WorldWideScience

Sample records for univariate analyses showed

  1. The Use of Univariate and Multivariate Analyses in the Geochemical Exploration, Ravanj Lead Mine, Delijan, Iran

    Mostafa Nejadhadad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A geochemical exploration program was applied to recognize the anomalous geochemical haloes at the Ravanj lead mine, Delijan, Iran. Sampling of unweathered rocks were undertaken across rock exposures on a 10 × 10 meter grid (n = 302 as well as the accessible parts of underground mine A (n = 42. First, the threshold values of all elements were determined using the cut-off values used in the exploratory data analysis (EDA method. Then, for further studies, elements with lognormal distributions (Pb, Zn, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Sb, S, Sr, Th, Ba, Bi, Fe, Ni and Mn were selected. Robustness against outliers is achieved by application of central log ratio transformation to address the closure problems with compositional data prior to principle components analysis (PCA. Results of these analyses show that, in the Ravanj deposit, Pb mineralization is characterized by a Pb-Ba-Ag-Sb ± Zn ± Cd association. The supra-mineralization haloes are characterized by barite and tetrahedrite in a Ba- Th- Ag- Cu- Sb- As- Sr association and sub-mineralization haloes are comprised of pyrite and tetrahedrite, probably reflecting a Fe-Cu-As-Bi-Ni-Co-Mo-Mn association. Using univariate and multivariate geostatistical analyses (e.g., EDA and robust PCA, four anomalies were detected and mapped in Block A of the Ravanj deposit. Anomalies 1 and 2 are around the ancient orebodies. Anomaly 3 is located in a thin bedded limestone-shale intercalation unit that does not show significant mineralization. Drilling of the fourth anomaly suggested a low grade, non-economic Pb mineralization.

  2. Modeling the potential risk factors of bovine viral diarrhea prevalence in Egypt using univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses

    Abdelfattah M. Selim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence and potential risk factors associated with Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV disease in cattle and buffaloes in Egypt, to model the potential risk factors associated with the disease using logistic regression (LR models, and to fit the best predictive model for the current data. Materials and Methods: A total of 740 blood samples were collected within November 2012-March 2013 from animals aged between 6 months and 3 years. The potential risk factors studied were species, age, sex, and herd location. All serum samples were examined with indirect ELIZA test for antibody detection. Data were analyzed with different statistical approaches such as Chi-square test, odds ratios (OR, univariable, and multivariable LR models. Results: Results revealed a non-significant association between being seropositive with BVDV and all risk factors, except for species of animal. Seroprevalence percentages were 40% and 23% for cattle and buffaloes, respectively. OR for all categories were close to one with the highest OR for cattle relative to buffaloes, which was 2.237. Likelihood ratio tests showed a significant drop of the -2LL from univariable LR to multivariable LR models. Conclusion: There was an evidence of high seroprevalence of BVDV among cattle as compared with buffaloes with the possibility of infection in different age groups of animals. In addition, multivariable LR model was proved to provide more information for association and prediction purposes relative to univariable LR models and Chi-square tests if we have more than one predictor.

  3. In situ calibration using univariate analyses based on the onboard ChemCam targets: first prediction of Martian rock and soil compositions

    Fabre, C.; Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C.; Ollila, A.; Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S.; Sautter, V.; Forni, O.; Lasue, J.; Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D.; Melikechi, N.

    2014-01-01

    Curiosity rover landed on August 6th, 2012 in Gale Crater, Mars and it possesses unique analytical capabilities to investigate the chemistry and mineralogy of the Martian soil. In particular, the LIBS technique is being used for the first time on another planet with the ChemCam instrument, and more than 75,000 spectra have been returned in the first year on Mars. Curiosity carries body-mounted calibration targets specially designed for the ChemCam instrument, some of which are homgeneous glasses and others that are fine-grained glass-ceramics. We present direct calibrations, using these onboard standards to infer elements and element ratios by ratioing relative peak areas. As the laser spot size is around 300 μm, the LIBS technique provides measurements of the silicate glass compositions representing homogeneous material and measurements of the ceramic targets that are comparable to fine-grained rock or soil. The laser energy and the auto-focus are controlled for all sequences used for calibration. The univariate calibration curves present relatively to very good correlation coefficients with low RSDs for major and ratio calibrations. Trace element calibration curves (Li, Sr, and Mn), down to several ppm, can be used as a rapid tool to draw attention to remarkable rocks and soils along the traverse. First comparisons to alpha-particle X-ray spectroscopy (APXS) data, on selected targets, show good agreement for most elements and for Mg# and Al/Si estimates. SiO 2 estimates using univariate cannot be yet used. Na 2 O and K 2 O estimates are relevant for high alkali contents, but probably under estimated due to the CCCT initial compositions. Very good results for CaO and Al 2 O 3 estimates and satisfactory results for FeO are obtained. - Highlights: • In situ LIBS univariate calibrations are done using the Curiosity onboard standards. • Major and minor element contents can be rapidly obtained. • Trace element contents can be used as a rapid tool along the

  4. In situ calibration using univariate analyses based on the onboard ChemCam targets: first prediction of Martian rock and soil compositions

    Fabre, C. [GeoRessources lab, Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Cousin, A.; Wiens, R.C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ollila, A. [University of NM, Albuquerque (United States); Gasnault, O.; Maurice, S. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Sautter, V. [Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (France); Forni, O.; Lasue, J. [IRAP, Toulouse (France); Tokar, R.; Vaniman, D. [Planetary Science Institute, Tucson, AZ (United States); Melikechi, N. [Delaware State University (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Curiosity rover landed on August 6th, 2012 in Gale Crater, Mars and it possesses unique analytical capabilities to investigate the chemistry and mineralogy of the Martian soil. In particular, the LIBS technique is being used for the first time on another planet with the ChemCam instrument, and more than 75,000 spectra have been returned in the first year on Mars. Curiosity carries body-mounted calibration targets specially designed for the ChemCam instrument, some of which are homgeneous glasses and others that are fine-grained glass-ceramics. We present direct calibrations, using these onboard standards to infer elements and element ratios by ratioing relative peak areas. As the laser spot size is around 300 μm, the LIBS technique provides measurements of the silicate glass compositions representing homogeneous material and measurements of the ceramic targets that are comparable to fine-grained rock or soil. The laser energy and the auto-focus are controlled for all sequences used for calibration. The univariate calibration curves present relatively to very good correlation coefficients with low RSDs for major and ratio calibrations. Trace element calibration curves (Li, Sr, and Mn), down to several ppm, can be used as a rapid tool to draw attention to remarkable rocks and soils along the traverse. First comparisons to alpha-particle X-ray spectroscopy (APXS) data, on selected targets, show good agreement for most elements and for Mg# and Al/Si estimates. SiO{sub 2} estimates using univariate cannot be yet used. Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O estimates are relevant for high alkali contents, but probably under estimated due to the CCCT initial compositions. Very good results for CaO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} estimates and satisfactory results for FeO are obtained. - Highlights: • In situ LIBS univariate calibrations are done using the Curiosity onboard standards. • Major and minor element contents can be rapidly obtained. • Trace element contents can be used as a

  5. Univariate and multiple linear regression analyses for 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgA nephropathy in Han Chinese.

    Wang, Hui; Sui, Weiguo; Xue, Wen; Wu, Junyong; Chen, Jiejing; Dai, Yong

    2014-09-01

    Immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) is a complex trait regulated by the interaction among multiple physiologic regulatory systems and probably involving numerous genes, which leads to inconsistent findings in genetic studies. One possibility of failure to replicate some single-locus results is that the underlying genetics of IgAN nephropathy is based on multiple genes with minor effects. To learn the association between 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 14 genes predisposing to chronic glomerular diseases and IgAN in Han males, the 23 SNPs genotypes of 21 Han males were detected and analyzed with a BaiO gene chip, and their associations were analyzed with univariate analysis and multiple linear regression analysis. Analysis showed that CTLA4 rs231726 and CR2 rs1048971 revealed a significant association with IgAN. These findings support the multi-gene nature of the etiology of IgAN and propose a potential gene-gene interactive model for future studies.

  6. VC-dimension of univariate decision trees.

    Yildiz, Olcay Taner

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we give and prove the lower bounds of the Vapnik-Chervonenkis (VC)-dimension of the univariate decision tree hypothesis class. The VC-dimension of the univariate decision tree depends on the VC-dimension values of its subtrees and the number of inputs. Via a search algorithm that calculates the VC-dimension of univariate decision trees exhaustively, we show that our VC-dimension bounds are tight for simple trees. To verify that the VC-dimension bounds are useful, we also use them to get VC-generalization bounds for complexity control using structural risk minimization in decision trees, i.e., pruning. Our simulation results show that structural risk minimization pruning using the VC-dimension bounds finds trees that are more accurate as those pruned using cross validation.

  7. Evaluation of the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform as processing and preprocessing algorithm for resolution of overlapped signals in univariate and multivariate regression analyses; an application to ternary and quaternary mixtures

    Hegazy, Maha A.; Lotfy, Hayam M.; Mowaka, Shereen; Mohamed, Ekram Hany

    2016-07-01

    Wavelets have been adapted for a vast number of signal-processing applications due to the amount of information that can be extracted from a signal. In this work, a comparative study on the efficiency of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) as a signal processing tool in univariate regression and a pre-processing tool in multivariate analysis using partial least square (CWT-PLS) was conducted. These were applied to complex spectral signals of ternary and quaternary mixtures. CWT-PLS method succeeded in the simultaneous determination of a quaternary mixture of drotaverine (DRO), caffeine (CAF), paracetamol (PAR) and p-aminophenol (PAP, the major impurity of paracetamol). While, the univariate CWT failed to simultaneously determine the quaternary mixture components and was able to determine only PAR and PAP, the ternary mixtures of DRO, CAF, and PAR and CAF, PAR, and PAP. During the calculations of CWT, different wavelet families were tested. The univariate CWT method was validated according to the ICH guidelines. While for the development of the CWT-PLS model a calibration set was prepared by means of an orthogonal experimental design and their absorption spectra were recorded and processed by CWT. The CWT-PLS model was constructed by regression between the wavelet coefficients and concentration matrices and validation was performed by both cross validation and external validation sets. Both methods were successfully applied for determination of the studied drugs in pharmaceutical formulations.

  8. The pathways for intelligible speech: multivariate and univariate perspectives.

    Evans, S; Kyong, J S; Rosen, S; Golestani, N; Warren, J E; McGettigan, C; Mourão-Miranda, J; Wise, R J S; Scott, S K

    2014-09-01

    An anterior pathway, concerned with extracting meaning from sound, has been identified in nonhuman primates. An analogous pathway has been suggested in humans, but controversy exists concerning the degree of lateralization and the precise location where responses to intelligible speech emerge. We have demonstrated that the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (STS) responds preferentially to intelligible speech (Scott SK, Blank CC, Rosen S, Wise RJS. 2000. Identification of a pathway for intelligible speech in the left temporal lobe. Brain. 123:2400-2406.). A functional magnetic resonance imaging study in Cerebral Cortex used equivalent stimuli and univariate and multivariate analyses to argue for the greater importance of bilateral posterior when compared with the left anterior STS in responding to intelligible speech (Okada K, Rong F, Venezia J, Matchin W, Hsieh IH, Saberi K, Serences JT,Hickok G. 2010. Hierarchical organization of human auditory cortex: evidence from acoustic invariance in the response to intelligible speech. 20: 2486-2495.). Here, we also replicate our original study, demonstrating that the left anterior STS exhibits the strongest univariate response and, in decoding using the bilateral temporal cortex, contains the most informative voxels showing an increased response to intelligible speech. In contrast, in classifications using local "searchlights" and a whole brain analysis, we find greater classification accuracy in posterior rather than anterior temporal regions. Thus, we show that the precise nature of the multivariate analysis used will emphasize different response profiles associated with complex sound to speech processing. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement.

    Angstman, Nicholas B; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  10. Advanced behavioral analyses show that the presence of food causes subtle changes in C. elegans movement

    Nicholas eAngstman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As a widely used and studied model organism, C. elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn or with no lawn. Using an advanced software, WormLab, the full skeleton and outline of worms were tracked to determine whether the presence of food affects behavioral traits. In all seven investigated parameters, statistically significant differences were found in worm behavior between those moving on NGM-agar plates with an E. coli lawn and NGM-agar plates with no lawn. Furthermore, multiple test groups showed differences in interaction between variables as the parameters that significantly correlated statistically with speed of locomotion varied. In the present study, we demonstrate the validity of a model to analyze C. elegans behavior beyond simple speed of locomotion. The need to account for a nested design while performing statistical analyses in similar studies is also demonstrated. With extended analyses, C. elegans behavioral change can be investigated with greater sensitivity, which could have wide utility in fields such as, but not limited to, toxicology, drug discovery, and RNAi screening.

  11. Chin Shan analyses show advantages of whole pool multi-rack approach

    Singh, K.P.; Soler, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear fuel storage racks are essentially thin-walled, cellular structures of prismatic cross-section. Although the details of design vary from one supplier to another, certain key physical attributes are common to all designs. For example, all racks feature square cells of sufficient opening size and height to enable insertion and withdrawal of the fuel assembly. The array of cells is positioned in a vertical orientation and is supported off the pool slab surface by four or more support legs. The spent fuel pool is filled with the individual fuel racks. The plenum created by the support legs is essential for proper cooling of the fuel assemblies stored in the rack, which relies on natural convective cooling to extract the heat emitted by the spent fuel. However, it has the insalutary effect of making it kinematically less stable. Regulatory authorities require careful and comprehensive analysis of the response of the racks under the seismic motions postulated for the pool slab. Results from whole pool multi-rack (WPMR) analyses at the Chin Shan and Oyster Creek nuclear plants point up the potential inadequacies of single rack 3D analyses, and show just how important it is to carry out WPMR simulations, despite their abstruseness and high cost. (author)

  12. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy; univariate study; normalization models; stainless steel; standard error of prediction. Abstract. Analytical performance of six different spectrum normalization techniques, namelyinternal normalization, normalization with total light, normalization with background along with their ...

  13. Decoding auditory spatial and emotional information encoding using multivariate versus univariate techniques.

    Kryklywy, James H; Macpherson, Ewan A; Mitchell, Derek G V

    2018-04-01

    Emotion can have diverse effects on behaviour and perception, modulating function in some circumstances, and sometimes having little effect. Recently, it was identified that part of the heterogeneity of emotional effects could be due to a dissociable representation of emotion in dual pathway models of sensory processing. Our previous fMRI experiment using traditional univariate analyses showed that emotion modulated processing in the auditory 'what' but not 'where' processing pathway. The current study aims to further investigate this dissociation using a more recently emerging multi-voxel pattern analysis searchlight approach. While undergoing fMRI, participants localized sounds of varying emotional content. A searchlight multi-voxel pattern analysis was conducted to identify activity patterns predictive of sound location and/or emotion. Relative to the prior univariate analysis, MVPA indicated larger overlapping spatial and emotional representations of sound within early secondary regions associated with auditory localization. However, consistent with the univariate analysis, these two dimensions were increasingly segregated in late secondary and tertiary regions of the auditory processing streams. These results, while complimentary to our original univariate analyses, highlight the utility of multiple analytic approaches for neuroimaging, particularly for neural processes with known representations dependent on population coding.

  14. Preliminary Analyses Showed Short-Term Mental Health Improvements after a Single-Day Manager Training.

    Boysen, Elena; Schiller, Birgitta; Mörtl, Kathrin; Gündel, Harald; Hölzer, Michael

    2018-01-10

    Psychosocial working conditions attract more and more attention when it comes to mental health in the workplace. Trying to support managers to deal with their own as well as their employees' psychological risk factors, we conducted a specific manager training. Within this investigation, we wanted to learn about the training's effects and acceptance. A single-day manager training was provided in a large industrial company in Germany. The participants were asked to fill out questionnaires regarding their own physical and mental health condition as well as their working situation. Questionnaires were distributed at baseline, 3-month, and 12-month follow-up. At this point of time the investigation is still ongoing. The current article focuses on short-term preliminary effects. Analyses only included participants that already completed baseline and three months follow-up. Preliminary results from three-month follow-up survey ( n = 33, nmale = 30, Mage = 47.5) indicated positive changes in the manager's mental health condition measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire for depression (PHQ-9: Mt1 = 3.82, Mt2 = 3.15). Training managers about common mental disorders and risk factors at the workplace within a single-day workshop seems to promote positive effects on their own mental health. Especially working with the managers on their own early stress symptoms might have been an important element.

  15. Univariate normalization of bispectrum using Hölder's inequality.

    Shahbazi, Forooz; Ewald, Arne; Nolte, Guido

    2014-08-15

    Considering that many biological systems including the brain are complex non-linear systems, suitable methods capable of detecting these non-linearities are required to study the dynamical properties of these systems. One of these tools is the third order cummulant or cross-bispectrum, which is a measure of interfrequency interactions between three signals. For convenient interpretation, interaction measures are most commonly normalized to be independent of constant scales of the signals such that its absolute values are bounded by one, with this limit reflecting perfect coupling. Although many different normalization factors for cross-bispectra were suggested in the literature these either do not lead to bounded measures or are themselves dependent on the coupling and not only on the scale of the signals. In this paper we suggest a normalization factor which is univariate, i.e., dependent only on the amplitude of each signal and not on the interactions between signals. Using a generalization of Hölder's inequality it is proven that the absolute value of this univariate bicoherence is bounded by zero and one. We compared three widely used normalizations to the univariate normalization concerning the significance of bicoherence values gained from resampling tests. Bicoherence values are calculated from real EEG data recorded in an eyes closed experiment from 10 subjects. The results show slightly more significant values for the univariate normalization but in general, the differences are very small or even vanishing in some subjects. Therefore, we conclude that the normalization factor does not play an important role in the bicoherence values with regard to statistical power, although a univariate normalization is the only normalization factor which fulfills all the required conditions of a proper normalization. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Univariate decision tree induction using maximum margin classification

    Yıldız, Olcay Taner

    2012-01-01

    In many pattern recognition applications, first decision trees are used due to their simplicity and easily interpretable nature. In this paper, we propose a new decision tree learning algorithm called univariate margin tree where, for each continuous attribute, the best split is found using convex optimization. Our simulation results on 47 data sets show that the novel margin tree classifier performs at least as good as C4.5 and linear discriminant tree (LDT) with a similar time complexity. F...

  17. Phenotypic and functional analyses show stem cell-derived hepatocyte-like cells better mimic fetal rather than adult hepatocytes.

    Baxter, Melissa; Withey, Sarah; Harrison, Sean; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Zhang, Fang; Atkinson-Dell, Rebecca; Rowe, Cliff; Gerrard, Dave T; Sison-Young, Rowena; Jenkins, Roz; Henry, Joanne; Berry, Andrew A; Mohamet, Lisa; Best, Marie; Fenwick, Stephen W; Malik, Hassan; Kitteringham, Neil R; Goldring, Chris E; Piper Hanley, Karen; Vallier, Ludovic; Hanley, Neil A

    2015-03-01

    Hepatocyte-like cells (HLCs), differentiated from pluripotent stem cells by the use of soluble factors, can model human liver function and toxicity. However, at present HLC maturity and whether any deficit represents a true fetal state or aberrant differentiation is unclear and compounded by comparison to potentially deteriorated adult hepatocytes. Therefore, we generated HLCs from multiple lineages, using two different protocols, for direct comparison with fresh fetal and adult hepatocytes. Protocols were developed for robust differentiation. Multiple transcript, protein and functional analyses compared HLCs to fresh human fetal and adult hepatocytes. HLCs were comparable to those of other laboratories by multiple parameters. Transcriptional changes during differentiation mimicked human embryogenesis and showed more similarity to pericentral than periportal hepatocytes. Unbiased proteomics demonstrated greater proximity to liver than 30 other human organs or tissues. However, by comparison to fresh material, HLC maturity was proven by transcript, protein and function to be fetal-like and short of the adult phenotype. The expression of 81% phase 1 enzymes in HLCs was significantly upregulated and half were statistically not different from fetal hepatocytes. HLCs secreted albumin and metabolized testosterone (CYP3A) and dextrorphan (CYP2D6) like fetal hepatocytes. In seven bespoke tests, devised by principal components analysis to distinguish fetal from adult hepatocytes, HLCs from two different source laboratories consistently demonstrated fetal characteristics. HLCs from different sources are broadly comparable with unbiased proteomic evidence for faithful differentiation down the liver lineage. This current phenotype mimics human fetal rather than adult hepatocytes. Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Regression Is a Univariate General Linear Model Subsuming Other Parametric Methods as Special Cases.

    Vidal, Sherry

    Although the concept of the general linear model (GLM) has existed since the 1960s, other univariate analyses such as the t-test and the analysis of variance models have remained popular. The GLM produces an equation that minimizes the mean differences of independent variables as they are related to a dependent variable. From a computer printout…

  19. Multi-Scale Carbon Isotopic Analyses Show Allende Nanodiamonds are Mostly Solar with Some PreSolar

    Lewis, J. B.; Isheim, D.; Floss, C.; Gyngard, F.; Seidman, D. N.

    2017-07-01

    NanoSIMS and atom-probe experiments on different-sized aggregates of meteoritic nanodiamonds show mostly normal C isotopes, with a fraction of 13C-enriched material. The best interpretation is a combination of solar system and supernova formation.

  20. Elapid Snake Venom Analyses Show the Specificity of the Peptide Composition at the Level of Genera Naja and Notechis

    Aisha Munawar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Elapid snake venom is a highly valuable, but till now mainly unexplored, source of pharmacologically important peptides. We analyzed the peptide fractions with molecular masses up to 10 kDa of two elapid snake venoms—that of the African cobra, N. m. mossambica (genus Naja, and the Peninsula tiger snake, N. scutatus, from Kangaroo Island (genus Notechis. A combination of chromatographic methods was used to isolate the peptides, which were characterized by combining complimentary mass spectrometric techniques. Comparative analysis of the peptide compositions of two venoms showed specificity at the genus level. Three-finger (3-F cytotoxins, bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs and a bradykinin inhibitor were isolated from the Naja venom. 3-F neurotoxins, Kunitz/basic pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI-type inhibitors and a natriuretic peptide were identified in the N. venom. The inhibiting activity of the peptides was confirmed in vitro with a selected array of proteases. Cytotoxin 1 (P01467 from the Naja venom might be involved in the disturbance of cellular processes by inhibiting the cell 20S-proteasome. A high degree of similarity between BPPs from elapid and viperid snake venoms was observed, suggesting that these molecules play a key role in snake venoms and also indicating that these peptides were recruited into the snake venom prior to the evolutionary divergence of the snakes.

  1. Forecasting electricity spot-prices using linear univariate time-series models

    Cuaresma, Jesus Crespo; Hlouskova, Jaroslava; Kossmeier, Stephan; Obersteiner, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the forecasting abilities of a battery of univariate models on hourly electricity spot prices, using data from the Leipzig Power Exchange. The specifications studied include autoregressive models, autoregressive-moving average models and unobserved component models. The results show that specifications, where each hour of the day is modelled separately present uniformly better forecasting properties than specifications for the whole time-series, and that the inclusion of simple probabilistic processes for the arrival of extreme price events can lead to improvements in the forecasting abilities of univariate models for electricity spot prices. (Author)

  2. Univariate characterization of the German business cycle 1955-1994

    Weihs, Claus; Garczarek, Ursula

    2002-01-01

    We present a descriptive analysis of stylized facts for the German business cycle. We demonstrate that simple ad-hoc instructions for identifying univariate rules characterizing the German business cycle 1955-1994 lead to an error rate comparable to standard multivariate methods.

  3. New Riemannian Priors on the Univariate Normal Model

    Salem Said

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current paper introduces new prior distributions on the univariate normal model, with the aim of applying them to the classification of univariate normal populations. These new prior distributions are entirely based on the Riemannian geometry of the univariate normal model, so that they can be thought of as “Riemannian priors”. Precisely, if {pθ ; θ ∈ Θ} is any parametrization of the univariate normal model, the paper considers prior distributions G( θ - , γ with hyperparameters θ - ∈ Θ and γ > 0, whose density with respect to Riemannian volume is proportional to exp(−d2(θ, θ - /2γ2, where d2(θ, θ - is the square of Rao’s Riemannian distance. The distributions G( θ - , γ are termed Gaussian distributions on the univariate normal model. The motivation for considering a distribution G( θ - , γ is that this distribution gives a geometric representation of a class or cluster of univariate normal populations. Indeed, G( θ - , γ has a unique mode θ - (precisely, θ - is the unique Riemannian center of mass of G( θ - , γ, as shown in the paper, and its dispersion away from θ - is given by γ.  Therefore, one thinks of members of the class represented by G( θ - , γ as being centered around θ - and  lying within a typical  distance determined by γ. The paper defines rigorously the Gaussian distributions G( θ - , γ and describes an algorithm for computing maximum likelihood estimates of their hyperparameters. Based on this algorithm and on the Laplace approximation, it describes how the distributions G( θ - , γ can be used as prior distributions for Bayesian classification of large univariate normal populations. In a concrete application to texture image classification, it is shown that  this  leads  to  an  improvement  in  performance  over  the  use  of  conjugate  priors.

  4. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches

    Gauno, M.H.; Larsen, C.C.; Vilhelmsen, T.

    2013-01-01

    of the distribution. The current study was aiming to compare univariate and multivariate approach in evaluating droplet size distributions. As a model system, the atomization of a coating solution from a two-fluid nozzle was investigated. The effect of three process parameters (concentration of ethyl cellulose...... in ethanol, atomizing air pressure, and flow rate of coating solution) on the droplet size and droplet size distribution using a full mixed factorial design was used. The droplet size produced by a two-fluid nozzle was measured by laser diffraction and reported as volume based size distribution....... Investigation of loading and score plots from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed additional information on the droplet size distributions and it was possible to identify univariate statistics (volume median droplet size), which were similar, however, originating from varying droplet size distributions...

  5. Which DTW Method Applied to Marine Univariate Time Series Imputation

    Phan , Thi-Thu-Hong; Caillault , Émilie; Lefebvre , Alain; Bigand , André

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Missing data are ubiquitous in any domains of applied sciences. Processing datasets containing missing values can lead to a loss of efficiency and unreliable results, especially for large missing sub-sequence(s). Therefore, the aim of this paper is to build a framework for filling missing values in univariate time series and to perform a comparison of different similarity metrics used for the imputation task. This allows to suggest the most suitable methods for the imp...

  6. Acceleration techniques in the univariate Lipschitz global optimization

    Sergeyev, Yaroslav D.; Kvasov, Dmitri E.; Mukhametzhanov, Marat S.; De Franco, Angela

    2016-10-01

    Univariate box-constrained Lipschitz global optimization problems are considered in this contribution. Geometric and information statistical approaches are presented. The novel powerful local tuning and local improvement techniques are described in the contribution as well as the traditional ways to estimate the Lipschitz constant. The advantages of the presented local tuning and local improvement techniques are demonstrated using the operational characteristics approach for comparing deterministic global optimization algorithms on the class of 100 widely used test functions.

  7. Evaluation of droplet size distributions using univariate and multivariate approaches.

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Larsen, Crilles Casper; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Møller-Sonnergaard, Jørn; Wittendorff, Jørgen; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Pharmaceutically relevant material characteristics are often analyzed based on univariate descriptors instead of utilizing the whole information available in the full distribution. One example is droplet size distribution, which is often described by the median droplet size and the width of the distribution. The current study was aiming to compare univariate and multivariate approach in evaluating droplet size distributions. As a model system, the atomization of a coating solution from a two-fluid nozzle was investigated. The effect of three process parameters (concentration of ethyl cellulose in ethanol, atomizing air pressure, and flow rate of coating solution) on the droplet size and droplet size distribution using a full mixed factorial design was used. The droplet size produced by a two-fluid nozzle was measured by laser diffraction and reported as volume based size distribution. Investigation of loading and score plots from principal component analysis (PCA) revealed additional information on the droplet size distributions and it was possible to identify univariate statistics (volume median droplet size), which were similar, however, originating from varying droplet size distributions. The multivariate data analysis was proven to be an efficient tool for evaluating the full information contained in a distribution.

  8. Visual classification of very fine-grained sediments: Evaluation through univariate and multivariate statistics

    Hohn, M. Ed; Nuhfer, E.B.; Vinopal, R.J.; Klanderman, D.S.

    1980-01-01

    Classifying very fine-grained rocks through fabric elements provides information about depositional environments, but is subject to the biases of visual taxonomy. To evaluate the statistical significance of an empirical classification of very fine-grained rocks, samples from Devonian shales in four cored wells in West Virginia and Virginia were measured for 15 variables: quartz, illite, pyrite and expandable clays determined by X-ray diffraction; total sulfur, organic content, inorganic carbon, matrix density, bulk density, porosity, silt, as well as density, sonic travel time, resistivity, and ??-ray response measured from well logs. The four lithologic types comprised: (1) sharply banded shale, (2) thinly laminated shale, (3) lenticularly laminated shale, and (4) nonbanded shale. Univariate and multivariate analyses of variance showed that the lithologic classification reflects significant differences for the variables measured, difference that can be detected independently of stratigraphic effects. Little-known statistical methods found useful in this work included: the multivariate analysis of variance with more than one effect, simultaneous plotting of samples and variables on canonical variates, and the use of parametric ANOVA and MANOVA on ranked data. ?? 1980 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  9. Univaried models in the series of temperature of the air

    Leon Aristizabal Gloria esperanza

    2000-01-01

    The theoretical framework for the study of the air's temperature time series is the theory of stochastic processes, particularly those known as ARIMA, that make it possible to carry out a univaried analysis. ARIMA models are built in order to explain the structure of the monthly temperatures corresponding to the mean, the absolute maximum, absolute minimum, maximum mean and minimum mean temperatures, for four stations in Colombia. By means of those models, the possible evolution of the latter variables is estimated with predictive aims in mind. The application and utility of the models is discussed

  10. Effect Sizes for Research Univariate and Multivariate Applications

    Grissom, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Noted for its comprehensive coverage, this greatly expanded new edition now covers the use of univariate and multivariate effect sizes. Many measures and estimators are reviewed along with their application, interpretation, and limitations. Noted for its practical approach, the book features numerous examples using real data for a variety of variables and designs, to help readers apply the material to their own data. Tips on the use of SPSS, SAS, R, and S-Plus are provided. The book's broad disciplinary appeal results from its inclusion of a variety of examples from psychology, medicine, educa

  11. Handbook of univariate and multivariate data analysis with IBM SPSS

    Ho, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Using the same accessible, hands-on approach as its best-selling predecessor, the Handbook of Univariate and Multivariate Data Analysis with IBM SPSS, Second Edition explains how to apply statistical tests to experimental findings, identify the assumptions underlying the tests, and interpret the findings. This second edition now covers more topics and has been updated with the SPSS statistical package for Windows.New to the Second EditionThree new chapters on multiple discriminant analysis, logistic regression, and canonical correlationNew section on how to deal with missing dataCoverage of te

  12. Validated univariate and multivariate spectrophotometric methods for the determination of pharmaceuticals mixture in complex wastewater

    Riad, Safaa M.; Salem, Hesham; Elbalkiny, Heba T.; Khattab, Fatma I.

    2015-04-01

    Five, accurate, precise, and sensitive univariate and multivariate spectrophotometric methods were developed for the simultaneous determination of a ternary mixture containing Trimethoprim (TMP), Sulphamethoxazole (SMZ) and Oxytetracycline (OTC) in waste water samples collected from different cites either production wastewater or livestock wastewater after their solid phase extraction using OASIS HLB cartridges. In univariate methods OTC was determined at its λmax 355.7 nm (0D), while (TMP) and (SMZ) were determined by three different univariate methods. Method (A) is based on successive spectrophotometric resolution technique (SSRT). The technique starts with the ratio subtraction method followed by ratio difference method for determination of TMP and SMZ. Method (B) is successive derivative ratio technique (SDR). Method (C) is mean centering of the ratio spectra (MCR). The developed multivariate methods are principle component regression (PCR) and partial least squares (PLS). The specificity of the developed methods is investigated by analyzing laboratory prepared mixtures containing different ratios of the three drugs. The obtained results are statistically compared with those obtained by the official methods, showing no significant difference with respect to accuracy and precision at p = 0.05.

  13. Automatic Image Segmentation Using Active Contours with Univariate Marginal Distribution

    I. Cruz-Aceves

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel automatic image segmentation method based on the theory of active contour models and estimation of distribution algorithms. The proposed method uses the univariate marginal distribution model to infer statistical dependencies between the control points on different active contours. These contours have been generated through an alignment process of reference shape priors, in order to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding different interactive segmentation techniques. This proposed method is applied in the segmentation of the hollow core in microscopic images of photonic crystal fibers and it is also used to segment the human heart and ventricular areas from datasets of computed tomography and magnetic resonance images, respectively. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of similarity measures has been adopted. The experimental results suggest that the proposed image segmentation method outperforms the traditional active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of segmentation accuracy and stability.

  14. Dairy shows different associations with abdominal and BMI-defined overweight: Cross-sectional analyses exploring a variety of dairy products.

    Brouwer-Brolsma, E M; Sluik, D; Singh-Povel, C M; Feskens, E J M

    2018-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested weight-regulatory properties for several dairy nutrients, but population-based studies on dairy and body weight are inconclusive. We explored cross-sectional associations between dairy consumption and indicators of overweight. We included 114,682 Dutch adults, aged ≥18 years. Dairy consumption was quantified by a food frequency questionnaire. Abdominal overweight was defined as waist circumference (WC) ≥88 cm (women) or ≥102 cm (men) (n = 37,391), overweight as BMI ≥25-30 kg/m 2 (n = 44,772) and obesity as BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 (n = 15,339). Associations were quantified by logistic (abdominal overweight, no/yes), multinomial logistic (BMI-defined overweight and obesity) and linear regression analyses (continuous measures of WC and BMI), and they were adjusted for relevant covariates. Total dairy showed a positive association with abdominal overweight (OR Q1 ref vs. Q5: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.04-1.14) and with BMI-defined overweight (OR Q5 1.13; 95% CI: 1.08-1.18) and obesity (OR Q5 1.09; 95% CI: 1.02-1.16). Skimmed, semi-skimmed and non-fermented dairy also showed positive associations with overweight categories. Full-fat dairy showed an inverse association with overweight and obesity (OR Q5 for obesity: 0.78; 95% CI: 0.73-0.83). Moreover, inverse associations were observed for yoghurt and custard and positive associations for milk, buttermilk, flavoured yoghurt drinks, cheese and cheese snacks. Fermented dairy, curd cheese and Dutch cheese did not show a consistent association with overweight categories. Total, skimmed, semi-skimmed and non-fermented dairy; milk; buttermilk; flavoured yoghurt drinks; total cheese and cheese snacks showed a positive association with overweight categories, whereas full-fat dairy, custard and yoghurt showed an inverse association with overweight categories. Copyright © 2018 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human

  15. A comparison of bivariate and univariate QTL mapping in livestock populations

    Sorensen Daniel

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study presents a multivariate, variance component-based QTL mapping model implemented via restricted maximum likelihood (REML. The method was applied to investigate bivariate and univariate QTL mapping analyses, using simulated data. Specifically, we report results on the statistical power to detect a QTL and on the precision of parameter estimates using univariate and bivariate approaches. The model and methodology were also applied to study the effectiveness of partitioning the overall genetic correlation between two traits into a component due to many genes of small effect, and one due to the QTL. It is shown that when the QTL has a pleiotropic effect on two traits, a bivariate analysis leads to a higher statistical power of detecting the QTL and to a more precise estimate of the QTL's map position, in particular in the case when the QTL has a small effect on the trait. The increase in power is most marked in cases where the contributions of the QTL and of the polygenic components to the genetic correlation have opposite signs. The bivariate REML analysis can successfully partition the two components contributing to the genetic correlation between traits.

  16. Lower bounds on the run time of the univariate marginal distribution algorithm on OneMax

    Krejca, Martin S.; Witt, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    The Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm (UMDA), a popular estimation of distribution algorithm, is studied from a run time perspective. On the classical OneMax benchmark function, a lower bound of Ω(μ√n + n log n), where μ is the population size, on its expected run time is proved...... values maintained by the algorithm, including carefully designed potential functions. These techniques may prove useful in advancing the field of run time analysis for estimation of distribution algorithms in general........ This is the first direct lower bound on the run time of the UMDA. It is stronger than the bounds that follow from general black-box complexity theory and is matched by the run time of many evolutionary algorithms. The results are obtained through advanced analyses of the stochastic change of the frequencies of bit...

  17. A systematic review and meta-Analyses show that carbapenem use and medical devices are the leading risk factors for carbapenem- resistant pseudomonas aeruginosa

    A.F. Voor (Anne); J.A. Severin (Juliëtte); E.M.E.H. Lesaffre (Emmanuel); M.C. Vos (Margreet)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractA systematic review and meta-Analyses were performed to identify the risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and to identify sources and reservoirs for the pathogen. A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases from 1 January 1987 until 27 January

  18. Univariate/multivariate genome-wide association scans using data from families and unrelated samples.

    Lei Zhang

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available As genome-wide association studies (GWAS are becoming more popular, two approaches, among others, could be considered in order to improve statistical power for identifying genes contributing subtle to moderate effects to human diseases. The first approach is to increase sample size, which could be achieved by combining both unrelated and familial subjects together. The second approach is to jointly analyze multiple correlated traits. In this study, by extending generalized estimating equations (GEEs, we propose a simple approach for performing univariate or multivariate association tests for the combined data of unrelated subjects and nuclear families. In particular, we correct for population stratification by integrating principal component analysis and transmission disequilibrium test strategies. The proposed method allows for multiple siblings as well as missing parental information. Simulation studies show that the proposed test has improved power compared to two popular methods, EIGENSTRAT and FBAT, by analyzing the combined data, while correcting for population stratification. In addition, joint analysis of bivariate traits has improved power over univariate analysis when pleiotropic effects are present. Application to the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 (GAW16 data sets attests to the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  19. QRS complex detection based on continuous density hidden Markov models using univariate observations

    Sotelo, S.; Arenas, W.; Altuve, M.

    2018-04-01

    In the electrocardiogram (ECG), the detection of QRS complexes is a fundamental step in the ECG signal processing chain since it allows the determination of other characteristics waves of the ECG and provides information about heart rate variability. In this work, an automatic QRS complex detector based on continuous density hidden Markov models (HMM) is proposed. HMM were trained using univariate observation sequences taken either from QRS complexes or their derivatives. The detection approach is based on the log-likelihood comparison of the observation sequence with a fixed threshold. A sliding window was used to obtain the observation sequence to be evaluated by the model. The threshold was optimized by receiver operating characteristic curves. Sensitivity (Sen), specificity (Spc) and F1 score were used to evaluate the detection performance. The approach was validated using ECG recordings from the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia database. A 6-fold cross-validation shows that the best detection performance was achieved with 2 states HMM trained with QRS complexes sequences (Sen = 0.668, Spc = 0.360 and F1 = 0.309). We concluded that these univariate sequences provide enough information to characterize the QRS complex dynamics from HMM. Future works are directed to the use of multivariate observations to increase the detection performance.

  20. Trend and forecasting rate of cancer deaths at a public university hospital using univariate modeling

    Ismail, A.; Hassan, Noor I.

