and uncertainty, with the ultimate goal of delaying and defeating climate policies [4]. In this context, we systematically examine current funding from commercial fossil fuel interests of climate-relevant research - such as energy technology and climate policy research - in U.S. universities. We quantify such funding using charitable giving databases, university websites, and other publicly available records. We find that, especially among the most influential universities, climate-related research programs are frequently dominated by funding from fossil fuel interests. Moreover, these relationships sometimes afford funders privileges including formal control over research directions. This work represents an advance in mapping the presence of commercial fossil fuel interests in academia and may contribute to discussions of appropriate funding systems for climate-relevant research. 1. Markowitz, G. and D. Rosner, Lead Wars: The Politics of Science and the Fate of America's Children. 1st ed. 2013: University of California Press. 2. Brandt, A.M., Inventing Conflicts of Interest: A History of Tobacco Industry Tactics. American Journal of Public Health, 2012. 102(1): p. 63-71. 3. Oreskes, N. and E.M. Conway, Merchants of Doubt: How a Handful of Scientists Obscured the Truth on Issues from Tobacco Smoke to Global Warming. 2011: Bloomsbury Press. 4. Walker, J., Global Climate Science Communications Action Plan. 1998. Workshop held at the headquarters of the American Petroleum Institute.

  3. Energy Choices and Climate Change: A New Interactive Feature on Windows to the Universe

    Gardiner, L. S.; Russell, R. M.; Ward, D.; Johnson, R. M.; Henderson, S.; Foster, S. Q.

    2009-12-01

    We have developed a new, self-paced online module to foster understanding of how choices made about energy production and energy use affect greenhouse gas emissions and climate change. The module, entitled “Energy Choices and Climate Change” is available on Windows to the Universe (www.windows.ucar.edu), an extensive educational Web site used by over 20 million people each year. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” provides a new way to look at issues related to energy and climate change, emphasizing the climate implications of the choices we make. “Energy Choices and Climate Change” allows users to explore two different scenarios through which they make decisions about energy production or use. In the “Ruler of the World” scenario, the user is given the authority to make decisions about the mix of energy sources that will be used worldwide with the aim of reducing emissions while meeting global energy demand and monitoring costs and societal implications. In “The Joules Family” scenario, the user makes decisions about how to change the way a hypothetical family of four uses energy at home and for transportation with the aim of reducing the family’s carbon emissions and fossil fuel use while keeping costs less than long-term savings. While this module is intended for a general public audience, an associated teacher’s guide provides support for secondary educators using the module with students. Windows to the Universe is a project of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Education and Outreach. Funding for the Energy Choices and Climate Change online module was provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.

  4. The Influence of Organizational Climate on Work Productivity Library Staff at CISRAL Padjadjaran University

    Dewi Nurma Hastuti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui (1 Pengaruh iklim organisasi terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (2 Pengaruh struktur terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (3 Pengaruh standar-standar terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran (4 Pengaruh tanggung jawab terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran. Penelitian ini dilakukan pada 25 orang tenaga perpustakaan CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran. Metode penelitian ini menggunakan statistik deskriptif. Berdasarkan hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa (1 Iklim organisasi memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (2 Struktur memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, (3 Standar memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran, dan (4 Tanggung jawab memiliki pengaruh signifikan terhadap produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran. Iklim organisasi pada CISRAL Universitas Padjadjaran dikategorikan kondusif, namun sebaiknya perpustakaan dapat menciptakan iklim organisasi yang lebih kondusif dan nyaman agar produktivitas kerja tenaga perpustakaan semakin meningkat.   Kata Kunci : Iklim Organisasi, Tenaga Perpustakaan, Produktivitas Kerja   Abstract: This study aims to find out (1 The influence of organizational climate on work productivity of librarian at Padjadjaran University, CISRAL (2 The Influences of structure on work productivity of librarian at CISRAL Padjadjaran University (3 The influence of standards on work productivity of librarian at CISRAL University of Padjadjaran (4 The influence of responsibility on work productivity librarian at CISRAL Padjadjaran University

  5. Heat remains unaccounted for in thermal physiology and climate change research [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Andreas D. Flouris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the aftermath of the Paris Agreement, there is a crucial need for scientists in both thermal physiology and climate change research to develop the integrated approaches necessary to evaluate the health, economic, technological, social, and cultural impacts of 1.5°C warming. Our aim was to explore the fidelity of remote temperature measurements for quantitatively identifying the continuous redistribution of heat within both the Earth and the human body. Not accounting for the regional distribution of warming and heat storage patterns can undermine the results of thermal physiology and climate change research. These concepts are discussed herein using two parallel examples: the so-called slowdown of the Earth’s surface temperature warming in the period 1998-2013; and the controversial results in thermal physiology, arising from relying heavily on core temperature measurements. In total, the concept of heat is of major importance for the integrity of systems, such as the Earth and human body. At present, our understanding about the interplay of key factors modulating the heat distribution on the surface of the Earth and in the human body remains incomplete. Identifying and accounting for the interconnections among these factors will be instrumental in improving the accuracy of both climate models and health guidelines.

  6. Effects of seasonal and climate variations on calves' thermal comfort and behaviour.

    Tripon, Iulian; Cziszter, Ludovic Toma; Bura, Marian; Sossidou, Evangelia N

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the effect of season and climate variations on thermal comfort and behaviour of 6-month-old dairy calves housed in a semi-opened shelter to develop animal-based indicators for assessing animal thermal comfort. The ultimate purpose was to further exploit the use of those indicators to prevent thermal stress by providing appropriate care to the animals. Measurements were taken for winter and summer seasons. Results showed that season significantly influenced (P ≤ 0.01) the lying down behaviour of calves by reducing the time spent lying, from 679.9 min in winter to 554.1 min in summer. Moreover, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.01) on feeding behaviour. In detail, the total length of feeding periods was shorter in winter, 442.1 min in comparison to 543.5 min in summer. Time spent drinking increased significantly (P ≤ 0.001), from 11.9 min in winter to 26.9 min in summer. Furthermore, season had a significant influence (P ≤ 0.001) on self grooming behaviour which was 5.5 times longer in duration in winter than in summer (1,336 s vs 244 s). It was concluded that calves' thermal comfort is affected by seasonal and climate variations and that this can be assessed by measuring behaviour with animal-based indicators, such as lying down, resting, standing up, feeding, rumination, drinking and self grooming. The indicators developed may be a useful tool to prevent animal thermal stress by providing appropriate housing and handling to calves under seasonal and climate challenge.

  7. Thermal comfort in urban green spaces: a survey on a Dutch university campus

    Wang, Yafei; Groot, de Dolf; Bakker, Frank; Wörtche, Heinrich; Leemans, Rik

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the influence of urban green infrastructure (UGI) on outdoor human thermal comfort, a survey and physical measurements were performed at the campus of the University of Groningen, The Netherlands, in spring and summer 2015. Three hundred eighty-nine respondents were interviewed

  8. University Physics Students' Ideas of Thermal Radiation Expressed in Open Laboratory Activities Using Infrared Cameras

    Haglund, Jesper; Melander, Emil; Weiszflog, Matthias; Andersson, Staffan

    2017-01-01

    Background: University physics students were engaged in open-ended thermodynamics laboratory activities with a focus on understanding a chosen phenomenon or the principle of laboratory apparatus, such as thermal radiation and a heat pump. Students had access to handheld infrared (IR) cameras for their investigations. Purpose: The purpose of the…

  9. Thermal performance of heavy-weight and light-weight steel frame construction approaches in the central Pretoria climate

    Kumirai, T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available -1 Journal for New Generation Sciences Thermal performance of heavy-weight and light-weight steel frame construction approaches in the central Pretoria climate T Kumirai and DCU Conradie Built Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial...

  10. Implications of climate and outdoor thermal comfort on tourism: the case of Italy

    Salata, Ferdinando; Golasi, Iacopo; Proietti, Riccardo; de Lieto Vollaro, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Whether a journey is pleasant or not usually depends on the climatic conditions which permit to perform outdoor activities. The perception of climatic conditions, determined by physiological and psychological factors, can vary according to different adaptation phenomena related to the person involved and the weather conditions of the place where they live. Studying the bioclimatology of a country characterized by a high flux of tourism, as e.g. Italy, can provide some important information about where and when is it better to visit a place. Some differences have to be specified though, like the local tourism, which is used to that type of climate, and international tourism, which is formed by people coming from countries with different types of climates. Therefore this paper examined the climatic conditions and outdoor thermal comfort through the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI) for local tourism and through the predicted mean vote (PMV) for international tourism. The cities examined were three (Venice, Rome and Palermo located in the North, Centre and South of Italy, respectively), where average information were collected every week for an entire year. Finally, a map of the entire Italian territory reporting the seasonal average values of these indexes was also reported.

  11. Sensitivity of the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum climate to cloud properties.

    Kiehl, Jeffrey T; Shields, Christine A

    2013-10-28

    The Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was a significant global warming event in the Earth's history (approx. 55 Ma). The cause for this warming event has been linked to increases in greenhouse gases, specifically carbon dioxide and methane. This rapid warming took place in the presence of the existing Early Eocene warm climate. Given that projected business-as-usual levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide reach concentrations of 800-1100 ppmv by 2100, it is of interest to study past climates where atmospheric carbon dioxide was higher than present. This is especially the case given the difficulty of climate models in simulating past warm climates. This study explores the sensitivity of the simulated pre-PETM and PETM periods to change in cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and microphysical properties of liquid water clouds. Assuming lower levels of CCN for both of these periods leads to significant warming, especially at high latitudes. The study indicates that past differences in cloud properties may be an important factor in accurately simulating past warm climates. Importantly, additional shortwave warming from such a mechanism would imply lower required atmospheric CO2 concentrations for simulated surface temperatures to be in reasonable agreement with proxy data for the Eocene.

  12. Implications of climate and outdoor thermal comfort on tourism: the case of Italy.

    Salata, Ferdinando; Golasi, Iacopo; Proietti, Riccardo; de Lieto Vollaro, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Whether a journey is pleasant or not usually depends on the climatic conditions which permit to perform outdoor activities. The perception of climatic conditions, determined by physiological and psychological factors, can vary according to different adaptation phenomena related to the person involved and the weather conditions of the place where they live. Studying the bioclimatology of a country characterized by a high flux of tourism, as e.g. Italy, can provide some important information about where and when is it better to visit a place. Some differences have to be specified though, like the local tourism, which is used to that type of climate, and international tourism, which is formed by people coming from countries with different types of climates. Therefore this paper examined the climatic conditions and outdoor thermal comfort through the Mediterranean Outdoor Comfort Index (MOCI) for local tourism and through the predicted mean vote (PMV) for international tourism. The cities examined were three (Venice, Rome and Palermo located in the North, Centre and South of Italy, respectively), where average information were collected every week for an entire year. Finally, a map of the entire Italian territory reporting the seasonal average values of these indexes was also reported.

  13. Mechanisms Controlling Species Responses to Climate Change: Thermal Tolerances and Shifting Range Limits. (Invited)

    Sage, R. F.; Bykova, O.; Coiner, H.

    2010-12-01

    One of the main effects of anthropogenic climate change will be widespread shifts in species distribution, with the common assumption that they will migrate to higher elevation and latitude. While this assumption is supported by migration patterns following climate warming in the past 20,000 years, it has not been rigorously evaluated in terms of physiological mechanism, despite the implication that migration in response to climate warming is controlled by some form of thermal adaptation. We have been evaluating the degree to which species range limits are controlled by physiological patterns of thermal tolerance in bioinvaders of North America. Bioinvaders presumably have few biotic controls over their distribution and thus are more likely to fully exploit their thermal niche. In cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum), the minimum lethal temperature in winter is -32C, which corresponds to the mean winter minimum temperature at its northern range limit. In red brome (Bromus rubens), the minimum lethal temperature is also near -32C, which is well below the minimum winter temperature near -20C that corresponds to its northern distribution limit. In kudzu (Pueraria lobata), the minimum lethal temperature is near -20C, which corresponds to the midwinter minimum at its northern distribution limit; however, overwintering kudzu tissues are insulated by soil and snow cover, and thus do not experience lethal temperatures at kudzu's northern range limit. These results demonstrate that some invasive species can exploit the potential range defined by their low temperature tolerance and thus can be predicted by mechanistic models to migrate to higher latitudes with moderation of winter cold. The distribution of other invaders such as kudzu and red brome are not controlled by tolerance of midwinter cold. Developing mechanistic models of their distributions, and how these might change with climate warming, will require extensive physiological study.

  14. Revisiting concepts of thermal physiology: Predicting responses of mammals to climate change.

    Mitchell, Duncan; Snelling, Edward P; Hetem, Robyn S; Maloney, Shane K; Strauss, Willem Maartin; Fuller, Andrea

    2018-02-26

    The accuracy of predictive models (also known as mechanistic or causal models) of animal responses to climate change depends on properly incorporating the principles of heat transfer and thermoregulation into those models. Regrettably, proper incorporation of these principles is not always evident. We have revisited the relevant principles of thermal physiology and analysed how they have been applied in predictive models of large mammals, which are particularly vulnerable, to climate change. We considered dry heat exchange, evaporative heat transfer, the thermoneutral zone and homeothermy, and we examined the roles of size and shape in the thermal physiology of large mammals. We report on the following misconceptions in influential predictive models: underestimation of the role of radiant heat transfer, misassignment of the role and misunderstanding of the sustainability of evaporative cooling, misinterpretation of the thermoneutral zone as a zone of thermal tolerance or as a zone of sustainable energetics, confusion of upper critical temperature and critical thermal maximum, overestimation of the metabolic energy cost of evaporative cooling, failure to appreciate that the current advantages of size and shape will become disadvantageous as climate change advances, misassumptions about skin temperature and, lastly, misconceptions about the relationship between body core temperature and its variability with body mass in large mammals. Not all misconceptions invalidate the models, but we believe that preventing inappropriate assumptions from propagating will improve model accuracy, especially as models progress beyond their current typically static format to include genetic and epigenetic adaptation that can result in phenotypic plasticity. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2018 British Ecological Society.

  15. Adaptation options to future climate of maize crop in Southern Italy examined using thermal sums

    Di Tommasi, P.; Alfieri, S. M.; Bonfante, A.; Basile, A.; De Lorenzi, F.; Menenti, M.

    2012-04-01

    Future climate scenarios predict substantial changes in air temperature within a few decades and agriculture needs to increase the capacity of adaptation both by changing spatial distribution of crops and shifting timing of management. In this context the prediction of future behaviour of crops with respect to present climate could be useful for farm and landscape management. In this work, thermal sums were used to simulate a maize crop in a future scenario, in terms of length of the growing season and of intervals between the main phenological stages. The area under study is the Sele plain (Campania Region), a pedo-climatic homogeneous area, one of the most agriculturally advanced and relevant flatland in Southern Italy. Maize was selected for the present study since it is extensively grown in the Sele Plain for water buffalofeeding,. Daily time-series of climatic data of the area under study were generated within the Italian project AGROSCENARI, and include maximum and minimum temperature and precipitation. The 1961-1990 and the 1998-2008 periods were compared to a future climate scenario (2021-2050). Future time series were generated using a statistical downscaling technique (Tomozeiu et al., 2007) from general circulation models (AOGCM). Differences in crop development length were calculated for different maize varieties under 3 management options for sowing time: custom date (typical for the area), before and after custom date. The interactions between future thermal regime and the length of growing season under the different management options were analyzed. Moreover, frequency of spells of high temperatures during the anthesis was examined. The feasibility of the early sowing option was discussed in relation with field trafficability at the beginning of the crop cycle. The work was carried out within the Italian national project AGROSCENARI funded by the Ministry for Agricultural, Food and Forest Policies (MIPAAF, D.M. 8608/7303/2008)

  16. Talent Management Strategies and Innovation Climate in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences

    Susan Bahrami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Talent management (TM strategies are one of the most important factors that can change the innovation climate. The main aim of this research was to investigate the influence of TM strategies on innovation climate in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study. The target population included all faculty members. In this research, 242 faculty members were selected through accidental sampling method. Data collection instruments were TM strategies questionnaire based on Collings and Mellahi’s model and innovation climate questionnaire based on Luthans et al. model. The data analysis was done using Pearson correlation, one way ANOVA, t-tests and regression model. Results: According to the results, TM strategies and innovation climates cores were 4.29±1.17 and 4.17±1.17, respectively. The results showed that there was a statistically significant relationship with TM strategies (open communication, employee development, rewards and recognitions, managing performance and open climate/culture and innovation climate. As a result, all research hypotheses were confirmed. Conclusion: TM strategies are a comprehensive, department wide program designated to improve the employees’ satisfaction, strengthen the workplace learning and help the employees better manage the changes and transitions. The study suggested that talent management strategies are a comprehensive, department wide program designated to improve the faculty member’s satisfaction, strengthen workplace learning and help the employees better manage the changes and transitions.

  17. Minority Pre-service Teachers' and Faculty Training on Climate Change Education in Delaware State University

    Ozbay, G.; Fox-Lykens, R.; Veron, D. E.; Rogers, M.; Merrill, J.; Harcourt, P.; Mead, H.

    2015-12-01

    Delaware State University is working toward infusing undergraduate education with climate change science and enhancing the climate change learning content of pre-service teacher preparation programs as part of the MADE-CLEAR project (www.madeclear.org). Faculty development workshops have been conducted to prepare and educate a cadre of faculty from different disciplines in global climate science literacy. Following the workshops, the faculty participants have integrated climate literacy tenets into their existing curriculum. Follow up meetings have helped the faculty members to use specific content in their curriculum such as greenhouse gases, atmospheric CO2, sea level rise, etc. Additional training provided to the faculty participants in pedagogical methods of climate change instruction to identify common misconceptions and barriers to student understanding. Some pre-service teachers were engaged in summer internships and learned how to become messenger of climate change science by the state parks staff during the summer. Workshops were offered to other pre-service teachers to teach them specific climate change topics with enhanced hands-on laboratory activities. The participants were provided examples of lesson plans and guided to develop their own lesson plans and present them. Various pedagogical methods have been explored for teaching climate change content to the participants. The pre-service teachers found the climate content very challenging and confusing. Training activities were modified to focus on targeted topics and modeling of pedagogical techniques for the faculty and pre-service teachers. Program evaluation confirms that the workshop participant show improved understanding of the workshop materials by the participants if they were introduced few climate topics. Learning how to use hands-on learning tools and preparing lesson plans are two of the challenges successfully implemented by the pre-service teachers. Our next activity includes pre

  18. Climate Chamber Experiment-Based Thermal Analysis and Design Improvement of Traditional Huizhou Masonry Walls

    Ling Dong

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Supported by thousands of years of history, traditional Huizhou buildings have played a vital role, both functionally and culturally, as residential buildings in China. Masonry walls are one of the key building components of a Huizhou building; however, the traditional Huizhou masonry wall structure, predominantly a hollow brick structure, cannot meet the local building energy code requirements, and thus needs to be improved. Within this context, the present research measures the actual thermal performance of traditional Huizhou masonry walls for historical buildings and new-built buildings, which results in mean thermal transmittances of 1.892 W/m2·K and 2.821 W/m2·K, respectively, while the local building energy code requires a minimum thermal transmittance of 1.500 W/m2·K. In order to improve the thermal performance of traditional Huizhou masonry walls, four design scenarios for wall insulation are proposed and tested in a climate chamber: (1 hollow brick wall with inorganic interior insulation mortar, (2 solid brick wall with inorganic interior insulation mortar, (3 hollow brick wall with foamed concrete, and (4 hollow brick wall with foamed concrete plus inorganic interior insulation mortar. The experiment results indicate that, among the four proposed design scenarios, only scenario 4 can significantly improve the thermal performance of Huizhou masonry walls and meet the building energy code requirements, with a mean thermal transmittance of 1.175 W/m2·K. This research lays the foundation for improving the thermal performance of Huizhou masonry walls with new insulation and construction technology, thereby helping to improve the quality of life of Huizhou residents while respecting the cultural significance of the traditional Huizhou building.

  19. Partnering International Universities to Enhance Climate Literacy through Interdisciplinary, Cross-Cultural Learning

    North, L. A.; Polk, J.; Strenecky, B.

    2015-12-01

    The climate change phenomenon will present complex, far-reaching challenges and opportunities, which will require leaders well-versed in interdisciplinary learning and international understanding. In an effort to develop the next generation of future leaders prepared for these challenges and opportunities, faculty from Western Kentucky University (WKU) and the University of Akureyri (UNAK), Iceland partnered to co-teach a course in climate change science and communication in Iceland. Students from both Institutions participated in the course to further enhance the cross-learning opportunity presented to the students. The 11-day course stationed out of three cities in Iceland, including Reykjavík, Vik, and Akureyri, the Icelandic gateway to the Arctic. In addition to undertaking field experiences such as hiking on glaciers, exploring ice caves, and touring geothermal plants, the group also hosted forums to discuss climate change with members of the Icelandic community, and completed The $100 Solution™ service-learning projects. A culminating point of the study abroad experience was a presentation by the students to persons from the University of Akureyri and representatives from the neighboring Icelandic communities about what they had learned about climate change science and communication during their travels. Through this experience, students were able to share their knowledge, which in turn gave them a deeper understanding of the issues they were learning throughout the study abroad program. In short, the program combined interdisciplinary learning, service-learning, and international understanding toward the goal of preparing the leaders of tomorrow with the skills to address climate change challenges.

  20. A University-Level Curriculum in Climate Change for SE Asia and the Asian Pacific

    Furniss, M. J.; Saah, D. S.; Hines, S. J.; Radel, C. A.; McGroddy, M. E.; Ganz, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    A university-level curriculum has been developed for the SE Asia and Asia Pacific region and is currently being implemented by 12+ universities; in Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea. The curriculum is supported by USAID (U.S. Agency for International Development) through the LEAF program (Lowering Emissions in Asian Forests), under the technical leadership of the U.S. Forest Service. Four modules have been developed: Basic Climate Change, Low-Emissions Land Use Planning, Social and Environmental Soundness, and Carbon Measurement and Monitoring. This presentation will focus on the Basic Climate Change module. This is a survey course that covers a wide range of climate change topics, including causes, effects, and responses. The level of detail in each of the covered topics is calibrated to current issues in the region. The module is elaborated in English and will be translated into the national language of the participating countries. The module is designed to be flexible and can be tailored to both degree and non-degree programs; as well as for trainings for natural resources professionals and policy-makers. Important training topics can be selected as short course trainings for practitioners and leaders working on climate change.

  1. Evolution of the earliest horses driven by climate change in the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

    Secord, Ross; Bloch, Jonathan I; Chester, Stephen G B; Boyer, Doug M; Wood, Aaron R; Wing, Scott L; Kraus, Mary J; McInerney, Francesca A; Krigbaum, John

    2012-02-24

    Body size plays a critical role in mammalian ecology and physiology. Previous research has shown that many mammals became smaller during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), but the timing and magnitude of that change relative to climate change have been unclear. A high-resolution record of continental climate and equid body size change shows a directional size decrease of ~30% over the first ~130,000 years of the PETM, followed by a ~76% increase in the recovery phase of the PETM. These size changes are negatively correlated with temperature inferred from oxygen isotopes in mammal teeth and were probably driven by shifts in temperature and possibly high atmospheric CO(2) concentrations. These findings could be important for understanding mammalian evolutionary responses to future global warming.

  2. Thermal controls of Yellowstone cutthroat trout and invasive fishes under climate change

    Al-Chokhachy, Robert K.; Alder, Jay R.; Hostetler, Steven W.; Gresswell, Robert E.; Shepard, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    We combine large observed data sets and dynamically downscaled climate data to explore historic and future (2050–2069) stream temperature changes over the topographically diverse Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem (elevation range = 824–4017 m). We link future stream temperatures with fish growth models to investigate how changing thermal regimes could influence the future distribution and persistence of native Yellowstone cutthroat trout (YCT) and competing invasive species. We find that stream temperatures during the recent decade (2000–2009) surpass the anomalously warm period of the 1930s. Climate simulations indicate air temperatures will warm by 1 °C to >3 °C over the Greater Yellowstone by mid-21st century, resulting in concomitant increases in 2050–2069 peak stream temperatures and protracted periods of warming from May to September (MJJAS). Projected changes in thermal regimes during the MJJAS growing season modify the trajectories of daily growth rates at all elevations with pronounced growth during early and late summer. For high-elevation populations, we find considerable increases in fish body mass attributable both to warming of cold-water temperatures and to extended growing seasons. During peak July to August warming, mid-21st century temperatures will cause periods of increased thermal stress, rendering some low-elevation streams less suitable for YCT. The majority (80%) of sites currently inhabited by YCT, however, display minimal loss (changes in total body mass by midcentury; we attribute this response to the fact that many low-elevation populations of YCT have already been extirpated by historical changes in land use and invasions of non-native species. Our results further suggest that benefits to YCT populations due to warmer stream temperatures at currently cold sites could be offset by the interspecific effects of corresponding growth of sympatric, non-native species, underscoring the importance of developing climate adaptation

  3. Evaluating Thermal Comfort in a Naturally Conditioned Office in a Temperate Climate Zone

    Andrés Gallardo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in an office that uses natural ventilation as the main conditioning strategy; the office is located in Quito-Ecuador. The performance of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 and the traditional PMV model are compared with reports of thermal environment satisfaction surveys presented simultaneously to all occupants of the office to determine which of the two comfort models is most suitable to evaluate the thermal environment. The results indicate that office occupants have developed some degree of adaptation to the climatic conditions of the city where the office is located (which only demands heating operation, and tend to accept and even prefer lower operative temperatures than those considered optimum by applying the PMV model. This is an indication that occupants of naturally conditioned buildings are usually able to match their comfort temperature to their normal environment. Therefore, the application of the adaptive model included in CEN Standard EN15251 seems like the optimal approach for evaluating thermal comfort in naturally conditioned buildings, because it takes into consideration the adaptive principle that indicates that if a change occurs such as to produce discomfort, people tend to react in ways which restore their comfort.

  4. Evaluation of outdoor human thermal sensation of local climate zones based on long-term database

    Unger, János; Skarbit, Nóra; Gál, Tamás

    2018-02-01

    This study gives a comprehensive picture on the diurnal and seasonal general outdoor human thermal sensation levels in different urban quarters based on long-term (almost 3 years) data series from urban and rural areas of Szeged, Hungary. It is supplemented with a case study dealing with an extreme heat wave period which is more and more frequent in the last decades in the study area. The intra-urban comparison is based on a thermal aspect classification of the surface, namely, the local climate zone (LCZ) system, on an urban meteorological station network and on the utilization of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) comfort index with categories calibrated to the local population. The selected stations represent sunlit areas well inside the LCZ areas. The results show that the seasonal and annual average magnitudes of the thermal load exerted by LCZs in the afternoon and evening follow their LCZ numbers. It is perfectly in line with the LCZ concept originally concentrating only on air temperature ( T air) differences between the zones. Our results justified the subdivision of urban areas into LCZs and give significant support to the application possibilities of the LCZ concept as a broader term covering different thermal phenomena.

  5. Measuring Student Improvement in Lower- and Upper-Level University Climate Science Courses

    Harris, S. E.; Taylor, S. V.; Schoonmaker, J. E.; Lane, E.; Francois, R. H.; Austin, P.

    2011-12-01

    What do university students know about climate? What do they learn in a climate course? On the second-to-last day of a course about global climate change, only 48% of our upper-level science students correctly answered a multiple-choice question about the greenhouse effect. The good news: improvement. Only 16% had answered correctly on the first day of class. The bad news: the learning opportunities we've provided appear to have missed more than half the class on a fundamental climate concept. To evaluate the effectiveness of instruction on student learning about climate, we have developed a prototype assessment tool, designed to be deployed as a low-stakes pre-post test. The items included were validated through student interviews to ensure that students interpret the wording and answer choices in the way we intend. This type of validated assessment, administered both at the beginning and end of term, with matched individuals, provides insight regarding the baseline knowledge with which our students enter a course, and the impact of that course on their learning. We administered test items to students in (1) an upper-level climate course for science majors and (2) a lower-level climate course open to all students. Some items were given to both groups, others to only one of the groups. Both courses use evidence-based pedagogy with active student engagement (clickers, small group activities, regular pre-class preparation). Our results with upper-level students show strong gains in student thinking (>70% of students who missed a question on the pre-test answered correctly on the post-test) about stock-and-flow (box model) problems, annual cycles in the Keeling curve, ice-albedo feedbacks, and isotopic fractionation. On different questions, lower-level students showed strong gains regarding albedo and blackbody emission spectra. Both groups show similar baseline knowledge and lower-than-expected gains on greenhouse effect fundamentals, and zero gain regarding the

  6. Miocene Soil Database: Global paleosol and climate maps of the Middle Miocene Thermal Maximum

    Metzger, C. A.

    2013-12-01

    Paleosols, which record past climatic, biologic, and atmospheric conditions, can be used as a proxy to understand ancient terrestrial landscapes, paleoclimate, and paleoenvironment. In addition, the middle Miocene thermal maximum (~16 Ma) provides an ancient analog for understanding the effects of current and future climate change on soil and ecosystem regimes, as it contains records of shifts similar in magnitude to expected global climate change. The Miocene Soil Database (MSDB) combines new paleosol data from Australia and Argentina with existing and previously uncollated paleosol data from the literature and the Paleobiology Database. These data (n = 507) were then used to derive a paleogeographic map of climatically significant soil types zones during the Middle Miocene. The location of each diagnostic paleosol type (Aridisol, Alfisol, Mollisol, Histosol, Oxisol, and Ultisol) was plotted and compared with the extent of these soil types in the modern environment. The middle Miocene soil map highlights the extension of tropical soils (Oxisols, Ultisols), accompanied by thermophilic flora and fauna, into northern and southern mid-latitudes. Peats, lignites, and Histosols of wetlands were also more abundant at higher latitudes, especially in the northern hemisphere, during the middle Miocene. The paleosol changes reflect that the Middle Miocene was a peak of global soil productivity and carbon sequestration, with replacement of unproductive Aridisols and Gelisols with more productive Oxisols, Alfisols, Mollisols and Histosols. With expansion to include additional data such as soil texture, moisture, or vegetation type, the MSDB has the potential to provide an important dataset for computer models of Miocene climate shifts as well as future land use considerations of soils in times of global change.

  7. An Investigation of Creative Climate of University R&D Centers and Policy Implications for Innovation in China

    Zhou, Chunfang; Rasmussen, Palle; Chemi, Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the influences of science and technology (S&T) policies on creative climate of university R&D centers in China that provide policy implications for improving roles of university R&D in innovation system. The empirical data came from two questionnaire surveys, one...... is with members from R&D centers, another with leaders of S&T fund management sectors in universities. The results demonstrate both strengths and weaknesses of creative climate of university R&D centers. This leads to implications such as to improve a more comprehensive innovation Measurement system and to build...

  8. Survey of organizational research climates in three research intensive, doctoral granting universities.

    Wells, James A; Thrush, Carol R; Martinson, Brian C; May, Terry A; Stickler, Michelle; Callahan, Eileen C; Klomparens, Karen L

    2014-12-01

    The Survey of Organizational Research Climate (SOuRCe) is a new instrument that assesses dimensions of research integrity climate, including ethical leadership, socialization and communication processes, and policies, procedures, structures, and processes to address risks to research integrity. We present a descriptive analysis to characterize differences on the SOuRCe scales across departments, fields of study, and status categories (faculty, postdoctoral scholars, and graduate students) for 11,455 respondents from three research-intensive universities. Among the seven SOuRCe scales, variance explained by status and fields of study ranged from 7.6% (Advisor-Advisee Relations) to 16.2% (Integrity Norms). Department accounted for greater than 50% of the variance explained for each of the SOuRCe scales, ranging from 52.6% (Regulatory Quality) to 80.3% (Integrity Inhibitors). It is feasible to implement this instrument in large university settings across a broad range of fields, department types, and individual roles within academic units. Published baseline results provide initial data for institutions using the SOuRCe who wish to compare their own research integrity climates. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Climate change expands the spatial extent and duration of preferred thermal habitat for lake Superior fishes.

    Timothy J Cline

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to alter species distributions and habitat suitability across the globe. Understanding these shifting distributions is critical for adaptive resource management. The role of temperature in fish habitat and energetics is well established and can be used to evaluate climate change effects on habitat distributions and food web interactions. Lake Superior water temperatures are rising rapidly in response to climate change and this is likely influencing species distributions and interactions. We use a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model that captures temperature changes in Lake Superior over the last 3 decades to investigate shifts in habitat size and duration of preferred temperatures for four different fishes. We evaluated habitat changes in two native lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush ecotypes, siscowet and lean lake trout, Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and walleye (Sander vitreus. Between 1979 and 2006, days with available preferred thermal habitat increased at a mean rate of 6, 7, and 5 days per decade for lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye, respectively. Siscowet lake trout lost 3 days per decade. Consequently, preferred habitat spatial extents increased at a rate of 579, 495 and 419 km(2 per year for the lean lake trout, Chinook salmon, and walleye while siscowet lost 161 km(2 per year during the modeled period. Habitat increases could lead to increased growth and production for three of the four fishes. Consequently, greater habitat overlap may intensify interguild competition and food web interactions. Loss of cold-water habitat for siscowet, having the coldest thermal preference, could forecast potential changes from continued warming. Additionally, continued warming may render more suitable conditions for some invasive species.

  10. Thermal and hydrologic responses to climate change predict marked alterations in boreal stream invertebrate assemblages.

    Mustonen, Kaisa-Riikka; Mykrä, Heikki; Marttila, Hannu; Sarremejane, Romain; Veijalainen, Noora; Sippel, Kalle; Muotka, Timo; Hawkins, Charles P

    2018-06-01

    Air temperature at the northernmost latitudes is predicted to increase steeply and precipitation to become more variable by the end of the 21st century, resulting in altered thermal and hydrological regimes. We applied five climate scenarios to predict the future (2070-2100) benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages at 239 near-pristine sites across Finland (ca. 1200 km latitudinal span). We used a multitaxon distribution model with air temperature and modeled daily flow as predictors. As expected, projected air temperature increased the most in northernmost Finland. Predicted taxonomic richness also increased the most in northern Finland, congruent with the predicted northwards shift of many species' distributions. Compositional changes were predicted to be high even without changes in richness, suggesting that species replacement may be the main mechanism causing climate-induced changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages. Northern streams were predicted to lose much of the seasonality of their flow regimes, causing potentially marked changes in stream benthic assemblages. Sites with the highest loss of seasonality were predicted to support future assemblages that deviate most in compositional similarity from the present-day assemblages. Macroinvertebrate assemblages were also predicted to change more in headwaters than in larger streams, as headwaters were particularly sensitive to changes in flow patterns. Our results emphasize the importance of focusing protection and mitigation on headwater streams with high-flow seasonality because of their vulnerability to climate change. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Perceptions of Ethical Climate and Research Pressures in Different Faculties of a University: Cross-Sectional Study at the University of Split, Croatia.

    Malički, Mario; Katavić, Vedran; Marković, Domagoj; Marušić, Matko; Marušić, Ana

    2017-10-25

    We determined the prevailing ethical climate at three different schools of a single university, in order to explore possible differences in the ethical climate related to different research fields: the School of Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and Naval Architecture; the School of Humanities and Social Sciences; and the School of Medicine. We used the Ethical Climate Questionnaire to survey the staff (teachers and administration) at the three schools, and used the research integrity and organizational climate (RIOC) survey for early-stage researchers at the three schools. The dominant ethical climate type perceived collectively at the three university schools (response rate 49%, n = 294) was Laws and professional codes, which is associated with the cosmopolitan level of analysis and the ethical construct of principle. Individually, the same climate predominated at the schools for engineering and humanities, but the School of Medicine had the Self-interest ethical climate, which is associated with the individual level of analysis and the egoism ethical construct. In the RIOC survey (response rate 85%; n = 70), early-stage researchers from the three university schools did not differ in their perceptions of the organizational research integrity climate, or in their perceived individual, group or organizational pressures. Our study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to show differences in perceived ethical climate at a medical school compared to other schools at a university. Further studies are needed to explore the reasons for these differences and how they translate to organizational outcomes, such as job satisfaction, commitment to the institution and dysfunctional behaviour, including research misconduct.

  12. Academic climate, well-being and academic performance in a university degree course.

    Rania, Nadia; Siri, Anna; Bagnasco, Annamaria; Aleo, Giuseppe; Sasso, Loredana

    2014-09-01

    The psychological climate within organisations affects not only the behaviour and the attitude of group members, but also the performance of the group itself. According to the ecological model, this research examines how learning in different classroom contexts of the same nursing degree programme can affect academic performance, well-being, self-esteem and perceived climate. Four scales were used to assess students' perceptions by collecting primary data while academic performance was measured by obtaining students' academic records. A questionnaire completed by 391 first-year nursing students was administered. Differences were observed in the perceptions of climate and academic performance in different classroom contexts with trends, which did not always overlap; however, strong correlations were observed among self-esteem, well-being and climate, and schoolmate relationships. Universities should not merely train competent professionals but also build learning communities that support the well-being of relationships and the development of well-being contexts. The findings support the need for an educational intervention for improving the quality of life and well-being of the community and individual students. This type of intervention requires a 'compliant' organisational environment that puts studetns, teachers and professionals in the condition to practice their professional skills. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. SLC summer 2010 university - The ocean in the climate-energy problem, urban policies. Proceedings

    2010-09-01

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the summer 2010 university of the SLC (save the climate) organization on the topics of the ocean in the climate-energy problem, and of the urban policies. Nine presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Biofuels made from micro-algae: stakes and challenges (Olivier Bernard, Comore - INRIA /CNRS/UPMC); 2 - The energy of waves (Alain Clement, Ecole Centrale de Nantes); 3 - The sea, new source of renewable energies? (J.J. Herou, EDF CIH); 4 - Oceans acidification: the other CO 2 problem (James Orr, Pierre Simon Laplace Institute - IPSL, Laboratory of climate and environmental Sciences - LSCE, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ); 5 - Oceans and carbon cycle (Laurent Bopp, IPSL/LSCE); 6 - Renewable marine energies (Yann-Herve De Roeck, France Energies Marines); 7 - Energy renovation of buildings (Jean-Claude Terrier, Mesac Europe); 8 - Modevur research project - Modeling of urban development, sketch of a development typology of chinese cities (Clement-Noel Douady); 9 - Urban areas in the fight against climate change: stakes, knowledge and controversies (Francois Menard, PUCA)

  14. Thermal physiology of native cool-climate, and non-native warm-climate Pumpkinseed sunfish raised in a common environment.

    Rooke, Anna C; Burness, Gary; Fox, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Contemporary evolution of thermal physiology has the potential to help limit the physiological stress associated with rapidly changing thermal environments; however it is unclear if wild populations can respond quickly enough for such changes to be effective. We used native Canadian Pumpkinseed (Lepomis gibbosus) sunfish, and non-native Pumpkinseed introduced into the milder climate of Spain ~100 years ago, to assess genetic differences in thermal physiology in response to the warmer non-native climate. We compared temperature performance reaction norms of two Canadian and two Spanish Pumpkinseed populations born and raised within a common environment. We found that Canadian Pumpkinseed had higher routine metabolic rates when measured at seasonally high temperatures (15°C in winter, 30°C in summer), and that Spanish Pumpkinseed had higher critical thermal maxima when acclimated to 30°C in the summer. Growth rates were not significantly different among populations, however Canadian Pumpkinseed tended to have faster growth at the warmest temperatures measured (32°C). The observed differences in physiology among Canadian and Spanish populations at the warmest acclimation temperatures are consistent with the introduced populations being better suited to the warmer non-native climate than native populations. The observed differences could be the result of either founder effects, genetic drift, and/or contemporary adaptive evolution in the warmer non-native climate. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned mosques in the dry desert climate

    Al-ajmi, Farraj F. [Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technological Studies, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

    2010-11-15

    In Kuwait, as in most countries with a typical dry desert climate, the summer season is long with a mean daily maximum temperature of 45 C. Centralized air-conditioning, which is generally deployed from the beginning of April to the end of October, can have tremendous impact on the amount of electrical energy utilized to mechanically control the internal environment in mosque buildings. The indoor air temperature settings for all types of air-conditioned buildings and mosque buildings in particular, are often calculated based on the analytical model of ASHRAE 55-2004 and ISO 7730. However, a field study was conducted in six air-conditioned mosque buildings during the summers of 2007 to investigate indoor climate and prayers thermal comfort in state of Kuwait. The paper presents statistical data about the indoor environmental conditions in Kuwait mosque buildings, together with an analysis of prayer thermal comfort sensations for a total of 140 subjects providing 140 sets of physical measurements and subjective questionnaires were used to collect data. Results show that the neutral temperature (T{sub n}) of the prayers is found to be 26.1 C, while that for PMV is 23.3 C. Discrepancy of these values is in fact about 2.8 C higher than those predicted by PMV model. Therefore, thermal comfort temperature in Kuwait cannot directly correlate with ISO 7730 and ASHRAE 55-2004 standards. Findings from this study should be considered when designing air conditioning for mosque buildings. This knowledge can contribute towards the development of future energy-related design codes for Kuwait. (author)

  16. Infrared Thermal Signature Evaluation of a Pure and Saline Ice for Marine Operations in Cold Climate

    Taimur Rashid

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine operations in cold climates are subjected to abundant ice accretion, which can lead to heavy ice loads over larger surface area. For safe and adequate operations on marine vessels over a larger area, remote ice detection and ice mitigation system can be useful. To study this remote ice detection option, lab experimentation was performed to detect the thermal gradient of ice with the infrared camera. Two different samples of ice blocks were prepared from tap water and saline water collected from the North Atlantic Ocean stream. The surfaces of ice samples were observed at room temperature. A complete thermal signature over the surface area was detected and recorded until the meltdown process was completed. Different temperature profiles for saline and pure ice samples were observed, which were kept under similar conditions. This article is focused to understand the experimentation methodology and thermal signatures of samples. However, challenges remains in terms of the validation of the detection signature and elimination of false detection.

  17. Towards understanding thermal history of the Universe through direct and indirect detection of dark matter

    Roszkowski, Leszek; Trojanowski, Sebastian [National Centre for Nuclear Research, Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Turzyński, Krzysztof, E-mail: leszek.roszkowski@ncbj.gov.pl, E-mail: sebastian.trojanowski@uci.edu, E-mail: Krzysztof-Jan.Turzynski@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-10-01

    We examine the question to what extent prospective detection of dark matter by direct and indirect- detection experiments could shed light on what fraction of dark matter was generated thermally via the freeze-out process in the early Universe. By simulating putative signals that could be seen in the near future and using them to reconstruct WIMP dark matter properties, we show that, in a model- independent approach this could only be achieved in a thin sliver of the parameter space. However, with additional theoretical input the hypothesis about the thermal freeze-out as the dominant mechanism for generating dark matter can potentially be verified. We illustrate this with two examples: an effective field theory of dark matter with a vector messenger and a higgsino or wino dark matter within the MSSM.

  18. A design study on hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field for neutron capture therapy at Kyoto University Reactor

    Sakurai, Y.; Kobayashi, T.

    2000-01-01

    A study about the installation of a hyper-thermal neutron converter to a clinical collimator was performed, as a series of the design study on a hyper-thermal neutron irradiation field at the Heavy Water Neutron Irradiation Facility of Kyoto University Reactor. From the parametric-surveys by Monte Carlo calculation, it was confirmed that the practical irradiation field of hyper-thermal neutrons would be feasible by the modifications of the clinical collimator and the bismuth-layer structure. (author)

  19. Large-scale magnetic fields, curvature fluctuations, and the thermal history of the Universe

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that gravitating magnetic fields affect the evolution of curvature perturbations in a way that is reminiscent of a pristine nonadiabatic pressure fluctuation. The gauge-invariant evolution of curvature perturbations is used to constrain the magnetic power spectrum. Depending on the essential features of the thermodynamic history of the Universe, the explicit derivation of the bound is modified. The theoretical uncertainty in the constraints on the magnetic energy spectrum is assessed by comparing the results obtained in the case of the conventional thermal history with the estimates stemming from less conventional (but phenomenologically allowed) post-inflationary evolutions

  20. Promoting Climate And Data Literacy: University Courses Engaging Students In Effective Teaching, Learning, Communication And Outreach Practices.

    Halversen, C.; McDonnell, J. D.; Apple, J. K.; Weiss, E. L.

    2016-02-01

    Two university courses, 1) Promoting Climate Literacy and 2) Climate and Data Literacy, developed by the University of California Berkeley provide faculty across the country with course materials to help their students delve into the science underlying global environmental change. The courses include culturally responsive content, such as indigenous and place-based knowledge, and examine how people learn and consequently, how we should teach and communicate science. Promoting Climate Literacy was developed working with Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Washington, and Western Washington University. Climate and Data Literacy was developed with Rutgers University and Padilla Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve, WA. The Climate and Data Literacy course also focuses on helping students in science majors participating in U-Teach programs and students in pre-service teacher education programs gain skills in using real and near-real time data through engaging in investigations using web-based and locally-relevant data resources. The course helps these students understand and apply the scientific practices, disciplinary concepts and big ideas described in the Framework for K-12 Science Education and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS). This course focuses on students interested in teaching middle school science for three reasons: (1) teachers often have relatively weak understandings of the practices of science, and of complex Earth systems science and climate change; (2) the concepts that underlie climate change align well with the NGSS; and (3) middle school is a critical time for promoting student interest in science and for recruitment to STEM careers and lifelong climate literacy. This course is now being field tested in a number of U-Teach programs including Florida State University, Louisiana State University, as well as pre-service teacher education programs at California State University East Bay, and Western Washington University

  1. Warming impact on energy use of HVAC system in buildings of different thermal qualities and in different climates

    Kharseh, Mohamad; Altorkmany, Lobna; Al-Khawaj, Mohammed; Hassani, Ferri

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving TQBE reduces heating load, while it might increase cooling load. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC varies from one climate to another. • Warming impact on energy use of HVAC depends on building’s thermal quality. • In mild climate, warming does not have a significant impact on energy use of HVAC. - Abstract: In order to combat climate change, energy use in the building must be further reduced. Heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems in residential buildings account for considerable fraction of global energy consumption. The potential contribution the domestic sector can make in reducing energy consumption is recognized worldwide. The driving energy of HVACs depends on the thermal quality of the building envelope (TQBE) and outside temperature. Definitely, building regulations are changing with the time toward reduce the thermal loads of buildings. However, most of the existing residential buildings were built to lower TQBE. For instant, 72% of residential dwellings in the 15-EU were built before 1972. To investigate the impact of warming on driving energy of HVACs of a residential building a computer model was developed. Three climate categories/cities were considered, i.e. Stockholm (cold), Istanbul (mild), and Doha (hot). In each city, two buildings were modeled: one was assumed to be built according to the current local buildings regulations (standard TQBE), while the anther was built to lower TQBE. The simulations were run for present and future (in 2050) outdoor designing conditions. The calculations show that the impact of the warming on annual driving energy of HVACs (reduction or increase) depends very much on the climate category and on the TQBE. Based on the climate and TQBE, the change in annual HVACs energy varies from −7.4% (in cold climate) to 12.7% (in hot climate). In mild climate, it was shown that the warming does not have significant impact on annual HVACs energy. Improving the TQBE can

  2. Building Commitment: An Examination of Learning Climate Congruence and the Affective Commitment of Academics in an Australian University

    Southcombe, Amie; Fulop, Liz; Carter, Geoff; Cavanagh, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between learning climate congruence and the affective commitment of university academics. The strategy of inquiry for this research is quantitative, involving a non-experimental design for the survey research. A non-probability sample of 900 academics from a large Australian university was…

  3. University-Level Teaching of Anthropogenic Global Climate Change (AGCC) via Student Inquiry

    Bush, Drew; Sieber, Renee; Seiler, Gale; Chandler, Mark

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews university-level efforts to improve understanding of anthropogenic global climate change (AGCC) through curricula that enable student scientific inquiry. We examined 152 refereed publications and proceedings from academic conferences and selected 26 cases of inquiry learning that overcome specific challenges to AGCC teaching. This review identifies both the strengths and weaknesses of each of these case studies. It is the first to go beyond examining the impact of specific inquiry instructional approaches to offer a synthesis of cases. We find that inquiry teaching can succeed by concretising scientific processes, providing access to global data and evidence, imparting critical and higher order thinking about AGCC science policy and contextualising learning with places and scientific facts. We recommend educational researchers and scientists collaborate to create and refine curricula that utilise geospatial technologies, climate models and communication technologies to bring students into contact with scientists, climate data and authentic AGCC research processes. Many available science education technologies and curricula also require further research to maximise trade-offs between implementation and training costs and their educational value.

  4. Organizational climate with gender equity and burnout among university academics in Japan.

    Taka, Fumiaki; Nomura, Kyoko; Horie, Saki; Takemoto, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Masumi; Takenoshita, Shinichi; Murakami, Aya; Hiraike, Haruko; Okinaga, Hiroko; Smith, Derek R

    2016-12-07

    We investigated relationships between the perception of organizational climate with gender equity and psychological health among 94 women and 211 men in a Japanese private university in 2015 using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (i.e., personal, work-related and student-related burnout). Perceptions of organizational climate with respect to gender equity were measured with two scales including organizational engagement with a gender equal society in the workplace (consisting of three domains of 'Women utilization', 'Organizational promotion of gender equal society' and 'Consultation service'); and a gender inequality in academia scale that had been previously developed. Multivariable linear models demonstrated significant statistical interactions between gender and perceptions of organizational climate; 'Women utilization' or lack of 'Inequality in academia' alleviated burnout only in women. In consequence of this gender difference, when 'Women utilization' was at a lower level, both personal (p=.038) and work-related (p=.010) burnout scores were higher in women, and the student-related burnout score was lower in women when they perceived less inequality in academia than in men (p=.030). As such, it is suggested organizational fairness for gender equity may be a useful tool to help mitigate psychological burnout among women in academia.

  5. Organizational climate with gender equity and burnout among university academics in Japan

    TAKA, Fumiaki; NOMURA, Kyoko; HORIE, Saki; TAKEMOTO, Keisuke; TAKEUCHI, Masumi; TAKENOSHITA, Shinichi; MURAKAMI, Aya; HIRAIKE, Haruko; OKINAGA, Hiroko; SMITH, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigated relationships between the perception of organizational climate with gender equity and psychological health among 94 women and 211 men in a Japanese private university in 2015 using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (i.e., personal, work-related and student-related burnout). Perceptions of organizational climate with respect to gender equity were measured with two scales including organizational engagement with a gender equal society in the workplace (consisting of three domains of ‘Women utilization’, ‘Organizational promotion of gender equal society’ and ‘Consultation service’); and a gender inequality in academia scale that had been previously developed. Multivariable linear models demonstrated significant statistical interactions between gender and perceptions of organizational climate; ‘Women utilization’ or lack of ‘Inequality in academia’ alleviated burnout only in women. In consequence of this gender difference, when ‘Women utilization’ was at a lower level, both personal (p=.038) and work-related (p=.010) burnout scores were higher in women, and the student-related burnout score was lower in women when they perceived less inequality in academia than in men (p=.030). As such, it is suggested organizational fairness for gender equity may be a useful tool to help mitigate psychological burnout among women in academia. PMID:27725562

  6. Variation in thermal sensitivity and thermal tolerances in an invasive species across a climatic gradient: lessons from the land snail Cornu aspersum.