    2013-09-01

    Cancer is one of the principal causes of death in Malaysia. This study was performed to determine the pattern of rate of cancer deaths at a public hospital in Malaysia over an 11 year period from year 2001 to 2011, to determine the best fitted model of forecasting the rate of cancer deaths using Univariate Modeling and to forecast the rates for the next two years (2012 to 2013). The medical records of the death of patients with cancer admitted at this Hospital over 11 year's period were reviewed, with a total of 663 cases. The cancers were classified according to 10th Revision International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Data collected include socio-demographic background of patients such as registration number, age, gender, ethnicity, ward and diagnosis. Data entry and analysis was accomplished using SPSS 19.0 and Minitab 16.0. The five Univariate Models used were Naïve with Trend Model, Average Percent Change Model (ACPM), Single Exponential Smoothing, Double Exponential Smoothing and Holt's Method. The overall 11 years rate of cancer deaths showed that at this hospital, Malay patients have the highest percentage (88.10%) compared to other ethnic groups with males (51.30%) higher than females. Lung and breast cancer have the most number of cancer deaths among gender. About 29.60% of the patients who died due to cancer were aged 61 years old and above. The best Univariate Model used for forecasting the rate of cancer deaths is Single Exponential Smoothing Technique with alpha of 0.10. The forecast for the rate of cancer deaths shows a horizontally or flat value. The forecasted mortality trend remains at 6.84% from January 2012 to December 2013. All the government and private sectors and non-governmental organizations need to highlight issues on cancer especially lung and breast cancers to the public through campaigns using mass media, media electronics, posters and pamphlets in the attempt to decrease the rate of cancer deaths in Malaysia.

  1. Effects of univariate and multivariate regression on the accuracy of hydrogen quantification with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Ytsma, Cai R.; Dyar, M. Darby

    2018-01-01

    Hydrogen (H) is a critical element to measure on the surface of Mars because its presence in mineral structures is indicative of past hydrous conditions. The Curiosity rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectrometer (LIBS) on the ChemCam instrument to analyze rocks for their H emission signal at 656.6 nm, from which H can be quantified. Previous LIBS calibrations for H used small data sets measured on standards and/or manufactured mixtures of hydrous minerals and rocks and applied univariate regression to spectra normalized in a variety of ways. However, matrix effects common to LIBS make these calibrations of limited usefulness when applied to the broad range of compositions on the Martian surface. In this study, 198 naturally-occurring hydrous geological samples covering a broad range of bulk compositions with directly-measured H content are used to create more robust prediction models for measuring H in LIBS data acquired under Mars conditions. Both univariate and multivariate prediction models, including partial least square (PLS) and the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (Lasso), are compared using several different methods for normalization of H peak intensities. Data from the ChemLIBS Mars-analog spectrometer at Mount Holyoke College are compared against spectra from the same samples acquired using a ChemCam-like instrument at Los Alamos National Laboratory and the ChemCam instrument on Mars. Results show that all current normalization and data preprocessing variations for quantifying H result in models with statistically indistinguishable prediction errors (accuracies) ca. ± 1.5 weight percent (wt%) H2O, limiting the applications of LIBS in these implementations for geological studies. This error is too large to allow distinctions among the most common hydrous phases (basalts, amphiboles, micas) to be made, though some clays (e.g., chlorites with ≈ 12 wt% H2O, smectites with 15-20 wt% H2O) and hydrated phases (e.g., gypsum with ≈ 20

  2. Univariate and Bivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition for Postural Stability Analysis

    Jacques Duchêne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare empirical mode decomposition (EMD and two new extended methods of  EMD named complex empirical mode decomposition (complex-EMD and bivariate empirical mode decomposition (bivariate-EMD. All methods were used to analyze stabilogram center of pressure (COP time series. The two new methods are suitable to be applied to complex time series to extract complex intrinsic mode functions (IMFs before the Hilbert transform is subsequently applied on the IMFs. The trace of the analytic IMF in the complex plane has a circular form, with each IMF having its own rotation frequency. The area of the circle and the average rotation frequency of IMFs represent efficient indicators of the postural stability status of subjects. Experimental results show the effectiveness of these indicators to identify differences in standing posture between groups.

  3. Metabolic and molecular analyses of white mutant Vaccinium berries show down-regulation of MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB regulatory factor.

    Primetta, Anja K; Karppinen, Katja; Riihinen, Kaisu R; Jaakola, Laura

    2015-09-01

    MYBPA1-type R2R3 MYB transcription factor shows down-regulation in white mutant berries of Vaccinium uliginosum deficient in anthocyanins but not proanthocyanidins suggesting a role in the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis. Berries of the genus Vaccinium are among the best natural sources of flavonoids. In this study, the expression of structural and regulatory flavonoid biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of flavonoids in white mutant and blue-colored wild-type bog bilberry (V. uliginosum) fruits were measured at different stages of berry development. In contrast to high contents of anthocyanins in ripe blue-colored berries, only traces were detected by HPLC-ESI-MS in ripe white mutant berries. However, similar profile and high levels of flavonol glycosides and proanthocyanidins were quantified in both ripe white and ripe wild-type berries. Analysis with qRT-PCR showed strong down-regulation of structural genes chalcone synthase (VuCHS), dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (VuDFR) and anthocyanidin synthase (VuANS) as well as MYBPA1-type transcription factor VuMYBPA1 in white berries during ripening compared to wild-type berries. The profiles of transcript accumulation of chalcone isomerase (VuCHI), anthocyanidin reductase (VuANR), leucoanthocyanidin reductase (VuLAR) and flavonoid 3'5' hydroxylase (VuF3'5'H) were more similar between the white and the wild-type berries during fruit development, while expression of UDP-glucose: flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (VuUFGT) showed similar trend but fourfold lower level in white mutant. VuMYBPA1, the R2R3 MYB family member, is a homologue of VmMYB2 of V. myrtillus and VcMYBPA1 of V. corymbosum and belongs to MYBPA1-type MYB family which members are shown in some species to be related with proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in fruits. Our results combined with earlier data of the role of VmMYB2 in white mutant berries of V. myrtillus suggest that the regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Vaccinium species could differ

  4. Comparative sequence, structure and redox analyses of Klebsiella pneumoniae DsbA show that anti-virulence target DsbA enzymes fall into distinct classes.

    Fabian Kurth

    Full Text Available Bacterial DsbA enzymes catalyze oxidative folding of virulence factors, and have been identified as targets for antivirulence drugs. However, DsbA enzymes characterized to date exhibit a wide spectrum of redox properties and divergent structural features compared to the prototypical DsbA enzyme of Escherichia coli DsbA (EcDsbA. Nonetheless, sequence analysis shows that DsbAs are more highly conserved than their known substrate virulence factors, highlighting the potential to inhibit virulence across a range of organisms by targeting DsbA. For example, Salmonella enterica typhimurium (SeDsbA, 86 % sequence identity to EcDsbA shares almost identical structural, surface and redox properties. Using comparative sequence and structure analysis we predicted that five other bacterial DsbAs would share these properties. To confirm this, we characterized Klebsiella pneumoniae DsbA (KpDsbA, 81 % identity to EcDsbA. As expected, the redox properties, structure and surface features (from crystal and NMR data of KpDsbA were almost identical to those of EcDsbA and SeDsbA. Moreover, KpDsbA and EcDsbA bind peptides derived from their respective DsbBs with almost equal affinity, supporting the notion that compounds designed to inhibit EcDsbA will also inhibit KpDsbA. Taken together, our data show that DsbAs fall into different classes; that DsbAs within a class may be predicted by sequence analysis of binding loops; that DsbAs within a class are able to complement one another in vivo and that compounds designed to inhibit EcDsbA are likely to inhibit DsbAs within the same class.

  5. Nuisance forecasting. Univariate modelling and very-short-term forecasting of winter smog episodes; Immissionsprognose. Univariate Modellierung und Kuerzestfristvorhersage von Wintersmogsituationen

    Schlink, U.

    1996-12-31

    The work evaluates specifically the nuisance data provided by the measuring station in the centre of Leipig during the period from 1980 to 1993, with the aim to develop an algorithm for making very short-term forecasts of excessive nuisances. Forecasting was to be univariate, i.e., based exclusively on the half-hourly readings of SO{sub 2} concentrations taken in the past. As shown by Fourier analysis, there exist three main and mutually independent spectral regions: the high-frequency sector (period < 12 hours) of unstable irregularities, the seasonal sector with the periods of 24 and 12 hours, and the low-frequency sector (period > 24 hours). After breaking the measuring series up into components, the low-frequency sector is termed trend component, or trend for short. For obtaining the components, a Kalman filter is used. It was found that smog episodes are most adequately described by the trend component. This is therefore more closely investigated. The phase representation then shows characteristic trajectories of the trends. (orig./KW) [Deutsch] In der vorliegende Arbeit wurden speziell die Immissionsdaten der Messstation Leipzig-Mitte des Zeitraumes 1980-1993 mit dem Ziel der Erstellung eines Algorithmus fuer die Kuerzestfristprognose von Ueberschreitungssituationen untersucht. Die Prognosestellung sollte allein anhand der in der Vergangenheit registrierten Halbstundenwerte der SO{sub 2}-Konzentration, also univariat erfolgen. Wie die Fourieranalyse zeigt, gibt es drei wesentliche und voneinander unabhaengige Spektralbereiche: Den hochfrequenten Bereich (Periode <12 Stunden) der instabilen Irregularitaeten, den saisonalen Anteil mit den Perioden von 24 und 12 Stunden und den niedrigfrequenten Bereich (Periode >24 Stunden). Letzterer wird nach einer Zerlegung der Messreihe in Komponenten als Trendkomponente (oder kurz Trend) bezeichnet. Fuer die Komponentenzerlegung wird ein Kalman-Filter verwendet. Es stellt sich heraus, dass Smogepisoden am deutlichsten

  6. [A SAS marco program for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database].

    Yang, Rendong; Xiong, Jie; Peng, Yangqin; Peng, Xiaoning; Zeng, Xiaomin

    2015-02-01

    To realize batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis for great database by SAS marco program. We wrote a SAS macro program, which can filter, integrate, and export P values to Excel by SAS9.2. The program was used for screening survival correlated RNA molecules of ovarian cancer. A SAS marco program could finish the batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis, the selection and export of the results. The SAS macro program has potential applications in reducing the workload of statistical analysis and providing a basis for batch processing of univariate Cox regression analysis.

  7. Real-time prediction of extreme ambient carbon monoxide concentrations due to vehicular exhaust emissions using univariate linear stochastic models

    Sharma, P.; Khare, M.

    2000-01-01

    Historical data of the time-series of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was analysed using Box-Jenkins modelling approach. Univariate Linear Stochastic Models (ULSMs) were developed to examine the degree of prediction possible for situations where only a limited data set, restricted only to the past record of pollutant data are available. The developed models can be used to provide short-term, real-time forecast of extreme CO concentrations for an Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), comprising a major traffic intersection in a Central Business District of Delhi City, India. (author)

  8. Combinatorial bounds on the α-divergence of univariate mixture models

    Nielsen, Frank; Sun, Ke

    2017-01-01

    We derive lower- and upper-bounds of α-divergence between univariate mixture models with components in the exponential family. Three pairs of bounds are presented in order with increasing quality and increasing computational cost. They are verified

  9. Comparison of different Methods for Univariate Time Series Imputation in R

    Moritz, Steffen; Sardá, Alexis; Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Zaefferer, Martin; Stork, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Missing values in datasets are a well-known problem and there are quite a lot of R packages offering imputation functions. But while imputation in general is well covered within R, it is hard to find functions for imputation of univariate time series. The problem is, most standard imputation techniques can not be applied directly. Most algorithms rely on inter-attribute correlations, while univariate time series imputation needs to employ time dependencies. This paper provides an overview of ...

  10. Stress assessment based on EEG univariate features and functional connectivity measures.

    Alonso, J F; Romero, S; Ballester, M R; Antonijoan, R M; Mañanas, M A

    2015-07-01

    The biological response to stress originates in the brain but involves different biochemical and physiological effects. Many common clinical methods to assess stress are based on the presence of specific hormones and on features extracted from different signals, including electrocardiogram, blood pressure, skin temperature, or galvanic skin response. The aim of this paper was to assess stress using EEG-based variables obtained from univariate analysis and functional connectivity evaluation. Two different stressors, the Stroop test and sleep deprivation, were applied to 30 volunteers to find common EEG patterns related to stress effects. Results showed a decrease of the high alpha power (11 to 12 Hz), an increase in the high beta band (23 to 36 Hz, considered a busy brain indicator), and a decrease in the approximate entropy. Moreover, connectivity showed that the high beta coherence and the interhemispheric nonlinear couplings, measured by the cross mutual information function, increased significantly for both stressors, suggesting that useful stress indexes may be obtained from EEG-based features.

  11. Reciprocal Benefits of Mass-Univariate and Multivariate Modeling in Brain Mapping: Applications to Event-Related Functional MRI, H215O-, and FDG-PET

    James R. Moeller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In brain mapping studies of sensory, cognitive, and motor operations, specific waveforms of dynamic neural activity are predicted based on theoretical models of human information processing. For example in event-related functional MRI (fMRI, the general linear model (GLM is employed in mass-univariate analyses to identify the regions whose dynamic activity closely matches the expected waveforms. By comparison multivariate analyses based on PCA or ICA provide greater flexibility in detecting spatiotemporal properties of experimental data that may strongly support alternative neuroscientific explanations. We investigated conjoint multivariate and mass-univariate analyses that combine the capabilities to (1 verify activation of neural machinery we already understand and (2 discover reliable signatures of new neural machinery. We examined combinations of GLM and PCA that recover latent neural signals (waveforms and footprints with greater accuracy than either method alone. Comparative results are illustrated with analyses of real fMRI data, adding to Monte Carlo simulation support.

  12. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Modelling As a Process Analytical Technology for Cell Therapy Bioprocessing

    Baradez, Marc-Olivier; Biziato, Daniela; Hassan, Enas; Marshall, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapies offer unquestionable promises for the treatment, and in some cases even the cure, of complex diseases. As we start to see more of these therapies gaining market authorization, attention is turning to the bioprocesses used for their manufacture, in particular the challenge of gaining higher levels of process control to help regulate cell behavior, manage process variability, and deliver product of a consistent quality. Many processes already incorporate the measurement of key markers such as nutrient consumption, metabolite production, and cell concentration, but these are often performed off-line and only at set time points in the process. Having the ability to monitor these markers in real-time using in-line sensors would offer significant advantages, allowing faster decision-making and a finer level of process control. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as an in-line optical sensor for bioprocess monitoring of an autologous T-cell immunotherapy model produced in a stirred tank bioreactor system. Using reference datasets generated on a standard bioanalyzer, we develop chemometric models from the Raman spectra for glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia. These chemometric models can accurately monitor donor-specific increases in nutrient consumption and metabolite production as the primary T-cell transition from a recovery phase and begin proliferating. Using a univariate modeling approach, we then show how changes in peak intensity within the Raman spectra can be correlated with cell concentration and viability. These models, which act as surrogate markers, can be used to monitor cell behavior including cell proliferation rates, proliferative capacity, and transition of the cells to a quiescent phenotype. Finally, using the univariate models, we also demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be applied for real-time monitoring. The ability to measure these key parameters using an in-line Raman optical sensor makes it possible to have immediate

  13. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Modelling As a Process Analytical Technology for Cell Therapy Bioprocessing.

    Baradez, Marc-Olivier; Biziato, Daniela; Hassan, Enas; Marshall, Damian

    2018-01-01

    Cell therapies offer unquestionable promises for the treatment, and in some cases even the cure, of complex diseases. As we start to see more of these therapies gaining market authorization, attention is turning to the bioprocesses used for their manufacture, in particular the challenge of gaining higher levels of process control to help regulate cell behavior, manage process variability, and deliver product of a consistent quality. Many processes already incorporate the measurement of key markers such as nutrient consumption, metabolite production, and cell concentration, but these are often performed off-line and only at set time points in the process. Having the ability to monitor these markers in real-time using in-line sensors would offer significant advantages, allowing faster decision-making and a finer level of process control. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as an in-line optical sensor for bioprocess monitoring of an autologous T-cell immunotherapy model produced in a stirred tank bioreactor system. Using reference datasets generated on a standard bioanalyzer, we develop chemometric models from the Raman spectra for glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia. These chemometric models can accurately monitor donor-specific increases in nutrient consumption and metabolite production as the primary T-cell transition from a recovery phase and begin proliferating. Using a univariate modeling approach, we then show how changes in peak intensity within the Raman spectra can be correlated with cell concentration and viability. These models, which act as surrogate markers, can be used to monitor cell behavior including cell proliferation rates, proliferative capacity, and transition of the cells to a quiescent phenotype. Finally, using the univariate models, we also demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be applied for real-time monitoring. The ability to measure these key parameters using an in-line Raman optical sensor makes it possible to have immediate

  14. Application of Raman Spectroscopy and Univariate Modelling As a Process Analytical Technology for Cell Therapy Bioprocessing

    Marc-Olivier Baradez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cell therapies offer unquestionable promises for the treatment, and in some cases even the cure, of complex diseases. As we start to see more of these therapies gaining market authorization, attention is turning to the bioprocesses used for their manufacture, in particular the challenge of gaining higher levels of process control to help regulate cell behavior, manage process variability, and deliver product of a consistent quality. Many processes already incorporate the measurement of key markers such as nutrient consumption, metabolite production, and cell concentration, but these are often performed off-line and only at set time points in the process. Having the ability to monitor these markers in real-time using in-line sensors would offer significant advantages, allowing faster decision-making and a finer level of process control. In this study, we use Raman spectroscopy as an in-line optical sensor for bioprocess monitoring of an autologous T-cell immunotherapy model produced in a stirred tank bioreactor system. Using reference datasets generated on a standard bioanalyzer, we develop chemometric models from the Raman spectra for glucose, glutamine, lactate, and ammonia. These chemometric models can accurately monitor donor-specific increases in nutrient consumption and metabolite production as the primary T-cell transition from a recovery phase and begin proliferating. Using a univariate modeling approach, we then show how changes in peak intensity within the Raman spectra can be correlated with cell concentration and viability. These models, which act as surrogate markers, can be used to monitor cell behavior including cell proliferation rates, proliferative capacity, and transition of the cells to a quiescent phenotype. Finally, using the univariate models, we also demonstrate how Raman spectroscopy can be applied for real-time monitoring. The ability to measure these key parameters using an in-line Raman optical sensor makes it possible

  15. Univariate and multivariate analysis on processing tomato quality under different mulches

    Carmen Moreno

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of eco-friendly mulch materials as alternatives to the standard polyethylene (PE has become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Consequently, a comparison of mulch materials from different origins is necessary to evaluate their feasibility. Several researchers have compared the effects of mulch materials on each crop variable through univariate analysis (ANOVA. However, it is important to focus on the effect of these materials on fruit quality, because this factor decisively influences the acceptance of the final product by consumers and the industrial sector. This study aimed to analyze the information supplied by a randomized complete block experiment combined over two seasons, a principal component analysis (PCA and a cluster analysis (CA when studying the effects of mulch materials on the quality of processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.. The study focused on the variability in the quality measurements and on the determination of mulch materials with a similar response to them. A comparison of the results from both types of analysis yielded complementary information. ANOVA showed the similarity of certain materials. However, considering the totality of the variables analyzed, the final interpretation was slightly complicated. PCA indicated that the juice color, the fruit firmness and the soluble solid content were the most influential factors in the total variability of a set of 12 juice and fruit variables, and CA allowed us to establish four categories of treatment: plastics (polyethylene - PE, oxo- and biodegradable materials, papers, manual weeding and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. straw. Oxobiodegradable and PE were most closely related based on CA.

  16. Univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis for measuring nonnormality: Prevalence, influence and estimation.

    Cain, Meghan K; Zhang, Zhiyong; Yuan, Ke-Hai

    2017-10-01

    Nonnormality of univariate data has been extensively examined previously (Blanca et al., Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 9(2), 78-84, 2013; Miceeri, Psychological Bulletin, 105(1), 156, 1989). However, less is known of the potential nonnormality of multivariate data although multivariate analysis is commonly used in psychological and educational research. Using univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis as measures of nonnormality, this study examined 1,567 univariate distriubtions and 254 multivariate distributions collected from authors of articles published in Psychological Science and the American Education Research Journal. We found that 74 % of univariate distributions and 68 % multivariate distributions deviated from normal distributions. In a simulation study using typical values of skewness and kurtosis that we collected, we found that the resulting type I error rates were 17 % in a t-test and 30 % in a factor analysis under some conditions. Hence, we argue that it is time to routinely report skewness and kurtosis along with other summary statistics such as means and variances. To facilitate future report of skewness and kurtosis, we provide a tutorial on how to compute univariate and multivariate skewness and kurtosis by SAS, SPSS, R and a newly developed Web application.

  17. Comparison of multivariate and univariate statistical process control and monitoring methods

    Leger, R.P.; Garland, WM.J.; Macgregor, J.F.

    1996-01-01

    Work in recent years has lead to the development of multivariate process monitoring schemes which use Principal Component Analysis (PCA). This research compares the performance of a univariate scheme and a multivariate PCA scheme used for monitoring a simple process with 11 measured variables. The multivariate PCA scheme was able to adequately represent the process using two principal components. This resulted in a PCA monitoring scheme which used two charts as opposed to 11 charts for the univariate scheme and therefore had distinct advantages in terms of both data representation, presentation, and fault diagnosis capabilities. (author)

  18. An exercise in model validation: Comparing univariate statistics and Monte Carlo-based multivariate statistics

    Weathers, J.B.; Luck, R.; Weathers, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    The complexity of mathematical models used by practicing engineers is increasing due to the growing availability of sophisticated mathematical modeling tools and ever-improving computational power. For this reason, the need to define a well-structured process for validating these models against experimental results has become a pressing issue in the engineering community. This validation process is partially characterized by the uncertainties associated with the modeling effort as well as the experimental results. The net impact of the uncertainties on the validation effort is assessed through the 'noise level of the validation procedure', which can be defined as an estimate of the 95% confidence uncertainty bounds for the comparison error between actual experimental results and model-based predictions of the same quantities of interest. Although general descriptions associated with the construction of the noise level using multivariate statistics exists in the literature, a detailed procedure outlining how to account for the systematic and random uncertainties is not available. In this paper, the methodology used to derive the covariance matrix associated with the multivariate normal pdf based on random and systematic uncertainties is examined, and a procedure used to estimate this covariance matrix using Monte Carlo analysis is presented. The covariance matrices are then used to construct approximate 95% confidence constant probability contours associated with comparison error results for a practical example. In addition, the example is used to show the drawbacks of using a first-order sensitivity analysis when nonlinear local sensitivity coefficients exist. Finally, the example is used to show the connection between the noise level of the validation exercise calculated using multivariate and univariate statistics.

  19. An exercise in model validation: Comparing univariate statistics and Monte Carlo-based multivariate statistics

    Weathers, J.B. [Shock, Noise, and Vibration Group, Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding, P.O. Box 149, Pascagoula, MS 39568 (United States)], E-mail: James.Weathers@ngc.com; Luck, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Mississippi State University, 210 Carpenter Engineering Building, P.O. Box ME, Mississippi State, MS 39762-5925 (United States)], E-mail: Luck@me.msstate.edu; Weathers, J.W. [Structural Analysis Group, Northrop Grumman Shipbuilding, P.O. Box 149, Pascagoula, MS 39568 (United States)], E-mail: Jeffrey.Weathers@ngc.com

    2009-11-15

    The complexity of mathematical models used by practicing engineers is increasing due to the growing availability of sophisticated mathematical modeling tools and ever-improving computational power. For this reason, the need to define a well-structured process for validating these models against experimental results has become a pressing issue in the engineering community. This validation process is partially characterized by the uncertainties associated with the modeling effort as well as the experimental results. The net impact of the uncertainties on the validation effort is assessed through the 'noise level of the validation procedure', which can be defined as an estimate of the 95% confidence uncertainty bounds for the comparison error between actual experimental results and model-based predictions of the same quantities of interest. Although general descriptions associated with the construction of the noise level using multivariate statistics exists in the literature, a detailed procedure outlining how to account for the systematic and random uncertainties is not available. In this paper, the methodology used to derive the covariance matrix associated with the multivariate normal pdf based on random and systematic uncertainties is examined, and a procedure used to estimate this covariance matrix using Monte Carlo analysis is presented. The covariance matrices are then used to construct approximate 95% confidence constant probability contours associated with comparison error results for a practical example. In addition, the example is used to show the drawbacks of using a first-order sensitivity analysis when nonlinear local sensitivity coefficients exist. Finally, the example is used to show the connection between the noise level of the validation exercise calculated using multivariate and univariate statistics.

  20. Cellulose I crystallinity determination using FT-Raman spectroscopy : univariate and multivariate methods

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Richard S. Reiner; Sally A. Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Two new methods based on FT–Raman spectroscopy, one simple, based on band intensity ratio, and the other using a partial least squares (PLS) regression model, are proposed to determine cellulose I crystallinity. In the simple method, crystallinity in cellulose I samples was determined based on univariate regression that was first developed using the Raman band...

  1. Combinatorial bounds on the α-divergence of univariate mixture models

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-06-20

    We derive lower- and upper-bounds of α-divergence between univariate mixture models with components in the exponential family. Three pairs of bounds are presented in order with increasing quality and increasing computational cost. They are verified empirically through simulated Gaussian mixture models. The presented methodology generalizes to other divergence families relying on Hellinger-type integrals.

  2. The issue of multiple univariate comparisons in the context of neuroelectric brain mapping: an application in a neuromarketing experiment.

    Vecchiato, G; De Vico Fallani, F; Astolfi, L; Toppi, J; Cincotti, F; Mattia, D; Salinari, S; Babiloni, F

    2010-08-30

    This paper presents some considerations about the use of adequate statistical techniques in the framework of the neuroelectromagnetic brain mapping. With the use of advanced EEG/MEG recording setup involving hundred of sensors, the issue of the protection against the type I errors that could occur during the execution of hundred of univariate statistical tests, has gained interest. In the present experiment, we investigated the EEG signals from a mannequin acting as an experimental subject. Data have been collected while performing a neuromarketing experiment and analyzed with state of the art computational tools adopted in specialized literature. Results showed that electric data from the mannequin's head presents statistical significant differences in power spectra during the visualization of a commercial advertising when compared to the power spectra gathered during a documentary, when no adjustments were made on the alpha level of the multiple univariate tests performed. The use of the Bonferroni or Bonferroni-Holm adjustments returned correctly no differences between the signals gathered from the mannequin in the two experimental conditions. An partial sample of recently published literature on different neuroscience journals suggested that at least the 30% of the papers do not use statistical protection for the type I errors. While the occurrence of type I errors could be easily managed with appropriate statistical techniques, the use of such techniques is still not so largely adopted in the literature. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A comparison of multivariate and univariate time series approaches to modelling and forecasting emergency department demand in Western Australia.

    Aboagye-Sarfo, Patrick; Mai, Qun; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Preen, David B; Stewart, Louise M; Fatovich, Daniel M

    2015-10-01

    To develop multivariate vector-ARMA (VARMA) forecast models for predicting emergency department (ED) demand in Western Australia (WA) and compare them to the benchmark univariate autoregressive moving average (ARMA) and Winters' models. Seven-year monthly WA state-wide public hospital ED presentation data from 2006/07 to 2012/13 were modelled. Graphical and VARMA modelling methods were used for descriptive analysis and model fitting. The VARMA models were compared to the benchmark univariate ARMA and Winters' models to determine their accuracy to predict ED demand. The best models were evaluated by using error correction methods for accuracy. Descriptive analysis of all the dependent variables showed an increasing pattern of ED use with seasonal trends over time. The VARMA models provided a more precise and accurate forecast with smaller confidence intervals and better measures of accuracy in predicting ED demand in WA than the ARMA and Winters' method. VARMA models are a reliable forecasting method to predict ED demand for strategic planning and resource allocation. While the ARMA models are a closely competing alternative, they under-estimated future ED demand. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. R package imputeTestbench to compare imputations methods for univariate time series

    Bokde, Neeraj; Kulat, Kishore; Beck, Marcus W; Asencio-Cortés, Gualberto

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the R package imputeTestbench that provides a testbench for comparing imputation methods for missing data in univariate time series. The imputeTestbench package can be used to simulate the amount and type of missing data in a complete dataset and compare filled data using different imputation methods. The user has the option to simulate missing data by removing observations completely at random or in blocks of different sizes. Several default imputation methods are includ...

  5. Univariate time series modeling and an application to future claims amount in SOCSO's invalidity pension scheme

    Chek, Mohd Zaki Awang; Ahmad, Abu Bakar; Ridzwan, Ahmad Nur Azam Ahmad; Jelas, Imran Md.; Jamal, Nur Faezah; Ismail, Isma Liana; Zulkifli, Faiz; Noor, Syamsul Ikram Mohd

    2012-09-01

    The main objective of this study is to forecast the future claims amount of Invalidity Pension Scheme (IPS). All data were derived from SOCSO annual reports from year 1972 - 2010. These claims consist of all claims amount from 7 benefits offered by SOCSO such as Invalidity Pension, Invalidity Grant, Survivors Pension, Constant Attendance Allowance, Rehabilitation, Funeral and Education. Prediction of future claims of Invalidity Pension Scheme will be made using Univariate Forecasting Models to predict the future claims among workforce in Malaysia.

  6. Evaluating statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in single-case experimental designs: an SPSS method to analyze univariate data.

    Maric, Marija; de Haan, Else; Hogendoorn, Sanne M; Wolters, Lidewij H; Huizenga, Hilde M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case experimental designs are useful methods in clinical research practice to investigate individual client progress. Their proliferation might have been hampered by methodological challenges such as the difficulty applying existing statistical procedures. In this article, we describe a data-analytic method to analyze univariate (i.e., one symptom) single-case data using the common package SPSS. This method can help the clinical researcher to investigate whether an intervention works as compared with a baseline period or another intervention type, and to determine whether symptom improvement is clinically significant. First, we describe the statistical method in a conceptual way and show how it can be implemented in SPSS. Simulation studies were performed to determine the number of observation points required per intervention phase. Second, to illustrate this method and its implications, we present a case study of an adolescent with anxiety disorders treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy techniques in an outpatient psychotherapy clinic, whose symptoms were regularly assessed before each session. We provide a description of the data analyses and results of this case study. Finally, we discuss the advantages and shortcomings of the proposed method. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. A Guideline to Univariate Statistical Analysis for LC/MS-Based Untargeted Metabolomics-Derived Data

    Maria Vinaixa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Several metabolomic software programs provide methods for peak picking, retention time alignment and quantification of metabolite features in LC/MS-based metabolomics. Statistical analysis, however, is needed in order to discover those features significantly altered between samples. By comparing the retention time and MS/MS data of a model compound to that from the altered feature of interest in the research sample, metabolites can be then unequivocally identified. This paper reports on a comprehensive overview of a workflow for statistical analysis to rank relevant metabolite features that will be selected for further MS/MS experiments. We focus on univariate data analysis applied in parallel on all detected features. Characteristics and challenges of this analysis are discussed and illustrated using four different real LC/MS untargeted metabolomic datasets. We demonstrate the influence of considering or violating mathematical assumptions on which univariate statistical test rely, using high-dimensional LC/MS datasets. Issues in data analysis such as determination of sample size, analytical variation, assumption of normality and homocedasticity, or correction for multiple testing are discussed and illustrated in the context of our four untargeted LC/MS working examples.

  8. Wind Speed Prediction Using a Univariate ARIMA Model and a Multivariate NARX Model

    Erasmo Cadenas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Two on step ahead wind speed forecasting models were compared. A univariate model was developed using a linear autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA. This method’s performance is well studied for a large number of prediction problems. The other is a multivariate model developed using a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous artificial neural network (NARX. This uses the variables: barometric pressure, air temperature, wind direction and solar radiation or relative humidity, as well as delayed wind speed. Both models were developed from two databases from two sites: an hourly average measurements database from La Mata, Oaxaca, Mexico, and a ten minute average measurements database from Metepec, Hidalgo, Mexico. The main objective was to compare the impact of the various meteorological variables on the performance of the multivariate model of wind speed prediction with respect to the high performance univariate linear model. The NARX model gave better results with improvements on the ARIMA model of between 5.5% and 10. 6% for the hourly database and of between 2.3% and 12.8% for the ten minute database for mean absolute error and mean squared error, respectively.

  9. Characteristics of genomic signatures derived using univariate methods and mechanistically anchored functional descriptors for predicting drug- and xenobiotic-induced nephrotoxicity.

    Shi, Weiwei; Bugrim, Andrej; Nikolsky, Yuri; Nikolskya, Tatiana; Brennan, Richard J

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ideal toxicity biomarker is composed of the properties of prediction (is detected prior to traditional pathological signs of injury), accuracy (high sensitivity and specificity), and mechanistic relationships to the endpoint measured (biological relevance). Gene expression-based toxicity biomarkers ("signatures") have shown good predictive power and accuracy, but are difficult to interpret biologically. We have compared different statistical methods of feature selection with knowledge-based approaches, using GeneGo's database of canonical pathway maps, to generate gene sets for the classification of renal tubule toxicity. The gene set selection algorithms include four univariate analyses: t-statistics, fold-change, B-statistics, and RankProd, and their combination and overlap for the identification of differentially expressed probes. Enrichment analysis following the results of the four univariate analyses, Hotelling T-square test, and, finally out-of-bag selection, a variant of cross-validation, were used to identify canonical pathway maps-sets of genes coordinately involved in key biological processes-with classification power. Differentially expressed genes identified by the different statistical univariate analyses all generated reasonably performing classifiers of tubule toxicity. Maps identified by enrichment analysis or Hotelling T-square had lower classification power, but highlighted perturbed lipid homeostasis as a common discriminator of nephrotoxic treatments. The out-of-bag method yielded the best functionally integrated classifier. The map "ephrins signaling" performed comparably to a classifier derived using sparse linear programming, a machine learning algorithm, and represents a signaling network specifically involved in renal tubule development and integrity. Such functional descriptors of toxicity promise to better integrate predictive toxicogenomics with mechanistic analysis, facilitating the interpretation and risk assessment of

  10. [Retrospective statistical analysis of clinical factors of recurrence in chronic subdural hematoma: correlation between univariate and multivariate analysis].

    Takayama, Motoharu; Terui, Keita; Oiwa, Yoshitsugu

    2012-10-01

    Chronic subdural hematoma is common in elderly individuals and surgical procedures are simple. The recurrence rate of chronic subdural hematoma, however, varies from 9.2 to 26.5% after surgery. The authors studied factors of the recurrence using univariate and multivariate analyses in patients with chronic subdural hematoma We retrospectively reviewed 239 consecutive cases of chronic subdural hematoma who received burr-hole surgery with irrigation and closed-system drainage. We analyzed the relationships between recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma and factors such as sex, age, laterality, bleeding tendency, other complicated diseases, density on CT, volume of the hematoma, residual air in the hematoma cavity, use of artificial cerebrospinal fluid. Twenty-one patients (8.8%) experienced a recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. Multiple logistic regression found that the recurrence rate was higher in patients with a large volume of the residual air, and was lower in patients using artificial cerebrospinal fluid. No statistical differences were found in bleeding tendency. Techniques to reduce the air in the hematoma cavity are important for good outcome in surgery of chronic subdural hematoma. Also, the use of artificial cerebrospinal fluid reduces recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. The surgical procedures can be the same for patients with bleeding tendencies.

  11. Forecasting electric vehicles sales with univariate and multivariate time series models: The case of China.

    Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Miner; Geng, Nana; Jiang, Yunjian

    2017-01-01

    The market demand for electric vehicles (EVs) has increased in recent years. Suitable models are necessary to understand and forecast EV sales. This study presents a singular spectrum analysis (SSA) as a univariate time-series model and vector autoregressive model (VAR) as a multivariate model. Empirical results suggest that SSA satisfactorily indicates the evolving trend and provides reasonable results. The VAR model, which comprised exogenous parameters related to the market on a monthly basis, can significantly improve the prediction accuracy. The EV sales in China, which are categorized into battery and plug-in EVs, are predicted in both short term (up to December 2017) and long term (up to 2020), as statistical proofs of the growth of the Chinese EV industry.

  12. Univariate and multivariate forecasting of hourly solar radiation with artificial intelligence techniques

    Sfetsos, A. [7 Pirsou Str., Athens (Greece); Coonick, A.H. [Imperial Coll. of Science Technology and Medicine, Dept. of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for the forecasting of mean hourly global solar radiation received by a horizontal surface. In addition to the traditional linear methods, several artificial-intelligence-based techniques are studied. These include linear, feed-forward, recurrent Elman and Radial Basis neural networks alongside the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference scheme. The problem is examined initially for the univariate case, and is extended to include additional meteorological parameters in the process of estimating the optimum model. The results indicate that the developed artificial intelligence models predict the solar radiation time series more effectively compared to the conventional procedures based on the clearness index. The forecasting ability of some models can be further enhanced with the use of additional meteorological parameters. (Author)

  13. Detection of biomarkers for Hepatocellular Carcinoma using a hybrid univariate gene selection methods

    Abdel Samee Nagwan M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Discovering new biomarkers has a great role in improving early diagnosis of Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. The experimental determination of biomarkers needs a lot of time and money. This motivates this work to use in-silico prediction of biomarkers to reduce the number of experiments required for detecting new ones. This is achieved by extracting the most representative genes in microarrays of HCC. Results In this work, we provide a method for extracting the differential expressed genes, up regulated ones, that can be considered candidate biomarkers in high throughput microarrays of HCC. We examine the power of several gene selection methods (such as Pearson’s correlation coefficient, Cosine coefficient, Euclidean distance, Mutual information and Entropy with different estimators in selecting informative genes. A biological interpretation of the highly ranked genes is done using KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways, ENTREZ and DAVID (Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery databases. The top ten genes selected using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and Cosine coefficient contained six genes that have been implicated in cancer (often multiple cancers genesis in previous studies. A fewer number of genes were obtained by the other methods (4 genes using Mutual information, 3genes using Euclidean distance and only one gene using Entropy. A better result was obtained by the utilization of a hybrid approach based on intersecting the highly ranked genes in the output of all investigated methods. This hybrid combination yielded seven genes (2 genes for HCC and 5 genes in different types of cancer in the top ten genes of the list of intersected genes. Conclusions To strengthen the effectiveness of the univariate selection methods, we propose a hybrid approach by intersecting several of these methods in a cascaded manner. This approach surpasses all of univariate selection methods when

  14. Improving the performance of univariate control charts for abnormal detection and classification

    Yiakopoulos, Christos; Koutsoudaki, Maria; Gryllias, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Ioannis

    2017-03-01

    Bearing failures in rotating machinery can cause machine breakdown and economical loss, if no effective actions are taken on time. Therefore, it is of prime importance to detect accurately the presence of faults, especially at their early stage, to prevent sequent damage and reduce costly downtime. The machinery fault diagnosis follows a roadmap of data acquisition, feature extraction and diagnostic decision making, in which mechanical vibration fault feature extraction is the foundation and the key to obtain an accurate diagnostic result. A challenge in this area is the selection of the most sensitive features for various types of fault, especially when the characteristics of failures are difficult to be extracted. Thus, a plethora of complex data-driven fault diagnosis methods are fed by prominent features, which are extracted and reduced through traditional or modern algorithms. Since most of the available datasets are captured during normal operating conditions, the last decade a number of novelty detection methods, able to work when only normal data are available, have been developed. In this study, a hybrid method combining univariate control charts and a feature extraction scheme is introduced focusing towards an abnormal change detection and classification, under the assumption that measurements under normal operating conditions of the machinery are available. The feature extraction method integrates the morphological operators and the Morlet wavelets. The effectiveness of the proposed methodology is validated on two different experimental cases with bearing faults, demonstrating that the proposed approach can improve the fault detection and classification performance of conventional control charts.

  15. Segmentation of Coronary Angiograms Using Gabor Filters and Boltzmann Univariate Marginal Distribution Algorithm

    Fernando Cervantes-Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for improving the training step of the single-scale Gabor filters by using the Boltzmann univariate marginal distribution algorithm (BUMDA in X-ray angiograms. Since the single-scale Gabor filters (SSG are governed by three parameters, the optimal selection of the SSG parameters is highly desirable in order to maximize the detection performance of coronary arteries while reducing the computational time. To obtain the best set of parameters for the SSG, the area (Az under the receiver operating characteristic curve is used as fitness function. Moreover, to classify vessel and nonvessel pixels from the Gabor filter response, the interclass variance thresholding method has been adopted. The experimental results using the proposed method obtained the highest detection rate with Az=0.9502 over a training set of 40 images and Az=0.9583 with a test set of 40 images. In addition, the experimental results of vessel segmentation provided an accuracy of 0.944 with the test set of angiograms.

  16. Robust assignment of cancer subtypes from expression data using a uni-variate gene expression average as classifier

    Lauss, Martin; Frigyesi, Attila; Ryden, Tobias; Höglund, Mattias

    2010-01-01

    Genome wide gene expression data is a rich source for the identification of gene signatures suitable for clinical purposes and a number of statistical algorithms have been described for both identification and evaluation of such signatures. Some employed algorithms are fairly complex and hence sensitive to over-fitting whereas others are more simple and straight forward. Here we present a new type of simple algorithm based on ROC analysis and the use of metagenes that we believe will be a good complement to existing algorithms. The basis for the proposed approach is the use of metagenes, instead of collections of individual genes, and a feature selection using AUC values obtained by ROC analysis. Each gene in a data set is assigned an AUC value relative to the tumor class under investigation and the genes are ranked according to these values. Metagenes are then formed by calculating the mean expression level for an increasing number of ranked genes, and the metagene expression value that optimally discriminates tumor classes in the training set is used for classification of new samples. The performance of the metagene is then evaluated using LOOCV and balanced accuracies. We show that the simple uni-variate gene expression average algorithm performs as well as several alternative algorithms such as discriminant analysis and the more complex approaches such as SVM and neural networks. The R package rocc is freely available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/rocc/index.html

  17. Influence of microclimatic ammonia levels on productive performance of different broilers' breeds estimated with univariate and multivariate approaches.

    Soliman, Essam S; Moawed, Sherif A; Hassan, Rania A

    2017-08-01

    Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people's health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds. A total number of 400 air samples were collected and analyzed for ammonia levels during the experimental period. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Ammonia levels were significantly higher (p0.05) were found between the two farms in body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and performance index (PI) of broilers. Body weight; weight gain and PI had increased values (pbroiler breed. Ammonia emissions were positively (although weekly) correlated with the ambient relative humidity (r=0.383; p0.05). Test of significance of discriminant function analysis did not show a classification based on the studied traits suggesting that they cannot been used as predictor variables. The percentage of correct classification was 52% and it was improved after deletion of highly correlated traits to 57%. The study revealed that broiler's growth was negatively affected by increased microclimatic ammonia concentrations and recommended the analysis of broilers' growth performance parameters data using multivariate discriminant function analysis.

  18. Study of Ecotype and Sowing Date Interaction in Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L. using Different Univariate Stability Parameters

    J Ghanbari

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Cumin is one of the most important medicinal plants in Iran and today, it is in the second level of popularity between spices in the world after black pepper. Cumin is an aromatic plant used as flavoring and seasoning agent in foods. Cumin seeds have been found to possess significant biological and have been used for treatment of toothache, dyspepsia, diarrhoea, epilepsy and jaundice. Knowledge of GEI is advantageous to have a cultivar that gives consistently high yield in a broad range of environments and to increase efficiency of breeding program and selection of best genotypes. A genotype that has stable trait expression across environments contributes little to GEI and its performance should be more predictable from the main several statistical methods have been proposed for stability analysis, with the aim of explaining the information contained in the GEI. Regression technique was proposed by Finlay and Wilkinson (1963 and was improved by Eberhart and Russell (1966. Generally, genotype stability was estimated by the slope of and deviation from the regression line for each of the genotypes. This is a popular method in stability analysis and has been applied in many crops. Non-parametric methods (rank mean (R, standard deviation rank (SDR and yield index ratio (YIR, environmental variance (S2i and genotypic variation coefficient (CVi Wricke's ecovalence and Shukla's stability variance (Shukla, 1972 have been used to determine genotype-by-environment interaction in many studies. This study was aimed to evaluate the ecotype × sowing date interaction in cumin and to evaluation of genotypic response of cumin to different sowing dates using univariate stability parameters. Materials and Methods In order to study of ecotype × sowing date interaction, different cumin ecotypes: Semnan, Fars, Yazd, Golestan, Khorasan-Razavi, Khorasan-Shomali, Khorasan-Jonoubi, Isfahan and Kerman in 5 different sowing dates (26th December, 10th January

  19. Histograms showing variations in oil yield, water yield, and specific gravity of oil from Fischer assay analyses of oil-shale drill cores and cuttings from the Piceance Basin, northwestern Colorado

    Dietrich, John D.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Johnson, Ronald C.; Mercier, Tracey J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that the Piceance Basin in northwestern Colorado contains over 1.5 trillion barrels of oil in place, making the basin the largest known oil-shale deposit in the world. Previously published histograms display oil-yield variations with depth and widely correlate rich and lean oil-shale beds and zones throughout the basin. Histograms in this report display oil-yield data plotted alongside either water-yield or oil specific-gravity data. Fischer assay analyses of core and cutting samples collected from exploration drill holes penetrating the Eocene Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin can aid in determining the origins of those deposits, as well as estimating the amount of organic matter, halite, nahcolite, and water-bearing minerals. This report focuses only on the oil yield plotted against water yield and oil specific gravity.

  20. Review: Martin Spetsmann-Kunkel (2004. Die Moral der Daytime Talkshow. Eine soziologische Analyse eines umstrittenen Fernsehformats [The Morality of the Daytime Talk Show. A Sociological Analysis of a Controversial Television Format

    Nicola Döring

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available This book deals with the phenomenon of the daytime talk show from a sociological perspective. The author questions the common cultural pessimism of this TV format ("exhibitionist guests," "voyeuristic spectators". He first describes the characteristics of the daytime talk show and summarizes the results of previous surveys that reveal a broad variety of talk show guests' and recipients' motives—beyond pathology. Drawing on concepts like civilization and individualisation, the book outlines the societal functions of the daytime talk show. A participatory observation study in the editorial office of "Hans Meiser" and free interpretations of three series from "Vera am Mittag" are presented as "empirical evidence." Unfortunately the book lacks theoretical and methodological rigor and a sound empirical basis. The bibliography could have been more comprehensive. The work is useful, though, as an inspired, readable introduction into the topic. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0603119

  1. The use of principal components and univariate charts to control multivariate processes

    Marcela A. G. Machado

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we evaluate the performance of the T² chart based on the principal components (PC X chart and the simultaneous univariate control charts based on the original variables (SU charts or based on the principal components (SUPC charts. The main reason to consider the PC chart lies on the dimensionality reduction. However, depending on the disturbance and on the way the original variables are related, the chart is very slow in signaling, except when all variables are negatively correlated and the principal component is wisely selected. Comparing the SU , the SUPC and the T² charts we conclude that the SU X charts (SUPC charts have a better overall performance when the variables are positively (negatively correlated. We also develop the expression to obtain the power of two S² charts designed for monitoring the covariance matrix. These joint S² charts are, in the majority of the cases, more efficient than the generalized variance chart.Neste artigo, avaliamos o desempenho do gráfico de T² baseado em componentes principais (gráfico PC e dos gráficos de controle simultâneos univariados baseados nas variáveis originais (gráfico SU X ou baseados em componentes principais (gráfico SUPC. A principal razão para o uso do gráfico PC é a redução de dimensionalidade. Entretanto, dependendo da perturbação e da correlação entre as variáveis originais, o gráfico é lento em sinalizar, exceto quando todas as variáveis são negativamente correlacionadas e a componente principal é adequadamente escolhida. Comparando os gráficos SU X, SUPC e T² concluímos que o gráfico SU X (gráfico SUPC tem um melhor desempenho global quando as variáveis são positivamente (negativamente correlacionadas. Desenvolvemos também uma expressão para obter o poder de detecção de dois gráficos de S² projetados para controlar a matriz de covariâncias. Os gráficos conjuntos de S² são, na maioria dos casos, mais eficientes que o gr

  2. Comparison of univariate and multivariate calibration for the determination of micronutrients in pellets of plant materials by laser induced breakdown spectrometry

    Batista Braga, Jez Willian; Trevizan, Lilian Cristina; Nunes, Lidiane Cristina; Aparecida Rufini, Iolanda; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco Jose

    2010-01-01

    The application of laser induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS) aiming the direct analysis of plant materials is a great challenge that still needs efforts for its development and validation. In this way, a series of experimental approaches has been carried out in order to show that LIBS can be used as an alternative method to wet acid digestions based methods for analysis of agricultural and environmental samples. The large amount of information provided by LIBS spectra for these complex samples increases the difficulties for selecting the most appropriated wavelengths for each analyte. Some applications have suggested that improvements in both accuracy and precision can be achieved by the application of multivariate calibration in LIBS data when compared to the univariate regression developed with line emission intensities. In the present work, the performance of univariate and multivariate calibration, based on partial least squares regression (PLSR), was compared for analysis of pellets of plant materials made from an appropriate mixture of cryogenically ground samples with cellulose as the binding agent. The development of a specific PLSR model for each analyte and the selection of spectral regions containing only lines of the analyte of interest were the best conditions for the analysis. In this particular application, these models showed a similar performance, but PLSR seemed to be more robust due to a lower occurrence of outliers in comparison to the univariate method. Data suggests that efforts dealing with sample presentation and fitness of standards for LIBS analysis must be done in order to fulfill the boundary conditions for matrix independent development and validation.

  3. Influence of microclimatic ammonia levels on productive performance of different broilers’ breeds estimated with univariate and multivariate approaches

    Soliman, Essam S.; Moawed, Sherif A.; Hassan, Rania A.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim: Birds litter contains unutilized nitrogen in the form of uric acid that is converted into ammonia; a fact that does not only affect poultry performance but also has a negative effect on people’s health around the farm and contributes in the environmental degradation. The influence of microclimatic ammonia emissions on Ross and Hubbard broilers reared in different housing systems at two consecutive seasons (fall and winter) was evaluated using a discriminant function analysis to differentiate between Ross and Hubbard breeds. Materials and Methods: A total number of 400 air samples were collected and analyzed for ammonia levels during the experimental period. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Results: Ammonia levels were significantly higher (p0.05) were found between the two farms in body weight, body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and performance index (PI) of broilers. Body weight; weight gain and PI had increased values (pbroiler breed. Ammonia emissions were positively (although weekly) correlated with the ambient relative humidity (r=0.383; p0.05). Test of significance of discriminant function analysis did not show a classification based on the studied traits suggesting that they cannot been used as predictor variables. The percentage of correct classification was 52% and it was improved after deletion of highly correlated traits to 57%. Conclusion: The study revealed that broiler’s growth was negatively affected by increased microclimatic ammonia concentrations and recommended the analysis of broilers’ growth performance parameters data using multivariate discriminant function analysis. PMID:28919677

  4. Men and women show similar survival outcome in stage IV breast cancer.

    Wu, San-Gang; Zhang, Wen-Wen; Liao, Xu-Lin; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Li, Feng-Yan; Su, Jing-Jun; He, Zhen-Yu

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate the clinicopathological features, patterns of distant metastases, and survival outcome between stage IV male breast cancer (MBC) and female breast cancer (FBC). Patients diagnosed with stage IV MBC and FBC between 2010 and 2013 were included using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were used to analyze risk factors for overall survival (OS). A total of 4997 patients were identified, including 60 MBC and 4937 FBC. Compared with FBC, patients with MBC were associated with a significantly higher rate of estrogen receptor-positive, progesterone receptor-positive, unmarried, lung metastases, and a lower frequency of liver metastases. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed no significant difference in OS between MBC and FBC. In the propensity score-matched population, there was also no difference in survival between MBC and FBC. Multivariate analysis of MBC showed that OS was longer for patients aged 50-69 years and with estrogen receptor-positive disease. There was no significant difference in survival outcome between stage IV MBC and FBC, but significant differences in clinicopathological features and patterns of metastases between the genders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Showing/Sharing: Analysing Visual Communication from a Praxeological Perspective

    Maria Schreiber

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution proposes a methodological framework for empirical research into visual practices on social media. The framework identifies practices, pictures and platforms as relevant dimensions of analysis. It is mainly developed within, and is compatible with qualitative, interpretive approaches which focus on visual communication as part of everyday personal communicative practices. Two screenshots from Instagram and Facebook are introduced as empirical examples to investigate collaborative practices of meaning-making relating to pictures on social media. While social media seems to augment reflexive, processual practices of negotiating identities, visual media, in particular, amps up aesthetic, ambivalent and embodied dimensions within these practices.

  6. Who uses nursing theory? A univariate descriptive analysis of five years' research articles.

    Bond, A Elaine; Eshah, Nidal Farid; Bani-Khaled, Mohammed; Hamad, Atef Omar; Habashneh, Samira; Kataua', Hussein; al-Jarrah, Imad; Abu Kamal, Andaleeb; Hamdan, Falastine Rafic; Maabreh, Roqia

    2011-06-01

    Since the early 1950s, nursing leaders have worked diligently to build the Scientific Discipline of Nursing, integrating Theory, Research and Practice. Recently, the role of theory has again come into question, with some scientists claiming nurses are not using theory to guide their research, with which to improve practice. The purposes of this descriptive study were to determine: (i) Were nursing scientists' research articles in leading nursing journals based on theory? (ii) If so, were the theories nursing theories or borrowed theories? (iii) Were the theories integrated into the studies, or were they used as organizing frameworks? Research articles from seven top ISI journals were analysed, excluding regularly featured columns, meta-analyses, secondary analysis, case studies and literature reviews. The authors used King's dynamic Interacting system and Goal Attainment Theory as an organizing framework. They developed consensus on how to identify the integration of theory, searching the Title, Abstract, Aims, Methods, Discussion and Conclusion sections of each research article, whether quantitative or qualitative. Of 2857 articles published in the seven journals from 2002 to, and including, 2006, 2184 (76%) were research articles. Of the 837 (38%) authors who used theories, 460 (55%) used nursing theories, 377 (45%) used other theories: 776 (93%) of those who used theory integrated it into their studies, including qualitative studies, while 51 (7%) reported they used theory as an organizing framework for their studies. Closer analysis revealed theory principles were implicitly implied, even in research reports that did not explicitly report theory usage. Increasing numbers of nursing research articles (though not percentagewise) continue to be guided by theory, and not always by nursing theory. Newer nursing research methods may not explicitly state the use of nursing theory, though it is implicitly implied. © 2010 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Caring

  7. UniFIeD Univariate Frequency-based Imputation for Time Series Data

    Friese, Martina; Stork, Jörg; Ramos Guerra, Ricardo; Bartz-Beielstein, Thomas; Thaker, Soham; Flasch, Oliver; Zaefferer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces UniFIeD, a new data preprocessing method for time series. UniFIeD can cope with large intervals of missing data. A scalable test function generator, which allows the simulation of time series with different gap sizes, is presented additionally. An experimental study demonstrates that (i) UniFIeD shows a significant better performance than simple imputation methods and (ii) UniFIeD is able to handle situations, where advanced imputation methods fail. The results are indep...

  8. Univariate Time Series Prediction of Solar Power Using a Hybrid Wavelet-ARMA-NARX Prediction Method

    Nazaripouya, Hamidreza; Wang, Yubo; Chu, Chi-Cheng; Pota, Hemanshu; Gadh, Rajit

    2016-05-02

    This paper proposes a new hybrid method for super short-term solar power prediction. Solar output power usually has a complex, nonstationary, and nonlinear characteristic due to intermittent and time varying behavior of solar radiance. In addition, solar power dynamics is fast and is inertia less. An accurate super short-time prediction is required to compensate for the fluctuations and reduce the impact of solar power penetration on the power system. The objective is to predict one step-ahead solar power generation based only on historical solar power time series data. The proposed method incorporates discrete wavelet transform (DWT), Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) models, and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN), while the RNN architecture is based on Nonlinear Auto-Regressive models with eXogenous inputs (NARX). The wavelet transform is utilized to decompose the solar power time series into a set of richer-behaved forming series for prediction. ARMA model is employed as a linear predictor while NARX is used as a nonlinear pattern recognition tool to estimate and compensate the error of wavelet-ARMA prediction. The proposed method is applied to the data captured from UCLA solar PV panels and the results are compared with some of the common and most recent solar power prediction methods. The results validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach and show a considerable improvement in the prediction precision.

  9. Developing a univariate approach to phase-I monitoring of fuzzy quality profiles

    Kazem Noghondarian

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In many real-world applications, the quality of a process or a particular product can be characterized by a functional relationship called profile. A profile builds the relationships between a response quality characteristic and one or more explanatory variables. Monitoring the quality of a profile is implemented to understand and to verify the stability of this functional relationship over time. In some real applications, a fuzzy linear regression model can represent the profile adequately where the response quality characteristic is fuzzy. The purpose of this paper is to develop an approach for monitoring process/product profiles in fuzzy environment. A model in fuzzy linear regression is developed to construct the quality profiles by using linear programming and then fuzzy individuals and moving-range (I-MR control charts are developed to monitor both intercept and slope of fuzzy profiles to achieve an in-control process. A case study in customer satisfaction is presented to show the application of our approach and to express the sensitivity analysis of parameters for building a fuzzy profile.

  10. Monitoring endemic livestock diseases using laboratory diagnostic data: A simulation study to evaluate the performance of univariate process monitoring control algorithms.

    Lopes Antunes, Ana Carolina; Dórea, Fernanda; Halasa, Tariq; Toft, Nils

    2016-05-01

    Surveillance systems are critical for accurate, timely monitoring and effective disease control. In this study, we investigated the performance of univariate process monitoring control algorithms in detecting changes in seroprevalence for endemic diseases. We also assessed the effect of sample size (number of sentinel herds tested in the surveillance system) on the performance of the algorithms. Three univariate process monitoring control algorithms were compared: Shewart p Chart(1) (PSHEW), Cumulative Sum(2) (CUSUM) and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average(3) (EWMA). Increases in seroprevalence were simulated from 0.10 to 0.15 and 0.20 over 4, 8, 24, 52 and 104 weeks. Each epidemic scenario was run with 2000 iterations. The cumulative sensitivity(4) (CumSe) and timeliness were used to evaluate the algorithms' performance with a 1% false alarm rate. Using these performance evaluation criteria, it was possible to assess the accuracy and timeliness of the surveillance system working in real-time. The results showed that EWMA and PSHEW had higher CumSe (when compared with the CUSUM) from week 1 until the end of the period for all simulated scenarios. Changes in seroprevalence from 0.10 to 0.20 were more easily detected (higher CumSe) than changes from 0.10 to 0.15 for all three algorithms. Similar results were found with EWMA and PSHEW, based on the median time to detection. Changes in the seroprevalence were detected later with CUSUM, compared to EWMA and PSHEW for the different scenarios. Increasing the sample size 10 fold halved the time to detection (CumSe=1), whereas increasing the sample size 100 fold reduced the time to detection by a factor of 6. This study investigated the performance of three univariate process monitoring control algorithms in monitoring endemic diseases. It was shown that automated systems based on these detection methods identified changes in seroprevalence at different times. Increasing the number of tested herds would lead to faster

  11. Inflation persistence in central and southeastern Europe: Evidence from univariate and structural time series approaches

    Mladenović Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to measure inflation persistence in the following countries of Central and Southeastern Europe: Slovakia, the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, Romania and Serbia. The study sample covers monthly data from January, 1995 to May, 2010 for Poland, Hungary and Slovakia, from January 1994 to May, 2010 for the Czech Republic, and from January, 2002 to June 2010 for Romania. The shortest sample used, from January, 2003 to September, 2010, was for Serbia and is due to the late start in the transition process. The results of this study enriched the existing ones on this topic by extending the sample period to cover even the recent years of relatively higher inflation rates and by including Romania and Serbia, which were not previously considered. The study led to two main findings: first, inflation of moderate to high magnitude persistence in Hungary, Poland, Romania and Serbia, and inflation of smaller order persistence in Slovakia and the Czech Republic was detected within the Markov switching model approach. In addition, the changes in inflation persistence often correspond to changes in variability and mean of inflation. Second, New Keynesian Phillips Curve represents a valid structural approach to describe the inflation dynamics in this region. In all the six cases studied, weights on backward and forward looking behaviors were significant, while the impact of the driving variable was insignificant only once. It is found that significant influence of the economic driving variable can be captured by real gross wage inflation and real broad money growth. The estimates show that the backward-looking term plays an important role in determining the inflation dynamics. Similar conclusions are drawn by using quarterly data in econometric estimations for the selected countries.

  12. Univariate Lp and ɭ p Averaging, 0 < p < 1, in Polynomial Time by Utilization of Statistical Structure

    John E. Lavery

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence that one can calculate generically combinatorially expensive Lp and lp averages, 0 < p < 1, in polynomial time by restricting the data to come from a wide class of statistical distributions. Our approach differs from the approaches in the previous literature, which are based on a priori sparsity requirements or on accepting a local minimum as a replacement for a global minimum. The functionals by which Lp averages are calculated are not convex but are radially monotonic and the functionals by which lp averages are calculated are nearly so, which are the keys to solvability in polynomial time. Analytical results for symmetric, radially monotonic univariate distributions are presented. An algorithm for univariate lp averaging is presented. Computational results for a Gaussian distribution, a class of symmetric heavy-tailed distributions and a class of asymmetric heavy-tailed distributions are presented. Many phenomena in human-based areas are increasingly known to be represented by data that have large numbers of outliers and belong to very heavy-tailed distributions. When tails of distributions are so heavy that even medians (L1 and l1 averages do not exist, one needs to consider using lp minimization principles with 0 < p < 1.

  13. A comparison between univariate probabilistic and multivariate (logistic regression) methods for landslide susceptibility analysis: the example of the Febbraro valley (Northern Alps, Italy)

    Rossi, M.; Apuani, T.; Felletti, F.

    2009-04-01

    cumulative distribution curves, one related to the landslides (number of landslides in each susceptibility class) and one to the basin (number of pixel covering each class). Comparing the curves for each method, it results that the two approaches (univariate and multivariate) are appropriate, providing acceptable results. In both maps the distribution of high susceptibility condition is mainly localized on the left slope of the catchment in agreement with the field evidences. The comparison between the methods was obtained by subtraction of the two maps. This operation shows that about 40% of the basin is classified by the same class of susceptibility. In general the univariate probabilistic method tends to overestimate the areal extension of the high susceptibility class with respect to the maps obtained by the logistic regression method.

  14. Will initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption be effective? Evidence from univariate and panel LM unit root tests with structural breaks

    Lean, Hooi Hooi; Smyth, Russell

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether initiatives to promote hydroelectricity consumption are likely to be effective by applying univariate and panel Lagrange Multiplier (LM) unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption in 55 countries over the period 1965–2011. We find that for the panel, as well as about four-fifths of individual countries, that hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. This result implies that shocks to hydroelectricity consumption in most countries will only result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path. An important consequence of this finding is that initiatives designed to have permanent positive effects on hydroelectricity consumption, such as large-scale dam construction, are unlikely to be effective in increasing the share of hydroelectricity, relative to consumption of fossil fuels. - Highlights: • Applies unit root tests to hydroelectricity consumption. • Hydroelectricity consumption is stationary. • Shocks to hydroelectricity consumption result in temporary deviations from the long-run growth path

  15. Guaranteed Bounds on Information-Theoretic Measures of Univariate Mixtures Using Piecewise Log-Sum-Exp Inequalities

    Nielsen, Frank

    2016-12-09

    Information-theoreticmeasures, such as the entropy, the cross-entropy and the Kullback-Leibler divergence between two mixture models, are core primitives in many signal processing tasks. Since the Kullback-Leibler divergence of mixtures provably does not admit a closed-form formula, it is in practice either estimated using costly Monte Carlo stochastic integration, approximated or bounded using various techniques. We present a fast and generic method that builds algorithmically closed-form lower and upper bounds on the entropy, the cross-entropy, the Kullback-Leibler and the α-divergences of mixtures. We illustrate the versatile method by reporting our experiments for approximating the Kullback-Leibler and the α-divergences between univariate exponential mixtures, Gaussian mixtures, Rayleigh mixtures and Gamma mixtures.

  16. Show-Bix &

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  17. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  18. What do differences between multi-voxel and univariate analysis mean? How subject-, voxel-, and trial-level variance impact fMRI analysis.

    Davis, Tyler; LaRocque, Karen F; Mumford, Jeanette A; Norman, Kenneth A; Wagner, Anthony D; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-08-15

    Multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) has led to major changes in how fMRI data are analyzed and interpreted. Many studies now report both MVPA results and results from standard univariate voxel-wise analysis, often with the goal of drawing different conclusions from each. Because MVPA results can be sensitive to latent multidimensional representations and processes whereas univariate voxel-wise analysis cannot, one conclusion that is often drawn when MVPA and univariate results differ is that the activation patterns underlying MVPA results contain a multidimensional code. In the current study, we conducted simulations to formally test this assumption. Our findings reveal that MVPA tests are sensitive to the magnitude of voxel-level variability in the effect of a condition within subjects, even when the same linear relationship is coded in all voxels. We also find that MVPA is insensitive to subject-level variability in mean activation across an ROI, which is the primary variance component of interest in many standard univariate tests. Together, these results illustrate that differences between MVPA and univariate tests do not afford conclusions about the nature or dimensionality of the neural code. Instead, targeted tests of the informational content and/or dimensionality of activation patterns are critical for drawing strong conclusions about the representational codes that are indicated by significant MVPA results. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Talking with TV shows

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  20. Talk Show Science.

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  1. Obesity in show cats.

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  2. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  3. The energy show

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  4. Showing Value (Editorial

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  5. Expectation-maximization algorithms for learning a finite mixture of univariate survival time distributions from partially specified class values

    Lee, Youngrok [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2013-05-15

    Heterogeneity exists on a data set when samples from di erent classes are merged into the data set. Finite mixture models can be used to represent a survival time distribution on heterogeneous patient group by the proportions of each class and by the survival time distribution within each class as well. The heterogeneous data set cannot be explicitly decomposed to homogeneous subgroups unless all the samples are precisely labeled by their origin classes; such impossibility of decomposition is a barrier to overcome for estimating nite mixture models. The expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm has been used to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of nite mixture models by soft-decomposition of heterogeneous samples without labels for a subset or the entire set of data. In medical surveillance databases we can find partially labeled data, that is, while not completely unlabeled there is only imprecise information about class values. In this study we propose new EM algorithms that take advantages of using such partial labels, and thus incorporate more information than traditional EM algorithms. We particularly propose four variants of the EM algorithm named EM-OCML, EM-PCML, EM-HCML and EM-CPCML, each of which assumes a specific mechanism of missing class values. We conducted a simulation study on exponential survival trees with five classes and showed that the advantages of incorporating substantial amount of partially labeled data can be highly signi cant. We also showed model selection based on AIC values fairly works to select the best proposed algorithm on each specific data set. A case study on a real-world data set of gastric cancer provided by Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program showed a superiority of EM-CPCML to not only the other proposed EM algorithms but also conventional supervised, unsupervised and semi-supervised learning algorithms.

  6. Gastric cancers of Western European and African patients show different patterns of genomic instability

    Mulder Chris JJ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with H. pylori is important in the etiology of gastric cancer. Gastric cancer is infrequent in Africa, despite high frequencies of H. pylori infection, referred to as the African enigma. Variation in environmental and host factors influencing gastric cancer risk between different populations have been reported but little is known about the biological differences between gastric cancers from different geographic locations. We aim to study genomic instability patterns of gastric cancers obtained from patients from United Kingdom (UK and South Africa (SA, in an attempt to support the African enigma hypothesis at the biological level. Methods DNA was isolated from 67 gastric adenocarcinomas, 33 UK patients, 9 Caucasian SA patients and 25 native SA patients. Microsatellite instability and chromosomal instability were analyzed by PCR and microarray comparative genomic hybridization, respectively. Data was analyzed by supervised univariate and multivariate analyses as well as unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis. Results Tumors from Caucasian and native SA patients showed significantly more microsatellite instable tumors (p Conclusions Gastric cancers from SA and UK patients show differences in genetic instability patterns, indicating possible different biological mechanisms in patients from different geographical origin. This is of future clinical relevance for stratification of gastric cancer therapy.

  7. Comparison between the univariate and multivariate analysis on the partial characterization of the endoglucanase produced in the solid state fermentation by Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 10124.

    de Brito, Aila Riany; Santos Reis, Nadabe Dos; Silva, Tatielle Pereira; Ferreira Bonomo, Renata Cristina; Trovatti Uetanabaro, Ana Paula; de Assis, Sandra Aparecida; da Silva, Erik Galvão Paranhos; Aguiar-Oliveira, Elizama; Oliveira, Julieta Rangel; Franco, Marcelo

    2017-11-26

    Endoglucanase production by Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 10124 cultivated in rice husks or peanut shells was optimized by experimental design as a function of humidity, time, and temperature. The optimum temperature for the endoglucanase activity was estimated by a univariate analysis (one factor at the time) as 50°C (rice husks) and 60°C (peanut shells), however, by a multivariate analysis (synergism of factors), it was determined a different temperature (56°C) for endoglucanase from peanut shells. For the optimum pH, values determined by univariate and multivariate analysis were 5 and 5.2 (rice husk) and 5 and 7.6 (peanut shells). In addition, the best half-lives were observed at 50°C as 22.8 hr (rice husks) and 7.3 hr (peanut shells), also, 80% of residual activities was obtained between 30 and 50°C for both substrates, and the pH stability was improved at 5-7 (rice hulls) and 6-9 (peanut shells). Both endoglucanases obtained presented different characteristics as a result of the versatility of fungi in different substrates.

  8. MULTIVARIANT AND UNIVARIANT INTERGROUP DIFFERENCES IN THE INVESTIGATED SPECIFIC MOTOR SPACE BETWEEN RESPONDENTS JUNIORS AND SENIORS MEMBERS OF THE MACEDONIAN NATIONAL KARATE TEAM

    Kеnan Аsani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim is to establish intergroup multivariant and univariant investigated differences in specific motor space between respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. The sample of 30 male karate respondents covers juniors on 16,17 and seniors over 18 years.In the research were applied 20 specific motor tests. Based on Graph 1 where it is presented multivariant analysis of variance Manova and Anova can be noted that respondents juniors and seniors, although not belonging to the same population are not different in multivariant understudied area.W. lambda of .19, Rao-wool R - Approximation of 1.91 degrees of freedom df 1 = 20 and df 2 = 9 provides the level of significance of p =, 16. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in sagital plane for 15 sec. SUDMNR (hitting a moving target with weaker hand and SUDMPN (hitting a moving target with favoritism foot of twenty applied manifest variables. There are no intergroup differences in multivariant investigated specific - motor space among the respondents juniors and seniors members of the Macedonian karate team. Based on univariant analysis for each variable separately can be seen that has been around intergroup statistically significant difference in seven SMAEGERI (kick in the sack with favoritism leg mae geri for 10 sec., SMAVASI (kick in the sack with favoritism foot mavashi geri by 10 sec., SUSIRO (kick in the sack with favoritism leg ushiro geri for 10 sec., SKIZAME (kick in the sack with favoritism hand kizame cuki for 10 sec., STAPNSR (taping with foot in

  9. Investigating univariate temporal patterns for intrinsic connectivity networks based on complexity and low-frequency oscillation: a test-retest reliability study.

    Wang, X; Jiao, Y; Tang, T; Wang, H; Lu, Z

    2013-12-19

    Intrinsic connectivity networks (ICNs) are composed of spatial components and time courses. The spatial components of ICNs were discovered with moderate-to-high reliability. So far as we know, few studies focused on the reliability of the temporal patterns for ICNs based their individual time courses. The goals of this study were twofold: to investigate the test-retest reliability of temporal patterns for ICNs, and to analyze these informative univariate metrics. Additionally, a correlation analysis was performed to enhance interpretability. Our study included three datasets: (a) short- and long-term scans, (b) multi-band echo-planar imaging (mEPI), and (c) eyes open or closed. Using dual regression, we obtained the time courses of ICNs for each subject. To produce temporal patterns for ICNs, we applied two categories of univariate metrics: network-wise complexity and network-wise low-frequency oscillation. Furthermore, we validated the test-retest reliability for each metric. The network-wise temporal patterns for most ICNs (especially for default mode network, DMN) exhibited moderate-to-high reliability and reproducibility under different scan conditions. Network-wise complexity for DMN exhibited fair reliability (ICC<0.5) based on eyes-closed sessions. Specially, our results supported that mEPI could be a useful method with high reliability and reproducibility. In addition, these temporal patterns were with physiological meanings, and certain temporal patterns were correlated to the node strength of the corresponding ICN. Overall, network-wise temporal patterns of ICNs were reliable and informative and could be complementary to spatial patterns of ICNs for further study. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Network class superposition analyses.

    Carl A B Pearson

    Full Text Available Networks are often used to understand a whole system by modeling the interactions among its pieces. Examples include biomolecules in a cell interacting to provide some primary function, or species in an environment forming a stable community. However, these interactions are often unknown; instead, the pieces' dynamic states are known, and network structure must be inferred. Because observed function may be explained by many different networks (e.g., ≈ 10(30 for the yeast cell cycle process, considering dynamics beyond this primary function means picking a single network or suitable sample: measuring over all networks exhibiting the primary function is computationally infeasible. We circumvent that obstacle by calculating the network class ensemble. We represent the ensemble by a stochastic matrix T, which is a transition-by-transition superposition of the system dynamics for each member of the class. We present concrete results for T derived from boolean time series dynamics on networks obeying the Strong Inhibition rule, by applying T to several traditional questions about network dynamics. We show that the distribution of the number of point attractors can be accurately estimated with T. We show how to generate Derrida plots based on T. We show that T-based Shannon entropy outperforms other methods at selecting experiments to further narrow the network structure. We also outline an experimental test of predictions based on T. We motivate all of these results in terms of a popular molecular biology boolean network model for the yeast cell cycle, but the methods and analyses we introduce are general. We conclude with open questions for T, for example, application to other models, computational considerations when scaling up to larger systems, and other potential analyses.

  11. Measuring performance at trade shows

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  12. Comparative study of the efficiency of computed univariate and multivariate methods for the estimation of the binary mixture of clotrimazole and dexamethasone using two different spectral regions

    Fayez, Yasmin Mohammed; Tawakkol, Shereen Mostafa; Fahmy, Nesma Mahmoud; Lotfy, Hayam Mahmoud; Shehata, Mostafa Abdel-Aty

    2018-04-01

    Three methods of analysis are conducted that need computational procedures by the Matlab® software. The first is the univariate mean centering method which eliminates the interfering signal of the one component at a selected wave length leaving the amplitude measured to represent the component of interest only. The other two multivariate methods named PLS and PCR depend on a large number of variables that lead to extraction of the maximum amount of information required to determine the component of interest in the presence of the other. Good accurate and precise results are obtained from the three methods for determining clotrimazole in the linearity range 1-12 μg/mL and 75-550 μg/mL with dexamethasone acetate 2-20 μg/mL in synthetic mixtures and pharmaceutical formulation using two different spectral regions 205-240 nm and 233-278 nm. The results obtained are compared statistically to each other and to the official methods.

  13. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  14. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  15. A Java-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation system for assessment of univariate general linear model and multivariate canonical variate analysis-based pipelines.

    Zhang, Jing; Liang, Lichen; Anderson, Jon R; Gatewood, Lael; Rottenberg, David A; Strother, Stephen C

    2008-01-01

    As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) becomes widely used, the demands for evaluation of fMRI processing pipelines and validation of fMRI analysis results is increasing rapidly. The current NPAIRS package, an IDL-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation framework, lacks system interoperability and the ability to evaluate general linear model (GLM)-based pipelines using prediction metrics. Thus, it can not fully evaluate fMRI analytical software modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.GLM. In order to overcome these limitations, a Java-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation system was developed. It integrated YALE (a machine learning environment) into Fiswidgets (a fMRI software environment) to obtain system interoperability and applied an algorithm to measure GLM prediction accuracy. The results demonstrated that the system can evaluate fMRI processing pipelines with univariate GLM and multivariate canonical variates analysis (CVA)-based models on real fMRI data based on prediction accuracy (classification accuracy) and statistical parametric image (SPI) reproducibility. In addition, a preliminary study was performed where four fMRI processing pipelines with GLM and CVA modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.CVA were evaluated with the system. The results indicated that (1) the system can compare different fMRI processing pipelines with heterogeneous models (NPAIRS.GLM, NPAIRS.CVA and FSL.FEAT) and rank their performance by automatic performance scoring, and (2) the rank of pipeline performance is highly dependent on the preprocessing operations. These results suggest that the system will be of value for the comparison, validation, standardization and optimization of functional neuroimaging software packages and fMRI processing pipelines.

  16. Complexity analyses show two distinct types of nonlinear dynamics in short heart period variability recordings

    Porta, Alberto; Bari, Vlasta; Marchi, Andrea; De Maria, Beatrice; Cysarz, Dirk; Van Leeuwen, Peter; Takahashi, Anielle C. M.; Catai, Aparecida M.; Gnecchi-Ruscone, Tomaso

    2015-01-01

    Two diverse complexity metrics quantifying time irreversibility and local prediction, in connection with a surrogate data approach, were utilized to detect nonlinear dynamics in short heart period (HP) variability series recorded in fetuses, as a function of the gestational period, and in healthy humans, as a function of the magnitude of the orthostatic challenge. The metrics indicated the presence of two distinct types of nonlinear HP dynamics characterized by diverse ranges of time scales. These findings stress the need to render more specific the analysis of nonlinear components of HP dynamics by accounting for different temporal scales. PMID:25806002

  17. Advanced Behavioral Analyses Show that the Presence of Food Causes Subtle Changes in C. elegans Movement

    Angstman, Nicholas B.; Frank, Hans-Georg; Schmitz, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    As a widely used and studied model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans worms offer the ability to investigate implications of behavioral change. Although, investigation of C. elegans behavioral traits has been shown, analysis is often narrowed down to measurements based off a single point, and thus cannot pick up on subtle behavioral and morphological changes. In the present study videos were captured of four different C. elegans strains grown in liquid cultures and transferred to NGM-agar plate...

  18. A Pilot Study of Reasons and Risk Factors for "No-Shows" in a Pediatric Neurology Clinic.

    Guzek, Lindsay M; Fadel, William F; Golomb, Meredith R

    2015-09-01

    Missed clinic appointments lead to decreased patient access, worse patient outcomes, and increased healthcare costs. The goal of this pilot study was to identify reasons for and risk factors associated with missed pediatric neurology outpatient appointments ("no-shows"). This was a prospective cohort study of patients scheduled for 1 week of clinic. Data on patient clinical and demographic information were collected by record review; data on reasons for missed appointments were collected by phone interviews. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted using chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression to assess risk factors for missed appointments. Fifty-nine (25%) of 236 scheduled patients were no-shows. Scheduling conflicts (25.9%) and forgetting (20.4%) were the most common reasons for missed appointments. When controlling for confounding factors in the logistic regression, Medicaid (odds ratio 2.36), distance from clinic, and time since appointment was scheduled were associated with missed appointments. Further work in this area is needed. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Comparison of Imputation Methods for Handling Missing Categorical Data with Univariate Pattern|| Una comparación de métodos de imputación de variables categóricas con patrón univariado

    Torres Munguía, Juan Armando

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the sample proportions estimates in the presence of univariate missing categorical data. A database about smoking habits (2011 National Addiction Survey of Mexico was used to create simulated yet realistic datasets at rates 5% and 15% of missingness, each for MCAR, MAR and MNAR mechanisms. Then the performance of six methods for addressing missingness is evaluated: listwise, mode imputation, random imputation, hot-deck, imputation by polytomous regression and random forests. Results showed that the most effective methods for dealing with missing categorical data in most of the scenarios assessed in this paper were hot-deck and polytomous regression approaches. || El presente estudio examina la estimación de proporciones muestrales en la presencia de valores faltantes en una variable categórica. Se utiliza una encuesta de consumo de tabaco (Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones de México 2011 para crear bases de datos simuladas pero reales con 5% y 15% de valores perdidos para cada mecanismo de no respuesta MCAR, MAR y MNAR. Se evalúa el desempeño de seis métodos para tratar la falta de respuesta: listwise, imputación de moda, imputación aleatoria, hot-deck, imputación por regresión politómica y árboles de clasificación. Los resultados de las simulaciones indican que los métodos más efectivos para el tratamiento de la no respuesta en variables categóricas, bajo los escenarios simulados, son hot-deck y la regresión politómica.