    Juan Diego Gaitán-Espitia

    Full Text Available The ability of organisms to perform at different temperatures could be described by a continuous nonlinear reaction norm (i.e., thermal performance curve, TPC, in which the phenotypic trait value varies as a function of temperature. Almost any shift in the parameters of this performance curve could highlight the direct effect of temperature on organism fitness, providing a powerful framework for testing thermal adaptation hypotheses. Inter-and intraspecific differences in this performance curve are also reflected in thermal tolerances limits (e.g., critical and lethal limits, influencing the biogeographic patterns of species' distribution. Within this context, here we investigated the intraspecific variation in thermal sensitivities and thermal tolerances in three populations of the invasive snail Cornu aspersum across a geographical gradient, characterized by different climatic conditions. Thus, we examined population differentiation in the TPCs, thermal-coma recovery times, expression of heat-shock proteins and standard metabolic rate (i.e., energetic costs of physiological differentiation. We tested two competing hypotheses regarding thermal adaptation (the "hotter is better" and the generalist-specialist trade-offs. Our results show that the differences in thermal sensitivity among populations of C. aspersum follow a latitudinal pattern, which is likely the result of a combination of thermodynamic constraints ("hotter is better" and thermal adaptations to their local environments (generalist-specialist trade-offs. This finding is also consistent with some thermal tolerance indices such as the Heat-Shock Protein Response and the recovery time from chill-coma. However, mixed responses in the evaluated traits suggest that thermal adaptation in this species is not complete, as we were not able to detect any differences in neither energetic costs of physiological differentiation among populations, nor in the heat-coma recovery.

  7. Speaking up behaviors and safety climate in an Austrian university hospital.

    Schwappach, David; Sendlhofer, Gerald; Häsler, Lynn; Gombotz, Veronika; Leitgeb, Karina; Hoffmann, Magdalena; Jantscher, Lydia; Brunner, Gernot

    2018-04-26

    To analyze speaking up behavior and safety climate with a validated questionnaire for the first time in an Austrian university hospital. Survey amongst healthcare workers (HCW). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha was calculated as a measure of internal consistencies of scales. Analysis of variance and t-tests were used. The survey was conducted in 2017. About 2.149 HCW from three departments were asked to participate. To measure speaking up behavior and safety climate. To explore psychological safety, encouraging environment and resignation towards speaking up. About 859 evaluable questionnaires were returned (response rate: 40%). More than 50% of responders perceived specific concerns about patient safety within the last 4 weeks and observed a potential error or noticed rule violations. For the different items, between 16% and 42% of HCW reported that they remained silent though concerns for safety. In contrast, between 96% and 98% answered that they did speak up in certain situations. The psychological safety for speaking up was lower for HCW with a managerial function (P speak up (P speaking up behaviors for the first time in an Austrian university hospital. Only moderately frequent concerns were in conflict with frequent speaking up behaviors. These results clearly show that a paradigm shift is needed to increase speaking up culture.

  8. The Impact of Role Conflict, Role Ambiguity and Organizational Climate on the Job Satisfaction of Academic Staff in Research-Intensive Universities in the UK

    Schulz, John

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on academics in research-intensive universities in the UK and explores their perceptions of organizational climate, role conflict, role ambiguity and job satisfaction. The findings suggest that the universities have multiple organizational climates. Three organizational climate types -- the Clan, the Hierarchy and the Adhocracy…

  9. Linear Parks along Urban Rivers: Perceptions of Thermal Comfort and Climate Change Adaptation in Cyprus

    Elias Giannakis

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The development of green space along urban rivers could mitigate urban heat island effects, enhance the physical and mental well-being of city dwellers, and improve flood resilience. A linear park has been recently created along the ephemeral Pedieos River in the urban area of Nicosia, Cyprus. Questionnaire surveys and micrometeorological measurements were conducted to explore people’s perceptions and satisfaction regarding the services of the urban park. People’s main reasons to visit the park were physical activity and exercise (67%, nature (13%, and cooling (4%. The micrometeorological measurements in and near the park revealed a relatively low cooling effect (0.5 °C of the park. However, the majority of the visitors (84% were satisfied or very satisfied with the cooling effect of the park. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the odds of individuals feeling very comfortable under a projected 3 °C future increase in temperature would be 0.34 times lower than the odds of feeling less comfortable. The discrepancies between the observed thermal comfort index and people’s perceptions revealed that people in semi-arid environments are adapted to the hot climatic conditions; 63% of the park visitors did not feel uncomfortable at temperatures between 27 °C and 37 °C. Further research is needed to assess other key ecosystems services of this urban green river corridor, such as flood protection, air quality regulation, and biodiversity conservation, to contribute to integrated climate change adaptation planning.

  10. Linking the Climate and Thermal Phase Curve of 55 Cancri e

    Hammond, Mark; Pierrehumbert, Raymond T.

    2017-11-01

    The thermal phase curve of 55 Cancri e is the first measurement of the temperature distribution of a tidally locked super-Earth, but raises a number of puzzling questions about the planet’s climate. The phase curve has a high amplitude and peak offset, suggesting that it has a significant eastward hot-spot shift as well as a large day-night temperature contrast. We use a general circulation model to model potential climates, and investigate the relation between bulk atmospheric composition and the magnitude of these seemingly contradictory features. We confirm theoretical models of tidally locked circulation are consistent with our numerical model of 55 Cnc e, and rule out certain atmospheric compositions based on their thermodynamic properties. Our best-fitting atmosphere has a significant hot-spot shift and day-night contrast, although these are not as large as the observed phase curve. We discuss possible physical processes that could explain the observations, and show that night-side cloud formation from species such as SiO from a day-side magma ocean could potentially increase the phase curve amplitude and explain the observations. We conclude that the observations could be explained by an optically thick atmosphere with a low mean molecular weight, a surface pressure of several bars, and a strong eastward circulation, with night-side cloud formation a possible explanation for the difference between our model and the observations.

  11. Thermal performance of natural airflow window in subtropical and temperate climate zones - A comparative study

    Chow Tintai; Lin Zhang; Fong Kwongfai; Chan Lokshun; He Miaomiao

    2009-01-01

    Airflow window is highly useful in conserving building energy, and lessens the comfort problems caused by glazing. In this study, the thermal performance of a natural airflow window was examined through the use of a dynamic model, developed based on the integrated energy balance and airflow networks. The validity of the model was first tested by measured data obtained from a prototype installed at an environmental chamber. The application in the subtropical and temperate climate zones were then examined with the typical weather data of Hong Kong and Beijing. The findings confirmed that the natural airflow window can achieve substantial energy saving in both cities, and the reversible window frame is only required for Beijing, a location with hot summer and cold winter. The space cooling load via fenestration in Hong Kong, a subtropical city, can be reduced to 60% of the commonly used single absorptive glazing. In Beijing, as an example of the temperate climate, this can be reduced to 75% of the commonly used double glazing configuration in the summer period, and the space heat gain can be improved by 46% in the winter period.

  12. Observing golden-mean universality class in the scaling of thermal transport

    Xiong, Daxing

    2018-02-01

    We address the issue of whether the golden-mean [ψ =(√{5 }+1 ) /2 ≃1.618 ] universality class, as predicted by several theoretical models, can be observed in the dynamical scaling of thermal transport. Remarkably, we show strong evidence that ψ appears to be the scaling exponent of heat mode correlation in a purely quartic anharmonic chain. This observation seems to somewhat deviate from the previous expectation and we explain it by the unusual slow decay of the cross correlation between heat and sound modes. Whenever the cubic anharmonicity is included, this cross correlation gradually dies out and another universality class with scaling exponent γ =5 /3 , as commonly predicted by theories, seems recovered. However, this recovery is accompanied by two interesting phase transition processes characterized by a change of symmetry of the potential and a clear variation of the dynamic structure factor, respectively. Due to these transitions, an additional exponent close to γ ≃1.580 emerges. All this evidence suggests that, to gain a full prediction of the scaling of thermal transport, more ingredients should be taken into account.

  13. New insights into thermal growing conditions of Portuguese grapevine varieties under changing climates

    Santos, João A.; Costa, Ricardo; Fraga, Helder

    2018-03-01

    New decision support tools for Portuguese viticulture are urging under a climate change context. In the present study, heat and chilling accumulation conditions of a collection of 44 grapevine cultivars currently grown in Portugal are assessed at very high spatial resolution ( 1 km) and for 1981-2015. Two bioclimatic indices that incorporate non-linear plant-temperature relationships are selected for this purpose: growing degree hours—GDH (February-October) and chilling portions—CP (October-February). The current thermal growing conditions of each variety are examined and three clusters of grapevine cultivars are identified based on their GDH medians, thus assembling varieties with close heat accumulation requirements and providing more physiologically consistent information when compared to previous studies, as non-linear plant-temperature relationships are herein taken into account. These new clusters are also a complement to previous bioclimatic zoning. Ensemble mean projections under two anthropogenic-driven scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, 2041-2070), from four EURO-CORDEX simulations, reveal a widespread increase of GDH and decrease of CP, but with spatial heterogeneities. The spatial variability of these indices throughout Portugal is projected to decrease (strongest increases of GDH in the coolest regions of the northeast) and to increase (strongest decreases of CP in the warmest regions of the south and west), respectively. The typical heat accumulation conditions of each cluster are projected to gradually shift north-eastwards and to higher-elevation areas, whereas insufficient chilling may represent a new challenge in warmer future climates. An unprecedented level of detail for a large collection of grapevine varieties in Portugal is provided, thus promoting a better planning of climate change adaptation measures.

  14. Evaluation of human thermal comfort ranges in urban climate of winter cities on the example of Erzurum city.

    Toy, Süleyman; Kántor, Noémi

    2017-01-01

    Human thermal comfort conditions can be evaluated using various indices based on simple empirical approaches or more complex and reliable human-biometeorological approaches. The latter is based on the energy balance model of the human body, and their calculation is supplemented with computer software. Facilitating the interpretation of results, the generally applied indices express the effects of thermal environment in the well-known temperature unit, just like in the case of the widely used index, the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). Several studies adopting PET index for characterizing thermal components of climate preferred to organize the resulted PET values into thermal sensation categories in order to demonstrate the spatial and/or temporal characteristics of human thermal comfort conditions. The most general applied PET ranges were derived by Central European researchers, and they are valid for assumed values of internal heat production of light activity and thermal resistance of clothing representing a light business suit. Based on the example of Erzurum city, the present work demonstrates that in a city with harsh winter, the original PET ranges show almost purely discomfort and they seem to be less applicable regarding cold climate conditions. Taking into account 34-year climate data of Erzurum, the annual distribution of PET is presented together with the impact of application of different PET categorization systems, including 8°- and 7°-wide PET intervals. The demonstrated prior analyses lack any questionnaire filed surveys in Erzurum. Thus, as a next step, detailed field investigations would be required with the aim of definition of new PET categorization systems which are relevant for local residents who are adapted to this climatic background, and for tourists who may perform various kinds of winter activities in Erzurum and therefore may perceive the thermal environment more comfortable.

  15. Human thermal comfort conditions and urban planning in hot-humid climates-The case of Cuba.

    Rodríguez Algeciras, José Abel; Coch, Helena; De la Paz Pérez, Guillermo; Chaos Yeras, Mabel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Climate regional characteristics, urban environmental conditions, and outdoors thermal comfort requirements of residents are important for urban planning. Basic studies of urban microclimate can provide information and useful resources to predict and improve thermal conditions in hot-humid climatic regions. The paper analyzes the thermal bioclimate and its influence as urban design factor in Cuba, using Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET). Simulations of wind speed variations and shade conditions were performed to quantify changes in thermal bioclimate due to possible modifications in urban morphology. Climate data from Havana, Camagüey, and Santiago of Cuba for the period 2001 to 2012 were used to calculate PET with the RayMan model. The results show that changes in meteorological parameters influence the urban microclimate, and consequently modify the thermal conditions in outdoors spaces. Shade is the predominant strategy to improve urban microclimate with more significant benefits in terms of PET higher than 30 °C. For climatic regions such as the analyzed ones, human thermal comfort can be improved by a wind speed modification for thresholds of PET above 30 °C, and by a wind speed decreases in conditions below 26 °C. The improvement of human thermal conditions is crucial for urban sustainability. On this regards, our study is a contribution for urban designers, due to the possibility of taking advantage of results for improving microclimatic conditions based on urban forms. The results may enable urban planners to create spaces that people prefer to visit, and also are usable in the reconfiguration of cities.

  16. Sensitivity of the tropical climate to an interhemispheric thermal gradient: the role of tropical ocean dynamics

    Talento, Stefanie; Barreiro, Marcelo

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the role of the tropical ocean dynamics in the response of the climate to extratropical thermal forcing. We analyse and compare the outcomes of coupling an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) with two ocean models of different complexity. In the first configuration the AGCM is coupled with a slab ocean model while in the second a reduced gravity ocean (RGO) model is additionally coupled in the tropical region. We find that the imposition of extratropical thermal forcing (warming in the Northern Hemisphere and cooling in the Southern Hemisphere with zero global mean) produces, in terms of annual means, a weaker response when the RGO is coupled, thus indicating that the tropical ocean dynamics oppose the incoming remote signal. On the other hand, while the slab ocean coupling does not produce significant changes to the equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) seasonal cycle, the RGO configuration generates strong warming in the central-eastern basin from April to August balanced by cooling during the rest of the year, strengthening the seasonal cycle in the eastern portion of the basin. We hypothesize that such changes are possible via the dynamical effect that zonal wind stress has on the thermocline depth. We also find that the imposed extratropical pattern affects El Niño-Southern Oscillation, weakening its amplitude and low-frequency behaviour.

  17. Spurring climate-friendly behaviour change: a case study of the university of Grenoble

    Blanchard, Odile

    2016-01-01

    % of energy consumption. 'Energy vampires' at home (i.e. the standby power of all electric and electronic devices) represent almost 11% of US energy use. Two similar daily diets in terms of energy intake may differ by a factor of four in terms of life-cycle energy inputs, depending on the content of the diet. Although the cumulative potential gains drawn from individual actions are substantial, they may be hard to reach in reality, because barriers are numerous for individuals to change their behaviour and actually reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Even individuals with positive attitudes may show much reluctance to behave in a climate-friendly way. Against this background, our paper aims to investigate how these barriers can be overcome so that individuals take action. The investigation that we carry out relies on a climate-friendly initiative that has been going on at the university of social sciences of Grenoble, France, for six years. The goal of the initiative is to stabilize the greenhouse gas emissions of the university in 2010 relative to 1999. Various actions have been taken, such as building a greenhouse gas emissions inventory to monitor those emissions, improving the efficiency of the heating system, organizing internal communication campaigns to help people reduce their carbon footprint. Only a few people are currently acting, although all members of the university could be contributing to reducing the university's emissions. Various barriers prevent them from acting. The first part of the paper presents the university actors, and their mission in the climate-friendly initiative. The second part identifies the university members' main motivations and barriers to a climate-friendly behaviour. Finally, the third part discusses potential ways of overcoming those barriers, calls for an inter-disciplinary research program to successfully address the issue. It should be noted that the methodology adopted in the paper, the barriers

  18. Climate change impacts on crop yields, land use and environment in response to crop sowing dates and thermal time requirements

    Zimmermann, Andrea; Webber, Heidi; Zhao, Gang; Ewert, Frank; Kros, Hans; Wolf, Joost; Britz, Wolfgang; Vries, de Wim

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of climate change on European agricultural production, land use and the environment depend on its impact on crop yields. However, many impact studies assume that crop management remains unchanged in future scenarios, while farmers may adapt their sowing dates and cultivar thermal time

  19. Seasonal differences in thermal sensation in the outdoor urban environment of Mediterranean climates - the example of Athens, Greece

    Tseliou, Areti; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Nikolopoulou, Marialena

    2017-07-01

    Outdoor urban areas are very important for cities and microclimate is a critical parameter in the design process, contributing to thermal comfort which is important for urban developments. The research presented in this paper is part of extensive field surveys conducted in Athens aimed at investigating people's thermal sensation in a Mediterranean city. Based on 2313 questionnaires and microclimatic data the current work focuses on the relative frequencies of people's evaluation of the thermal along with the sun and wind sensations between two seasons trying to identify the seasonal differences in thermal sensation. The impact of basic meteorological factors on thermal discomfort with respect to season are also examined, as well as the use of the outdoor environment. Results show that psychological adaptation is an important contributing factor influencing perception of the thermal environment between seasons. In addition, the thermal sensation votes during the cool months show that individuals are satisfied to a great extend with the thermal environment whereas the combination of high air temperature, strong solar radiation and weak wind lead to thermal discomfort during summertime. As far as the appropriate urban design in the Mediterranean climate is concerned, priority should be given to the warm months of the year.

  20. Research on Land Surface Thermal-Hydrologic Exchange in Southern China under Future Climate and Land Cover Scenarios

    Jianwu Yan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change inevitably leads to changes in hydrothermal circulation. However, thermal-hydrologic exchanging caused by land cover change has also undergone ineligible changes. Therefore, studying the comprehensive effects of climate and land cover changes on land surface water and heat exchanges enables us to well understand the formation mechanism of regional climate and predict climate change with fewer uncertainties. This study investigated the land surface thermal-hydrologic exchange across southern China for the next 40 years using a land surface model (ecosystem-atmosphere simulation scheme (EASS. Our findings are summarized as follows. (i Spatiotemporal variation patterns of sensible heat flux (H and evapotranspiration (ET under the land cover scenarios (A2a or B2a and climate change scenario (A1B are unanimous. (ii Both H and ET take on a single peak pattern, and the peak occurs in June or July. (iii Based on the regional interannual variability analysis, H displays a downward trend (10% and ET presents an increasing trend (15%. (iv The annual average H and ET would, respectively, increase and decrease by about 10% when woodland converts to the cultivated land. Through this study, we recognize that land surface water and heat exchanges are affected greatly by the future climate change as well as land cover change.

  1. Estimating thermal regimes of bull trout and assessing the potential effects of climate warming on critical habitats

    Jones, Leslie A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Marshall, Lucy A.; McGlynn, Brian L.; Kershner, Jeffrey L.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the vulnerability of aquatic species and habitats under climate change is critical for conservation and management of freshwater systems. Climate warming is predicted to increase water temperatures in freshwater ecosystems worldwide, yet few studies have developed spatially explicit modelling tools for understanding the potential impacts. We parameterized a nonspatial model, a spatial flow-routed model, and a spatial hierarchical model to predict August stream temperatures (22-m resolution) throughout the Flathead River Basin, USA and Canada. Model comparisons showed that the spatial models performed significantly better than the nonspatial model, explaining the spatial autocorrelation found between sites. The spatial hierarchical model explained 82% of the variation in summer mean (August) stream temperatures and was used to estimate thermal regimes for threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) habitats, one of the most thermally sensitive coldwater species in western North America. The model estimated summer thermal regimes of spawning and rearing habitats at <13 C° and foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitats at <14 C°. To illustrate the useful application of such a model, we simulated climate warming scenarios to quantify potential loss of critical habitats under forecasted climatic conditions. As air and water temperatures continue to increase, our model simulations show that lower portions of the Flathead River Basin drainage (foraging, migrating, and overwintering habitat) may become thermally unsuitable and headwater streams (spawning and rearing) may become isolated because of increasing thermal fragmentation during summer. Model results can be used to focus conservation and management efforts on populations of concern, by identifying critical habitats and assessing thermal changes at a local scale.

  2. Evaluating Regional Scale Deforestation in the University of Victoria Earth System Climate Model

    Longobardi, P.; Montenegro, A.; Beltrami, H.; Eby, M.

    2011-12-01

    Forests play a key role in influencing the Earths climate and at the same time are affected by changing climates. At this point it is estimated that 15-30% of Earths natural forests have already been converted to pasture or cropland. With such large amounts of forest being converted to cropland and grassland, it is important to determine the climatic effects of these actions. To date, most modelling efforts towards understanding the climatic effects of deforestation have simulated global deforestation or have been based on experiments where trees were removed from large areas, i.e. the entire Amazon or all forests above 50 N. Here we use the University of Victoria Earth System Climate model which contains a fully coupled carbon cycle, to evaluate the response to deforestation of 10%, 25%, 50% and 100% of the forested areas in three latitude bands: high (above 50°N), mid (above ± 30°) and low (between ± 30°). All simulations were transient simulations, allowing for changes to atmospheric forcings following the A2 emissions scenario. High latitude deforestation lead to cooling (-.05 °C to -0.45 °C) and increase in soil carbon (0.5 to 3 x 1014 kg) for all fractions of deforestation. Due in part to the increase in soil carbon, there was a decrease in atmospheric CO2 in the 50% (-20 ppm) and 100% (-60 ppm) high-latitude deforestation simulations. Low-latitude deforestation initially produced warming in all scenarios (0.1 to 0.25 °C), although all were colder (-0.05 to -0.1 °C) than the control by the end of the simulation. Atmospheric CO2 increased in all simulations (40 to 80 ppm), as well as soil carbon (2 to 16 x 1013 kg). Mid-latitude deforestation also lead to initial warming (0.01 to 0.1 °C) followed by cooling (-0.01 to -0.1 °C). Mid latitude deforestation also produced an increase in soil carbon (2 to 10 x 1013 kg), and atmospheric CO2 (0 to 25ppm). In all three latitude bands forest dieback was observed. Results range from 7% to 37% for high

  3. Analysis of the Motivation and Work Climate of University Teaching Staff

    González-Tirados, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    The scientific, social, economic and technological progress taking place in present-day advanced societies needs to be closely linked to the work of the university and to effectiveness, productivity and efficiency. Moreover, teaching staff play a predominant role and are the best point of reference for any changes to be introduced in teaching, in the way to manage classes, in the use of tools, changes in methodology or teaching strategies, and also in the ways students learn, etc. The teacher ceases to be a figure who only transmits knowledge and becomes a guide or facilitator of learning. The teacher, therefore, takes on a different commitment with the ways of learning, of approaching students, guiding tutorials, assessing student learning, etc. For these reasons staff motivationisone of the basic concerns. It would be expected that a demotivated staff with few incentives and a low opinion of their worth as teachers would be less committed to their teaching, research and management work, and as a result would achieve less success in their work with students. To put it another way, they would perform worse in all they do. But could it be that their vocation as teachers and the professionalism of university staff are sufficient motivating factors in themselves? The concepts of work climate, motivation and demotivation of teaching staff, feeling uneasy with teaching or academic work, conflicts of communication, a deterioration in relationships with colleagues, etc., are phrases that are heard more and more in the work environment. Most of these phrases would seem to be related to academic performance or the way of becoming involved in the centre's activities or to other variables which until proved are only supposition. It is for these reasons that we have wished to analyse the situation of teaching staff in universities in Madrid. In university organisations the teaching staff is one of the key elements that leads to work being done more or less effectively. Human

  4. The Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University: Fundamental Research Towards Future Energy Technologies

    Milne, Jennifer L.; Sassoon, Richard E.; Hung, Emilie; Bosshard, Paolo; Benson, Sally M.

    The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), at Stanford University, invests in research with the potential to lead to energy technologies with lower greenhouse gas emissions than current energy technologies. GCEP is sponsored by four international companies, ExxonMobil, GE, Schlumberger, and Toyota and supports research programs in academic institutions worldwide. Research falls into the broad areas of carbon based energy systems, renewables, electrochemistry, and the electric grid. Within these areas research efforts are underway that are aimed at achieving break-throughs and innovations that greatly improve efficiency, performance, functionality and cost of many potential energy technologies of the future including solar, batteries, fuel cells, biofuels, hydrogen storage and carbon capture and storage. This paper presents a summary of some of GCEP's activities over the past 7 years with current research areas of interest and potential research directions in the near future.

  5. Thermal Regime of A Deep Temperate Lake and Its Response to Climate Change: Lake Kuttara, Japan

    Kazuhisa A. Chikita

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A deep temperate lake, Lake Kuttara, Hokkaido, Japan (148 m deep at maximum was completely ice-covered every winter in the 20th century. However, ice-free conditions of the lake over winter occurred three times in the 21st century, which is probably due to global warming. In order to understand how thermal regime of the lake responds to climate change, a change in lake mean water temperature from the heat storage change was calculated by integrating observed water temperature over water depths and by numerical calculation of heat budget components based on hydrometeorological data. As a result, a temporal variation of lake mean water temperature from the heat budget calculation was very reasonable to that from the observed water temperature (determination coefficient R2 = 0.969. The lowest lake mean temperature for non-freeze was then evaluated at −1.87 °C, referring to the zero level at 6.80 °C. The 1978–2017 data at a meteorological station near Kuttara indicated that there are significant (less than 5% level long-term trends for air temperature (+0.024 °C/year and wind speed (−0.010 m/s/year. In order to evaluate the effects of climate change on freeze-up patterns, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the calculated lake mean water temperature. It is noted that, after two decades, the lake could be ice-free once per every two years.

  6. Economic and Thermal Evaluation of Different Uses of an Existing Structure in a Warm Climate

    Delia D’Agostino

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Accounting for nearly 40% of final energy consumption, buildings are central to European energy policy. The Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings establishes a benchmarking system known as cost-optimality to set minimum energy performance requirements in new and existing buildings. This paper applies the cost-optimal methodology to an existing structure located in the Mediterranean area (Southern Italy. The building is composed of two units that have been considered for different uses: hotel and multi-residential. Several energy efficiency and renewable measures have been implemented both individually and as part of packages of measures. The cost-optimal solution has been identified as able to optimize energy consumption and costs from financial and macroeconomic perspectives. The first reference building (hotel use shows a maximum reduction of primary energy and CO2 emission of about 42%, falling within the CasaClima energy class D, while the second reference building (residential use achieves a value of 88% for primary energy and 85% for CO2 emissions, falling into class B. Thermal dispersions through the envelope can be limited using a suitable combination of insulating materials while a variety of technical variants are selected, such as VRF (variant refrigerant flow systems, heat pumps with fan coils associated with controlled mechanical ventilation, solar thermal and photovoltaic. This paper illustrates the development of energy retrofit projects, in order to reach a balance between efficiency measures and costs for a building having two different uses, providing guidance to similar case studies related to a warm climate.

  7. Students' pre-knowledge as a guideline in the teaching of introductory thermal physics at university

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi; Hirvonen, Pekka E; Raesaenen, Esa

    2009-01-01

    This study concentrates on analysing university students' pre-knowledge of thermal physics. The students' understanding of the basic concepts and of the adiabatic compression of an ideal gas was studied at the start of an introductory level course. A total of 48 students participated in a paper-and-pencil test, and analysis of the responses revealed that they had several kinds of problems. They did not differentiate between concepts, confusing in particular the concepts of temperature, internal energy and heat. The students also seemed to have serious problems in applying the first law of thermodynamics: they were frequently more likely to use the ideal gas law rather than the first law, e.g., in the case of adiabatic compression, even though it cannot provide a proper explanation of the phenomenon. More detailed analysis revealed that the underlying reasons for many of the problems detected were based on an inadequate understanding of micro-level models of substance. At the upper secondary level, students have acquired an impression of how particles move, vibrate and interact, but they have not learnt how to apply the ideas and concepts of the micro-models in a scientific manner. All of this means that university teachers need to exercise great care in designing their teaching. Explicit recommendations for teachers to take into account both the findings of this research project and also students' pre-knowledge are presented in the discussion section at the end of this paper

  8. Thermal Behavior of Mixtures of Perlite and Phase Change Materials in a Simulated Climate

    Childs, K.W.; Childs, P.W.; Christian, J.E.; Petrie, T.W.

    1995-01-01

    Carefully controlled and well documented experiments have been done for two candidate configurations to control the heat load on a conditioned space. The 2:1 PCM/perlite mixture and the 6:1 PCM/perlite mixture, both on a weight basis, accomplished thermal control. The 2:1 system seemed to have enough PCM to be effective and involve a much larger fraction of its PCM in diurnal freezing and melting than the 6:1 system. It is a good starting point for engineering design of an optimum thermal control system. The results from the 2:1 system were reproduced with the computer program HEATING to prove that we know the relevant mechanisms and thermophysical properties of the PCM used in the system. Even without a model for the supersaturation and hysteresis that this material exhibited, HEATING reproduced the heat fluxes to the conditioned space in the experiments accurately enough to mirror the good thermal control performance of the system. The modified sensible heat capacity that was used in HEATING is a handy way to account for phase change effects and could be used in a subroutine to compute hourly phase change effects for whole building models like DOE-2. The experiments were done with PCM/perlite mixtures sealed in small methylmethacrylate boxes and covered top and bottom by XPS. The boxes allowed precise placement of the instrumentation used to follow the phase change effects. The XPS gave high R-value per unit thickness. A more practical prototype configuration such as PCM/perlite hermetically sealed in plastic pouches between layers of batts or blown-in insulation should be tested over a larger cross section. A good candidate is the whole attic cavity of the manufactured home test section used in the present work. Use of a PCM that does not exhibit supersaturation and hysteresis would make interpretation of the results easier. If the results of the larger scale test areas are as encouraging as the test cell results, a whole house model with a phase change

  9. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned buildings in hot and humid climates--why are we not getting it right?

    Sekhar, S C

    2016-02-01

    While there are plenty of anecdotal experiences of overcooled buildings in summer, evidence from field studies suggests that there is indeed an issue of overcooling in tropical buildings. The findings suggest that overcooled buildings are not a consequence of occupant preference but more like an outcome of the HVAC system design and operation. Occupants' adaptation in overcooled indoor environments through additional clothing cannot be regarded as an effective mitigating strategy for cold thermal discomfort. In the last two decades or so, several field studies and field environmental chamber studies in the tropics provided evidence for occupants' preference for a warmer temperature with adaptation methods such as elevated air speeds. It is important to bear in mind that indoor humidity levels are not compromised as they could have an impact on the inhaled air condition that could eventually affect perceived air quality. This review article has attempted to track significant developments in our understanding of the thermal comfort issues in air-conditioned office and educational buildings in hot and humid climates in the last 25 years, primarily on occupant preference for thermal comfort in such climates. The issue of overcooled buildings, by design intent or otherwise, is discussed in some detail. Finally, the article has explored some viable adaptive thermal comfort options that show considerable promise for not only improving thermal comfort in tropical buildings but are also energy efficient and could be seen as sustainable solutions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Implementation of human thermal comfort information in Köppen-Geiger climate classification—the example of China

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Köppen-Geiger climate classification (KGC) is accepted and applied worldwide. The climatic parameters utilised in KGC, however, cannot indicate human thermal comfort (HTC) conditions or air humidity (AH) conditions directly, because they are originally based on climatic effects on vegetation, instead of that on human body directly. In addition, HTC is driven by meteorological parameters together. Thus, the objective of this study is to preliminarily implement the HTC information and the AH information in KGC. Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been chosen as the HTC index, and vapour pressure (VP) is for the quantification of AH conditions. In this preliminary study, 12 Chinese cities in total have been taken into account as the assumed representatives of 11 climate types. Basic meteorological data of each city with 3-h resolution in 2000-2012 has been analysed. RayMan model has been applied to calculate PET within the same time period. Each climate type has been described by frequencies of PET and frequencies of VP. For example, the Aw (Sanya) has the most frequent occurrence of thermally stressful conditions compared to other climate types: PET in 22 % points in time of the year was above 35 °C. The driest AH conditions existed in Dwc (Lhasa) and Dfb (Urumqi) with VP rarely above 18 hPa in the wettest month. Implementation of the HTC information and the additional AH information in each climate type of KGC can be helpful for the topics of human health, energy consumption, tourism, as well as urban planning.

  11. Implementation of human thermal comfort information in Köppen-Geiger climate classification-the example of China.

    Yang, Shi-Qi; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Köppen-Geiger climate classification (KGC) is accepted and applied worldwide. The climatic parameters utilised in KGC, however, cannot indicate human thermal comfort (HTC) conditions or air humidity (AH) conditions directly, because they are originally based on climatic effects on vegetation, instead of that on human body directly. In addition, HTC is driven by meteorological parameters together. Thus, the objective of this study is to preliminarily implement the HTC information and the AH information in KGC. Physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) has been chosen as the HTC index, and vapour pressure (VP) is for the quantification of AH conditions. In this preliminary study, 12 Chinese cities in total have been taken into account as the assumed representatives of 11 climate types. Basic meteorological data of each city with 3-h resolution in 2000-2012 has been analysed. RayMan model has been applied to calculate PET within the same time period. Each climate type has been described by frequencies of PET and frequencies of VP. For example, the Aw (Sanya) has the most frequent occurrence of thermally stressful conditions compared to other climate types: PET in 22 % points in time of the year was above 35 °C. The driest AH conditions existed in Dwc (Lhasa) and Dfb (Urumqi) with VP rarely above 18 hPa in the wettest month. Implementation of the HTC information and the additional AH information in each climate type of KGC can be helpful for the topics of human health, energy consumption, tourism, as well as urban planning.

  12. Design parameters of a non-air-conditioned cinema hall for thermal comfort under arid-zone climatic conditions

    Tiwari, G.N. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies); Lugani, N. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies); Singh, A.K. (Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies)

    1993-01-01

    In this communication, a design of a cinema hall suitable for climatic conditions in an arid zone has been presented. The various cooling techniques, namely evaporative cooling, wind tower, ventilation/infiltration and natural cooling, have been incorporated in the design to achieve thermal comfort during the period of operation. The design parameters have been optimized on the basis of numerical computations after establishing an energy balance for each component of a cinema hall. It is observed that cooling treatment, i.e., a wind tower with a cooling pool on the roof provides reasonable thermal comfort inside the enclosure. (orig.)

  13. Design methodology and criteria for daylight and thermal comfort in nearly-zero energy office buildings in Nordic climate

    Karlsen, Line Røseth

    The objective of this PhD thesis was to arrange for an integrated building design with respect to thermal comfort, daylighting and energy use, applicable for office buildings in Nordic climate. In order to achieve this, it is suggested that modelling of mean radiant temperature (MRT) should...... into the simulation tool IDA ICE. Furthermore, the control of solar shading is given attention, since it is a crucial link between the thermal and daylighting performance. The thesis presents results of an occupant survey with 46 subjects, which was carried out to investigate occupants’ preferences towards...

  14. Simulator with integrated HW and SW for prediction of thermal comfort to provide feedback to the climate control system

    Pokorný, Jan; Kopečková, Barbora; Fišer, Jan; JÍcha, Miroslav

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to assemble a simulator for evaluation of thermal comfort in car cabins in order to give a feedback to the HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) system. The HW (hardware) part of simulator is formed by thermal manikin Newton and RH (relative humidity), velocity and temperature probes. The SW (software) part consists of the Thermal Comfort Analyser (using ISO 14505-2) and Virtual Testing Stand of Car Cabin defining the heat loads of car cabin. Simulator can provide recommendation for the climate control how to improve thermal comfort in cabin by distribution and directing of air flow, and also by amount of ventilation power to keep optimal temperature inside a cabin. The methods of evaluation of thermal comfort were verified by tests with 10 test subjects for summer (summer clothing, ambient air temperature 30 °C, HVAC setup: +24 °C auto) and winter conditions (winter clothing, ambient air temperature -5 °C, HVAC setup: +18 °C auto). The tests confirmed the validity of the thermal comfort evaluation using the thermal manikin and ISO 14505-2.

  15. Simulator with integrated HW and SW for prediction of thermal comfort to provide feedback to the climate control system

    Pokorný Jan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assemble a simulator for evaluation of thermal comfort in car cabins in order to give a feedback to the HVAC (heating, ventilation and air conditioning system. The HW (hardware part of simulator is formed by thermal manikin Newton and RH (relative humidity, velocity and temperature probes. The SW (software part consists of the Thermal Comfort Analyser (using ISO 14505-2 and Virtual Testing Stand of Car Cabin defining the heat loads of car cabin. Simulator can provide recommendation for the climate control how to improve thermal comfort in cabin by distribution and directing of air flow, and also by amount of ventilation power to keep optimal temperature inside a cabin. The methods of evaluation of thermal comfort were verified by tests with 10 test subjects for summer (summer clothing, ambient air temperature 30 °C, HVAC setup: +24 °C auto and winter conditions (winter clothing, ambient air temperature -5 °C, HVAC setup: +18 °C auto. The tests confirmed the validity of the thermal comfort evaluation using the thermal manikin and ISO 14505-2.

  16. Climate change negotiation simulations for students: responses across gender and age.A case study: San Francisco State University World Climate Exercises

    Rasheva, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    For decades, role-play and simulation exercises have been utilized for learning and policy decision making. While the power of Model UN simulations in building first-person experience and understanding of complex international issues is well known, the effectiveness of simulations for inspiring citizen engagement in scientific public-policy issues is little studied. My work hypothesizes that climate-change negotiation simulations can enhance students' scientific literacy and policy advocacy. It aims to determine how age and gender influence the responsiveness of students to such simulations. During the 2015 fall semester, I am conducting World Climate exercises for fellow graduate and undergraduate students at San Francisco State University. At the end of the exercise, I will have collected the responses to an anonymous questionnaire in which the participants indicate age and gender. The questionnaire asks participants to describe their hopes and fears for the future and to propose public and personal actions for achieving a strong climate change agreement. I am tracking differences to determine whether participants' age and gender correlate with particular patterns of feeling and thinking. My future research will aim to determine whether and how strongly the World Climate Exercise has affected participants' actual policy engagement. This work will also reflect on my experiences as a World Climate facilitator. I will describe the facilitation process and then discuss some of my observations from the sessions. I will specify the challenges I have encountered and suggest strategies that can strengthen the learning process. World Climate is a computer-simulation-based climate change negotiations role-playing exercise developed by Climate Interactive in partnership with the System Dynamics Group at the MIT Sloan School of Management.

  17. A School-University Research Partnership to Identify Disengaged Students: A Descriptive Case Analysis of School Climate

    Biag, Manuelito D.; Sanchez, Monika A.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Much of the literature on school-university research partnerships has focused on collaborations that address curriculum, instruction, and leadership. Less scholarly attention has been paid to how practitioners and academics work together to improve school climate. Purpose: We seek to deepen understanding of how educators and…

  18. Trade-offs and synergies between universal electricity access and climate change mitigation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Dagnachew, Anteneh G.; Lucas, Paul L.; Hof, Andries F.; van Vuuren, Detlef P.

    2018-01-01

    Access to electricity services is fundamental to development, as it enables improvements to the quality of human life. At the same time, increasing electricity access can have notable consequences for global climate change. This paper analyses trade-offs and synergies between achieving universal

  19. University of Colorado at Boulder: Energy and Climate Revolving Fund. Green Revolving Funds in Action: Case Study Series

    Caine, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The University of Colorado at Boulder's student run Environmental Center leads the campus' sustainability efforts. The Center created the Energy and Climate Revolving Fund (ECRF) in 2007 to finance energy-efficiency upgrades. The ECRF functions as a source of funding for project loans and provides a method of financing projects that seeks to save…

  20. Extinction risks forced by climatic change and intraspecific variation in the thermal physiology of a tropical lizard.

    Pontes-da-Silva, Emerson; Magnusson, William E; Sinervo, Barry; Caetano, Gabriel H; Miles, Donald B; Colli, Guarino R; Diele-Viegas, Luisa M; Fenker, Jessica; Santos, Juan C; Werneck, Fernanda P

    2018-04-01

    Temperature increases can impact biodiversity and predicting their effects is one of the main challenges facing global climate-change research. Ectotherms are sensitive to temperature change and, although predictions indicate that tropical species are highly vulnerable to global warming, they remain one of the least studied groups with respect to the extent of physiological variation and local extinction risks. We model the extinction risks for a tropical heliothermic teiid lizard (Kentropyx calcarata) integrating previously obtained information on intraspecific phylogeographic structure, eco-physiological traits and contemporary species distributions in the Amazon rainforest and its ecotone to the Cerrado savannah. We also investigated how thermal-biology traits vary throughout the species' geographic range and the consequences of such variation for lineage vulnerability. We show substantial variation in thermal tolerance of individuals among thermally distinct sites. Thermal critical limits were highly correlated with operative environmental temperatures. Our physiological/climatic model predicted relative extinction risks for local populations within clades of K. calcarata for 2050 ranging between 26.1% and 70.8%, while for 2070, extinction risks ranged from 52.8% to 92.8%. Our results support the hypothesis that tropical-lizard taxa are at high risk of local extinction caused by increasing temperatures. However, the thermo-physiological differences found across the species' distribution suggest that local adaptation may allow persistence of this tropical ectotherm in global warming scenarios. These results will serve as basis to further research to investigate the strength of local adaptation to climate change. Persistence of Kentropyx calcarata also depends on forest preservation, but the Amazon rainforest is currently under high deforestation rates. We argue that higher conservation priority is necessary so the Amazon rainforest can fulfill its capacity to

  1. Global warming influence on climatic variables and thermal comfort index in Paraíba state, Brazil

    Silva, Gustavo de Assis; Instituto Agronômico de Pernambuco; Souza, Bonifácio Benicio de; Universidade Federal Campina Grande; Silva, Elisângela Maria Nunes da; UFCG

    2015-01-01

    The increase in the concentration of greenhouse gases originated from burning fossil fuels, along with breeding, been appointed as the main causes of global climate change resulting from global warming in earth's atmosphere. These changes can cause serious impacts on the lives and livestock production mainly in tropical regions. Therefore, the aim with this work was to evaluate the effect of global warming on the climatological variables, thermal comfort index and animal production in the sta...

  2. Energy metrics of photovoltaic/thermal and earth air heat exchanger integrated greenhouse for different climatic conditions of India

    Nayak, Sujata; Tiwari, G.N. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, a study is carried out to evaluate the annual thermal and exergy performance of a photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) and earth air heat exchanger (EAHE) system, integrated with a greenhouse, located at IIT Delhi, India, for different climatic conditions of Srinagar, Mumbai, Jodhpur, New Delhi and Bangalore. A comparison is made of various energy metrics, such as energy payback time (EPBT), electricity production factor (EPF) and life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE) of the system by considering four weather conditions (a-d type) for five climatic zones. The embodied energy and annual energy outputs have been used for evaluation of the energy metrics. The annual overall thermal energy, annual electrical energy savings and annual exergy was found to be best for the climatic condition of Jodhpur at 29,156.8 kWh, 1185 kWh and 1366.4 kWh, respectively when compared with other weather stations covered in the study, due to higher solar intensity I and sunshine hours, and is lowest for Srinagar station. The results also showed that energy payback time for Jodhpur station is lowest at 16.7 years and highest for Srinagar station at 21.6 years. Electricity production factor (EPF) is highest for Jodhpur, i.e. 2.04 and Life cycle conversion efficiency (LCCE) is highest for Srinagar station. It is also observed that LCCE increases with increase in life cycle. (author)

  3. A Systematic Review Of Thermal And Moisture Performance Of Straw-Bale Houses In Hot And Humid Climates

    Ikenna Stephen Ezennia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As architects and home-owners look for innovative ways to help reduce their carbon footprint in the campaign against climate change straw bale could become a new tool in the building industrys armory. In order to bring this form of building into the mainstream sector as well as benefit from its inherent low carbon and high insulation characteristics it is necessary to guarantee the long-term durability of the straw. Sources of data included extensive literature search of relevant English language articles and the results of literature search of Elsevier Science Direct ISI Web of Knowledge ProQuest Central Scopus and Google. This study strives to make an exhaustive review of straw-bale performance in different climates and respective improvements from an energy efficiency perspective. This research revealed that when straw-bale buildings are constructed using the correct and specific technique moisture and thermal intrusion did not seem to be detrimental to the health of the building regardless of the climate. Furthermore building with straw can lead to low thermal transfer relatively high thermal inertia and high moisture regulation capacity. The study concluded that at a time when the importance of building sustainably is widely accepted it would seem imperative that the potential of building systems like this that use renewable resources readily available and have low embodied energy is further studied.

  4. Developments of Thermal Environment Techniques of Animal Housing in Hot Climate

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Bjerg, Bjarne Schmidt

    It is a challenge to create the satisfied indoor climate of farm animal housing in hot climate conditions by ventilation design and control. Facing to the global warming tendency, the challenge become event great. To overcome this challenge, an optimal indoor climate control system should be able...

  5. Elevational shifts in thermal suitability for mountain pine beetle population growth in a changing climate

    Barbara J. Bentz; Jacob P. Duncan; James A. Powell

    2016-01-01

    Future forests are being shaped by changing climate and disturbances. Climate change is causing large-scale forest declines globally, in addition to distributional shifts of many tree species. Because environmental cues dictate insect seasonality and population success, climate change is also influencing tree-killing bark beetles. The mountain pine beetle,...

  6. Modelling thermal comfort of visitors at urban squares in hot and arid climate using NN-ARX soft computing method

    Kariminia, Shahab; Motamedi, Shervin; Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Piri, Jamshid; Mohammadi, Kasra; Hashim, Roslan; Roy, Chandrabhushan; Petković, Dalibor; Bonakdari, Hossein

    2016-05-01

    Visitors utilize the urban space based on their thermal perception and thermal environment. The thermal adaptation engages the user's behavioural, physiological and psychological aspects. These aspects play critical roles in user's ability to assess the thermal environments. Previous studies have rarely addressed the effects of identified factors such as gender, age and locality on outdoor thermal comfort, particularly in hot, dry climate. This study investigated the thermal comfort of visitors at two city squares in Iran based on their demographics as well as the role of thermal environment. Assessing the thermal comfort required taking physical measurement and questionnaire survey. In this study, a non-linear model known as the neural network autoregressive with exogenous input (NN-ARX) was employed. Five indices of physiological equivalent temperature (PET), predicted mean vote (PMV), standard effective temperature (SET), thermal sensation votes (TSVs) and mean radiant temperature ( T mrt) were trained and tested using the NN-ARX. Then, the results were compared to the artificial neural network (ANN) and the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The findings showed the superiority of the NN-ARX over the ANN and the ANFIS. For the NN-ARX model, the statistical indicators of the root mean square error (RMSE) and the mean absolute error (MAE) were 0.53 and 0.36 for the PET, 1.28 and 0.71 for the PMV, 2.59 and 1.99 for the SET, 0.29 and 0.08 for the TSV and finally 0.19 and 0.04 for the T mrt.

  7. Application of cold thermal energy storage (CTES) for building demand management in hot climates

    Comodi, Gabriele; Carducci, Francesco; Nagarajan, Balamurugan; Romagnoli, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new index, Savings per energy unit, is defined to assess the effectiveness of CTES. • CTES systems were used to perform demand management strategies, removing partial load operations and shaving peak loads. • CTES was used to perform price arbitrage, exploiting the difference between peak and off peak electricity rates in Singapore. • Results showed that it is possible to enhance the efficiency of the whole system, achieving both energy and economic savings. • Depending on the sizing scenario, the pay back periods ranged from a minimum of 8.9 years to a maximum of 16 years. - Abstract: This paper investigates the feasibility of Cold Thermal Energy Storage (CTES) for building demand management applications in hot climate characterized by a cooling season lasting all year long. An existing office building, located in Singapore, serves as case study. The CTES is coupled to the existing cooling systems in order to address the opportunity of improving overall energy efficiency and to perform price arbitrage, exploiting the spread between peak and off-peak energy tariffs. Six different sizes for the CTES are analyzed, addressing different percentage of the daily cooling energy demand. A new index, Savings per energy unit, is defined to assess the effectiveness of CTES. Results indicate that it is possible to enhance the efficiency of the whole cooling system, achieving both energy and economic savings. The payback periods of the different solutions range from a minimum of 8.9 years to a maximum of 16 years. All these aspects make CTES applications a viable option. However, a large amount of space in direct proximity to the building is necessary and, especially in largely urban environment, this is not always available.

  8. Thermal performance in three different low-cost dwellings for the tropical climate of Brazil

    Leao, Marlon; Borges Leao, Erika F.T. [IGS-Institut fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik, Technical University Braunschweig (Germany); Jesus Albuquerque Nogueira, Marta C. de [Department of Architecture and Urbanism, UFMT, Cuiaba-MT (Brazil); Souza Nogueira, Jose de [Department of Physics and Environment, UFMT, Cuiaba-MT (Brazil)

    2008-02-15

    The aim of this project was to analyze the thermal performance of passive low-cost housing in half-humid tropical climate. The houses are located in Cuiaba-MT (15.5 southern latitude), one of the hottest cities in Brazil. The data about the typology of the houses were obtained from three representative construction systems; wood, masonry, and prefabricated. The measurements had been carried out through a year, during 20 consecutive days of each season and were evaluated by three distinct methodologies: (1) analyses of previous recommendations of the construction where the envelope materials were compared with the Brazilian standard NBR 15220-3/ 2005, (2) frequency, through dry bulb temperature with values of 18 C and 29 C, and (3) performance, by analysis of comfort levels and bioclimatic strategies processed by Analysis Bio 2.1.2 program in accordance to the adapted Bioclimatic Chart of Givoni for developing countries. (Abstract Copyright [2008], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [German] Ziel des Projektes war, das thermische Verhalten kostenguenstiger Passivwohnhaeuser im halbfeuchten tropischen Klima zu untersuchen. Die Haeuser befinden sich in Cuiaba-MT (15.5 suedlicher Breite), eine der heissesten Staedte Brasiliens. Die Daten ueber die Typologie der Haeuser wurden von drei repraesentativen Bauweisen gewonnen: Holz, Mauerwerk und Massivbauweise. Die Messungen wurden innerhalb eines Jahres waehrend jeweils 20 aufeinanderfolgenden Tagen in den vier Jahreszeiten durchgefuehrt und nach drei Kriterien ausgewertet: (1) Untersuchung der Konstruktionsempfehlungen und Vergleich der Aussenwandkonstruktion mit der brasilianischen Norm NBR 15220-3/2005, (2) Haeufigkeitsverteilung der Temperaturwerte 18 C und 29 C, sowie (3) thermisches Verhalten mit Untersuchung der Behaglichkeit und eines bioklimatischen Konzepts mit Hilfe der Software Analysis Bio 2.1.2 in Uebereinstimmung mit dem darin verwendeten Bioklimatischen Diagramm fuer Entwicklungslaender nach Givoni. (Abstract

  9. Summer Thermal Comfort and Self-Shading Geometries in Passivhaus Dwellings: A Pilot Study Using Future UK Climates

    Yahya Lavafpour

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study uses numerical thermal simulation to investigate the potential use of building geometry to eliminate or reduce current and future thermal discomfort overheating risk in UK Passivhaus dwellings. The study focused on the optimum inclination of a south façade to make use of the building shape to self-protect itself. Dynamic simulation modelling software was used to test a range of different inclined façades with regards to their effectiveness in reducing overheating risk. The research found that implementing a tilted façade could completely eliminate the risk of overheating for current UK climates, but with some consequences for natural ventilation and daylighting. Future overheating was significantly reduced by the tilted façade. However, geometric considerations could not eradicate completely the risk of thermal discomfort overheating, particularly by the 2080s.