  20. A Meta-Meta-Analysis: Empirical Review of Statistical Power, Type I Error Rates, Effect Sizes, and Model Selection of Meta-Analyses Published in Psychology

    Cafri, Guy; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Brannick, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    This article uses meta-analyses published in "Psychological Bulletin" from 1995 to 2005 to describe meta-analyses in psychology, including examination of statistical power, Type I errors resulting from multiple comparisons, and model choice. Retrospective power estimates indicated that univariate categorical and continuous moderators, individual…

  1. Statistical power of intervention analyses: simulation and empirical application to treated lumber prices

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon

    2009-01-01

    Timber product markets are subject to large shocks deriving from natural disturbances and policy shifts. Statistical modeling of shocks is often done to assess their economic importance. In this article, I simulate the statistical power of univariate and bivariate methods of shock detection using time series intervention models. Simulations show that bivariate methods...

  2. Laser Beam Focus Analyser

    Nielsen, Peter Carøe; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2007-01-01

    the obtainable features in direct laser machining as well as heat affected zones in welding processes. This paper describes the development of a measuring unit capable of analysing beam shape and diameter of lasers to be used in manufacturing processes. The analyser is based on the principle of a rotating......The quantitative and qualitative description of laser beam characteristics is important for process implementation and optimisation. In particular, a need for quantitative characterisation of beam diameter was identified when using fibre lasers for micro manufacturing. Here the beam diameter limits...... mechanical wire being swept through the laser beam at varying Z-heights. The reflected signal is analysed and the resulting beam profile determined. The development comprised the design of a flexible fixture capable of providing both rotation and Z-axis movement, control software including data capture...

  3. Contesting Citizenship: Comparative Analyses

    Siim, Birte; Squires, Judith

    2007-01-01

    importance of particularized experiences and multiple ineequality agendas). These developments shape the way citizenship is both practiced and analysed. Mapping neat citizenship modles onto distinct nation-states and evaluating these in relation to formal equality is no longer an adequate approach....... Comparative citizenship analyses need to be considered in relation to multipleinequalities and their intersections and to multiple governance and trans-national organisinf. This, in turn, suggests that comparative citizenship analysis needs to consider new spaces in which struggles for equal citizenship occur...

  4. Reliability of corneal dynamic scheimpflug analyser measurements in virgin and post-PRK eyes.

    Chen, Xiangjun; Stojanovic, Aleksandar; Hua, Yanjun; Eidet, Jon Roger; Hu, Di; Wang, Jingting; Utheim, Tor Paaske

    2014-01-01

    To determine the measurement reliability of CorVis ST, a dynamic Scheimpflug analyser, in virgin and post-photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) eyes and compare the results between these two groups. Forty virgin eyes and 42 post-PRK eyes underwent CorVis ST measurements performed by two technicians. Repeatability was evaluated by comparing three consecutive measurements by technician A. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the first measurement by technician A with one performed by technician B. Intraobserver and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare measured parameters between virgin and post-PRK eyes. The intraocular pressure (IOP), central corneal thickness (CCT) and 1st applanation time demonstrated good intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility (ICC ≧ 0.90) in virgin and post-PRK eyes. The deformation amplitude showed a good or close to good repeatability and reproducibility in both groups (ICC ≧ 0.88). The CCT correlated positively with 1st applanation time (r = 0.437 and 0.483, respectively, pPRK eyes, virgin eyes showed longer 1st applanation time (7.29 ± 0.21 vs. 6.96 ± 0.17 ms, pPRK eyes. There were differences in 1st applanation time and deformation amplitude between virgin and post-PRK eyes, which may reflect corneal biomechanical changes occurring after the surgery in the latter.

  5. Risico-analyse brandstofpontons

    Uijt de Haag P; Post J; LSO

    2001-01-01

    Voor het bepalen van de risico's van brandstofpontons in een jachthaven is een generieke risico-analyse uitgevoerd. Er is een referentiesysteem gedefinieerd, bestaande uit een betonnen brandstofponton met een relatief grote inhoud en doorzet. Aangenomen is dat de ponton gelegen is in een

  6. Fast multichannel analyser

    Berry, A; Przybylski, M M; Sumner, I [Science Research Council, Daresbury (UK). Daresbury Lab.

    1982-10-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10/sup 7/ s/sup -1/ has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format.

  7. A fast multichannel analyser

    Berry, A.; Przybylski, M.M.; Sumner, I.

    1982-01-01

    A fast multichannel analyser (MCA) capable of sampling at a rate of 10 7 s -1 has been developed. The instrument is based on an 8 bit parallel encoding analogue to digital converter (ADC) reading into a fast histogramming random access memory (RAM) system, giving 256 channels of 64 k count capacity. The prototype unit is in CAMAC format. (orig.)

  8. Recriticality analyses for CAPRA cores

    Maschek, W.; Thiem, D.

    1995-01-01

    The first scoping calculation performed show that the energetics levels from recriticalities in CAPRA cores are in the same range as in conventional cores. However, considerable uncertainties exist and further analyses are necessary. Additional investigations are performed for the separation scenarios of fuel/steel/inert and matrix material as a large influence of these processes on possible ramp rates and kinetics parameters was detected in the calculations. (orig./HP)

  9. Recriticality analyses for CAPRA cores

    Maschek, W.; Thiem, D.

    1995-08-01

    The first scoping calculation performed show that the energetics levels from recriticalities in CAPRA cores are in the same range as in conventional cores. However, considerable uncertainties exist and further analyses are necessary. Additional investigations are performed for the separation scenarios of fuel/steel/inert and matrix material as a large influence of these processes on possible ramp rates and kinetics parameters was detected in the calculations. (orig./HP)

  10. Analysing and Comparing Encodability Criteria

    Kirstin Peters

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Encodings or the proof of their absence are the main way to compare process calculi. To analyse the quality of encodings and to rule out trivial or meaningless encodings, they are augmented with quality criteria. There exists a bunch of different criteria and different variants of criteria in order to reason in different settings. This leads to incomparable results. Moreover it is not always clear whether the criteria used to obtain a result in a particular setting do indeed fit to this setting. We show how to formally reason about and compare encodability criteria by mapping them on requirements on a relation between source and target terms that is induced by the encoding function. In particular we analyse the common criteria full abstraction, operational correspondence, divergence reflection, success sensitiveness, and respect of barbs; e.g. we analyse the exact nature of the simulation relation (coupled simulation versus bisimulation that is induced by different variants of operational correspondence. This way we reduce the problem of analysing or comparing encodability criteria to the better understood problem of comparing relations on processes.

  11. Possible future HERA analyses

    Geiser, Achim

    2015-12-01

    A variety of possible future analyses of HERA data in the context of the HERA data preservation programme is collected, motivated, and commented. The focus is placed on possible future analyses of the existing ep collider data and their physics scope. Comparisons to the original scope of the HERA pro- gramme are made, and cross references to topics also covered by other participants of the workshop are given. This includes topics on QCD, proton structure, diffraction, jets, hadronic final states, heavy flavours, electroweak physics, and the application of related theory and phenomenology topics like NNLO QCD calculations, low-x related models, nonperturbative QCD aspects, and electroweak radiative corrections. Synergies with other collider programmes are also addressed. In summary, the range of physics topics which can still be uniquely covered using the existing data is very broad and of considerable physics interest, often matching the interest of results from colliders currently in operation. Due to well-established data and MC sets, calibrations, and analysis procedures the manpower and expertise needed for a particular analysis is often very much smaller than that needed for an ongoing experiment. Since centrally funded manpower to carry out such analyses is not available any longer, this contribution not only targets experienced self-funded experimentalists, but also theorists and master-level students who might wish to carry out such an analysis.

  12. Biomass feedstock analyses

    Wilen, C.; Moilanen, A.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The overall objectives of the project `Feasibility of electricity production from biomass by pressurized gasification systems` within the EC Research Programme JOULE II were to evaluate the potential of advanced power production systems based on biomass gasification and to study the technical and economic feasibility of these new processes with different type of biomass feed stocks. This report was prepared as part of this R and D project. The objectives of this task were to perform fuel analyses of potential woody and herbaceous biomasses with specific regard to the gasification properties of the selected feed stocks. The analyses of 15 Scandinavian and European biomass feed stock included density, proximate and ultimate analyses, trace compounds, ash composition and fusion behaviour in oxidizing and reducing atmospheres. The wood-derived fuels, such as whole-tree chips, forest residues, bark and to some extent willow, can be expected to have good gasification properties. Difficulties caused by ash fusion and sintering in straw combustion and gasification are generally known. The ash and alkali metal contents of the European biomasses harvested in Italy resembled those of the Nordic straws, and it is expected that they behave to a great extent as straw in gasification. Any direct relation between the ash fusion behavior (determined according to the standard method) and, for instance, the alkali metal content was not found in the laboratory determinations. A more profound characterisation of the fuels would require gasification experiments in a thermobalance and a PDU (Process development Unit) rig. (orig.) (10 refs.)

  13. Workload analyse of assembling process

    Ghenghea, L. D.

    2015-11-01

    The workload is the most important indicator for managers responsible of industrial technological processes no matter if these are automated, mechanized or simply manual in each case, machines or workers will be in the focus of workload measurements. The paper deals with workload analyses made to a most part manual assembling technology for roller bearings assembling process, executed in a big company, with integrated bearings manufacturing processes. In this analyses the delay sample technique have been used to identify and divide all bearing assemblers activities, to get information about time parts from 480 minutes day work time that workers allow to each activity. The developed study shows some ways to increase the process productivity without supplementary investments and also indicated the process automation could be the solution to gain maximum productivity.

  14. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    Lawson, E.M. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia). Physics Division

    1998-03-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with {sup 14}C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for {sup 14}C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent`s indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  15. AMS analyses at ANSTO

    Lawson, E.M.

    1998-01-01

    The major use of ANTARES is Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) with 14 C being the most commonly analysed radioisotope - presently about 35 % of the available beam time on ANTARES is used for 14 C measurements. The accelerator measurements are supported by, and dependent on, a strong sample preparation section. The ANTARES AMS facility supports a wide range of investigations into fields such as global climate change, ice cores, oceanography, dendrochronology, anthropology, and classical and Australian archaeology. Described here are some examples of the ways in which AMS has been applied to support research into the archaeology, prehistory and culture of this continent's indigenous Aboriginal peoples. (author)

  16. Analyses of MHD instabilities

    Takeda, Tatsuoki

    1985-01-01

    In this article analyses of the MHD stabilities which govern the global behavior of a fusion plasma are described from the viewpoint of the numerical computation. First, we describe the high accuracy calculation of the MHD equilibrium and then the analysis of the linear MHD instability. The former is the basis of the stability analysis and the latter is closely related to the limiting beta value which is a very important theoretical issue of the tokamak research. To attain a stable tokamak plasma with good confinement property it is necessary to control or suppress disruptive instabilities. We, next, describe the nonlinear MHD instabilities which relate with the disruption phenomena. Lastly, we describe vectorization of the MHD codes. The above MHD codes for fusion plasma analyses are relatively simple though very time-consuming and parts of the codes which need a lot of CPU time concentrate on a small portion of the codes, moreover, the codes are usually used by the developers of the codes themselves, which make it comparatively easy to attain a high performance ratio on the vector processor. (author)

  17. Uncertainty Analyses and Strategy

    Kevin Coppersmith

    2001-01-01

    The DOE identified a variety of uncertainties, arising from different sources, during its assessment of the performance of a potential geologic repository at the Yucca Mountain site. In general, the number and detail of process models developed for the Yucca Mountain site, and the complex coupling among those models, make the direct incorporation of all uncertainties difficult. The DOE has addressed these issues in a number of ways using an approach to uncertainties that is focused on producing a defensible evaluation of the performance of a potential repository. The treatment of uncertainties oriented toward defensible assessments has led to analyses and models with so-called ''conservative'' assumptions and parameter bounds, where conservative implies lower performance than might be demonstrated with a more realistic representation. The varying maturity of the analyses and models, and uneven level of data availability, result in total system level analyses with a mix of realistic and conservative estimates (for both probabilistic representations and single values). That is, some inputs have realistically represented uncertainties, and others are conservatively estimated or bounded. However, this approach is consistent with the ''reasonable assurance'' approach to compliance demonstration, which was called for in the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) proposed 10 CFR Part 63 regulation (64 FR 8640 [DIRS 101680]). A risk analysis that includes conservatism in the inputs will result in conservative risk estimates. Therefore, the approach taken for the Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) provides a reasonable representation of processes and conservatism for purposes of site recommendation. However, mixing unknown degrees of conservatism in models and parameter representations reduces the transparency of the analysis and makes the development of coherent and consistent probability statements about projected repository

  18. A simple beam analyser

    Lemarchand, G.

    1977-01-01

    (ee'p) experiments allow to measure the missing energy distribution as well as the momentum distribution of the extracted proton in the nucleus versus the missing energy. Such experiments are presently conducted on SACLAY's A.L.S. 300 Linac. Electrons and protons are respectively analysed by two spectrometers and detected in their focal planes. Counting rates are usually low and include time coincidences and accidentals. Signal-to-noise ratio is dependent on the physics of the experiment and the resolution of the coincidence, therefore it is mandatory to get a beam current distribution as flat as possible. Using new technologies has allowed to monitor in real time the behavior of the beam pulse and determine when the duty cycle can be considered as being good with respect to a numerical basis

  19. EEG analyses with SOBI.

    Glickman, Matthew R.; Tang, Akaysha (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-02-01

    The motivating vision behind Sandia's MENTOR/PAL LDRD project has been that of systems which use real-time psychophysiological data to support and enhance human performance, both individually and of groups. Relevant and significant psychophysiological data being a necessary prerequisite to such systems, this LDRD has focused on identifying and refining such signals. The project has focused in particular on EEG (electroencephalogram) data as a promising candidate signal because it (potentially) provides a broad window on brain activity with relatively low cost and logistical constraints. We report here on two analyses performed on EEG data collected in this project using the SOBI (Second Order Blind Identification) algorithm to identify two independent sources of brain activity: one in the frontal lobe and one in the occipital. The first study looks at directional influences between the two components, while the second study looks at inferring gender based upon the frontal component.

  20. Pathway-based analyses.

    Kent, Jack W

    2016-02-03

    New technologies for acquisition of genomic data, while offering unprecedented opportunities for genetic discovery, also impose severe burdens of interpretation and penalties for multiple testing. The Pathway-based Analyses Group of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 19 (GAW19) sought reduction of multiple-testing burden through various approaches to aggregation of highdimensional data in pathways informed by prior biological knowledge. Experimental methods testedincluded the use of "synthetic pathways" (random sets of genes) to estimate power and false-positive error rate of methods applied to simulated data; data reduction via independent components analysis, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-SNP interaction, and use of gene sets to estimate genetic similarity; and general assessment of the efficacy of prior biological knowledge to reduce the dimensionality of complex genomic data. The work of this group explored several promising approaches to managing high-dimensional data, with the caveat that these methods are necessarily constrained by the quality of external bioinformatic annotation.

  1. Analysing Access Control Specifications

    Probst, Christian W.; Hansen, René Rydhof

    2009-01-01

    When prosecuting crimes, the main question to answer is often who had a motive and the possibility to commit the crime. When investigating cyber crimes, the question of possibility is often hard to answer, as in a networked system almost any location can be accessed from almost anywhere. The most...... common tool to answer this question, analysis of log files, faces the problem that the amount of logged data may be overwhelming. This problems gets even worse in the case of insider attacks, where the attacker’s actions usually will be logged as permissible, standard actions—if they are logged at all....... Recent events have revealed intimate knowledge of surveillance and control systems on the side of the attacker, making it often impossible to deduce the identity of an inside attacker from logged data. In this work we present an approach that analyses the access control configuration to identify the set...

  2. Approximate analyses of inelastic effects in pipework

    Jobson, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation shows figures concerned with analyses of inelastic effects in pipework as follows: comparison of experimental and calculated simplified analyses results for free end rotation and for circumferential strain; interrupted stress relaxation; regenerated relaxation caused by reversed yield; buckling of straight pipe under combined bending and torsion; results of fatigues test of pipe bend

  3. Seismic fragility analyses

    Kostov, Marin

    2000-01-01

    In the last two decades there is increasing number of probabilistic seismic risk assessments performed. The basic ideas of the procedure for performing a Probabilistic Safety Analysis (PSA) of critical structures (NUREG/CR-2300, 1983) could be used also for normal industrial and residential buildings, dams or other structures. The general formulation of the risk assessment procedure applied in this investigation is presented in Franzini, et al., 1984. The probability of failure of a structure for an expected lifetime (for example 50 years) can be obtained from the annual frequency of failure, β E determined by the relation: β E ∫[d[β(x)]/dx]P(flx)dx. β(x) is the annual frequency of exceedance of load level x (for example, the variable x may be peak ground acceleration), P(fI x) is the conditional probability of structure failure at a given seismic load level x. The problem leads to the assessment of the seismic hazard β(x) and the fragility P(fl x). The seismic hazard curves are obtained by the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis. The fragility curves are obtained after the response of the structure is defined as probabilistic and its capacity and the associated uncertainties are assessed. Finally the fragility curves are combined with the seismic loading to estimate the frequency of failure for each critical scenario. The frequency of failure due to seismic event is presented by the scenario with the highest frequency. The tools usually applied for probabilistic safety analyses of critical structures could relatively easily be adopted to ordinary structures. The key problems are the seismic hazard definitions and the fragility analyses. The fragility could be derived either based on scaling procedures or on the base of generation. Both approaches have been presented in the paper. After the seismic risk (in terms of failure probability) is assessed there are several approaches for risk reduction. Generally the methods could be classified in two groups. The

  4. Comparative study between univariate spectrophotometry and multivariate calibration as analytical tools for quantitation of Benazepril alone and in combination with Amlodipine.

    Farouk, M; Elaziz, Omar Abd; Tawakkol, Shereen M; Hemdan, A; Shehata, Mostafa A

    2014-04-05

    Four simple, accurate, reproducible, and selective methods have been developed and subsequently validated for the determination of Benazepril (BENZ) alone and in combination with Amlodipine (AML) in pharmaceutical dosage form. The first method is pH induced difference spectrophotometry, where BENZ can be measured in presence of AML as it showed maximum absorption at 237nm and 241nm in 0.1N HCl and 0.1N NaOH, respectively, while AML has no wavelength shift in both solvents. The second method is the new Extended Ratio Subtraction Method (EXRSM) coupled to Ratio Subtraction Method (RSM) for determination of both drugs in commercial dosage form. The third and fourth methods are multivariate calibration which include Principal Component Regression (PCR) and Partial Least Squares (PLSs). A detailed validation of the methods was performed following the ICH guidelines and the standard curves were found to be linear in the range of 2-30μg/mL for BENZ in difference and extended ratio subtraction spectrophotometric method, and 5-30 for AML in EXRSM method, with well accepted mean correlation coefficient for each analyte. The intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy results were well within the acceptable limits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Comparative Study of Univariate Spectrophotometry and Multivariate Calibration for the Determination of Levamisole Hydrochloride and Closantel Sodium in a Binary Mixture.

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; Hussien, Emad M; El Kosasy, Amira M; Ahmed, Neven

    2016-07-01

    Six simple, accurate, reproducible, and selective derivative spectrophotometric and chemometric methods have been developed and validated for the determination of levamisole HCl (Lev) either alone or in combination with closantel sodium (Clo) in the pharmaceutical dosage form. Lev was determined by first-derivative, first-derivative ratio, and mean-centering methods by measuring the peak amplitude at 220.8, 243.8, and 210.4 nm, respectively. The methods were linear over the concentration range 2.0-10.0 μg/mL Lev. The methods exhibited a high accuracy, with recovery data within ±1.9% and RSD <1.3% (n = 9) for the determination of Lev in the presence of Clo. Fortunately, Lev showed no significant UV absorbance at 370.6 nm, which allowed the determination of Clo over the concentration range 16.0-80.0 μg/mL using zero-order spectra, with a high precision (RSD <1.5%, n = 9). Furthermore, principal component regression and partial least-squares with optimized parameters were used for the determination of Lev in the presence of Clo. The recovery was within ±1%, with RSD <1.0% (n = 9) and root mean square error of prediction ≤1.0. The proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The proposed methods were used in the determination of Lev and Clo in a binary mixture and a pharmaceutical formulation, with high accuracy and precision.

  6. Website-analyse

    Thorlacius, Lisbeth

    2009-01-01

    eller blindgyder, når han/hun besøger sitet. Studier i design og analyse af de visuelle og æstetiske aspekter i planlægning og brug af websites har imidlertid kun i et begrænset omfang været under reflektorisk behandling. Det er baggrunden for dette kapitel, som indleder med en gennemgang af æstetikkens......Websitet er i stigende grad det foretrukne medie inden for informationssøgning,virksomhedspræsentation, e-handel, underholdning, undervisning og social kontakt. I takt med denne voksende mangfoldighed af kommunikationsaktiviteter på nettet, er der kommet mere fokus på at optimere design og...... planlægning af de funktionelle og indholdsmæssige aspekter ved websites. Der findes en stor mængde teori- og metodebøger, som har specialiseret sig i de tekniske problemstillinger i forbindelse med interaktion og navigation, samt det sproglige indhold på websites. Den danske HCI (Human Computer Interaction...

  7. A channel profile analyser

    Gobbur, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    It is well understood that due to the wide band noise present in a nuclear analog-to-digital converter, events at the boundaries of adjacent channels are shared. It is a difficult and laborious process to exactly find out the shape of the channels at the boundaries. A simple scheme has been developed for the direct display of channel shape of any type of ADC on a cathode ray oscilliscope display. This has been accomplished by sequentially incrementing the reference voltage of a precision pulse generator by a fraction of a channel and storing ADC data in alternative memory locations of a multichannel pulse height analyser. Alternative channels are needed due to the sharing at the boundaries of channels. In the flat region of the profile alternate memory locations are channels with zero counts and channels with the full scale counts. At the boundaries all memory locations will have counts. The shape of this is a direct display of the channel boundaries. (orig.)

  8. Analyse van kwalitatief onderzoeksmateriaal

    Wester, F.P.J.

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative research is characterised by its analytical goals: the development of categories, the elaboration of concepts or the formulation of a theory. Because of this analytical openness, the research design shows successive phases, each with its own objective and specific demands for data

  9. Analysing international relations

    Corry, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    matters by depicting reality in new ways. I then show how different theories rely on different ‘pictures’ of what makes up the international system. Section 2 shows how theories differ in terms of their scope, their aims and their purposes. Section 3 explores some of the choices to be made when using...... theories to ‘explain’ international relations and distinguishes between different kinds of explanation. In Section 4 I look at how different theories have been grouped – first according to their underlying views of what is valid knowledge, and second in terms of different accounts of how history works.......Presented with conflicting evidence and interpretations, how do we ever come to valid conclusions about complex questions of continuity and change in global politics? In any analytical task you need to consider a number of things and this final chapter will take you through some of them including...

  10. Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrate unique host immune responses to single and dual lentiviral infection.

    Sunando Roy

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are recently identified lentiviruses that cause progressive immune decline and ultimately death in infected cats and humans. It is of great interest to understand how to prevent immune system collapse caused by these lentiviruses. We recently described that disease caused by a virulent FIV strain in cats can be attenuated if animals are first infected with a feline immunodeficiency virus derived from a wild cougar. The detailed temporal tracking of cat immunological parameters in response to two viral infections resulted in high-dimensional datasets containing variables that exhibit strong co-variation. Initial analyses of these complex data using univariate statistical techniques did not account for interactions among immunological response variables and therefore potentially obscured significant effects between infection state and immunological parameters.Here, we apply a suite of multivariate statistical tools, including Principal Component Analysis, MANOVA and Linear Discriminant Analysis, to temporal immunological data resulting from FIV superinfection in domestic cats. We investigated the co-variation among immunological responses, the differences in immune parameters among four groups of five cats each (uninfected, single and dual infected animals, and the "immune profiles" that discriminate among them over the first four weeks following superinfection. Dual infected cats mount an immune response by 24 days post superinfection that is characterized by elevated levels of CD8 and CD25 cells and increased expression of IL4 and IFNgamma, and FAS. This profile discriminates dual infected cats from cats infected with FIV alone, which show high IL-10 and lower numbers of CD8 and CD25 cells.Multivariate statistical analyses demonstrate both the dynamic nature of the immune response to FIV single and dual infection and the development of a unique immunological profile in dual

  11. NOAA's National Snow Analyses

    Carroll, T. R.; Cline, D. W.; Olheiser, C. M.; Rost, A. A.; Nilsson, A. O.; Fall, G. M.; Li, L.; Bovitz, C. T.

    2005-12-01

    NOAA's National Operational Hydrologic Remote Sensing Center (NOHRSC) routinely ingests all of the electronically available, real-time, ground-based, snow data; airborne snow water equivalent data; satellite areal extent of snow cover information; and numerical weather prediction (NWP) model forcings for the coterminous U.S. The NWP model forcings are physically downscaled from their native 13 km2 spatial resolution to a 1 km2 resolution for the CONUS. The downscaled NWP forcings drive an energy-and-mass-balance snow accumulation and ablation model at a 1 km2 spatial resolution and at a 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The ground-based, airborne, and satellite snow observations are assimilated into the snow model's simulated state variables using a Newtonian nudging technique. The principle advantages of the assimilation technique are: (1) approximate balance is maintained in the snow model, (2) physical processes are easily accommodated in the model, and (3) asynoptic data are incorporated at the appropriate times. The snow model is reinitialized with the assimilated snow observations to generate a variety of snow products that combine to form NOAA's NOHRSC National Snow Analyses (NSA). The NOHRSC NSA incorporate all of the available information necessary and available to produce a "best estimate" of real-time snow cover conditions at 1 km2 spatial resolution and 1 hour temporal resolution for the country. The NOHRSC NSA consist of a variety of daily, operational, products that characterize real-time snowpack conditions including: snow water equivalent, snow depth, surface and internal snowpack temperatures, surface and blowing snow sublimation, and snowmelt for the CONUS. The products are generated and distributed in a variety of formats including: interactive maps, time-series, alphanumeric products (e.g., mean areal snow water equivalent on a hydrologic basin-by-basin basis), text and map discussions, map animations, and quantitative gridded products

  12. Comparison of spectrum normalization techniques for univariate ...

    2016-02-29

    Feb 29, 2016 ... 1Fuel Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. 2Department of ... their three-point smoothing methods were studied using LIBS for quantification of Cr, Mn and Ni ... nique for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the samples. .... SEP is a type of mean square error.

  13. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Højerup, C.F.; Lindholm, I.

    2001-01-01

    with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality-both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power......Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies......, which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal g(-1), was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate of 2000 kg s(-1). In most cases, however, the predicted energy deposition was smaller, below...

  14. Hydrogen Analyses in the EPR

    Worapittayaporn, S.; Eyink, J.; Movahed, M.

    2008-01-01

    In severe accidents with core melting large amounts of hydrogen may be released into the containment. The EPR provides a combustible gas control system to prevent hydrogen combustion modes with the potential to challenge the containment integrity due to excessive pressure and temperature loads. This paper outlines the approach for the verification of the effectiveness and efficiency of this system. Specifically, the justification is a multi-step approach. It involves the deployment of integral codes, lumped parameter containment codes and CFD codes and the use of the sigma criterion, which provides the link to the broad experimental data base for flame acceleration (FA) and deflagration to detonation transition (DDT). The procedure is illustrated with an example. The performed analyses show that hydrogen combustion at any time does not lead to pressure or temperature loads that threaten the containment integrity of the EPR. (authors)

  15. Uncertainty and Sensitivity Analyses Plan

    Simpson, J.C.; Ramsdell, J.V. Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project staff are developing mathematical models to be used to estimate the radiation dose that individuals may have received as a result of emissions since 1944 from the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. An uncertainty and sensitivity analyses plan is essential to understand and interpret the predictions from these mathematical models. This is especially true in the case of the HEDR models where the values of many parameters are unknown. This plan gives a thorough documentation of the uncertainty and hierarchical sensitivity analysis methods recommended for use on all HEDR mathematical models. The documentation includes both technical definitions and examples. In addition, an extensive demonstration of the uncertainty and sensitivity analysis process is provided using actual results from the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction Integrated Codes (HEDRIC). This demonstration shows how the approaches used in the recommended plan can be adapted for all dose predictions in the HEDR Project

  16. Analysing Protocol Stacks for Services

    Gao, Han; Nielson, Flemming; Nielson, Hanne Riis

    2011-01-01

    We show an approach, CaPiTo, to model service-oriented applications using process algebras such that, on the one hand, we can achieve a certain level of abstraction without being overwhelmed by the underlying implementation details and, on the other hand, we respect the concrete industrial...... standards used for implementing the service-oriented applications. By doing so, we will be able to not only reason about applications at different levels of abstractions, but also to build a bridge between the views of researchers on formal methods and developers in industry. We apply our approach...... to the financial case study taken from Chapter 0-3. Finally, we develop a static analysis to analyse the security properties as they emerge at the level of concrete industrial protocols....

  17. Molecular ecological network analyses.

    Deng, Ye; Jiang, Yi-Huei; Yang, Yunfeng; He, Zhili; Luo, Feng; Zhou, Jizhong

    2012-05-30

    Understanding the interaction among different species within a community and their responses to environmental changes is a central goal in ecology. However, defining the network structure in a microbial community is very challenging due to their extremely high diversity and as-yet uncultivated status. Although recent advance of metagenomic technologies, such as high throughout sequencing and functional gene arrays, provide revolutionary tools for analyzing microbial community structure, it is still difficult to examine network interactions in a microbial community based on high-throughput metagenomics data. Here, we describe a novel mathematical and bioinformatics framework to construct ecological association networks named molecular ecological networks (MENs) through Random Matrix Theory (RMT)-based methods. Compared to other network construction methods, this approach is remarkable in that the network is automatically defined and robust to noise, thus providing excellent solutions to several common issues associated with high-throughput metagenomics data. We applied it to determine the network structure of microbial communities subjected to long-term experimental warming based on pyrosequencing data of 16 S rRNA genes. We showed that the constructed MENs under both warming and unwarming conditions exhibited topological features of scale free, small world and modularity, which were consistent with previously described molecular ecological networks. Eigengene analysis indicated that the eigengenes represented the module profiles relatively well. In consistency with many other studies, several major environmental traits including temperature and soil pH were found to be important in determining network interactions in the microbial communities examined. To facilitate its application by the scientific community, all these methods and statistical tools have been integrated into a comprehensive Molecular Ecological Network Analysis Pipeline (MENAP), which is open

  18. Global metabolic analyses identify key differences in metabolite levels between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Maifiah, Mohd Hafidz Mahamad; Cheah, Soon-Ee; Johnson, Matthew D; Han, Mei-Ling; Boyce, John D; Thamlikitkul, Visanu; Forrest, Alan; Kaye, Keith S; Hertzog, Paul; Purcell, Anthony W; Song, Jiangning; Velkov, Tony; Creek, Darren J; Li, Jian

    2016-02-29

    Multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii presents a global medical crisis and polymyxins are used as the last-line therapy. This study aimed to identify metabolic differences between polymyxin-susceptible and polymyxin-resistant A. baumannii using untargeted metabolomics. The metabolome of each A. baumannii strain was measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariate and univariate statistics and pathway analyses were employed to elucidate metabolic differences between the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. Significant differences were identified between the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii strains. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) deficient, polymyxin-resistant 19606R showed perturbation in specific amino acid and carbohydrate metabolites, particularly pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates. Levels of nucleotides were lower in the LPS-deficient 19606R. Furthermore, 19606R exhibited a shift in its glycerophospholipid profile towards increased abundance of short-chain lipids compared to the parent polymyxin-susceptible ATCC 19606. In contrast, in a pair of clinical isolates 03-149.1 (polymyxin-susceptible) and 03-149.2 (polymyxin-resistant, due to modification of lipid A), minor metabolic differences were identified. Notably, peptidoglycan biosynthesis metabolites were significantly depleted in both of the aforementioned polymyxin-resistant strains. This is the first comparative untargeted metabolomics study to show substantial differences in the metabolic profiles of the polymyxin-susceptible and -resistant A. baumannii.

  19. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic...... programs and evaluated using incremental tabled evaluation, a technique for efficiently updating memo tables in response to changes in facts and rules. The approach has been implemented and integrated into the Eclipse IDE. Our measurements show that this technique is effective for automatically...

  20. Reliability of corneal dynamic scheimpflug analyser measurements in virgin and post-PRK eyes.

    Xiangjun Chen

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine the measurement reliability of CorVis ST, a dynamic Scheimpflug analyser, in virgin and post-photorefractive keratectomy (PRK eyes and compare the results between these two groups. METHODS: Forty virgin eyes and 42 post-PRK eyes underwent CorVis ST measurements performed by two technicians. Repeatability was evaluated by comparing three consecutive measurements by technician A. Reproducibility was determined by comparing the first measurement by technician A with one performed by technician B. Intraobserver and interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs were calculated. Univariate analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare measured parameters between virgin and post-PRK eyes. RESULTS: The intraocular pressure (IOP, central corneal thickness (CCT and 1st applanation time demonstrated good intraobserver repeatability and interobserver reproducibility (ICC ≧ 0.90 in virgin and post-PRK eyes. The deformation amplitude showed a good or close to good repeatability and reproducibility in both groups (ICC ≧ 0.88. The CCT correlated positively with 1st applanation time (r = 0.437 and 0.483, respectively, p<0.05 and negatively with deformation amplitude (r = -0.384 and -0.375, respectively, p<0.05 in both groups. Compared to post-PRK eyes, virgin eyes showed longer 1st applanation time (7.29 ± 0.21 vs. 6.96 ± 0.17 ms, p<0.05 and lower deformation amplitude (1.06 ± 0.07 vs. 1.17 ± 0.08 mm, p < 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: CorVis ST demonstrated reliable measurements for CCT, IOP, and 1st applanation time, as well as relatively reliable measurement for deformation amplitude in both virgin and post-PRK eyes. There were differences in 1st applanation time and deformation amplitude between virgin and post-PRK eyes, which may reflect corneal biomechanical changes occurring after the surgery in the latter.

  1. How distributed processing produces false negatives in voxel-based lesion-deficit analyses.

    Gajardo-Vidal, Andrea; Lorca-Puls, Diego L; Crinion, Jennifer T; White, Jitrachote; Seghier, Mohamed L; Leff, Alex P; Hope, Thomas M H; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Green, David W; Bowman, Howard; Price, Cathy J

    2018-07-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that if the same deficit can be caused by damage to one or another part of a distributed neural system, then voxel-based analyses might miss critical lesion sites because preservation of each site will not be consistently associated with preserved function. The first part of our investigation used voxel-based multiple regression analyses of data from 359 right-handed stroke survivors to identify brain regions where lesion load is associated with picture naming abilities after factoring out variance related to object recognition, semantics and speech articulation so as to focus on deficits arising at the word retrieval level. A highly significant lesion-deficit relationship was identified in left temporal and frontal/premotor regions. Post-hoc analyses showed that damage to either of these sites caused the deficit of interest in less than half the affected patients (76/162 = 47%). After excluding all patients with damage to one or both of the identified regions, our second analysis revealed a new region, in the anterior part of the left putamen, which had not been previously detected because many patients had the deficit of interest after temporal or frontal damage that preserved the left putamen. The results illustrate how (i) false negative results arise when the same deficit can be caused by different lesion sites; (ii) some of the missed effects can be unveiled by adopting an iterative approach that systematically excludes patients with lesions to the areas identified in previous analyses, (iii) statistically significant voxel-based lesion-deficit mappings can be driven by a subset of patients; (iv) focal lesions to the identified regions are needed to determine whether the deficit of interest is the consequence of focal damage or much more extensive damage that includes the identified region; and, finally, (v) univariate voxel-based lesion-deficit mappings cannot, in isolation, be used to predict outcome in other patients

  2. Optimization of digestion parameters for analysing the total sulphur of mine tailings by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Alam, Raquibul; Shang, Julie Q; Cheng, Xiangrong

    2012-05-01

    The oxidation of sulphidic mine tailings and consequent acid generation poses challenges for the environment. Accurate and precise analysis of sulphur content is necessary for impact assessment and management of mine tailings. Here, the authors aim at developing a rapid and easy digestion procedure, which may analyse and measure the total amount of sulphur in mine tailings by using inductively coupled plasma. For evaluating effects of several variables, the researchers used a univariate (analysis of variance (ANOVA)) strategy and considered factors such as composition of the acid mixture, heating time, and refluxing device to optimize the performance. To do the experiment, the researchers have used two certified reference materials (KZK-1 and RTS-2) and samples of tailings from Musselwhite mine. ANOVA result shows that heating time is the most influencing factor on acid digestion of the reference materials whereas in case of a digestion of tailings sample, hydrochloric acid proved to be the most significant parameter. Satisfactory results between the measured and referenced values are found for all experiments. It is found that the aqua regia (1 ml HNO(3) + 3 ml HCl) digestion of 0.1 g of samples after only 40 min of heating at 95°C produced fast, safe, and accurate analytical results with a recovery of 97% for the selected reference materials.

  3. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  4. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung-Kyu [Department of Marine Science, College of Natural Sciences, Incheon National University, Incheon, 406-772 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jeong-Eun, E-mail: jeoh@pusan.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1} for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}; PFOA: 1500 ng kg{sup −1} bw d{sup −1}). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  5. Tract-Specific Analyses of Diffusion Tensor Imaging Show Widespread White Matter Compromise in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Shukla, Dinesh K.; Keehn, Brandon; Muller, Ralph-Axel

    2011-01-01

    Background: Previous diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have shown white matter compromise in children and adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which may relate to reduced connectivity and impaired function of distributed networks. However, tract-specific evidence remains limited in ASD. We applied tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)…

  6. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea

    Heo, Jin-Ju; Lee, Ji-Woo; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 16 PFAAs in 397 samples of 66 food types and 34 tap water samples were analyzed. • Dietary exposure to PFAAs was estimated by using the PFAAs measured concentrations. • The major contributors of PFAAs dietary exposure were confirmed. - Abstract: We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3 ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60–3.03 and 0.17–1.68 ng kg −1 bw d −1 for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150 ng kg −1 bw d −1 ; PFOA: 1500 ng kg −1 bw d −1 ). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water)

  7. Genomic analyses of the Chlamydia trachomatis core genome show an association between chromosomal genome, plasmid type and disease

    Versteeg, Bart; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Pannekoek, Yvonne; Jolley, Keith A.; Maiden, Martin C. J.; van der Ende, Arie; Harrison, Odile B.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) plasmid has been shown to encode genes essential for infection. We evaluated the population structure of Ct using whole-genome sequence data (WGS). In particular, the relationship between the Ct genome, plasmid and disease was investigated. Results: WGS data

  8. Community-level physiological profiling analyses show potential to identify the copiotrophic bacteria present in soil environments

    Lladó, Salvador; Baldrian, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 2 (2017), s. 1-9, č. článku e0171638. E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-09040P; GA MŠk(CZ) LD15086 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : SUBSTRATE UTILIZATION PATTERNS * CARBON -SOURCE UTILIZATION * MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  9. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  10. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  11. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  12. Archaea Signal Recognition Particle Shows the Way

    Christian Zwieb

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Archaea SRP is composed of an SRP RNA molecule and two bound proteins named SRP19 and SRP54. Regulated by the binding and hydrolysis of guanosine triphosphates, the RNA-bound SRP54 protein transiently associates not only with the hydrophobic signal sequence as it emerges from the ribosomal exit tunnel, but also interacts with the membrane-associated SRP receptor (FtsY. Comparative analyses of the archaea genomes and their SRP component sequences, combined with structural and biochemical data, support a prominent role of the SRP RNA in the assembly and function of the archaea SRP. The 5e motif, which in eukaryotes binds a 72 kilodalton protein, is preserved in most archaea SRP RNAs despite the lack of an archaea SRP72 homolog. The primary function of the 5e region may be to serve as a hinge, strategically positioned between the small and large SRP domain, allowing the elongated SRP to bind simultaneously to distant ribosomal sites. SRP19, required in eukaryotes for initiating SRP assembly, appears to play a subordinate role in the archaea SRP or may be defunct. The N-terminal A region and a novel C-terminal R region of the archaea SRP receptor (FtsY are strikingly diverse or absent even among the members of a taxonomic subgroup.

  13. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  14. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  15. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  16. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  17. The Last Great American Picture Show

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  18. Analysing User Lifetime in Voluntary Online Collaboration

    McHugh, Ronan; Larsen, Birger

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses persuasion in online collaboration projects. It introduces a set of heuristics that can be applied to such projects and combines these with a quantitative analysis of user activity over time. Two example sites are studies, Open Street Map and The Pirate Bay. Results show that ...

  19. Hybrid Logical Analyses of the Ambient Calculus

    Bolander, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, hybrid logic is used to formulate three control flow analyses for Mobile Ambients, a process calculus designed for modelling mobility. We show that hybrid logic is very well-suited to express the semantic structure of the ambient calculus and how features of hybrid logic can...

  20. Evaluation of in-line Raman data for end-point determination of a coating process: Comparison of Science-Based Calibration, PLS-regression and univariate data analysis.

    Barimani, Shirin; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-10-01

    A multivariate analysis method, Science-Based Calibration (SBC), was used for the first time for endpoint determination of a tablet coating process using Raman data. Two types of tablet cores, placebo and caffeine cores, received a coating suspension comprising a polyvinyl alcohol-polyethylene glycol graft-copolymer and titanium dioxide to a maximum coating thickness of 80µm. Raman spectroscopy was used as in-line PAT tool. The spectra were acquired every minute and correlated to the amount of applied aqueous coating suspension. SBC was compared to another well-known multivariate analysis method, Partial Least Squares-regression (PLS) and a simpler approach, Univariate Data Analysis (UVDA). All developed calibration models had coefficient of determination values (R 2 ) higher than 0.99. The coating endpoints could be predicted with root mean square errors (RMSEP) less than 3.1% of the applied coating suspensions. Compared to PLS and UVDA, SBC proved to be an alternative multivariate calibration method with high predictive power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Do men and women show love differently in marriage?

    Schoenfeld, Elizabeth A; Bredow, Carrie A; Huston, Ted L

    2012-11-01

    In Western societies, women are considered more adept than men at expressing love in romantic relationships. Although scholars have argued that this view of love gives short shrift to men's ways of showing love (e.g., Cancian, 1986; Noller, 1996), the widely embraced premise that men and women "love differently" has rarely been examined empirically. Using data collected at four time points over 13 years of marriage, the authors examined whether love is associated with different behaviors for husbands and wives. Multilevel analyses revealed that, counter to theoretical expectations, both genders were equally likely to show love through affection. But whereas wives expressed love by enacting fewer negative or antagonistic behaviors, husbands showed love by initiating sex, sharing leisure activities, and doing household work together with their wives. Overall, the findings indicate that men and women show their love in more nuanced ways than cultural stereotypes suggest.

  2. Reality, ficción o show

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  3. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  4. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  5. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  6. Sorption analyses in materials science: selected oxides

    Fuller, E.L. Jr.; Condon, J.B.; Eager, M.H.; Jones, L.L.

    1981-01-01

    Physical adsorption studies have been shown to be extremely valuable in studying the chemistry and structure of dispersed materials. Many processes rely on the access to the large amount of surface made available by the high degree of dispersion. Conversely, there are many applications where consolidation of the dispersed solids is required. Several systems (silica gel, alumina catalysts, mineralogic alumino-silicates, and yttrium oxide plasters) have been studied to show the type and amount of chemical and structural information that can be obtained. Some review of current theories is given and additional concepts are developed based on statistical and thermodynamic arguments. The results are applied to sorption data to show that detailed sorption analyses are extremely useful and can provide valuable information that is difficult to obtain by any other means. Considerable emphasis has been placed on data analyses and interpretation of a nonclassical nature to show the potential of such studies that is often not recognized nor utilized

  7. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. [Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate, Stockholm (Sweden); Hoejerup, F. [Risoe National Lab. (Denmark); Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K. [VTT Energy, Helsinki (Finland); Nilsson, Lars [Studsvik Eco and Safety AB, Nykoeping (Sweden); Sjoevall, H. [Teoliisuuden Voima Oy (Finland)

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B{sub 4}C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  8. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W. E-mail: wiktor.frid@ski.se; Hoejerup, F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Nilsson, L.; Puska, E.K.; Sjoevall, H

    2001-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: (1) the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst; (2) the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst; and (3) containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality--both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation--for the range of parameters studied, i.e. with core uncovering and heat-up to maximum core temperatures of approximately 1800 K, and water flow rates of 45-2000 kg s{sup -1} injected into the downcomer. Since recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core, the power densities are high, which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal g{sup -1}, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate of 2000 kg s{sup -1}. In most cases, however, the predicted energy deposition was smaller, below the regulatory limits for fuel failure, but close to or above recently observed thresholds for fragmentation and dispersion of high burn-up fuel. The highest calculated

  9. Severe accident recriticality analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Hoejerup, F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Nilsson, L.; Puska, E.K.; Sjoevall, H.

    2001-01-01

    Recriticality in a BWR during reflooding of an overheated partly degraded core, i.e. with relocated control rods, has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management strategies, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: (1) the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst; (2) the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst; and (3) containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality--both super-prompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation--for the range of parameters studied, i.e. with core uncovering and heat-up to maximum core temperatures of approximately 1800 K, and water flow rates of 45-2000 kg s -1 injected into the downcomer. Since recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core, the power densities are high, which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal g -1 , was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding rate of 2000 kg s -1 . In most cases, however, the predicted energy deposition was smaller, below the regulatory limits for fuel failure, but close to or above recently observed thresholds for fragmentation and dispersion of high burn-up fuel. The highest calculated quasi steady

  10. Severe Accident Recriticality Analyses (SARA)

    Frid, W.; Hoejerup, F.; Lindholm, I.; Miettinen, J.; Puska, E.K.; Nilsson, Lars; Sjoevall, H.

    1999-11-01

    Recriticality in a BWR has been studied for a total loss of electric power accident scenario. In a BWR, the B 4 C control rods would melt and relocate from the core before the fuel during core uncovery and heat-up. If electric power returns during this time-window unborated water from ECCS systems will start to reflood the partly control rod free core. Recriticality might take place for which the only mitigating mechanisms are the Doppler effect and void formation. In order to assess the impact of recriticality on reactor safety, including accident management measures, the following issues have been investigated in the SARA project: 1. the energy deposition in the fuel during super-prompt power burst, 2. the quasi steady-state reactor power following the initial power burst and 3. containment response to elevated quasi steady-state reactor power. The approach was to use three computer codes and to further develop and adapt them for the task. The codes were SIMULATE-3K, APROS and RECRIT. Recriticality analyses were carried out for a number of selected reflooding transients for the Oskarshamn 3 plant in Sweden with SIMULATE-3K and for the Olkiluoto 1 plant in Finland with all three codes. The core state initial and boundary conditions prior to recriticality have been studied with the severe accident codes SCDAP/RELAP5, MELCOR and MAAP4. The results of the analyses show that all three codes predict recriticality - both superprompt power bursts and quasi steady-state power generation - for the studied range of parameters, i. e. with core uncovery and heat-up to maximum core temperatures around 1800 K and water flow rates of 45 kg/s to 2000 kg/s injected into the downcomer. Since the recriticality takes place in a small fraction of the core the power densities are high which results in large energy deposition in the fuel during power burst in some accident scenarios. The highest value, 418 cal/g, was obtained with SIMULATE-3K for an Oskarshamn 3 case with reflooding

  11. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  12. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  13. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  14. Sample preparation in foodomic analyses.

    Martinović, Tamara; Šrajer Gajdošik, Martina; Josić, Djuro

    2018-04-16

    Representative sampling and adequate sample preparation are key factors for successful performance of further steps in foodomic analyses, as well as for correct data interpretation. Incorrect sampling and improper sample preparation can be sources of severe bias in foodomic analyses. It is well known that both wrong sampling and sample treatment cannot be corrected anymore. These, in the past frequently neglected facts, are now taken into consideration, and the progress in sampling and sample preparation in foodomics is reviewed here. We report the use of highly sophisticated instruments for both high-performance and high-throughput analyses, as well as miniaturization and the use of laboratory robotics in metabolomics, proteomics, peptidomics and genomics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Descriptive Analyses of Mechanical Systems

    Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2003-01-01

    Forord Produktanalyse og teknologianalyse kan gennmføres med et bredt socio-teknisk sigte med henblik på at forstå kulturelle, sociologiske, designmæssige, forretningsmæssige og mange andre forhold. Et delområde heri er systemisk analyse og beskrivelse af produkter og systemer. Nærværende kompend...

  16. Analysing Children's Drawings: Applied Imagination

    Bland, Derek

    2012-01-01

    This article centres on a research project in which freehand drawings provided a richly creative and colourful data source of children's imagined, ideal learning environments. Issues concerning the analysis of the visual data are discussed, in particular, how imaginative content was analysed and how the analytical process was dependent on an…

  17. Impact analyses after pipe rupture

    Chun, R.C.; Chuang, T.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Two of the French pipe whip experiments are reproduced with the computer code WIPS. The WIPS results are in good agreement with the experimental data and the French computer code TEDEL. This justifies the use of its pipe element in conjunction with its U-bar element in a simplified method of impact analyses

  18. Millifluidic droplet analyser for microbiology

    Baraban, L.; Bertholle, F.; Salverda, M.L.M.; Bremond, N.; Panizza, P.; Baudry, J.; Visser, de J.A.G.M.; Bibette, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel millifluidic droplet analyser (MDA) for precisely monitoring the dynamics of microbial populations over multiple generations in numerous (=103) aqueous emulsion droplets (100 nL). As a first application, we measure the growth rate of a bacterial strain and determine the minimal

  19. Analyser of sweeping electron beam

    Strasser, A.

    1993-01-01

    The electron beam analyser has an array of conductors that can be positioned in the field of the sweeping beam, an electronic signal treatment system for the analysis of the signals generated in the conductors by the incident electrons and a display for the different characteristics of the electron beam

  20. A Simple, Reliable Precision Time Analyser

    Joshi, B. V.; Nargundkar, V. R.; Subbarao, K.; Kamath, M. S.; Eligar, S. K. [Atomic Energy Establishment Trombay, Bombay (India)

    1966-06-15

    A 30-channel time analyser is described. The time analyser was designed and built for pulsed neutron research but can be applied to other uses. Most of the logic is performed by means of ferrite memory core and transistor switching circuits. This leads to great versatility, low power consumption, extreme reliability and low cost. The analyser described provides channel Widths from 10 {mu}s to 10 ms; arbitrarily wider channels are easily obtainable. It can handle counting rates up to 2000 counts/min in each channel with less than 1% dead time loss. There is a provision for an initial delay equal to 100 channel widths. An input pulse de-randomizer unit using tunnel diodes ensures exactly equal channel widths. A brief description of the principles involved in core switching circuitry is given. The core-transistor transfer loop is compared with the usual core-diode loops and is shown to be more versatile and better adapted to the making of a time analyser. The circuits derived from the basic loop are described. These include the scale of ten, the frequency dividers and the delay generator. The current drivers developed for driving the cores are described. The crystal-controlled clock which controls the width of the time channels and synchronizes the operation of the various circuits is described. The detector pulse derandomizer unit using tunnel diodes is described. The scheme of the time analyser is then described showing how the various circuits can be integrated together to form a versatile time analyser. (author)

  1. Prognostic factors in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia (excluding children with Down syndrome and acute promyelocytic leukemia): univariate and recursive partitioning analysis of patients treated on Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) Study 8821.

    Chang, M; Raimondi, S C; Ravindranath, Y; Carroll, A J; Camitta, B; Gresik, M V; Steuber, C P; Weinstein, H

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of the paper was to define clinical or biological features associated with the risk for treatment failure for children with acute myeloid leukemia. Data from 560 children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia who entered the Pediatric Oncology Group Study 8821 from June 1988 to March 1993 were analyzed by univariate and recursive partitioning methods. Children with Down syndrome or acute promyelocytic leukemia were excluded from the study. Factors examined included age, number of leukocytes, sex, FAB morphologic subtype, cytogenetic findings, and extramedullary disease at the time of diagnosis. The overall event-free survival (EFS) rate at 4 years was 32.7% (s.e. = 2.2%). Age > or =2 years, fewer than 50 x 10(9)/I leukocytes, and t(8;21) or inv(16), and normal chromosomes were associated with higher rates of EFS (P value = 0.003, 0.049, 0.0003, 0.031, respectively), whereas the M5 subtype of AML (P value = 0.0003) and chromosome abnormalities other than t(8;21) and inv(16) were associated with lower rates of EFS (P value = 0.0001). Recursive partitioning analysis defined three groups of patients with widely varied prognoses: female patients with t(8;21), inv(16), or a normal karyotype (n = 89) had the best prognosis (4-year EFS = 55.1%, s.e. = 5.7%); male patients with t(8;21), inv(16) or normal chromosomes (n = 106) had an intermediate prognosis (4-year EFS = 38.1%, s.e. = 5.3%); patients with chromosome abnormalities other than t(8;21) and inv(16) (n = 233) had the worst prognosis (4-year EFS = 27.0%, s.e. = 3.2%). One hundred and thirty-two patients (24%) could not be grouped because of missing cytogenetic data, mainly due to inadequate marrow samples. The results suggest that pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia can be categorized into three potential risk groups for prognosis and that differences in sex and chromosomal abnormalities are associated with differences in estimates of EFS. These results are tentative and

  2. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... yielded major progress with regard to both the phylogenetic positions of extinct species, as well as resolving population genetics questions in both extinct and extant species....

  3. Technical center for transportation analyses

    Foley, J.T.

    1978-01-01

    A description is presented of an information search/retrieval/research activity of Sandia Laboratories which provides technical environmental information which may be used in transportation risk analyses, environmental impact statements, development of design and test criteria for packaging of energy materials, and transportation mode research studies. General activities described are: (1) history of center development; (2) environmental information storage/retrieval system; (3) information searches; (4) data needs identification; and (5) field data acquisition system and applications

  4. Methodology of cost benefit analyses

    Patrik, M.; Babic, P.

    2000-10-01

    The report addresses financial aspects of proposed investments and other steps which are intended to contribute to nuclear safety. The aim is to provide introductory insight into the procedures and potential of cost-benefit analyses as a routine guide when making decisions on costly provisions as one of the tools to assess whether a particular provision is reasonable. The topic is applied to the nuclear power sector. (P.A.)

  5. Lower urinary tract symptoms after subtotal versus total abdominal hysterectomy: exploratory analyses from a randomized clinical trial with a 14-year follow-up.

    Andersen, Lea Laird; Møller, Lars Mikael Alling; Gimbel, Helga

    2015-12-01

    Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) are common after hysterectomy and increase after menopause. We aimed to compare subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy regarding LUTS, including urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes, 14 years after hysterectomy. Main results from this randomized clinical trial have been published previously; the analyses covered in this paper are exploratory. We performed a long-term questionnaire follow-up of women in a randomized clinical trial (n = 319), from 1996 to 2000 comparing subtotal with total abdominal hysterectomy. Of the randomized women, ten had died and five had left Denmark; 304 women were contacted. For univariate analyses, a χ(2)-test was used, and for multivariate analyses, we used logistic regression. The questionnaire was answered by 197 (64.7 %) women (subtotal 97; total 100). More women had subjective stress UI (SUI) in the subtotal group (n = 60; 62.5 %) compared with the total group (n = 45; 45 %), with a relative risk (RR) of 1.39 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.06-1.81; P = 0.014]. No difference was seen between subtotal and total abdominal hysterectomy in other LUTS. Factors associated with UI were UI prior to hysterectomy, local estrogen treatment, and body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2). High BMI was primarily associated with mixed UI (MUI) and urgency symptoms. Predictors of bothersome LUTS were UI and incomplete bladder emptying. The difference in the frequency of subjectively assessed UI between subtotal and total abdominal hysterectomy (published previously) is caused by a difference in subjectively assessed SUI; UI prior to hysterectomy and high BMI are related to UI 14 years after hysterectomy. The trial is registered on clinicaltrials.gov under Nykoebing Falster County Hospital Record sj-268: Total versus subtotal hysterectomy: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01880710?term=hysterectomy&rank=27.

  6. Kinetic stability analyses in a bumpy cylinder

    Dominguez, R.R.; Berk, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent interest in the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) has prompted a number of stability analyses of both the hot electron rings and the toroidal plasma. Typically these works employ the local approximation, neglecting radial eigenmode structure and ballooning effects to perform the stability analysis. In the present work we develop a fully kinetic formalism for performing nonlocal stability analyses in a bumpy cylinder. We show that the Vlasov-Maxwell integral equations (with one ignorable coordinate) are self-adjoint and hence amenable to analysis using numerical techniques developed for self-adjoint systems of equations. The representation we obtain for the kernel of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations is a differential operator of arbitrarily high order. This form leads to a manifestly self-adjoint system of differential equations for long wavelength modes

  7. Chapter No.4. Safety analyses

    2002-01-01

    In 2001 the activity in the field of safety analyses was focused on verification of the safety analyses reports for NPP V-2 Bohunice and NPP Mochovce concerning the new profiled fuel and probabilistic safety assessment study for NPP Mochovce. The calculation safety analyses were performed and expert reviews for the internal UJD needs were elaborated. An important part of work was performed also in solving of scientific and technical tasks appointed within bilateral projects of co-operation between UJD and its international partnership organisations as well as within international projects ordered and financed by the European Commission. All these activities served as an independent support for UJD in its deterministic and probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear installations. A special attention was paid to a review of probabilistic safety assessment study of level 1 for NPP Mochovce. The probabilistic safety analysis of NPP related to the full power operation was elaborated in the study and a contribution of the technical and operational improvements to the risk decreasing was quantified. A core damage frequency of the reactor was calculated and the dominant initiating events and accident sequences with the major contribution to the risk were determined. The target of the review was to determine the acceptance of the sources of input information, assumptions, models, data, analyses and obtained results, so that the probabilistic model could give a real picture of the NPP. The review of the study was performed in co-operation of UJD with the IAEA (IPSART mission) as well as with other external organisations, which were not involved in the elaboration of the reviewed document and probabilistic model of NPP. The review was made in accordance with the IAEA guidelines and methodical documents of UJD and US NRC. In the field of calculation safety analyses the UJD activity was focused on the analysis of an operational event, analyses of the selected accident scenarios

  8. Analysing the Wrongness of Killing

    Di Nucci, Ezio

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an in-depth analysis of the wrongness of killing by comparing different versions of three influential views: the traditional view that killing is always wrong; the liberal view that killing is wrong if and only if the victim does not want to be killed; and Don Marquis‟ future...... of value account of the wrongness of killing. In particular, I illustrate the advantages that a basic version of the liberal view and a basic version of the future of value account have over competing alternatives. Still, ultimately none of the views analysed here are satisfactory; but the different...

  9. Methodological challenges in carbohydrate analyses

    Mary Beth Hall

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbohydrates can provide up to 80% of the dry matter in animal diets, yet their specific evaluation for research and diet formulation is only now becoming a focus in the animal sciences. Partitioning of dietary carbohydrates for nutritional purposes should reflect differences in digestion and fermentation characteristics and effects on animal performance. Key challenges to designating nutritionally important carbohydrate fractions include classifying the carbohydrates in terms of nutritional characteristics, and selecting analytical methods that describe the desired fraction. The relative lack of information on digestion characteristics of various carbohydrates and their interactions with other fractions in diets means that fractions will not soon be perfectly established. Developing a system of carbohydrate analysis that could be used across animal species could enhance the utility of analyses and amount of data we can obtain on dietary effects of carbohydrates. Based on quantities present in diets and apparent effects on animal performance, some nutritionally important classes of carbohydrates that may be valuable to measure include sugars, starch, fructans, insoluble fiber, and soluble fiber. Essential to selection of methods for these fractions is agreement on precisely what carbohydrates should be included in each. Each of these fractions has analyses that could potentially be used to measure them, but most of the available methods have weaknesses that must be evaluated to see if they are fatal and the assay is unusable, or if the assay still may be made workable. Factors we must consider as we seek to analyze carbohydrates to describe diets: Does the assay accurately measure the desired fraction? Is the assay for research, regulatory, or field use (affects considerations of acceptable costs and throughput? What are acceptable accuracy and variability of measures? Is the assay robust (enhances accuracy of values? For some carbohydrates, we

  10. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  11. Theorising and Analysing Academic Labour

    Thomas Allmer

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to contextualise universities historically within capitalism and to analyse academic labour and the deployment of digital media theoretically and critically. It argues that the post-war expansion of the university can be considered as medium and outcome of informational capitalism and as a dialectical development of social achievement and advanced commodification. The article strives to identify the class position of academic workers, introduces the distinction between academic work and labour, discusses the connection between academic, information and cultural work, and suggests a broad definition of university labour. It presents a theoretical model of working conditions that helps to systematically analyse the academic labour process and to provide an overview of working conditions at universities. The paper furthermore argues for the need to consider the development of education technologies as a dialectics of continuity and discontinuity, discusses the changing nature of the forces and relations of production, and the impact on the working conditions of academics in the digital university. Based on Erik Olin Wright’s inclusive approach of social transformation, the article concludes with the need to bring together anarchist, social democratic and revolutionary strategies for establishing a socialist university in a commons-based information society.

  12. CFD analyses in regulatory practice

    Bloemeling, F.; Pandazis, P.; Schaffrath, A.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical software is used in nuclear regulatory procedures for many problems in the fields of neutron physics, structural mechanics, thermal hydraulics etc. Among other things, the software is employed in dimensioning and designing systems and components and in simulating transients and accidents. In nuclear technology, analyses of this kind must meet strict requirements. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes were developed for computing multidimensional flow processes of the type occurring in reactor cooling systems or in containments. Extensive experience has been accumulated by now in selected single-phase flow phenomena. At the present time, there is a need for development and validation with respect to the simulation of multi-phase and multi-component flows. As insufficient input by the user can lead to faulty results, the validity of the results and an assessment of uncertainties are guaranteed only through consistent application of so-called Best Practice Guidelines. The authors present the possibilities now available to CFD analyses in nuclear regulatory practice. This includes a discussion of the fundamental requirements to be met by numerical software, especially the demands upon computational analysis made by nuclear rules and regulations. In conclusion, 2 examples are presented of applications of CFD analysis to nuclear problems: Determining deboration in the condenser reflux mode of operation, and protection of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) against brittle failure. (orig.)

  13. Five Kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Steffen, Jason H.; /Fermilab; Batalha, Natalie M.; /San Jose State U.; Borucki, William J.; /NASA, Ames; Buchhave, Lars A.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys. /Bohr Inst.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; /NASA, Ames /SETI Inst., Mtn. View; Cochran, William D.; /Texas U.; Endl, Michael; /Texas U.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Fressin, Francois; /Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Ford, Eric B.; /Florida U.; Fortney, Jonathan J.; /UC, Santa Cruz, Phys. Dept. /NASA, Ames

    2010-06-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets and provide new insights into the formation and dynamical evolution of planetary systems. We discuss the methods used to identify multiple transiting objects from the Kepler photometry as well as the false-positive rejection methods that have been applied to these data. One system shows transits from three distinct objects while the remaining four systems show transits from two objects. Three systems have planet candidates that are near mean motion commensurabilities - two near 2:1 and one just outside 5:2. We discuss the implications that multitransiting systems have on the distribution of orbital inclinations in planetary systems, and hence their dynamical histories; as well as their likely masses and chemical compositions. A Monte Carlo study indicates that, with additional data, most of these systems should exhibit detectable transit timing variations (TTV) due to gravitational interactions - though none are apparent in these data. We also discuss new challenges that arise in TTV analyses due to the presence of more than two planets in a system.

  14. DMPD: Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 12106784 Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Carof...html) (.csml) Show Structural and functional analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. PubmedID 12106784 Title Structural and functi...onal analyses of bacterial lipopolysaccharides. Authors

  15. Recurrent and multiple bladder tumors show conserved expression profiles

    Lindgren, David; Fioretos, Thoas; Månsson, Wiking; Höglund, Mattias; Gudjonsson, Sigurdur; Jee, Kowan Ja; Liedberg, Fredrik; Aits, Sonja; Andersson, Anna; Chebil, Gunilla; Borg, Åke; Knuutila, Sakari

    2008-01-01

    Urothelial carcinomas originate from the epithelial cells of the inner lining of the bladder and may appear as single or as multiple synchronous tumors. Patients with urothelial carcinomas frequently show recurrences after treatment making follow-up necessary. The leading hypothesis explaining the origin of meta- and synchronous tumors assumes a monoclonal origin. However, the genetic relationship among consecutive tumors has been shown to be complex in as much as the genetic evolution does not adhere to the chronological appearance of the metachronous tumors. Consequently, genetically less evolved tumors may appear chronologically later than genetically related but more evolved tumors. Forty-nine meta- or synchronous urothelial tumors from 22 patients were analyzed using expression profiling, conventional CGH, LOH, and mutation analyses. We show by CGH that partial chromosomal losses in the initial tumors may not be present in the recurring tumors, by LOH that different haplotypes may be lost and that detected regions of LOH may be smaller in recurring tumors, and that mutations present in the initial tumor may not be present in the recurring ones. In contrast we show that despite apparent genomic differences, the recurrent and multiple bladder tumors from the same patients display remarkably similar expression profiles. Our findings show that even though the vast majority of the analyzed meta- and synchronous tumors from the same patients are not likely to have originated directly from the preceding tumor they still show remarkably similar expressions profiles. The presented data suggests that an expression profile is established early in tumor development and that this profile is stable and maintained in recurring tumors

  16. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  17. The hemispherical deflector analyser revisited

    Benis, E.P. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)], E-mail: benis@iesl.forth.gr; Zouros, T.J.M. [Institute of Electronic Structure and Laser, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion, Crete (Greece); Department of Physics, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion, Crete (Greece)

    2008-04-15

    Using the basic spectrometer trajectory equation for motion in an ideal 1/r potential derived in Eq. (101) of part I [T.J.M. Zouros, E.P. Benis, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125 (2002) 221], the operational characteristics of a hemispherical deflector analyser (HDA) such as dispersion, energy resolution, energy calibration, input lens magnification and energy acceptance window are investigated from first principles. These characteristics are studied as a function of the entry point R{sub 0} and the nominal value of the potential V(R{sub 0}) at entry. Electron-optics simulations and actual laboratory measurements are compared to our theoretical results for an ideal biased paracentric HDA using a four-element zoom lens and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D-PSD). These results should be of particular interest to users of modern HDAs utilizing a PSD.

  18. The hemispherical deflector analyser revisited

    Benis, E.P.; Zouros, T.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Using the basic spectrometer trajectory equation for motion in an ideal 1/r potential derived in Eq. (101) of part I [T.J.M. Zouros, E.P. Benis, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 125 (2002) 221], the operational characteristics of a hemispherical deflector analyser (HDA) such as dispersion, energy resolution, energy calibration, input lens magnification and energy acceptance window are investigated from first principles. These characteristics are studied as a function of the entry point R 0 and the nominal value of the potential V(R 0 ) at entry. Electron-optics simulations and actual laboratory measurements are compared to our theoretical results for an ideal biased paracentric HDA using a four-element zoom lens and a two-dimensional position sensitive detector (2D-PSD). These results should be of particular interest to users of modern HDAs utilizing a PSD

  19. Analysing performance through value creation

    Adrian TRIFAN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws a parallel between measuring financial performance in 2 variants: the first one using data offered by accounting, which lays emphasis on maximizing profit, and the second one which aims to create value. The traditional approach to performance is based on some indicators from accounting data: ROI, ROE, EPS. The traditional management, based on analysing the data from accounting, has shown its limits, and a new approach is needed, based on creating value. The evaluation of value based performance tries to avoid the errors due to accounting data, by using other specific indicators: EVA, MVA, TSR, CVA. The main objective is shifted from maximizing the income to maximizing the value created for shareholders. The theoretical part is accompanied by a practical analysis regarding the creation of value and an analysis of the main indicators which evaluate this concept.

  20. Implementing partnerships in nonreactor facility safety analyses

    Courtney, J.C.; Perry, W.H.; Phipps, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Faculty and students from LSU have been participating in nuclear safety analyses and radiation protection projects at ANL-W at INEL since 1973. A mutually beneficial relationship has evolved that has resulted in generation of safety-related studies acceptable to Argonne and DOE, NRC, and state regulatory groups. Most of the safety projects have involved the Hot Fuel Examination Facility or the Fuel Conditioning Facility; both are hot cells that receive spent fuel from EBR-II. A table shows some of the major projects at ANL-W that involved LSU students and faculty

  1. Herbarium specimens show contrasting phenological responses to Himalayan climate.

    Hart, Robbie; Salick, Jan; Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Xu, Jianchu

    2014-07-22

    Responses by flowering plants to climate change are complex and only beginning to be understood. Through analyses of 10,295 herbarium specimens of Himalayan Rhododendron collected by plant hunters and botanists since 1884, we were able to separate these responses into significant components. We found a lack of directional change in mean flowering time over the past 45 y of rapid warming. However, over the full 125 y of collections, mean flowering time shows a significant response to year-to-year changes in temperature, and this response varies with season of warming. Mean flowering advances with annual warming (2.27 d earlier per 1 °C warming), and also is delayed with fall warming (2.54 d later per 1 °C warming). Annual warming may advance flowering through positive effects on overwintering bud formation, whereas fall warming may delay flowering through an impact on chilling requirements. The lack of a directional response suggests that contrasting phenological responses to temperature changes may obscure temperature sensitivity in plants. By drawing on large collections from multiple herbaria, made over more than a century, we show how these data may inform studies even of remote localities, and we highlight the increasing value of these and other natural history collections in understanding long-term change.

  2. [How children show positive and negative relationships on their drawings].

    Gramel, Sabine

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses, whether pictures of children showing a positive relationship are significantly different from those showing a negative one with respect to several criteria. The study involved a random selection of 45 children aged 4;6 to 11;6 years. The children painted a picture with themselves and a person they liked and a picture of themselves with someone they disliked. For the most part, the children drew pictures of themselves with peers both with respect to positive as well as negative images. In an interview afterwards, the children specified the criteria in their drawings by which the quality of the particular relationship can be identified. Positive and negative relationship paintings differ in the character of activity described. The sun as an element in children's paintings is painted not more frequent on positive compared to negative pictures. The colour black is used more often in the drawings signifying negative relationships. While girls used more colour in negative relationship drawings, boys used more colour in the positive ones. There was no significant difference in the use of favourite colours and decorative elements between the two groups. Only in negative relationship drawings people were looking away from each other. Smiling individuals were more common in the positive relationship pictures and in pictures painted by the 6 to 8 year olds. A greater distance between the individuals emerged on negative relationship drawings of the girls.

  3. Pleiotropic Meta-Analyses of Longitudinal Studies Discover Novel Genetic Variants Associated with Age-Related Diseases

    Liang He

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Age-related diseases may result from shared biological mechanisms in intrinsic processes of aging. Genetic effects on age-related diseases are often modulated by environmental factors due to their little contribution to fitness or are mediated through certain endophenotypes. Identification of genetic variants with pleiotropic effects on both common complex diseases and endophenotypes may reveal potential conflicting evolutionary pressures and deliver new insights into shared genetic contribution to healthspan and lifespan. Here, we performed pleiotropic meta-analyses of genetic variants using five NIH-funded datasets by integrating univariate summary statistics for age-related diseases and endophenotypes. We investigated three groups of traits: (1 endophenotypes such as blood glucose, blood pressure, lipids, hematocrit, and body mass index, (2 time-to-event outcomes such as the age-at-onset of diabetes mellitus (DM, cancer, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and neurodegenerative diseases (NDs, and (3 both combined. In addition to replicating previous findings, we identify seven novel genome-wide significant loci (< 5e-08, out of which five are low-frequency variants. Specifically, from Group 2, we find rs7632505 on 3q21.1 in SEMA5B, rs460976 on 21q22.3 (1 kb from TMPRSS2 and rs12420422 on 11q24.1 predominantly associated with a variety of CVDs, rs4905014 in ITPK1 associated with stroke and heart failure, rs7081476 on 10p12.1 in ANKRD26 associated with multiple diseases including DM, CVDs, and NDs. From Group 3, we find rs8082812 on 18p11.22 and rs1869717 on 4q31.3 associated with both endophenotypes and CVDs. Our follow-up analyses show that rs7632505, rs4905014, and rs8082812 have age-dependent effects on coronary heart disease or stroke. Functional annotation suggests that most of these SNPs are within regulatory regions or DNase clusters and in linkage disequilibrium with expression quantitative trait loci, implying their potential regulatory

  4. Tomato Fruits Show Wide Phenomic Diversity but Fruit Developmental Genes Show Low Genomic Diversity.

    Vijee Mohan

    Full Text Available Domestication of tomato has resulted in large diversity in fruit phenotypes. An intensive phenotyping of 127 tomato accessions from 20 countries revealed extensive morphological diversity in fruit traits. The diversity in fruit traits clustered the accessions into nine classes and identified certain promising lines having desirable traits pertaining to total soluble salts (TSS, carotenoids, ripening index, weight and shape. Factor analysis of the morphometric data from Tomato Analyzer showed that the fruit shape is a complex trait shared by several factors. The 100% variance between round and flat fruit shapes was explained by one discriminant function having a canonical correlation of 0.874 by stepwise discriminant analysis. A set of 10 genes (ACS2, COP1, CYC-B, RIN, MSH2, NAC-NOR, PHOT1, PHYA, PHYB and PSY1 involved in various plant developmental processes were screened for SNP polymorphism by EcoTILLING. The genetic diversity in these genes revealed a total of 36 non-synonymous and 18 synonymous changes leading to the identification of 28 haplotypes. The average frequency of polymorphism across the genes was 0.038/Kb. Significant negative Tajima'D statistic in two of the genes, ACS2 and PHOT1 indicated the presence of rare alleles in low frequency. Our study indicates that while there is low polymorphic diversity in the genes regulating plant development, the population shows wider phenotype diversity. Nonetheless, morphological and genetic diversity of the present collection can be further exploited as potential resources in future.

  5. We're Playing "Jeremy Kyle"! Television Talk Shows in the Playground

    Marsh, Jackie; Bishop, Julia

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on an episode of play in a primary school playground in England, which featured a group of children re-enacting elements of the television talk show "The Jeremy Kyle Show". The episode is analysed in the light of work that has identified the key elements of the talk show genre and the children's play is examined in…

  6. Proteins analysed as virtual knots

    Alexander, Keith; Taylor, Alexander J.; Dennis, Mark R.

    2017-02-01

    Long, flexible physical filaments are naturally tangled and knotted, from macroscopic string down to long-chain molecules. The existence of knotting in a filament naturally affects its configuration and properties, and may be very stable or disappear rapidly under manipulation and interaction. Knotting has been previously identified in protein backbone chains, for which these mechanical constraints are of fundamental importance to their molecular functionality, despite their being open curves in which the knots are not mathematically well defined; knotting can only be identified by closing the termini of the chain somehow. We introduce a new method for resolving knotting in open curves using virtual knots, which are a wider class of topological objects that do not require a classical closure and so naturally capture the topological ambiguity inherent in open curves. We describe the results of analysing proteins in the Protein Data Bank by this new scheme, recovering and extending previous knotting results, and identifying topological interest in some new cases. The statistics of virtual knots in protein chains are compared with those of open random walks and Hamiltonian subchains on cubic lattices, identifying a regime of open curves in which the virtual knotting description is likely to be important.

  7. Digital image analyser for autoradiography

    Muth, R.A.; Plotnick, J.

    1985-01-01

    The most critical parameter in quantitative autoradiography for assay of tissue concentrations of tracers is the ability to obtain precise and accurate measurements of optical density of the images. Existing high precision systems for image analysis, rotating drum densitometers, are expensive, suffer from mechanical problems and are slow. More moderately priced and reliable video camera based systems are available, but their outputs generally do not have the uniformity and stability necessary for high resolution quantitative autoradiography. The authors have designed and constructed an image analyser optimized for quantitative single and multiple tracer autoradiography which the authors refer to as a memory-mapped charged-coupled device scanner (MM-CCD). The input is from a linear array of CCD's which is used to optically scan the autoradiograph. Images are digitized into 512 x 512 picture elements with 256 gray levels and the data is stored in buffer video memory in less than two seconds. Images can then be transferred to RAM memory by direct memory-mapping for further processing. Arterial blood curve data and optical density-calibrated standards data can be entered and the optical density images can be converted automatically to tracer concentration or functional images. In double tracer studies, images produced from both exposures can be stored and processed in RAM to yield ''pure'' individual tracer concentration or functional images. Any processed image can be transmitted back to the buffer memory to be viewed on a monitor and processed for region of interest analysis

  8. Analysing harmonic motions with an iPhone’s magnetometer

    Yavuz, Ahmet; Kağan Temiz, Burak

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we propose an experiment for analysing harmonic motion using an iPhone’s (or iPad’s) magnetometer. This experiment consists of the detection of magnetic field variations obtained from an iPhone’s magnetometer sensor. A graph of harmonic motion is directly displayed on the iPhone’s screen using the Sensor Kinetics application. Data from this application was analysed with Eureqa software to establish the equation of the harmonic motion. Analyses show that the use of an iPhone’s magnetometer to analyse harmonic motion is a practical and effective method for small oscillations and frequencies less than 15-20 Hz.

  9. Passive safety injection experiments and analyses (PAHKO)

    Tuunanen, J.

    1998-01-01

    PAHKO project involved experiments on the PACTEL facility and computer simulations of selected experiments. The experiments focused on the performance of Passive Safety Injection Systems (PSIS) of Advanced Light Water Reactors (ALWRs) in Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) conditions. The PSIS consisted of a Core Make-up Tank (CMT) and two pipelines (Pressure Balancing Line, PBL, and Injection Line, IL). The examined PSIS worked efficiently in SBLOCAs although the flow through the PSIS stopped temporarily if the break was very small and the hot water filled the CMT. The experiments demonstrated the importance of the flow distributor in the CMT to limit rapid condensation. The project included validation of three thermal-hydraulic computer codes (APROS, CATHARE and RELAP5). The analyses showed the codes are capable to simulate the overall behaviour of the transients. The detailed analyses of the results showed some models in the codes still need improvements. Especially, further development of models for thermal stratification, condensation and natural circulation flow with small driving forces would be necessary for accurate simulation of the PSIS phenomena. (orig.)