  10. Advanced analysis of thermal data observed in subsurface wells unmasks the ancient climate

    Eppelbaum, Lev; Kutasov, Izzy

    2014-05-01

    Conventional methods of studying the ancient climate history are associated with statistical processing of accomplished meteorological data. These investigations have focused attention on meteorological records of air temperature, which can provide information on the only last 100-200 years. Number of the records is absolutely insufficient and their areal coverage is limited, some oldest meteorological stations may have been affected by local warming connected with urban and industrial growth. At the same time significant climate changes are accompanied by the corresponding variations in the Earth's surface (soil) temperature. This effect is based on the known physical law that temperature waves at the surface propagate downward into the subsurface with an amplitude attenuation and time delay increasing with depth. Earth's temperature profiles, measured by precise temperature logging T(z) in boreholes to depth of about 80-300 meters, have a 'memory' on what has happened on the surface during approximately several last centuries. Knowledge of the past climate in archaeology is necessary not only for tracing some ancient events and more deep understanding some historical facts, but also for estimation of past harvests, analysis of some physical conditions of different constructions built in the past, and in many other fields (Eppelbaum, 2010; Eppelbaum et al., 2010). The first attempts to recover the past ground surface temperature history (GSTH) from measured T(z) profiles date back to the mid-1960s, however only after Lachenbruch et al. (1988) pointed out that the magnitude and timing of the ground surface warming in Alaska is consistent with models of the recent warming, the method became popular (Cermak et al., 1996). Let us assume that tx years ago from now the ground surface temperature started to increase (warming) or reduce (cooling). Prior to this moment the subsurface temperature is: Ta(z,t = 0) = T0a + Γ z, (1) where T0a is the mean ground surface

  11. Thermal dynamic simulation of wall for building energy efficiency under varied climate environment

    Wang, Xuejin; Zhang, Yujin; Hong, Jing

    2017-08-01

    Aiming at different kind of walls in five cities of different zoning for thermal design, using thermal instantaneous response factors method, the author develops software to calculation air conditioning cooling load temperature, thermal response factors, and periodic response factors. On the basis of the data, the author gives the net work analysis about the influence of dynamic thermal of wall on air-conditioning load and thermal environment in building of different zoning for thermal design regional, and put forward the strategy how to design thermal insulation and heat preservation wall base on dynamic thermal characteristic of wall under different zoning for thermal design regional. And then provide the theory basis and the technical references for the further study on the heat preservation with the insulation are in the service of energy saving wall design. All-year thermal dynamic load simulating and energy consumption analysis for new energy-saving building is very important in building environment. This software will provide the referable scientific foundation for all-year new thermal dynamic load simulation, energy consumption analysis, building environment systems control, carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy -saving walls building. Based on which, we will not only expediently design system of building energy, but also analyze building energy consumption and carry through scientific energy management. The study will provide the referable scientific foundation for carrying through farther research on thermal particularity and general particularity evaluation for new energy saving walls building.

  12. Potential for thermal tolerance to mediate climate change effects on three members of a cool temperate lizard genus, Niveoscincus.

    Caldwell, Amanda J; While, Geoffrey M; Beeton, Nicholas J; Wapstra, Erik

    2015-08-01

    Climatic changes are predicted to be greater in higher latitude and mountainous regions but species specific impacts are difficult to predict. This is partly due to inter-specific variance in the physiological traits which mediate environmental temperature effects at the organismal level. We examined variation in the critical thermal minimum (CTmin), critical thermal maximum (CTmax) and evaporative water loss rates (EWL) of a widespread lowland (Niveoscincus ocellatus) and two range restricted highland (N. microlepidotus and N. greeni) members of a cool temperate Tasmanian lizard genus. The widespread lowland species had significantly higher CTmin and CTmax and significantly lower EWL than both highland species. Implications of inter-specific variation in thermal tolerance for activity were examined under contemporary and future climate change scenarios. Instances of air temperatures below CTmin were predicted to decline in frequency for the widespread lowland and both highland species. Air temperatures of high altitude sites were not predicted to exceed the CTmax of either highland species throughout the 21st century. In contrast, the widespread lowland species is predicted to experience air temperatures in excess of CTmax on 1 or 2 days by three of six global circulation models from 2068-2096. To estimate climate change effects on activity we reran the thermal tolerance models using minimum and maximum temperatures selected for activity. A net gain in available activity time was predicted under climate change for all three species; while air temperatures were predicted to exceed maximum temperatures selected for activity with increasing frequency, the change was not as great as the predicted decline in air temperatures below minimum temperatures selected for activity. We hypothesise that the major effect of rising air temperatures under climate change is an increase in available activity period for both the widespread lowland and highland species. The

  13. A universal mirror wave-mode threshold condition for non-thermal space plasma environments

    M. P. Leubner

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic fluctuations are recognized in a large variety of space plasmas by increasingly high resolution, in situ observations as mirror wave mode structures. A typical requirement for the excitation of mirror modes is a dominant perpendicular pressure in a high-beta plasma environment. Contrary, we demonstrate from a realistic kinetic analysis how details of the velocity space distributions are of considerable significance for the instability threshold. Introducing the most common characteristics of observed ion and electron distributions by a mixed suprathermal-loss-cone, we derive a universal mirror instability criterion from an energy principle for collisionless plasmas. As a result, the transition from two temperature Maxwellians to realistic non-thermal features provides a strong source for the generation of mirror wave mode activity, reducing drastically the instability threshold. In particular, a number of space-related examples illuminate how the specific structure of the velocity space distribution dominates as a regulating excitation mechanism over the effects related to changes in the plasma parameters.

  14. Investigation on the Temporal Surface Thermal Conditions for Thermal Comfort Researches Inside A Vehicle Cabin Under Summer Season Climate

    Zhang Wencan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the proposes of improving occupant's thermal comfort and reducing the air conditioning power consumption, the present research carried out a comprehensive study on the surface thermal conductions and their influence parameters. A numerical model was built considering the transient conduction, convective and radiation heat transfer inside a vehicle cabin. For more accurate simulation of the radiation heat transfer behaviors, the radiation was considered into two spectral bands (short wave and long wave radiation, and the solar radiation was calculated by two solar fluxes (beam and diffuse solar radiation. An experiment was conducted to validate the numerical approach, showing a good agreement with the surface temperature. The surface thermal conditions were numerically simulated. The results show that the solar radiation is the most important factor in determining the internal surface thermal conditions. Effects of the window glass properties and the car body surface conditions were investigated. The numerical calculation results indicate that reducing the transitivity of window glass can effectively reduce the internal surface temperature. And the reflectivity of the vehicle cabin also has an important influence on the surface temperature, however, it's not so obvious as comparison to the window glass.

  15. Performance Characterisation of a Hybrid Flat-Plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic/Thermal Solar Power Module in Subtropical Climate

    Andrew Y. A. Oyieke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A flat-plate Vacuum Insulated Photovoltaic and Thermal (VIPV/T system has been thermodynamically simulated and experimentally evaluated to assess the thermal and electrical performance as well as energy conversion efficiencies under a subtropical climate. A simulation model made of specified components is developed in Transient Systems (TRNSYS environment into which numerical energy balance equations are implemented. The influence of vacuum insulation on the system’s electrical and thermal yields has been evaluated using temperatures, current, voltage, and power flows over daily and annual cycles under local meteorological conditions. The results from an experiment conducted under steady-state conditions in Durban, South Africa, are compared with the simulation based on the actual daily weather data. The VIPV/T has shown improved overall and thermal efficiencies of 9.5% and 16.8%, respectively, while electrical efficiency marginally reduced by 0.02% compared to the conventional PV/T. The simulated annual overall efficiency of 29% (i.e., 18% thermal and 11% electrical has been realised, in addition to the solar fraction, overall exergy, and primary energy saving efficiencies of 39%, 29%, and 27%, respectively.

  16. Climate warming over the past half century has led to thermal degradation of permafrost on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Ran, Youhua; Li, Xin; Cheng, Guodong

    2018-02-01

    Air temperature increases thermally degrade permafrost, which has widespread impacts on engineering design, resource development, and environmental protection in cold regions. This study evaluates the potential thermal degradation of permafrost over the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (QTP) from the 1960s to the 2000s using estimated decadal mean annual air temperatures (MAATs) by integrating remote-sensing-based estimates of mean annual land surface temperatures (MASTs), leaf area index (LAI) and fractional snow cover values, and decadal mean MAAT date from 152 weather stations with a geographically weighted regression (GWR). The results reflect a continuous rise of approximately 0.04 °C a-1 in the decadal mean MAAT values over the past half century. A thermal-condition classification matrix is used to convert modelled MAATs to permafrost thermal type. Results show that the climate warming has led to a thermal degradation of permafrost in the past half century. The total area of thermally degraded permafrost is approximately 153.76 × 104 km2, which corresponds to 88 % of the permafrost area in the 1960s. The thermal condition of 75.2 % of the very cold permafrost, 89.6 % of the cold permafrost, 90.3 % of the cool permafrost, 92.3 % of the warm permafrost, and 32.8 % of the very warm permafrost has been degraded to lower levels of thermal condition. Approximately 49.4 % of the very warm permafrost and 96 % of the likely thawing permafrost has degraded to seasonally frozen ground. The mean elevations of the very cold, cold, cool, warm, very warm, and likely thawing permafrost areas increased by 88, 97, 155, 185, 161, and 250 m, respectively. The degradation mainly occurred from the 1960s to the 1970s and from the 1990s to the 2000s. This degradation may lead to increased risks to infrastructure, reductions in ecosystem resilience, increased flood risks, and positive climate feedback effects. It therefore affects the well-being of millions of people

  17. Climate

    Fellous, J.L.

    2005-02-01

    This book starts with a series of about 20 preconceived ideas about climate and climatic change and analyses each of them in the light of the present day knowledge. Using this approach, it makes a status of the reality of the climatic change, of its causes and of the measures to be implemented to limit its impacts and reduce its most harmful consequences. (J.S.)

  18. Longitudinal thermal heterogeneity in rivers and refugia for coldwater species: effects of scale and climate change

    Climate-change driven increases in water temperature pose multiple challenges for aquatic organisms. Predictions of climate change impacts to biota typically do not account for fine-grained spatiotemporal patterns of stream networks; yet patches of cooler water within rivers c...

  19. University-Government Partnerships and High Risk Research: The Last Stronghold for New Thinking About Coping with Climate Change

    Easterling, W. E.

    2014-12-01

    The repurposing of Bell Laboratories by new owner Lucent Technologies to become a mission-focused applied research facility effectively terminated fundamental, high-risk research everywhere but in research universities. The now almost ten year old NAS study that produced the watershed report Rising Above the Gathering Storm warned that the US research establishment encompassing industry, government, academia and nongovernment organizations has lost its way in promoting fundamental high-risk research of the kind that has historically led to the transformational scientific breakthroughs that radically changed and improved our quality of life for more than a century. Low-risk, incremental research dominates industry and most government funding agendas, including NSF (and including NSF's "transformational research" agenda!). Unprecedented challenges such as understanding and dealing with the consequences of climate change will require fundamental new ideas and technologies that do not exist. Adapting future ecosystems and human systems to climate variability and change needs new social models of cooperation, new biotechnologies and new environmental mangement strategies that do not now exist. A case can be made that history provides no strong templates for such a future. I argue that research universities, working in close partnerships with government, provides a fertile seedbed for the kinds of scientific knowledge and thinking that could produce "game changing" strategies for dealing with climate change. Government has the resources and the ability to convert and scale new ideas into usable knowledge, research universities have the ingenuity and disciplinary spectra to think up new ideas and test them for proof of concept. Co-locating a government presence within a research university has the potential to integrate a research enterprise that is not afraid to fail a few times before potentially hitting paydirt with an institution that can accelerate the translation of

  20. THERMAL REGIME OF MASSIVE CONCRETE DAMS WITH AIR CAVITIES IN THE SEVERE CLIMATE

    Aniskin Nikolay Alekseevich

    2012-12-01

    The thermal regime of the concrete dam with an air cavity can be adjustable by simple structural elements, including a heat-insulating wall and artificial heating of cavities. The required intensity and duration of heating are to be identified. Final conclusions about the most favorable thermal regime pattern will be made upon completion of fundamental calculations of the thermal stress state of the dam to be performed in the next phase of the research.

  1. Modeling lodgepole pine radial growth relative to climate and genetics using universal growth-trend response functions.

    McLane, Sierra C; LeMay, Valerie M; Aitken, Sally N

    2011-04-01

    Forests strongly affect Earth's carbon cycles, making our ability to forecast forest-productivity changes associated with rising temperatures and changes in precipitation increasingly critical. In this study, we model the influence of climate on annual radial growth using lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees grown for 34 years in a large provenance experiment in western Canada. We use a random-coefficient modeling approach to build universal growth-trend response functions that simultaneously incorporate the impacts of different provenance and site climates on radial growth trends under present and future annual (growth-year), summer, and winter climate regimes. This approach provides new depth to traditional quantitative genetics population response functions by illustrating potential changes in population dominance over time, as well as indicating the age and size at which annual growth begins declining for any population growing in any location under any present or future climate scenario within reason, given the ages and climatic conditions sampled. Our models indicate that lodgepole pine radial-growth levels maximize between 3.9 degrees and 5.1 degrees C mean growth-year temperature. This translates to productivity declining by the mid-21st century in southern and central British Columbia (BC), while increasing beyond the 2080s in northern BC and Yukon, as temperatures rise. Relative to summer climate indices, productivity is predicted to decline continuously through the 2080s in all locations, while relative to winter climate variables, the opposite trend occurs, with the growth increases caused by warmer winters potentially offsetting the summer losses. Trees from warmer provenances, i.e., from the center of the species range, perform best in nearly all of our present and future climate-scenario models. We recommend that similar models be used to analyze population growth trends relative to annual and intra-annual climate in other large-scale provenance

  2. Solar cooling for small office buildings: Comparison of solar thermal and photovoltaic options for two different European climates

    Hartmann, N. [University of Stuttgart, Institute of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (IER), Hessbruehlstr. 49a, 70565 Stuttgart (Germany); Glueck, C. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Fluid Machinery (FSM), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Schmidt, F.P. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Fluid Machinery (FSM), Kaiserstr. 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Fraunhofer ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    We present a comparison of solar thermal and solar electric cooling for a typical small office building exposed to two different European climates (Freiburg and Madrid). The investigation is based on load series for heating and cooling obtained previously from annual building simulations in TRNSYS. A conventional compression chiller is used as the reference system against which the solar options are evaluated with respect to primary energy savings and additional cost. A parametric study on collector and storage size is carried out for the solar thermal system to reach achieve the minimal cost per unit of primary energy saved. The simulated solar electric system consists of the reference system, equipped with a grid connected photovoltaic module, which can be varied in size. For cost comparison of the two systems, the electric grid is assumed to function as a cost-free storage. A method to include macroeconomic effects in the comparison is presented and discussed. Within the system parameters and assumptions used here, the grid coupled PV system leads to lower costs of primary energy savings than the solar thermal system at both locations. The presumed macroeconomic advantages of the solar thermal system, due to the non-usage of energy during peak demand, can be confirmed for Madrid. (author)

  3. Thermal energy and economic analysis of a PCM-enhanced household envelope considering different climate zones in Morocco

    Kharbouch, Yassine; Mimet, Abdelaziz; El Ganaoui, Mohammed; Ouhsaine, Lahoucine

    2018-07-01

    This study investigates the thermal energy potentials and economic feasibility of an air-conditioned family household-integrated phase change material (PCM) considering different climate zones in Morocco. A simulation-based optimisation was carried out in order to define the optimal design of a PCM-enhanced household envelope for thermal energy effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of predefined candidate solutions. The optimisation methodology is based on coupling Energyplus® as a dynamic simulation tool and GenOpt® as an optimisation tool. Considering the obtained optimum design strategies, a thermal energy and economic analysis are carried out to investigate PCMs' integration feasibility in the Moroccan constructions. The results show that the PCM-integrated household envelope allows minimising the cooling/heating thermal energy demand vs. a reference household without PCM. While for the cost-effectiveness optimisation, it has been deduced that the economic feasibility is stilling insufficient under the actual PCM market conditions. The optimal design parameters results are also analysed.

  4. Sustainable earth-based vs. conventional construction systems in the Mediterranean climate: Experimental analysis of thermal performance

    Serrano, S.; de Gracia, A.; Pérez, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    The building envelope has high potential to reduce the energy consumption of buildings according to the International Energy Agency (IEA) because it is involved along all the building process: design, construction, use, and end-of-life. The present study compares the thermal behavior of seven different building prototypes tested under Mediterranean climate: two of them were built with sustainable earth-based construction systems and the other five, with conventional brick construction systems. The tested earth-based construction systems consist of rammed earth walls and wooden green roofs, which have been adapted to contemporary requirements by reducing their thickness. In order to balance the thermal response, wooden insulation panels were placed in one of the earth prototypes. All building prototypes have the same inner dimensions and orientation, and they are fully monitored to register inner temperature and humidity, surface walls temperatures and temperatures inside walls. Furthermore, all building prototypes are equipped with a heat pump and an electricity meter to measure the electrical energy consumed to maintain a certain level of comfort. The experimentation was performed along a whole year by carrying out several experiments in free floating and controlled temperature conditions. This study aims at demonstrating that sustainable construction systems can behave similarly or even better than conventional ones under summer and winter conditions. Results show that thermal behavior is strongly penalized when rammed earth wall thickness is reduced. However, the addition of 6 cm of wooden insulation panels in the outer surface of the building prototype successfully improves the thermal response.

  5. Phenological shifts conserve thermal niches in North American birds and reshape expectations for climate-driven range shifts.

    Socolar, Jacob B; Epanchin, Peter N; Beissinger, Steven R; Tingley, Morgan W

    2017-12-05

    Species respond to climate change in two dominant ways: range shifts in latitude or elevation and phenological shifts of life-history events. Range shifts are widely viewed as the principal mechanism for thermal niche tracking, and phenological shifts in birds and other consumers are widely understood as the principal mechanism for tracking temporal peaks in biotic resources. However, phenological and range shifts each present simultaneous opportunities for temperature and resource tracking, although the possible role for phenological shifts in thermal niche tracking has been widely overlooked. Using a canonical dataset of Californian bird surveys and a detectability-based approach for quantifying phenological signal, we show that Californian bird communities advanced their breeding phenology by 5-12 d over the last century. This phenological shift might track shifting resource peaks, but it also reduces average temperatures during nesting by over 1 °C, approximately the same magnitude that average temperatures have warmed over the same period. We further show that early-summer temperature anomalies are correlated with nest success in a continental-scale database of bird nests, suggesting avian thermal niches might be broadly limited by temperatures during nesting. These findings outline an adaptation surface where geographic range and breeding phenology respond jointly to constraints imposed by temperature and resource phenology. By stabilizing temperatures during nesting, phenological shifts might mitigate the need for range shifts. Global change ecology will benefit from further exploring phenological adjustment as a potential mechanism for thermal niche tracking and vice versa.

  6. Climate Change Effect on Thermal Power Cooling in the U.S.

    Maintaining reasonable surface-water temperatures is paramount for aquatic ecosystem health. Thermal pollution from power plant effluent can result in unnatural river temperature spikes locally, as well as cause damaging breaches to river temperature. The threat of a nonstationar...

  7. People who live in a cold climate: thermal adaptation differences based on availability of heating.

    Yu, J; Cao, G; Cui, W; Ouyang, Q; Zhu, Y

    2013-08-01

    Are there differences in thermal adaptation to cold indoor environments between people who are used to living in heating and non-heating regions in China? To answer this question, we measured thermal perceptions and physiological responses of young men from Beijing (where there are indoor space heating facilities in winter) and Shanghai (where there are not indoor space heating facilities in winter) during exposures to cold. Subjects were exposed to 12°C, 14°C, 16°C, 18°C, 20°C for 1 h. Subjects from Beijing complained of greater cold discomfort and demonstrated poorer physiological acclimatization to cold indoor environments than those from Shanghai. These findings indicate that people's chronic indoor thermal experience might be an important determinant of thermal adaptation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Assessment Of The Viability Of Kaduna City Climate For Year Round Use Of Direct Solar Thermal Cooking Fuel In Housing

    Boumann Ephraim Sule

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy obtained from the sun is the world most abundant and cheapest source of energy as a cooking fuel. It comes in two forms Concentrated Solar Thermal direct conversion of solar energy to heat that cooks and Solar Photovoltaic PV a conversion of solar energy to electrical then to heat energy the former technology is simple and far cheaper. Despite all these architectural and engineering researches is yet to capture it for indoor cooking because of inability to cook year round due the claimed hindrances by weather condition such as clouds rainfall wind dusty atmosphere and many others. This paper attempted to look into the possibility of cooking year round in Kaduna city. It collected and analyzed ten years climatic data from three different meteorological stations strategically located round the city this showed a low solar radiation in the month of August. It further compared the result with a literature review of solar cooking carried in the same month the findings showed at the peak of each weather hindrance a another element overrides it to give enough minimum energy for cooking a meals. This paper has therefore pointed the potentials of Kaduna city climate for year round use of concentrated solar thermal as a cooking fuel in residential building and further recommends the architectural collaboration with engineers for the direct capturing of solar rays into residential dwelling as a sustainable cooking fuel.

  9. Archive of information about geological samples available for research from the Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Polar Rock Repository

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Polar Rock Repository (PRR) operated by the Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) at the Ohio State University is a partner in the Index to Marine and...

  10. Archive of Geosample Data and Information from the Ohio State University Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Sediment Core Repository

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center (BPCRC) Sediment Core Repository operated by the Ohio State University is a partner in the Index to Marine and Lacustrine...

  11. Thermal history and comfort in a Brazilian subtropical climate: a 'cool' addiction hypothesis

    Vecchi, Renata De; Cândido, Christhina Maria; Lamberts, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, there is a rising trend for commercial buildings to use air conditioning to provide indoor thermal comfort. This paper focuses on the impact of prolonged exposure to indoor air-conditioned environments on occupants' thermal acceptability and preferences in a mixed-mode building in Brazil. Questionnaires were administered while indoor microclimatic measurements were carried out (i.e., air temperature, radiant air temperature, air speed and humidity). Results suggest signifi...

  12. Modeling thermal structure, ice cover regime and sensitivity to climate change of two regulated lakes - a Norwegian case study

    Gebre, Solomon; Boissy, Thibault; Alfredsen, Knut

    2013-04-01

    A great number of river and lakes in Norway and the Nordic region at large are regulated for water management such as hydropower production. Such regulations have the potential to alter the thermal and hydrological regimes in the lakes and rivers downstream impacting on river environment and ecology. Anticipated changes as a result of climate change in meteorological forcing data such as air temperature and precipitation cause changes in the water balance, water temperature and ice cover duration in the reservoirs. This may necessitate changes in operational rules as part of an adaptation strategy for the future. In this study, a one dimensional (1D) lake thermodynamic and ice cover model (MyLake) has been modified to take into account the effect of dynamic outflows in reservoirs and applied to two small but relatively deep regulated lakes (reservoirs) in Norway (Follsjøen and Tesse). The objective was to assess climate change impacts on the seasonal thermal characteristics, the withdrawal temperatures, and the reservoir ice cover dynamics with current operational regimes. The model solves the vertical energy balance on a daily time-step driven by meteorological and hydrological forcings: 2m air temperature, precipitation, 2m relative humidity, 10m wind speed, cloud cover, air pressure, solar insolation, inflow volume, inflow temperature and reservoir outflows. Model calibration with multi-seasonal data of temperature profiles showed that the model performed well in simulating the vertical water temperature profiles for the two study reservoirs. The withdrawal temperatures were also simulated reasonably well. The comparison between observed and simulated lake ice phenology (which were available only for one of the reservoirs - Tesse) was also reasonable taking into account the uncertainty in the observational data. After model testing and calibration, the model was then used to simulate expected changes in the future (2080s) due to climate change by considering

  13. Thermal reaction norms and the scale of temperature variation: latitudinal vulnerability of intertidal nacellid limpets to climate change.

    Simon A Morley

    Full Text Available The thermal reaction norms of 4 closely related intertidal Nacellid limpets, Antarctic (Nacella concinna, New Zealand (Cellana ornata, Australia (C. tramoserica and Singapore (C. radiata, were compared across environments with different temperature magnitude, variability and predictability, to test their relative vulnerability to different scales of climate warming. Lethal limits were measured alongside a newly developed metric of "duration tenacity", which was tested at different temperatures to calculate the thermal reaction norm of limpet adductor muscle fatigue. Except in C. tramoserica which had a wide optimum range with two break points, duration tenacity did not follow a typical aerobic capacity curve but was best described by a single break point at an optimum temperature. Thermal reaction norms were shifted to warmer temperatures in warmer environments; the optimum temperature for tenacity (T(opt increased from 1.0°C (N. concinna to 14.3°C (C. ornata to 18.0°C (an average for the optimum range of C. tramoserica to 27.6°C (C. radiata. The temperature limits for duration tenacity of the 4 species were most consistently correlated with both maximum sea surface temperature and summer maximum in situ habitat logger temperature. Tropical C. radiata, which lives in the least variable and most predictable environment, generally had the lowest warming tolerance and thermal safety margin (WT and TSM; respectively the thermal buffer of CT(max and T(opt over habitat temperature. However, the two temperate species, C. ornata and C. tramoserica, which live in a variable and seasonally unpredictable microhabitat, had the lowest TSM relative to in situ logger temperature. N. concinna which lives in the most variable, but seasonally predictable microhabitat, generally had the highest TSMs. Intertidal animals live at the highly variable interface between terrestrial and marine biomes and even small changes in the magnitude and predictability of their

  14. Thermal reaction norms and the scale of temperature variation: latitudinal vulnerability of intertidal nacellid limpets to climate change.

    Morley, Simon A; Martin, Stephanie M; Day, Robert W; Ericson, Jess; Lai, Chien-Houng; Lamare, Miles; Tan, Koh-Siang; Thorne, Michael A S; Peck, Lloyd S

    2012-01-01

    The thermal reaction norms of 4 closely related intertidal Nacellid limpets, Antarctic (Nacella concinna), New Zealand (Cellana ornata), Australia (C. tramoserica) and Singapore (C. radiata), were compared across environments with different temperature magnitude, variability and predictability, to test their relative vulnerability to different scales of climate warming. Lethal limits were measured alongside a newly developed metric of "duration tenacity", which was tested at different temperatures to calculate the thermal reaction norm of limpet adductor muscle fatigue. Except in C. tramoserica which had a wide optimum range with two break points, duration tenacity did not follow a typical aerobic capacity curve but was best described by a single break point at an optimum temperature. Thermal reaction norms were shifted to warmer temperatures in warmer environments; the optimum temperature for tenacity (T(opt)) increased from 1.0°C (N. concinna) to 14.3°C (C. ornata) to 18.0°C (an average for the optimum range of C. tramoserica) to 27.6°C (C. radiata). The temperature limits for duration tenacity of the 4 species were most consistently correlated with both maximum sea surface temperature and summer maximum in situ habitat logger temperature. Tropical C. radiata, which lives in the least variable and most predictable environment, generally had the lowest warming tolerance and thermal safety margin (WT and TSM; respectively the thermal buffer of CT(max) and T(opt) over habitat temperature). However, the two temperate species, C. ornata and C. tramoserica, which live in a variable and seasonally unpredictable microhabitat, had the lowest TSM relative to in situ logger temperature. N. concinna which lives in the most variable, but seasonally predictable microhabitat, generally had the highest TSMs. Intertidal animals live at the highly variable interface between terrestrial and marine biomes and even small changes in the magnitude and predictability of their

  15. Impact of Climate Change on Outdoor Thermal Comfort and Health in Tropical Wet and Hot Zone (Douala, Cameroon

    Modeste Kameni Nematchoua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose:Climate change has an important role on the health and productivity of the occupant of the building. The objective of this study is to estimate the effects of climate change on thermal comfort in hot and wet areas, as in the case of the city of Douala. Materials and Methods:The general circulation model (CSMK3 Model, Scenario B1 was adopted for this purpose.Outdoor daily parameters of temperature, sunshine, and precipitation of last 40 years were analyzed and allowed us to make forecast on this area. The past (1990-2000, the present (2001-2011, and the future (2012-2022 were considered in the hypotheses. Results:It has been found that Douala like some large cities of Africa is already and will be severely hit of advantage by climate change if anything is not going to slow. By 2033, it is expected to have an increase of more than 0.21° C of temperature thus, a decrease of precipitation. Conclusion:In 2023, total discomfort will reign in the dry season, especially in January where humidex could reach 42.9. On the other hand, in the rainy season, humidex will increase of 0.91 compared to year 2013. This effect will have an increase of temperature. When we maintain relative humidity, and we increase temperature, humidex varies enormously and displays a maximum value, with maximum temperature.

  16. Prediction of thermal sensation in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates

    Fanger, Povl Ole; Toftum, Jørn

    2002-01-01

    The PMV model agrees well with high-quality field studies in buildings with HVAC systems, situated in cold, temperate and warm climates, studied during both summer and winter. In non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates, occupants may sense the warmth as being less severe than the PMV...... predicts. The main reason is low expectations, but a metabolic rate that is estimated too high can also contribute to explaining the difference. An extension of the PMV model that includes an expectancy factor is introduced for use in non-air-conditioned buildings in warm climates. The extended PMV model...... agrees well with quality field studies in non-air-conditioned buildings of three continents....

  17. Urban planning as a tool to cope with climate change. Cooperation between the University of Lisbon and the Municipality

    Alcoforado, M. J.; Andrade, H.; Lopes, A.

    2009-09-01

    Climate change is a current and urgent topic. Urban areas are particularly vulnerable to climate change due to the concentration of population, infrastructures and activities and to their specific climatic features, for example the urban heat island. In certain cities, temperature has already risen to values predicted for the planet's mean temperature in 2100. Some questions arise: Is there a direct or indirect effect of urban warming upon planetary climate change? What are the consequences of global warming to the urban heat island? What can be done to cope with climate change impacts in urban areas without compromising their sustainability, that is, to minimise the impacts upon the environment while maintaining the quality of life of urban dwellers? On the other hand, cities have the potential (in terms of critical mass and technology) to promote innovative solutions that are easily reproducible on a wider scale. The great concentration of resources may, in certain cases, improve our capacity to take the most appropriate action. In cities, there are potentially less obstructions to the implementation of measures and to decision making than at a national and global level. So, the main question is: should we not consider cities as privileged places to test different types of adaptation to climate change? We are still at an initial stage in the development of a global answer to the threat of climate change and in this sense cities can be an advantageous starting point. Lisbon's case will be presented. Geographers form the University of Lisbon have worked together with the Municipality of Lisbon and have studied Lisbon's urban climate in order to give spatialized climate guidelines, both for the whole city and at a city district level. The mapping of Lisbon's physical features was done using a Geographical Information System. A "ventilation map” was produced using a Digital Terrain Model and data of urban roughness. A "built-density” map was also prepared based

  18. The thermal influence of continents on a model-generated January climate

    Spar, J.; Cohen, C.; Wu, P.

    1981-01-01

    Two climate simulations were compared. Both climate computations were initialized with the same horizontally uniform state of rest. However, one is carried out on a water planet (without continents), while the second is repeated on a planet with geographically realistic but flat (sea level) continents. The continents in this experiment have a uniform albedo of 0.14, except where snow accumulates, a uniform roughness height of 0.3 m, and zero water storage capacity. Both runs were carried out for a 'perpetual January' with solar declination fixed at January 15.

  19. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Ramanathan Sugumaran

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixelto-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds.

  20. Surface Temperature Mapping of the University of Northern Iowa Campus Using High Resolution Thermal Infrared Aerial Imageries

    Savelyev, Alexander; Sugumaran, Ramanathan

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this project was to map the surface temperature of the University of Northern Iowa campus using high-resolution thermal infrared aerial imageries. A thermal camera with a spectral bandwidth of 3.0-5.0 μm was flown at the average altitude of 600 m, achieving ground resolution of 29 cm. Ground control data was used to construct the pixel- to-temperature conversion model, which was later used to produce temperature maps of the entire campus and also for validation of the model. The temperature map then was used to assess the building rooftop conditions and steam line faults in the study area. Assessment of the temperature map revealed a number of building structures that may be subject to insulation improvement due to their high surface temperatures leaks. Several hot spots were also identified on the campus for steam pipelines faults. High-resolution thermal infrared imagery proved highly effective tool for precise heat anomaly detection on the campus, and it can be used by university facility services for effective future maintenance of buildings and grounds. PMID:27873800

  1. [Communication, participation and leadership in the perception of the emotional climate in a university hospital in Andalusia, Spain].

    Danet, Alina; March, Joan Carles; Romera, Inmaculada García

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and analyze perceptions and opinions among health professionals in a university hospital in Andalusia, Spain, regarding the emotional climate, leadership style, quality of information, and internal communication. The study also aimed to collect health professionals' suggestions for improving these workplace characteristics. The study included 730 participants and used a quantitative and qualitative methodology. The results reflect a medium-to-low level of emotional climate, correlated with the leadership style and information and internal communication. Statistically significant differences appeared when comparing professional categories and hospital units. The health professionals provided a positive assessment of the administrators' work, although requiring more task-oriented, participative, and affiliative leadership skills.

  2. Universal treatment of plumes and stresses for pressurized thermal shock evaluations

    Theofanous, T.G.; Angelini, S.; Yan, H.

    1991-01-01

    Thermally-induced stresses in a reactor pressure vessel wall, as a result of high-pressure safety injection, are an essential component of integrated risk analyses of pressurized thermal shock transients. Limiting cooldowns arise when this injection occurs under stagnated loop conditions which, in turn, correspond to a rather narrow range (in size) of small-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Moreover, at these conditions, the flow is thermally stratified, and in addition to the global cooldown, one must be concerned about the additional cooling potential due to the downcomer plumes formed by the cold streams pouring out of the cold legs. In the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Integrated Pressurized Thermal Shock (IPTS) study, this stratification was calculated with the codes REMIX/NEWMIX. A comprehensive comparison with all available experimental data has currently been compiled. The stress analysis using this input was carried out at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using a one-dimensional approximation with the intent to conservatively bound the magnitude of thermal stresses

  3. Hygro thermal simulation to predict the risk of frost damage in masonry : effects of climate change

    van Aarle, M.A.P.; Schellen, H.L.; van Schijndel, A.W.M.

    2015-01-01

    According to the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) climate change will result in an increase of air temperature and rainfall intensities for the Netherlands in winter in future. In this paper we investigate the effect of the risk of frost damage to masonry. The risk of frost damage

  4. Solar thermal space heating combined with swimming pool heating: A promising solution for southern Europe climates

    Carvalho, M.J.; Neves, Ana [INETI/DER, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    The system concept evaluation performed focused on systems that can provide hot water, space heating and swimming-pool heating, and are designed for application in southern climates specifically for single-family houses. Due to the climate characteristics of southern Europe, space heating is required only for a few months in the year. In this evaluation it was considered a six month period for space heating and, on the other six months, swimming pool heating was considered. This type of systems are applicable to a niche market of people who are building their houses as single-family houses and want also to take profit of the good climate conditions for the use of solar energy. It is common that the construction of a swimming pool is also planned and constructed. The evaluation is made considering as reference system a factory made with 4m{sup 2} collector area and 300 l storage tank. The system in evaluation offers extra service - space heating and swimming pool heating and is formed by a collector field and a combistore providing solar hot water preparation and space heating in the winter period and providing also swimming pool heating in the summer period. The evaluation made shows that in southern Europe climates this system will give extra service in comparison to the traditional solar systems used and can be economically interesting.

  5. Climate classification for the simulation of thermally activated building systems (TABS)

    Behrendt, Benjamin; Christensen, Jørgen Erik

    2013-01-01

    alternative (sustainable) energy sources that would otherwise be insufficient. The design of TABS is however challenging and most often requires a complete simulation of the building. The standard ISO 11855-4 (2011) suggests a simplified sizing method for TABS. The results however omit condensation risk...... entirely. The proposed climate classification should fill this gap by providing the missing data in a simple manner....

  6. Analysis of Thermal Design of Heating Units with Meteorological Climate Peculiarities

    Seminenko, A. S.; Elistratova, Y. V.; Pererva, M. I.; Moiseev, M. V.

    2018-03-01

    This article is devoted to the analysis of thermal design of heating units, one of the compulsory calculations of heating systems, which ensures their stable and efficient operation. The article analyses the option of a single-pipe heating system with shifted end-capping areas and the overhead supply main; the difference is shown in the calculation results between heat balance equation of the heating unit and calculation of the actual heat flux (heat transfer coefficient) taking into account deviation from the standardized (technical passport) operating conditions. The calculation of the thermal conditions of residential premises is given, the deviation of the internal air temperature is shown taking into account the discrepancy between the calculation results for thermal energy.

  7. THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF ROOFTOP GREENERY SYSTEM AT THE TROPICAL CLIMATE OF MALAYSIA A case study of a 10 storied building R.C.C flat rooftop at UTM, Johor Bahru, Malaysia

    Rumana Rashid

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In tropical countries rooftop greenery is more sympathetic to the prevailing climate and provides comfortable indoor environment. This paper analyses the above hypothesis on a 10 storied residential apartments in Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM. The analysis of actual performance of the rooftop greenery can provide the information on effectiveness of its application on contemporary houses for tropical climate in Malaysia. Empirical studies have been performed an internal and external roof surface, where temperature and air temperature were measured for a period of three days in two phases. The first phase of measurement was carried out when the rooftop was empty. After the rooftop greenery was built then the second phase of measurement was conducted. Expected findings of the research are that the green rooftop will tend to experience lower surface temperature than the original exposed roof surface. So this research work will provide an introduction or preliminary guide line for thermally responsive architecture on the basis of thermal performance of the rooftop greenery system. Temperature is the main criteria of human comfort. To provide an indoor comfortable environment through the greening of the rooftop of the building is more appropriate in the tropical climate of Malaysia.

  8. Thermal performance of air-conditioned office buildings constructed with inclined walls in different climates in China

    Chan, A.L.S.; Chow, T.T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A generic fully air-conditioned office building with inclined walls was modeled. • Simulations were run under climatic conditions in three modern cities in China. • Reduction in cooling load can outweigh the increase in heating load for Hong Kong. • Inclined angle of 30° is appropriate for inverted pyramidal building in Hong Kong. • Building constructed with inclined walls is not encouraged in Shanghai and Beijing. - Abstract: An inverted pyramidal building is built with inclined walls instead of the traditional vertical façades. In terms of thermal performance, an inverted pyramidal building can provide a self-shading effect against the beam solar radiation, leading to a reduction in solar heat gain as well as building cooling load. On the other hand, the heating requirement of an inverted pyramidal building will be increased in winter. There is a strong dependency of building performance on the climatic condition. In this study, a generic air-conditioned office building with inclined walls set at different inclination angles was modeled using a building energy simulation program. Computer simulations were run to assess the thermal performance of the building constructed with inclined walls under different climatic conditions in three modern cities in China–Hong Kong, Shanghai and Beijing. The results reveal that for the building cases with inclined walls set at different inclination angles in subtropical Hong Kong, the saving in annual cooling load ranges from 0.6% to 10.9% and can outweigh the increase in heating load. Moreover, an inclination angle of 30° was found as a better design option for an inverted pyramidal building with symmetrical layout design under the climatic condition in Hong Kong. For the other two cities: Shanghai and Beijing, the saving in cooling load due to self-shading effect cannot offset the increased heating requirement. Design and construction of an inverted pyramidal building is not encouraged in these two

  9. Erosion of lizard diversity by climate change and altered thermal niches.

    Sinervo, Barry; Méndez-de-la-Cruz, Fausto; Miles, Donald B; Heulin, Benoit; Bastiaans, Elizabeth; Villagrán-Santa Cruz, Maricela; Lara-Resendiz, Rafael; Martínez-Méndez, Norberto; Calderón-Espinosa, Martha Lucía; Meza-Lázaro, Rubi Nelsi; Gadsden, Héctor; Avila, Luciano Javier; Morando, Mariana; De la Riva, Ignacio J; Victoriano Sepulveda, Pedro; Rocha, Carlos Frederico Duarte; Ibargüengoytía, Nora; Aguilar Puntriano, César; Massot, Manuel; Lepetz, Virginie; Oksanen, Tuula A; Chapple, David G; Bauer, Aaron M; Branch, William R; Clobert, Jean; Sites, Jack W

    2010-05-14

    It is predicted that climate change will cause species extinctions and distributional shifts in coming decades, but data to validate these predictions are relatively scarce. Here, we compare recent and historical surveys for 48 Mexican lizard species at 200 sites. Since 1975, 12% of local populations have gone extinct. We verified physiological models of extinction risk with observed local extinctions and extended projections worldwide. Since 1975, we estimate that 4% of local populations have gone extinct worldwide, but by 2080 local extinctions are projected to reach 39% worldwide, and species extinctions may reach 20%. Global extinction projections were validated with local extinctions observed from 1975 to 2009 for regional biotas on four other continents, suggesting that lizards have already crossed a threshold for extinctions caused by climate change.

  10. Permafrost and climate in Europe: Monitoring and modelling thermal, geomorphological and geotechnical responses

    Harris, Charles; Arenson, Lukas U.; Christiansen, Hanne H.; Etzelmüller, Bernd; Frauenfelder, Regula; Gruber, Stephan; Haeberli, Wilfried; Hauck, Christian; Hölzle, Martin; Humlum, Ole; Isaksen, Ketil; Kääb, Andreas; Kern-Lütschg, Martina A.; Lehning, Michael; Matsuoka, Norikazu; Murton, Julian B.; Nötzli, Jeanette; Phillips, Marcia; Ross, Neil; Seppälä, Matti; Springman, Sarah M.; Vonder Mühll, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    We present a review of the changing state of European permafrost within a spatial zone that includes the continuous high latitude arctic permafrost of Svalbard and the discontinuous high altitude mountain permafrost of Iceland, Fennoscandia and the Alps. The paper focuses on methodological developments and data collection over the last decade or so, including research associated with the continent-scale network of instrumented permafrost boreholes established between 1998 and 2001 under the European Union PACE project. Data indicate recent warming trends, with greatest warming at higher latitudes. Equally important are the impacts of shorter-term extreme climatic events, most immediately reflected in changes in active layer thickness. A large number of complex variables, including altitude, topography, insolation and snow distribution, determine permafrost temperatures. The development of regionally calibrated empirical-statistical models, and physically based process-oriented models, is described, and it is shown that, though more complex and data dependent, process-oriented approaches are better suited to estimating transient effects of climate change in complex mountain topography. Mapping and characterisation of permafrost depth and distribution requires integrated multiple geophysical approaches and recent advances are discussed. We report on recent research into ground ice formation, including ice segregation within bedrock and vein ice formation within ice wedge systems. The potential impacts of climate change on rock weathering, permafrost creep, landslides, rock falls, debris flows and slow mass movements are also discussed. Recent engineering responses to the potentially damaging effects of climate warming are outlined, and risk assessment strategies to minimise geological hazards are described. We conclude that forecasting changes in hazard occurrence, magnitude and frequency is likely to depend on process-based modelling, demanding improved

  11. Biomarkers of Thermal Adaptation: New Tools in Sustainable Livestock Production under Climate Change

    Geraldo, A; Lamy, E; Pinheiro, CC; Lopes, OS; Capela e Silva, F; Pereira, A

    2015-01-01

    Climate changes have been identified as one of the greatest environmental, social and economic threats to the planet and humanity. The increase of extreme weather events, such as prolonged droughts, extreme ambient temperatures or periods with high and intensive precipitation has effects on animal production systems. Crops, and consequently forage productivity and availability are compromised, the risk of new diseases increase, and animal production is impaired (growth, reproductive performan...

  12. Past climate changes and permafrost depth at the Lake El'gygytgyn site: implications from data and thermal modeling

    D. Mottaghy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the temperature field observed in boreholes drilled as part of interdisciplinary scientific campaign targeting the El'gygytgyn Crater Lake in NE Russia. Temperature data are available from two sites: the lake borehole 5011-1 located near the center of the lake reaching 400 m depth, and the land borehole 5011-3 at the rim of the lake, with a depth of 140 m. Constraints on permafrost depth and past climate changes are derived from numerical simulation of the thermal regime associated with the lake-related talik structure. The thermal properties of the subsurface needed for these simulations are based on laboratory measurements of representative cores from the quaternary sediments and the underlying impact-affected rock, complemented by further information from geophysical logs and data from published literature. The temperature observations in the lake borehole 5011-1 are dominated by thermal perturbations related to the drilling process, and thus only give reliable values for the lowermost value in the borehole. Undisturbed temperature data recorded over more than two years are available in the 140 m deep land-based borehole 5011-3. The analysis of these observations allows determination of not only the recent mean annual ground surface temperature, but also the ground surface temperature history, though with large uncertainties. Although the depth of this borehole is by far too insufficient for a complete reconstruction of past temperatures back to the Last Glacial Maximum, it still affects the thermal regime, and thus permafrost depth. This effect is constrained by numerical modeling: assuming that the lake borehole observations are hardly influenced by the past changes in surface air temperature, an estimate of steady-state conditions is possible, leading to a meaningful value of 14 ± 5 K for the post-glacial warming. The strong curvature of the temperature data in shallower depths around 60 m can be explained by a

  13. Effect of asymmetrical street canyons on pedestrian thermal comfort in warm-humid climate of Cuba

    Rodríguez-Algeciras, José; Tablada, Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Walkability and livability in cities can be enhanced by creating comfortable environments in the streets. The profile of an urban street canyon has a substantial impact on outdoor thermal conditions at pedestrian level. This paper deals with the effect of asymmetrical street canyon profiles, common in the historical centre of Camagüey, Cuba, on outdoor thermal comfort. Temporal-spatial analyses are conducted using the Heliodon2 and the RayMan model, which enable the generation of accurate predictions about solar radiation and thermal conditions of urban spaces, respectively. On these models, urban settings are represented by asymmetrical street canyons with five different height-to-width ratios and four street axis orientations (N-S, NE-SW, E-W, SE-NW). Results are evaluated for daytime hours across the street canyon, by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index) which allows the evaluation of the bioclimatic conditions of outdoor environments. Our findings revealed that high profiles (façades) located on the east-facing side of N-S streets, on the southeast-facing side of NE-SW streets, on the south-facing side of E-W street, and on the southwest-facing side of SE-NW streets, are recommended to reduce the total number of hours under thermal stress. E-W street canyons are the most thermally stressed ones, with extreme PET values around 36 °C. Deviating from this orientation ameliorates the heat stress with reductions of up to 4 h in summer. For all analysed E-W orientations, only about one fifth of the street can be comfortable, especially for high aspect ratios (H/W > 3). Optimal subzones in the street are next to the north side of the E-W street, northwest side of the NE-SW street, and southwest side of the SE-NW street. Besides, when the highest profile is located on the east side of N-S streets, then the subzone next to the east-facing façade is recommendable for pedestrians. The proposed urban guidelines enable urban planners to create

  14. Selecting Populations for Non-Analogous Climate Conditions Using Universal Response Functions: The Case of Douglas-Fir in Central Europe.

    Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Wang, Tongli; Andre, Konrad; Konnert, Monika; Lexer, Manfred J; Matulla, Christoph; Schueler, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Identifying populations within tree species potentially adapted to future climatic conditions is an important requirement for reforestation and assisted migration programmes. Such populations can be identified either by empirical response functions based on correlations of quantitative traits with climate variables or by climate envelope models that compare the climate of seed sources and potential growing areas. In the present study, we analyzed the intraspecific variation in climate growth response of Douglas-fir planted within the non-analogous climate conditions of Central and continental Europe. With data from 50 common garden trials, we developed Universal Response Functions (URF) for tree height and mean basal area and compared the growth performance of the selected best performing populations with that of populations identified through a climate envelope approach. Climate variables of the trial location were found to be stronger predictors of growth performance than climate variables of the population origin. Although the precipitation regime of the population sources varied strongly none of the precipitation related climate variables of population origin was found to be significant within the models. Overall, the URFs explained more than 88% of variation in growth performance. Populations identified by the URF models originate from western Cascades and coastal areas of Washington and Oregon and show significantly higher growth performance than populations identified by the climate envelope approach under both current and climate change scenarios. The URFs predict decreasing growth performance at low and middle elevations of the case study area, but increasing growth performance on high elevation sites. Our analysis suggests that population recommendations based on empirical approaches should be preferred and population selections by climate envelope models without considering climatic constrains of growth performance should be carefully appraised before

  15. Selecting Populations for Non-Analogous Climate Conditions Using Universal Response Functions: The Case of Douglas-Fir in Central Europe

    Chakraborty, Debojyoti; Wang, Tongli; Andre, Konrad; Konnert, Monika; Lexer, Manfred J.; Matulla, Christoph; Schueler, Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Identifying populations within tree species potentially adapted to future climatic conditions is an important requirement for reforestation and assisted migration programmes. Such populations can be identified either by empirical response functions based on correlations of quantitative traits with climate variables or by climate envelope models that compare the climate of seed sources and potential growing areas. In the present study, we analyzed the intraspecific variation in climate growth response of Douglas-fir planted within the non-analogous climate conditions of Central and continental Europe. With data from 50 common garden trials, we developed Universal Response Functions (URF) for tree height and mean basal area and compared the growth performance of the selected best performing populations with that of populations identified through a climate envelope approach. Climate variables of the trial location were found to be stronger predictors of growth performance than climate variables of the population origin. Although the precipitation regime of the population sources varied strongly none of the precipitation related climate variables of population origin was found to be significant within the models. Overall, the URFs explained more than 88% of variation in growth performance. Populations identified by the URF models originate from western Cascades and coastal areas of Washington and Oregon and show significantly higher growth performance than populations identified by the climate envelope approach under both current and climate change scenarios. The URFs predict decreasing growth performance at low and middle elevations of the case study area, but increasing growth performance on high elevation sites. Our analysis suggests that population recommendations based on empirical approaches should be preferred and population selections by climate envelope models without considering climatic constrains of growth performance should be carefully appraised before

  16. Hemp-Lime Performance in Danish Climatic Context. Thermal Conductivity as a Function of Moisture Content

    Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    concrete is a bio-based building material composed of the woody core of industrial hemp and lime based binder. It is a non-load-bearing material, which can be used as floor and around structural frames for walls and roof. The material is characterized by relatively low environmental impact, moderate...... thermal properties and, high air and moisture permeability. The properties vary with binder composition, mixing and casting techniques, as well as intended application. This research presents preliminary heat and moisture building simulations of single family house made out of hemp-lime composite....... To evaluate the performance of hemp-lime, it is compared to models with common external walls, upon defined parameters. The article also determines the variation of thermal conductivity for hemp-lime commercial plaster and wall mix, as a function of moisture content. The most promising binder composition...

  17. Variability in climate and productivity during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section)

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high-resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ˜ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM, several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ˜9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinated recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors, including deepwater CaCO3 corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3 %, hematite %, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, and calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high-productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an overall

  18. Benthic foraminifera at the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum in the western Tethys (Forada section): variability in climate and productivity

    Giusberti, L.; Boscolo Galazzo, F.; Thomas, E.

    2015-09-01

    The Forada section (northeastern Italy) provides a continuous, expanded deep-sea record of the Paleocene/Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) in the central-western Tethys. We combine a new, high resolution, benthic foraminiferal assemblage record with published calcareous plankton, mineralogical and biomarker data to document climatic and environmental changes across the PETM, highlighting the benthic foraminiferal extinction event (BEE). The onset of the PETM, occurring ~ 30 kyr after a precursor event, is marked by a thin, black, barren clay layer, possibly representing a brief pulse of anoxia and carbonate dissolution. The BEE occurred within the 10 cm interval including this layer. During the first 3.5 kyr of the PETM several agglutinated recolonizing taxa show rapid species turnover, indicating a highly unstable, CaCO3-corrosive environment. Calcareous taxa reappeared after this interval, and the next ~ 9 kyr were characterized by rapid alternation of peaks in abundance of various calcareous and agglutinant recolonizers. These observations suggest that synergistic stressors including deep water CaCO3-corrosiveness, low oxygenation, and high environmental instability caused the extinction. Combined faunal and biomarker data (BIT index, higher plant n-alkane average chain length) and the high abundance of the mineral chlorite suggest that erosion and weathering increased strongly at the onset of the PETM, due to an overall wet climate with invigorated hydrological cycle, which led to storm flood-events carrying massive sediment discharge into the Belluno Basin. This interval was followed by the core of the PETM, characterized by four precessionally paced cycles in CaCO3%, hematite%, δ13C, abundant occurrence of opportunistic benthic foraminiferal taxa, as well as calcareous nannofossil and planktonic foraminiferal taxa typical of high productivity environments, radiolarians, and lower δDn-alkanes. We interpret these cycles as reflecting alternation between an

  19. University Students Explaining Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas—A New Phenomenon in Introductory Thermal Physics

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2012-12-01

    This study focuses on second-year university students' explanations and reasoning related to adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. The phenomenon was new to the students, but it was one which they should have been capable of explaining using their previous upper secondary school knowledge. The students' explanations and reasoning were investigated with the aid of paper and pencil tests ( n = 86) and semi-structured interviews ( n = 5) at the start of a thermal physics course at the University of Eastern Finland. The paper and pencil test revealed that the students had difficulties in applying content taught during earlier education in a new context: only a few of them were able to produce a correct explanation for the phenomenon. A majority of the students used either explanations with invalid but physically correct models, such as the ideal gas law or a microscopic model, or erroneous dependencies between quantities. The results also indicated that students had problems in seeing deficiencies or inconsistencies in their reasoning, in both test and interview situations. We suggest in our conclusion that the contents of upper secondary school thermal physics courses should be carefully examined to locate the best emphases for different laws, principles, concepts, and models. In particular, the limitations of models should be made explicit in teaching and students should be guided towards critical scientific thinking, including metaconceptual awareness.

  20. The determination of the thermal neutron and gamma fluxes at the Maryland University Training Reactor using thermoluminescent dosimetry

    Karceski, Jeffrey David; Ebert, David D.; Munno, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Determination of the dose received by a material in a mixed gamma and neutron field is of paramount concern to any research reactor owner. This dose can be separated into three distinguishable parts using standard thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD) responses: 1) thermal neutron dose, 2) fission gamma dose, and 3) fission product gamma dose. For the Maryland University Training Reactor (MUTR), these respective fluences were determined for each of the associated experimental facilities. Quantifying the magnitude of the gamma and thermal neutron exposures at various reactor power levels was accomplished using Li-6F and Li-7F TLDs, respectively. These two types of dosimetry were chosen given the following considerations: 1) there is no existing standard established for fluence determination in a mixed field, 2) the LiF TLDs have a wide range of sensitivity to radiation, from 0.01 mR to 10,000 R, and 3) LiF TLDs are easy to read given the proper equipment. Standardization of the gamma/neutron doses was accomplished using the 500,000 Rad/hr Co-60 gamma source also located at the University of Maryland. (author)

  1. Can thermal perception in a building be predicted by the perceived spatial openness of a building in a hot and humid climate?

    Du, X.; Bokel, R.M.J.; van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.; Brotas, Luisa; Roaf, Susan; Nicol, Fergus

    2017-01-01

    The authors wanted to prove that there is a large correlation between the concepts spatial openness and comfort (visual, wind speed and thermal) perception in people’s minds in a hot and humid climate in summer in order to be able to use spatial configuration parameters such as openness,

  2. Evaluation of Integrated Air Pollution and Climate Change Policies: Case Study in the Thermal Power Sector in Chongqing City, China

    Qian Zhou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The cost of environmental degradation has already had a dramatic impact on the Chinese economy. In order to curb these trends, the government of China has introduced stricter regulations. With this in mind, it is important to quantify the potential co-benefits of introducing air pollution and climate change mitigation policies. This study proposes relevant scenarios ranging from the current trends (baseline to the introduction of different policies in the thermal power sector, including different carbon tax rates, technology innovation promotion, and technology cost reduction methods. We aim to comparatively evaluate the impact of the proposed policies within the thermal sector and within the entire socio-economic system. To this end, we used a dynamic input–output (I-O model, into which high-efficiency technologies were incorporated as new thermal power industries in order to estimate policy impact during the time period 2010–2025. The results of this study demonstrated that the introduction of one or more of the following policies: carbon taxes, subsidies, technology innovation, and technology cost reduction, has no notable impact on the environment or the economy without the implementation of environment regulations. In contrast, the strong support of a government subsidy coupled with strict environmental regulations will promote technological innovation, for example through the natural gas combined cycle (NGCC and the integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC. Our study also showed that the reduction of air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions as well as energy consumption would curb economic development to a certain extent. Taking this into consideration, innovation must also be promoted in other economic sectors. This research provides a strong reference for policy-makers to identify effective polices under different types of environmental regulations.

  3. Thermal mass vs. insulation building envelope design in six climatic regions of South Africa

    Kumirai, T

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available is defined in Ecotect as a homogenous enclosed volume of air. In most cases this corresponds to a single room. It is assumed that the air within a zone is able to mix freely. Every room in the simulation model was defined as distinct thermal zone... of the Ecotect simulation model and simulation of houses with base case characteristics and energy efficient measures in six South African cities. 3.1 Building infiltration rate measurements High infiltration rates means a leaky building meaning...

  4. University of Minnesota Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) project report on the first long-term cycle

    Walton, M.

    1991-10-01

    The technical feasibility of high-temperature (greater than 100 C) aquifer thermal energy storage (IOTAS) in a deep, confined aquifer was tested in a series of experimental cycles at the University of Minnesota's St. Paul field test facility (FTF). This report describes the additions to the FTF for the long-term cycles and the details of the first long-term cycle (LT1) that was conducted from November 1984 through May 1985. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic aspects of LT1 are reported. The permits for long-term cycles required the addition of a monitoring well 30.5 m from the storage well for monitoring near the edge of the thermally affected area and allowed the addition of a cation-exchange water softener to enable continuous operation during the injection phase. Approximately 62 percent of the 9.47 GWh of energy added to the 9.21 x 10(exp 4) cu m of ground water stored in the aquifer LT1 was recovered. Ion-exchange water softening of the heated and stored ground water prevented scaling in the system heat exchangers and the storage well and changed the major-ion chemistry of the stored water. Temperatures at the storage horizons in site monitoring wells reached as high as 108 C during the injection phase of LT1. Following heat recovery, temperatures were less than 30 C at the same locations. Less permeable horizons underwent slow temperature changes. No thermal or chemical effects were observed at the remote monitoring site.

  5. Space-based gravitational-wave detectors can determine the thermal history of the early Universe

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Saito, Shun; Suwa, Yudai; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2008-01-01

    It is shown that space-based gravitational-wave detectors such as DECIGO and/or the Big Bang Observer will provide us with invaluable information on the cosmic thermal history after inflation, and they will be able to determine the reheat temperature T R provided that it lies in the range preferred by the cosmological gravitino problem, T R ∼10 5-9 GeV. Therefore it is strongly desired that they will be put into practice as soon as possible

  6. Improving the Climate for LGBTQ Students at an Historically Black University

    Lewis, Marilyn W.; Ericksen, Kirsten S.

    2016-01-01

    African American lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students attending an Historically Black College or University (HBCU) may experience bullying. Using snowball sampling, the authors recruited six LGBTQ students for a focus group to learn how they perceived their HBCU campus atmosphere toward LGBTQ students. Thirty faculty…

  7. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    Fallahi, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Duraschlag, H. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Elliott, D. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Hartsough, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Shukla, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States); Kosny, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulk insulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosed reflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  8. Internal Roof and Attic Thermal Radiation Control Retrofit Strategies for Cooling-Dominated Climates

    Fallahi, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Durschlag, H. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Elliott, D. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Hartsough, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Shukla, N. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States); Kosny, J. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This project evaluates the cooling energy savings and cost effectiveness of radiation control retrofit strategies for residential attics in U.S. cooling-dominated climates. Usually, in residential applications, radiation control retrofit strategies are applied below the roof deck or on top of the attic floor insulation. They offer an alternative option to the addition of conventional bulkinsulation such as fiberglass or cellulose insulation. Radiation control is a potentially low-cost energy efficiency retrofit strategy that does not require significant changes to existing homes. In this project, two groups of low-cost radiation control strategies were evaluated for southern U.S. applications. One uses a radiant barrier composed of two aluminum foils combined with an enclosedreflective air space and the second uses spray-applied interior radiation control coatings (IRCC).

  9. Morphological change to birds over 120 years is not explained by thermal adaptation to climate change.

    Volker Salewski

    Full Text Available Changes in morphology have been postulated as one of the responses of animals to global warming, with increasing ambient temperatures leading to decreasing body size. However, the results of previous studies are inconsistent. Problems related to the analyses of trends in body size may be related to the short-term nature of data sets, to the selection of surrogates for body size, to the appropriate models for data analyses, and to the interpretation as morphology may change in response to ecological drivers other than climate and irrespective of size. Using generalized additive models, we analysed trends in three morphological traits of 4529 specimens of eleven bird species collected between 1889 and 2010 in southern Germany and adjacent areas. Changes and trends in morphology over time were not consistent when all species and traits were considered. Six of the eleven species displayed a significant association of tarsus length with time but the direction of the association varied. Wing length decreased in the majority of species but there were few significant trends in wing pointedness. Few of the traits were significantly associated with mean ambient temperatures. We argue that although there are significant changes in morphology over time there is no consistent trend for decreasing body size and therefore no support for the hypothesis of decreasing body size because of climate change. Non-consistent trends of change in surrogates for size within species indicate that fluctuations are influenced by factors other than temperature, and that not all surrogates may represent size appropriately. Future analyses should carefully select measures of body size and consider alternative hypotheses for change.

  10. Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Performance of Solar-Assisted Air Conditioning System under Iraq Climate

    Najim Abid Jassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Iraq most of the small buildings deployed a conventional air conditioning technology which typically uses electrically driven compressor systems which exhibits several clear disadvantages such as high energy consumption, high electricity at peak loads. In this work a thermal performance of air conditioning system combined with a solar collector is investigated theoretically. The hybrid air conditioner consists of a semi hermetic compressor, water cooled shell and tube condenser, thermal expansion valve and coil with tank evaporator. The theoretical analysis included a simulation for the solar assisted air-conditioning system using EES software to analyze the effect of different parameters on the power consumption of compressor and the performance of system. The results show that refrigeration capacity is increased from 2.7 kW to 4.4kW, as the evaporating temperature increased from 3 to 18 ºC. Also the power consumption is increased from 0.89 kW to 1.08 kW. So the COP of the system is increased from 3.068 to 4.117. The power consumption is increased from 0.897 kW to 1.031 kW as the condensing temperature increased from 35 ºC to 45 ºC. While the COP is decreased from 3.89 to 3.1. The power consumption is decreased from 1.05 kW to 0.7kW as the solar radiation intensity increased from 300 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2, while the COP is increased from 3.15 to 4.8. A comparison between the simulation and available experimental data showed acceptable agreement.

  11. Experimental studies of rectangular tube absorber photovoltaic thermal collector with various types of nanofluids under the tropical climate conditions

    Al-Shamani, Ali Najah; Sopian, K.; Mat, Sohif; Hasan, Husam Abdulrasool; Abed, Azher M.; Ruslan, M.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new rectangular tube as absorber for the PVT solar collector was developed. • Different types of nanofluids (SiO_2, TiO_2 and SiC) evaluated. • η_e_l PVT SiC nanofluid was 13.52% at 1000 W/m"2 and flow rate of 0.17 kg/s. • η_c_o_m_b_i_n_e_d PVT SiC nanofluid was 81.73% at 1000 W/m"2 and flow rate of 0.17 kg/s. - Abstract: The flat plate photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collectors can be classified into the type of working fluids used namely the water based PVT collectors, air based PVT collectors and combination of water/air PVT collectors. However, low thermal conductivity of the working fluids has always been the primary limitation in the development of energy-efficient heat transfer fluids, and higher collector performance. To overcome this limitation, there is a strong motivation to improve the heat transfer of fluids with higher thermal conductivity. This new generation of heat transfer fluids called nanofluids consists of suspended nanoparticles and has higher suspension stability compared to the millimeter or micrometer size nanoparticles. Thus, the heat transfer characteristics will be enhanced by using nanofluids. The PVT collector has been designed, fabricated and tested outdoor under the Malaysia tropical climate conditions. The PVT collector consists of specially designed rectangular tube absorber (stainless steel material, height of 15 mm, width of 25 mm and thickness of 1 mm) attached under the photovoltaic module. The PVT collector was experimentally tested with different types of nanofluids (SiO_2, TiO_2 and SiC). The results indicated that the PVT collector with SiC nanofluid has the highest combined photovoltaic thermal (PVT) efficiency of 81.73% and PVT electrical efficiency of 13.52% with the best overall energy coefficient (COE) of 0.93 has been achieved at a flow rate of 0.170 kg/s and solar irradiance levels of 1000 W/m"2, followed by PVT-TiO_2 nanofluids, PVT-SiO_2 nanofluids, and PVT-water respectively.

  12. Impact of organizational climate and engagement on motivation level of university teachers

    Muhammad Salman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research includes factors which affect motivation of employees. There are many factors which affect employee motivation but due to time constraint we take only 2 factors. Many researchers argue that employee motivation is very crucial for organizations; motivating employees can give financial success to organizations. Organizations have to invest on its employees to satisfy and motivate its employees. Took data through questionnaire and analyses data through SPSS. Research included two independent variables, organization climate and engagement and one dependent variable that is employee motivation. It was observed that the two independent variables had strong and positive effect on employee motivation; if one of the independent variable is increased the motivation will also be increased. So it is recommended that there should be no disturbance in working environment, strong relation among employees and conducting seminars and training workshops so that employees can do their work with their full potential and will be more motivated.

  13. Teaching Climate Change Through Data Analytics: Updates on the TRELLIS Project at the City University of New York

    Rosenzweig, B.; Cak, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Community colleges have been identified as a particularly important gateway for the United States' scientific workforce. However, students that begin their higher education at community colleges often face barriers in developing the skills needed for higher-level STEM careers, including basic training in mathematics, programming and communications, deep analytical and problem-solving skills, and experience with working across disciplines. As part of the Undergraduate STEM Interventions in Industry (USI2) Consortium, we have developed a summer bridge program for students in diverse STEM fields transferring from City University of New York (CUNY) community colleges to the City College of New York. Students participating in the program receive training and work on team data analysis projects on various themes related to climate change resilience and New York City. We will discuss our experiences during the first 2 years of implementation of the summer bridge program along with plans for a capstone program for students in their senior year.

  14. Climate schools plus: An online, combined student and parent, universal drug prevention program

    Louise K. Thornton

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Early initiation of substance use significantly increases one's risk of developing substance use dependence and mental disorders later in life. To interrupt this trajectory, effective prevention during the adolescent period is critical. Parents play a key role in preventing substance use and related harms among adolescents and parenting interventions have been identified as critical components of effective prevention programs. Despite this, there is currently no substance use prevention program targeting both students and parents that adopts online delivery to overcome barriers to implementation and sustainability. The Climate Schools Plus (CSP program was developed to meet this need. CSP is an online substance use prevention program for students and parents, based on the effective Climate Schools prevention program for students. This paper describes the development of the parent component of CSP including a literature review and results of a large scoping survey of parents of Australian high school students (n = 242. This paper also includes results of beta-testing of the developed program with relevant experts (n = 10, and parents of Australian high school students (n = 15. The CSP parent component consists of 1 a webinar which introduces shared rule ranking, 2 online modules and 3 summaries of student lessons. The parent program targets evidence-based modifiable factors associated with a delay in the onset of adolescent substance use and/or lower levels of adolescent substance use in the future; namely, rule-setting, monitoring, and modelling. To date, this is the first combined parent-student substance use prevention program to adopt an online delivery method. Keywords: Development, Prevention, Adolescent, Alcohol, Parent

  15. AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project and its Relationship to a Concentration in STEM Discipline at Alabama A&M University

    Oluwoye, J.

    2017-12-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) reported that our nation faces a serious challenge in attracting young people to science and science-related careers (including teaching). This is particularly true for members of groups underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) and is especially acute in the small number of minority college students majoring in the geosciences. The purpose of this paper is to report on how the author engages Alabama A&M University (AAMU) students in STEM transportation science. Specifically, the objective is to develop a conceptual framework of engaging minority students in transportation concentration in the department of community and regional planning. The students were involved in writing a research paper on direct and indirect climate change impacts on transportation and also involved in classroom discussions during a wk14 module on overview of transportation suitability: climate change and environment. The paper concludes with minority needs to gain access to STEM and participation of minority students in field and site analysis.

  16. IMPROVED COMPUTATIONAL CHARACTERIZATION OF THE THERMAL NEUTRON SOURCE FOR NEUTRON CAPTURE THERAPY RESEARCH AT THE UNIVERSITY OF MISSOURI

    Stuart R. Slattery; David W. Nigg; John D. Brockman; M. Frederick Hawthorne

    2010-05-01

    Parameter studies, design calculations and initial neutronic performance measurements have been completed for a new thermal neutron beamline to be used for neutron capture therapy cell and small-animal radiobiology studies at the University of Missouri Research Reactor. The beamline features the use of single-crystal silicon and bismuth sections for neutron filtering and for reduction of incident gamma radiation. The computational models used for the final beam design and performance evaluation are based on coupled discrete-ordinates and Monte Carlo techniques that permit detailed modeling of the neutron transmission properties of the filtering crystals with very few approximations. This is essential for detailed dosimetric studies required for the anticipated research program.

  17. Impact of thermal time shift on wheat phenology and yield under warming climate in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China

    Xiao, Dengpan; Qi, Yongqing; Li, Zhiqiang; Wang, Rende; Moiwo, Juana P.; Liu, Fengshan

    2017-03-01

    Given climate change can potentially influence crop phenology and subsequent yield, an investigation of relevant adaptation measures could increase the understanding and mitigation of these responses in the future. In this study, field observations at 10 stations in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China (HHHP) are used in combination with the Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM)-Wheat model to determine the effect of thermal time shift on the phenology and potential yield of wheat from 1981-2009. Warming climate speeds up winter wheat development and thereby decreases the duration of the wheat growth period. However, APSIM-Wheat model simulation suggests prolongation of the period from flowering to maturity (Gr) of winter wheat by 0.2-0.8 d•10yr-1 as the number of days by which maturity advances, which is less than that by which flowering advances. Based on computed thermal time of the two critical growth phases of wheat, total thermal time from floral initiation to flowering (TT_floral_initiation) increasesd in seven out of the 10 investigated stations. Alternatively, total thermal time from the start of grainfilling to maturity (TT_start_ grain_fill) increased in all investigated stations, except Laiyang. It is thus concluded that thermal time shift during the past three decades (1981-2009) prolongs Gr by 0.2-3.0 d•10yr-1 in the study area. This suggests that an increase in thermal time (TT) of the wheat growth period is critical for mitigating the effect of growth period reduction due to warming climatic condition. Furthermore, climate change reduces potential yield of winter wheat in 80% of the stations by 2.3-58.8 kg•yr-1. However, thermal time shift (TTS) increases potential yield of winter wheat in most of the stations by 3.0-51.0 kg•yr-1. It is concluded that wheat cultivars with longer growth periods and higher thermal requirements could mitigate the negative effects of warming climate on crop production in the study area.

  18. Ethical concerns and contributions in response to climate change and the links to well-being: a study of university students in The Netherlands.

    El Zoghbi, Mona Betour; El Ansari, Walid

    2014-06-01

    This study explored the concerns and contributions of university students in response to the ethical dimensions of climate change, and the implications for their well-being. The study focused on university students as leaders of future society while facing complex environmental and socio-economic challenges. A total of 8 focus groups (FG) were conducted (66 participants from over 10 different universities across The Netherlands). In addition, 9 in-depth interviews with Dutch university students from different academic backgrounds, and 16 interviews with Dutch key informants in the environment, youth and public health fields were undertaken. The first author also attended (as participant-observer) three major events themed around youth and environmental issues across different regions in The Netherlands. University students in the Netherlands are mostly concerned about the increasing social and economic inequalities between the global North and South, and the implications for impoverished and uneducated communities. Participants raised concerns over the transfer of materialistic value systems and unsustainable practices from developed to developing countries. The participants' main contributions in response to climate change were largely driven by feelings of guilt and responsibility, an ecological worldview, and desire to play a positive role in society. Establishing formal youth platforms across academic, civic and political institutions could provide legitimate and empowering opportunities for university students to participate in consultations and debates of future environmental policies and development strategies. Such platforms could enhance the agency and well-being of university students for addressing their concerns over existing climate inequalities and other ethical dilemmas.

  19. Influence of Courtyard Ventilation on Thermal Performance of Office Building in Hot-Humid Climate: A Case Study

    Abbaas, Esra'a. Sh.; Saif, Ala'eddin A.; Munaaim, MAC; Azree Othuman Mydin, Md.

    2018-03-01

    The influence of courtyard on the thermal performance of Development Department office building in University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP, Pauh Putra campus) is investigated through simulation study for the effect of ventilation on indoor air temperature and relative humidity of the building. The study is carried out using EnergyPlus simulator interface within OpenStudio and SketchUp plug in software to measure both of air temperature and relative humidity hourly on 21 April 2017 as a design day. The results show that the ventilation through the windows facing the courtyard has sufficient effect on reducing the air temperature compared to the ventilation through external windows since natural ventilation is highly effective on driving the indoor warm air out to courtyard. In addition, the relative humidity is reduced due to ventilation since the courtyard has high ability to remove or dilute indoor airborne pollutants coming from indoor sources. This indicates that the presence of courtyard is highly influential on thermal performance of the building.

  20. Using thermal phase curves to probe the climate of potentially habitable planets

    Kataria, Tiffany

    2018-01-01

    Thermal phase-curve observations probe the variation in emitted flux of a planet with phase, or longitude. When conducted spectroscopically, they allow us to probe the two-dimensional temperature structure in both longitude and altitude, which directly relate to the planet’s circulation and chemistry. In the case of small, potentially habitable exoplanets, spectroscopic phase-curve observations can provide us with direct evidence that the planet is capable of sustaining liquid water from measurements of its brightness temperature, and allow us to distinguish between a ‘airless’ body and one that has an appreciable atmosphere. In this talk I will summarize efforts to characterize exoplanets smaller than Neptune with phase-curve observations and emission spectroscopy using the Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes. I will then discuss how these ‘lessons learned’ can be applied to future efforts to characterize potentially habitable planets with phase-curve observations using JWST and future facilities such as the Origins Space Telescope (OST).

  1. The lesser known challenge of climate change: thermal variance and sex-reversal in vertebrates with temperature-dependent sex determination.

    Jennifer L Neuwald

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to disrupt biological systems. Particularly susceptible are species with temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD, as in many reptiles. While the potentially devastating effect of rising mean temperatures on sex ratios in TSD species is appreciated, the consequences of increased thermal variance predicted to accompany climate change remain obscure. Surprisingly, no study has tested if the effect of thermal variance around high-temperatures (which are particularly relevant given climate change predictions has the same or opposite effects as around lower temperatures. Here we show that sex ratios of the painted turtle (Chrysemys picta were reversed as fluctuations increased around low and high unisexual mean-temperatures. Unexpectedly, the developmental and sexual responses around female-producing temperatures were decoupled in a more complex manner than around male-producing values. Our novel observations are not fully explained by existing ecological models of development and sex determination, and provide strong evidence that thermal fluctuations are critical for shaping the biological outcomes of climate change.

  2. Passive design solutions to improve thermal and visual indoor environment. Case Study: University of Informatics Sciences

    González Couret, Dania; Rodríguez García, Elizabeth; González Milián, Nataly; Llovet Salazar, Mónica

    2017-01-01

    The results of a research carried out in order to improve sustainability in the University of Informatics Sciences in Havana are presented in the paper. The initial qualitative evaluation of the three more energy consumer buildings allow to identify main problems and to select indoor spaces where temperature and relative humidity were measured. Intervention proposals were elaborated which positive impact was verified by automatized simulation of results and its comparison to the departing situation. The results of the empirical research corroborate the integral qualitative evaluation carries out. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to reduce indoor temperature by modifying the envelope without high investments, if advantage is taken from benefit of green shadow. (author)

  3. Thermal performance of a double pane window with a solar control coating for warm climate of Mexico

    Xamán, J.; Jiménez-Xamán, C.; Álvarez, G.; Zavala-Guillén, I.; Hernández-Pérez, I.; Aguilar, J.O.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pseudo-transient thermal performance of a double pane window (DPW) was determined. • The DPW was analyzed each 5 s by a period from 8:00 to 18:00 h. • 57,600 computational runs were necessary and the additive correction multigrid was implemented. • Solar control coating (SCC) in a DPW reduces 1073.79 W/m 2 with respect to the DPW without SCC. • SCC is highly recommended in a DPW because it reduces a 53.88% of the amount of energy gained. - Abstract: The pseudo-transient thermal performance (each 5 s) of a double pane window without and with a solar control coating was determined numerically. The study considers warm climatic conditions (Mexico) and a period from 8:00 to 18:00 h. The effect of varying the indoor air temperature (15–30 °C); and the incident solar radiation and the outdoor air temperature as functions of time is analyzed. The simulations were done with a self-developed ForTran program and it was verified with results from the literature. To obtain the results, 57,600 computational runs were necessary. From the results, the double pane window with a solar control coating allows a smaller heat flux to enter into a room than the corresponding without a solar control coating. The solar control coating in double glass window reduces the amount of 1073.79 W h/m 2 with respect to the case without a solar control coating, which represents a reduction of 53.88% of the heat gain.

  4. Universe

    2009-01-01

    The Universe, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  5. The timescale and extent of thermal expansion of the global ocean due to climate change

    S. Marčelja

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available With recently improved instrumental accuracy, the change in the heat content of the oceans and the corresponding contribution to the change of the sea level can be determined from in situ measurements of temperature variation with depth. Nevertheless, it would be favourable if the same changes could be evaluated from just the sea surface temperatures because the past record could then be reconstructed and future scenarios explored. Using a single column model we show that the average change in the heat content of the oceans and the corresponding contribution to a global change in the sea level can be evaluated from the past sea surface temperatures. The calculation is based on the time-dependent diffusion equation with the known fixed average upwelling velocity and eddy diffusivity, as determined from the steady-state limit. In this limit, the model reduces to the 1966 Munk profile of the potential temperature variation as a function of depth.

    There are no adjustable parameters in the calculation and the results are in good agreement with the estimates obtained from the in situ data. The method allows us to obtain relevant timescales and average temperature profiles. The evaluation of the thermosteric sea level change is extended back to the beginning of accurate sea surface temperature records. The changes in sea surface temperature from 1880 until the present time are estimated to have produced a thermosteric sea level rise of 35 mm. Application to future IPCC scenarios gives results similar to the average prediction of more complex climate models.

  6. Adaptations to "Thermal Time" Constraints in Papilio: Latitudinal and Local Size Clines Differ in Response to Regional Climate Change.

    Scriber, J Mark; Elliot, Ben; Maher, Emily; McGuire, Molly; Niblack, Marjie

    2014-01-21

    Adaptations to "thermal time" (=Degree-day) constraints on developmental rates and voltinism for North American tiger swallowtail butterflies involve most life stages, and at higher latitudes include: smaller pupae/adults; larger eggs; oviposition on most nutritious larval host plants; earlier spring adult emergences; faster larval growth and shorter molting durations at lower temperatures. Here we report on forewing sizes through 30 years for both the northern univoltine P. canadensis (with obligate diapause) from the Great Lakes historical hybrid zone northward to central Alaska (65° N latitude), and the multivoltine, P. glaucus from this hybrid zone southward to central Florida (27° N latitude). Despite recent climate warming, no increases in mean forewing lengths of P. glaucus were observed at any major collection location (FL to MI) from the 1980s to 2013 across this long latitudinal transect (which reflects the "converse of Bergmann's size Rule", with smaller females at higher latitudes). Unlike lower latitudes, the Alaska, Ontonogon, and Chippewa/Mackinac locations (for P. canadensis) showed no significant increases in D-day accumulations, which could explain lack of size change in these northernmost locations. As a result of 3-4 decades of empirical data from major collection sites across these latitudinal clines of North America, a general "voltinism/size/D-day" model is presented, which more closely predicts female size based on D-day accumulations, than does latitude. However, local "climatic cold pockets" in northern Michigan and Wisconsin historically appeared to exert especially strong size constraints on female forewing lengths, but forewing lengths quickly increased with local summer warming during the recent decade, especially near the warming edges of the cold pockets. Results of fine-scale analyses of these "cold pockets" are in contrast to non-significant changes for other Papilio populations seen across the latitudinal transect for P. glaucus

  7. The Effect of Passive Design Strategies on Thermal Performance of Female Secondary School Buildings during Warm Season in Hot Dry Climate

    Sahar eZahiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a series of field studies and simulation analysis to improve the thermal performance of school buildings in the city of Tehran in Iran during warm season. The field studies used on-site measurement and questionnaire-based survey in the warm spring season in a typical female secondary school building. The on-site monitoring assessed the indoor air temperature and humidity levels of six classrooms while the occupants completed questionnaires covering their thermal sensations and thermal preferences. Moreover, thermal simulation analysis was also carried out to evaluate and improve the thermal performance of the classrooms based on the students’ thermal requirements and passive design strategies. In this study, the environmental design guidelines for female secondary school buildings were introduced for the hot and dry climate of Tehran, using passive design strategies. The study shows that the application of passive design strategies including south and south-east orientation, 10cm thermal insulation in wall and 5cm in the roof, and the combination of 30cm side fins and overhangs as a solar shading devices, as well as all-day ventilation strategy and the use of thermal mass materials with 25cm-30cm thickness, has considerable impact on indoor air temperatures in warm season in Tehran and keeps the indoor environment in an acceptable thermal condition. The results of the field studies also indicated that most of the occupants found their thermal environment not to be comfortable and the simulation results showed that passive design techniques had a significant influence on the indoor air temperature and can keep it in an acceptable range based on the female students’ thermal requirement. Therefore, in order to enhance the indoor environment and to increase the learning performance of the students, it is necessary to use the appropriate passive design strategies, which also reduce the need for mechanical systems and

  8. Study of thermal behavior of three different housing prototypes, for a desertic climate; Estudio de comportamiento termico de tres prototipos de vivienda, para un clima desertico

    Bojorquez, Gonzalo; Gallegos, Ricardo; Luna, Anibal [Universidad Autonoma de Baja Callifornia, Mexicali, Baja California (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The design of housing in Mexico, does not considers the thermal simulation as a support tool. This situation generates projects that are not thermally apt for the natural environment. The use of the thermal simulation to evaluate a building doesn't represents by itself the possibility of internal thermal comfort for the user, but rather it determines the saving levels of energy on air conditioning. The objective of this work is to quantitatively show how a proposal formally designed for a specific climate, plus the use of environmental strategies to adapt it to the climate, has minor climatic requirements than when these factors are not considered. For the development purposes of this work, three different housing prototypes were selected. Two of them where designed according to the climate and using environmental adequation strategies. The thermal behavior was simulated for each case, and the maximum climatic requirement was calculated according to the construction volume. In near future, the use of the thermal simulation to evaluate design proposals and existing buildings must be considered as a basic tool in Mexico, not just for specialists in the area of thermal evaluation, but for all those implicated in the architecture and construction. [Spanish] El diseno de vivienda en Mexico, no considera como herramienta de apoyo la simulacion termica, lo que genera proyectos no aptos termicamente al medio ambiente. El uso de la modelacion termica para la evaluacion de un edificio, no solo representa la posibilidad de confort termico del usuario, sino que determina el nivel de ahorro energetico por climatizacion artificial. El objetivo de este trabajo es mostrar cuantitativamente como una vivienda disenada con estrategias de adecuacion ambiental, tiene un requerimiento de climatizacion menor que aquella donde su diseno no considera el clima donde se proyecta. Para el desarrollo del trabajo se seleccionaron tres prototipos de vivienda diferentes, en dos de los cuales

  9. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Self-Trail, Jean; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30–100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  10. Shallow marine response to global climate change during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum, Salisbury Embayment, USA

    Self-Trail, Jean M.; Robinson, Marci M.; Bralower, Timothy J.; Sessa, Jocelyn A.; Hajek, Elizabeth A.; Kump, Lee R.; Trampush, Sheila M.; Willard, Debra A.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Powars, David S.; Wandless, Gregory A.

    2017-07-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) was an interval of extreme warmth that caused disruption of marine and terrestrial ecosystems on a global scale. Here we examine the sediments, flora, and fauna from an expanded section at Mattawoman Creek-Billingsley Road (MCBR) in Maryland and explore the impact of warming at a nearshore shallow marine (30-100 m water depth) site in the Salisbury Embayment. Observations indicate that at the onset of the PETM, the site abruptly shifted from an open marine to prodelta setting with increased terrestrial and fresh water input. Changes in microfossil biota suggest stratification of the water column and low-oxygen bottom water conditions in the earliest Eocene. Formation of authigenic carbonate through microbial diagenesis produced an unusually large bulk carbon isotope shift, while the magnitude of the corresponding signal from benthic foraminifera is similar to that at other marine sites. This proves that the landward increase in the magnitude of the carbon isotope excursion measured in bulk sediment is not due to a near instantaneous release of 12C-enriched CO2. We conclude that the MCBR site records nearshore marine response to global climate change that can be used as an analog for modern coastal response to global warming.

  11. Thermal Resilience of Feeding Kinematics May Contribute to the Spread of Invasive Fishes in Light of Climate Change

    Ralph Turingan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of global warming, tropical invasive species are expected to expand their range pole-ward, extending their negative impacts to previously undisturbed, high-latitude ecosystems. Investigating the physiological responses of invasive species to environmental temperature is important because the coupled effects of climate change and species invasion on ecosystems could be more alarming than the effects of each phenomenon independently. Especially in poikilotherms, the rate of motion in muscle-driven biomechanical systems is expected to double for every 10 °C increase in temperature. In this study, we address the question, “How does temperature affect the speed of jaw-movement during prey-capture in invasive fishes?” Kinematic analysis of invasive-fish prey-capture behavior revealed that (1 movement velocities of key components of the feeding mechanism did not double as water temperature increased from 20 °C to 30 °C; and (2 thermal sensitivity (Q10 values for gape, hyoid, lower-jaw rotation, and cranial rotation velocities at 20 °C and 30 °C ranged from 0.56 to 1.44 in all three species. With the exception of lower-jaw rotation, Q10 values were significantly less than the expected Q10 = 2.0, indicating that feeding kinematics remains consistent despite the change in environmental temperature. It is conceivable that the ability to maintain peak performance at different temperatures helps facilitate the spread of invasive fishes globally.

  12. Tropical Atlantic climate and ecosystem regime shifts during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum

    Frieling, Joost; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Middelburg, Jack J.; Röhl, Ursula; Westerhold, Thomas; Bohaty, Steven M.; Sluijs, Appy

    2018-01-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma) was a phase of rapid global warming associated with massive carbon input into the ocean-atmosphere system from a 13C-depleted reservoir. Many midlatitude and high-latitude sections have been studied and document changes in salinity, hydrology and sedimentation, deoxygenation, biotic overturning, and migrations, but detailed records from tropical regions are lacking. Here, we study the PETM at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 in the equatorial Atlantic using a range of organic and inorganic proxies and couple these with dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblage analysis. The PETM at Site 959 was previously found to be marked by a ˜ 3.8 ‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) and a ˜ 4 °C surface ocean warming from the uppermost Paleocene to peak PETM, of which ˜ 1 °C occurs before the onset of the CIE. We record upper Paleocene dinocyst assemblages that are similar to PETM assemblages as found in extratropical regions, confirming poleward migrations of ecosystems during the PETM. The early stages of the PETM are marked by a typical acme of the tropical genus Apectodinium, which reaches abundances of up to 95 %. Subsequently, dinocyst abundances diminish greatly, as do carbonate and pyritized silicate microfossils. The combined paleoenvironmental information from Site 959 and a close-by shelf site in Nigeria implies the general absence of eukaryotic surface-dwelling microplankton during peak PETM warmth in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, most likely caused by heat stress. We hypothesize, based on a literature survey, that heat stress might have reduced calcification in more tropical regions, potentially contributing to reduced deep sea carbonate accumulation rates, and, by buffering acidification, also to biological carbonate compensation of the injected carbon during the PETM. Crucially, abundant organic benthic foraminiferal linings imply sustained export production, likely driven by prokaryotes. In

  13. Tropical Atlantic climate and ecosystem regime shifts during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum

    J. Frieling

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM, 56 Ma was a phase of rapid global warming associated with massive carbon input into the ocean–atmosphere system from a 13C-depleted reservoir. Many midlatitude and high-latitude sections have been studied and document changes in salinity, hydrology and sedimentation, deoxygenation, biotic overturning, and migrations, but detailed records from tropical regions are lacking. Here, we study the PETM at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP Site 959 in the equatorial Atlantic using a range of organic and inorganic proxies and couple these with dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst assemblage analysis. The PETM at Site 959 was previously found to be marked by a  ∼  3.8 ‰ negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE and a  ∼  4 °C surface ocean warming from the uppermost Paleocene to peak PETM, of which  ∼  1 °C occurs before the onset of the CIE. We record upper Paleocene dinocyst assemblages that are similar to PETM assemblages as found in extratropical regions, confirming poleward migrations of ecosystems during the PETM. The early stages of the PETM are marked by a typical acme of the tropical genus Apectodinium, which reaches abundances of up to 95 %. Subsequently, dinocyst abundances diminish greatly, as do carbonate and pyritized silicate microfossils. The combined paleoenvironmental information from Site 959 and a close-by shelf site in Nigeria implies the general absence of eukaryotic surface-dwelling microplankton during peak PETM warmth in the eastern equatorial Atlantic, most likely caused by heat stress. We hypothesize, based on a literature survey, that heat stress might have reduced calcification in more tropical regions, potentially contributing to reduced deep sea carbonate accumulation rates, and, by buffering acidification, also to biological carbonate compensation of the injected carbon during the PETM. Crucially, abundant organic benthic foraminiferal linings imply

  14. Chesapeake Bay Climate Study Partnership: Undergraduate Student Experiential Learning on Microclimates at the University of Hawai'i, Hilo

    Ozbay, G.; Sriharan, S.; Fan, C.; Adolf, J.

    2015-12-01

    Undergraduate student experiential learning activities focused on microclimates of Hawai'i Island, Hawai'i. Six students from Virginia State University, three students from Delaware State University and faculty advisors were hosted by the University of Hawai'i at Hilo (UHH) Department of Marine Science. This partnership provided integrated, cohesive, and innovative education and research capabilities to minority students on climate change science. Activities included a summer course, instrumentation training, field and laboratory research training, sampling, data collection, logging, analysis, interpretation, report preparation, and research presentation. Most training activities used samples collected during students' field sampling in Hilo Bay. Water quality and phytoplankton data were collected along a 220 degree line transect from the mouth of the Wailuku River to the pelagic zone outside of Hilo Bay into the Pacific Ocean to a distance of 15.5 km. Water clarity, turbidity, chlorophyll, physical water quality parameters, and atmospheric CO2 levels were measured along the transect. Phytoplankton samples were collected for analysis by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Flow Cytometry. Data showed the extent of anthropogenic activity on water quality, with implications for food web dynamics. In addition, atmospheric CO2 concentration, island vegetation, and GPS points were recorded throughout the island of Hawai'i to investigate how variations in microclimate, elevation, and land development affect the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere, vegetation, and water quality. Water quality results at locations near rivers were completely different from other study sites, requiring students' critical thinking skills to find possible reasons for the difference. Our data show a correlation between population density and CO2 concentrations. Anthropogenic activities affecting CO2 and ocean conditions in Hawaiian microclimates can potentially have deleterious effects on the life

  15. Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle LiFePO4 battery life implications of thermal management, driving conditions, and regional climate

    Yuksel, Tugce; Litster, Shawn; Viswanathan, Venkatasubramanian; Michalek, Jeremy J.

    2017-01-01

    Battery degradation strongly depends on temperature, and many plug-in electric vehicle applications employ thermal management strategies to extend battery life. The effectiveness of thermal management depends on the design of the thermal management system as well as the battery chemistry, cell and pack design, vehicle system characteristics, and operating conditions. We model a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle with an air-cooled battery pack composed of cylindrical LiFePO4/graphite cells and simulate the effect of thermal management, driving conditions, regional climate, and vehicle system design on battery life. We estimate that in the absence of thermal management, aggressive driving can cut battery life by two thirds; a blended gas/electric-operation control strategy can quadruple battery life relative to an all-electric control strategy; larger battery packs can extend life by an order of magnitude relative to small packs used for all-electric operation; and batteries last 73-94% longer in mild-weather San Francisco than in hot Phoenix. Air cooling can increase battery life by a factor of 1.5-6, depending on regional climate and driving patterns. End of life criteria has a substantial effect on battery life estimates.

  16. Fish thermal habitat current use and simulation of thermal habitat availability in lakes of the Argentine Patagonian Andes under climate change scenarios RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5.

    Vigliano, Pablo H; Rechencq, Magalí M; Fernández, María V; Lippolt, Gustavo E; Macchi, Patricio J

    2018-09-15

    Habitat use in relation to the thermal habitat availability and food source as a forcing factor on habitat selection and use of Percichthys trucha (Creole perch), Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout), Salmo trutta (brown trout) and Salvelinus fontinalis (brook trout) were determined as well as future potential thermal habitat availability for these species under climate change scenarios Representative Concentration Pathways 4.5 and 8.5. This study was conducted in three interconnected lakes of Northern Patagonia (Moreno Lake system). Data on fish abundance was obtained through gill netting and hydroacoustics, and thermal profiles and fish thermal habitat suitability index curves were used to identify current species-specific thermal habitat use. Surface air temperatures from the (NEX GDDP) database for RCP scenarios 4.5 and 8.5 were used to model monthly average temperatures of the water column up to the year 2099 for all three lakes, and to determine potential future habitat availability. In addition, data on fish diet were used to determine whether food could act as a forcing factor in current habitat selection. The four species examined do not use all the thermally suitable habitats currently available to them in the three lakes, and higher fish densities are not necessarily constrained to their "fundamental thermal niches" sensu Magnuson et al. (1979), as extensive use is made of less suitable habitats. This is apparently brought about by food availability acting as a major forcing factor in habitat selection and use. Uncertainties related to the multidimensionality inherent to habitat selection and climate change imply that fish resource management in Patagonia will not be feasible through traditional incremental policies and strategic adjustments based on short-term predictions, but will have to become highly opportunistic and adaptive. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal and Spatial Explicit Modelling of Renewable Energy Systems : Modelling variable renewable energy systems to address climate change mitigation and universal electricity access

    Zeyringer, Marianne

    2017-01-01

    Two major global challenges climate change mitigation and universal electricity access, can be addressed by large scale deployment of renewable energy sources (Alstone et al., 2015). Around 60% of greenhouse gas emissions originate from energy generation and 90% of CO2 emissions are caused by fossil

  18. Study of Climate Responsive Passive Design Features in Traditional Hill Architecture of Khyah Village in Hamirpur, Himachal Pradesh, India for Indoor Thermal Comfort

    Sarkar, A.

    2013-03-01

    Vernacular architecture of any settlement is characterized by architecture and construction methods developed by the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, to provide thermal comfort to users in extreme outdoor uncomfortable climatic conditions, by using locally available building materials and by adopting construction technology which both were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will highlight the climate-responsiveness in the traditional architecture of Khyah village in Hamirpur district of Himachal Pradesh, having sub-tropical climatic condition. The plan of individual house, the cluster of houses and the overall settlement itself has been evolved from a process of understanding the local geo-climatic conditions which causes discomfort in both cold winter and hot summer months. Hence, the house plans were kept compact, thick adobe bricks were used for walls, pitched roof with attic and roof-covering of slate were employed and small window openings were provided with heavy timber shutter—all as a mean to retain indoor heat during cold winter months and also to prevent excessive heat-loss and heat-gains. The paper will also attempt to bring out the adaptive synchronized dynamic interactions between the various activities of inhabitants and their spatial environment, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the physical survey of this traditional hill settlement.

  19. A simplified, data-constrained approach to estimate the permafrost carbon-climate feedback: The PCN Incubation-Panarctic Thermal (PInc-PanTher) Scaling Approach

    Koven, C. D.; Schuur, E.; Schaedel, C.; Bohn, T. J.; Burke, E.; Chen, G.; Chen, X.; Ciais, P.; Grosse, G.; Harden, J. W.; Hayes, D. J.; Hugelius, G.; Jafarov, E. E.; Krinner, G.; Kuhry, P.; Lawrence, D. M.; MacDougall, A.; Marchenko, S. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Natali, S.; Nicolsky, D.; Olefeldt, D.; Peng, S.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Schaefer, K. M.; Strauss, J.; Treat, C. C.; Turetsky, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present an approach to estimate the feedback from large-scale thawing of permafrost soils using a simplified, data-constrained model that combines three elements: soil carbon (C) maps and profiles to identify the distribution and type of C in permafrost soils; incubation experiments to quantify the rates of C lost after thaw; and models of soil thermal dynamics in response to climate warming. We call the approach the Permafrost Carbon Network Incubation-Panarctic Thermal scaling approach (PInc-PanTher). The approach assumes that C stocks do not decompose at all when frozen, but once thawed follow set decomposition trajectories as a function of soil temperature. The trajectories are determined according to a 3-pool decomposition model fitted to incubation data using parameters specific to soil horizon types. We calculate litterfall C inputs required to maintain steady-state C balance for the current climate, and hold those inputs constant. Soil temperatures are taken from the soil thermal modules of ecosystem model simulations forced by a common set of future climate change anomalies under two warming scenarios over the period 2010 to 2100.

  20. Salinity-induced stratification and the onset of hypoxia during the Holocene Thermal Maximum and the Medieval Climate Anomaly

    Papadomanolaki, Nina; Dijkstra, Nikki; van Helmond, Niels; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Hagens, Mathilde; Kotthoff, Ulrich; Slomp, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    During the past ~8000 years the Baltic Sea has experienced three distinct intervals of hypoxia, of which the last one is still ongoing. These intervals are characterized by enhanced sedimentary organic matter burial and enrichment of redox-sensitive metals, such as molybdenum and iron. The first two of these intervals occurred during the Holocene Thermal Maximum (HTM) and the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), two phases with high temperatures and changed precipitation patterns. Studies focussing on the Holocene sedimentary record of the Baltic Sea aim at clarifying the causes of the initiation, evolution and termination of these hypoxic intervals, as well as their consequences. This information could help to potentially aid in finding solutions for the mitigation of present-day hypoxia in the Baltic Sea. The factors contributing to hypoxia development during the HTM and MCA are still debated. Here we present data from a core retrieved during Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 347 in the Landsort Deep basin, the deepest basin of the Baltic Sea at 463m water depth. Sediments were analysed at a high resolution using inorganic geochemical and (mainly marine) palynological proxies. Dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) assemblages and total elemental compositions provide clues on the role of salinity in enhancing stratification, ultimately causing hypoxia. During the onset of the HTM changes in salinity, as indicated by the palynology, closely follow changes in sedimentary organic carbon burial and trace metal concentrations. This suggests that stratification was an important cause of hypoxia during the HTM. In contrast, the palynology suggests that reduced stratification did not contribute to re-oxygenation during the termination of the HTM. We did not observe major changes in the palynology throughout the hypoxic interval of the MCA. Our results thus suggest that changes in salinity did not cause the onset and termination of hypoxia during the MCA.

  1. Using Climate Change for Teaching Experimental Sciences in Teacher Education through Research Projects on Recycling at the University of Lleida (Western Catalonia)

    Sebastia, M. T.; Verdú, N.

    2016-12-01

    Although climate change is one of the most pressing challenges faced by humankind, climate change illiteracy is frequent among primary school teacher college students reaching the second school year at the University of Lleida (UdL). Climate change was chosen to structure the course on Experimental Sciences of the bilingual group because this topic involves all sciences, and because of the importance of the subject for future educators. In the bilingual group of the Education Faculty, Experimental Sciences is taught in English, and there are usually 1-2 international students in addition to around 20 local students. To increase the awareness about climate change and make this topic closer to the students' daily experience, a research project on recycling at the University of Lleida was assigned per groups of 4 students. The assignment was semi-structured, the students received a reduced set of instructions and large freedom to focus their particular projects. Additional instructions were provided along the way. We present results from the comparisons among faculties at UdL, and among the different users: students, professors and researchers, and administration staff. We also discuss the impact that this project had in the learning ability of the students and their awareness about climate change.

  2. The CLIMATE schools combined study: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a universal Internet-based prevention program for youth substance misuse, depression and anxiety.

    Teesson, Maree; Newton, Nicola C; Slade, Tim; Chapman, Cath; Allsop, Steve; Hides, Leanne; McBride, Nyanda; Mewton, Louise; Tonks, Zoe; Birrell, Louise; Brownhill, Louise; Andrews, Gavin

    2014-02-05

    Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders account for three quarters of the disability attributed to mental disorders and frequently co-occur. While programs for the prevention and reduction of symptoms associated with (i) substance use and (ii) mental health disorders exist, research is yet to determine if a combined approach is more effective. This paper describes the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention, a universal approach to preventing substance use and mental health problems among adolescents. Participants will consist of approximately 8400 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 84 secondary schools in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland, Australia. The schools will be cluster randomised to one of four groups; (i) CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention; (ii) CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use; (iii) CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health, or (iv) Control (Health and Physical Education as usual). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and other drugs, mental health symptomatology and anxiety, depression and substance use knowledge. Secondary outcomes include substance use related harms, self-efficacy to resist peer pressure, general disability, and truancy. The link between personality and substance use will also be examined. Compared to students who receive the universal CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use, or CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health or the Control condition (who received usual Health and Physical Education), we expect students who receive the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention to show greater delays to the initiation of substance use, reductions in substance use and mental health symptoms, and increased substance use and mental health knowledge. This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry, ACTRN12613000723785.

  3. The CLIMATE schools combined study: a cluster randomised controlled trial of a universal Internet-based prevention program for youth substance misuse, depression and anxiety

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety, depressive and substance use disorders account for three quarters of the disability attributed to mental disorders and frequently co-occur. While programs for the prevention and reduction of symptoms associated with (i) substance use and (ii) mental health disorders exist, research is yet to determine if a combined approach is more effective. This paper describes the study protocol of a cluster randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness of the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention, a universal approach to preventing substance use and mental health problems among adolescents. Methods/design Participants will consist of approximately 8400 students aged 13 to 14-years-old from 84 secondary schools in New South Wales, Western Australia and Queensland, Australia. The schools will be cluster randomised to one of four groups; (i) CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention; (ii) CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use; (iii) CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health, or (iv) Control (Health and Physical Education as usual). The primary outcomes of the trial will be the uptake and harmful use of alcohol and other drugs, mental health symptomatology and anxiety, depression and substance use knowledge. Secondary outcomes include substance use related harms, self-efficacy to resist peer pressure, general disability, and truancy. The link between personality and substance use will also be examined. Discussion Compared to students who receive the universal CLIMATE Schools - Substance Use, or CLIMATE Schools - Mental Health or the Control condition (who received usual Health and Physical Education), we expect students who receive the CLIMATE Schools Combined intervention to show greater delays to the initiation of substance use, reductions in substance use and mental health symptoms, and increased substance use and mental health knowledge. Trial registration This trial is registered with the Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials registry, ACTRN12613000723785

  4. Acid rain recovery may help to mitigate the impacts of climate change on thermally sensitive fish in lakes across eastern North America.