  10. Fractal and multifractal analyses of bipartite networks

    Liu, Jin-Long; Wang, Jian; Yu, Zu-Guo; Xie, Xian-Hua

    2017-03-01

    Bipartite networks have attracted considerable interest in various fields. Fractality and multifractality of unipartite (classical) networks have been studied in recent years, but there is no work to study these properties of bipartite networks. In this paper, we try to unfold the self-similarity structure of bipartite networks by performing the fractal and multifractal analyses for a variety of real-world bipartite network data sets and models. First, we find the fractality in some bipartite networks, including the CiteULike, Netflix, MovieLens (ml-20m), Delicious data sets and (u, v)-flower model. Meanwhile, we observe the shifted power-law or exponential behavior in other several networks. We then focus on the multifractal properties of bipartite networks. Our results indicate that the multifractality exists in those bipartite networks possessing fractality. To capture the inherent attribute of bipartite network with two types different nodes, we give the different weights for the nodes of different classes, and show the existence of multifractality in these node-weighted bipartite networks. In addition, for the data sets with ratings, we modify the two existing algorithms for fractal and multifractal analyses of edge-weighted unipartite networks to study the self-similarity of the corresponding edge-weighted bipartite networks. The results show that our modified algorithms are feasible and can effectively uncover the self-similarity structure of these edge-weighted bipartite networks and their corresponding node-weighted versions.

  11. Special analyses reveal coke-deposit structure

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX) have been used to obtain information that clarifies the three mechanisms of coke formation in ethylene furnaces, and to analyze the metal condition at the exit of furnace. The results can be used to examine furnace operations and develop improved ethylene plant practices. In this first of four articles on the analyses of coke and metal samples, the coking mechanisms and coke deposits in a section of tube from an actual ethylene furnace (Furnace A) from a plant on the Texas Gulf Coast are discussed. The second articles in the series will analyze the condition of the tube metal in the same furnace. To show how coke deposition and metal condition dependent on the operating parameters of an ethylene furnace, the third article in the series will show the coke deposition in a Texas Gulf Coast furnace tube (Furnace B) that operated at shorter residence time. The fourth article discusses the metal condition in that furnace. Some recommendations, based on the analyses and findings, are offered in the fourth article that could help extend the life of ethylene furnace tubes, and also improve overall ethylene plant operations

  12. Prognostic significance of race on biochemical control in patients with localized prostate cancer treated with permanent brachytherapy: multivariate and matched-pair analyses

    Lee, Lucille N.; Barnswell, Carlton; Torre, Taryn; Fearn, Paul; Kattan, Michael; Potters, Louis

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: To compare PSA relapse-free survival (PSA-RFS) between African-American (AA) and white American (WA) males treated with permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) for clinically localized prostate cancer. Methods and materials: One thousand eighty-one consecutive patients, including 246 African-Americans, underwent PPB with 103 Pd or 125 I, alone or with external beam radiation therapy between September 1992 and September 1999. Computer-generated matching was performed to create two identical cohorts of WA and AA males, based on the use of neoadjuvant androgen ablation (NAAD), pretreatment PSA, and Gleason score. Presenting characteristics were used to define risk groups, as follows: Low risk had PSA ≤10 and Gleason score ≤6, intermediate risk had PSA >10 or Gleason score ≥7, and high risk had PSA >10 and Gleason score ≥7. PSA-RFS was calculated using the Kattan modification of the ASTRO definition, and the log-rank test was used to compare Kaplan-Meier PSA-RFS curves. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine predictors of PSA-RFS. Results: Overall, univariate analysis revealed that AA males at presentation had lower disease stage (p=0.01), had lower Gleason scores (p=0.017), were younger (p=0.001), and were more likely to receive NAAD (p=0.001) than their WA counterparts. There were no differences in pretreatment PSA, isotope selection, use of external beam radiation therapy, median follow-up, or risk group classification between AA and WA males. Pretreatment PSA and Gleason score were significant predictors of PSA-RFS in multivariate analysis, and race was not significant. There was no significant difference between the 5-year PSA-RFS for AA males (84.0%) and the matched cohort of WA males (81.2%) (p=0.384). Race was not a predictor of 5-year PSA-RFS among patients treated with or without NAAD and within low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups. Conclusion: Race is not an independent predictor of 5-year PSA-RFS in patients

  13. The analyses of risk factors for COPD in the Li ethnic group in Hainan, People’s Republic of China

    Ding YP

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Yipeng Ding,1,* Junxu Xu,2,* Jinjian Yao,1 Yu Chen,2 Ping He,1 Yanhong Ouyang,1 Huan Niu,1 Zhongjie Tian,1 Pei Sun1 1Department of Emergency, People’s Hospital of Hainan Province, 2Department of Respiratory, The Third People’s Hospital of Haikou, Haikou, Hainan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Objective: To study the risk factors for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in Li population in Hainan province, People’s Republic of China.Methods: Li people above 40 years of age from Hainan were chosen by stratified random cluster sampling between 2012 and 2014. All participants were interviewed with a home-visiting questionnaire, and spirometry was performed on all eligible participants. Patients with airflow limitation (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]/forced vital capacity [FVC] <0.70 were further examined by postbronchodilator spirometry, and those with a postbronchodilator FEV1/FVC <0.70 was diagnosed with COPD. The information of physical condition and history, smoking intensity, smoking duration, second-hand smoking, education, job category, monthly household income, working years, residential environment, primary fuel for cooking and heating (biomass fuel including wood, crop residues, dung, and charcoal, or modern fuel such as natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, electricity, and solar energy, ventilated kitchen, heating methods, air pollution, recurrent respiratory infections, family history of respiratory diseases, cough incentives, and allergies of COPD and non-COPD subjects was analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression models to identify correlated risk factors for COPD.Results: Out of the 5,463 Li participants, a total of 277 COPD cases were identified by spirometry, and 307 healthy subjects were randomly selected as controls. Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that older people (65 years and above, low body mass index (BMI, biomass smoke

  14. Kinematic top analyses at CDF

    Grassmann, H.; CDF Collaboration

    1995-03-01

    We present an update of the top quark analysis using kinematic techniques in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.8 TeV with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We reported before on a study which used 19.3 pb{sup {minus}1} of data from the 1992--1993 collider run, but now we use a larger data sample of 67 pb{sup {minus}1}. First, we analyze the total transverse energy of the hard collision in W+{ge}3 jet events, showing the likely presence of a t{bar t} component in the event sample. Next, we compare in more detail the kinematic structure of W+ {ge}3 jet events with expectations for top pair production and with background processes, predominantly direct W+ jet production. We again find W+ {ge} 3 jet events which cannot be explained in terms of background, but show kinematic features as expected from top. These events also show evidence for beauty quarks, in agreement with expectations from top, but not compatible with expectations from backgrounds. The findings confirm the observation of top events made earlier in the data of the 1992--1993 collider run.

  15. Pawnee Nation Energy Option Analyses

    Matlock, M.; Kersey, K.; Riding In, C.

    2009-07-21

    Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Energy Option Analyses In 2003, the Pawnee Nation leadership identified the need for the tribe to comprehensively address its energy issues. During a strategic energy planning workshop a general framework was laid out and the Pawnee Nation Energy Task Force was created to work toward further development of the tribe’s energy vision. The overarching goals of the “first steps” project were to identify the most appropriate focus for its strategic energy initiatives going forward, and to provide information necessary to take the next steps in pursuit of the “best fit” energy options. Description of Activities Performed The research team reviewed existing data pertaining to the availability of biomass (focusing on woody biomass, agricultural biomass/bio-energy crops, and methane capture), solar, wind and hydropower resources on the Pawnee-owned lands. Using these data, combined with assumptions about costs and revenue streams, the research team performed preliminary feasibility assessments for each resource category. The research team also reviewed available funding resources and made recommendations to Pawnee Nation highlighting those resources with the greatest potential for financially-viable development, both in the near-term and over a longer time horizon. Findings and Recommendations Due to a lack of financial incentives for renewable energy, particularly at the state level, combined mediocre renewable energy resources, renewable energy development opportunities are limited for Pawnee Nation. However, near-term potential exists for development of solar hot water at the gym, and an exterior wood-fired boiler system at the tribe’s main administrative building. Pawnee Nation should also explore options for developing LFGTE resources in collaboration with the City of Pawnee. Significant potential may also exist for development of bio-energy resources within the next decade. Pawnee Nation representatives should closely monitor

  16. Migraineurs without aura show microstructural abnormalities in the cerebellum and frontal lobe.

    Granziera, C; Romascano, D; Daducci, A; Roche, A; Vincent, M; Krueger, G; Hadjikhani, N

    2013-12-01

    The involvement of the cerebellum in migraine pathophysiology is not well understood. We used a biparametric approach at high-field MRI (3 T) to assess the structural integrity of the cerebellum in 15 migraineurs with aura (MWA), 23 migraineurs without aura (MWoA), and 20 healthy controls (HC). High-resolution T1 relaxation maps were acquired together with magnetization transfer images in order to probe microstructural and myelin integrity. Clusterwise analysis was performed on T1 and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) maps of the cerebellum of MWA, MWoA, and HC using an ANOVA and a non-parametric clusterwise permutation F test, with age and gender as covariates and correction for familywise error rate. In addition, mean MTR and T1 in frontal regions known to be highly connected to the cerebellum were computed. Clusterwise comparison among groups showed a cluster of lower MTR in the right Crus I of MWoA patients vs. HC and MWA subjects (p = 0.04). Univariate and bivariate analysis on T1 and MTR contrasts showed that MWoA patients had longer T1 and lower MTR in the right and left pars orbitalis compared to MWA (p < 0.01 and 0.05, respectively), but no differences were found with HC. Lower MTR and longer T1 point at a loss of macromolecules and/or micro-edema in Crus I and pars orbitalis in MWoA patients vs. HC and vs. MWA. The pathophysiological implications of these findings are discussed in light of recent literature.

  17. Analyser Framework to Verify Software Components

    Rolf Andreas Rasenack

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, it is important for software companies to build software systems in a short time-interval, to reduce costs and to have a good market position. Therefore well organized and systematic development approaches are required. Reusing software components, which are well tested, can be a good solution to develop software applications in effective manner. The reuse of software components is less expensive and less time consuming than a development from scratch. But it is dangerous to think that software components can be match together without any problems. Software components itself are well tested, of course, but even if they composed together problems occur. Most problems are based on interaction respectively communication. Avoiding such errors a framework has to be developed for analysing software components. That framework determines the compatibility of corresponding software components. The promising approach discussed here, presents a novel technique for analysing software components by applying an Abstract Syntax Language Tree (ASLT. A supportive environment will be designed that checks the compatibility of black-box software components. This article is concerned to the question how can be coupled software components verified by using an analyzer framework and determines the usage of the ASLT. Black-box Software Components and Abstract Syntax Language Tree are the basis for developing the proposed framework and are discussed here to provide the background knowledge. The practical implementation of this framework is discussed and shows the result by using a test environment.

  18. Response surface use in safety analyses

    Prosek, A.

    1999-01-01

    When thousands of complex computer code runs related to nuclear safety are needed for statistical analysis, the response surface is used to replace the computer code. The main purpose of the study was to develop and demonstrate a tool called optimal statistical estimator (OSE) intended for response surface generation of complex and non-linear phenomena. The performance of optimal statistical estimator was tested by the results of 59 different RELAP5/MOD3.2 code calculations of the small-break loss-of-coolant accident in a two loop pressurized water reactor. The results showed that OSE adequately predicted the response surface for the peak cladding temperature. Some good characteristic of the OSE like monotonic function between two neighbor points and independence on the number of output parameters suggest that OSE can be used for response surface generation of any safety or system parameter in the thermal-hydraulic safety analyses.(author)

  19. Analysing Medieval Urban Space; a methodology

    Marlous L. Craane MA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available This article has been written in reaction to recent developments in medieval history and archaeology, to study not only the buildings in a town but also the spaces that hold them together. It discusses a more objective and interdisciplinary approach for analysing urban morphology and use of space. It proposes a 'new' methodology by combining town plan analysis and space syntax. This methodology was trialled on the city of Utrecht in the Netherlands. By comparing the results of this 'new' methodology with the results of previous, more conventional, research, this article shows that space syntax can be applied successfully to medieval urban contexts. It does this by demonstrating a strong correlation between medieval economic spaces and the most integrated spaces, just as is found in the study of modern urban environments. It thus provides a strong basis for the use of this technique in future research of medieval urban environments.

  20. Analysing Terrorism from a Systems Thinking Perspective

    Lukas Schoenenberger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the complexity of terrorism, solutions based on single factors are destined to fail. Systems thinking offers various tools for helping researchers and policy makers comprehend terrorism in its entirety. We have developed a semi-quantitative systems thinking approach for characterising relationships between variables critical to terrorism and their impact on the system as a whole. For a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying terrorism, we present a 16-variable model characterising the critical components of terrorism and perform a series of highly focused analyses. We show how to determine which variables are best suited for government intervention, describing in detail their effects on the key variable—the political influence of a terrorist network. We also offer insights into how to elicit variables that destabilise and ultimately break down these networks. Because we clarify our novel approach with fictional data, the primary importance of this paper lies in the new framework for reasoning that it provides.

  1. ATLAS helicity analyses in beauty hadron decays

    Smizanska, M

    2000-01-01

    The ATLAS detector will allow a precise spatial reconstruction of the kinematics of B hadron decays. In combination with the efficient lepton identification applied already at trigger level, ATLAS is expected to provide large samples of exclusive decay channels cleanly separable from background. These data sets will allow spin-dependent analyses leading to the determination of production and decay parameters, which are not accessible if the helicity amplitudes are not separated. Measurement feasibility studies for decays B/sub s //sup 0/ to J/ psi phi and Lambda /sub b//sup 0/ to Lambda J/ psi , presented in this document, show the experimental precisions that can be achieved in determination of B/sub s//sup 0/ and Lambda /sub b //sup 0/ characteristics. (19 refs).

  2. Improving word coverage using unsupervised morphological analyser

    To enable a computer to process information in human languages, ... vised morphological analyser (UMA) would learn how to analyse a language just by looking ... result for English, but they did remarkably worse for Finnish and Turkish.

  3. Techniques for Analysing Problems in Engineering Projects

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1998-01-01

    Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects.......Description of how CPM network can be used for analysing complex problems in engineering projects....

  4. Quantitative DNA methylation analyses reveal stage dependent DNA methylation and association to clinico-pathological factors in breast tumors

    Klajic, Jovana; Tost, Jörg; Kristensen, Vessela N; Fleischer, Thomas; Dejeux, Emelyne; Edvardsen, Hege; Warnberg, Fredrik; Bukholm, Ida; Lønning, Per Eystein; Solvang, Hiroko; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation of regulatory genes has frequently been found in human breast cancers and correlated to clinical outcome. In the present study we investigate stage specific changes in the DNA methylation patterns in order to identify valuable markers to understand how these changes affect breast cancer progression. Quantitative DNA methylation analyses of 12 candidate genes ABCB1, BRCCA1, CDKN2A, ESR1, GSTP1, IGF2, MGMT, HMLH1, PPP2R2B, PTEN, RASSF1A and FOXC1 was performed by pyrosequencing a series of 238 breast cancer tissue samples from DCIS to invasive tumors stage I to IV. Significant differences in methylation levels between the DCIS and invasive stage II tumors were observed for six genes RASSF1A, CDKN2A, MGMT, ABCB1, GSTP1 and FOXC1. RASSF1A, ABCB1 and GSTP1 showed significantly higher methylation levels in late stage compared to the early stage breast carcinoma. Z-score analysis revealed significantly lower methylation levels in DCIS and stage I tumors compared with stage II, III and IV tumors. Methylation levels of PTEN, PPP2R2B, FOXC1, ABCB1 and BRCA1 were lower in tumors harboring TP53 mutations then in tumors with wild type TP53. Z-score analysis showed that TP53 mutated tumors had significantly lower overall methylation levels compared to tumors with wild type TP53. Methylation levels of RASSF1A, PPP2R2B, GSTP1 and FOXC1 were higher in ER positive vs. ER negative tumors and methylation levels of PTEN and CDKN2A were higher in HER2 positive vs. HER2 negative tumors. Z-score analysis also showed that HER2 positive tumors had significantly higher z-scores of methylation compared to the HER2 negative tumors. Univariate survival analysis identifies methylation status of PPP2R2B as significant predictor of overall survival and breast cancer specific survival. In the present study we report that the level of aberrant DNA methylation is higher in late stage compared with early stage of invasive breast cancers and DCIS for genes mentioned above

  5. Automatic incrementalization of Prolog based static analyses

    Eichberg, Michael; Kahl, Matthias; Saha, Diptikalyan

    2007-01-01

    Modem development environments integrate various static analyses into the build process. Analyses that analyze the whole project whenever the project changes are impractical in this context. We present an approach to automatic incrementalization of analyses that are specified as tabled logic prog...

  6. International trade shows: Structure, strategy and performance of exhibitors at individual booths vs. joint booths

    Hansen, Kåre

    2000-01-01

    This paper examines differences in exhibitors who participate at international trade shows at joint booths and those who participate at individual booths. The structure, strategy, and trade show performance of exhibitors at joint booths and those at individual booths are analysed. The analysis...... implications for exhibitors at interna-tional trade shows and export marketing programmes and other marketing programmes offering services to international trade show exhibitors....... of exhibitors at the international food shows SIAL (Paris) and ANUGA (Cologne) showed several significant differences with regard to structure and strategy. However, no significant differences in the performance assessments between the two partici-pation modes were found. The findings have important...

  7. Individual patient data meta-analysis shows no association between the SNP rs1800469 in TGFB and late radiotherapy toxicity

    Barnett, Gillian C.; Elliott, Rebecca M.; Alsner, Jan; Andreassen, Christian N.; Abdelhay, Osama; Burnet, Neil G.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Coles, Charlotte E.; Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Sara; Fuentes-Raspall, Maria J.; Alonso-Muñoz, Maria C.; Kerns, Sarah; Raabe, Annette; Symonds, R. Paul; Seibold, Petra; Talbot, Chris J.; Wenz, Frederik; Wilkinson, Jennifer; Yarnold, John; Dunning, Alison M.

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose: Reported associations between risk of radiation-induced normal tissue injury and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TGFB1, encoding the pro-fibrotic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1), remain controversial. To overcome publication bias, the international Radiogenomics Consortium collected and analysed individual patient level data from both published and unpublished studies. Materials and methods: TGFB1 SNP rs1800469 c.-1347T>C (previously known as C-509T) genotype, treatment-related data, and clinically-assessed fibrosis (measured at least 2 years after therapy) were available in 2782 participants from 11 cohorts. All received adjuvant breast radiotherapy. Associations between late fibrosis or overall toxicity, reported by STAT (Standardised Total Average Toxicity) score, and rs1800469 genotype were assessed. Results: No statistically significant associations between either fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype were observed with univariate or multivariate regression analysis. The multivariate odds ratio (OR), obtained from meta-analysis, for an increase in late fibrosis grade with each additional rare allele of rs1800469 was 0.98 (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.85–1.11). This CI is sufficiently narrow to rule out any clinically relevant effect on toxicity risk in carriers vs. non-carriers with a high probability. Conclusion: This meta-analysis has not confirmed previous reports of association between fibrosis or overall toxicity and rs1800469 genotype in breast cancer patients. It has demonstrated successful collaboration within the Radiogenomics Consortium.

  8. Achieving reasonable conservatism in nuclear safety analyses

    Jamali, Kamiar

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of methods that explicitly account for uncertainties, seeking reasonable conservatism in nuclear safety analyses can quickly lead to extreme conservatism. The rate of divergence to extreme conservatism is often beyond the expert analysts’ intuitive feeling, but can be demonstrated mathematically. Too much conservatism in addressing the safety of nuclear facilities is not beneficial to society. Using certain properties of lognormal distributions for representation of input parameter uncertainties, example calculations for the risk and consequence of a fictitious facility accident scenario are presented. Results show that there are large differences between the calculated 95th percentiles and the extreme bounding values derived from using all input variables at their upper-bound estimates. Showing the relationship of the mean values to the key parameters of the output distributions, the paper concludes that the mean is the ideal candidate for representation of the value of an uncertain parameter. The mean value is proposed as the metric that is consistent with the concept of reasonable conservatism in nuclear safety analysis, because its value increases towards higher percentiles of the underlying positively skewed distribution with increasing levels of uncertainty. Insensitivity of the results to the actual underlying distributions is briefly demonstrated. - Highlights: • Multiple conservative assumptions can quickly diverge into extreme conservatism. • Mathematics and attractive properties provide basis for wide use of lognormal distribution. • Mean values are ideal candidates for representation of parameter uncertainties. • Mean values are proposed as reasonably conservative estimates of parameter uncertainties

  9. Statistical analyses of extreme food habits

    Breuninger, M.; Neuhaeuser-Berthold, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a summary of the results of the project ''Statistical analyses of extreme food habits'', which was ordered from the National Office for Radiation Protection as a contribution to the amendment of the ''General Administrative Regulation to paragraph 45 of the Decree on Radiation Protection: determination of the radiation exposition by emission of radioactive substances from facilities of nuclear technology''. Its aim is to show if the calculation of the radiation ingested by 95% of the population by food intake, like it is planned in a provisional draft, overestimates the true exposure. If such an overestimation exists, the dimension of it should be determined. It was possible to prove the existence of this overestimation but its dimension could only roughly be estimated. To identify the real extent of it, it is necessary to include the specific activities of the nuclides, which were not available for this investigation. In addition to this the report shows how the amounts of food consumption of different groups of foods influence each other and which connections between these amounts should be taken into account, in order to estimate the radiation exposition as precise as possible. (orig.) [de

  10. Thermomagnetic Analyses to Test Concrete Stability

    Geiss, C. E.; Gourley, J. R.

    2017-12-01

    Over the past decades pyrrhotite-containing aggregate has been used in concrete to build basements and foundations in central Connecticut. The sulphur in the pyrrhotite reacts to several secondary minerals, and associated changes in volume lead to a loss of structural integrity. As a result hundreds of homes have been rendered worthless as remediation costs often exceed the value of the homes and the value of many other homes constructed during the same time period is in question as concrete provenance and potential future structural issues are unknown. While minor abundances of pyrrhotite are difficult to detect or quantify by traditional means, the mineral is easily identified through its magnetic properties. All concrete samples from affected homes show a clear increase in magnetic susceptibility above 220°C due to the γ - transition of Fe9S10 [1] and a clearly defined Curie-temperature near 320°C for Fe7S8. X-ray analyses confirm the presence of pyrrhotite and ettringite in these samples. Synthetic mixtures of commercially available concrete and pyrrhotite show that the method is semiquantitative but needs to be calibrated for specific pyrrhotite mineralogies. 1. Schwarz, E.J., Magnetic properties of pyrrhotite and their use in applied geology and geophysics. 1975, Geological Survey of Canada : Ottawa, ON, Canada: Canada.

  11. Liver volume, intrahepatic fat and body weight in the course of a lifestyle interventional study. Analysis with quantitative MR-based methods; Lebervolumen, Leberfettanteil und Koerpergewicht im Verlauf einer Lebensstilinterventionsstudie. Eine Analyse mit quantitativen MR-basierten Methoden

    Bongers, M.N. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Stefan, N.; Fritsche, A.; Haering, H.U. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Innere Medizin IV - Endokrinologie und Diabetologie, Angiologie, Nephrologie und Klinische Chemie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Nikolaou, K. [Klinikum der Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Schick, F. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Machann, J. [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen, Sektion fuer Experimentelle Radiologie der Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Tuebingen (Germany); Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen an der Universitaet Tuebingen, Institut fuer Diabetes-Forschung und Metabolische Erkrankungen (IDM), Tuebingen (Germany); Deutsches Zentrum fuer Diabetesforschung (DZD), Neuherberg (Germany)

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between changes in liver volume, the amount of intrahepatic lipids (IHL) and body weight during lifestyle interventions. In a prospective study 150 patients with an increased risk for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus were included who followed a caloric restriction diet for 6 months. In the retrospective analysis 18 women and 9 men (age range 22-71 years) with an average body mass index (BMI) of 32 kg/m{sup 2} were enrolled. The liver volume was determined at the beginning and after 6 months by three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (3D-MRI, echo gradient, opposed-phase) and IHLs were quantified by volume-selective MR spectroscopy in single voxel stimulated echo acquisition mode (STEAM). Univariable and multivariable correlation analyses between changes of liver volume (Δliver volume), intrahepatic lipids (ΔIHL) and body weight (ΔBW) were performed. Univariable correlation analysis in the whole study cohort showed associations between ΔIHL and ΔBW (r = 0.69; p < 0.0001), ΔIHL and Δliver volume (r = 0.66; p = 0.0002) as well as ΔBW and Δliver volume (r = 0.5; p = 0.0073). Multivariable correlation analysis revealed that changes of liver volume are primarily determined by changes in IHL independent of changes in body weight (β = 0.0272; 95 % CI: 0.0155-0.034; p < 0.0001). Changes of liver volume during lifestyle interventions are independent of changes of body weight primarily determined by changes of IHL. These results show the reversibility of augmented liver volume in steatosis if it is possible to reduce IHLs during lifestyle interventions. (orig.) [German] Lassen sich Zusammenhaenge zwischen den Aenderungen des Lebervolumens, des Anteils intrahepatischer Lipide und des Koerpergewichts waehrend einer Lebensstilintervention feststellen ?In einer prospektiven Interventionsstudie unterzogen sich 150 Probanden mit erhoehtem Diabetesrisiko fuer 6 Monate einer diaetetischen

  12. Isotropy analyses of the Planck convergence map

    Marques, G. A.; Novaes, C. P.; Bernui, A.; Ferreira, I. S.

    2018-01-01

    The presence of matter in the path of relic photons causes distortions in the angular pattern of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuations, modifying their properties in a slight but measurable way. Recently, the Planck Collaboration released the estimated convergence map, an integrated measure of the large-scale matter distribution that produced the weak gravitational lensing (WL) phenomenon observed in Planck CMB data. We perform exhaustive analyses of this convergence map calculating the variance in small and large regions of the sky, but excluding the area masked due to Galactic contaminations, and compare them with the features expected in the set of simulated convergence maps, also released by the Planck Collaboration. Our goal is to search for sky directions or regions where the WL imprints anomalous signatures to the variance estimator revealed through a χ2 analyses at a statistically significant level. In the local analysis of the Planck convergence map, we identified eight patches of the sky in disagreement, in more than 2σ, with what is observed in the average of the simulations. In contrast, in the large regions analysis we found no statistically significant discrepancies, but, interestingly, the regions with the highest χ2 values are surrounding the ecliptic poles. Thus, our results show a good agreement with the features expected by the Λ cold dark matter concordance model, as given by the simulations. Yet, the outliers regions found here could suggest that the data still contain residual contamination, like noise, due to over- or underestimation of systematic effects in the simulation data set.

  13. Fracture analyses of WWER reactor pressure vessels

    Sievers, J.; Liu, X.

    1997-01-01

    In the paper first the methodology of fracture assessment based on finite element (FE) calculations is described and compared with simplified methods. The FE based methodology was verified by analyses of large scale thermal shock experiments in the framework of the international comparative study FALSIRE (Fracture Analyses of Large Scale Experiments) organized by GRS and ORNL. Furthermore, selected results from fracture analyses of different WWER type RPVs with postulated cracks under different loading transients are presented. 11 refs, 13 figs, 1 tab

  14. Fracture analyses of WWER reactor pressure vessels

    Sievers, J; Liu, X [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit mbH (GRS), Koeln (Germany)

    1997-09-01

    In the paper first the methodology of fracture assessment based on finite element (FE) calculations is described and compared with simplified methods. The FE based methodology was verified by analyses of large scale thermal shock experiments in the framework of the international comparative study FALSIRE (Fracture Analyses of Large Scale Experiments) organized by GRS and ORNL. Furthermore, selected results from fracture analyses of different WWER type RPVs with postulated cracks under different loading transients are presented. 11 refs, 13 figs, 1 tab.

  15. [Anne Arold. Kontrastive Analyse...] / Paul Alvre

    Alvre, Paul, 1921-2008

    2001-01-01

    Arvustus: Arold, Anne. Kontrastive analyse der Wortbildungsmuster im Deutschen und im Estnischen (am Beispiel der Aussehensadjektive). Tartu, 2000. (Dissertationes philologiae germanicae Universitatis Tartuensis)

  16. Soil deflation analyses from wind erosion events

    Lenka Lackóová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There are various methods to assess soil erodibility for wind erosion. This paper focuses on aggregate analysis by a laser particle sizer ANALYSETTE 22 (FRITSCH GmbH, made to determine the size distribution of soil particles detached by wind (deflated particles. Ten soil samples, trapped along the same length of the erosion surface (150–155 m but at different wind speeds, were analysed. The soil was sampled from a flat, smooth area without vegetation cover or soil crust, not affected by the impact of windbreaks or other barriers, from a depth of maximum 2.5 cm. Prior to analysis the samples were prepared according to the relevant specifications. An experiment was also conducted using a device that enables characterisation of the vertical movement of the deflated material. The trapped samples showed no differences in particle size and the proportions of size fractions at different hourly average wind speeds. It was observed that most of particles travelling in saltation mode (size 50–500 μm – 58–70% – moved vertically up to 26 cm above the soil surface. At greater heights, particles moving in suspension mode (floating in the air; size < 100 μm accounted for up to 90% of the samples. This result suggests that the boundary between the two modes of the vertical movement of deflated soil particles lies at about 25 cm above the soil surface.

  17. CFD analyses of coolant channel flowfields

    Yagley, Jennifer A.; Feng, Jinzhang; Merkle, Charles L.

    1993-01-01

    The flowfield characteristics in rocket engine coolant channels are analyzed by means of a numerical model. The channels are characterized by large length to diameter ratios, high Reynolds numbers, and asymmetrical heating. At representative flow conditions, the channel length is approximately twice the hydraulic entrance length so that fully developed conditions would be reached for a constant property fluid. For the supercritical hydrogen that is used as the coolant, the strong property variations create significant secondary flows in the cross-plane which have a major influence on the flow and the resulting heat transfer. Comparison of constant and variable property solutions show substantial differences. In addition, the property variations prevent fully developed flow. The density variation accelerates the fluid in the channels increasing the pressure drop without an accompanying increase in heat flux. Analyses of the inlet configuration suggest that side entry from a manifold can affect the development of the velocity profile because of vortices generated as the flow enters the channel. Current work is focused on studying the effects of channel bifurcation on the flow field and the heat transfer characteristics.

  18. Fast and accurate methods for phylogenomic analyses

    Warnow Tandy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Species phylogenies are not estimated directly, but rather through phylogenetic analyses of different gene datasets. However, true gene trees can differ from the true species tree (and hence from one another due to biological processes such as horizontal gene transfer, incomplete lineage sorting, and gene duplication and loss, so that no single gene tree is a reliable estimate of the species tree. Several methods have been developed to estimate species trees from estimated gene trees, differing according to the specific algorithmic technique used and the biological model used to explain differences between species and gene trees. Relatively little is known about the relative performance of these methods. Results We report on a study evaluating several different methods for estimating species trees from sequence datasets, simulating sequence evolution under a complex model including indels (insertions and deletions, substitutions, and incomplete lineage sorting. The most important finding of our study is that some fast and simple methods are nearly as accurate as the most accurate methods, which employ sophisticated statistical methods and are computationally quite intensive. We also observe that methods that explicitly consider errors in the estimated gene trees produce more accurate trees than methods that assume the estimated gene trees are correct. Conclusions Our study shows that highly accurate estimations of species trees are achievable, even when gene trees differ from each other and from the species tree, and that these estimations can be obtained using fairly simple and computationally tractable methods.

  19. Activation analyses for different fusion structural alloys

    Attaya, H.; Smith, D.

    1991-01-01

    The leading candidate structural materials, viz., the vanadium alloys, the nickel or the manganese stabilized austenitic steels, and the ferritic steels, are analysed in terms of their induced activation in the TPSS fusion power reactor. The TPSS reactor has 1950 MW fusion power and inboard and outboard average neutron wall loading of 3.75 and 5.35 MW/m 2 respectively. The results shows that, after one year of continuous operation, the vanadium alloys have the least radioactivity at reactor shutdown. The maximum difference between the induced radioactivity in the vanadium alloys and in the other iron-based alloys occurs at about 10 years after reactor shutdown. At this time, the total reactor radioactivity, using the vanadium alloys, is about two orders of magnitude less than the total reactor radioactivity utilizing any other alloy. The difference is even larger in the first wall, the FW-vanadium activation is 3 orders of magnitude less than other alloys' FW activation. 2 refs., 7 figs

  20. Evaluation of the Olympus AU-510 analyser.

    Farré, C; Velasco, J; Ramón, F

    1991-01-01

    The selective multitest Olympus AU-510 analyser was evaluated according to the recommendations of the Comision de Instrumentacion de la Sociedad Española de Quimica Clinica and the European Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. The evaluation was carried out in two stages: an examination of the analytical units and then an evaluation in routine work conditions. The operational characteristics of the system were also studied.THE FIRST STAGE INCLUDED A PHOTOMETRIC STUDY: dependent on the absorbance, the inaccuracy varies between +0.5% to -0.6% at 405 nm and from -5.6% to 10.6% at 340 nm; the imprecision ranges between -0.22% and 0.56% at 405 nm and between 0.09% and 2.74% at 340 nm. Linearity was acceptable, apart from a very low absorbance for NADH at 340 nm; and the imprecision of the serum sample pipetter was satisfactory.TWELVE SERUM ANALYTES WERE STUDIED UNDER ROUTINE CONDITIONS: glucose, urea urate, cholesterol, triglycerides, total bilirubin, creatinine, phosphate, iron, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase.The within-run imprecision (CV%) ranged from 0.67% for phosphate to 2.89% for iron and the between-run imprecision from 0.97% for total bilirubin to 7.06% for iron. There was no carryover in a study of the serum sample pipetter. Carry-over studies with the reagent and sample pipetters shows some cross contamination in the iron assay.

  1. Comparative analyses of bidirectional promoters in vertebrates

    Taylor James

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Orthologous genes with deep phylogenetic histories are likely to retain similar regulatory features. In this report we utilize orthology assignments for pairs of genes co-regulated by bidirectional promoters to map the ancestral history of the promoter regions. Results Our mapping of bidirectional promoters from humans to fish shows that many such promoters emerged after the divergence of chickens and fish. Furthermore, annotations of promoters in deep phylogenies enable detection of missing data or assembly problems present in higher vertebrates. The functional importance of bidirectional promoters is indicated by selective pressure to maintain the arrangement of genes regulated by the promoter over long evolutionary time spans. Characteristics unique to bidirectional promoters are further elucidated using a technique for unsupervised classification, known as ESPERR. Conclusion Results of these analyses will aid in our understanding of the evolution of bidirectional promoters, including whether the regulation of two genes evolved as a consequence of their proximity or if function dictated their co-regulation.

  2. BN-600 hybrid core benchmark analyses

    Kim, Y.I.; Stanculescu, A.; Finck, P.; Hill, R.N.; Grimm, K.N.

    2003-01-01

    Benchmark analyses for the hybrid BN-600 reactor that contains three uranium enrichment zones and one plutonium zone in the core, have been performed within the frame of an IAEA sponsored Coordinated Research Project. The results for several relevant reactivity parameters obtained by the participants with their own state-of-the-art basic data and codes, were compared in terms of calculational uncertainty, and their effects on the ULOF transient behavior of the hybrid BN-600 core were evaluated. The comparison of the diffusion and transport results obtained for the homogeneous representation generally shows good agreement for most parameters between the RZ and HEX-Z models. The burnup effect and the heterogeneity effect on most reactivity parameters also show good agreement for the HEX-Z diffusion and transport theory results. A large difference noticed for the sodium and steel density coefficients is mainly due to differences in the spatial coefficient predictions for non fuelled regions. The burnup reactivity loss was evaluated to be 0.025 (4.3 $) within ∼ 5.0% standard deviation. The heterogeneity effect on most reactivity coefficients was estimated to be small. The heterogeneity treatment reduced the control rod worth by 2.3%. The heterogeneity effect on the k-eff and control rod worth appeared to differ strongly depending on the heterogeneity treatment method. A substantial spread noticed for several reactivity coefficients did not give a significant impact on the transient behavior prediction. This result is attributable to compensating effects between several reactivity effects and the specific design of the partially MOX fuelled hybrid core. (author)

  3. Database-Driven Analyses of Astronomical Spectra

    Cami, Jan

    2012-03-01

    steps, good databases of molecular spectroscopic information is vital; the second step furthermore requires a good understanding of how these spectral properties change for each of the physical parameters of interest. Here, we will first present a general strategy using a convenient and powerful computational tool. We will then show two different, specific examples of analyses where some fundamental spectroscopic information is available in (a) database(s), and where that information has been successfully used to analyze observations. Whereas these examples do not directly address the question of automated analyses, they offer some insight into the possibilities and difficulties one can expect to encounter on this quest. In Section 13.2, we first describe the general formalism and method that we will be using, and we offer a few general considerations about what is involved in modeling. In Section 13.3, we illustrate our method for the case of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In Section 13.4,we show how the same approach can be slightly modified to extract physical parameters from infrared observations of red giant stars. We then come back to the question of automated spectral analyses in Section 13.5. precise shape of molecular bands depends primarily on the temperature of the gas, and infrared observations of molecular bands can thus be used to probe gas at temperatures as low as 10 K and up to a few thousand K. Similarly, molecular band shapes contain some information about the gas densities. The resulting ro-vibrational spectrum is truly unique for each molecular species, just as is the case for atoms.As a telling example, Figure 13.2 illustrates how we can even discriminate between different isotopologues - two species with the same chemical formula and structure, but where one (or more) of the atoms is a different

  4. Uncertainty Analyses for Back Projection Methods

    Zeng, H.; Wei, S.; Wu, W.

    2017-12-01

    So far few comprehensive error analyses for back projection methods have been conducted, although it is evident that high frequency seismic waves can be easily affected by earthquake depth, focal mechanisms and the Earth's 3D structures. Here we perform 1D and 3D synthetic tests for two back projection methods, MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) (Meng et al., 2011) and Compressive Sensing (CS) (Yao et al., 2011). We generate synthetics for both point sources and finite rupture sources with different depths, focal mechanisms, as well as 1D and 3D structures in the source region. The 3D synthetics are generated through a hybrid scheme of Direct Solution Method and Spectral Element Method. Then we back project the synthetic data using MUSIC and CS. The synthetic tests show that the depth phases can be back projected as artificial sources both in space and time. For instance, for a source depth of 10km, back projection gives a strong signal 8km away from the true source. Such bias increases with depth, e.g., the error of horizontal location could be larger than 20km for a depth of 40km. If the array is located around the nodal direction of direct P-waves the teleseismic P-waves are dominated by the depth phases. Therefore, back projections are actually imaging the reflection points of depth phases more than the rupture front. Besides depth phases, the strong and long lasted coda waves due to 3D effects near trench can lead to additional complexities tested here. The strength contrast of different frequency contents in the rupture models also produces some variations to the back projection results. In the synthetic tests, MUSIC and CS derive consistent results. While MUSIC is more computationally efficient, CS works better for sparse arrays. In summary, our analyses indicate that the impact of various factors mentioned above should be taken into consideration when interpreting back projection images, before we can use them to infer the earthquake rupture physics.

  5. An MDE Approach for Modular Program Analyses

    Yildiz, Bugra Mehmet; Bockisch, Christoph; Aksit, Mehmet; Rensink, Arend

    Program analyses are an important tool to check if a system fulfills its specification. A typical implementation strategy for program analyses is to use an imperative, general-purpose language like Java, and access the program to be analyzed through libraries that offer an API for reading, writing

  6. Random error in cardiovascular meta-analyses

    Albalawi, Zaina; McAlister, Finlay A; Thorlund, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cochrane reviews are viewed as the gold standard in meta-analyses given their efforts to identify and limit systematic error which could cause spurious conclusions. The potential for random error to cause spurious conclusions in meta-analyses is less well appreciated. METHODS: We exam...