    Warren, Dana R; Kraft, Clifford E; Josephson, Daniel C; Driscoll, Charles T

    2017-06-01

    From the 1970s to 1990s, more stringent air quality regulations were implemented across North America and Europe to reduce chemical emissions that contribute to acid rain. Surface water pH slowly increased during the following decades, but biological recovery lagged behind chemical recovery. Fortunately, this situation is changing. In the past few years, northeastern US fish populations have begun to recover in lakes that were historically incapable of sustaining wild fish due to acidic conditions. As lake ecosystems across the eastern United States recover from acid deposition, the stress to the most susceptible populations of native coldwater fish appears to be shifting from acidification effects to thermal impacts associated with changing climate. Extreme summer temperature events - which are expected to occur with increasing frequency in the coming century - can stress and ultimately kill native coldwater fish in lakes where thermal stratification is absent or highly limited. Based on data from northeastern North America, we argue that recovery from acid deposition has the potential to improve the resilience of coldwater fish populations in some lakes to impacts of climate change. This will occur as the amount of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water increases with increasing lake pH. Increased DOC will reduce water clarity and lead to shallower and more persistent lake thermoclines that can provide larger areas of coldwater thermal refuge habitat. Recovery from acidification will not eliminate the threat of climate change to coldwater fish, but secondary effects of acid recovery may improve the resistance of coldwater fish populations in lakes to the effects of elevated summer temperatures in historically acidified ecosystems. This analysis highlights the importance of considering the legacy of past ecosystem impacts and how recovery or persistence of those effects may interact with climate change impacts on biota in the coming decades. © 2016 John

  5. Climate Literacy: Progress in Climate and Global Change Undergraduate Courses in Meteorology and Earth System Science Programs at Jackson State University

    Reddy, S. R.; Tuluri, F.; Fadavi, M.

    2017-12-01

    JSU Meteorology Program will be offering AMS Climate Studies undergraduate course under MET 210: Climatology in spring 2013. AMS Climate Studies is offered as a 3 credit hour laboratory course with 2 lectures and 1 lab sessions per week. Although this course places strong intellectual demands upon each student, the instructors' objective is to help each student to pass the course with an adequate understanding of the fundamentals and advanced and advanced courses. AMS Climate Studies is an introductory college-level course developed by the American Meteorological Society for implementation at undergraduate institutions nationwide. The course places students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate Earth's climate system using real-world environmental data. The AMS Climate Studies course package consists of a textbook, investigations manual, course website, and course management system-compatible files. Instructors can use these resources in combinations that make for an exciting learning experience for their students. This is a content course in Earth Science. It introduces a new concept that views Earth as a synergistic physical system applied concepts of climatology, for him/her to understand basic atmospheric/climate processes, physical and dynamical climatology, regional climatology, past and future climates and statistical analysis using climate data and to be prepared to profit from studying more of interrelated phenomenon governed by complex processes involving the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, the biosphere, and the solid Earth. The course emphasizes that the events that shape the physical, chemical, and biological processes of the Earth do not occur in isolation. Rather, there is a delicate relationship between the events that occur in the ocean, atmosphere, and the solid Earth. The course provides a multidimensional approach in solving scientific issues related to Earth-related sciences,

  6. Impact of building forms on thermal performance and thermal comfort conditions in religious buildings in hot climates: a case study in Sharjah city

    Mushtaha, Emad; Helmy, Omar

    2017-11-01

    The common system used for thermal regulation in mosques of United Arab Emirates (UAE) is the heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. This system increases demands on energy consumption and increases CO2 emission. A passive design approach is one of the measures to reduce these problems. This study involved an analytical examination of building forms, followed by testing the impact of these forms on its thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort. The tests were conducted using energy simulations software packages. Passive parameters such as shading devices, thermal insulation and natural ventilation were applied in six cases, including the baseline case within each form. The obtained results showed a significant effect of mosque forms as well as passive design techniques on the thermal comfort within the structures. The findings confirmed that the use of passive design alone would not help achieve thermal comfort, but reduce the annual energy consumption by10%. By integrating a hybrid air-conditioning system as another supporting approach, the annual energy consumption could be reduced by 67.5%, which allows for the designing of a much smaller HVAC system.

  7. Effect of age, gender, economic group and tenure on thermal comfort: A field study in residential buildings in hot and dry climate with seasonal variations

    Indraganti, Madhavi; Rao, Kavita Daryani [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-03-15

    Energy consumption in Indian residential buildings is one of the highest and is increasing phenomenally. Indian standards specify comfort temperatures between 23 and 26 C for all types of buildings across the nation. However, thermal comfort research in India is very limited. A field study in naturally ventilated apartments was done in 2008, during the summer and monsoon seasons in Hyderabad in composite climate. This survey involved over 100 subjects, giving 3962 datasets. They were analysed under different groups: age, gender, economic group and tenure. Age, gender and tenure correlated weakly with thermal comfort. However, thermal acceptance of women, older subjects and owner-subjects was higher. Economic level of the subjects showed significant effect on the thermal sensation, preference, acceptance and neutrality. The comfort band for lowest economic group was found to be 27.3-33.1 C with the neutral temperature at 30.2 C. This is way above the standard. This finding has far reaching energy implications on building and HVAC systems design and practice. Occupants' responses for other environmental parameters often depended on their thermal sensation, often resulting in a near normal distribution. The subjects displayed acoustic and olfactory obliviousness due to habituation, resulting in higher satisfaction and acceptance. (author)

  8. The occurrence of unfavorable thermal conditions on human health in central europe and potential climate change impacts: an example from Cracow, Poland.

    Piotrowicz, Katarzyna

    2009-10-01

    Progressive global warming exerts strong influence on the lives and on the health of urban residents, many of who are weather sensitive people (meteoropaths). In the temperate zone, air temperature changes largely determine the seasonal oscillation of morbidity and mortality frequency. The present study analyzes the influence of air temperature on living conditions in central European urban areas, particularly Cracow (Poland), and examines this influence against the background of climate change. During the warmer months, there is a noticeable increase in the unfavorable occurrence of especially strong thermal stimuli (e.g., hot days) which can lead to overheating of the human organism. On the other hand, the increasing frequency of mild winters contributes to the appearance of weak and moderate thermal stimuli, which in the case of the former, is a negative phenomenon. Weak thermal stimuli are liable to make the human body oversensitive and, thus lose the ability to adapt if stronger thermal stimuli were to occur. Residents of large urban areas should be prepared for the possibility of dynamic weather changes and should take thermal variability into consideration with regards to spatial urban planning and socioeconomic activities.

  9. Review of Strategies for Thermal Efficiency in Landscape Planning of Cities for Conservation of Energy and Enhanced Climatic Resilience to Urban Warming

    Imam, Aabshar U. K.; Banerjee, Uttam Kumar

    2017-09-01

    Thermal discomfort, increased energy consumption, and heat related stress are some of the most prominent consequences of urban warming. Instances of heat related deaths have been reported; the elderly and the poor remain especially vulnerable. Urban greening has often been cited as an economically efficient method for inducing ambient cooling. Consequently, increased impetus is given to provision of public green spaces. However, a general increase in urban green cover especially in the form of parks and green spaces may be inadequate to achieve desired results. This article serves to highlight the thermal heterogeneity of landcape elements and stresses on the need for strategic shade provision. The originality of this study lies in the fact that it provides a comparative review of energy conservation potential of public and private green spaces. It is found that large parks may not have substantial cooling effect on the indoor built environment. Moreover, people tend to spend more time indoors than outdoors. Thus the need for greening of private areas has become an undeniable climatic necessity. The potential of shade trees, green walls, and roof gardens for cooling of built environment are discussed with quantitative evidences of their thermal and economic benefits. Parameters incurring cost expenditure and weaknesses of the greening strategies are enumerated for enabling prudent selection/implementation of strategies. Proposals are generated to improve climatic resilience to urban warming and for diligent planning of cities.

  10. Estimation of the temperature, heat gain and heat loss by solar parabolic trough collector under Algerian climate using different thermal oils

    Ouagued, Malika; Khellaf, Abdallah; Loukarfi, Larbi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Estimation of direct solar radiations for different tracking systems at six typical locations in Algeria. • PTC thermal model uses energy balances from the HTF to the atmosphere. • The model depends on the collector type, nature of HTF, optical properties, and ambient conditions. • Estimation of temperature, heat gain and energy cost of thermal oils used in the model. • Comparison between monthly mean heat gain of the various thermal oils for six Algerian locations. - Abstract: Algeria is blessed with a very important renewable, and more particularly solar, energy potential. This potential opens for Algeria reel opportunities to cope with the increasing energy demand and the growing environmental problems link to the use of fossil fuel. In order to develop and to promote concrete actions in the areas of renewable energy and energy efficiency, Algeria has introduced a national daring program for the period 2011–2030. In this program, solar energy, and more particularly solar thermal energy plays an important role. In this paper, the potential of direct solar irradiance in Algeria and the performance of solar parabolic trough collector (PTC) are estimated under the climate conditions of the country. These two factors are treated as they play an important role in the design of solar thermal plant. In order to determine the most promising solar sites in Algeria, monthly mean daily direct solar radiation have been estimated and compared for different locations corresponding to different climatic region. Different tilted and tracking collectors are considered so as to determine the most efficient system for the PTC. In order to evaluate the performance of a tracking solar parabolic trough collector, a heat transfer model is developed. The receiver, heat collector element (HCE), is divided into several segments and heat balance is applied in each segment over a section of the solar receiver. Different oils are considered to determine the thermal

  11. Climate data and climate change - Analysis of the influence on energy demand, performance requirement and thermal comfort of buildings; Klimadaten und Klimawandel - Untersuchungen zum Einfluss auf den Energiebedarf, den Leistungsbedarf und den thermischen Komfort von Gebaeuden

    Voss, Karsten; Kuenz, Carolin [Bergische Universitaet Wuppertal (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Continuous research on climate change has improved the knowledge on climate forecast modelling, so that local and regional climate data sets for the application in building energy modelling are available. The paper analyses the data sets of most known sources and compares the relevant characteristics at four German locations. Simulation results for three commercial building examples (office, school and hotel) illustrate how the climate change may influence heating and cooling demands and capacities as well as the summer thermal comfort if no adjustments with respect to construction, service technology and user behaviour are applied. A significant decrease in space heating demand is contrasted by increased cooling demand and increased indoor temperatures during summer even until 2050. Especially for the office buildings, the summer conditions develop critical, so that active cooling will be mandatory in the summer hot regions. This trend was already detected during the past decade. The forecast is critical for all existing buildings. Significant improvements of the envelope properties such as glazing or shading and passive cooling options become mandatory. The changes predicted for schools and hotels remain moderate.

  12. Very High Energy astronomy from H.E.S.S. to CTA. Opening of a new astronomical window on the non-thermal Universe

    Naurois, Mathieu de

    2012-01-01

    The last ten years saw the emergence of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes as a mature and efficient technique for the study of the Very High Energy Universe, leading to the successful opening, mainly by the HESS experiment, of our understanding of the non-thermal Universe. This Habilitation thesis summaries ten years of research in Very High Energy gamma-ray astronomy with HESS and CTA. In the first part, instrumental aspects such as the experiment conception, its calibration, the reconstruction of the events and the data analysis are presented. The second parts draws a panorama of the main discoveries in the domain. (author)

  13. Predicted effects of future climate warming on thermal habitat suitability for Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) in rivers in Wisconsin, USA

    Lyons, John D.; Stewart, Jana S.

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens, Rafinesque, 1817) may be threatened by future climate warming. The purpose of this study was to identify river reaches in Wisconsin, USA, where they might be vulnerable to warming water temperatures. In Wisconsin, A. fulvescens is known from 2291 km of large-river habitat that has been fragmented into 48 discrete river-lake networks isolated by impassable dams. Although the exact temperature tolerances are uncertain, water temperatures above 28–30°C are potentially less suitable for this coolwater species. Predictions from 13 downscaled global climate models were input to a lotic water temperature model to estimate amounts of potential thermally less-suitable habitat at present and for 2046–2065. Currently, 341 km (14.9%) of the known habitat are estimated to regularly exceed 28°C for an entire day, but only 6 km (0.3%) to exceed 30°C. In 2046–2065, 685–2164 km (29.9–94.5%) are projected to exceed 28°C and 33–1056 km (1.4–46.1%) to exceed 30°C. Most river-lake networks have cooler segments, large tributaries, or lakes that might provide temporary escape from potentially less suitable temperatures, but 12 short networks in the Lower Fox and Middle Wisconsin rivers totaling 93.6 km are projected to have no potential thermal refugia. One possible adaptation to climate change could be to provide fish passage or translocation so that riverine Lake Sturgeon might have access to more thermally suitable habitats.

  14. The Influences of Leadership Style and School Climate to Faculty Psychological Contracts: A Case of S University in Taiwan

    Chu, Hui-Chin; Fu, Chi-Jung

    2006-01-01

    This study was to investigate the impacts of leadership style and school climate on faculty psychological contracts. Demographic variables were also tested. The findings indicated that overall perceptions of the faculties toward leadership style, school climate, and psychological contract were favorable. Moreover, leadership style and school…

  15. Acute thermal tolerance of tropical estuarine fish occupying a man-made tidal lake, and increased exposure risk with climate change

    Waltham, Nathan J.; Sheaves, Marcus

    2017-09-01

    Understanding acute hyperthermic exposure risk to animals, including fish in tropical estuaries, is increasingly necessary under future climate change. To examine this hypothesis, fish (upper water column species - glassfish, Ambassis vachellii; river mullet, Chelon subviridis; diamond scale mullet, Ellochelon vaigiensis; and ponyfish, Leiognathus equulus; and lower water bottom dwelling species - whiting Sillago analis) were caught in an artificial tidal lake in tropical north Queensland (Australia), and transported to a laboratory tank to acclimate (3wks). After acclimation, fish (between 10 and 17 individuals each time) were transferred to a temperature ramping experimental tank, where a thermoline increased (2.5 °C/hr; which is the average summer water temperature increasing rate measured in the urban lakes) tank water temperature to establish threshold points where each fish species lost equilibrium (defined here as Acute Effect Temperature; AET). The coolest AET among all species was 33.1 °C (S. analis), while the highest was 39.9 °C (A. vachellii). High frequency loggers were deployed (November and March representing Austral summer) in the same urban lake where fish were sourced, to measure continuous (20min) surface (0.15 m) and bottom (0.1 m) temperature to derive thermal frequency curves to examine how often lake temperatures exceed AET thresholds. For most fish species examined, water temperature that could be lethal were exceeded at the surface, but rarely, if ever, at the bottom waters suggesting deep, cooler, water provides thermal refugia for fish. An energy-balance model was used to estimate daily mean lake water temperature with good accuracy (±1 °C; R2 = 0.91, modelled vs lake measured temperature). The model was used to predict climate change effects on lake water temperature, and the exceedance of thermal threshold change. A 2.3 °C climate warming (based on 2100 local climate prediction) raised lake water temperature by 1.3 °C. However

  16. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  17. Long-term perceptions of outdoor thermal environments in an elementary school in a hot-humid climate

    Shih, Wen-Mei; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Tan, Ning-Xin; Liu, Mu-Hsien

    2017-09-01

    Previous studies on thermal comfort in school environments have focused more on indoor thermal environments than outdoor ones, thus providing a limited understanding of occupants' long-term thermal perceptions. Taiwan is located in a subtropical region, where it can be stiflingly hot outside in summer. This highlights the need to ensure proper thermal comfort on campus. In the present study, thermal environment parameters were measured and collected in several outdoor spaces of an elementary school in southern Taiwan. In addition, a questionnaire was used to explore occupants' long-term thermal perceptions of these spaces. During summer months, the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) of these outdoor spaces in over 60% of the daytime in summer between 10 a.m. and 4 p.m. was higher than 38 °C PET, indicating high heat stress. The results of occupants' long-term perceptions of the thermal comfort of these spaces suggested that dissatisfaction with thermal comfort was associated more with solar radiation than with wind speed. Finally, this study simulated a campus environment where more trees are planted and compared the thermal comfort indices before and after the simulation. The results indicated that this solution contributed to a decrease in the PET of these environments, thereby alleviating high heat stress. This study can inform the improvement of microclimates and thermal comfort during campus layout planning. Planting trees judiciously across a campus increases outdoor shades and creates outdoor spaces that are more comfortable and adaptable to hot weather conditions, thereby ensuring frequent use of these spaces.

  18. EDITORIAL: Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark Dialog on Science and Policy to Address the Climate Crisis to conclude the International Association of Research Universities Climate Congress, Copenhagen, Denmark

    Baer, Paul; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2009-06-01

    This is not the usual Editor-in-Chief letter, namely one that focuses on the accomplishments of the journal—and for ERL they have been numerous this year—but a recognition of the critical time that we are now in when it comes to addressing not only global climate change, but also the dialog between science and politics. In recognition of the many 'tipping points' that we now confront—ideally some of them positive social moments—as well as the clear scientific conclusion that environmental tipping points are points of long-lasting disruption, this paper takes a different form than I might have otherwise written. While the scientific body of knowledge around global environmental change mounts, so too, do the hopeful signs that change can happen. The election of Barack Obama is unquestionably one such sign, witnessed by the exceptional interest that his story has brought not only to US politics, but also to global views of the potential of the United States, as well as to the potential role of science and investigation in addressing pressing issues. In light of these inter-related issues, reproduced here—largely due to the efforts of Paul Baer to transcribe a remarkable conversation—is a dialog not only on the science of global warming and the potential set of means to address this issue, but also on the interaction between research, science and the political process. The dialog itself is sufficiently important that I will dispense with the usual discussion of the exciting recognition that ERL has received with an ISI rating (a factor rapidly increasing), the high levels of downloads of our papers (for some articles over 5000 and counting), and the many news and scientific publications picking up ERL articles (in recent days alone Science, Environmental Science and Technology, and The Economist). This conversation was the concluding plenary session of the 10-12 March International Association of Research Universities (IARU) Conference on Climate Change

  19. Exploring clouds, weather, climate, and modeling using bilingual content and activities from the Windows to the Universe program and the Center for Multiscale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes

    Foster, S. Q.; Johnson, R. M.; Randall, D.; Denning, S.; Russell, R.; Gardiner, L.; Hatheway, B.; Genyuk, J.; Bergman, J.

    2008-12-01

    The need for improving the representation of cloud processes in climate models has been one of the most important limitations of the reliability of climate-change simulations. Now in its third year, the National Science Foundation-funded Center for Multi-scale Modeling of Atmospheric Processes (CMMAP) at Colorado State University is addressing this problem through a revolutionary new approach to representing cloud processes on their native scales, including the cloud-scale interaction processes that are active in cloud systems. CMMAP has set ambitious education and human-resource goals to share basic information about the atmosphere, clouds, weather, climate, and modeling with diverse K-12 and public audiences through its affiliation with the Windows to the Universe (W2U) program at University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR). W2U web pages are written at three levels in English and Spanish. This information targets learners at all levels, educators, and families who seek to understand and share resources and information about the nature of weather and the climate system, and career role models from related research fields. This resource can also be helpful to educators who are building bridges in the classroom between the sciences, the arts, and literacy. Visitors to the W2U's CMMAP web portal can access a beautiful new clouds image gallery; information about each cloud type and the atmospheric processes that produce them; a Clouds in Art interactive; collections of weather-themed poetry, art, and myths; links to games and puzzles for children; and extensive classroom- ready resources and activities for K-12 teachers. Biographies of CMMAP scientists and graduate students are featured. Basic science concepts important to understanding the atmosphere, such as condensation, atmosphere pressure, lapse rate, and more have been developed, as well as 'microworlds' that enable students to interact with experimental tools while building fundamental knowledge

  20. A detailed thermal-electrical model of three photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) hybrid air collectors and photovoltaic (PV) module: Comparative study under Algiers climatic conditions

    Slimani, Mohamed El Amine; Amirat, Madjid; Kurucz, Ildikó; Bahria, Sofiane; Hamidat, Abderrahmane; Chaouch, Wafa Braham

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A detailed thermal and electrical model for PV and PV/T systems has been presented. • The developed numerical model was validated successfully with previously published experimental results. • A comparative study between four solar devices (PV and PV/T systems) was carried out. • The experimental weather conditions of Algiers site are used in the numerical model. • The glazed double-pass photovoltaic/thermal air collector shows the best overall energy efficiency. - Abstract: The thermal photovoltaic hybrid collector is a genuine cogeneration technology; it can produce electricity and heat simultaneously. In this paper, a comparative study is presented between four solar device configurations: photovoltaic module (PV-I), conventional hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-II), glazed hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-III) and glazed double-pass hybrid solar air collector (PV/T-IV). A numerical model is developed and validated through experimental results indicated in the previous literature. The numerical model takes the heat balance equations and different thermal and electrical parameters into account for each configuration included in this study, the energy performances are evaluated with a sample weather data of Algiers site. The numerical results show that the daily average of overall energy efficiency reaches: 29.63%, 51.02%, 69.47% and 74% for the first (PV-I), the second (PV/T-II), the third (PV/T-III) and the fourth (PV/T-IV) configurations respectively. These values are obtained with an air flow of 0.023 kg/s and introducing a sample of experimental weather data collected in Algiers site for a sunny day in summer.

  1. SLC summer 2010 university - The ocean in the climate-energy problem, urban policies. Proceedings; Universite d'ete 2010 SLC - L'Ocean dans la problematique Climat-Energie, politiques urbaines. Recueil des presentations

    NONE

    2010-09-15

    This document brings together the available presentations given at the summer 2010 university of the SLC (save the climate) organization on the topics of the ocean in the climate-energy problem, and of the urban policies. Nine presentations (slides) are compiled in this document and deal with: 1 - Biofuels made from micro-algae: stakes and challenges (Olivier Bernard, Comore - INRIA /CNRS/UPMC); 2 - The energy of waves (Alain Clement, Ecole Centrale de Nantes); 3 - The sea, new source of renewable energies? (J.J. Herou, EDF CIH); 4 - Oceans acidification: the other CO{sub 2} problem (James Orr, Pierre Simon Laplace Institute - IPSL, Laboratory of climate and environmental Sciences - LSCE, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ); 5 - Oceans and carbon cycle (Laurent Bopp, IPSL/LSCE); 6 - Renewable marine energies (Yann-Herve De Roeck, France Energies Marines); 7 - Energy renovation of buildings (Jean-Claude Terrier, Mesac Europe); 8 - Modevur research project - Modeling of urban development, sketch of a development typology of chinese cities (Clement-Noel Douady); 9 - Urban areas in the fight against climate change: stakes, knowledge and controversies (Francois Menard, PUCA)

  2. Role of Acclimatization in Weather-Related Human Mortality During the Transition Seasons of Autumn and Spring in a Thermally Extreme Mid-Latitude Continental Climate

    de Freitas, Christopher R.; Grigorieva, Elena A.

    2015-01-01

    Human mortality is closely related to natural climate-determined levels of thermal environmental stress and the resulting thermophysiological strain. Most climate-mortality research has focused on seasonal extremes during winter and summer when mortality is the highest, while relatively little attention has been paid to mortality during the transitional seasons of autumn and spring. The body acclimatizes to heat in the summer and cold in winter and readjusts through acclimatization during the transitions between the two during which time the body experiences the thermophysiological strain of readjustment. To better understand the influences of weather on mortality through the acclimatization process, the aim here is to examine the periods that link very cold and very warms seasons. The study uses the Acclimatization Thermal Strain Index (ATSI), which is a comparative measure of short-term thermophysiological impact on the body. ATSI centers on heat exchange with the body’s core via the respiratory system, which cannot be protected. The analysis is based on data for a major city in the climatic region of the Russian Far East characterized by very hot summers and extremely cold winters. The results show that although mortality peaks in winter (January) and is at its lowest in summer (August), there is not a smooth rise through autumn nor a smooth decline through spring. A secondary peak occurs in autumn (October) with a smaller jump in May. This suggests the acclimatization from warm-to-cold produces more thermophysiological strain than the transition from cold-to-warm. The study shows that ATSI is a useful metric for quantifying the extent to which biophysical adaptation plays a role in increased strain on the body during re-acclimatization and for this reason is a more appropriate climatic indictor than air temperature alone. The work gives useful bioclimatic information on risks involved in transitional seasons in regions characterized by climatic extremes. This

  3. Climate to measure. Facility management for Universal Music at Berlin; Klima nach Mass. TGA-Planung fuer Universal Music in Berlin

    McLead, E.A.

    2002-07-01

    Designing and constructing the technical facilities for a historical building like the 'Spreespeicher' in Berlin is a difficult but interesting task. The building is owned by Universal Music. Each department has its own office structure, and all offices and structures were integrated in a functional overall concept by the planners of Happold Ingenieure. [German] Klima, Lueftung und Elektroinstallation fuer ein historisches Gebaeude wie den Berliner Spreespeicher zu entwickeln, ist eine schwierige, aber reizvolle Aufgabe. Besonders, wenn der Nutzer Universal Music heisst: Jede Abteilung besitzt ihre eigene Buerostruktur, und alle mussten die TGA-Planer von Happold Ingenieure in ein funktionierendes Gesamtkonzept integrieren. (orig.)

  4. How Hot was Africa during the Mid-Holocene? Reexamining Africa's Thermal History via integrated Climate and Proxy System Modeling

    Dee, S.; Russell, J. M.; Morrill, C.

    2017-12-01

    Climate models predict Africa will warm by up to 5°C in the coming century. Reconstructions of African temperature since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) have made fundamental contributions to our understanding of past, present, and future climate and can help constrain predictions from general circulation models (GCMs). However, many of these reconstructions are based on proxies of lake temperature, so the confounding influences of lacustrine processes may complicate our interpretations of past changes in tropical climate. These proxy-specific uncertainties require robust methodology for data-model comparison. We develop a new proxy system model (PSM) for paleolimnology to facilitate data-model comparison and to fully characterize uncertainties in climate reconstructions. Output from GCMs are used to force the PSM to simulate lake temperature, hydrology, and associated proxy uncertainties. We compare reconstructed East African lake and air temperatures in individual records and in a stack of 9 lake records to those predicted by our PSM forced with Paleoclimate Model Intercomparison Project (PMIP3) simulations, focusing on the mid-Holocene (6 kyr BP). We additionally employ single-forcing transient climate simulations from TraCE (10 kyr to 4 kyr B.P. and historical), as well as 200-yr time slice simulations from CESM1.0 to run the lake PSM. We test the sensitivity of African climate change during the mid-Holocene to orbital, greenhouse gas, and ice-sheet forcing in single-forcing simulations, and investigate dynamical hypotheses for these changes. Reconstructions of tropical African temperature indicate 1-2ºC warming during the mid-Holocene relative to the present, similar to changes predicted in the coming decades. However, most climate models underestimate the warming observed in these paleoclimate data (Fig. 1, 6kyr B.P.). We investigate this discrepancy using the new lake PSM and climate model simulations, with attention to the (potentially non

  5. Performance Evaluation of Modern Building Thermal Envelope Designs in the Semi-Arid Continental Climate of Tehran

    Shaghayegh Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we evaluate the thermal performance of a range of modern wall constructions used in the residential buildings of Tehran in order to find the most appropriate alternative to the traditional un-fired clay and brick materials, which are increasingly being replaced in favor of more slender wall constructions employing hollow clay, autoclaved aerated concrete or light expanded clay aggregate blocks. The importance of improving the building envelope through estimating the potential for energy saving due to the application of the most energy-efficient wall type is presented and the wall constructions currently erected in Tehran are introduced along with their dynamic and steady-state thermal properties. The application of a dynamic simulation tool is explained and the output of the thermal simulation model is compared with the dynamic thermal properties of the wall constructions to assess their performance in summer and in winter. Finally, the best and worst wall type in terms of their cyclic thermal performance and their ability to moderate outdoor conditions is identified through comparison of the predicted indoor temperature and a target comfort temperature.

  6. Modelled spatiotemporal variability of outdoor thermal comfort in local climate zones of the city of Brno, Czech Republic

    Geletič, Jan; Lehnert, M.; Savić, S.; Milošević, D.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 624, 15 May (2018), s. 385-395 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : HUMIDEX * MUKLIMO_3 * air temperature * relative humidity * local climate zones * heat wave Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 4.900, year: 2016

  7. Experiment Study on Elastic Indicator of Thermal Shock Ceramic Materials——Implementation of Students’ Innovative Research Project of Shandong University of Science and Technology

    Wang Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of undergraduate education and combine theory and practice, Shandong University of science and technology organized innovative research activities project for undergraduates. Combined with the characteristics of engineering mechanics course, teachers of engineering mechanics teaching and research section guided students to take an active part in scientific research and innovation practice teaching, which has obtained a good teaching effect. This paper introduces the concrete implement process of the college students’ innovative scientific research project “Experiment Study on Elastic Indicator of Thermal Shock Ceramic Materials”, which measures elastic indicator of ceramics using the ultrasonic method. This paper studies elastic indicator change rule of the mullite ceramic samples under different factors such as temperature difference, thermal shock times and so on. Studies have shown that in the condition of air-cooling, with the increase of thermal shock temperature difference and thermal shock times, the elastic modulus value, shear modulus and Poisson’s ratio are in a falling trend. The project implementation have proved that implement undergraduate innovation research projects could effectively arouse students’ learning enthusiasm, cultivate students’ scientific research innovation and analytical abilities to solve practical scientific research problems.

  8. Self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived parenting and family climate; and depression in university students.

    Oliver, J M; Paull, J C

    1995-07-01

    This study examined associations among self-esteem and self-efficacy; perceived unfavorable Parental Rearing Style (perceived PRS) and unfavorable family climate in the family of origin; and depression in undergraduates still in frequent contact with their families (N = 186). Unfavorable perceived PRS and family climate were construed as "affectionless control," in which parents and family provide little affection, but excessive control. Constructs were measured by the Self-Esteem Inventory, the Self-Efficacy Scale, the Child Report of Parental Behavior Inventory, the Family Environment Scale, and the Beck Inventory. Perceived "affectionless control" in both PRS and family climate accounted for about 13% of the variance in self-esteem, self-efficacy, and depression. Neither introversion nor depression mediated the relation between family socialization and self-esteem.

  9. UWHS Climate Science: Uniting University Scientists and High School Teachers in the Development and Implementation of a Dual-Credit STEM-Focused Curriculum

    Bertram, M. A.; Thompson, L.; Ackerman, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Washington is adapting a popular UW Atmospheric Sciences course on Climate and Climate Change for the high school environment. In the process, a STEM-focused teaching and learning community has formed. With the support of NASA Global Climate Change Education 20 teachers have participated in an evolving professional development program that brings those actively engaged in research together with high school teachers passionate about bringing a formal climate science course into the high school. Over a period of several months participating teachers work through the UW course homework and delve deeply into specific subject areas. Then, during a week-long summer institute, scientists bring their particular expertise (e.g. radiation, modeling) to the high school teachers through lectures or labs. Together they identify existing lectures, textbook material and peer-reviewed resources and labs available through the internet that can be used to effectively teach the UW material to the high school students. Through this process the scientists learn how to develop teaching materials around their area of expertise, teachers engage deeply in the subject matter, and both the university and high school teachers are armed with the tools to effectively teach a STEM-focused introductory course in climate science. To date 12 new hands-on modules have been completed or are under development, exploring ice-cores, isotopes, historical temperature trends, energy balance, climate models, and more. Two modules have been tested in the classroom and are ready for peer-review through well-respected national resources such as CLEAN or the National Earth Science Teachers Association; three others are complete and will be implemented in a high school classroom this year, and the remainder under various stages of development. The UWHS ATMS 211 course was piloted in two APES (Advanced Placement Environmental Science classrooms) in Washington State in 2011/2012. The high school

  10. Numerical analysis of passive strategies for energy retrofit of existing buildings in Mediterranean climate: thermal mass and natural ventilation combination

    Calcerano Filippo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the potential of coupling natural ventilation and thermal storage systems to improve hygrothermal comfort and reduce energy consumption during summer season in an existing building in the Mediterranean. It aims at bridging the knowledge gap between designers, researchers and building scientists, fostering a multidisciplinary approach and promoting numerical simulation of the energy performance of buildings within architectural professional practice. The study analyses the interaction between six natural ventilation systems (single sided ventilation through facade openings; cross ventilation through facade openings, inlet wind tower, thermal chimney, evaporative cool tower, earth pipes and with two thermal storage typology (heavy and medium-light within four strategic Italian location (Rome, Naples, Messina and Catania. For each interaction we perform a numerical dynamic simulation of indoor comfort, indoor air quality and energy consumption during the summer period, on a reference building model corresponding to the most common Italian typology. Results show that the use of the chosen systems ensures significant reductions of discomfort hours and energy consumption in all configurations. The study also highlights the high efficiency of non invasive systems (single-sided and cross ventilation with automatic control present discomfort hours reduction and energy consumption reduction above 68% for all combinations and the significant influence of the daily thermal range value on the performance of systems without air pre-treatment.

  11. The role of zooxanthellae in the thermal tolerance of corals: a 'nugget of hope' for coral reefs in an era of climate change.

    Berkelmans, Ray; van Oppen, Madeleine J H

    2006-09-22

    The ability of coral reefs to survive the projected increases in temperature due to global warming will depend largely on the ability of corals to adapt or acclimatize to increased temperature extremes over the next few decades. Many coral species are highly sensitive to temperature stress and the number of stress (bleaching) episodes has increased in recent decades. We investigated the acclimatization potential of Acropora millepora, a common and widespread Indo-Pacific hard coral species, through transplantation and experimental manipulation. We show that adult corals, at least in some circumstances, are capable of acquiring increased thermal tolerance and that the increased tolerance is a direct result of a change in the symbiont type dominating their tissues from Symbiodinium type C to D. Our data suggest that the change in symbiont type in our experiment was due to a shuffling of existing types already present in coral tissues, not through exogenous uptake from the environment. The level of increased tolerance gained by the corals changing their dominant symbiont type to D (the most thermally resistant type known) is around 1-1.5 degrees C. This is the first study to show that thermal acclimatization is causally related to symbiont type and provides new insight into the ecological advantage of corals harbouring mixed algal populations. While this increase is of huge ecological significance for many coral species, in the absence of other mechanisms of thermal acclimatization/adaptation, it may not be sufficient to survive climate change under predicted sea surface temperature scenarios over the next 100 years. However, it may be enough to 'buy time' while greenhouse reduction measures are put in place.

  12. The role of zooxanthellae in the thermal tolerance of corals: a ‘nugget of hope’ for coral reefs in an era of climate change

    Berkelmans, Ray; van Oppen, Madeleine J.H

    2006-01-01

    The ability of coral reefs to survive the projected increases in temperature due to global warming will depend largely on the ability of corals to adapt or acclimatize to increased temperature extremes over the next few decades. Many coral species are highly sensitive to temperature stress and the number of stress (bleaching) episodes has increased in recent decades. We investigated the acclimatization potential of Acropora millepora, a common and widespread Indo-Pacific hard coral species, through transplantation and experimental manipulation. We show that adult corals, at least in some circumstances, are capable of acquiring increased thermal tolerance and that the increased tolerance is a direct result of a change in the symbiont type dominating their tissues from Symbiodinium type C to D. Our data suggest that the change in symbiont type in our experiment was due to a shuffling of existing types already present in coral tissues, not through exogenous uptake from the environment. The level of increased tolerance gained by the corals changing their dominant symbiont type to D (the most thermally resistant type known) is around 1–1.5 °C. This is the first study to show that thermal acclimatization is causally related to symbiont type and provides new insight into the ecological advantage of corals harbouring mixed algal populations. While this increase is of huge ecological significance for many coral species, in the absence of other mechanisms of thermal acclimatization/adaptation, it may not be sufficient to survive climate change under predicted sea surface temperature scenarios over the next 100 years. However, it may be enough to ‘buy time’ while greenhouse reduction measures are put in place. PMID:16928632

  13. The Impact of Adult Degree-Completion Programs on the Organizational Climate of Christian Colleges and Universities

    Giles, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    Leaders in Christian higher education are often unaware of how adult degree completion programs (ADCPs) impact a school's organizational behavior, and no research has examined employees' perceptions of its impact. This nonexperimental, descriptive study examined differences in employees' perceptions of the impact on organizational climate of the…

  14. A universal model for predicting human migration under climate change: examining future sea level rise in Bangladesh

    Frankel Davis, Kyle; Bhattachan, Abinash; D’Odorico, Paolo; Suweis, Samir

    2018-06-01

    Climate change is expected to impact the habitability of many places around the world in significant and unprecedented ways in the coming decades. While previous studies have provided estimates of populations potentially exposed to various climate impacts, little work has been done to assess the number of people that may actually be displaced or where they will choose to go. Here we modify a diffusion-based model of human mobility in combination with population, geographic, and climatic data to estimate the sources, destinations, and flux of potential migrants as driven by sea level rise (SLR) in Bangladesh in the years 2050 and 2100. Using only maps of population and elevation, we predict that 0.9 million people (by year 2050) to 2.1 million people (by year 2100) could be displaced by direct inundation and that almost all of this movement will occur locally within the southern half of the country. We also find that destination locations should anticipate substantial additional demands on jobs (594 000), housing (197 000), and food (783 × 109 calories) by mid-century as a result of those displaced by SLR. By linking the sources of migrants displaced by SLR with their likely destinations, we demonstrate an effective approach for predicting climate-driven migrant flows, especially in data-limited settings.

  15. Ageing, exposure to pollution, and interactions between climate change and local seasons as oxidant conditions predicting incident hematologic malignancy at KINSHASA University clinics, Democratic Republic of CONGO (DRC).

    Nkanga, Mireille Solange Nganga; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ngwidiwo, Jacques Bikaula; Katawandja, Antoine Lufimbo; Kazadi, Paul Roger Beia; Nzonzila, Alain Nganga

    2017-08-23

    The global burden of hematologic malignancy (HM) is rapidly rising with aging, exposure to polluted environments, and global and local climate variability all being well-established conditions of oxidative stress. However, there is currently no information on the extent and predictors of HM at Kinshasa University Clinics (KUC), DR Congo (DRC). This study evaluated the impact of bio-clinical factors, exposure to polluted environments, and interactions between global climate changes (EL Nino and La Nina) and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) on the incidence of HM. This hospital-based prospective cohort study was conducted at Kinshasa University Clinics in DR Congo. A total of 105 black African adult patients with anaemia between 2009 and 2016 were included. HM was confirmed by morphological typing according to the French-American-British (FAB) Classification System. Gender, age, exposure to traffic pollution and garages/stations, global climate variability (El Nino and La Nina), and local climate (dry and rainy seasons) were potential independent variables to predict incident HM using Cox regression analysis and Kaplan Meier curves. Out of the total 105 patients, 63 experienced incident HM, with an incidence rate of 60%. After adjusting for gender, HIV/AIDS, and other bio-clinical factors, the most significant independent predictors of HM were age ≥ 55 years (HR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-4.3; P = 0.003), exposure to pollution and garages or stations (HR = 4.9; 95% CI 2-12.1; P pollution, combined local dry season + La Nina and combined local dry season + El Nino were the most significant predictors of incident hematologic malignancy. These findings highlight the importance of aging, pollution, the dry season, El Nino and La Nina as related to global warming as determinants of hematologic malignancies among African patients from Kinshasa, DR Congo. Cancer registries in DRC and other African countries will provide more robust database for future researches on

  16. Impact of short-term climate variation and hydrology change on thermal structure and water quality of a canyon-shaped, stratified reservoir.

    Ma, Wei-Xing; Huang, Ting-Lin; Li, Xuan; Zhang, Hai-Han; Ju, Tuo

    2015-12-01

    Climate variation can have obvious effects on hydrologic conditions, which in turn can have direct consequences for the thermal regime and quality of water for human use. In this research, weekly surveys were conducted from 2011 to 2013 to investigate how changes of climate and hydrology affect the thermal regime and water quality at the Heihe Reservoir. Our results show that the hydrology change during the flooding season can both increase the oxygen concentration and accelerate the consumption of dissolved oxygen. Continuous heavy rainfall events occurred in September 2011 caused the mixing of the entire reservoir, which led to an increase in dissolved oxygen at the bottom until the next year. Significant turbid density flow was observed following the extreme rainfall events in 2012 which leading to a rapid increase in turbidity at the bottom (up to 3000 NTU). Though the dissolved oxygen at the bottom increased from 0 to 9.02 mg/L after the rainfall event, it became anoxic within 20 days due to the increase of water oxygen demand caused by the suspended matter brought by the storm runoff. The release of compounds from the sediments was more serious during the anaerobic period after the rainfall events and the concentration of total iron, total phosphorus, and total manganese at the bottom reached 1.778, 0.102, and 0.125 mg/L. The improved water-lifting aerators kept on running after the storm runoff occurred in 2013 to avoid the deterioration of water quality during anaerobic conditions and ensured the good water quality during the mixing period. Our results suggest preventive and remediation actions that are necessary to improve water quality and status.

  17. Performance Analysis of Cool Roof, Green Roof and Thermal Insulation on a Concrete Flat Roof in Tropical Climate

    Zingre, Kishor T.; Yang, Xingguo; Wan, Man Pun

    2015-01-01

    In the tropics, the earth surface receives abundant solar radiation throughout the year contributing significantly to building heat gain and, thus, cooling demand. An effective method that can curb the heat gains through opaque roof surfaces could provide significant energy savings. This study investigates and compares the effectiveness of various passive cooling techniques including cool roof, green roof and thermal insulation for reducing the heat gain through a flat concrete roof in tropic...

  18. Evaluation of the application of a thermal insulation system: in-situ comparison of seasonal and daily climatic fluctuations

    Fořt, J.; Beran, Pavel; Konvalinka, P.; Pavlík, Z.; Černý, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 3 (2017), s. 159-166 ISSN 1210-2709 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : in-situ monitoring * temperature * relative humidity * thermal insulation * energy sustainability * seasonal fluctuations Subject RIV: JN - Civil Engineering OBOR OECD: Construction engineering, Municipal and structural engineering https://ojs.cvut.cz/ojs/index.php/ap/article/view/4087/4171

  19. [Does annual simulation training influence the safety climate of a university hospital? : Prospective 5‑year investigation using dimensions of the safety attitude questionnaire].

    St Pierre, M; Gall, C; Breuer, G; Schüttler, J

    2017-12-01

    Simulation-based training with a focus on non-technical skills can have a positive influence on safety relevant attitudes of participants. If an organization succeeds in training sufficient staff, it may experience a positive change in the safety climate. As the effects of a single training are of a transient nature, annual training sessions may lead to an incremental improvement of safety relevant attitudes of employees over time. In spring 2012 the Department of Anesthesia at the University Hospital of Erlangen established an annual simulation-based training for staff members (e.g. consultants, trainee anesthetists and nurse anesthetists). The study aimed to test whether an annual simulation-based training would result in an incremental longitudinal improvement in attitudes towards teamwork, safety and stress recognition. A survey comprising three domains (teamwork climate, safety climate and stress recognition) of the safety attitudes questionnaire (SAQ) and items addressing briefing and speaking up was distributed to all participants in an annual in-house simulation training. Participants filled out the questionnaire in the morning of each training day. The attitudes were measured before the first training series in 2012, 6 months after the first training and then every year (2013-2016). Participants generated a personalized identification code which allowed individuals to be anonymously tracked over time. Results of the 5‑point Likert scale were transformed to a 100-point scale. Results were calculated at the group level and at the individual level. Univariable linear regression was used to calculate mean changes per year. Over a period of 5 years (2012-2016) a total of 255 individuals completed the questionnaire. Each year, 14-20% of all nurse anesthetists and 81-90% of all anesthetists participated in the simulation-based training. As a result of annual staff turnover 16-24% of participants were new staff members. A personalized code allowed the

  20. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  1. A mechanistic model to study the thermal ecology of a southeastern pacific dominant intertidal mussel and implications for climate change.

    Finke, G R; Bozinovic, F; Navarrete, S A

    2009-01-01

    Developing mechanistic models to predict an organism's body temperature facilitates the study of physiological stresses caused by extreme climatic conditions the species might have faced in the past or making predictions about changes to come in the near future. Because the models combine empirical observation of different climatic variables with essential morphological attributes of the species, it is possible to examine specific aspects of predicted climatic changes. Here, we develop a model for the competitively dominant intertidal mussel Perumytilus purpuratus that estimates body temperature on the basis of meteorological and tidal data with an average difference (+/-SE) of 0.410 degrees +/- 0.0315 degrees C in comparison with a field-deployed temperature logger. Modeled body temperatures of P. purpuratus in central Chile regularly exceeded 30 degrees C in summer months, and values as high as 38 degrees C were found. These results suggest that the temperatures reached by mussels in the intertidal zone in central Chile are not sufficiently high to induce significant mortality on adults of this species; however, because body temperatures >40 degrees C can be lethal for this species, sublethal effects on physiological performance warrant further investigation. Body temperatures of mussels increased sigmoidally with increasing tidal height. Body temperatures of individuals from approximately 70% of the tidal range leveled off and did not increase any further with increasing tidal height. Finally, body size played an important role in determining body temperature. A hypothetical 5-cm-long mussel (only 1 cm longer than mussels found in nature) did reach potentially lethal body temperatures, suggesting that the biophysical environment may play a role in limiting the size of this small species.

  2. Fragmentation and thermal risks from climate change interact to affect persistence of native trout in the Colorado River basin.

    Roberts, James J; Fausch, Kurt D; Peterson, Douglas P; Hooten, Mevin B

    2013-05-01

    Impending changes in climate will interact with other stressors to threaten aquatic ecosystems and their biota. Native Colorado River cutthroat trout (CRCT; Oncorhynchus clarkii pleuriticus) are now relegated to 309 isolated high-elevation (>1700 m) headwater stream fragments in the Upper Colorado River Basin, owing to past nonnative trout invasions and habitat loss. Predicted changes in climate (i.e., temperature and precipitation) and resulting changes in stochastic physical disturbances (i.e., wildfire, debris flow, and channel drying and freezing) could further threaten the remaining CRCT populations. We developed an empirical model to predict stream temperatures at the fragment scale from downscaled climate projections along with geomorphic and landscape variables. We coupled these spatially explicit predictions of stream temperature with a Bayesian Network (BN) model that integrates stochastic risks from fragmentation to project persistence of CRCT populations across the upper Colorado River basin to 2040 and 2080. Overall, none of the populations are at risk from acute mortality resulting from high temperatures during the warmest summer period. In contrast, only 37% of populations have a ≥90% chance of persistence for 70 years (similar to the typical benchmark for conservation), primarily owing to fragmentation. Populations in short stream fragments <7 km long, and those at the lowest elevations, are at the highest risk of extirpation. Therefore, interactions of stochastic disturbances with fragmentation are projected to be greater threats than warming for CRCT populations. The reason for this paradox is that past nonnative trout invasions and habitat loss have restricted most CRCT populations to high-elevation stream fragments that are buffered from the potential consequences of warming, but at risk of extirpation from stochastic events. The greatest conservation need is for management to increase fragment lengths to forestall these risks. © 2013

  3. Regional and global climate for the mid-Pliocene using the University of Toronto version of CCSM4 and PlioMIP2 boundary conditions

    D. Chandan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project Phase 2 (PlioMIP2 is an international collaboration to simulate the climate of the mid-Pliocene interglacial, corresponding to marine isotope stage KM5c (3.205 Mya, using a wide selection of climate models with the objective of understanding the nature of the warming that is known to have occurred during the broader mid-Pliocene warm period. PlioMIP2 builds on the successes of PlioMIP by shifting the focus to a specific interglacial and using a revised set of geographic and orbital boundary conditions. In this paper, we present the details of the mid-Pliocene simulations that we have performed with a slightly modified version of the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4 and the enhanced variant of the PlioMIP2 boundary conditions. We discuss the simulated climatology through comparisons to our control simulations and to proxy reconstructions of the mid-Pliocene climate. With the new boundary conditions, the University of Toronto version of the CCSM4 model simulates a mid-Pliocene that is more than twice as warm as that with the boundary conditions used for PlioMIP Phase 1. The warming is more enhanced near the high latitudes, which is where most of the changes to the PlioMIP2 boundary conditions have been made. The elevated warming in the high latitudes leads to a better match between the simulated climatology and proxy-based reconstructions than possible with the previous version of the boundary conditions.

  4. Relationships between Organizational Climate and Organizational Silence with Psychological Empowerment of Employees in Hospitals Affiliated with Birjand University of Medical Sciences; 2015

    Parviz Aghaie Borzabad

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Identifying factors associated with employees empowerment of their working centers can promote organizational performance of hospitals. The current study aimed at investigating the relationship of both organizational climate and organizational silence with psychological empowerment in the public hospitals affiliated with Birjand University of Medical Sciences (BUMS. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional and correlational study was carried out in 2015. Using a stratified randomized sampling, 400 employees were selected from the public. hospitals affiliated with BUMS.  Data collection tools were. three self-administered questionnaires including organizational climate, organizational silence, and psychological empowerment. . Validity and reliability of the questionnaires were verified using experts judgment and Cronbach alpha coefficients more than 0.7, respectively. Data analysis was done by means of SPSS (V: 18 software using one sample t test, independent t test, Pearson correlation coefficient, and one-way ANOVA. The cut-off point of 70%.of Likert-type scale (3.5 was considered as an acceptable mean for each variable. Results: The mean organizational climate and organizational silence was 2.45 and 3.18, respectively which did not correspond with an acceptable mean (P<0.05. Although the mean psychological construct which was 3.6 had an acceptable value, mean of the two other sub-variables i.e. “trust to others” and “self-determination” were 3.2±0.83 and 3.42±0.67, respectively; and they were not at an acceptable level (P<0.05. It is observed that both organizational climate and organizational silence were positively correlated to psychological empowerment with 0.6 and 0.58 coefficients, respectively (P<0.05. Conclusion:  It is suggested that the hospitals administrators should promote the psychological empowerment of their employees  through improving organizational climate and decreasing organizational

  5. To Investigate the Influence of Building Envelope and Natural Ventilation on Thermal Heat Balance in Office Buildings in Warm and Humid Climate

    Kini, Pradeep G.; Garg, Naresh Kumar; Kamath, Kiran

    2017-07-01

    India’s commercial building sector is witnessing robust growth. India continues to be a key growth market among global corporates and this is reflective in the steady growth in demand for prime office space. A recent trend that has been noted is the increase in demand for office spaces not just in major cities but also in smaller tier II and Tier III cities. Growth in the commercial building sector projects a rising trend of energy intensive mechanical systems in office buildings in India. The air conditioning market in India is growing at 25% annually. This is due to the ever increasing demand to maintain thermal comfort in tropical regions. Air conditioning is one of the most energy intensive technologies which are used in buildings. As a result India is witnessing significant spike in energy demand and further widening the demand supply gap. Challenge in India is to identify passive measures in building envelope design in office buildings to reduce the cooling loads and conserve energy. This paper investigates the overall heat gain through building envelope components and natural ventilation in warm and humid climate region through experimental and simulation methods towards improved thermal environmental performance.