  7. Diversity of primary care systems analysed.

    Kringos, D.; Boerma, W.; Bourgueil, Y.; Cartier, T.; Dedeu, T.; Hasvold, T.; Hutchinson, A.; Lember, M.; Oleszczyk, M.; Pavlick, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter analyses differences between countries and explains why countries differ regarding the structure and process of primary care. The components of primary care strength that are used in the analyses are health policy-making, workforce development and in the care process itself (see Fig.

  8. Race, Gender, and Reseacher Positionality Analysed Through Memory Work

    Andreassen, Rikke; Myong, Lene

    2017-01-01

    Drawing upon feminist standpoint theory and memory work, the authors analyse racial privilege by investigating their own racialized and gendered subjectifications as academic researchers. By looking at their own experiences within academia, they show how authority and agency are contingent upon...

  9. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    van de Wal, R.S.W.; Meijer, H.A.J.; van Rooij, M.; van der Veen, C.

    2007-01-01

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for 14CO and 14CO2 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced 14CO fraction show a very low concentration of in situ produced 14CO.

  10. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    Van de Wal, R. S. W.; Meijer, H. A. J.; De Rooij, M.; Van der Veen, C.

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for (CO)-C-14 and (CO2)-C-14 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced (CO)-C-14 fraction show a very low concentration of in situ

  11. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  12. Penalized Maximum Likelihood Estimation for univariate normal mixture distributions

    Ridolfi, A.; Idier, J.

    2001-01-01

    Due to singularities of the likelihood function, the maximum likelihood approach for the estimation of the parameters of normal mixture models is an acknowledged ill posed optimization problem. Ill posedness is solved by penalizing the likelihood function. In the Bayesian framework, it amounts to incorporating an inverted gamma prior in the likelihood function. A penalized version of the EM algorithm is derived, which is still explicit and which intrinsically assures that the estimates are not singular. Numerical evidence of the latter property is put forward with a test

  13. Compounding approach for univariate time series with nonstationary variances

    Schäfer, Rudi; Barkhofen, Sonja; Guhr, Thomas; Stöckmann, Hans-Jürgen; Kuhl, Ulrich

    2015-12-01

    A defining feature of nonstationary systems is the time dependence of their statistical parameters. Measured time series may exhibit Gaussian statistics on short time horizons, due to the central limit theorem. The sample statistics for long time horizons, however, averages over the time-dependent variances. To model the long-term statistical behavior, we compound the local distribution with the distribution of its parameters. Here, we consider two concrete, but diverse, examples of such nonstationary systems: the turbulent air flow of a fan and a time series of foreign exchange rates. Our main focus is to empirically determine the appropriate parameter distribution for the compounding approach. To this end, we extract the relevant time scales by decomposing the time signals into windows and determine the distribution function of the thus obtained local variances.

  14. Value Added Methods: Moving from Univariate to Multivariate Criteria

    Newman, David; Newman, Isadore; Ridenour, Carolyn; Morales, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe five value-added methods (VAM) used in school assessment as the backdrop to their main thesis. Then they review the assumptions underlying measurement and evaluation, the foundation of all assessment systems, including value-added. They discuss the traditional criterion variable used in VAM: a standardized test score. Next,…

  15. Univariate and Multivariate Specification Search Indices in Covariance Structure Modeling.

    Hutchinson, Susan R.

    1993-01-01

    Simulated population data were used to compare relative performances of the modification index and C. Chou and P. M. Bentler's Lagrange multiplier test (a multivariate generalization of a modification index) for four levels of model misspecification. Both indices failed to recover the true model except at the lowest level of misspecification. (SLD)

  16. Univariate real root isolation in an extension field

    Strzebonski, Adam; Tsigaridas, Elias

    2011-01-01

    on the polynomial of the input. We compute improved separation bounds for the roots and we prove that they are optimal, under mild assumptions. For isolating the real roots we consider a modified Sturm algorithm, and a modified version of Descartes' algorithm introduced by Sagraloff. For the former we prove...

  17. Univariate graduation of mortality by local polynomial regression

    Tomas, J.

    2012-01-01

    Life tables are used to describe the one-year probability of death within a well defined population as a function of attained age. These probabilities play an important role in the determination of premium rates and reserves in life insurance. The crude estimates on which life tables are based might

  18. Integrated Field Analyses of Thermal Springs

    Shervais, K.; Young, B.; Ponce-Zepeda, M. M.; Rosove, S.

    2011-12-01

    A group of undergraduate researchers through the SURE internship offered by the Southern California Earthquake Center (SCEC) have examined thermal springs in southern Idaho, northern Utah as well as mud volcanoes in the Salton Sea, California. We used an integrated approach to estimate the setting and maximum temperature, including water chemistry, Ipad-based image and data-base management, microbiology, and gas analyses with a modified Giggenbach sampler.All springs were characterized using GISRoam (tmCogent3D). We are performing geothermometry calculations as well as comparisons with temperature gradient data on the results while also analyzing biological samples. Analyses include water temperature, pH, electrical conductivity, and TDS measured in the field. Each sample is sealed and chilled and delivered to a water lab within 12 hours.Temperatures are continuously monitored with the use of Solinst Levelogger Juniors. Through partnership with a local community college geology club, we receive results on a monthly basis and are able to process initial data earlier in order to evaluate data over a longer time span. The springs and mudpots contained microbial organisms which were analyzed using methods of single colony isolation, polymerase chain reaction, and DNA sequencing showing the impact of the organisms on the springs or vice versa. Soon we we will collect gas samples at sites that show signs of gas. This will be taken using a hybrid of the Giggenbach method and our own methods. Drawing gas samples has proven a challenge, however we devised a method to draw out gas samples utilizing the Giggenbach flask, transferring samples to glass blood sample tubes, replacing NaOH in the Giggenbach flask, and evacuating it in the field for multiple samples using a vacuum pump. We also use a floating platform devised to carry and lower a levelogger, to using an in-line fuel filter from a tractor in order to keep mud from contaminating the equipment.The use of raster

  19. Level II Ergonomic Analyses, Dover AFB, DE

    1999-02-01

    IERA-RS-BR-TR-1999-0002 UNITED STATES AIR FORCE IERA Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover AFB, DE Andrew Marcotte Marilyn Joyce The Joyce...Project (070401881, Washington, DC 20503. 1. AGENCY USE ONLY (Leave blank) 2. REPORT DATE 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Level II Ergonomie Analyses, Dover...1.0 INTRODUCTION 1-1 1.1 Purpose Of The Level II Ergonomie Analyses : 1-1 1.2 Approach 1-1 1.2.1 Initial Shop Selection and Administration of the

  20. Cost-Benefit Analyses of Transportation Investments

    Næss, Petter

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the practice of cost-benefit analyses of transportation infrastructure investment projects from the meta-theoretical perspective of critical realism. Such analyses are based on a number of untenable ontological assumptions about social value, human nature and the natural......-to-pay investigations. Accepting the ontological and epistemological assumptions of cost-benefit analysis involves an implicit acceptance of the ethical and political values favoured by these assumptions. Cost-benefit analyses of transportation investment projects tend to neglect long-term environmental consequences...

  1. High performance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses

    Branko Nikolin

    2004-05-01

    serum contains numerous endogenous compounds often present in concentrations much greater than those of analyte. Analiyte concentrations are often low, and in the case of drugs, the endogenous compounds are sometimes structurally very similar to the drug to be measured. The binding of drugs to the plasma protein also may occur which decreases the amount of free compound that is measured. To undertake the analyses of drugs and metabolites in body fluids the analyst is facet with several problems. The first problem is due to the complex nature of the body fluid, the drugs must be isolated by an extraction technique, which ideally should provide a relatively clean extract, and the separation system must be capable of resolving the drugs of interest from co extractives. All mentioned when we are using high performance liquid chromatography require good selections of detectors, good stationary phase, eluents and adequate program during separation. UV/VIS detector is the most versatile detector used in high performance liquid chromatography it is not always ideal since it is lack of specificity means high resolution of the analyte that may be required. UV detection is preferred since it offers excellent linearity and rapid quantitative analyses can be performed against a single standard of the drug being determined. Diode array and rapid scanning detector are useful for peak identification and monitoring peak purity but they are somewhat less sensitive then single wavelength detectors. In liquid chromatography some components may have a poor UV chromophores if UV detection is being used or be completely retained on the liquid chromatography column. Fluorescence and electrochemical detector are not only considerably more sensitive towed appropriate analytes but also more selective than UV detectors for many compounds. If at all possible fluorescence detectors are sensitive, stable, selective and easy to operate. It is selectivity shows itself in the lack of frontal

  2. High perfomance liquid chromatography in pharmaceutical analyses.

    Nikolin, Branko; Imamović, Belma; Medanhodzić-Vuk, Saira; Sober, Miroslav

    2004-05-01

    compounds often present in concentrations much greater than those of analyte. Analiyte concentrations are often low, and in the case of drugs, the endogenous compounds are sometimes structurally very similar to the drug to be measured. The binding of drugs to the plasma protein also may occur which decreases the amount of free compound that is measured. To undertake the analyses of drugs and metabolites in body fluids the analyst is facet with several problems. The first problem is due to the complex nature of the body fluid, the drugs must be isolated by an extraction technique, which ideally should provide a relatively clean extract, and the separation system must be capable of resolving the drugs of interest from co extractives. All mentioned when we are using high performance liquid chromatography require good selections of detectors, good stationary phase, eluents and adequate program during separation. UV/VIS detector is the most versatile detector used in high performance liquid chromatography it is not always ideal since it is lack of specificity means high resolution of the analyte that may be required. UV detection is preferred since it offers excellent linearity and rapid quantitative analyses can be performed against a single standard of the drug being determined. Diode array and rapid scanning detector are useful for peak identification and monitoring peak purity but they are somewhat less sensitive then single wavelength detectors. In liquid chromatography some components may have a poor UV chromophores if UV detection is being used or be completely retained on the liquid chromatography column. Fluorescence and electrochemical detector are not only considerably more sensitive towed appropriate analytes but also more selective than UV detectors for many compounds. If at all possible fluorescence detectors are sensitive, stable, selective and easy to operate. It is selectivity shows itself in the lack of frontal components observed in plasma extract whereas

  3. X-chromosome SNP analyses in 11 human Mediterranean populations show a high overall genetic homogeneity except in North-west Africans (Moroccans)

    Tomas Mas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, Anna

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Due to its history, with a high number of migration events, the Mediterranean basin represents a challenging area for population genetic studies. A large number of genetic studies have been carried out in the Mediterranean area using different markers but no consensus has been reached...

  4. Dairy shows different associations with abdominal and BMI-defined overweight: cross-sectional analyses exploring a variety of dairy products

    Brouwer, E.M.; Sluik, D.; Singh-Povel, C.M.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background and aims: Previous studies suggest weight-regulatory properties for several dairy nutrients, but population-based studies on dairy and body weight are inconclusive. We explored cross-sectional associations between dairy consumption and indicators of overweight. Methods and results: We

  5. Analyses adjusting for selective crossover show improved overall survival with adjuvant letrozole compared with tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 study

    Colleoni, Marco; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Regan, Meredith M

    2011-01-01

    Among postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive breast cancer, the aromatase inhibitor letrozole, when compared with tamoxifen, has been shown to significantly improve disease-free survival (DFS) and time to distant recurrence (TDR). We investigated whether letrozole monotherapy prolonged ov...

  6. Comparison with Russian analyses of meteor impact

    Canavan, G.H.

    1997-06-01

    The inversion model for meteor impacts is used to discuss Russian analyses and compare principal results. For common input parameters, the models produce consistent estimates of impactor parameters. Directions for future research are discussed and prioritized.

  7. 7 CFR 94.102 - Analyses available.

    2010-01-01

    ... analyses for total ash, fat by acid hydrolysis, moisture, salt, protein, beta-carotene, catalase... glycol, SLS, and zeolex. There are also be tests for starch, total sugars, sugar profile, whey, standard...

  8. Anthocyanin analyses of Vaccinium fruit dietary supplements

    Vaccinium fruit ingredients within dietary supplements were identified by comparisons with anthocyanin analyses of known Vaccinium profiles (demonstration of anthocyanin fingerprinting). Available Vaccinium supplements were purchased and analyzed; their anthocyanin profiles (based on HPLC separation...

  9. Analyse of Maintenance Cost in ST

    Jenssen, B W

    2001-01-01

    An analyse has been carried out in ST concerning the total costs for the division. Even though the target was the maintenance costs in ST, the global budget over has been analysed. This has been done since there is close relation between investments & consolidation and the required level for maintenance. The purpose of the analyse was to focus on maintenance cost in ST as a ratio of total maintenance costs over the replacement value of the equipment, and to make some comparisons with other industries and laboratories. Families of equipment have been defined and their corresponding ratios calculated. This first approach gives us some "quantitative" measurements. This analyse should be combined with performance indicators (more "qualitative" measurements) that are telling us how well we are performing. This will help us in defending our budget, make better priorities, and we will satisfy the requirements from our external auditors.

  10. A History of Rotorcraft Comprehensive Analyses

    Johnson, Wayne

    2013-01-01

    A history of the development of rotorcraft comprehensive analyses is presented. Comprehensive analyses are digital computer programs that calculate the aeromechanical behavior of the rotor and aircraft, bringing together the most advanced models of the geometry, structure, dynamics, and aerodynamics available in rotary wing technology. The development of the major codes of the last five decades from industry, government, and universities is described. A number of common themes observed in this history are discussed.

  11. Safety analyses for reprocessing and waste processing

    1983-03-01

    Presentation of an incident analysis of process steps of the RP, simplified considerations concerning safety, and safety analyses of the storage and solidification facilities of the RP. A release tree method is developed and tested. An incident analysis of process steps, the evaluation of the SRL-study and safety analyses of the storage and solidification facilities of the RP are performed in particular. (DG) [de

  12. Risk analyses of nuclear power plants

    Jehee, J.N.T.; Seebregts, A.J.

    1991-02-01

    Probabilistic risk analyses of nuclear power plants are carried out by systematically analyzing the possible consequences of a broad spectrum of causes of accidents. The risk can be expressed in the probabilities for melt down, radioactive releases, or harmful effects for the environment. Following risk policies for chemical installations as expressed in the mandatory nature of External Safety Reports (EVRs) or, e.g., the publication ''How to deal with risks'', probabilistic risk analyses are required for nuclear power plants

  13. Design and manufacture of TL analyser by using the microcomputer

    Doh, Sih Hong; Woo, Chong Ho

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the design of the thermoluminescence analyser using microcomputer. TL analyser is designed to perform the three step heat treatment, such as pre-read heating, readout procedure and post-heating (or pre-irradiation ) anneal. We used a 12-bit A/D converter to get the precise measurement and the phase control method to control the heating temperature. Since the used Apple II microcomputer is cheap and popular, it is possible to design the economical system. Experimental results showed the successful operation with flexibility. The error of temperature control was less than ± 0.2% of the expected value. (Author)

  14. Simulation-based Investigations of Electrostatic Beam Energy Analysers

    Pahl, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    An energy analyser is needed to measure the beam energy profile behind the REX-EBIS at ISOLDE. The device should be able to operate with an accuracy of 1 V at voltages up to 30 kV. In order to find a working concept for an electrostatic energy analyser different designs were evaluated with simulations. A spherical device and its design issues are presented. The potential deformation effects of grids at high voltages and their influence on the energy resolution were investigated. First tests were made with a grid-free ring electrode device and show promising results.

  15. A comparisonof lymphocytic thyroiditis with papillary thyroid carcinoma showing suspicious ultrasonographic findings in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma

    Nam, Sang Yu; Shin, Jung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Hahn, Soo Yeon [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medicine Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-01-15

    The aim of this study was to compare ultrasonographic features in patients with lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) having suspicious thyroid nodule(s) in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma and to determine the clinical and radiological predictors of malignancy. We reviewed the cases of 100 patients who underwent ultrasonography between April 2011 and October 2012, and showed suspicious thyroid nodule(s) in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma. Eight patients who did not undergo ultrasonography-guided fineneedle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and 34 cases of follow-up ultrasonography after initial FNAC were excluded. We compared the benign and malignant nodules in terms of their clinical and radiological factors. For the 58 nodules including 31 LTs (53.4%) and 27 PTCs (46.6%), the mean tumor sizes of the two groups were 0.96 cm for LT and 0.97 cm for PTC. A univariate analysis revealed that PTCs were more frequent in patients younger than 45 years and having microcalcifications than was LT. An independent predictor of PTC after adjustment was an age of <45 years. LT mimics malignancy in a background of heterogeneous parenchyma on ultrasonography. A young age of <45 years is the most important predictor of malignancy in this condition.

  16. Uudised : Otsman taas Riias show'l. Rokkstaarist ministriks

    2007-01-01

    Drag-kabareeartist Erkki Otsman esineb detsembris Riias "Sapnu Fabrikas" toimuval jõulu-show'l. Austraalia rokkansambli Midnight Oil endine laulja Peter Garrett nimetati valitsuse keskkonnaministriks

  17. Neoliberalism in education: Five images of critical analyses

    Branislav Pupala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The survey study brings information about the way that educational researchcopes with neoliberalism as a generalized form of social government in the currentwestern culture. It shows that neoliberalism is considered as a universal scope of otherchanges in the basic segments of education and those theoretical and critical analyses ofthis phenomenon represent an important part of production in the area of educationalresearch. It emphasizes the contribution of formation and development of the socalledgovernmental studies for comprehension of mechanisms and consequences ofneoliberal government of the society and shows how way the methodology of thesestudies helps to identify neoliberal strategies used in the regulation of social subjectsby education. There are five selected segments of critical analyses elaborated (fromthe concept of a lifelong learning, through preschool and university education to theeducation of teachers and PISA project that obviously show ideological and theoreticalcohesiveness of the education analysis through the scope of neoliberal governmentality.

  18. Brains with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and copathology showed a prolonged end-stage of disease.

    Miguelez-Rodriguez, Aitzol; Santos-Juanes, Jorge; Vicente-Etxenausia, Ikerne; Perez de Heredia-Goñi, Katty; Garcia, Beatriz; Quiros, Luis M; Lorente-Gea, Laura; Guerra-Merino, Isabel; Aguirre, Jose J; Fernandez-Vega, Ivan

    2018-05-01

    To investigate the expression of major proteins related to primary neurodegenerative diseases and their prognostic significance in brains with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Thirty consecutive cases of confirmed CJD during the period 2010-2015 at Basque Brain bank were retrospectively reviewed. Moreover, major neurodegenerative-associated proteins (phosphorylated Tau, 4R tau, 3R tau, alpha-synuclein, TDP43, amyloid beta) were tested. Clinical data were reviewed. Cases were divided according to the presence or absence of copathology. Survival curves were also determined. Copathology was significantly associated with survival in brains with CJD (4.2±1.2 vs 9.2±1.9; P=0.019) and in brains with MM1/MV1 CJD (2.1±1.0 vs 6.7±2.8; P=0.012). Besides, the presence of more than one major neurodegenerative-associated protein was significantly associated with survival (4.2±1.2 vs 10.7±2.6; P=0.017). Thus, univariate analyses further pointed out variables significantly associated with better survival: copathology in CJD (HR=0.430; P=0.033); more than one neurodegenerative-associated protein in CJD (HR=0.369; P=0.036) and copathology in MM1/MV1 CJD (HR=0.525; P=0.032). The existence of copathology significantly prolongs survival in patients with rapidly progressive dementia due to CJD. The study of major neurodegenerative-associated proteins in brains with CJD could allow us to further understand the molecular mechanisms behind prion diseases. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Time dependent patient no-show predictive modelling development.

    Huang, Yu-Li; Hanauer, David A

    2016-05-09

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to develop evident-based predictive no-show models considering patients' each past appointment status, a time-dependent component, as an independent predictor to improve predictability. Design/methodology/approach - A ten-year retrospective data set was extracted from a pediatric clinic. It consisted of 7,291 distinct patients who had at least two visits along with their appointment characteristics, patient demographics, and insurance information. Logistic regression was adopted to develop no-show models using two-thirds of the data for training and the remaining data for validation. The no-show threshold was then determined based on minimizing the misclassification of show/no-show assignments. There were a total of 26 predictive model developed based on the number of available past appointments. Simulation was employed to test the effective of each model on costs of patient wait time, physician idle time, and overtime. Findings - The results demonstrated the misclassification rate and the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic gradually improved as more appointment history was included until around the 20th predictive model. The overbooking method with no-show predictive models suggested incorporating up to the 16th model and outperformed other overbooking methods by as much as 9.4 per cent in the cost per patient while allowing two additional patients in a clinic day. Research limitations/implications - The challenge now is to actually implement the no-show predictive model systematically to further demonstrate its robustness and simplicity in various scheduling systems. Originality/value - This paper provides examples of how to build the no-show predictive models with time-dependent components to improve the overbooking policy. Accurately identifying scheduled patients' show/no-show status allows clinics to proactively schedule patients to reduce the negative impact of patient no-shows.

  20. Entertaining politics, seriously?! : How talk show formats blur conceptual boundaries

    Schohaus, Birte

    2017-01-01

    What happens behind the scenes of a talk show? Why do some politicians seem to appear on every show while others are hardly ever seen? Birte Schohaus conducted a multi-layered research in which she conducted interviews with journalists, producers, PR advisors and (former) politicians and combined

  1. Effects of TV Crime Shows on Behavioural Development of Children

    Abdullah Mudassar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Television crime dramas and shows are very popular all over the world. This popularity is not bound to a certain age group, rather all the TV viewers like these shows very much. Like other countries, dozens of TV channels are telecasting these crime shows in Pakistan. Furthermore, few of the channels telecast crime shows at prime time which attests the popularity of such genre. Some of the media contents behave in morally disputed ways. The crime depictions as re-enactments of TV crime shows are questionable in the field of research signifying diverse cultural contexts. A large number of people are habitual to watch these shows, which may probably come out with negative behavioural outcomes. Especially the children who are at their behavioural developmental phase; are more susceptible to adopt negative behavioural leanings. In this research effort, introduction and detail of TV crime shows in Pakistan are provided, the literature concerning “media as risk factor“ in children development is discussed, and relevant theories inferences are deliberated.it was found that media has powerful role in behaviour formulating of children and violence media portrayal (TV crime shows may appear with grave concerns. Previous scientific literature was reviewed to find and discuss the problem in hand. In the research effort, the literature review provides research propositions to explore further dimensions to TV crime shows’ effects and possible negative or positive behavioural outcomes in children behaviour.

  2. The Presentation of Science in Everyday Life: The Science Show

    Watermeyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This paper constitutes a case-study of the "science show" model of public engagement employed by a company of science communicators focused on the popularization of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) subject disciplines with learner constituencies. It examines the potential of the science show to foster the interest…

  3. "The Daily Show with Jon Stewart": Part 1

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    Comedy Central's popular program "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is the best critical media literacy program on television, and it can be used in valuable ways in the classroom as part of a media literacy pedagogy. This Media Literacy column provides an overview of the show and its accompanying website and considers ways it might be used in the…

  4. The Daily Show with Jon Stewart: Part 2

    Trier, James

    2008-01-01

    "The Daily Show With Jon Stewart" is one of the best critical literacy programs on television, and in this Media Literacy column the author suggests ways that teachers can use video clips from the show in their classrooms. (For Part 1, see EJ784683.)

  5. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE STANDARDS OF CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause. (a...

  6. PWR plant transient analyses using TRAC-PF1

    Ireland, J.R.; Boyack, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes some of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) transient analyses performed at Los Alamos for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission using the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC-PF1). Many of the transient analyses performed directly address current PWR safety issues. Included in this paper are examples of two safety issues addressed by TRAC-PF1. These examples are pressurized thermal shock (PTS) and feed-and-bleed cooling for Oconee-1. The calculations performed were plant specific in that details of both the primary and secondary sides were modeled in addition to models of the plant integrated control systems. The results of these analyses show that for these two transients, the reactor cores remained covered and cooled at all times posing no real threat to the reactor system nor to the public

  7. Davedan Show Di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali

    Ni Made Ruastiti

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikel ini disusun dari hasil penelitian yang bertujuan untuk dapat memahami pertunjukan Davedan Show di Amphi Theatre Nusa Dua Bali. Penelitian ini dilakukan karena adanya ketimpangan antara asumsi dan kenyataan di lapangan. Pada umumnya wisatawan yang datang ke Bali hanya senang dan antusias menonton seni pertunjukan pariwisata berbasis seni budaya lokal saja. Tetapi kenyataan ini berbeda. Walaupun Davedan Show tidak dibangun dari seni budaya lokal saja, tetapi kenyataannya wisatawan sangat senang menonton pertunjukan tersebut. Pertanyaannya: bagaimanakah bentuk pertunjukan Davedan Show tersebut?; mengapa wisatawan senang menonton pertunjukan itu?; apa implikasinya bagi pelaku, masyarakat, dan industri pariwisata di Nusa Dua, Bali?. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode penelitian kualitatif, khususnya implementatif partisipatoris yang mengutamakan kerjasama antara periset dengan para informan terkait. Sumber data penelitian ini adalah pertunjukan Davedan itu sendiri, pihak manajemen, para penari, penonton, hasil-hasil penelitian yang telah ada sebelumnya. Seluruh data yang telah dikumpulkan dengan teknik observasi, wawancara, FGD, dan studi kepustakaan itu dianalisis secara kritis dengan menggunakan teori estetika postmodern, teori praktik, dan teori relasi kuasa pengetahuan. Hasil penelitian menunjukan bahwa: (1 Davedan Show disajikan dalam bentuk oratorium. Hal itu dapat dilihat dari cara penyajian, koreografi, dan iringan pertunjukannya. Davedan Show yang menampilkan tema Treasure of The Archipelago, membuka gerbang petualangan baru itu diiringi musik rekaman etnik Nusantara secara medley, berkelanjutan dengan struktur pertunjukan: seni budaya Bali, Sumatra, Sunda, Solo, Kalimantan, dan seni budaya Papua; (2 Davedan Show banyak diminati wisatawan manca negara karena penciptaan pertunjukan itu dilatari oleh ideologi pasar, ideologi estetika, dan ideologi budaya Nusantara; (3 Hingga kini Davedan Show berkembang secara berkelanjutan di Nusa Dua

  8. QLab 3 show control projects for live performances & installations

    Hopgood, Jeromy

    2013-01-01

    Used from Broadway to Britain's West End, QLab software is the tool of choice for many of the world's most prominent sound, projection, and integrated media designers. QLab 3 Show Control: Projects for Live Performances & Installations is a project-based book on QLab software covering sound, video, and show control. With information on both sound and video system basics and the more advanced functions of QLab such as MIDI show control, new OSC capabilities, networking, video effects, and microphone integration, each chapter's specific projects will allow you to learn the software's capabilitie

  9. VESPA: Very large-scale Evolutionary and Selective Pressure Analyses

    Andrew E. Webb

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses of protein coding sequences requires a number of preparatory inter-related steps from finding gene families, to generating alignments and phylogenetic trees and assessing selective pressure variation. Each phase of these analyses can represent significant challenges, particularly when working with entire proteomes (all protein coding sequences in a genome from a large number of species. Methods We present VESPA, software capable of automating a selective pressure analysis using codeML in addition to the preparatory analyses and summary statistics. VESPA is written in python and Perl and is designed to run within a UNIX environment. Results We have benchmarked VESPA and our results show that the method is consistent, performs well on both large scale and smaller scale datasets, and produces results in line with previously published datasets. Discussion Large-scale gene family identification, sequence alignment, and phylogeny reconstruction are all important aspects of large-scale molecular evolutionary analyses. VESPA provides flexible software for simplifying these processes along with downstream selective pressure variation analyses. The software automatically interprets results from codeML and produces simplified summary files to assist the user in better understanding the results. VESPA may be found at the following website: http://www.mol-evol.org/VESPA.

  10. Utilization of Large Scale Surface Models for Detailed Visibility Analyses

    Caha, J.; Kačmařík, M.

    2017-11-01

    This article demonstrates utilization of large scale surface models with small spatial resolution and high accuracy, acquired from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle scanning, for visibility analyses. The importance of large scale data for visibility analyses on the local scale, where the detail of the surface model is the most defining factor, is described. The focus is not only the classic Boolean visibility, that is usually determined within GIS, but also on so called extended viewsheds that aims to provide more information about visibility. The case study with examples of visibility analyses was performed on river Opava, near the Ostrava city (Czech Republic). The multiple Boolean viewshed analysis and global horizon viewshed were calculated to determine most prominent features and visibility barriers of the surface. Besides that, the extended viewshed showing angle difference above the local horizon, which describes angular height of the target area above the barrier, is shown. The case study proved that large scale models are appropriate data source for visibility analyses on local level. The discussion summarizes possible future applications and further development directions of visibility analyses.

  11. Adaptive governance good practice: Show me the evidence!

    Sharma-Wallace, Lisa; Velarde, Sandra J; Wreford, Anita

    2018-09-15

    Adaptive governance has emerged in the last decade as an intriguing avenue of theory and practice for the holistic management of complex environmental problems. Research on adaptive governance has flourished since the field's inception, probing the process and mechanisms underpinning the new approach while offering various justifications and prescriptions for empirical use. Nevertheless, recent reviews of adaptive governance reveal some important conceptual and practical gaps in the field, particularly concerning challenges in its application to real-world cases. In this paper, we respond directly to the empirical challenge of adaptive governance, specifically asking: which methods contribute to the implementation of successful adaptive governance process and outcomes in practice and across cases and contexts? We adopt a systematic literature review methodology which considers the current body of empirical literature on adaptive governance of social-ecological systems in order to assess and analyse the methods affecting successful adaptive governance practice across the range of existing cases. We find that methods contributing to adaptive governance in practice resemble the design recommendations outlined in previous adaptive governance scholarship, including meaningful collaboration across actors and scales; effective coordination between stakeholders and levels; building social capital; community empowerment and engagement; capacity development; linking knowledge and decision-making through data collection and monitoring; promoting leadership capacity; and exploiting or creating governance opportunities. However, we critically contextualise these methods by analysing and summarising their patterns-in-use, drawing examples from the cases to explore the specific ways they were successfully or unsuccessfully applied to governance issues on-the-ground. Our results indicate some important underlying shared patterns, trajectories, and lessons learned for evidence

  12. marker development for two novel rice genes showing differential ...

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... School of Crop Improvement, College of PostGraduate Studies, Central Agricultural University, ... from the root transcriptome data for tolerance to low P. .... Values show a representative result of three independent experiments ...

  13. Mass separated neutral particle energy analyser

    Takeuchi, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Toshiaki; Miura, Yukitoshi; Shiho, Makoto; Maeda, Hikosuke; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Hayashi, Kazuo.

    1983-09-01

    A mass separated neutral particle energy analyser which could simultaneously measure hydrogen and deuterium atoms emitted from tokamak plasma was constructed. The analyser was calibrated for the energy and mass separation in the energy range from 0.4 keV to 9 keV. In order to investigate the behavior of deuteron and proton in the JFT-2 tokamak plasma heated with ion cyclotron wave and neutral beam injection, this analyser was installed in JFT-2 tokamak. It was found that the energy spectrum could be determined with sufficient accuracy. The obtained ion temperature and ratio of deuteron and proton density from the energy spectrum were in good agreement with the value deduced from Doppler broadening of TiXIV line and the line intensities of H sub(α) and D sub(α) respectively. (author)

  14. Advanced toroidal facility vaccuum vessel stress analyses

    Hammonds, C.J.; Mayhall, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The complex geometry of the Advance Toroidal Facility (ATF) vacuum vessel required special analysis techniques in investigating the structural behavior of the design. The response of a large-scale finite element model was found for transportation and operational loading. Several computer codes and systems, including the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center Cray machines, were implemented in accomplishing these analyses. The work combined complex methods that taxed the limits of both the codes and the computer systems involved. Using MSC/NASTRAN cyclic-symmetry solutions permitted using only 1/12 of the vessel geometry to mathematically analyze the entire vessel. This allowed the greater detail and accuracy demanded by the complex geometry of the vessel. Critical buckling-pressure analyses were performed with the same model. The development, results, and problems encountered in performing these analyses are described. 5 refs., 3 figs

  15. Thermal and stress analyses with ANSYS program

    Kanoo, Iwao; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Asakura, Junichi.

    1975-03-01

    Some analyses of the heat conduction and elastic/inelastic stresses, carried out in Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in fiscal 1973 using ANSYS (Engineering Analysis System) program, are summarized. In chapter I, the present state of structural analysis programs available for a FBR (fast breeder reactor) in PNC is explained. Chapter II is a brief description of the ANSYS current status. In chapter III are presented 8 examples of the steady-state and transient thermal analyses for fast-reactor plant components, and in chapter IV 5 examples of the inelastic structural analysis. With the advance in the field of finite element method, its applications in design study should extend progressively in the future. The present report, it is hoped, will contribute as references in similar analyses and at the same time help to understand the deformation and strain behaviors of structures. (Mori, K.)

  16. Periodic safety analyses; Les essais periodiques

    Gouffon, A; Zermizoglou, R

    1990-12-01

    The IAEA Safety Guide 50-SG-S8 devoted to 'Safety Aspects of Foundations of Nuclear Power Plants' indicates that operator of a NPP should establish a program for inspection of safe operation during construction, start-up and service life of the plant for obtaining data needed for estimating the life time of structures and components. At the same time the program should ensure that the safety margins are appropriate. Periodic safety analysis are an important part of the safety inspection program. Periodic safety reports is a method for testing the whole system or a part of the safety system following the precise criteria. Periodic safety analyses are not meant for qualification of the plant components. Separate analyses are devoted to: start-up, qualification of components and materials, and aging. All these analyses are described in this presentation. The last chapter describes the experience obtained for PWR-900 and PWR-1300 units from 1986-1989.

  17. Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma

    2012-01-01

    Army Study Shows Decline in Behavioral Health Stigma By Rob McIlvaine Army News Service WASHINGTON, Jan. 20, 2012 - A newly released Army study on...conference yesterday. The three-year study outlines the problem of suicide in the Army and related issues of substance abuse, spouse abuse and child abuse...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Army Study Shows Decline In Behavioral Health Stigma 5a. CONTRACT

  18. Quantitative methods for analysing cumulative effects on fish migration success: a review.

    Johnson, J E; Patterson, D A; Martins, E G; Cooke, S J; Hinch, S G

    2012-07-01

    It is often recognized, but seldom addressed, that a quantitative assessment of the cumulative effects, both additive and non-additive, of multiple stressors on fish survival would provide a more realistic representation of the factors that influence fish migration. This review presents a compilation of analytical methods applied to a well-studied fish migration, a more general review of quantitative multivariable methods, and a synthesis on how to apply new analytical techniques in fish migration studies. A compilation of adult migration papers from Fraser River sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka revealed a limited number of multivariable methods being applied and the sub-optimal reliance on univariable methods for multivariable problems. The literature review of fisheries science, general biology and medicine identified a large number of alternative methods for dealing with cumulative effects, with a limited number of techniques being used in fish migration studies. An evaluation of the different methods revealed that certain classes of multivariable analyses will probably prove useful in future assessments of cumulative effects on fish migration. This overview and evaluation of quantitative methods gathered from the disparate fields should serve as a primer for anyone seeking to quantify cumulative effects on fish migration survival. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  19. Fundamental data analyses for measurement control

    Campbell, K.; Barlich, G.L.; Fazal, B.; Strittmatter, R.B.

    1987-02-01

    A set of measurment control data analyses was selected for use by analysts responsible for maintaining measurement quality of nuclear materials accounting instrumentation. The analyses consist of control charts for bias and precision and statistical tests used as analytic supplements to the control charts. They provide the desired detection sensitivity and yet can be interpreted locally, quickly, and easily. The control charts provide for visual inspection of data and enable an alert reviewer to spot problems possibly before statistical tests detect them. The statistical tests are useful for automating the detection of departures from the controlled state or from the underlying assumptions (such as normality). 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  20. A theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching

    Chaiklin, Seth

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces a theoretical framework for analysing preschool teaching as a historically-grounded societal practice. The aim is to present a unified framework that can be used to analyse and compare both historical and contemporary examples of preschool teaching practice within and across...... national traditions. The framework has two main components, an analysis of preschool teaching as a practice, formed in relation to societal needs, and an analysis of the categorical relations which necessarily must be addressed in preschool teaching activity. The framework is introduced and illustrated...

  1. Power System Oscillatory Behaviors: Sources, Characteristics, & Analyses

    Follum, James D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tuffner, Francis K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Dosiek, Luke A. [Union College, Schenectady, NY (United States); Pierre, John W. [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States)

    2017-05-17

    This document is intended to provide a broad overview of the sources, characteristics, and analyses of natural and forced oscillatory behaviors in power systems. These aspects are necessarily linked. Oscillations appear in measurements with distinguishing characteristics derived from the oscillation’s source. These characteristics determine which analysis methods can be appropriately applied, and the results from these analyses can only be interpreted correctly with an understanding of the oscillation’s origin. To describe oscillations both at their source within a physical power system and within measurements, a perspective from the boundary between power system and signal processing theory has been adopted.

  2. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Analysing spatially extended high-dimensional dynamics by recurrence plots

    Marwan, Norbert, E-mail: marwan@pik-potsdam.de [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Kurths, Jürgen [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, 14412 Potsdam (Germany); Humboldt Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik (Germany); Nizhny Novgorod State University, Department of Control Theory, Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Foerster, Saskia [GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Section 1.4 Remote Sensing, Telegrafenberg, 14473 Potsdam (Germany)

    2015-05-08

    Recurrence plot based measures of complexity are capable tools for characterizing complex dynamics. In this letter we show the potential of selected recurrence plot measures for the investigation of even high-dimensional dynamics. We apply this method on spatially extended chaos, such as derived from the Lorenz96 model and show that the recurrence plot based measures can qualitatively characterize typical dynamical properties such as chaotic or periodic dynamics. Moreover, we demonstrate its power by analysing satellite image time series of vegetation cover with contrasting dynamics as a spatially extended and potentially high-dimensional example from the real world. - Highlights: • We use recurrence plots for analysing partially extended dynamics. • We investigate the high-dimensional chaos of the Lorenz96 model. • The approach distinguishes different spatio-temporal dynamics. • We use the method for studying vegetation cover time series.

  4. Pedagogical Techniques Employed by the Television Show "MythBusters"

    Zavrel, Erik

    2016-11-01

    "MythBusters," the long-running though recently discontinued Discovery Channel science entertainment television program, has proven itself to be far more than just a highly rated show. While its focus is on entertainment, the show employs an array of pedagogical techniques to communicate scientific concepts to its audience. These techniques include: achieving active learning, avoiding jargon, employing repetition to ensure comprehension, using captivating demonstrations, cultivating an enthusiastic disposition, and increasing intrinsic motivation to learn. In this content analysis, episodes from the show's 10-year history were examined for these techniques. "MythBusters" represents an untapped source of pedagogical techniques, which science educators may consider availing themselves of in their tireless effort to better reach their students. Physics educators in particular may look to "MythBusters" for inspiration and guidance in how to incorporate these techniques into their own teaching and help their students in the learning process.

  5. 10 CFR 61.13 - Technical analyses.

    2010-01-01

    ... air, soil, groundwater, surface water, plant uptake, and exhumation by burrowing animals. The analyses... processes such as erosion, mass wasting, slope failure, settlement of wastes and backfill, infiltration through covers over disposal areas and adjacent soils, and surface drainage of the disposal site. The...