  6. University Students Explaining Adiabatic Compression of an Ideal Gas--A New Phenomenon in Introductory Thermal Physics

    Leinonen, Risto; Asikainen, Mervi A.; Hirvonen, Pekka E.

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on second-year university students' explanations and reasoning related to adiabatic compression of an ideal gas. The phenomenon was new to the students, but it was one which they should have been capable of explaining using their previous upper secondary school knowledge. The students' explanations and reasoning were…

  7. Assessment of the Use of Venetian Blinds as Solar Thermal Collectors in Double Skin Facades in Mediterranean Climates

    Abel Velasco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The global trend on energy integration and building efficiency is making both researchers and building developers look for technical solutions to use facade surfaces for energy harvesting. In this work, the assessment of the thermal performance of a double-skin facade (DSF with a venetian blind-type of structure used as a solar thermal collector by means of computational fluid dynamics (CFD is presented. A Venetian blind collector would allow for heat rejection/energy harvesting and exterior views simultaneously and can be easily integrated into the DSF aesthetical design. For the purposes of this study, the modeled facades (south, west, and east-oriented were set to be located in Barcelona (Spain, where large solar gains are a constant condition throughout the year, and such large semi-transparent envelopes lead to interior over-heating in buildings, even during the winter. For the studied facades, both the reductions in radiative heat gains entering the building and the heat recovery in the Venetian blind collector were evaluated for a yearlong operation.

  8. Comparative thermal performance of static sunshade and brick cavity wall for energy efficient building envelope in composite climate

    Charde Meghana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy efficient building technologies can reduce energy consumption in buildings. In present paper effect of designed static sunshade, brick cavity wall with brick projections and their combined effect on indoor air temperature has been analyzed by constructing three test rooms each of habitable dimensions (3.0 m × 4.0 m × 3.0 m and studying hourly temperatures on typical days for one month in summer and winter each. The three rooms have also been simulated using a software and the results have been compared with the experimental results. Designed static sunshade increased indoor air temperature in winter while proposed brick cavity wall with brick projections lowered it in summer. Combined effect of building elements lowered indoor air temperature in summer and increased it in winter as compared to outdoor air temperature. It is thus useful for energy conservation in buildings in composite climate.

  9. Study of the Thermal Behaviour of Water for Residential Use in Tanks of Concrete and Polyethylene in Humid Subtropical Climate

    Diego-Ayala Ulises

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative study of the thermal behavior of residential water tanks of polyethylene and concrete exposed to the sun over a year in the state of Yucatan. The energy for radiation and their corresponding temperatures in each system were measured. Daily patterns of elevation and reduction of temperature were identified and the amount of energy acquired during the day as well as the heat dissipated overnight were determined, aiming to determine the possibility of using residential water tanks as a source of hot water in residential homes in the Yucatan region. Based on this study it has been found that the periods of the day with hot water temperature for showering with comfort is limited and that, interestingly, both systems show similar temperatures at the bottom of the tanks throughout the year.

  10. Evaluation of soil thermal potential under Tunisian climate using a new conic basket geothermal heat exchanger: Energy and exergy analysis

    Boughanmi, Hassen; Lazaar, Mariem; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Guizani, Amenallah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Conic geothermal basket heat exchanger (CBGHE) is experimentally investigated. • Charging and discharging processes of CBGHE are evaluated. • Energy and exergy efficiencies of CBGHE are performed. • High and stable performance of surface geothermal energy in Tunisia is established. - Abstract: Geothermal heat exchangers system composed of two conic baskets serially connected is designed and realized. Both heat exchangers are made in polyethylene high-density material and have a length of 3 m each one. They will be used for greenhouse cooling and heating through a geothermal heat pump. Its conical geometry is selected to reduce the operation cost and the exploited area, compared to vertical and horizontal geothermal heat exchangers often used. It also assures the maximum of heat exchange with the soil. The aim of this study is to determine the thermal performance of one Conic Basket Geothermal Heat Exchanger (CBGHE), buried at 3 m deep, in the exploitation of the soil thermal potential, in summer. A rate of heat exchange with the soil is determined and the global heat exchange of the CBGHE is assessed. Its energy and exergy efficiencies are also evaluated using both first and second law of thermodynamic. Results show that the specific heat exchange ranges between 20 W m"−"1 and 50 W m"−"1. Maximal energetic and exergetic efficiencies of the CBGHE, equal to 62% and 37% respectively, are reached for a mass flow rate of 0.1 kg s"−"1. For this value of mass flow rate, the overall heat exchange coefficient is of 52 W m"−"2 K"−"1.

  11. Three-dimensional representation of the climates and temperatures which are relevant to thermal comfort in urban areas

    Jendritzky, G.

    1991-01-01

    The complex outdoor conditions of heat exchange of the human being are determined by the topographic factor, and in a microscale by the specific behaviour of various kinds of land use. For urban planning purposes a one-dimensional boundary layer model provides, with sufficient accuracy, those meteorological elements as a function of land use type which are required for the human heat budget. The model distinguishes between 'settled', 'cultivated (green)', and 'paved' areas. In the first two types, a definable vertical extension is taken into consideration. In a first approach, the meteorological conditions of the following five land use types have been simulated: Built-up area dense and loose, forest, unsealed (arable) land, and asphalt. The influence of orography on radiance, temperature, and wind field is taken into account by empirical approaches. The resulting meteorological fields are analysed by the Klima-Michel-model, which describes the heat budget model of a human being, thus providing physiological significant information. First applications of the procedure (still in 50 m resolution, the aim is 25 m) are presented, and the problem of linking different data levels are discussed. The final objective is a standardized tool to compute so-called climate applicability maps with respect to e.g. residential, recreational and industrial areas. (orig.) [de

  12. A dynamic climate and ecosystem state during the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum: inferences from dinoflagellate cyst assemblages on the New Jersey Shelf

    A. Sluijs

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Late Paleocene and Early Eocene climates and ecosystems underwent significant change during several transient global warming phases, associated with rapidly increasing atmospheric carbon concentrations, of which the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM; ~55.5 Ma is best studied. While biotic response to the PETM as a whole (~170 kyrs has been relatively well documented, variations during the PETM have been neglected. Here we present organic dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst distribution patterns across two stratigraphically expanded PETM sections from the New Jersey Shelf, Bass River and Wilson Lake. Many previously studied sites show a uniform abundance of the thermophilic and presumably heterotrophic taxon Apectodinium that spans the entire carbon isotope excursion (CIE of the PETM. In contrast, the New Jersey sections show large variations in abundances of many taxa during the PETM, including the new species Florentinia reichartii that we formally propose. We infer paleoecological preferences of taxa that show temporal abundance peaks, both qualitative and absolute quantitative, from empirical as well as statistical information, i.e., principle (PCA and canonical correspondence analyses (CCA. In the CCAs, we combine the dinocyst data with previously published environmental proxy data from these locations, such as TEX86 paleothermometry, magnetic susceptibility and sedimentary size fraction. The combined information supports previous inferences that sea level rose during the PETM, but also indicates a (regional increase in fresh-water runoff that started ~10 kyr after the onset of the CIE, and perhaps precession-paced cycles in sea surface productivity. The highly variable dinocyst assemblages of the PETM contrast with rather stable Upper Paleocene assemblages, which suggests that carbon input caused a dynamic climate state, at least regionally.

  13. The University of Minnesota aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) field test facility -- system description, aquifer characterization, and results of short-term test cycles

    Walton, M.; Hoyer, M.C.; Eisenreich, S.J.; Holm, N.L.; Holm, T.R.; Kanivetsky, R.; Jirsa, M.A.; Lee, H.C.; Lauer, J.L.; Miller, R.T.; Norton, J.L.; Runke, H. (Minnesota Geological Survey, St. Paul, MN (United States))

    1991-06-01

    Phase 1 of the Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) Project at the University of Minnesota was to test the feasibility, and model, the ATES concept at temperatures above 100{degrees}C using a confined aquifer for the storage and recovery of hot water. Phase 1 included design, construction, and operation of a 5-MW thermal input/output field test facility (FTF) for four short-term ATES cycles (8 days each of heat injection, storage, and heat recover). Phase 1 was conducted from May 1980 to December 1983. This report describes the FTF, the Franconia-Ironton-Galesville (FIG) aquifer used for the test, and the four short-term ATES cycles. Heat recovery; operational experience; and thermal, chemical, hydrologic, and geologic effects are all included. The FTF consists of monitoring wells and the source and storage well doublet completed in the FIG aquifer with heat exchangers and a fixed-bed precipitator between the wells of the doublet. The FIG aquifer is highly layered and a really anisotropic. The upper Franconia and Ironton-Galesville parts of the aquifer, those parts screened, have hydraulic conductivities of {approximately}0.6 and {approximately}1.0 m/d, respectively. Primary ions in the ambient ground water are calcium and magnesium bicarbonate. Ambient temperature FIG ground water is saturated with respect to calcium/magnesium bicarbonate. Heating the ground water caused most of the dissolved calcium to precipitate out as calcium carbonate in the heat exchanger and precipitator. Silica, calcium, and magnesium were significantly higher in recovered water than in injected water, suggesting dissolution of some constituents of the aquifer during the cycles. Further work on the ground water chemistry is required to understand water-rock interactions.

  14. Measurement of 237Np fission rate ratio relative to 235U fission rate in cores with various thermal neutron spectrum at the Kyoto University Critical Assembly

    Unesaki, Hironobu; Shiroya, Seiji; Iwasaki, Tomohiko; Fujiwara, Daisuke; Kitada, Takanori; Kuroda, Mitsuo; Kohashi, Akio; Kato, Takeshi; Ikeuchi, Yoshitaka

    2000-01-01

    Integral measurements of 237 Np fission rate ratio relative to 235 U fission rate have been performed at Kyoto University Citrical Assembly. The fission rates have been measured using the back-to back type double fission chamber at five thermal cores with different H/ 235 U ratio so that the neutron spectra of the cores were systematically varied. The measured fission rate ratio per atom was 0.00439 to 0.0298, with a typical uncertainty of 2 to 3%. The measured data were compared with the calculated results using SRAC/TWOTRAN and MVP based on JENDL-3.2, which gave the averaged C/E values of 0.93 and 0.95, respectively. Obtained results of C/E using 237 Np cross sections from JENDL-3/2, ENDF/B-VI.5 and JEF2.2 show that the latter two gave smaller results than JENDL-3.2 by about 4%, which clearly reflects the discrepancy in the evaluated cross section among the libraries. This difference arises from both fast fission and resonance region. Although further improvement is recommended, 237 Np fission cross section in JENDL-3.2 is considered to be superior to those in the other libraries and can be adopted for use in design calculations for minor actinide transmutation system using thermal reactors with prediction precision of 237 Np fission rate with in 10%. (author)

  15. Remote Sensing of Urban Land Cover/Land Use Change, Surface Thermal Responses, and Potential Meteorological and Climate Change Impacts

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Jedlovec, Gary; Meyer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    potentially affect land cover LSTs across the Center. Moreover, the weather stations will also provide baseline data for developing a better understanding of how localized weather factors, such as extreme rainfall and heat events, affect micrometeorology. These data can also be used to model the interrelationships between LSTs and meteorology on a longer term basis to help evaluate how changes in these parameters can be quantified from satellite data collected in the future. In turn, the overall integration of multi-temporal meteorological information with LULCC, and LST data for MSFC proper and the surrounding Huntsville urbanized area can provide a perspective on how urban land surface types affect the meteorology in the boundary layer and ultimately, the UHI. Additionally, data such as this can be used as a foundation for modeling how climate change will potentially impact local and regional meteorology and conversely, how urban LULCC can or will influence changes on climate over the north Alabama area.

  16. Adaptations to “Thermal Time” Constraints in Papilio: Latitudinal and Local Size Clines Differ in Response to Regional Climate Change

    Scriber, J. Mark; Elliot, Ben; Maher, Emily; McGuire, Molly; Niblack, Marjie

    2014-01-01

    Adaptations to “thermal time” (=Degree-day) constraints on developmental rates and voltinism for North American tiger swallowtail butterflies involve most life stages, and at higher latitudes include: smaller pupae/adults; larger eggs; oviposition on most nutritious larval host plants; earlier spring adult emergences; faster larval growth and shorter molting durations at lower temperatures. Here we report on forewing sizes through 30 years for both the northern univoltine P. canadensis (with obligate diapause) from the Great Lakes historical hybrid zone northward to central Alaska (65° N latitude), and the multivoltine, P. glaucus from this hybrid zone southward to central Florida (27° N latitude). Despite recent climate warming, no increases in mean forewing lengths of P. glaucus were observed at any major collection location (FL to MI) from the 1980s to 2013 across this long latitudinal transect (which reflects the “converse of Bergmann’s size Rule”, with smaller females at higher latitudes). Unlike lower latitudes, the Alaska, Ontonogon, and Chippewa/Mackinac locations (for P. canadensis) showed no significant increases in D-day accumulations, which could explain lack of size change in these northernmost locations. As a result of 3–4 decades of empirical data from major collection sites across these latitudinal clines of North America, a general “voltinism/size/D-day” model is presented, which more closely predicts female size based on D-day accumulations, than does latitude. However, local “climatic cold pockets” in northern Michigan and Wisconsin historically appeared to exert especially strong size constraints on female forewing lengths, but forewing lengths quickly increased with local summer warming during the recent decade, especially near the warming edges of the cold pockets. Results of fine-scale analyses of these “cold pockets” are in contrast to non-significant changes for other Papilio populations seen across the latitudinal

  17. The impact of extensive green roofs on the improvement of thermal performance for urban areas in Mediterranean climate with reference to the city of Jijel in Algeria

    Lehtihet, M. C.; Bouchair, A.

    2018-05-01

    Buildings with dark surfaces, concrete and pavement, needed for the expansion of cities, absorb huge amounts of heat, increasing the mean radiant temperatures of urban areas and offer significant potential for urban heat island (UHI) effect. The purpose of this work is to investigate the impact of green roofs on the improvement of urban heat performance in Mediterranean climate. A field investigation is carried out using two large-scale modules built in the city of Jijel in the north of Algeria. The first is a bare reinforced concrete slab whereas the second is covered with ivy plants. The experimental site, the air and surface temperature parameters and the various measurement points at the level of the modules are chosen. Measurements are performed using thermo-hygrometer, surface sensors and data acquisition apparatus. The results show that green roofs can be a potential mean of improving the thermal performance of the surrounding microclimate and energy performance of buildings in an urban area. The green roof could be an encouraging strategy against urban heat island effect not only for Mediterranean cities but also for other areas.

  18. Historical Consumption of Heating Natural Gas and Thermal Monitoring of a Multifamily High-Rise Building in a Temperate/Cold Climate in Argentina

    Celina Filippín

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the historical consumption of natural gas in a multifamily high-rise building and the monitored winter thermal behavior of an apartment sample. The building is located in the center of Argentina (latitude: 36º27’S; longitude: 64º27’W, where the climate is a cold temperate with an absolute minimum temperature that may reach −10 °C. The building has two blocks, North and South. The building’s annual gas consumption and its variability between 1996 and 2008 are shown. The South block consumed 78% more gas, a situation expected due to lower solar resource availability and greater vulnerability regarding strong and cold SW winds. Indoor temperatures monitored during 2009 in four apartments are described. The outdoor minimum temperature reached −5 °C, with solar irradiance around 500 W/m2 at midday. Results showed that the average indoor temperatures were 20.1, 20.6, 24.0 and 22.1 °C. The highest consumption value corresponded to the apartment exposed to SW cold winds. Compared to the rest of the building, the apartment on the top floor consumes 59% more energy than the average for the gas consumed throughout the year. The authors assume that the energy potentials of intervention are different, and not necessarily all the apartments should have the same technological response.

  19. The Impact of Tipuana tipu Species on Local Human Thermal Comfort Thresholds in Different Urban Canyon Cases in Mediterranean Climates: Lisbon, Portugal

    Andre Santos Nouri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Based upon the case of Lisbon, this article examined the in-situ effects of vegetation upon pedestrian thermal comfort levels. Focussing specifically upon the historic quarter that often witnesses the highest Tamb values and Urban Heat Island (UHI intensities during the summer, the most common urban canyon cases (UCCs were modelled, along with one of the most commonly used vegetative semi-deciduous species found in the city, Tipuana tipu. Based upon a reference point (RP system, the assessments were undertaken through the use of a new version of the SkyHelios model, local obtained Grad values, and the modified physiologically equivalent temperature (mPET index calculated through the human-biometeorological model RayMan. The study identified the in-situ thermo-physiological influences of Tipuana tipu during different periods of the year: (1 during the summer, which revealed considerable reductions of PET/mPET of up to 15.6 °C/11.6 °C during a very hot day (where daily maximum Tamb surpassed 35 °C; and (2 during the winter, which revealed the risks of oversharing as a result of the species keeping its foliage during the winter with reductions of PET/mPET of up to 2.7 °C/2.6 °C. Furthermore, the study utilised the climate tourism/transfer information scheme (CTIS to categorise and facilitate the interpretation of the results.

  20. The Cerg-C: A Specialisation Certificate in Geological and Climate Related Risk of the University of Geneva, Switzerland

    Bonadonna, C.; Consuegra, D.; Duvernay, B.; Fäh, D.; Frischknecht, C.; Gregg, C.; Jaboyedoff, M.; Lateltin, O.; Menoni, S.; Franco, R.; Rosi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The essence of our work at CERG-C (www.unige.ch/hazards) is to train participants, coming from around the world and with various academic and professional backgrounds, to incorporate risk science related to natural hazards into everyday life in an attempt to reduce losses in disasters. Principle components include training participants to assess risk, from hazard to vulnerability, and communicate effectively with government agencies, media, public and private sectors before, during and after natural disasters. Nine weeks of training involve 5 weeks of lectures in Geneva (in English), 2 weeks of field immersion and 2 weeks of exams. Participant experience culminates in completion of an independent research memoir carried out over an additional 6 months. The course is divided into five modules: the risk management module, which includes humanities and social sciences and brings together a multi-disciplinary team of experts to provide participants with tools they can use to assess hazard, vulnerability and risk and provide solutions to risk management issues in their own countries; and four thematic risk modules, i.e., volcanic risk, seismic risk, landslide risk, and flood and climate related risk. As part of the volcanic risk module we also carry out a role-play exercise at the elementary school in Vulcano Island, Italy in collaboration with the Italian Civil Protection with the double goal of sensitizing the CERG-C participants on the importance of training hazard and risk at an early stage in people's life as well as to raise awareness in the local population on topics such as the evaluation of volcanic hazards and risk, management of a volcanic crisis, and the importance of the collaboration between citizens and official institutions, such as the Civil Protection. The CERG-C has been training international graduate students and practitioners since 1988 on a yearly basis. To date, 350 participants have been trained from 80 countries, representing a great

  1. Phenological research of climate changes in the north part of Lithuania by the phenological garden of Šiauliai University.

    Klimienė, Asta; Vainorienė, Rimanta; Klimas, Ramutis

    2017-02-01

    Šiauliai University Botanical Garden is a member of the International Phenological Garden network since 2005. It is the only one botanical garden in the East Europe that participated in the programme. In 2015, 18 species were observed. For research, data of 14 plants was used. The aim of this study is to estimate the responsiveness of the species of plants of the phenological garden to annual and monthly precipitation and temperature of the air. The main variables in this investigation were growing season length and the beginning of the growing season. In the period 2006-2015, the lowest annual air temperature was in 2010 (6.0 °C), and the highest was in 2015 (8.9 °C). The lowest precipitation was in 2015 (37.3 mm), and the highest was in 2012 (63.5 mm). The leanest regression among growing length, average annual precipitation, and air temperature showed that statistically significant correlation between growing length and average annual air temperature was found for nine plants, between growing length and precipitation was found for three plants, and between growing length and both factors was found for one plant, Salix smithiana, only. Due to the short evaluating period (2007-2015), consistent regression of the length of the growing season could not be found. The growing length of Betula pubescens sequentially increased. The average growing season of 14 plants starts on April 27 (±3), but for Corylus avellana, it is on April 26 (±3). Longevity of the growing season was the most related with precipitation for C. avellana in summer, autumn, and winter and with air temperature, Ribes alpinum and Salix acutifolia in summer and in autumn.

  2. NASA Earth Systems, Technology and Energy Education for Minority University and Research Education Program Promotes Climate Literacy by Engaging Students at Minority Serving Institutions in STEM

    Murray, B.; Alston, E. J.; Chambers, L. H.; Bynum, A.; Montgomery, C.; Blue, S.; Kowalczak, C.; Leighton, A.; Bosman, L.

    2017-12-01

    NASA Earth Systems, Technology and Energy Education for Minority University Research & Education Program - MUREP (ESTEEM) activities enhance institutional capacity of minority serving institutions (MSIs) related to Earth System Science, Technology and energy education; in turn, increasing access of underrepresented groups to science careers and opportunities. ESTEEM is a competitive portfolio that has been providing funding to institutions across the United States for 10 years. Over that time 76 separate activities have been funded. Beginning in 2011 ESTEEM awards focused on MSIs and public-school districts with high under-represented enrollment. Today ESTEEM awards focus on American Indian/Alaska Native serving institutions (Tribal Colleges and Universities), the very communities most severely in need of ability to deal with climate adaptation and resiliency. ESTEEM engages a multi-faceted approach to address economic and cultural challenges facing MSI communities. PIs (Principal Investigators) receive support from a management team at NASA, and are supported by a larger network, the ESTEEM Cohort, which connects regularly through video calls, virtual video series and in-person meetings. The cohort acts as a collective unit to foster interconnectivity and knowledge sharing in both physical and virtual settings. ESTEEM partners with NASA's Digital Learning Network (DLNTM) in a unique non-traditional model to leverage technical expertise. DLN services over 10,000 participants each year through interactive web-based synchronous and asynchronous events. These events allow for cost effective (no travel) engagement of multiple, geographically dispersed audiences to share local experiences with one another. Events allow PIs to grow their networks, technical base, professional connections, and develop a sense of community, encouraging expansion into larger and broader interactions. Over 256 connections, beyond the 76 individual members, exist within the cohort. PIs report

  3. Dissolved oxygen stratification and response to thermal structure and long-term climate change in a large and deep subtropical reservoir (Lake Qiandaohu, China).

    Zhang, Yunlin; Wu, Zhixu; Liu, Mingliang; He, Jianbo; Shi, Kun; Zhou, Yongqiang; Wang, Mingzhu; Liu, Xiaohan

    2015-05-15

    From January 2010 to March 2014, detailed depth profiles of water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were collected at three sites in Lake Qiandaohu, a large, deep subtropical reservoir in China. Additionally, we assessed the changes in DO stratification over the past 61 years (1953-2013) based on our empirical models and long-term air temperature and transparency data. The DO concentration never fell below 2 mg/L, the critical value for anoxia, and the DO depth profiles were closely linked to the water temperature depth profiles. In the stable stratification period in summer and autumn, the significant increase in CDOM in the metalimnion explained the decrease in DO due to the oxygen consumed by CDOM. Well-developed oxygen stratification was detected at the three sites in spring, summer and autumn and was associated with thermal stratification. Oxycline depth was significantly negatively correlated with daily air temperature and thermocline thickness but significantly positively correlated with thermocline depth during the stratification weakness period (July-February). However, there were no significant correlations among these parameters during the stratification formation period (March-June). The increase of 1.67 °C in yearly average daily air temperature between 1980 and 2013 and the decrease of 0.78 m in Secchi disk depth caused a decrease of 1.65 m and 2.78 m in oxycline depth, respectively, facilitating oxygen stratification and decreasing water quality. Therefore, climate warming has had a substantial effect on water quality through changing the DO regime in Lake Qiandaohu. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Can acclimation of thermal tolerance, in adults and across generations, act as a buffer against climate change in tropical marine ectotherms?

    Morley, S A; Nguyen, K D; Peck, L S; Lai, C-H; Tan, K S

    2017-08-01

    Thermal acclimation capacity was investigated in adults of three tropical marine invertebrates, the subtidal barnacle Striatobalanus amaryllis, the intertidal gastropod Volegalea cochlidium and the intertidal barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite. To test the relative importance of transgenerational acclimation, the developmental acclimation capacity of A. amphitrite was investigated in F 1 and F 2 generations reared at a subset of the same incubation temperatures. The increase in CT max (measured through loss of key behavioural metrics) of F 0 adults across the incubation temperature range 25.4-33.4°C was low: 0.00°C (V. cochlidium), 0.05°C (S. amaryllis) and 0.06°C (A. amphitrite) per 1°C increase in incubation temperature (the acclimation response ratio; ARR). Although the effect of generation was not significant, across the incubation temperature range of 29.4-33.4°C, the increase in CT max in the F 1 (0.30°C) and F 2 (0.15°C) generations of A. amphitrite was greater than in the F 0 (0.10°C). These correspond to ARR's of 0.03°C (F 0 ), 0.08°C (F 1 ) and 0.04°C (F 2 ), respectively. The variability in CT max between individuals in each treatment was maintained across generations, despite the high mortality of progeny. Further research is required to investigate the potential for transgenerational acclimation to provide an extra buffer for tropical marine species facing climate warming. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of long-term acclimatization on summer thermal comfort in outdoor spaces: a comparative study between Melbourne and Hong Kong

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun

    2018-04-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is an index for assessing outdoor thermal environment which aims to be applicable universally to different climates. However, the scale of UTCI thermal stress classification can be interpreted depending on the context. Previous studies validated the UTCI in individual cities, but comparative studies between different cities are scarce. This study examines the differences in thermal perception and clothing choices between residents from two climate zones over similar UTCI ranges in summer. We compared summer thermal comfort survey data from Melbourne (n = 2162, January-February 2014) and Hong Kong (n = 414, July-August 2007). We calculated the UTCI from outdoor weather station data and used t tests to compare the differences in thermal sensation and clothing between Hong Kong and Melbourne residents. When the UTCI was between 23.0 and 45.9 °C, Melbourne residents wore significantly more clothing (0.1 clo) than Hong Kong residents. Hong Kong residents reported neutral to warm sensation at a higher UTCI range compared with the dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. Moreover, Melbourne residents reported warm and hot sensation at a higher UTCI range than the DTS model. Respondents in Melbourne also exhibited different responses to the mean radiant temperature under shaded and sunny conditions, while such a trend was not observed in Hong Kong. It would be advisable to define different thermal sensation thresholds for the UTCI scale according to different climate zones for better prediction of the outdoor thermal comfort of different urban populations.

  6. Daylighting for energy conservation in an existing building under tropical climate conditions: a case study of Lai Sue Thai building Ramkhamhaeng University

    Lerdlekha Tanachaikhan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daylighting using skylight has been shown to have a high potential in reducing electrical lighting energy, and could provide a more pleasant atmosphere of a daylit space. However, in hot climates, the main constraint of daylighting is the solar heat gain that contributes to major heat load for an air-conditioning system. If the balance between the beneficial light gain used to offset lighting energy requirement and heat gain from daylight is well considered, significant energy savings can be obtained. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the potential of daylighting for energy conservation in the tropics through theoretical analysis (simulation study and experimental observation. Lai Sue Thai Building (an existing and educational building located at Ramkhamkaeng University was selected as a case study. From analysis, use of daylight could reduce electrical energy in this building by up to 76% compared to the initial condition where fully lighting was supplied. Window orientation would also play an important role. Moreover, heat gain through windows due to daylighting can be controlled by overhangs and the appropriate Window-to-Wall ratio that would be about 30% for this building. An experimental study was also carried out to validate the results in a selected room. About 49% and 37% of Relative Root Mean Square Error (RRMSE were observed in light and heat measurements, respectively

  7. "The Theory of Heat Radiation" Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck's Claim of Universality

    Robitaille P.-M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Affirming Kirchhoff’s Law of thermal emission, Max Planck conferred upon his own equation and its constants, h and k , universal significance. All arbitrary cavities were said to behave as blackbodies. They were thought to contain b lack, or normal radiation, which depended only upon temperature and frequency of observation, irrespective of the nature of the cavity walls. Today, laboratory blackbodies a re specialized, heated devices whose interior walls are lined with highly absorptive surfaces, such as graphite, soot, or other sophisticated materials. Such evidence repeatedly calls into question Kirchhoff’s Law, as nothing in the laboratory is independent of the nature of the walls. By focusing on Max Planck’s classic text, “ The Theory of Heat Radiation ’, it can be demonstrated that the German physicist was unable to properly justify Kirchhoff’s Law. At every turn, he was confronted with the fact that materials possess frequency dependent reflectivity and absorptivity, but he often chose to sidestep these realities. He used polarized light to derive Kirchhoff’s Law, when it is well known that blackbody radiation is never polar- ized. Through the use of an element, d σ , at the bounding surface between two media, he reached the untenable position that arbitrary materials have the same reflective prop- erties. His Eq.40 ( ρ = ρ ′ , constituted a dismissal of experimental reality. It is evident that if one neglects reflection, then all cavities must be black. Unable to ensure that perfectly reflecting cavities can be filled with black radiation, Planck inserted a minute carbon particle, which he qualified as a “catalyst”. In fact, it was acting as a perfect absorber, fully able to provide, on its own, the radiation sought. In 1858, Balfour Stew- art had outlined that the proper treatment of cavity radiation must include reflection. Yet, Max Planck did not cite the Scottish scientist. He also d id not correctly address

  8. Assessment of the Impact of Metropolitan-Scale Urban Planning Scenarios on the Moist Thermal Environment under Global Warming: A Study of the Tokyo Metropolitan Area Using Regional Climate Modeling

    Asuka Suzuki-Parker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a high-resolution regional climate model coupled with urban canopy model, the present study provides the first attempt in quantifying the impact of metropolitan-scale urban planning scenarios on moist thermal environment under global warming. Tokyo metropolitan area is selected as a test case. Three urban planning scenarios are considered: status quo, dispersed city, and compact city. Their impact on the moist thermal environment is assessed using wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT. Future projections for the 2070s show a 2–4°C increase in daytime mean WBGT relative to the current climate. The urban scenario impacts are shown to be small, with a −0.4 to +0.4°C range. Relative changes in temperature and humidity as the result of a given urban scenario are shown to be critical in determining the sign of the WBGT changes; however, such changes are not necessarily determined by local changes in urban land surface parameters. These findings indicate that urban land surface changes may improve or worsen the local moist thermal environment and that metropolitan-scale urban planning is inefficient in mitigating heat-related health risks for mature cities like Tokyo.

  9. Thermal comfort

    d’Ambrosio Alfano, Francesca Romana; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Palella, Boris Igor

    2014-01-01

    Thermal comfort is one of the most important aspects of the indoor environmental quality due to its effects on well-being, people's performance and building energy requirements. Its attainment is not an easy task requiring advanced design and operation of building and HVAC systems, taking...... into account all parameters involved. Even though thermal comfort fundamentals are consolidated topics for more than forty years, often designers seem to ignore or apply them in a wrong way. Design input values from standards are often considered as universal values rather than recommended values to be used...... under specific conditions. At operation level, only few variables are taken into account with unpredictable effects on the assessment of comfort indices. In this paper, the main criteria for the design and assessment of thermal comfort are discussed in order to help building and HVAC systems designers...

  10. Comparison of UTCI to selected thermal indices.

    Blazejczyk, Krzysztof; Epstein, Yoram; Jendritzky, Gerd; Staiger, Henning; Tinz, Birger

    2012-05-01

    Over the past century more than 100 indices have been developed and used to assess bioclimatic conditions for human beings. The majority of these indices are used sporadically or for specific purposes. Some are based on generalized results of measurements (wind chill, cooling power, wet bulb temperature) and some on the empirically observed reactions of the human body to thermal stress (physiological strain, effective temperature). Those indices that are based on human heat balance considerations are referred to as "rational indices". Several simple human heat balance models are known and are used in research and practice. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the newly developed Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and some of the more prevalent thermal indices. The analysis is based on three groups of data: global data-set, synoptic datasets from Europe, and local scale data from special measurement campaigns of COST Action 730. We found the present indices to express bioclimatic conditions reasonably only under specific meteorological situations, while the UTCI represents specific climates, weather, and locations much better. Furthermore, similar to the human body, the UTCI is very sensitive to changes in ambient stimuli: temperature, solar radiation, wind and humidity. UTCI depicts temporal variability of thermal conditions better than other indices. The UTCI scale is able to express even slight differences in the intensity of meteorological stimuli.

  11. Thermal comfort and IAQ assessment of under-floor air distribution system integrated with personalized ventilation in hot and humid climate

    Li, Ruixin; Sekhar, S.C.; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2010-01-01

    The potential for improving occupants' thermal comfort with personalized ventilation (PV) system combined with under-floor air distribution (UFAD) system was explored through human response study. The hypothesis was that cold draught at feet can be reduced when relatively warm air is supplied...... of the results obtained reveal improved acceptability of perceived air quality and improved thermal sensation with PV-UFAD in comparison with the reference case of UFAD alone or mixing ventilation with ceiling supply diffuser. The local thermal sensation at the feet was also improved when warmer UFAD supply air...

  12. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina : myths and realities. Presented at Beyond Kyoto: Addressing the Challenges of Climate Change, Aarhus University, Danmark

    Semino, Stella Maris

    2009-01-01

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments are currently designing certification schemes....... This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The study concludes that to certify soy monocultures as sustainable would exacerbate existing climatic and environmental problems....

  13. Thermal Inertia Performance Evaluation of Light-Weighted Construction Space Envelopes Using Phase Change Materials in Mexico City’s Climate

    Adriana Lira-Oliver

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study’s main objective was to determine the applicability of organic phase change materials (PCMs in a building’s envelope construction system for the passive provision of comfortable indoor thermal conditions over one year based on thermal inertia in Mexico City. Research on PCMs relate mainly to their use in building envelope construction systems to reduce energy consumption for mechanical indoor thermal conditioning—not in passive systems. Computer simulation results of mean indoor temperature variations are presented with the objective of evaluating these construction systems’ thermal inertia properties. In the present study, dynamic thermal simulations (DTS, using EnergyPlus software, of ten 1 m3 test units with envelope construction systems combining organic PCMs of different fusion temperatures with conventional materials were performed. Based on the results, it is concluded that the implementation of organic PCMs with a fusion temperature around 25 °C in combination with aerated concrete in a space envelope results in the highest number of hours the indoor temperatures remain within the comfort range throughout a typical year, due to the decrement of indoor temperature oscillations and, to a large extent, to thermal lag.

  14. The Use of a Decision Support System for Sustainable Urbanization and Thermal Comfort in Adaptation to Climate Change Actions—The Case of the Wrocław Larger Urban Zone (Poland

    Jan K. Kazak

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing level of antropopression has a negative impact on environmental resources and has reached the level of our planetary boundaries. One limitation is land use change caused by urbanization. Global policies prove the need to undertake action in order to develop more sustainable human settlements, which would be adapted better to potential future climate change effects. Among such changes are the increase of average temperatures and extreme events like heat waves. Those changes are more severe in urban areas due to land use development, and result in the urban heat island effect (UHI, which has a negative impact on the thermal comfort of citizens. The paper presents a decision support system that can be used for the assessment of areas to the potential exposure to the UHI effect. The system integrates scenario analysis, land use modelling in cellular automata (Metronamica, and an indicator-based assessment in a geographic information system (ArcGIS. The applicability of the model is illustrated through developing scenarios for the future land use allocation of the Wrocław Larger Urban Zone (Poland. The results of the calculations show which scenario is the least vulnerable to UHI effects. Moreover, for each scenario, cores of urban areas were identified, in which certain urban design patterns accounting for adaptation to climate change could be implemented. The study provides a guideline for local authorities on where to focus actions in order to create more sustainable urban structures and to better adapt to climate change and environmental extremes.

  15. Dynamic thermal environment and thermal comfort.

    Zhu, Y; Ouyang, Q; Cao, B; Zhou, X; Yu, J

    2016-02-01

    Research has shown that a stable thermal environment with tight temperature control cannot bring occupants more thermal comfort. Instead, such an environment will incur higher energy costs and produce greater CO2 emissions. Furthermore, this may lead to the degeneration of occupants' inherent ability to combat thermal stress, thereby weakening thermal adaptability. Measured data from many field investigations have shown that the human body has a higher acceptance to the thermal environment in free-running buildings than to that in air-conditioned buildings with similar average parameters. In naturally ventilated environments, occupants have reported superior thermal comfort votes and much greater thermal comfort temperature ranges compared to air-conditioned environments. This phenomenon is an integral part of the adaptive thermal comfort model. In addition, climate chamber experiments have proven that people prefer natural wind to mechanical wind in warm conditions; in other words, dynamic airflow can provide a superior cooling effect. However, these findings also indicate that significant questions related to thermal comfort remain unanswered. For example, what is the cause of these phenomena? How we can build a comfortable and healthy indoor environment for human beings? This article summarizes a series of research achievements in recent decades, tries to address some of these unanswered questions, and attempts to summarize certain problems for future research. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Building design for the Rhodesian climate

    Van Straaten, JF

    1974-10-01

    Full Text Available The need for conserving energy is emphasised. Recommendations are made to ensure the best thermal performance under the relevant climatic conditions. Several construction methods are discussed against a thermal comfort scale for housing....

  17. The effects of fire on the thermal stability of permafrost in lowland and upland black spruce forests of interior Alaska in a changing climate

    Jafarov, E E; Romanovsky, V E; Marchenko, S S; Genet, H; McGuire, A D

    2013-01-01

    Fire is an important factor controlling the composition and thickness of the organic layer in the black spruce forest ecosystems of interior Alaska. Fire that burns the organic layer can trigger dramatic changes in the underlying permafrost, leading to accelerated ground thawing within a relatively short time. In this study, we addressed the following questions. (1) Which factors determine post-fire ground temperature dynamics in lowland and upland black spruce forests? (2) What levels of burn severity will cause irreversible permafrost degradation in these ecosystems? We evaluated these questions in a transient modeling–sensitivity analysis framework to assess the sensitivity of permafrost to climate, burn severity, soil organic layer thickness, and soil moisture content in lowland (with thick organic layers, ∼80 cm) and upland (with thin organic layers, ∼30 cm) black spruce ecosystems. The results indicate that climate warming accompanied by fire disturbance could significantly accelerate permafrost degradation. In upland black spruce forest, permafrost could completely degrade in an 18 m soil column within 120 years of a severe fire in an unchanging climate. In contrast, in a lowland black spruce forest, permafrost is more resilient to disturbance and can persist under a combination of moderate burn severity and climate warming. (letter)

  18. Climate-Specific Passive Building Standards

    Wright, Graham S. [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States); Klingenberg, Katrin [Passive House Inst., Westford, MA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Passive design principles (super insulation, airtight envelopes, elimination of thermal bridges, etc.) - pioneered in North America in the 70s and 80s and refined in Europe in the 90s have proven to be universally effective to significantly reduce heating and cooling loads. However, a single, rigid performance metric developed in Germany has led to limited uptake of passive building principles in many regions of the United States. It has also, in many cases, promoted some design decisions that had negative effects on economic feasibility and thermal comfort. This study's main objective is to validate (in a theoretical sense) verifiable, climate-specific passive standards and space conditioning criteria that retain ambitious, environmentally-necessary energy reduction targets and are economically feasible, such standards provide designers an ambitious but achievable performance target on the path to zero.

  19. Qualitative analysis of homogeneous universes

    Novello, M.; Araujo, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    The qualitative behaviour of cosmological models is investigated in two cases: Homogeneous and isotropic Universes containing viscous fluids in a stokesian non-linear regime; Rotating expanding universes in a state which matter is off thermal equilibrium. (Author) [pt

  20. Short-term changes in thermal perception associated with heatwave conditions in Melbourne, Australia

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Gallant, Ailie J. E.; Tapper, Nigel J.

    2018-05-01

    Variations in human thermal perception have been described on timescales from minutes to seasons. However, the effect of weather-related thermal extremes on inter-daily changes to outdoor thermal perception has not been well characterised. This study used human thermal comfort data from an outdoor botanic garden in sub-urban Melbourne, Australia as a case study. We examined inter-daily variations in local visitors' thermal perception before (11-12 January 2014) and after (18-19 January 2014) a severe heatwave from 14 to 17 January 2014, when daily maximum temperature exceeded 41 °C for 4 consecutive days. We compared thermal comfort survey results (pre-heatwave: n = 342, post-heatwave: n = 294) with air temperature and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) measurements. Even though the days preceding and following the heatwave had a similar range in temperature (19-25 °C) and UTCI (26-32 °C), the visitors felt cooler in the days following the heatwave (i.e. lower thermal sensation votes). In the 2 days following the heatwave, visitors also wore less clothing compared with before the heatwave. Our results show that the thermal perception of visitors changed significantly following their exposure to the heatwave, even after controlling for changes in clothing choices and the ages of survey participants. Psychological adaptation to heat (such as thermal history and expectation) might be one of the possible explanations for this inter-daily variability of local visitors' thermal perception.

  1. Effects of Thermal Mass, Window Size, and Night-Time Ventilation on Peak Indoor Air Temperature in the Warm-Humid Climate of Ghana

    S. Amos-Abanyie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Most office buildings in the warm-humid sub-Saharan countries experience high cooling load because of the predominant use of sandcrete blocks which are of low thermal mass in construction and extensive use of glazing. Relatively, low night-time temperatures are not harnessed in cooling buildings because office openings remain closed after work hours. An optimization was performed through a sensitivity analysis-based simulation, using the Energy Plus (E+ simulation software to assess the effects of thermal mass, window size, and night ventilation on peak indoor air temperature (PIAT. An experimental system was designed based on the features of the most promising simulation model, constructed and monitored, and the experimental data used to validate the simulation model. The results show that an optimization of thermal mass and window size coupled with activation of night-time ventilation provides a synergistic effect to obtain reduced peak indoor air temperature. An expression that predicts, indoor maximum temperature has been derived for models of various thermal masses.

  2. Mesozoic–Cenozoic Climate and Neotectonic Events as Factors in Reconstructing the Thermal History of the Source-Rock Bazhenov Formation, Arctic Region, West Siberia, by the Example of the Yamal Peninsula

    Isaev, V. I.; Iskorkina, A. A.; Lobova, G. A.; Starostenko, V. I.; Tikhotskii, S. A.; Fomin, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    Schemes and criteria are developed for using the measured and modeled geotemperatures for studying the thermal regime of the source rock formations, as well as the tectonic and sedimentary history of sedimentary basins, by the example of the oil fields of the Yamal Peninsula. The method of paleotemperature modeling based on the numerical solution of the heat conduction equation for a horizontally layered solid with a movable upper boundary is used. The mathematical model directly includes the climatic secular trend of the Earth's surface temperature as the boundary condition and the paleotemperatures determined from the vitrinite reflectance as the measurement data. The method does not require a priori information about the nature and intensities of the heat flow from the Earth's interior; the flow is determined by solving the inverse problem of geothermy with a parametric description of the of the sedimentation history and the history of the thermophysical properties of the sedimentary stratum. The rate of sedimentation is allowed to be zero and negative which provides the possibility to take into account the gaps in sedimentation and denudation. The formation, existence, and degradation of the permafrost stratum and ice cover are taken into account as dynamical lithological-stratigraphic complexes with anomalously high thermal conductivity. It is established that disregarding the paleoclimatic factors precludes an adequate reconstruction of thermal history of the source-rock deposits. Revealing and taking into account the Late Eocene regression provided the computationally optimal and richest thermal history of the source-rock Bazhenov Formation, which led to more correct volumetric-genetic estimates of the reserves. For estimating the hydrocarbon reserves in the land territories of the Arctic region of West Siberia by the volumetric-genetic technique, it is recommended to use the Arctic secular trend of temperatures and take into account the dynamics of the

  3. A quantitative sensitivity analysis on the behaviour of common thermal indices under hot and windy conditions in Doha, Qatar

    Fröhlich, Dominik; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Human thermal perception is best described through thermal indices. The most popular thermal indices applied in human bioclimatology are the perceived temperature (PT), the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI), and the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET). They are analysed focusing on their sensitivity to single meteorological input parameters under the hot and windy meteorological conditions observed in Doha, Qatar. It can be noted, that the results for the three indices are distributed quite differently. Furthermore, they respond quite differently to modifications in the input conditions. All of them show particular limitations and shortcomings that have to be considered and discussed. While the results for PT are unevenly distributed, UTCI shows limitations concerning the input data accepted. PET seems to respond insufficiently to changes in vapour pressure. The indices should therefore be improved to be valid for several kinds of climates.

  4. PRIMARY STAGE OF PAKIS-STEM-BLOCK SYSTEM AS THERMAL PROTECTIVE TO FLAT BARE CONCRETE ROOFTOP IN TROPICAL CLIMATE OF SURABAYA

    Danny Santoso Mintorogo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In the era of global warming and increasing urban heat island condition, flat concrete deck on shop-houses may be less sustainable to handle the excessive solar heat radiation impacts on the roof surfaces. Innovative alternative roofing system is needed to manage heat radiation that will lead to sustainable factors likes energy savings, less energy body used on the roofing materials, and provide comprehensive environmental friendly roof system. This paper discusses about particular environmental friendly materials such as “Pakis-Stem Blocks” system is a good thermal resistant to absorb the solar sun heat and provide natural cooling through convective-wind without adding substantial loads to the roof structures. “Pakis-stem blocks” are easier, cheaper and more valuable than other sub-structure roofing materials as thermal resistant layer on flat bare concrete deck besides green roofing systems.

  5. Interfacing a one-dimensional lake model with a single-column atmospheric model: 2. Thermal response of the deep Lake Geneva, Switzerland under a 2 × CO2 global climate change

    Perroud, Marjorie; Goyette, StéPhane

    2012-06-01

    In the companion to the present paper, the one-dimensional k-ɛ lake model SIMSTRAT is coupled to a single-column atmospheric model, nicknamed FIZC, and an application of the coupled model to the deep Lake Geneva, Switzerland, is described. In this paper, the response of Lake Geneva to global warming caused by an increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (i.e., 2 × CO2) is investigated. Coupling the models allowed for feedbacks between the lake surface and the atmosphere and produced changes in atmospheric moisture and cloud cover that further modified the downward radiation fluxes. The time evolution of atmospheric variables as well as those of the lake's thermal profile could be reproduced realistically by devising a set of adjustable parameters. In a "control" 1 × CO2 climate experiment, the coupled FIZC-SIMSTRAT model demonstrated genuine skills in reproducing epilimnetic and hypolimnetic temperatures, with annual mean errors and standard deviations of 0.25°C ± 0.25°C and 0.3°C ± 0.15°C, respectively. Doubling the CO2 concentration induced an atmospheric warming that impacted the lake's thermal structure, increasing the stability of the water column and extending the stratified period by 3 weeks. Epilimnetic temperatures were seen to increase by 2.6°C to 4.2°C, while hypolimnion temperatures increased by 2.2°C. Climate change modified components of the surface energy budget through changes mainly in air temperature, moisture, and cloud cover. During summer, reduced cloud cover resulted in an increase in the annual net solar radiation budget. A larger water vapor deficit at the air-water interface induced a cooling effect in the lake.

  6. Thermal comfort and IAQ assessment of under-floor air distribution system integrated with personalized ventilation in hot and humid climate

    Li, Ruixin [Department of Building, National University of Singapore (Singapore); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Sekhar, S.C. [Department of Building, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Melikov, A.K. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2010-09-15

    The potential for improving occupants' thermal comfort with personalized ventilation (PV) system combined with under-floor air distribution (UFAD) system was explored through human response study. The hypothesis was that cold draught at feet can be reduced when relatively warm air is supplied by UFAD system and uncomfortable sensation as ''warm head'' can be reduced by the PV system providing cool and fresh outdoor air at the facial level. A study with 30 human subjects was conducted in a Field Environmental Chamber. The chamber was served by two dedicated systems - a primary air handling unit (AHU) for 100% outdoor air that is supplied through the PV air terminal devices and a secondary AHU for 100% recirculated air that is supplied through UFAD outlets. Responses of the subjects to the PV-UFAD system were collected at various room air and PV air temperature combinations. The analyses of the results obtained reveal improved acceptability of perceived air quality and improved thermal sensation with PV-UFAD in comparison with the reference case of UFAD alone or mixing ventilation with ceiling supply diffuser. The local thermal sensation at the feet was also improved when warmer UFAD supply air temperature was adopted in the PV-UFAD system. (author)

  7. Mars Thermal Inertia

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the global thermal inertia of the Martian surface as measured by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument on the Mars Global Surveyor. The data were acquired during the first 5000 orbits of the MGS mapping mission. The pattern of inertia variations observed by TES agrees well with the thermal inertia maps made by the Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper experiment, but the TES data shown here are at significantly higher spatial resolution (15 km versus 60 km).The TES instrument was built by Santa Barbara Remote Sensing and is operated by Philip R. Christensen, of Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

  8. Climate Prediction Center - The ENSO Cycle

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News Web resources and services. HOME > El Niño/La Niña > The ENSO Cycle ENSO Cycle Banner Climate for Weather and Climate Prediction Climate Prediction Center 5830 University Research Court College

  9. Constructing and rehabilitating with the climate in Normandy; Construire et rehabiliter avec le climat en Normandie

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The main principles of climatic architecture, taking opportunities from topographic and climate characteristics of a site, are reviewed; the climatic architecture associated techniques together with the concept of thermal comfort, are discussed: heat transfers, material thermal properties, passive thermal energy sources and related climatic systems (windows, walls, collectors, etc.), active heating systems (fuel and electric appliances) and regulation/control systems. Global costs (investment and operating/maintenance costs) are introduced, and technical and meteorological data concerning the Normandy`s climate are also presented. Examples and references in Normandy are given

  10. Diversification, evolution and sub-functionalization of 70kDa heat-shock proteins in two sister species of antarctic krill: differences in thermal habitats, responses and implications under climate change.

    Cascella, Kévin; Jollivet, Didier; Papot, Claire; Léger, Nelly; Corre, Erwan; Ravaux, Juliette; Clark, Melody S; Toullec, Jean-Yves

    2015-01-01

    A comparative thermal tolerance study was undertaken on two sister species of Euphausiids (Antarctic krills) Euphausia superba and Euphausia crystallorophias. Both are essential components of the Southern Ocean ecosystem, but occupy distinct environmental geographical locations with slightly different temperature regimes. They therefore provide a useful model system for the investigation of adaptations to thermal tolerance. Initial CTmax studies showed that E. superba was slightly more thermotolerant than E. crystallorophias. Five Hsp70 mRNAs were characterized from the RNAseq data of both species and subsequent expression kinetics studies revealed notable differences in induction of each of the 5 orthologues between the two species, with E. crystallorophias reacting more rapidly than E. superba. Furthermore, analyses conducted to estimate the evolutionary rates and selection strengths acting on each gene tended to support the hypothesis that diversifying selection has contributed to the diversification of this gene family, and led to the selective relaxation on the inducible C form with its possible loss of function in the two krill species. The sensitivity of the epipelagic species E. crystallorophias to temperature variations and/or its adaptation to cold is enhanced when compared with its sister species, E. superba. These results indicate that ice krill could be the first of the two species to be impacted by the warming of coastal waters of the Austral ocean in the coming years due to climate change.

  11. Climate Literacy Ambassadors

    Ackerman, S. A.; Mooney, M. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Climate Literacy Ambassadors program is a collaborative effort to advance climate literacy led by the Cooperative Institute of Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. With support from NASA, CIMSS is coordinating a three-tiered program to train G6-12 teachers to be Ambassadors of Climate Literacy in their schools and communities. The complete training involves participation at a teacher workshop combined with web-based professional development content around Global and Regional Climate Change. The on-line course utilizes e-learning technology to clarify graphs and concepts from the 2007 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Summary for Policy Makers with content intricately linked to the Climate Literacy: The Essential Principles of Climate Science. Educators who take the course for credit can develop lesson plans or opt for a project of their choosing. This session will showcase select lesson plans and projects, ranging from a district-wide action plan that engaged dozens of teachers to Ambassadors volunteering at the Aldo Leopold Climate Change Nature Center to a teacher who tested a GLOBE Student Climate Research Campaign (SCRC) learning project with plans to participate in the SCRC program. Along with sharing successes from the CIMSS Climate Literacy Ambassadors project, we will share lessons learned related to the challenges of sustaining on-line virtual educator communities.

  12. A contribution to the thermal and aero-dynamical modelling of the urban micro-climate. Analysis of the water and vegetation impact on the comfort conditions in outdoor spaces; Contribution a la modelisation thermo-aeraulique du microclimat urbain. Caracterisation de l'impact de l'eau et de la vegetation sur les conditions de confort en espaces exterieurs

    Vinet, J.

    2000-11-01

    In summer, temperatures in cities may rise, thereby inducing the so-called 'urban heat island' and tremendous consequences on outdoor comfort, health risks, pollutant emission and energy consumption. Replacing vegetation and moist surfaces by concrete or asphalt may enhance these problems. Therefore, the aim of this thesis is to quantify the impact of vegetation and water on urban micro-climate and comfort through numerical modelling; In the first part, a scientific literature review considers various topics applied to our problem such as urban micro-climate, simulations, urbanism, urban forestry and outdoor thermal comfort. This information is relevant to define and interpret further numerical modelling. Numerical simulations based on the coupling of the SOLENE. thermal program and the N3S CFD code are proposed to model wind flow, air and surface temperatures. The theoretical principles, hypothesis and coupling methodology are presented here. This set of numerical tools is combined in order to help urban or landscape planners, architects and engineers, to analyse the impacts of different projects on micro-climate and on outdoor thermal comfort, under hot summer conditions. To illustrate this approach, an open space in Montpellier (southern France) called the 'Place du Millenaire' and designed by Ricardo Bofill is studied, considering various cases (no vegetation, actual vegetation and vegetation in 30 years). The comparative results demonstrate improvements of urban form, micro-climate and outdoor thermal comfort. (author)

  13. Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South ...

    Managing Climate Risk to Agriculture and Water Resources in South Africa ... to better integrate information on climate change and climate variability into water resources policy, planning and management. ... University of the Free State.

  14. Relationships between Diversity Climate and Organizational Performance in Accredited, U.S. Evangelical Christian Colleges and Universities: Applying Cox's Interactional Model of Cultural Diversity

    Kissell, Bradley W.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine whether relationships existed between workplace diversity and organizational performance in accredited U.S. evangelical Christian colleges and universities. Evidence points to a rapidly changing demographic landscape. The U.S. and its workforce are quickly becoming racially and ethnically diverse.…

  15. Elevuniversitet om energi og klima – et samarbejde i netværk: Nye perspektiver for naturfagsinteressen? "Generating science interest through network and collaboration between primary schools and university on climate and energy"

    Annette Grunwald

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper address the need for developing out-reach activities in a way that can increase primary school pupils interest in science. Building on the hypotheses that the inclusion of more and different actors in developing these outreach activities can strengthen them, this paper presents an initial study investigating the development of a network of actors organizing out-of-school science teaching. This initial study is part of a 3 years action research project, where the network approach has been used to continually design and further development of a pupils’ university on the subject energy and climate for 5 and 6 grade pupils in primary schools within Northern Jutland, Denmark. The methodological framework is routed in action research, and the data collection includes participant observations, cite visits, informal interviews, questionnaires and document analysis. This paper thereby exemplifies and discuss how a cooperation network to support out-of school teaching can be established, developed and brought into action through ongoing learning processes among university, primary school and other institutions. Considering the specific case, the out-reach activities developed by this network approach have shown to be effective in raising awareness and engagement in the pupils university. On that base, it is concluded that the actor-approach holds considerable potentials for developing out-of-school activities; which however calls for further research.

  16. The role of renewable liquid transportation fuels in Canada's climate action plan: Pros and cons, and stages of development of ethanol, biodiesel, and thermal depolymerization oil

    Coxworth, E.

    2003-04-01

    The feasibility of using ethanol from grain as a partial replacement for gasoline is examined. Although ethanol is widely seen as a desirable renewable transportation fuel, there are concerns about the amount of fossil fuel energy used in its production, both at the farm and the factory level. Indeed, some people claim that there is, in fact, a net energy loss when ethanol is produced from grain, not to mention the concerns about the use of grain for fuel instead of food in a world where millions of people go hungry every day of their life. The emission from ethanol plants and the cost of producing ethanol from grain are related issues that cause concern. The report urges examination of alternatives to fermentation of plant materials such as gasification, and materials other than corn, such as woody material or hay which, although more complex and not yet commercially developed, are showing promise, and deserve further attention. Other renewable liquid transportation fuels such as biodiesel from canola oil, and thermal depolymerization oils that can be derived from a wide variety of waste renewable organic materials, are also suggested as potential fuel sources. Both of these appear promising and require testing to determine implications of further developing these technologies as replacement transportation fuels. The report contains a bibliography of 37 items for ethanol, 12 items for biodiesel, and two items for thermal depolymerization oil

  17. RANS simulation of the thermal mixing in HTTF LP during normal operation conditions – High Temperature Test Facility at Oregon State University

    Gradecka, Malwina J.; Woods, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Since High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors are being considered as the most promising design of upcoming IV Gen reactors, key research areas were identified to address safety aspects of this design. A number of simulations and experiments need to be conducted in this field. In this paper, thermal-hydraulics aspects of coolant flow through Lower Plenum (LP) of HTGR were considered, specifically flow characteristics to identify the risk of temperature stratification in LP and hot spotting on LP floor. Local temperature gradients can cause material degradation. As the power profile is non-uniform across the core, jets of coolant exit the core region at different temperatures and enter the LP impinging on LP floor causing hot spots at LP structure and temperature stratification. To address those issues numerical simulation and an experiment are being developed. The numerical simulation provides coolant flow velocity and temperature fields. The purpose of this study is to investigate the mixing phenomenon in the LP due to risk of the hot streaking and thermal stratification phenomena during normal operation of HTTF. The following aspect are being examined: identification of gas flow behavior in lower plenum of HTTF based on CFD simulations, identification of hot streaking issue in the HTTF lower plenum using CFD tools, and computational investigation of gas mixing efficiency. This paper includes a description of experimental setup of HTTF, guidance for LP CFD modeling, and the results and analysis of CFD simulation. (author)

  18. Climate change studies for Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro

    Snelgrove, K.; Roberts, J.; Organ, M.

    2008-01-01

    Change is a constant for hydroelectric utilities. These organizations are continually faced with challenges involving future change. Traditionally, forecasting load has been essential but more and more there is evidence that climate change planning will be required to forecast supply issues as well. Newfoundland and Labrador Hydro (NLH) are initiating a study of climate change and its implications for operations and planning of hydroelectric and wind energy projects. In collaboration with Memorial University's Faculty of Engineering, NLH will begin this investigation by quantifying changes to volumes and timing of water inflows to their hydroelectric reservoirs and its impact on future operations. As the work continues, these studies may extend to climate induced load forecasting, the implications of icing and other climate extremes on infrastructure, and the integration of climate dependent alternate energy sources such as wind into the NLH system. NLH's group of companies is the 4th largest utility in Canada in terms of installed capacity at 7,289 MW. In addition to thermal generation, NLH operates 10 hydroelectric generating stations including the Churchill Falls facility at 5,428 MW, which boasts the second largest underground powerhouse in the world. Plans are currently underway to add a further 2,824 MW of installed capacity through the Lower Churchill Project as well as a mix of other conventional and alternate energy sources envisioned by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador's Energy Plan. Many of these assets, especially hydro and wind energy generation are tightly coupled to the vagaries of the climate systems. Given these dependencies it is prudent to quantify the magnitude and uncertainty associated with future climate impacts. This presentation will summarize some of the very preliminary activities that have taken place to date, summarize literature that is available regarding climate projections for Newfoundland and Labrador and discuss

  19. Review on Climate Control Chamber studies in studying plant environment interaction under climate change scenarios

    Geethalakshmi, V.; Bhuvaneshwari, K.; Lakshmanan, A.

    2011-01-01

    This Technical brief summarizes some of the studies conducted on rice using a climate control chamber and outlines the studies that will be undertaken in the Climate Control Chamber facility that has been established at the Agro Climate Research Center at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore. In recent years a numbers of technologies have been developed to study the impact of climate change on agricultural systems. Crop response to climate change could be studied by using a climate ...

  20. Effect of long-term acclimatization on summer thermal comfort in outdoor spaces: a comparative study between Melbourne and Hong Kong.

    Lam, Cho Kwong Charlie; Lau, Kevin Ka-Lun

    2018-04-12

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) is an index for assessing outdoor thermal environment which aims to be applicable universally to different climates. However, the scale of UTCI thermal stress classification can be interpreted depending on the context. Previous studies validated the UTCI in individual cities, but comparative studies between different cities are scarce. This study examines the differences in thermal perception and clothing choices between residents from two climate zones over similar UTCI ranges in summer. We compared summer thermal comfort survey data from Melbourne (n = 2162, January-February 2014) and Hong Kong (n = 414, July-August 2007). We calculated the UTCI from outdoor weather station data and used t tests to compare the differences in thermal sensation and clothing between Hong Kong and Melbourne residents. When the UTCI was between 23.0 and 45.9 °C, Melbourne residents wore significantly more clothing (0.1 clo) than Hong Kong residents. Hong Kong residents reported neutral to warm sensation at a higher UTCI range compared with the dynamic thermal sensation (DTS) model. Moreover, Melbourne residents reported warm and hot sensation at a higher UTCI range than the DTS model. Respondents in Melbourne also exhibited different responses to the mean radiant temperature under shaded and sunny conditions, while such a trend was not observed in Hong Kong. It would be advisable to define different thermal sensation thresholds for the UTCI scale according to different climate zones for better prediction of the outdoor thermal comfort of different urban populations.

  1. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  2. An analysis of influential factors on outdoor thermal comfort in summer.

    Yin, JiFu; Zheng, YouFei; Wu, RongJun; Tan, JianGuo; Ye, DianXiu; Wang, Wei

    2012-09-01

    A variety of research has linked high temperature to outdoor thermal comfort in summer, but it remains unclear how outdoor meteorological environments influence people's thermal sensation in subtropical monsoon climate areas, especially in China. In order to explain the process, and to better understand the related influential factors, we conducted an extensive survey of thermally comfortable conditions in open outdoor spaces. The goal of this study was to gain an insight into the subjects' perspectives on weather variables and comfort levels, and determine the factors responsible for the varying human thermal comfort response in summer. These perceptions were then compared to actual ambient conditions. The database consists of surveys rated by 205 students trained from 6:00 am to 8:00 pm outdoors from 21 to 25 August 2009, at Nanjing University of Information Science & Technology (NUIST), Nanjing, China. The multiple regression approach and simple factor analysis of variance were used to investigate the relationships between thermal comfort and meteorological environment, taking into consideration individual mood, gender, level of regular exercise, and previous environmental experiences. It was found that males and females have similar perceptions of maximum temperature; in the most comfortable environment, mood appears to have a significant influence on thermal comfort, but the influence of mood diminishes as the meteorological environment becomes increasingly uncomfortable. In addition, the study confirms the strong relationship between thermal comfort and microclimatic conditions, including solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, maximum temperature, wind speed and relative humidity, ranked by importance. There are also strong effects of illness, clothing and exercise, all of which influence thermal comfort. We also find that their former place of residence influences people's thermal comfort substantially by setting expectations. Finally, some relationships

  3. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit – in a humid, temperate climate – lessons from the University of Hawai’i at Mānoa

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Harding, Ari [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The University of Hawai’i at Mānoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the Hawai`i Clean Energy Initiative to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program1. Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft²).

  4. Assessment of the climatic potential for tourism in Iran through biometeorology clustering.

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2018-04-01

    This study presents a spatiotemporal analysis of bioclimatic comfort conditions for Iran using mean daily meteorological data from 1995 to 2014, analyzed through Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indices, and bioclimatic clustering. The results of this study demonstrate that due to the climate variability across Iran during the year, there is at any point in time a location with climatic condition suitable for tourism. Mean values demonstrate maxima in bioclimatic comfort indices for the country in late winter and spring and minima for summer. Seven statistically significant clusters in bioclimatic indices were identified. Comparing these with clustering performed on PET and UTCI, the maximum overlaps between the two indices. In the following, the outputs of this research showed that most appropriate bioclimatic clustering for Iran includes seven clusters. These clustering locations according to climatic suitability for tourism provide a valuable contribution to tourism management in the country, particularly through marketing destinations to maximize tourist flow.

  5. Assessment of the climatic potential for tourism in Iran through biometeorology clustering

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Błażejczyk, Krzysztof

    2017-10-01

    This study presents a spatiotemporal analysis of bioclimatic comfort conditions for Iran using mean daily meteorological data from 1995 to 2014, analyzed through Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indices, and bioclimatic clustering. The results of this study demonstrate that due to the climate variability across Iran during the year, there is at any point in time a location with climatic condition suitable for tourism. Mean values demonstrate maxima in bioclimatic comfort indices for the country in late winter and spring and minima for summer. Seven statistically significant clusters in bioclimatic indices were identified. Comparing these with clustering performed on PET and UTCI, the maximum overlaps between the two indices. In the following, the outputs of this research showed that most appropriate bioclimatic clustering for Iran includes seven clusters. These clustering locations according to climatic suitability for tourism provide a valuable contribution to tourism management in the country, particularly through marketing destinations to maximize tourist flow.

  6. The climate change problem and its consequences

    Khakimov, F.Kh.; Mirzokhonova, S.O.; Mirzokhonava, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of climate change is investigated in the current work in Tajikistan. It shows that the changes of the republic thermal mode is connected with climate global changes. The forecast of climate change on 2050 on various models is given

  7. The climate change problem and its consequences

    Khakimov, F.Kh.; Mirzokhonova, S.O.; Mirzokhonova, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    The problem of climate change is investigated in the current work in Tajikistan. It shows that the changes of the republic thermal mode is connected with climate global changes. The forecast of climate change on 2050 on various models are given

  8. Climate for change

    Newell, P.

    2000-01-01

    Climate for Change: Non-State Actors and the Global Politics of the Greenhouse provides a challenging explanation of the forces that have shaped the international global warming debate. Unlike existing books on the politics of climate change, this book concentrates on how non-stage actors, such as scientific, environmental and industry groups, as opposed to governmental organisations, affect political outcomes in global fora on climate change. It also provides insights in to the role of the media in influencing the agenda. The book draws on a range of analytical approaches to assess and explain the influence of these non-governmental organisations in the course of global climate change politics. The book will be of interest to all researchers and policy-makers associated with climate change, and will be used on university courses in international relations, politics and environmental studies. (Author)

  9. Climate Change

    Climate is the average weather in a place over a period of time. Climate change is major change in temperature, rainfall, snow, ... by natural factors or by human activities. Today climate changes are occurring at an increasingly rapid rate. ...

  10. Agriculture: Climate

    Climate change affects agricultural producers because agriculture and fisheries depend on specific climate conditions. Temperature changes can cause crop planting dates to shift. Droughts and floods due to climate change may hinder farming practices.

  11. Climate change and skin disease.

    Lundgren, Ashley D

    2018-04-01

    Despite commanding essentially universal scientific consensus, climate change remains a divisive and poorly understood topic in the United States. Familiarity with this subject is not just for climate scientists. The impact of climate change on human morbidity and mortality may be considerable; thus, physicians also should be knowledgeable in this realm. Climate change science can seem opaque and inferential, creating fertile ground for political polemics and undoubtedly contributing to confusion among the general public. This puts physicians in a pivotal position to facilitate a practical understanding of climate change in the public sphere by discussing changes in disease patterns and their possible relationship to a changing climate. This article provides a background on climate change for dermatologists and highlights how climate change may impact the management of skin disease across the United States.

  12. Achieving a Net Zero Energy Retrofit - In a humid, temperate climate: Lessons from the University of Hawai'i at Manoa

    Regnier, Cindy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Robinson, Alastair [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    The University of Hawaii at Manoa (UHM) partnered with the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to retrofit exiting buildings to reduce energy consumption by at least 30% as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnerships (CBP) Program.1 Kuykendall Hall, located on the UHM campus in Honolulu, was the focus of a CBP analysis and design collaboration among the University of Hawai’i, their consultants, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Kuykendall Hall consists of two 1960s-era wings – a four-story wing containing classrooms, and a seven-story tower containing offices – with a total floor area of approximately 76,000 square feet (ft2). The retrofit design, which uses local prevailing winds to aid ventilation and cooling and incorporates envelope and lighting elements that reduce the need for cooling, was initially on track to use about 50% less energy than the current building, exceeding the CBP’s 30% savings goal. With the addition of building-mounted solar electric panels, the retrofitted building is projected to achieve net-zero annual energy use. Achieving net-zero energy addressed an emerging challenge to the university – how to lower energy usage and reduce dependence on imported fossil fuel in the face of already-high energy prices that are forecast to double by 2040. Not only will the retrofit dramatically reduce Kuykendall Hall’s annual energy costs, but the project lays the groundwork for new campus policies and processes and low-energy design approaches and is building a campus knowledge base on low-energy practices. This project is a model of integrated design and building delivery that will be replicated in future projects on the campus.

  13. Life cycle inventory analysis of regenerative thermal oxidation of air emissions from oriented strand board facilities in Minnesota - a perspective of global climate change

    Nicholson, W.J. [Potlatch Corp., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Life cycle inventory analysis has been applied to the prospective operation of regenerative thermal oxidation (RTO) technology at oriented strand board plants at Bemidji (Line 1) and Cook, Minnesota. The net system destruction of VOC`s and carbon monoxide, and at Cook a small quantity of particulate, has a very high environmental price in terms of energy and water use, global warming potential, sulfur and nitrogen oxide emissions, solids discharged to water, and solid waste deposited in landfills. The benefit of VOC destruction is identified as minor in terms of ground level ozone at best and possibly slightly detrimental. Recognition of environmental tradeoffs associated with proposed system changes is critical to sound decision-making. There are more conventional ways to address carbon monoxide emissions than combustion in RTO`s. In an environment in which global warming is a concern, fuel supplemental combustion for environmental control does not appear warranted. Consideration of non-combustion approaches to address air emission issues at the two operations is recommended. 1 ref., 5 tabs.

  14. Is deciduousness a key to climate resilience among iconic California savanna oak species? Relating phenological habits to seasonal indicators of tree physiological and water stress across field, hyperspectral, drone (UAS)-based multispectral and thermal image data

    Mayes, M. T.; Caylor, K. K.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Greenberger, R. N.; Estes, L. D.

    2017-12-01

    In California (CA) savannas, oak trees (genus Quercus) play keystone roles in water and nutrient cycling, support biodiversity and many land-use activities. Declines in oak basal area of up to 25% from the 1930s-2000s, which have occurred alongside climate trends such as increasing variability of rainfall and prevalence of hotter droughts, threaten the services and ecological functions these trees provide. It is particularly unclear how climate relates to productivity and stress across oak species. Past work has found that seedling recruitment has varied inversely with "deciduousness." That is, evergreen oaks (e.g. Quercus agrifola. Coast Live Oak) are reproducing more successfully than drought-deciduous (e.g. Quercus douglassi, Blue Oak), which in turn are more successful than fully deciduous species (e.g. Quercus lobata, Valley Oak). However, there is poor understanding of how these ecological trends by species, corresponding with phenological habit, relate to physiological and ecohydrological processes such as carbon assimilation, water or nutrient use efficiency in mature tree stands. This limits predictive capability for which species will be most resilient to harsher future growing conditions, and, how to monitor stress and productivity in long-lived mature oak communities across landscapes via tools including remotely sensed data. This project explores how ecophysiological variables (e.g. stomatal conductance) relate to phenological habits across three oak species (Coast Live, Blue and Valley) over a seasonal dry-down period in Santa Barbara County, CA. Our goal is to probe if deciduousness is a key to resilience in productivity and water stress across iconic oak species. We test relationships between leaf and canopy-level field data, and indicators from multiple new sources of remotely sensed data, including ground hyperspectral, drone (UAS)-based multi-spectral and thermal image data, as means of monitoring tree physiological and water stress from scales

  15. What is the Climate?

    Lovejoy, S.; Schertzer, D.

    2009-04-01

    Although meteorology and climatology are increasingly considered to be distinct sciences, the actual boundary between "climate scales" and "meteorological scales" is not clear and there are no universally accepted definitions. It is still hard to improve upon the old adage "the climate is what you expect, the weather is what you get". For example [Committee on Radiative Forcing Effects on Climate, 2005], the National Academy of Science essentially accepts this ("Climate is conventionally defined as the long-term statistics of the weather") proposing only to expand the definition of climate to encompass the oceanic and terrestrial spheres as well as chemical components of the atmosphere. However the weather itself has nontrivial statistics so that the key weather/climate distinction depend on apparently subjective distinction between long-term and short-term statistics. In this talk, we give an objective basis to the weather/climate distinction with the help of an anisotropic space-time turbulence theory and both lidar satellite radiances, in situ spectra and numerical models of the atmosphere and reanalyses. We show that the latter accurately follow the predictions of multiplicative cascade models up to about 7-10 days. This marks the beginning of a weather/climate transition region which extends up to the cascade outer scale of about 20-30 days (depending somewhat on the atmospheric field), after which the climate regime begins. We bolster this interpretation by empirically constructing space-time (Stommel) diagrammes; we obtain near linear relations between time and (horizontal) space and theoretically predicted power law relations between the vertical and time up until the end of the weather regime (~10000 km in the horizontal, ~10 km in the vertical, ~10 days in time). We discuss the implications for weather, climate and climate trends.

  16. A trial of music composition work on the theme of the marching season from spring to summer (An interdisciplinary class between music and climate education for the university students)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Kato, Haruko

    2017-04-01

    studied it only a little in the university to get license of primary school teacher. But they have already experienced composition on the theme of spring at the class in the previous year. In this class, the students tried to compose on the theme of the marching season from spring to summer. The term of the class was from April to July 2016, and thus the students have really experienced the detailed seasonal advance just during their activity. At the final stage of this activity, students' music works were performed with various instruments. The present study will report outline of the activity including a part of the students' music works and the analysis results of them, together with brief explanation of the seasonal cycle from spring to summer around the Japan Islands. The students' music works are analyzed on the following three points, and then the possibility toward the joint activity of music with science will be discussed. 1) The point to which the students have paid attention for composition, 2) The relationship between music expression of the works and the climate, 3) The students' interest in the climate induced by the experience of this activity.

  17. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation

    Krüger, E.; Drach, P.; Broede, P.

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  18. Outdoor comfort study in Rio de Janeiro: site-related context effects on reported thermal sensation.

    Krüger, E; Drach, P; Broede, P

    2017-03-01

    Aimed at climate-responsive urban design for tropical areas, the paper attempts to answer the question whether the site-related context affects in some way the perceptual assessment of the microclimate by users of outdoor spaces. Our hypothesis was that visual cues resulting from urban design are important components of the outdoor thermal perception. Monitoring was carried out alongside the administration of standard comfort questionnaires throughout summer periods in 2012-2015 in pedestrian areas of downtown Rio de Janeiro (22° 54 10 S, 43° 12 27 W), Brazil. Campaigns took place at different points, pre-defined in respect of urban geometry attributes. For the measurements, a Davis Vantage Pro2 weather station was employed to which a gray globe thermometer was attached. Two thermal indices were used for assessing the overall meteorological conditions and comfort levels in the outdoor locations: physiological equivalent temperature (PET) and universal thermal climate index (UTCI). Our results suggest that thermal sensation in Rio depends to a large extent on the thermal environment as described by air temperature, PET, or UTCI, and that urban geometry (expressed by the sky-view factor (SVF)) may modify this relationship with increased building density associated to warmer sensation votes under moderate heat stress conditions. This relationship however reverses under strong heat stress with warmer sensations in less obstructed locations, and disappears completely under still higher heat stress, where meteorological conditions, and not the site's SVF, will drive thermal sensation.

  19. Do colder and hotter climates make richer societies more, but poorer societies less, happy and altruistic?

    Van de Vliert, E; Huang, X; Parker, PM

    Physiological needs for thermal comfort, nutritional comfort, and healthiness make colder and hotter climates more demanding than more temperate climates. Affluence may help to meet those thermal demands. Two country-level studies indeed show that thermal demands (colder and hotter climates) and

  20. Climate and atmospheric research

    Kramer, G.; Schumacher, R.

    1992-01-01

    This issue of the scientific journal of the Humboldt university is dedicated to results of research work carried out to the greatest extent at the meteorological institute in the last two years on the area of climate and atmospheric research. The traditional research areas of the institute are climatology and the dynamics of the atmosphere, in particular the atmospherical boundary layer. Considering the high probability of a global climatic fluctuation due to the anthropogenic change of composition of the atmosphere and other climate-relevant factors imminent in the next century, climatological research today is an important part of global and regional environmental research. From the necessity of determination and evaluation of the effect of climatic fluctuations on nature and society the contours of a new interdisciplinary research area are already visible now. This is suitable as hardly any other area to be the supporting idea of environmental research at universities. The contributions contained in the issue already consider, in addition to results on climate diagnosis, also results on aspects of climate effect research. (orig./KW) [de

  1. Asset Management and Sustainability at the University of Richmond

    Burchard, Wendy

    2009-01-01

    In January 2008, Ed Ayers, president of the University of Richmond, signed the American College and University Presidents' Climate Commitment. This commits the university to creating a comprehensive action plan to move toward climate neutrality. Even before "sustainability" became one of the university's overall goals, Information Services (IS)…

  2. Investigating the adaptive model of thermal comfort for naturally ventilated school buildings in Taiwan

    Hwang, Ruey-Lung; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Chen, Chen-Peng; Kuo, Nai-Jung

    2009-03-01

    Divergence in the acceptability to people in different regions of naturally ventilated thermal environments raises a concern over the extent to which the ASHRAE Standard 55 may be applied as a universal criterion of thermal comfort. In this study, the ASHRAE 55 adaptive model of thermal comfort was investigated for its applicability to a hot and humid climate through a long-term field survey performed in central Taiwan among local students attending 14 elementary and high schools during September to January. Adaptive behaviors, thermal neutrality, and thermal comfort zones are explored. A probit analysis of thermal acceptability responses from students was performed in place of the conventional linear regression of thermal sensation votes against operative temperature to investigate the limits of comfort zones for 90% and 80% acceptability; the corresponding comfort zones were found to occur at 20.1-28.4°C and 17.6-30.0°C, respectively. In comparison with the yearly comfort zones recommended by the adaptive model for naturally ventilated spaces in the ASHRAE Standard 55, those observed in this study differ in the lower limit for 80% acceptability, with the observed level being 1.7°C lower than the ASHRAE-recommended value. These findings can be generalized to the population of school children, thus providing information that can supplement ASHRAE Standard 55 in evaluating the thermal performance of naturally ventilated school buildings, particularly in hot-humid areas such as Taiwan.

  3. New recommendations for building in tropical climates

    Waal, H.B. de (ISOVER BV, Cappelle a/d IJssel (Netherlands))

    1993-07-01

    Traditional recommendations for building a thermally efficient or comfortable building in a tropical climate are briefly summarized. They suffer from three main drawbacks; they are not quantitative, partly incorrect and only for two climates; the hot dry and the warm humid. A new climate classification, made up of forty tropical climates is presented. Eight building elements, which affect the thermal system of a building, are distinguished. The method by which the new recommendations are derived, is discussed. The new recommendations are briefly presented. (Author)

  4. Indoor climate optimization with limited resources

    Santos, A.; Gunnarsen, Lars Bo

    This report presents experimental data and models for optimisation of the indoor climate parameters temperature, noise, draught and window opening. Results are based on experiments with human subjects performed in climate chambers at University of the Philippines. The report may assist building...... designers to balance attention and resources between the parameters of the indoor climate when resources are less than optimal....

  5. Climate change vulnerability map of Southeast Asia

    anshory

    Development Studies (CEDS), Padjadjaran University, for his excellent research assistance. ... Malaysia, and Philippines) are the most vulnerable to climate change. 2. ... system to adjust to climate change (including climate variability and extremes), ... national administrative areas in seven countries in Southeast Asia, i.e., ...

  6. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects ( n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences ( p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  7. Bioclimatic comfort and the thermal perceptions and preferences of beach tourists.

    Rutty, Michelle; Scott, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The largest market segment of global tourism is coastal tourism, which is strongly dependent on the destination's thermal climate. To date, outdoor bioclimatic comfort assessments have focused exclusively on local residents in open urban areas, making it unclear whether outdoor comfort is perceived differently in non-urban environments or by non-residents (i.e. tourists) with different weather expectations and activity patterns. This study provides needed insight into the perception of outdoor microclimatic conditions in a coastal environment while simultaneously identifying important psychological factors that differentiate tourists from everyday users of urban spaces. Concurrent micrometeorological measurements were taken on several Caribbean beaches in the islands of Barbados, Saint Lucia and Tobago, while a questionnaire survey was used to examine the thermal comfort of subjects (n = 472). Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) conditions of 32 to 39 °C were recorded, which were perceived as being "slightly warm" or "warm" by respondents. Most beach users (48 to 77 %) would not change the thermal conditions, with some (4 to 15 %) preferring even warmer conditions. Even at UTCI of 39 °C, 62 % of respondents voted for no change to current thermal conditions, with an additional 10 % stating that they would like to feel even warmer. These results indicate that beach users' thermal preferences are up to 18 °C warmer than the preferred thermal conditions identified in existing outdoor bioclimatic studies from urban park settings. This indicates that beach users hold fundamentally different comfort perceptions and preferences compared to people using urban spaces. Statistically significant differences (p ≤ .05) were also recorded for demographic groups (gender, age) and place of origin (climatic region).

  8. Climate saver atomic energy?

    1992-12-01

    According to the Schleswig-Holstein Land government nuclear power phaseout is compatible with measures designed to protect world climate. Only efforts aimed at quickly reducing energy demand by means of thermal insulation, energy conservation techniques, cogeneration systems and application of renewable energies are necessary. The Schleswig-Holstein energy concept is given as an example of making possible a worldwide carbon dioxide reduction. (DG) [de

  9. Universal Instability in a Thermal Plasma Device (Q-Machine); Instabilite Universelle dans une Machine a Plasma Thermique (Machine-Q); Issledovaniya universal'noj neustojchivosti v ustrojstve dlya termicheski ionizovannoj plazmy; Inestabilidad Universal en un Dispositivo de Plasma Termico (Maquina Q)

    Lashinsky, H. [University Of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    1966-04-15

    The fully ionized column in, a thermal plasma device (Q-machine) provides a convenient medium for studying the universal (drift-wave) instability arising from the joint effect of the finite ion Larmor radius and the density gradient perpendicular to the magnetic confining field. The pertinent dimensionless parameters can be varied over a range such that the results can be scaled to make comparisons.with plasmas of thermonuclear interest, and the instability can be excited in controlled fashion by appropriate adjustment of the sheath conditions at the metal end plates by using sheath-control techniques that are discussed together with the underlying theory. By exploiting these techniques the oscillation amplitude can be held at arbitrarily low levels and the behaviour of the instability can be traced from the low-amplitude (e Empty-Set /kT {approx}10{sup -3}) ''quasilinear'' regime, characterized by a monochromatic ''locked-mode'' spectrum, into the non-linear regime; and then into a weakly turbulent state (e Empty-Set /kT Less-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 1) characterized by a noisy ''hash'' spectrum. A novel ''raster-display'' method provides a complete picture of the development of the instability and the transition to turbulence. The experimentally determined basic characteristics of the instability such as the mode frequencies, direction of azimuthal propagation, coherence properties, density independence, magnetic field dependence, and spatial dependence of mode amplitude, are in good qualitative agreement with the linear theory of the universal instability. Experiments have also been carried out on the effect of column length on the real part of the frequency (approximately a 10% correction) and on the imaginary part. The effect on the latter is due to ion Landau damping and the method provides an excellent means of studying the Landau damping mechanism itself. The results of these experiments are also in good agreement with the linear theory and have, in addition

  10. Concepts in Thermal Physics

    Blundell, Stephen J

    2006-01-01

    This modern introduction to thermal physics contains a step-by-step presentation of the key concepts. The text is copiously illustrated and each chapter contains several worked examples. - ;An understanding of thermal physics is crucial to much of modern physics, chemistry and engineering. This book provides a modern introduction to the main principles that are foundational to thermal physics, thermodynamics, and statistical mechanics. The key concepts are carefully presented in a clear way, and new ideas are illustrated with copious worked examples as well as a description of the historical background to their discovery. Applications are presented to subjects as. diverse as stellar astrophysics, information and communication theory, condensed matter physics, and climate change. Each chapter concludes with detailed exercises. -

  11. Climate Kids

    ... What Is Permafrost? How Do We Predict Future Climate? Green Career: Earth Scientist 10 Things About Ecosystems ... study Earth? What can trees tell us about climate change? Why does NASA care about food? Games ...

  12. The early design stage for building renovation with a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) heat pump water heating system: Techno-economic analysis in three European climates

    Zhang, Xingxing; Shen, Jingchun; Adkins, Deborah; Yang, Tong; Tang, Llewellyn; Zhao, Xudong; He, Wei; Xu, Peng; Liu, Chenchen; Luo, Huizhong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • LHP-STF was evaluated from both technical and economic aspects for three EU climates. • The impact of LHP-STF on the overall building socio-energy performance was explored. • A dedicated business model was developed to study the economic feasibility of LHP-STF. • Three fundamental methods for financial measurement of LHP-STF were analysed. • Four investment options were considered in this business model. - Abstract: Most of the building renovation plans are usually decided in the early design stage. This delicate phase contains the greatest opportunity to achieve the high energy performance buildings after refurbishment. It is therefore important to provide the pertinent energy performance information for the designers or decision-makers from multidisciplinary and comparative points of view. This paper investigates the renovation concept of a novel loop-heat-pipe based solar thermal facade (LHP-STF) installed on a reference residential building by technical evaluation and economic analysis in three typical European climates, including North Europe (represented by Stockholm), West Europe (represented by London) and South Europe (represented by Madrid). The aim of this paper is firstly to explore the LHP-STF’s sensitivity with regards to the overall building socio-energy performance and secondly to study the LHP-STF’s economic feasibility by developing a dedicated business model. The reference building model was derived from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) commercial buildings research, in which the energy data for the building models were from the ASHRAE codes and other standard practices. The financial data were collected from the European statistic institute and the cost of system was based on the manufactured prototype. Several critical financial indexes were applied to evaluate the investment feasibility of the LHP-STF system in building renovation, such as Payback Period (PP), Net Present Value (NPV), and the modified internal

  13. Understanding climate

    1995-01-01

    In this article the following question is answered. What is the climate? What factors do determine our climate? What is solar radiation? How does solar radiation relate to the earth's energy? What is greenhouse effect? What role does the greenhouse effect play in the global ecosystem? How does the water cycle affect climate? What is drought? What role do oceans play in influencing climate. (author)

  14. Thermal comfort

    Osburn, L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is influenced by environmental parameters as well as other influences including asymmetric heating and cooling conditions. Additionally, some aspects of thermal comfort may be exploited so as to enable a building to operate within a...

  15. Climate change

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss in brief the magnitude and rate of past changes in climate and examine the various factors influencing climate in order to place the potential warming due to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations in context. Feedback mechanisms that can amplify or lessen imposed climate changes are discussed next. The overall sensitivity of climate to changes in forcing is then considered, followed by a discussion of the time-dependent response of the Earth system. The focus is on global temperature as an indicator for the magnitude of climatic change

  16. Animating climate model data

    DaPonte, John S.; Sadowski, Thomas; Thomas, Paul

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes a collaborative project conducted by the Computer Science Department at Southern Connecticut State University and NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Science (GISS). Animations of output from a climate simulation math model used at GISS to predict rainfall and circulation have been produced for West Africa from June to September 2002. These early results have assisted scientists at GISS in evaluating the accuracy of the RM3 climate model when compared to similar results obtained from satellite imagery. The results presented below will be refined to better meet the needs of GISS scientists and will be expanded to cover other geographic regions for a variety of time frames.

  17. Serious Simulation Role-Playing Games for Transformative Climate Change Education: "World Climate" and "Future Climate"

    Rooney-Varga, J. N.; Sterman, J.; Sawin, E.; Jones, A.; Merhi, H.; Hunt, C.

    2012-12-01

    results of the earlier decisions, as simulated by C-ROADS. Preliminary evaluations show that both exercises have the potential to provide powerful learning experiences. University students who played World Climate in a climate change course cited it as one of the course activities "promoting the most learning." Students' responses on anonymous surveys and open-ended questions revealed that the experience affected them at visceral, as well as intellectual levels. All of the students recommended that the exercise be continued in future years and many felt that it was the most important learning experience of the semester. Similarly, understanding of climate change and the dynamics of the climate improved for the majority of Future Climate participants, and 90% of participants stated that they were more likely to take action to address climate change on a personal level because of their experience.

  18. Climate Prediction Center - Monitoring & Data: Seasonal ENSO Impacts on

    page National Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center , state and local government Web resources and services. HOME > Monitoring and Data > U.S. Climate and Climate Prediction Climate Prediction Center 5830 University Research Court College Park, Maryland

  19. Climate Prediction Center - Outlooks: Current UV Index Forecast Map

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News Service NOAA Center for Weather and Climate Prediction Climate Prediction Center 5830 University Research Court College Park, Maryland 20740 Page Author: Climate Prediction Center Internet Team Disclaimer

  20. WORKSHOP: Thermal field theory

    Anon.

    1989-04-15

    The early history of the Universe is a crucial testing ground for theories of elementary particles. Speculative ideas about the constituents of matter and their interactions are reinforced if they are consistent with what we suppose happened near the beginning of time and discarded if they are not. The cosmological consequences of these theories are usually deduced using a general statistical approach called thermal field theory. Thus, 75 physicists from thirteen countries met in Cleveland, Ohio, last October for the first 'Workshop on Thermal Field Theories and their Applications'.

  1. Mountain winds and mesoscale climate structures under the influence of thermal forcing, average flow and clouds. Final report. Gebirgswinde und mesoskalige Klimastrukturen unter dem Einfluss von thermischem Antrieb, mittlerer Anstroemung und Wolken. Abschlussbericht

    Schumann, U; Somieski, F

    1989-01-01

    Contributions were made regarding the following targets: investigation of processes in partial climate systems, study of energy exchange over the ocean in the polar regions, measurement and evaluation of climate-relevant data in the Arctic, combination of measurements taken by aircraft, satellite data, and model calculations for the Arctic boundary layer, use of mesoscale simulation models to study climate-relevant processes, development and further development of mesoscale models of the second generation, especially radiation parameterizations, measurements of climatologically relevant data by satellite and additionally by aircraft, use and handling of climate-relevant satellite data and terrain data. (orig.).

  2. Undergraduate Students as Climate Communicators

    Sharif, H. O.; Joseph, J.; Mullendore, G. L.

    2012-12-01

    The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), San Antonio College (SAC), and the University of North Dakota (UND) are partnering with NASA to provide underrepresented undergraduates from UTSA, SAC, and other community colleges climate-related research and education experiences. The program aims to develop a robust response to climate change by providing K-16 climate change education; enhance the effectiveness of K-16 education particularly in engineering and other STEM disciplines by use of new instructional technologies; increase the enrollment in engineering programs and the number of engineering degrees awarded by showing engineering's usefulness in relation to the much-discussed contemporary issue of climate change; increase persistence in STEM degrees by providing student research opportunities; and increase the ethnic diversity of those receiving engineering degrees and help ensure an ethnically diverse response to climate change. Students will have the opportunity to participate in guided research experiences aligned with NASA Science Plan objectives for climate and Earth system science and the educational objectives of the three institutions. An integral part of the learning process will include training in modern media technology (webcasts), and in using this technology to communicate the information on climate change to others, especially high school students, culminating in production of a webcast about investigating aspects of climate change using NASA data. Content developed is leveraged by NASA Earth observation data and NASA Earth system models and tools. Several departments are involved in the educational program.

  3. Climate Change

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate change relevant for Denmark, including the change in mean year values as well as the extent of maximum and minimum extremes. Described by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the assumptions that the scenarios are based on were outlined...... and evaluated in a Danish context. The uncertainty of the scenarios leaves major challenges that, if not addressed and taken into account in building design, will grow far more serious as climate change progresses. Cases implemented in the Danish building stock illustrate adaptation to climate change...... and illustrate how building design can include mitigating measures to counteract climate change. Cases studied were individual buildings as well as the urban environment. Furthermore the paper describes some of the issues that must be addressed, as the building sector is investing in measures to adapt to climate...

  4. Climate Responsive Buildings in China

    Haase, M.; Amato, A.; Heiselberg, Per

    2006-01-01

    ) and discusses its usefulness for Hong Kong and China. Special focus was put on the description of the different climates in China and a detailed analysis revealed its potential for energy conservation strategies. It could be shown that Natural Ventilation (NV) has the potential to increase thermal comfort up...

  5. Climate change and preventive medicine

    Faergeman, Ole

    2007-01-01

    Thermal stress, food poisoning, infectious diseases, malnutrition, psychiatric illness as well as injury and death from floods, storms and fire are all likely to become more common as the earth warms and the climate becomes more variable. In contrast, obesity, type II diabetes and coronary artery...

  6. Thermal insulation

    Aspden, G.J.; Howard, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    The patent concerns high temperature thermal insulation of large vessels, such as the primary vessel of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor. The thermal insulation consists of multilayered thermal insulation modules, and each module comprises a number of metal sheet layers sandwiched between a back and front plate. The layers are linked together by straps and clips to control the thickness of the module. (U.K.)

  7. Climatic risks

    Lamarre, D.; Favier, R.; Bourg, D.; Marchand, J.P.

    2005-04-01

    The climatic risks are analyzed in this book under the cross-vision of specialists of different domains: philosophy, sociology, economic history, law, geography, climatology and hydrology. The prevention of risks and the precautionary principle are presented first. Then, the relations between climatic risk and geography are analyzed using the notion of territoriality. The territory aspect is in the core of the present day debates about the geography of risks, in particular when the links between climate change and public health are considered. Then the main climatic risks are presented. Droughts and floods are the most damaging ones and the difficulties of prevention-indemnification coupling remain important. (J.S.)

  8. Climate Change Literacy among Postgraduate Students of Addis ...

    Climate Change Literacy among Postgraduate Students of Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia. ... This study was aimed at assessing the level of climate change literacy ... This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

  9. Thermal comfort: research and practice.

    van Hoof, Joost; Mazej, Mitja; Hensen, Jan L M

    2010-01-01

    Thermal comfort--the state of mind, which expresses satisfaction with the thermal environment--is an important aspect of the building design process as modern man spends most of the day indoors. This paper reviews the developments in indoor thermal comfort research and practice since the second half of the 1990s, and groups these developments around two main themes; (i) thermal comfort models and standards, and (ii) advances in computerization. Within the first theme, the PMV-model (Predicted Mean Vote), created by Fanger in the late 1960s is discussed in the light of the emergence of models of adaptive thermal comfort. The adaptive models are based on adaptive opportunities of occupants and are related to options of personal control of the indoor climate and psychology and performance. Both models have been considered in the latest round of thermal comfort standard revisions. The second theme focuses on the ever increasing role played by computerization in thermal comfort research and practice, including sophisticated multi-segmental modeling and building performance simulation, transient thermal conditions and interactions, thermal manikins.

  10. A comparison of MCNP6-1.0 and GEANT 4-10.1 when evaluating the neutron output of a complex real world nuclear environment: The thermal neutron facility at the Tri Universities Meson facility

    Monk, S.D., E-mail: s.monk@lancaster.ac.uk [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW (United Kingdom); Shippen, B.A. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW (United Kingdom); Colling, B.R. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW (United Kingdom); Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Cheneler, D.; Al Hamrashdi, H.; Alton, T. [Department of Engineering, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YW (United Kingdom)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Comparison of the use of MCNP6 and GEANT4 Monte Carlo software when large distances and thicknesses are considered. • The Thermal Neutron Facility (TNF) at TRIUMF used as an example real life example location. • The effects of water, aluminium, iron and lead considered over various thicknesses up to 3 m. - Abstract: A comparison of the Monte Carlo based simulation codes MCNP6-1.0 and GEANT4-10.1 as used for modelling large scale structures is presented here. The high-energy neutron field at the Tri Universities Meson Facility (TRIUMF) in Vancouver, British Columbia is the structure modelled in this work. Work with the emphasis on the modelling of the facility and comparing with experimental results has been published previously, whereas this work is focussed on comparing the performance of the codes over relatively high depths of material rather than the accuracy of the results themselves in comparison to experimental data. Comparisons of three different locations within the neutron facility are modelled and presented using both codes as well as analysis of the transport of typical neutrons fields through large blocks of iron, water, lead and aluminium in order to determine where any deviations are likely to have occurred. Results indicate that over short distances, results from the two codes are in broad agreement – although over greater distances and within more complex geometries, deviation increases dramatically. The conclusions reached are that it is likely the deviations between the codes is caused by both the compounding effect of slight differences between the cross section files used by the two codes to determine the neutron transport through iron, and differences in the processes used by both codes.

  11. Ancient Climatic Architectural Design Approach

    Nasibeh Faghih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient climatic architecture had found out a series of appropriate responses for the best compatibility with the critical climate condition for instance, designing ‘earth sheltered houses’ and ‘courtyard houses’. They could provide human climatic comfort without excessive usage of fossil fuel resources. Owing to the normal thermal conditions in the ground depth, earth sheltered houses can be slightly affected by thermal fluctuations due to being within the earth. In depth further than 6.1 meters, temperature alternation is minute during the year, equaling to average annual temperature of outside. More to the point, courtyard buildings as another traditional design approach, have prepared controlled climatic space based on creating the maximum shade in the summer and maximum solar heat absorption in the winter. The courtyard houses served the multiple functions of lighting to the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in the summer and a radiator in the winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. It must be noted that they divided into summer and winter zones located in south and north of the central courtyard where residents were replaced into them according to changing the seasons. Therefore, Ancient climatic buildings provided better human thermal comfort in comparison with the use contemporary buildings of recent years, except with the air conditioning

  12. Thermal comfort in commercial kitchens (RP-1469)

    Simone, Angela; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Stoops, John L.

    2013-01-01

    The indoor climate in commercial kitchens is often unsatisfactory, and working conditions can have a significant effect on employees’ comfort and productivity. The type of establishment (fast food, casual, etc.) and climatic zone can influence thermal conditions in the kitchens. Moreover, the size...... and arrangement of the kitchen zones, appliances, etc., further complicate an evaluation of the indoor thermal environment in commercial kitchens. In general, comfort criteria are stipulated in international standards (e.g., ASHRAE 55 or ISO EN 7730), but are these standardized methods applicable...... dissatisfied (PMV/PPD) index is not directly appropriate for all thermal conditions in commercial kitchens....

  13. Climate variability and climate change

    Rind, D.

    1990-01-01

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century

  14. Climate variability and climate change

    Rind, D.

    1991-01-01

    Changes of variability with climate change are likely to have a substantial impact on vegetation and society, rivaling the importance of changes in the mean values themselves. A variety of paleoclimate and future climate simulations performed with the GISS global climate model is used to assess how the variabilities of temperature and precipitation are altered as climate warms or cools. In general, as climate warms, temperature variability decreases due to reductions in the latitudinal temperature gradient and precipitation variability increases together with the intensity of the hydrologic cycle. If future climate projections are accurate, the reduction in temperature variability will be minimized by the rapid change in mean temperatures, but the hydrologic variability will be amplified by increased evapotranspiration. Greater hydrologic variability would appear to pose a potentially severe problem for the next century. 19 refs.; 3 figs.; 2 tabs

  15. UTCI—Why another thermal index?

    Jendritzky, Gerd; de Dear, Richard; Havenith, George

    2012-05-01

    Existing procedures for the assessment of the thermal environment in the fields of public weather services, public health systems, precautionary planning, urban design, tourism and recreation and climate impact research exhibit significant shortcomings. This is most evident for simple (mostly two-parameter) indices, when comparing them to complete heat budget models developed since the 1960s. ISB Commission 6 took up the idea of developing a Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) based on the most advanced multi-node model of thermoregulation representing progress in science within the last three to four decades, both in thermo-physiological and heat exchange theory. Creating the essential research synergies for the development of UTCI required pooling the resources of multidisciplinary experts in the fields of thermal physiology, mathematical modelling, occupational medicine, meteorological data handling (in particular radiation modelling) and application development in a network. It was possible to extend the expertise of ISB Commission 6 substantially by COST (a European programme promoting Cooperation in Science and Technology) Action 730 so that finally over 45 scientists from 23 countries (Australia, Canada, Israel, several Europe countries, New Zealand, and the United States) worked together. The work was performed under the umbrella of the WMO Commission on Climatology (CCl). After extensive evaluations, Fiala's multi-node human physiology and thermal comfort model (FPC) was adopted for this study. The model was validated extensively, applying as yet unused data from other research groups, and extended for the purposes of the project. This model was coupled with a state-of-the-art clothing model taking into consideration behavioural adaptation of clothing insulation by the general urban population in response to actual environmental temperature. UTCI was then derived conceptually as an equivalent temperature (ET). Thus, for any combination of air

  16. LGBT Workplace Climate in Astronomy

    Gaudi, B. S.; Danner, R.; Dixon, W. V.; Henderson, C. B.; Kay, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    The AAS Working Group on LGBTIQ Equality (WGLE) held a town hall meeting at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage to explore the workplace climate for LGBTIQ individuals working in Astronomy and related fields. Topics of discussion included anti-discrimination practices, general workplace climate, and pay and benefit policies. Four employment sectors were represented: industry, the federal government, private colleges, and public universities. We will summarize and expand on the town hall discussions and findings of the panel members.

  17. Climate change

    Marchal, V.; Dellink, R.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Clapp, C.; Chateau, J.; Magné, B.; Lanzi, E.; Vliet, J. van

    2012-01-01

    This chapter analyses the policy implications of the climate change challenge. Are current emission reduction pledges made in Copenhagen/Cancun enough to stabilise the climate and limit global average temperature increase to 2 oC? If not, what will the consequences be? What alternative growth

  18. Thermal insulation

    Pinsky, G.P.

    1977-01-01

    Thermal insulation for vessels and piping within the reactor containment area of nuclear power plants is disclosed. The thermal insulation of this invention can be readily removed and replaced from the vessels and piping for inservice inspection, can withstand repeated wettings and dryings, and can resist high temperatures for long periods of time. 4 claims, 3 figures

  19. Thermal Responsive Envelope

    Foged, Isak Worre; Pasold, Anke

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents an architectural computational method and model, which, through additive and subtractive processes, create composite elements with bending behaviour based on thermal variations in the surrounding climatic environment. The present effort is focused on the manipulation of assembly...... alterations, their respective durability and copper’s architectural (visual and transformative) aesthetic qualities. Through the use of an evolutionary solver, the composite structure of the elements are organised to find the bending behaviour specified by and for the thermal environments. The entire model...... in which the behavioural composites are organised in modules and how they act and perform. Furthermore, a large full-scale prototype is made as a demonstrator and experimental setup for post-construct analysis and evaluation of the design research. The work finds that the presented method and model can...

  20. Climate change

    Cronin, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change (including climate variability) refers to regional or global changes in mean climate state or in patterns of climate variability over decades to millions of years often identified using statistical methods and sometimes referred to as changes in long-term weather conditions (IPCC, 2012). Climate is influenced by changes in continent-ocean configurations due to plate tectonic processes, variations in Earth’s orbit, axial tilt and precession, atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations, solar variability, volcanism, internal variability resulting from interactions between the atmosphere, oceans and ice (glaciers, small ice caps, ice sheets, and sea ice), and anthropogenic activities such as greenhouse gas emissions and land use and their effects on carbon cycling.

  1. Ultrascale Visualization of Climate Data

    Williams, Dean N.; Bremer, Timo; Doutriaux, Charles; Patchett, John; Williams, Sean; Shipman, Galen; Miller, Ross; Pugmire, David R.; Smith, Brian; Steed, Chad; hide

    2013-01-01

    Fueled by exponential increases in the computational and storage capabilities of high-performance computing platforms, climate simulations are evolving toward higher numerical fidelity, complexity, volume, and dimensionality. These technological breakthroughs are coming at a time of exponential growth in climate data, with estimates of hundreds of exabytes by 2020. To meet the challenges and exploit the opportunities that such explosive growth affords, a consortium of four national laboratories, two universities, a government agency, and two private companies formed to explore the next wave in climate science. Working in close collaboration with domain experts, the Ultrascale Visualization Climate Data Analysis Tools (UV-CDAT) project aims to provide high-level solutions to a variety of climate data analysis and visualization problems.

  2. Implications of recent research on microstructure modifications, through heat-related processing and trait alteration to bio-functions, molecular thermal stability and mobility, metabolic characteristics and nutrition in cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds with advanced molecular techniques.

    Ying, Yuguang; Zhang, Huihua; Yu, Peiqiang

    2018-02-16

    The cutting-edge synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy have recently been developed. These novel techniques are able to reveal structure features at cellular and molecular levels with the tested tissues being intact. However, to date, the advanced techniques are unfamiliar or unknown to food and feed scientists and have not been used to study the molecular structure changes in cool-climate cereal grain seeds and other types of bio-oil and bioenergy seeds. This article aims to provide some recent research in cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds on molecular structures and metabolic characteristics of carbohydrate and protein, and implication of microstructure modification through heat-related processing and trait alteration to bio-functions, molecular thermal stability and mobility, and nutrition with advanced molecular techniques- synchrotron radiation based and globar-sourced vibrational infrared microspectroscopy in the areas of (1) Inherent microstructure of cereal grain seeds; (2) The nutritional values of cereal grains; (3) Impact and modification of heat-related processing to cereal grain; (4) Conventional nutrition evaluation methodology; (5) Synchrotron radiation-based and globar-sourced vibrational (micro)-spectroscopy for molecular structure study and molecular thermal stability and mobility, and (6) Recent molecular spectroscopic technique applications in research on raw, traits altered and processed cool-climate cereal grains and other types of seeds. The information described in this article gives better insights of research progress and update in cool-climate cereal grains and other seeds with advanced molecular techniques.

  3. University Internationalization and University Autonomy

    Turcan, Romeo V.; Gulieva, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability are d......, dissimilar, and sometimes conflicting dimensions of the financial, legal, organisational, staffing, and academic autonomy of the host country, are compromising key aspects of their own autonomy and core mission?......Turcan and Gulieva deepen our theoretical understanding of the process of university internationalisation by exploring the relationship between university internationalisation and university autonomy. They conjecture that the process of university internationalisation and its sustainability...... are determined by the structure and exercise of university autonomy settings at home and in the host countries, and that the process itself cannot be successfully achieved and maintained without changes in the autonomy settings. The key question the authors ask is to what degree universities, in embracing new...

  4. The influence of thermal discomfort on the attention index of teenagers: an experimental evaluation

    Mazon, Jordi

    2014-07-01

    In order to measure the effect on the attention of teenagers of thermal discomfort due to high temperature and humidity, two experiments were conducted in two different indoor conditions of temperature and humidity in non-air-conditioned classrooms. The participants were a heterogeneous group of 117 teenagers, aged 12 to 18 years, and the experiments reproduced the actual conditions of teaching in a classroom in the Mediterranean climate. In order to measure the attention index, a standard Toulouse-Pieron psychological test was performed on the 117 teenagers in these two conditions, and the Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), the physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET), the Standard effective Temperature (SET*) and the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) indices were calculated to estimate the grade of discomfort using the RayMan Pro model. Conditions of greater discomfort decreased the attention index in the whole group, especially in those aged 12-14, among whom the attention index dropped by around 45 % when compared to comfortable conditions. However, teenage attention at ages 17 and 18 shows little variation in discomfort in respect to thermally comfortable conditions. In addition, the attention index for boys and girls shows the same variation in discomfort conditions. However, girls have a slightly higher attention index than boys in discomfort and thermal comfort experiments.

  5. Thermal transgenerational plasticity in natural populations of Daphnia.

    Walsh, Matthew R; Whittington, Deirdre; Funkhouser, Collin

    2014-11-01

    Rising temperatures associated with global climatic change threaten the persistence of species. Determining how species adapt to environmental change is paramount. Much work has shown that environmental stressors have the potential to induce phenotypic changes that span multiple generations. Such transgenerational plasticity (TGP) represents a mechanism that may allow for rapid responses to global climatic change. Yet, our understanding of thermal TGP beyond the relationship between parent and offspring is limited. We evaluated thermal TGP in development across three generations (i.e., F0, F1, and F2) in zooplankton (Daphnia ambigua) from lakes in Connecticut. We found that the temperatures at which parents and grandparents were reared significantly influenced age at maturation in the grand-offspring. Comparisons between the F0 and F1 generation show that the offspring of parents reared at low temperatures matured significantly faster than the offspring of parents reared at a higher temperature. However, age at maturation in the grand-offspring was influenced by the interactive effects of parents and grandparents. Such an effect yielded trends that were not readily predicted from the previous generations and whose adaptive significance is unclear. Our results thus call for additional theoretical and empirical work to better understand the transgenerational effects of temperature. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Climate change and climate policy

    Alfsen, Knut H.; Kolshus, Hans H.; Torvanger, Asbjoern

    2000-08-01

    The climate issue is a great political and scientific challenge for several reasons: (1) There are many uncertain aspects of the climate problem, such as future emission of climate gases, the response of the climate system upon these gases, and the effects of climate changes. (2) It is probable, however, that anthropogenic emission of climate gases, deforestation etc. will cause noticeable climate changes in the future. This might be observed as increased frequency of extreme weather situations. This appears to be a greater threat than a gradual increase of temperature and precipitation. (3) Since the climate system is large and react only relatively slowly on changes in for instance the emission of climate gases, the climate problem can only be solved by means of long-term measures. (4) The climate changes may be irreversible. A rational short-term strategy is to ensure maximum flexibility, which can be done by ''slowing down'' (curtailing emissions) and by avoiding irreversible actions as much as possible. The long-term challenge is to develop an economically responsible alternative to the present fossil-based energy system that permits carbon-efficient technologies to compete on price with coal and unconventional oil and gas. Norway is in a special position by being a large exporter of fossil fuel and at the same time wanting to appear responsible in environmental matters. This combination may incur considerable expenses upon Norway and it is therefore important that environmental commitments like the Kyoto agreement can be honoured to the lowest possible cost. The costs can be minimized by: (1) minimizing the measure costs in Norway, (2) working to make the international quota price as low as possible, and (3) reducing the loss of petroleum income as much as possible. This report describes the earth's climate history, the forces behind climatic changes and what the prospects for the future look like. It also reviews what is being done to curtail the emission of

  7. Determination of Optimum Window to External Wall Ratio for Offices in a Hot and Humid Climate

    Halil Alibaba

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heat loss and gain through windows has a very high impact on the thermal comfort of offices. This paper analyzes a standard low energy consumption university office that has a standard envelope. Dynamic thermal simulations with EDSL Tas software, a predicted mean vote (PMV, and a predicted percentage of dissatisfied (PPD with all local discomfort as stated in ASHRAE, ISO 7730: 2005, EN 15251: 2007 were used for thermal sensation, in order to optimize the best window to external wall proportion in a hot and humid climate that exists in the Famagusta case study. A simulated office building is oriented east to west in order to take advantage of the wind direction. In May 45% (PPD < 6%–0.7% open window, 93% (PPD < 10–0.2 open window, and 97% (PPD < 15%–0.1% open window thermal comfort scores are obtained when the window to external wall ratio (WWR is 10%. In October 43% (PPD < 6%–0.7% open window, 86% (PPD < 10–0.2 open window, and 92% (PPD < 15%–0.1% open window thermal comfort scores are obtained when the WWR is 10%. In September 49% (PPD < 10% full open window and 51% (PPD < 15%–0.1% open window thermal comfort scores are obtained when the WWR is 10%.

  8. Microwave Thermal Propulsion

    Parkin, Kevin L. G.; Lambot, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We have conducted research in microwave thermal propulsion as part of the space exploration access technologies (SEAT) research program, a cooperative agreement (NNX09AF52A) between NASA and Carnegie Mellon University. The SEAT program commenced on the 19th of February 2009 and concluded on the 30th of September 2015. The DARPA/NASA Millimeter-wave Thermal Launch System (MTLS) project subsumed the SEAT program from May 2012 to March 2014 and one of us (Parkin) served as its principal investigator and chief engineer. The MTLS project had no final report of its own, so we have included the MTLS work in this report and incorporate its conclusions here. In the six years from 2009 until 2015 there has been significant progress in millimeter-wave thermal rocketry (a subset of microwave thermal rocketry), most of which has been made under the auspices of the SEAT and MTLS programs. This final report is intended for multiple audiences. For researchers, we present techniques that we have developed to simplify and quantify the performance of thermal rockets and their constituent technologies. For program managers, we detail the facilities that we have built and the outcomes of experiments that were conducted using them. We also include incomplete and unfruitful lines of research. For decision-makers, we introduce the millimeter-wave thermal rocket in historical context. Considering the economic significance of space launch, we present a brief but significant cost-benefit analysis, for the first time showing that there is a compelling economic case for replacing conventional rockets with millimeter-wave thermal rockets.

  9. Successful Massive Open Online Climate Course on Climate Science and Psychology

    Nuccitelli, D. A.; Cook, J.

    2015-12-01

    In 2015, the University of Queensland and edX launched a Massive Open Online Course (MOOC), 'Making Sense of Climate Science Denial.' The MOOC debunked approximately 50 common climate myths using elements of both physical science and psychology. Students learned how to recognise the social and psychological drivers of climate science denial, how to better understand climate change, how to identify the techniques and fallacies that climate myths employ to distort climate science, and how to effectively debunk climate misinformation. Contributors to the website Skeptical Science delivered the lectures, which were reinforced via interviews with climate science and psychology experts. Over 15,000 students from 167 countries enrolled in the course, and student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. This MOOC provides a model for effective climate science education.

  10. Exploring the Multifaceted Topic of Climate Change in Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate

    Brey, J. A.; Kauffman, C.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Nugnes, K. A.; Stimach, A. E.

    2015-12-01

    As the effects of climate change become more profound, climate literacy becomes increasingly important. The American Meteorological Society (AMS) responds to this need through the publication of Our Changing Climate and Living With Our Changing Climate. Both publications incorporate the latest scientific understandings of Earth's climate system from reports such as IPCC AR5 and the USGCRP's Third National Climate Assessment. Topic In Depth sections appear throughout each chapter and lead to more extensive, multidisciplinary information related to various topics. Additionally, each chapter closes with a For Further Exploration essay, which addresses specific topics that complement a chapter concept. Web Resources, which encourage additional exploration of chapter content, and Scientific Literature, from which chapter content was derived can also be found at the conclusion of each chapter. Our Changing Climate covers a breadth of topics, including the scientific principles that govern Earth's climate system and basic statistics and geospatial tools used to investigate the system. Released in fall 2015, Living With Our Changing Climate takes a more narrow approach and investigates human and ecosystem vulnerabilities to climate change, the role of energy choices in affecting climate, actions humans can take through adaption, mitigation, and policy to lessen vulnerabilities, and psychological and financial reasons behind climate change denial. While Living With Our Changing Climate is intended for programs looking to add a climate element into their curriculum, Our Changing Climate is part of the AMS Climate Studies course. In a 2015 survey of California University of Pennsylvania undergraduate students using Our Changing Climate, 82% found it comfortable to read and utilized its interactive components and resources. Both ebooks illuminate the multidisciplinary aspect of climate change, providing the opportunity for a more sustainable future.

  11. Climate Sensitivity

    Lindzen, Richard [M.I.T.

    2011-11-09

    Warming observed thus far is entirely consistent with low climate sensitivity. However, the result is ambiguous because the sources of climate change are numerous and poorly specified. Model predictions of substantial warming aredependent on positive feedbacks associated with upper level water vapor and clouds, but models are notably inadequate in dealing with clouds and the impacts of clouds and water vapor are intimately intertwined. Various approaches to measuring sensitivity based on the physics of the feedbacks will be described. The results thus far point to negative feedbacks. Problems with these approaches as well as problems with the concept of climate sensitivity will be described.

  12. Climatic change

    Perthuis, Ch. de; Delbosc, A.

    2009-01-01

    Received ideas about climatic change are a mixture of right and wrong information. The authors use these ideas as starting points to shade light on what we really know and what we believe to know. The book is divided in three main chapters: should we act in front of climatic change? How can we efficiently act? How can we equitably act? For each chapter a series of received ideas is analyzed in order to find those which can usefully contribute to mitigate the environmental, economical and social impacts of climatic change. (J.S.)

  13. Politicised climate

    Kaerner, Olavi

    1999-01-01

    Global warming is possible due to the increase of the greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere. That circumstance, together with the general uncertainty about the exact definition of climate, enables politicians to give arbitrary interpretations of the time sequences collected on changes in temperatures, precipitations, etc., and thus, to intimidate people by predicting dire consequences. The paper explains some of the popular (mis)interpretations. The real effect on the contemporary climate caused by the increasing greenhouse gas reinforcement is still unknown owing to the complexity of the Earth's climatic system. Its modelling accuracy is still miserable. (author)

  14. A Roadmap for Thermal Metrology

    Bojkovski, J.; Fischer, J.; Machin, G.; Pavese, F.; Peruzzi, A.; Renaot, E.; Tegeler, E.

    2009-02-01

    A provisional roadmap for thermal metrology was developed in Spring 2006 as part of the EUROMET iMERA activity toward increasing impact from national investment in European metrology R&D. This consisted of two parts: one addressing the influence of thermal metrology on society, industry, and science, and the other specifying the requirements of enabling thermal metrology to serve future needs. The roadmap represents the shared vision of the EUROMET TC Therm committee as to how thermal metrology should develop to meet future requirements over the next 15 years. It is important to stress that these documents are a first attempt to roadmap the whole of thermal metrology and will certainly need regular review and revision to remain relevant and useful to the community they seek to serve. The first part of the roadmap, “Thermal metrology for society, industry, and science,” identifies the main social and economic triggers driving developments in thermal metrology—notably citizen safety and security, new production technologies, environment and global climate change, energy, and health. Stemming from these triggers, key targets are identified that require improved thermal measurements. The second part of the roadmap, “Enabling thermal metrology to serve future needs” identifies another set of triggers, like global trade and interoperability, future needs in transport, and the earth radiation budget. Stemming from these triggers, key targets are identified, such as improved realizations and dissemination of the SI unit the kelvin, anchoring the kelvin to the Boltzmann constant, k B, and calculating thermal properties from first principles. To facilitate these outcomes, the roadmap identifies the technical advances required in thermal measurement standards.

  15. Solutions-based climate change education for K-Gray: Renewable energy and energy efficiency

    Petrone, C.

    2017-12-01

    Through the National Science Foundation-funded MADE CLEAR (www.madeclear.org) climate change education project's Informal Climate Change Education (ICCE) Community, funds were received to collaboratively train teachers, informal educators, students, and university docents in climate change basics and solutions, specifically renewable energy and energy efficiency. In all, 10 docents, 50 classroom teachers, over 600 K-16 students, and several hundred science-interested citizens participated in programs and workshops lasting between one and seven hours. Using commercially available kits and other DIY projects, program participants used science content and engineering to develop models of wind turbines, wind mills, solar cells, solar cookers, solar stills, and wind-powered cars. Using thermal imaging cameras, Kill-a-Watt meters, "Carbon Food Print" kit, "Energy Matters" kit, and other tools, program participants learned about energy efficiency as not only a global climate change mitigation strategy, but also a way to save money. ICCE Community members and external partners, such as local electric cooperative personnel, university researchers, and state-sponsored energy efficiency program personnel, provided content presentations, discussions, and hands-on activities to program participants.

  16. Double universe and the arrow of time

    Alfinito, Eleonora [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Innovazione, Universitta di Lecce, 73100 Lecce and CNISM-Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario per le Scienze Fisiche della Materia. Universita di Lecce (Italy); Vitiello, Giuseppe [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno, and INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, 84100 Salerno (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    The canonical quantum field theory formalism for the expanding geometry universe leads to the 'Double Universe' scenario envisaged by quantum loop gravity. Thermal properties of inflating universe and the classicality of the time-evolution trajectories in the space of the representations of the canonical commutation relations are also discussed.

  17. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort—a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  18. Impact of shade on outdoor thermal comfort-a seasonal field study in Tempe, Arizona.

    Middel, Ariane; Selover, Nancy; Hagen, Björn; Chhetri, Nalini

    2016-12-01

    Shade plays an important role in designing pedestrian-friendly outdoor spaces in hot desert cities. This study investigates the impact of photovoltaic canopy shade and tree shade on thermal comfort through meteorological observations and field surveys at a pedestrian mall on Arizona State University's Tempe campus. During the course of 1 year, on selected clear calm days representative of each season, we conducted hourly meteorological transects from 7:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. and surveyed 1284 people about their thermal perception, comfort, and preferences. Shade lowered thermal sensation votes by approximately 1 point on a semantic differential 9-point scale, increasing thermal comfort in all seasons except winter. Shade type (tree or solar canopy) did not significantly impact perceived comfort, suggesting that artificial and natural shades are equally efficient in hot dry climates. Globe temperature explained 51 % of the variance in thermal sensation votes and was the only statistically significant meteorological predictor. Important non-meteorological factors included adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, gender, season, and time of day. A regression of subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature yielded a neutral temperature of 28.6 °C. The acceptable comfort range was 19.1 °C-38.1 °C with a preferred temperature of 20.8 °C. Respondents exposed to above neutral temperature felt more comfortable if they had been in air-conditioning 5 min prior to the survey, indicating a lagged response to outdoor conditions. Our study highlights the importance of active solar access management in hot urban areas to reduce thermal stress.

  19. THERMAL COMFORT STUDY OF TEACHERS' ROOM AT SEKOLAH BINA MULIA PONTIANAK

    Albert Suryajaya

    2014-01-01

    tersebut dalam tiga hari pengamatan adalah 0,130 dan merupakan kondisi netral. Ini artinya ruangan tersebut nyaman bagi penggunanya, yang pada dasarnya dikarenakan sistem jendela, pelindung matahari, dan material bangunan dapat mendukung ventilasi udara alami pada bangunan   REFERENCES Alucci, Marcia Peinando; Leonardo Marques Monteiro. 2009. Thermal Comfort Index for The Assessment of Outdoor Urban Spaces in Subtropical Climates. University of Sao Paulo. Sao Paulo Brager, G.S. and R. de Dear. 2001. Climate, Comfort, & Natural Ventilation: A new adaptive comfort standard for ASHRAE Standard 55. University of California. Berkeley. Charles, Kate E. 2003. Fanger’s Thermal Comfort and Draught Models. Institute for Research in Construction. Ottawa Darby, Sarah and Rebecca White. 2005. Thermal Comfort. University of Oxford. London Hensen, J.L.M. 1990. Literature Review on Thermal Comfort in Tranisent Conditions. Eindhoven University of Technology. Eindhoven Mangunwijaya, Yusuf Bilyarta. 1929. Pengantar Fisika Bangunan. Djambatan. Jakarta Mors, Sanderter, Jan L. M. Hensen, Marcel Loomans, Atze Boerstra. 2011. Adaptive thermal comfort in primary school classrooms: Creating and validating PMV-based comfort charts. Eindhoven University of Technology. Eindhoven Orosa, Jose A. 2009. Research on the Origins of Thermal Comfort. University of A Coruña. A Coruña Parsons, Ken. 2003. Human Thermal Environments: The effect of Hot, Modern, and Cold Environments on Human Health, Comfort, and Performance. Tj International Ltd. Cornwall Pau, J.S., William K.S. Pao, Shaharin A. Sulaiman, and E. Halawa. 2013. Adaptive Thermal’s Model for Optimum Thermal Comfort Setting fo Lecture Halls in Malaysia. CREAM - Current Research in Malaysia Vol.2, No. 2 Satwiko, Prasasto. 2005. Fisika Bangunan 1 Edisi 2. Andi. Yogyakarta

  20. Thermal expansion

    Yun, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal expansion of fuel pellet is an important property which limits the lifetime of the fuels in reactors, because it affects both the pellet and cladding mechanical interaction and the gap conductivity. By fitting a number of available measured data, recommended equations have been presented and successfully used to estimate thermal expansion coefficient of the nuclear fuel pellet. However, due to large scatter of the measured data, non-consensus data have been omitted in formulating the equations. Also, the equation is strongly governed by the lack of appropriate experimental data. For those reasons, it is important to develop theoretical methodologies to better describe thermal expansion behaviour of nuclear fuel. In particular, first-principles and molecular dynamics simulations have been certainly contributed to predict reliable thermal expansion without fitting the measured data. Furthermore, the two theoretical techniques have improved on understanding the change of fuel dimension by describing the atomic-scale processes associated with lattice expansion in the fuels. (author)

  1. Climatic change

    NONE

    1977-02-15

    In spite of man's remarkable advances in technology, ultimately he is still dependent on the Earth's climatic system for food and fresh water. The recent occurrences in certain regions of the world of climatic extremes such as excessive rain or droughts and unseasonably high or low temperatures have led to speculation that a major climatic change is occurring on a global scale. Some point to the recent drop in temperatures in the northern hemisphere as an indication that the Earth is entering a new ice age. Others see a global warming trend that may be due to a build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. An authoritative report on the subject has been prepared by a World Meteorological Organization Panel of Experts on Climatic Change. Excerpts from the report are given. (author)

  2. Climate Reconstructions

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Paleoclimatology Program archives reconstructions of past climatic conditions derived from paleoclimate proxies, in addition to the Program's large holdings...

  3. Climate catastrophes

    Budyko, Mikhail

    1999-05-01

    Climate catastrophes, which many times occurred in the geological past, caused the extinction of large or small populations of animals and plants. Changes in the terrestrial and marine biota caused by the catastrophic climate changes undoubtedly resulted in considerable fluctuations in global carbon cycle and atmospheric gas composition. Primarily, carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas contents were affected. The study of these catastrophes allows a conclusion that climate system is very sensitive to relatively small changes in climate-forcing factors (transparency of the atmosphere, changes in large glaciations, etc.). It is important to take this conclusion into account while estimating the possible consequences of now occurring anthropogenic warming caused by the increase in greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere.

  4. Climatic change

    1977-01-01

    In spite of man's remarkable advances in technology, ultimately he is still dependent on the Earth's climatic system for food and fresh water. The recent occurrences in certain regions of the world of climatic extremes such as excessive rain or droughts and unseasonably high or low temperatures have led to speculation that a major climatic change is occurring on a global scale. Some point to the recent drop in temperatures in the northern hemisphere as an indication that the Earth is entering a new ice age. Others see a global warming trend that may be due to a build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. An authoritative report on the subject has been prepared by a World Meteorological Organization Panel of Experts on Climatic Change. Excerpts from the report are given. (author)

  5. Influencing Curriculum Development and Knowledge of Climate ...

    Journal of Agricultural Extension ... Besides, the pedagogies and curricula are centrally defined by university governance structures which ... The study aimed at influencing curriculum development and knowledge of climate change issues at ...

  6. Climate Change | Page 30 | IDRC - International Development ...

    Researchers led by the University of Antananarivo found that maintenance of ... the availability of more reliable forecasts from meteorological services in Kenya, ... Climate Change conference, the largest scientific forum leading up to global ...

  7. Climate adaptation and innovation in Mekong aquaculture ...

    Climate adaptation and innovation in Mekong aquaculture – AQUADAPT Mekong ... severe weather events and rising sea levels that impact regional hydrology. ... Research and Development Institute, Cambodia; National University of Laos; ...

  8. Climate Prediction Center - Outlooks

    Weather Service NWS logo - Click to go to the NWS home page Climate Prediction Center Home Site Map News Web resources and services. HOME > Outreach > Publications > Climate Diagnostics Bulletin Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Tropics Climate Diagnostics Bulletin - Forecast Climate Diagnostics

  9. A New World of Knowledge: Canadian Universities and Globalization

    But what of our system of education,and particularly our universities? ... to position the university to cope with budget reductions through the sale of educational services? ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.

  10. Meteorology and Climate Inspire Secondary Science Students

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew; Dacre, Helen; Maskell, Kathy; Reynolds, Ross; South, Rachel; Wood, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    As part of its National Science and Engineering Week activities in 2009 and 2010, the University of Reading organised two open days for 60 local key stage 4 pupils. The theme of both open days was "How do we predict weather and climate?" Making use of the students' familiarity with weather and climate, several concepts of relevance to secondary…

  11. Modified physiologically equivalent temperature—basics and applications for western European climate

    Chen, Yung-Chang; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    A new thermal index, the modified physiologically equivalent temperature (mPET) has been developed for universal application in different climate zones. The mPET has been improved against the weaknesses of the original physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) by enhancing evaluation of the humidity and clothing variability. The principles of mPET and differences between original PET and mPET are introduced and discussed in this study. Furthermore, this study has also evidenced the usability of mPET with climatic data in Freiburg, which is located in Western Europe. Comparisons of PET, mPET, and Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) have shown that mPET gives a more realistic estimation of human thermal sensation than the other two thermal indices (PET, UTCI) for the thermal conditions in Freiburg. Additionally, a comparison of physiological parameters between mPET model and PET model (Munich Energy Balance Model for Individual, namely MEMI) is proposed. The core temperatures and skin temperatures of PET model vary more violently to a low temperature during cold stress than the mPET model. It can be regarded as that the mPET model gives a more realistic core temperature and mean skin temperature than the PET model. Statistical regression analysis of mPET based on the air temperature, mean radiant temperature, vapor pressure, and wind speed has been carried out. The R square (0.995) has shown a well co-relationship between human biometeorological factors and mPET. The regression coefficient of each factor represents the influence of the each factor on changing mPET (i.e., ±1 °C of T a = ± 0.54 °C of mPET). The first-order regression has been considered predicting a more realistic estimation of mPET at Freiburg during 2003 than the other higher order regression model, because the predicted mPET from the first-order regression has less difference from mPET calculated from measurement data. Statistic tests recognize that mPET can effectively evaluate the

  12. Thermal Analysis of Solar Panels

    Barth, Nicolas; de Correia, João Pedro Magalhães; Ahzi, Saïd; Khaleel, Mohammad Ahmed

    In this work, we propose to analyze the thermal behavior of PV panels using finite element simulations (FEM). We applied this analysis to compute the temperature distribution in a PV panel BP 350 subjected to different atmospheric conditions. This analysis takes into account existing formulations in the literature and, based on NOCT conditions, meteorological data was used to validate our approach for different wind speed and solar irradiance. The electrical performance of the PV panel was also studied. The proposed 2D FEM analysis is applied to different region's climates and was also used to consider the role of thermal inertia on the optimization of the PV device efficiency.

  13. Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage for Seasonal Thermal Energy Balance

    Rostampour, Vahab; Bloemendal, Martin; Keviczky, Tamas

    2017-04-01

    Aquifer Thermal Energy Storage (ATES) systems allow storing large quantities of thermal energy in subsurface aquifers enabling significant energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions. This is achieved by injection and extraction of water into and from saturated underground aquifers, simultaneously. An ATES system consists of two wells and operates in a seasonal mode. One well is used for the storage of cold water, the other one for the storage of heat. In warm seasons, cold water is extracted from the cold well to provide cooling to a building. The temperature of the extracted cold water increases as it passes through the building climate control systems and then gets simultaneously, injected back into the warm well. This procedure is reversed during cold seasons where the flow direction is reversed such that the warmer water is extracted from the warm well to provide heating to a building. From the perspective of building climate comfort systems, an ATES system is considered as a seasonal storage system that can be a heat source or sink, or as a storage for thermal energy. This leads to an interesting and challenging optimal control problem of the building climate comfort system that can be used to develop a seasonal-based energy management strategy. In [1] we develop a control-oriented model to predict thermal energy balance in a building climate control system integrated with ATES. Such a model however cannot cope with off-nominal but realistic situations such as when the wells are completely depleted, or the start-up phase of newly installed wells, etc., leading to direct usage of aquifer ambient temperature. Building upon our previous work in [1], we here extend the mathematical model for ATES system to handle the above mentioned more realistic situations. Using our improved models, one can more precisely predict system behavior and apply optimal control strategies to manage the building climate comfort along with energy savings and greenhouse gas reductions

  14. Coupling Climate Models and Forward-Looking Economic Models

    Judd, K.; Brock, W. A.

    2010-12-01

    -looking economic modules, and the initial models will help guide the construction of more refined models that can effectively use more powerful computational environments to analyze economic policies related to climate change. REFERENCES Brock, W., Xepapadeas, A., 2010, “An Integration of Simple Dynamic Energy Balance Climate Models and Ramsey Growth Models,” Department of Economics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, and University of Athens. Golub, A., Hertel, T., etal., 2009, “The opportunity cost of land use and the global potential for greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture and forestry,” RESOURCE AND ENERGY ECONOMICS, 31, 299-319. Judd, K., 1992, “Projection methods for solving aggregate growth models,” JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC THEORY, 58: 410-52. Judd, K., 1998, NUMERICAL METHODS IN ECONOMICS, MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass. Nordhaus, W., 2007, A QUESTION OF BALANCE: ECONOMIC MODELS OF CLIMATE CHANGE, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT. North, G., R., Cahalan, R., Coakely, J., 1981, “Energy balance climate models,” REVIEWS OF GEOPHYSICS AND SPACE PHYSICS, Vol. 19, No. 1, 91-121, February Wu, W., North, G. R., 2007, “Thermal decay modes of a 2-D energy balance climate model,” TELLUS, 59A, 618-626.

  15. Thermal Properties and Thermal Analysis:

    Kasap, Safa; Tonchev, Dan

    The chapter provides a summary of the fundamental concepts that are needed to understand the heat capacity C P, thermal conductivity κ, and thermal expansion coefficient α L of materials. The C P, κ, and α of various classes of materials, namely, semiconductors, polymers, and glasses, are reviewed, and various typical characteristics are summarized. A key concept in crystalline solids is the Debye theory of the heat capacity, which has been widely used for many decades for calculating the C P of crystals. The thermal properties are interrelated through Grüneisen's theorem. Various useful empirical rules for calculating C P and κ have been used, some of which are summarized. Conventional differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a powerful and convenient thermal analysis technique that allows various important physical and chemical transformations, such as the glass transition, crystallization, oxidation, melting etc. to be studied. DSC can also be used to obtain information on the kinetics of the transformations, and some of these thermal analysis techniques are summarized. Temperature-modulated DSC, TMDSC, is a relatively recent innovation in which the sample temperature is ramped slowly and, at the same time, sinusoidally modulated. TMDSC has a number of distinct advantages compared with the conventional DSC since it measures the complex heat capacity. For example, the glass-transition temperature T g measured by TMDSC has almost no dependence on the thermal history, and corresponds to an almost step life change in C P. The new Tzero DSC has an additional thermocouple to calibrate better for thermal lags inherent in the DSC measurement, and allows more accurate thermal analysis.

  16. Climate certificates

    1998-10-01

    Reduced emissions of climate gases at the lowest cost require international cooperation in order to ensure that the most cost-efficient measures are taken. A market for emission rights is one way of achieving this. However, creating the right conditions for such a market to operate requires an unambiguous definition of the product to be traded. In this PM, the Swedish Power Association sketches out how such a product could be defined, and how a market for the resulting unambiguously defined product could be operated internationally, in parallel with other markets for energy products. Trade in climate certificates could become a joint EU approach to achieving common results within the field of climate policy. The main features of the proposal are as follows: Electricity producers would be allowed to issue climate certificates for electricity produced without climate-affecting emissions, e.g. in wind power plants. 1 kWh of electricity produced without emissions would entitle the utility to issue a climate certificate for 1 kWh. Electricity from power stations having low emissions, e.g. modern natural gas-fired plants, would entitle the utility to issue certificates in proportion to how much lower their emissions were in comparison with those from conventional coal-fired power stations. The number of certificates would be reduced by an individual coefficient, related directly to the quantity of climate-affecting emissions from the plant concerned. They would be traded and noted on markets in the various member countries. The certificates would not be nationally restricted, but could be traded across borders. Exchanges would be authorised by national authorities, in accordance with overall EU directives. These authorised exchanges would act as certification bodies, checking that certificates had been properly issued in accordance with a corresponding volume of electricity production. Electricity and certificates could be purchased from different suppliers. The

  17. Climate adaptation

    Kinzig, Ann P.

    2015-03-01

    This paper is intended as a brief introduction to climate adaptation in a conference devoted otherwise to the physics of sustainable energy. Whereas mitigation involves measures to reduce the probability of a potential event, such as climate change, adaptation refers to actions that lessen the impact of climate change. Mitigation and adaptation differ in other ways as well. Adaptation does not necessarily have to be implemented immediately to be effective; it only needs to be in place before the threat arrives. Also, adaptation does not necessarily require global, coordinated action; many effective adaptation actions can be local. Some urban communities, because of land-use change and the urban heat-island effect, currently face changes similar to some expected under climate change, such as changes in water availability, heat-related morbidity, or changes in disease patterns. Concern over those impacts might motivate the implementation of measures that would also help in climate adaptation, despite skepticism among some policy makers about anthropogenic global warming. Studies of ancient civilizations in the southwestern US lends some insight into factors that may or may not be important to successful adaptation.

  18. Universe symmetries

    Souriau, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The sky uniformity can be noticed in studying the repartition of objects far enough. The sky isotropy description uses space rotations. The group theory elements will allow to give a meaning at the same time precise and general to the word a ''symmetry''. Universe models are reviewed, which must have both of the following qualities: - conformity with the physic known laws; - rigorous symmetry following one of the permitted groups. Each of the models foresees that universe evolution obeys an evolution equation. Expansion and big-bang theory are recalled. Is universe an open or closed space. Universe is also electrically neutral. That leads to a work hypothesis: the existing matter is not given data of universe but it appeared by evolution from nothing. Problem of matter and antimatter is then raised up together with its place in universe [fr

  19. Using Web GIS "Climate" for Adaptation to Climate Change

    Gordova, Yulia; Martynova, Yulia; Shulgina, Tamara

    2015-04-01

    A work is devoted to the application of an information-computational Web GIS "Climate" developed by joint team of the Institute of Monitoring of Climatic and Ecological Systems SB RAS and Tomsk State University to raise awareness about current and future climate change as a basis for further adaptation. Web-GIS "Climate» (http://climate.scert.ru/) based on modern concepts of Web 2.0 provides opportunities to study regional climate change and its consequences by providing access to climate and weather models, a large set of geophysical data and means of processing and visualization. Also, the system is used for the joint development of software applications by distributed research teams, research based on these applications and undergraduate and graduate students training. In addition, the system capabilities allow creating information resources to raise public awareness about climate change, its causes and consequences, which is a necessary step for the subsequent adaptation to these changes. Basic information course on climate change is placed in the public domain and is aimed at local population. Basic concepts and problems of modern climate change and its possible consequences are set out and illustrated in accessible language. Particular attention is paid to regional climate changes. In addition to the information part, the course also includes a selection of links to popular science network resources on current issues in Earth Sciences and a number of practical tasks to consolidate the material. These tasks are performed for a particular territory. Within the tasks users need to analyze the prepared within the "Climate" map layers and answer questions of direct interest to the public: "How did the minimum value of winter temperatures change in your area?", "What are the dynamics of maximum summer temperatures?", etc. Carrying out the analysis of the dynamics of climate change contributes to a better understanding of climate processes and further adaptation

  20. Matrix thermalization

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-01-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  1. Matrix thermalization

    Craps, Ben; Evnin, Oleg; Nguyen, Kévin

    2017-02-01

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  2. Matrix thermalization

    Craps, Ben [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Evnin, Oleg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Thanon Phayathai, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Nguyen, Kévin [Theoretische Natuurkunde, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-02-08

    Matrix quantum mechanics offers an attractive environment for discussing gravitational holography, in which both sides of the holographic duality are well-defined. Similarly to higher-dimensional implementations of holography, collapsing shell solutions in the gravitational bulk correspond in this setting to thermalization processes in the dual quantum mechanical theory. We construct an explicit, fully nonlinear supergravity solution describing a generic collapsing dilaton shell, specify the holographic renormalization prescriptions necessary for computing the relevant boundary observables, and apply them to evaluating thermalizing two-point correlation functions in the dual matrix theory.

  3. Thermal effects in supercapacitors

    Xiong, Guoping; Fisher, Timothy S

    2015-01-01

    This Brief reviews contemporary research conducted in university and industry laboratories on thermal management in electrochemical energy storage systems (capacitors and batteries) that have been widely used as power sources in many practical applications, such as automobiles, hybrid transport, renewable energy installations, power backup and electronic devices. Placing a particular emphasis on supercapacitors, the authors discuss how supercapacitors, or ultra capacitors, are complementing and  replacing, batteries because of their faster power delivery, longer life cycle and higher coulombic efficiency, while providing higher energy density than conventional electrolytic capacitors. Recent advances in both macro- and micro capacitor technologies are covered. The work facilitates systematic understanding of thermal transport in such devices that can help develop better power management systems.

  4. Climate change

    2006-01-01

    This paper presented indicators of climate change for British Columbia (BC) with an emphasis on the coastal region. An overview of global effects of climate change was presented, as well as details of BC's current climate change action plan. Indicators examined in the paper for the BC coastal region included long-term trends in air temperature; long-term trends in precipitation; coastal ocean temperatures; sea levels on the BC coast; and the sensitivity of the BC coast to sea level rise and erosion. Data suggested that average air temperatures have become higher in many areas, and that Springtime temperatures have become warmer over the whole province. Winters have become drier in many areas of the province. Sea surface temperature has risen over the entire coast, with the North Coast and central Strait of Georgia showing the largest increases. Deep-water temperatures have also increased in 5 inlets on the South Coast. Results suggested that the direction and spatial pattern of the climate changes reported for British Columbia are consistent with broader trends in North America and the type of changes predicted by climate models for the region. Climate change will likely result in reduced snow-pack in southern BC. An earlier spring freshet on many snow-dominated river systems is anticipated as well as glacial retreat and disappearance. Warmer temperatures in some lakes and rivers are expected, as well as the increased frequency and severity of natural disturbances such as the pine mountain beetle. Large-scale shifts in ecosystems and the loss of certain ecosystems may also occur. BC's current climate plan includes cost effective actions that address GHG emissions and support efficient infrastructure and opportunities for innovation. Management programs for forest and agricultural lands have been initiated, as well as programs to reduce emissions from government operations. Research is also being conducted to understand the impacts of climate change on water

  5. ORGANIZATIONAL CLIMATE FOR A QUALITY CULTURE

    Elsy Thamara Visbal Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Employee development, on calibration and testing laboratories at university to improve quality services, has become one of the most important problems despite efforts to improve the work environment. The objective of the research is to assess the organizational climate of a calibration and testing laboratory at a public university of the Venezuelan state. The non-experimental and correlational study (organizational climate survey was applied, generated an organizational climate of 63.7%, with 55% of open questions answered. It is concluded on the need to design sustainable long-term strategies.

  6. THERMAL PHASES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS: ESTIMATING THERMAL INERTIA FROM ECCENTRICITY, OBLIQUITY, AND DIURNAL FORCING

    Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Abbot, Dorian S., E-mail: n-cowan@nortwestern.edu [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)

    2012-09-20

    In order to understand the climate on terrestrial planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, one would like to know their thermal inertia. We use a global climate model to simulate the thermal phase variations of Earth analogs and test whether these data could distinguish between planets with different heat storage and heat transport characteristics. In particular, we consider a temperate climate with polar ice caps (like the modern Earth) and a snowball state where the oceans are globally covered in ice. We first quantitatively study the periodic radiative forcing from, and climatic response to, rotation, obliquity, and eccentricity. Orbital eccentricity and seasonal changes in albedo cause variations in the global-mean absorbed flux. The responses of the two climates to these global seasons indicate that the temperate planet has 3 Multiplication-Sign the bulk heat capacity of the snowball planet due to the presence of liquid water oceans. The obliquity seasons in the temperate simulation are weaker than one would expect based on thermal inertia alone; this is due to cross-equatorial oceanic and atmospheric energy transport. Thermal inertia and cross-equatorial heat transport have qualitatively different effects on obliquity seasons, insofar as heat transport tends to reduce seasonal amplitude without inducing a phase lag. For an Earth-like planet, however, this effect is masked by the mixing of signals from low thermal inertia regions (sea ice and land) with that from high thermal inertia regions (oceans), which also produces a damped response with small phase lag. We then simulate thermal light curves as they would appear to a high-contrast imaging mission (TPF-I/Darwin). In order of importance to the present simulations, which use modern-Earth orbital parameters, the three drivers of thermal phase variations are (1) obliquity seasons, (2) diurnal cycle, and (3) global seasons. Obliquity seasons are the dominant source of phase variations for most viewing angles. A

  7. THERMAL PHASES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS: ESTIMATING THERMAL INERTIA FROM ECCENTRICITY, OBLIQUITY, AND DIURNAL FORCING

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Voigt, Aiko; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the climate on terrestrial planets orbiting nearby Sun-like stars, one would like to know their thermal inertia. We use a global climate model to simulate the thermal phase variations of Earth analogs and test whether these data could distinguish between planets with different heat storage and heat transport characteristics. In particular, we consider a temperate climate with polar ice caps (like the modern Earth) and a snowball state where the oceans are globally covered in ice. We first quantitatively study the periodic radiative forcing from, and climatic response to, rotation, obliquity, and eccentricity. Orbital eccentricity and seasonal changes in albedo cause variations in the global-mean absorbed flux. The responses of the two climates to these global seasons indicate that the temperate planet has 3× the bulk heat capacity of the snowball planet due to the presence of liquid water oceans. The obliquity seasons in the temperate simulation are weaker than one would expect based on thermal inertia alone; this is due to cross-equatorial oceanic and atmospheric energy transport. Thermal inertia and cross-equatorial heat transport have qualitatively different effects on obliquity seasons, insofar as heat transport tends to reduce seasonal amplitude without inducing a phase lag. For an Earth-like planet, however, this effect is masked by the mixing of signals from low thermal inertia regions (sea ice and land) with that from high thermal inertia regions (oceans), which also produces a damped response with small phase lag. We then simulate thermal light curves as they would appear to a high-contrast imaging mission (TPF-I/Darwin). In order of importance to the present simulations, which use modern-Earth orbital parameters, the three drivers of thermal phase variations are (1) obliquity seasons, (2) diurnal cycle, and (3) global seasons. Obliquity seasons are the dominant source of phase variations for most viewing angles. A pole-on observer

  8. EFFECTIVENESS ANALYSIS OF CAMPUS HEAT SUPPLY SYSTEM OF DNIPROPETROVSK NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    O. M. Pshinko

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Heat consumption for heating and hot water supply of housing and industrial facilities is an essential part of heat energy consumption. Prerequisite for development of energy saving measures in existing heating systems is their preliminary examination. The investigation results of campus heating system of Dnipropetrovsk National University of Railway Transport named after Academician V. Lazaryan are presented in the article. On the basis of the analysis it is proposed to take the energy saving measures and assess their effectiveness. Methodology. Analysis of the consumption structure of thermal energy for heating domestic and hot water supply was fulfilled. The real costs of heat supply during the calendar year and the normative costs were compared. Findings. The recording expenditures data of thermal energy for heating supply of residential buildings and dormitories in 2012 were analyzed. The comparison of actual performance with specific regulations was performed. This comparison revealed problems, whose solution will help the efficient use of thermal energy. Originality. For the first time the impact of climate conditions, features of schemes and designs of heating systems on the effective use of thermal energy were analyzed. It was studied the contribution of each component. Practical value. Based on the analysis of thermal energy consumption it was developed a list of possible energy saving measures that can be implemented in the system of heat and power facilities. It was evaluated the fuel and energy resources saving.

  9. Universe opacity and CMB

    Vavryčuk, Václav

    2018-04-01

    A cosmological model, in which the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is a thermal radiation of intergalactic dust instead of a relic radiation of the Big Bang, is revived and revisited. The model suggests that a virtually transparent local Universe becomes considerably opaque at redshifts z > 2 - 3. Such opacity is hardly to be detected in the Type Ia supernova data, but confirmed using quasar data. The opacity steeply increases with redshift because of a high proper density of intergalactic dust in the previous epochs. The temperature of intergalactic dust increases as (1 + z) and exactly compensates the change of wavelengths due to redshift, so that the dust radiation looks apparently like the radiation of the blackbody with a single temperature. The predicted dust temperature is TD = 2.776 K, which differs from the CMB temperature by 1.9% only, and the predicted ratio between the total CMB and EBL intensities is 13.4 which is close to 12.5 obtained from observations. The CMB temperature fluctuations are caused by EBL fluctuations produced by galaxy clusters and voids in the Universe. The polarization anomalies of the CMB correlated with temperature anisotropies are caused by the polarized thermal emission of needle-shaped conducting dust grains aligned by large-scale magnetic fields around clusters and voids. A strong decline of the luminosity density for z > 4 is interpreted as the result of high opacity of the Universe rather than of a decline of the global stellar mass density at high redshifts.

  10. Our Universe

    Stern, Alan

    2001-03-01

    The Universe in which we live is unimaginably vast and ancient, with countless star systems, galaxies, and extraordinary phenomena such as black holes, dark matter, and gamma ray bursts. What phenomena remain mysteries, even to seasoned scientists? Our Universe is a fascinating collection of essays by some of the world's foremost astrophysicists. Some are theorists, some computational modelers, some observers, but all offer their insights into the most cutting-edge, difficult, and curious aspects of astrophysics. Compiled, the essays describe more than the latest techniques and findings. Each of the ten contributors offers a more personal perspective on their work, revealing what motivates them and how their careers and lives have been shaped by their desire to understand our universe. S. Alan Stern is Director of the Department of Space Studies at Southwest Research Institute in Boulder, Colorado. He is a planetary scientist and astrophysicist with both observational and theoretical interests. Stern is an avid pilot and a principal investigator in NASA's planetary research program, and he was selected to be a NASA space shuttle mission specialist finalist. He is the author of more than 100 papers and popular articles. His most recent book is Pluto & Charon (Wiley, 1997). Contributors: Dr. John Huchra, Harvard University Dr. Esther Hu, University of Hawaii, Honolulu Dr. John Mather, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Dr. Nick Gnedin, University of Colorado, Boulder Dr. Doug Richstone, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Dr. Bohdan Paczynski, Princeton University, NJ Dr. Megan Donahue, Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD Dr. Jerry Ostriker, Princeton University, New Jersey G. Bothun, University of Oregon, Eugene

  11. Spatial variation of the Universal Thermal Climate Index in Lublin in specified weather scenarios / Zróżnicowanie przestrzenne wskaźnika UTCI w Lublinie w określonych scenariuszach pogodowych

    Dobek, Mateusz; Demczuk, Piotr; Nowosad, Marek

    2013-06-01

    Due to the diversified land relief and presence of numerous gorge dissections intensively used by man largely for recreational purposes, Lublin is a valuable study area in terms of bioclimatology. The results of modelling of the variation of the bioclimatic conditions of Lublin provide information useful e.g. in the economy and spatial planning. The determined features of the city's bioclimate can be a significant element in the selection of locations for new residential and recreational investments. Knowledge on the spatial variation of biometeorological situations positively and negatively influencing the human organism can also find application in activities concerning the improvement of life quality and health protection, as well as in tourism and recreation. The objective of the paper is to present the spatial variation of biometeorological conditions in Lublin based on the example of specified weather scenarios.

  12. A database for the monitoring of thermal anomalies over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans.

    Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Mattar, Cristian; Sobrino, José A; Malhi, Yadvinder

    2015-01-01

    Advances in information technologies and accessibility to climate and satellite data in recent years have favored the development of web-based tools with user-friendly interfaces in order to facilitate the dissemination of geo/biophysical products. These products are useful for the analysis of the impact of global warming over different biomes. In particular, the study of the Amazon forest responses to drought have recently received attention by the scientific community due to the occurrence of two extreme droughts and sustained warming over the last decade. Thermal Amazoni@ is a web-based platform for the visualization and download of surface thermal anomalies products over the Amazon forest and adjacent intertropical oceans using Google Earth as a baseline graphical interface (http://ipl.uv.es/thamazon/web). This platform is currently operational at the servers of the University of Valencia (Spain), and it includes both satellite (MODIS) and climatic (ERA-Interim) datasets. Thermal Amazoni@ is composed of the viewer system and the web and ftp sites with ancillary information and access to product download.

  13. Pliocene climate

    Dowsett, Harry J.; Caballero-Gill, R. P.

    2010-01-01

    The Pliocene Epoch, 5.3 Ma to 1.8 Ma, was a time when paleoclimate conditions ranged from very warm, equable climates (on a global scale), rhythmically varying every 40,000 years, to high-amplitude glacial-interglacial cycles that led to the “Ice Ages” of the Pleistocene. Evidence for paleoclimate conditions comes from fossils, geochemical data, and the integration of these data with sophisticated numerical models. The Pliocene exhibited a range in atmospheric CO2 concentrations with highs estimated to be at most ~425 ppm in the early Pliocene followed by overall decrease toward preindustrial levels by the close of the Pliocene Epoch (Pagani et al. 2010). Sea levels were estimated to be 25m higher than present day and the size and position of ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica were decidedly different from today. On the other hand, by the mid-Pliocene, the majority of fauna and flora as well as continental configurations were basically the same as today. Man’s ability to adapt to or mitigate the effects of future climate require a deep understanding of the rates and magnitude of future climate change on an ever finer scale. Since conditions projected for the end of this century are not in the human experience, we depend upon a combination of numerical climate models and comparison to analogous conditions in the geologic past. The Pliocene contains what might be the closest analog to climate conditions exp