  6. Analysing Simple Electric Motors in the Classroom

    Yap, Jeff; MacIsaac, Dan

    2006-01-01

    Electromagnetic phenomena and devices such as motors are typically unfamiliar to both teachers and students. To better visualize and illustrate the abstract concepts (such as magnetic fields) underlying electricity and magnetism, we suggest that students construct and analyse the operation of a simply constructed Johnson electric motor. In this…

  7. En kvantitativ metode til analyse af radio

    Christine Lejre

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available I den danske såvel som den internationale radiolitteratur er bud på metoder til analyse af radiomediet sparsomme. Det skyldes formentlig, at radiomediet er svært at analysere, fordi det er et medie, der ikke er visualiseret i form af billeder eller understøttet af printet tekst. Denne artikel har til formål at beskrive en ny kvantitativ metode til analyse af radio, der tager særligt hensyn til radiomediets modalitet – lyd struktureret som et lineært forløb i tid. Metoden understøtter dermed både radiomediet som et medie i tid og som et blindt medie. Metoden er udviklet i forbindelse med en komparativ analyse af kulturprogrammer på P1 og Radio24syv lavet for Danmarks Radio. Artiklen peger på, at metoden er velegnet til analyse af ikke kun radio, men også andre medieplatforme samt forskellige journalistiske stofområder.

  8. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...

  9. Quantitative analyses of shrinkage characteristics of neem ...

    Quantitative analyses of shrinkage characteristics of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss.) wood were carried out. Forty five wood specimens were prepared from the three ecological zones of north eastern Nigeria, viz: sahel savanna, sudan savanna and guinea savanna for the research. The results indicated that the wood ...

  10. UMTS signal measurements with digital spectrum analysers

    Licitra, G.; Palazzuoli, D.; Ricci, A. S.; Silvi, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    The launch of the Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UNITS), the most recent mobile telecommunications standard has imposed the requirement of updating measurement instrumentation and methodologies. In order to define the most reliable measurement procedure, which is aimed at assessing the exposure to electromagnetic fields, modern spectrum analysers' features for correct signal characterisation has been reviewed. (authors)

  11. Micromechanical photothermal analyser of microfluidic samples

    2014-01-01

    The present invention relates to a micromechanical photothermal analyser of microfluidic samples comprising an oblong micro-channel extending longitudinally from a support element, the micro-channel is made from at least two materials with different thermal expansion coefficients, wherein...

  12. Systematic review and meta-analyses

    Dreier, Julie Werenberg; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    1990 were excluded. RESULTS: The available literature supported an increased risk of adverse offspring health in association with fever during pregnancy. The strongest evidence was available for neural tube defects, congenital heart defects, and oral clefts, in which meta-analyses suggested between a 1...

  13. Secundaire analyses organisatiebeleid psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA)

    Kraan, K.O.; Houtman, I.L.D.

    2016-01-01

    Hoe het organisatiebeleid rond psychosociale arbeidsbelasting (PSA) eruit ziet anno 2014 en welke samenhang er is met ander beleid en uitkomstmaten, zijn de centrale vragen in dit onderzoek. De resultaten van deze verdiepende analyses kunnen ten goede komen aan de lopende campagne ‘Check je

  14. Exergoeconomic and environmental analyses of CO

    Mosaffa, A. H.; Garousi Farshi, L; Infante Ferreira, C.A.; Rosen, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Exergoeconomic and environmental analyses are presented for two CO2/NH3 cascade refrigeration systems equipped with (1) two flash tanks and (2) a flash tank along with a flash intercooler with indirect subcooler. A comparative study is performed for the proposed systems, and

  15. Meta-analyses on viral hepatitis

    Gluud, Lise L; Gluud, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This article summarizes the meta-analyses of interventions for viral hepatitis A, B, and C. Some of the interventions assessed are described in small trials with unclear bias control. Other interventions are supported by large, high-quality trials. Although attempts have been made to adjust...

  16. Multivariate differential analyses of adolescents' experiences of ...

    Aggression is reasoned to be dependent on aspects such as self-concept, moral reasoning, communication, frustration tolerance and family relationships. To analyse the data from questionnaires of 101 families (95 adolescents, 95 mothers and 91 fathers) Cronbach Alpha, various consecutive first and second order factor ...

  17. Chromosomal evolution and phylogenetic analyses in Tayassu ...

    Chromosome preparation and karyotype description. The material analysed consists of chromosome preparations of the tayassuid species T. pecari (three individuals) and. P. tajacu (four individuals) and were made from short-term lymphocyte cultures of whole blood samples using standard protocols (Chaves et al. 2002).

  18. Implications of the Goal Theory on air show programs planning

    Dewald Venter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Events have long played an important role in human society (Shone & Parry, 2010: 3. The toils and efforts of daily lives have often been broken up by events of all kinds as humans seek an escape from the harsh reality of existence and events provide the outlet. Events are classified into four categories according to Shone and Parry (2010: 5 namely leisure (sport, recreation, personal (weddings, birthdays, cultural (art, folklore and organizational (politics, commercial. Successful events either match or exceed visitor motives and goals. It is critical that data be collected from visitors to determine their motives and goals in order to satisfy them and thereby encouraging repeat visits. One such event is the annual air show held at the Zwartkop Air Force Base (AFB in Pretoria, South Africa. Zwartkop AFB is also home to the South African Air Force (SAAF museum that also the hosts of the air show. Much of the museum‟s funds are generated through hosting the air show and sponsor contributions. Visitor goal satisfaction should therefore be of critically importance to the program planners. Military hardware has long held a fascination for those who used them and inspired the imagination of young and old. Such hardware often serves as a remembrance of times passed and as a testament to those who perished. For many visiting museums and air shows, curiosity plays a big role. The particular focus of this article will be on how the goal theory of leisure travel can be utilized by the air show organizers to enhance visitor experience to an air show.

  19. CERN cars drive by the Geneva Motor Show

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    One of CERN's new gas-fuelled cars was a special guest at the press days of the Geneva motor show this year. The car enjoyed a prominent position on the Gazmobil stand, right next to the latest Mazeratis and Ferraris. Journalists previewing the motor show could discover CERN's support for green technologies and also find out more about the lab - home to the fastest racetrack on the planet, with protons in the LHC running at 99.9999991% of the speed of light.    

  20. The Biochemistry Show: a new and fun tool for learning

    A.H Ono

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The traditional methods to teach biochemistry in most universities are based on the memorization of chemical structures,  biochemical  pathways  and  reagent  names,  which  is  many  times  dismotivating  for  the  students.  We presently describe an innovative, interactive and alternative method for teaching biochemistry to medical and nutrition undergraduate students, called the Biochemistry Show (BioBio Show.The Biobio show is based on active participation of the students. They are divided in groups and the groups face each other. One group faces another one group at a time, in a game based on true or false questions that involve subjects of applied biochemistry (exercise, obesity, diabetes, cholesterol, free radicals, among others. The questions of the Show are previously elaborated by senior students. The Biobio Show has four phases, the first one is a selection exam, and from the second to the fourth phase, eliminatory confrontations happen. On a confrontation, the first group must select a certain quantity of questions for the opponent to answer.  The group who choses the questions must know how to answer and justify the selected questions. This procedure is repeated on all phases of the show. On the last phase, the questions used are taken from an exam previously performed by the students: either the 9-hour biochemistry exam (Sé et al. A 9-hour biochemistry exam. An iron man competition or a good way of evaluating undergraduate students? SBBq 2005, abstract K-6 or the True-or-False exam (TFE (Sé et al. Are tutor-students capable of writing good biochemistry exams? SBBq 2004, abstract K-18. The winner group receives an extra 0,5 point on the final grade. Over 70% of the students informed on a questionnaire that the Biobio Show is a valuable tool for learning biochemistry.    That is a new way to enrich the discussion of biochemistry in the classroom without the students getting bored. Moreover, learning

  1. Analysing public relations education through international standards: The Portuguese case

    Gonçalves, Gisela Marques Pereira; Spínola, Susana de Carvalho; Padamo, Celma

    2013-01-01

    By using international reports on PR education as a benchmark we analyse the status of PR higher education in Portugal. Despite differences among the study programs, the findings reveal that the standard five courses recommendation by the Commission on Public Relations Education (CPRE) are a part of Portuguese undergraduate curriculum. This includes 12 of the 14 content field guidelines needed to achieve the ideal master's program. Data shows, however, the difficulty of positioning public rel...

  2. Grey literature in meta-analyses.

    Conn, Vicki S; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Harris M; Rantz, Marilyn J

    2003-01-01

    In meta-analysis, researchers combine the results of individual studies to arrive at cumulative conclusions. Meta-analysts sometimes include "grey literature" in their evidential base, which includes unpublished studies and studies published outside widely available journals. Because grey literature is a source of data that might not employ peer review, critics have questioned the validity of its data and the results of meta-analyses that include it. To examine evidence regarding whether grey literature should be included in meta-analyses and strategies to manage grey literature in quantitative synthesis. This article reviews evidence on whether the results of studies published in peer-reviewed journals are representative of results from broader samplings of research on a topic as a rationale for inclusion of grey literature. Strategies to enhance access to grey literature are addressed. The most consistent and robust difference between published and grey literature is that published research is more likely to contain results that are statistically significant. Effect size estimates of published research are about one-third larger than those of unpublished studies. Unfunded and small sample studies are less likely to be published. Yet, importantly, methodological rigor does not differ between published and grey literature. Meta-analyses that exclude grey literature likely (a) over-represent studies with statistically significant findings, (b) inflate effect size estimates, and (c) provide less precise effect size estimates than meta-analyses including grey literature. Meta-analyses should include grey literature to fully reflect the existing evidential base and should assess the impact of methodological variations through moderator analysis.

  3. Fungal communities in wheat grain show significant co-existence patterns among species

    Nicolaisen, M.; Justesen, A. F.; Knorr, K.

    2014-01-01

    identified as ‘core’ OTUs as they were found in all or almost all samples and accounted for almost 99 % of all sequences. The remaining OTUs were only sporadically found and only in small amounts. Cluster and factor analyses showed patterns of co-existence among the core species. Cluster analysis grouped...... the 21 core OTUs into three clusters: cluster 1 consisting of saprotrophs, cluster 2 consisting mainly of yeasts and saprotrophs and cluster 3 consisting of wheat pathogens. Principal component extraction showed that the Fusarium graminearum group was inversely related to OTUs of clusters 1 and 2....

  4. An autopsied case of tuberculous meningitis showing interesting CT findings

    Abiko, Takashi; Higuchi, Hiroshi; Imada, Ryuichi; Nagai, Kenichi

    1983-01-01

    A 61-year-old female patient died of a neurological disorder of unknown origin one month after the first visit and was found to have had tuberculous meningitis at autopsy. CT revealed a low density area showing an enlargement of the cerebral ventricle but did not reveal contrast enhancement in the basal cistern peculiar to tuberculous meningitis. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T. R.; Wierslnca-Post, J. Esther C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  6. Auditory temporal-order thresholds show no gender differences

    van Kesteren, Marlieke T R; Wiersinga-Post, J Esther C

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Several studies on auditory temporal-order processing showed gender differences. Women needed longer inter-stimulus intervals than men when indicating the temporal order of two clicks presented to the left and right ear. In this study, we examined whether we could reproduce these results in

  7. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects.

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  8. Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity ...

    aditya

    Polypyridyl iron(II) complexes showing remarkable photocytotoxicity in visible light. ADITYA GARAI a. , UTTARA BASU a. , ILA PANT b. , PATURU KONDAIAH*. ,b. AND. AKHIL R. CHAKRAVARTY*. ,a a. Department of Inorganic and Physical Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. 560012, India. E-mail: ...

  9. Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic ...

    Manumycin from a new Streptomyces strain shows antagonistic effect against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)/vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains from Korean Hospitals. Yun Hee Choi, Seung Sik Cho, Jaya Ram Simkhada, Chi Nam Seong, Hyo Jeong Lee, Hong Seop Moon, Jin Cheol Yoo ...

  10. Five kepler target stars that show multiple transiting exoplanet candidates

    Steffen..[], Jason H.; Batalha, N. M.; Broucki, W J.

    2010-01-01

    We present and discuss five candidate exoplanetary systems identified with the Kepler spacecraft. These five systems show transits from multiple exoplanet candidates. Should these objects prove to be planetary in nature, then these five systems open new opportunities for the field of exoplanets a...

  11. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 1) [video

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  12. Your Town Television Show: SMART Program (Part 3) [video

    Naval Postgraduate School, (U.S.); Sanders, John; Millsaps, Knox; Shifflett, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    From "Your Town" television show. SMART Scholarship Program featured on Your Town television program in Monterey, California. Host John Sanders, Special Collections Manager of the Naval Postgraduate School's Dudley Knox Library, interviews Dr. Knox Millsaps, Executive Agent for the SMART Program, and Deborah Shifflett, SMART Program Manager.

  13. A Progress Evaluation of Four Bilingual Children's Television Shows.

    Klein, Stephen P.; And Others

    An evaluation of a bilingual education TV series was conducted involving 6-year-old English speaking, Spanish speaking, and bilingual children at four sites. Children were assigned to control and experimental groups with the latter group seeing four 30 minute shows. A pretest-posttest design was employed with the pretest serving as the covariate…

  14. The neonicotinoid imidachloprid shows high chronic toxicity to mayfly nymphs

    Roessink, I.; Merga, L.B.; Zweers, A.J.; Brink, van den P.J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid to a range of freshwater arthropods. Mayfly and caddisfly species were most sensitive to short-term imidacloprid exposures (10 tests), whereas the mayflies showed by far the most sensitive response to long-term exposure of

  15. An Easy Way to Show Memory Color Effects

    Witzel, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    This study proposes and evaluates a simple stimulus display that allows one to measure memory color effects (the effect of object knowledge and memory on color perception). The proposed approach is fast and easy and does not require running an extensive experiment. It shows that memory color effects are robust to minor variations due to a lack of color calibration.

  16. 36 CFR 14.24 - Showing as to citizenship required.

    2010-07-01

    ... INTERIOR RIGHTS-OF-WAY Procedures § 14.24 Showing as to citizenship required. (a) Individuals. An individual applicant applying for a right-of-way under any right-of-way act, except the Act of March 3, 1891... applicant resided in the United States thereafter while a minor, should be furnished. Where the husband and...

  17. Mice lacking neuropeptide Y show increased sensitivity to cocaine

    Sørensen, Gunnar; Woldbye, David Paul Drucker

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing data implicating neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the neurobiology of addiction. This study explored the possible role of NPY in cocaine-induced behavior using NPY knockout mice. The transgenic mice showed a hypersensitive response to cocaine in three animal models of cocaine addiction...

  18. Television Judge Shows: Nordic and U.S. Perspectives

    Porsdam, Helle

    2017-01-01

    Legal discourse is language that people use in a globalizing and multicultural society to negotiate acceptable behaviors and values. We see this played out in popular cultural forums such as judicial television dramas. In the American context, television judge shows are virtually synonymous...

  19. Mixed cultures of Kimchi lactic acid bacteria show increased cell ...

    ufuoma

    anaerobic organisms that are highly resistant to salts. Probiotic cultures for use in ... kimchi have a superior ability to decompose and utilize nutrients, and show ... citrate, 5 g sodium acetate, 1 g Tween, 2 g K2HPO4, 0.2 g. MgSO4•7H2O, 0.2 g ...

  20. Teaching Job Interviewing Skills with the Help of Television Shows

    Bloch, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Because of its potential for humor and drama, job interviewing is frequently portrayed on television. This article discusses how scenes from popular television series such as "Everybody Loves Raymond," "Friends," and "The Mary Tyler Moore Show" can be used to teach effective job interview skills in business communication courses. Television…

  1. Airline Overbooking Problem with Uncertain No-Shows

    Chunxiao Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers an airline overbooking problem of a new single-leg flight with discount fare. Due to the absence of historical data of no-shows for a new flight, and various uncertain human behaviors or unexpected events which causes that a few passengers cannot board their aircraft on time, we fail to obtain the probability distribution of no-shows. In this case, the airlines have to invite some domain experts to provide belief degree of no-shows to estimate its distribution. However, human beings often overestimate unlikely events, which makes the variance of belief degree much greater than that of the frequency. If we still regard the belief degree as a subjective probability, the derived results will exceed our expectations. In order to deal with this uncertainty, the number of no-shows of new flight is assumed to be an uncertain variable in this paper. Given the chance constraint of social reputation, an overbooking model with discount fares is developed to maximize the profit rate based on uncertain programming theory. Finally, the analytic expression of the optimal booking limit is obtained through a numerical example, and the results of sensitivity analysis indicate that the optimal booking limit is affected by flight capacity, discount, confidence level, and parameters of the uncertainty distribution significantly.

  2. Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows

    Triphala, a formulation of traditional Ayurvedic medicine, shows protective effect against X-radiation in HeLa cells. YUKI TAKAUJI KENSUKE ... with the cellscultured in vitro. The simple bioassay system with human cultured cells would facilitate the understanding of themolecular basis for the beneficial effects of Triphala.

  3. Bilinguals Show Weaker Lexical Access during Spoken Sentence Comprehension

    Shook, Anthony; Goldrick, Matthew; Engstler, Caroline; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    When bilinguals process written language, they show delays in accessing lexical items relative to monolinguals. The present study investigated whether this effect extended to spoken language comprehension, examining the processing of sentences with either low or high semantic constraint in both first and second languages. English-German…

  4. Soil bacteria show different tolerance ranges to an unprecedented disturbance

    Nunes, Ines Marques; Jurburg, Stephanie; Jacquiod, Samuel Jehan Auguste

    2018-01-01

    stress doses. FRG1, the most sensitive group, was dominated by Actinobacteria. FRG2 and FRG3, with intermediate tolerance, displayed prevalence of Proteobacteria, while FRG4, the most resistant group, was driven by Firmicutes. While the most sensitive FRGs showed predictable responses linked to changes...

  5. Genoa Boat Show – Good Example of Event Management

    Dunja Demirović

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available International Boat Show, a business and tourist event, has been held annually in Italian city of Genoa since 1962. The fair is one of the oldest, largest and best known in the field of boating industry worldwide, primarily due to good management of the event and it can serve as case study for domestic fair organizers to improve the quality of their business and services. Since Belgrade is the city of fairs, but compared to Genoa still underdeveloped in terms of trade shows, the following tasks imposed naturally in this study: to determine the relationship of the organizers of Genoa Boat Show in the sector of preparation and fair offer, in the sector of selection and communication with specific target groups (especially visitors, services during the fair and functioning of the city during the fair. During the research the authors have mostly used historical method, comparison, synthesis and the interview method. The results of theoretical research, in addition, may help not only managers of fair shows and of exhibitions, but also to organizers of other events in our country

  6. First Super-Earth Atmosphere Analysed

    2010-12-01

    The atmosphere around a super-Earth exoplanet has been analysed for the first time by an international team of astronomers using ESO's Very Large Telescope. The planet, which is known as GJ 1214b, was studied as it passed in front of its parent star and some of the starlight passed through the planet's atmosphere. We now know that the atmosphere is either mostly water in the form of steam or is dominated by thick clouds or hazes. The results will appear in the 2 December 2010 issue of the journal Nature. The planet GJ 1214b was confirmed in 2009 using the HARPS instrument on ESO's 3.6-metre telescope in Chile (eso0950) [1]. Initial findings suggested that this planet had an atmosphere, which has now been confirmed and studied in detail by an international team of astronomers, led by Jacob Bean (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics), using the FORS instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. "This is the first super-Earth to have its atmosphere analysed. We've reached a real milestone on the road toward characterising these worlds," said Bean. GJ 1214b has a radius of about 2.6 times that of the Earth and is about 6.5 times as massive, putting it squarely into the class of exoplanets known as super-Earths. Its host star lies about 40 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ophiuchus (the Serpent Bearer). It is a faint star [2], but it is also small, which means that the size of the planet is large compared to the stellar disc, making it relatively easy to study [3]. The planet travels across the disc of its parent star once every 38 hours as it orbits at a distance of only two million kilometres: about seventy times closer than the Earth orbits the Sun. To study the atmosphere, the team observed the light coming from the star as the planet passed in front of it [4]. During these transits, some of the starlight passes through the planet's atmosphere and, depending on the chemical composition and weather on the planet, specific wavelengths of light are

  7. Thermal analyses. Information on the expected baking process; Thermische analyses. Informatie over een te verwachten bakgedrag

    Van Wijck, H. [Stichting Technisch Centrum voor de Keramische Industrie TCKI, Velp (Netherlands)

    2009-09-01

    The design process and the drying process for architectural ceramics and pottery partly determine the characteristics of the final product, but the largest changes occur during the baking process. An overview is provided of the different thermal analyses and how the information from these analyses can predict the process in practice. (mk) [Dutch] Het vormgevingsproces en het droogproces voor bouwkeramische producten en aardewerk bepalen voor een deel de eigenschappen van de eindproducten, maar de grootste veranderingen treden op bij het bakproces. Een overzicht wordt gegeven van de verschillende thermische analyses en hoe de informatie uit deze analyses het in de praktijk te verwachten gedrag kan voorspellen.

  8. New Inspiring Planetarium Show Introduces ALMA to the Public

    2009-03-01

    As part of a wide range of education and public outreach activities for the International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009), ESO, together with the Association of French Language Planetariums (APLF), has produced a 30-minute planetarium show, In Search of our Cosmic Origins. It is centred on the global ground-based astronomical Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) project and represents a unique chance for planetariums to be associated with the IYA2009. ESO PR Photo 09a/09 Logo of the ALMA Planetarium Show ESO PR Photo 09b/09 Galileo's first observations with a telescope ESO PR Photo 09c/09 The ALMA Observatory ESO PR Photo 09d/09 The Milky Way band ESO PR Video 09a/09 Trailer in English ALMA is the leading telescope for observing the cool Universe -- the relic radiation of the Big Bang, and the molecular gas and dust that constitute the building blocks of stars, planetary systems, galaxies and life itself. It is currently being built in the extremely arid environment of the Chajnantor plateau, at 5000 metres altitude in the Chilean Andes, and will start scientific observations around 2011. ALMA, the largest current astronomical project, is a revolutionary telescope, comprising a state-of-the-art array of 66 giant 12-metre and 7-metre diameter antennas observing at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths. In Search of our Cosmic Origins highlights the unprecedented window on the Universe that this facility will open for astronomers. "The show gives viewers a fascinating tour of the highest observatory on Earth, and takes them from there out into our Milky Way, and beyond," says Douglas Pierce-Price, the ALMA Public Information Officer at ESO. Edited by world fulldome experts Mirage3D, the emphasis of the new planetarium show is on the incomparable scientific adventure of the ALMA project. A young female astronomer guides the audience through a story that includes unique animations and footage, leading the viewer from the first observations by Galileo

  9. HUBBLE VISION: A Planetarium Show About Hubble Space Telescope

    Petersen, Carolyn Collins

    1995-05-01

    In 1991, a planetarium show called "Hubble: Report From Orbit" outlining the current achievements of the Hubble Space Telescope was produced by the independent planetarium production company Loch Ness Productions, for distribution to facilities around the world. The program was subsequently converted to video. In 1994, that program was updated and re-produced under the name "Hubble Vision" and offered to the planetarium community. It is periodically updated and remains a sought-after and valuable resource within the community. This paper describes the production of the program, and the role of the astronomical community in the show's production (and subsequent updates). The paper is accompanied by a video presentation of Hubble Vision.

  10. Political Show-Technology in the Post-Soviet Space

    O. E. Grishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the modern political process of Russia actively used technology show. With their help, political actors can influence public opinion and shape the public interest in certain issues. In Russia, these technologies are relevant, and are especially well developed. The pressing of the problem is due to a new round of information war on the territory of Ukraine. Inclusion in the information space, and discuss the pressing issues of modern Ukraine by media people such as C. Shuster and V. Solovyov, suggests that the political show has entertainment figures, actuality, the ambiguity of the proposed conclusions. At the same time it becomes part of the information war and political reality of the normal state.

  11. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests

    Eliana Teixeira Maranhão

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs.Objective To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls.Method Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals – thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls.Results Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity.Conclusion Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  12. Migraine patients consistently show abnormal vestibular bedside tests.

    Maranhão, Eliana Teixeira; Maranhão-Filho, Péricles; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Vincent, Maurice Borges

    2016-01-01

    Migraine and vertigo are common disorders, with lifetime prevalences of 16% and 7% respectively, and co-morbidity around 3.2%. Vestibular syndromes and dizziness occur more frequently in migraine patients. We investigated bedside clinical signs indicative of vestibular dysfunction in migraineurs. To test the hypothesis that vestibulo-ocular reflex, vestibulo-spinal reflex and fall risk (FR) responses as measured by 14 bedside tests are abnormal in migraineurs without vertigo, as compared with controls. Cross-sectional study including sixty individuals - thirty migraineurs, 25 women, 19-60 y-o; and 30 gender/age healthy paired controls. Migraineurs showed a tendency to perform worse in almost all tests, albeit only the Romberg tandem test was statistically different from controls. A combination of four abnormal tests better discriminated the two groups (93.3% specificity). Migraine patients consistently showed abnormal vestibular bedside tests when compared with controls.

  13. CT findings of rectosigmoid carcinoma showing exophytic growth

    Ohgi, Kazuyuki; Kohno, Atsushi; Higuchi, Mutsumi

    1987-01-01

    CT findings of 7 rectosigmoid carcinomas showing exophytic growth were evaluated. All cases had bulky masses, ranging from 6.0 to 11.5 cm in maximum diameter. All masses were difficult to differentiate from the other pelvic masses on CT, presumably due to their exophytic growth and/or invasion to the surrounding organs. However, 3 out of 7 cases showed diffuse rectosigmoidal wall thickening adjacent to the primary tumor, and it is considered to be valuable in the determination of primary site. All female cases had gynecological symptom such as genital bleeding, due to uterine and/or vaginal invasion. When indeterminate pelvic mass is revealed by CT, rectosigmoid carcinoma should be considered into differential diagnosis. (author)

  14. Preschoolers show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants

    Sara eJaffer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research examined whether preschool-aged children show less trust in physically disabled or obese informants. In Study 1, when learning about novel physical activities and facts, 4- and 5-year-olds preferred to endorse the testimony of a physically abled, non-obese informant rather than a physically disabled or obese one. In Study 2, after seeing that the physically disabled or obese informant was previously reliable whereas the physically abled, non-obese one was unreliable, 4- and 5-year-olds did not show a significant preference for either informant. We conclude that in line with the literature on children’s negative stereotypes of physically disabled or obese others, preschoolers are biased against these individuals as potential sources of new knowledge. This bias is robust in that past reliability might undermine its effect on children, but cannot reverse it.

  15. El reality show a la hora de la merienda

    Lic. Rosa María Ganga Ganga

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los programas de testimonio, inscritos dentro del género televisivo del Reality Show, son una variante del más amplio subgénero del Talk Show y tienen ya una cierta tradición en nuestro país. El presente trabajo se centrará en este tipo de programas de testimonio que basan su estrategia discursiva en la presentación y representación del relato autobiográfico del hombre o la mujer anónimos, integrándose de esta forma en las corrientes más recientes de la sociología y la historiografía, y persigue esclarecer algunas de sus características y funciones, especialmente su función socializadora, a través del mecanismo biográfico y del concepto de habitus tomado de Pierre Bourdieu.

  16. High-frequency parameters of magnetic films showing magnetization dispersion

    Sidorenkov, V.V.; Zimin, A.B.; Kornev, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetization dispersion leads to skewed resonance curves shifted towards higher magnetizing fields, together with considerable reduction in the resonant absorption, while the FMR line width is considerably increased. These effects increase considerably with frequency, in contrast to films showing magnetic-anisotropy dispersion, where they decrease. It is concluded that there may be anomalies in the frequency dependence of the resonance parameters for polycrystalline magnetic films

  17. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Keefe, Richard S. E.; McDonald, Kay; Ward, Aimee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly, adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to test the association between persistent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline and determine whether decline is concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users. Participants were members of the Dunedin Study, a prospecti...

  18. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) show an attentional bias toward conspecifics' emotions.

    Kret, Mariska E; Jaasma, Linda; Bionda, Thomas; Wijnen, Jasper G

    2016-04-05

    In social animals, the fast detection of group members' emotional expressions promotes swift and adequate responses, which is crucial for the maintenance of social bonds and ultimately for group survival. The dot-probe task is a well-established paradigm in psychology, measuring emotional attention through reaction times. Humans tend to be biased toward emotional images, especially when the emotion is of a threatening nature. Bonobos have rich, social emotional lives and are known for their soft and friendly character. In the present study, we investigated (i) whether bonobos, similar to humans, have an attentional bias toward emotional scenes compared with conspecifics showing a neutral expression, and (ii) which emotional behaviors attract their attention the most. As predicted, results consistently showed that bonobos' attention was biased toward the location of the emotional versus neutral scene. Interestingly, their attention was grabbed most by images showing conspecifics such as sexual behavior, yawning, or grooming, and not as much-as is often observed in humans-by signs of distress or aggression. The results suggest that protective and affiliative behaviors are pivotal in bonobo society and therefore attract immediate attention in this species.

  19. An Undergraduate Endeavor: Assembling a Live Planetarium Show About Mars

    McGraw, Allison M.

    2016-10-01

    Viewing the mysterious red planet Mars goes back thousands of years with just the human eye but in more recent years the growth of telescopes, satellites and lander missions unveil unrivaled detail of the Martian surface that tells a story worth listening to. This planetarium show will go through the observations starting with the ancients to current understandings of the Martian surface, atmosphere and inner-workings through past and current Mars missions. Visual animations of its planetary motions, display of high resolution images from the Hi-RISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) and CTX (Context Camera) data imagery aboard the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) as well as other datasets will be used to display the terrain detail and imagery of the planet Mars with a digital projection system. Local planetary scientists and Mars specialists from the Lunar and Planetary Lab at the University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ) will be interviewed and used in the show to highlight current technology and understandings of the red planet. This is an undergraduate project that is looking for collaborations and insight in order gain structure in script writing that will teach about this planetary body to all ages in the format of a live planetarium show.

  20. AirShow 1.0 CFD Software Users' Guide

    Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    AirShow is visualization post-processing software for Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Upon reading binary PLOT3D grid and solution files into AirShow, the engineer can quickly see how hundreds of complex 3-D structured blocks are arranged and numbered. Additionally, chosen grid planes can be displayed and colored according to various aerodynamic flow quantities such as Mach number and pressure. The user may interactively rotate and translate the graphical objects using the mouse. The software source code was written in cross-platform Java, C++, and OpenGL, and runs on Unix, Linux, and Windows. The graphical user interface (GUI) was written using Java Swing. Java also provides multiple synchronized threads. The Java Native Interface (JNI) provides a bridge between the Java code and the C++ code where the PLOT3D files are read, the OpenGL graphics are rendered, and numerical calculations are performed. AirShow is easy to learn and simple to use. The source code is available for free from the NASA Technology Transfer and Partnership Office.

  1. Compliance With Recommended Food Safety Practices in Television Cooking Shows.

    Cohen, Nancy L; Olson, Rita Brennan

    Examine compliance with recommended food safety practices in television cooking shows. Using a tool based on the Massachusetts Food Establishment Inspection Report, raters examined 39 episodes from 10 television cooking shows. Chefs demonstrated conformance with good retail practices for proper use and storage of utensils in 78% of episodes; preventing contamination (62%), and fingernail care (82%). However, 50% to 88% of episodes were found to be out of compliance with other personal hygiene practices, proper use of gloves and barriers (85% to 100%), and maintaining proper time and temperature controls (93%). Over 90% failed to conform to recommendations regarding preventing contamination through wiping cloths and washing produce. In only 13% of episodes were food safety practices mentioned. There appears to be little attention to food safety during most cooking shows. Celebrity and competing chefs have the opportunity to model and teach good food safety practices for millions of viewers. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Architectures for Quantum Simulation Showing a Quantum Speedup

    Bermejo-Vega, Juan; Hangleiter, Dominik; Schwarz, Martin; Raussendorf, Robert; Eisert, Jens

    2018-04-01

    One of the main aims in the field of quantum simulation is to achieve a quantum speedup, often referred to as "quantum computational supremacy," referring to the experimental realization of a quantum device that computationally outperforms classical computers. In this work, we show that one can devise versatile and feasible schemes of two-dimensional, dynamical, quantum simulators showing such a quantum speedup, building on intermediate problems involving nonadaptive, measurement-based, quantum computation. In each of the schemes, an initial product state is prepared, potentially involving an element of randomness as in disordered models, followed by a short-time evolution under a basic translationally invariant Hamiltonian with simple nearest-neighbor interactions and a mere sampling measurement in a fixed basis. The correctness of the final-state preparation in each scheme is fully efficiently certifiable. We discuss experimental necessities and possible physical architectures, inspired by platforms of cold atoms in optical lattices and a number of others, as well as specific assumptions that enter the complexity-theoretic arguments. This work shows that benchmark settings exhibiting a quantum speedup may require little control, in contrast to universal quantum computing. Thus, our proposal puts a convincing experimental demonstration of a quantum speedup within reach in the near term.

  3. Eccentric muscle challenge shows osteopontin polymorphism modulation of muscle damage.

    Barfield, Whitney L; Uaesoontrachoon, Kitipong; Wu, Chung-Sheih; Lin, Stephen; Chen, Yue; Wang, Paul C; Kanaan, Yasmine; Bond, Vernon; Hoffman, Eric P

    2014-08-01

    A promoter polymorphism of the osteopontin (OPN) gene (rs28357094) has been associated with multiple inflammatory states, severity of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and muscle size in healthy young adults. We sought to define the mechanism of action of the polymorphism, using allele-specific in vitro reporter assays in muscle cells, and a genotype-stratified intervention in healthy controls. In vitro reporter constructs showed the G allele to respond to estrogen treatment, whereas the T allele showed no transcriptional response. Young adult volunteers (n = 187) were enrolled into a baseline study, and subjects with specific rs28357094 genotypes enrolled into an eccentric muscle challenge intervention [n = 3 TT; n = 3 GG/GT (dominant inheritance model)]. Female volunteers carrying the G allele showed significantly greater inflammation and increased muscle volume change as determined by magnetic resonance imaging T1- and T2-weighted images after eccentric challenge, as well as greater decrement in biceps muscle force. Our data suggest a model where the G allele enables enhanced activities of upstream enhancer elements due to loss of Sp1 binding at the polymorphic site. This results in significantly greater expression of the pro-inflammatory OPN cytokine during tissue remodeling in response to challenge in G allele carriers, promoting muscle hypertrophy in normal females, but increased damage in DMD patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Fat stigmatization in television shows and movies: a content analysis.

    Himes, Susan M; Thompson, J Kevin

    2007-03-01

    To examine the phenomenon of fat stigmatization messages presented in television shows and movies, a content analysis was used to quantify and categorize fat-specific commentary and humor. Fat stigmatization vignettes were identified using a targeted sampling procedure, and 135 scenes were excised from movies and television shows. The material was coded by trained raters. Reliability indices were uniformly high for the seven categories (percentage agreement ranged from 0.90 to 0.98; kappas ranged from 0.66 to 0.94). Results indicated that fat stigmatization commentary and fat humor were often verbal, directed toward another person, and often presented directly in the presence of the overweight target. Results also indicated that male characters were three times more likely to engage in fat stigmatization commentary or fat humor than female characters. To our knowledge, these findings provide the first information regarding the specific gender, age, and types of fat stigmatization that occur frequently in movies and television shows. The stimuli should prove useful in future research examining the role of individual difference factors (e.g., BMI) in the reaction to viewing such vignettes.

  5. Radon in Austrian tourist mines and show caves

    Ringer, W.; Graeser, J.

    2009-01-01

    The radon situation in tourist mines and show caves is barely investigated in Austria. This paper investigates the influence of its determining factors, such as climate, structure and geology. For this purpose, long-term time-resolved measurements over 6 to 12 months in 4 tourist mines and 2 show caves - with 5 to 9 measuring points each - have been carried out to obtain the course of radon concentration throughout the year. In addition, temperature and air-pressure were measured and compared to the data outside where available. Results suggest that the dominating factors of the average radon concentration are structure and location (geology) of the tunnel-system, whereas the diurnal and annual variation is mainly caused by the changing airflow, which is driven by the difference in temperature inside and outside. Downcast air is connected with very low radon concentrations, upcast air with high concentrations. In some locations the maximum values appear when the airflow ceases. But airflow can be different in different parts of mines and caves. Systems close to the surface show generally lower radon levels than the ones located deeper underground. Due to variation of structure, geology and local climate, the radon situation in mines and caves can only be described by simultaneous measurements at several measuring points. (orig.)

  6. Numerical analyses of soft bottom macroinvertebrates to diagnose the pollution in tropical coastal waters

    Harkantra, S.N.; Rodrigues, N.R.

    of techniques to assess the impact of pollution on benthic community structure. Hence, to test this hypotheses some of the univariate and multivariate techniques were applied to soft bottom macro-invertebrates data of coastal waters of Mangalore, central west...

  7. Analyses and characterization of double shell tank

    1994-10-04

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-108 (108-AP) was sampled under prescribed protocol. Physical, inorganic, and radiochemical analyses were performed on tank 108-AP. Characterization of evaporator feed tank waste is needed primarily for an evaluation of its suitability to be safely processed through the evaporator. Such analyses should provide sufficient information regarding the waste composition to confidently determine whether constituent concentrations are within not only safe operating limits, but should also be relevant to functional limits for operation of the evaporator. Characterization of tank constituent concentrations should provide data which enable a prediction of where the types and amounts of environmentally hazardous waste are likely to occur in the evaporator product streams.

  8. DCH analyses using the CONTAIN code

    Hong, Sung Wan; Kim, Hee Dong

    1996-08-01

    This report describes CONTAIN analyses performed during participation in the project of 'DCH issue resolution for ice condenser plants' which is sponsored by NRC at SNL. Even though the calculations were performed for the Ice Condenser plant, CONTAIN code has been used for analyses of many phenomena in the PWR containment and the DCH module can be commonly applied to any plant types. The present ice condenser issue resolution effort intended to provide guidance as to what might be needed to resolve DCH for ice condenser plants. It includes both a screening analysis and a scoping study if the screening analysis cannot provide an complete resolution. The followings are the results concerning DCH loads in descending order. 1. Availability of ignition sources prior to vessel breach 2. availability and effectiveness of ice in the ice condenser 3. Loads modeling uncertainties related to co-ejected RPV water 4. Other loads modeling uncertainties 10 tabs., 3 figs., 14 refs. (Author)

  9. DCH analyses using the CONTAIN code

    Hong, Sung Wan; Kim, Hee Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-01

    This report describes CONTAIN analyses performed during participation in the project of `DCH issue resolution for ice condenser plants` which is sponsored by NRC at SNL. Even though the calculations were performed for the Ice Condenser plant, CONTAIN code has been used for analyses of many phenomena in the PWR containment and the DCH module can be commonly applied to any plant types. The present ice condenser issue resolution effort intended to provide guidance as to what might be needed to resolve DCH for ice condenser plants. It includes both a screening analysis and a scoping study if the screening analysis cannot provide an complete resolution. The followings are the results concerning DCH loads in descending order. 1. Availability of ignition sources prior to vessel breach 2. availability and effectiveness of ice in the ice condenser 3. Loads modeling uncertainties related to co-ejected RPV water 4. Other loads modeling uncertainties 10 tabs., 3 figs., 14 refs. (Author).

  10. Analyses and characterization of double shell tank

    1994-01-01

    Evaporator candidate feed from tank 241-AP-108 (108-AP) was sampled under prescribed protocol. Physical, inorganic, and radiochemical analyses were performed on tank 108-AP. Characterization of evaporator feed tank waste is needed primarily for an evaluation of its suitability to be safely processed through the evaporator. Such analyses should provide sufficient information regarding the waste composition to confidently determine whether constituent concentrations are within not only safe operating limits, but should also be relevant to functional limits for operation of the evaporator. Characterization of tank constituent concentrations should provide data which enable a prediction of where the types and amounts of environmentally hazardous waste are likely to occur in the evaporator product streams

  11. Soil analyses by ICP-MS (Review)

    Yamasaki, Shin-ichi

    2000-01-01

    Soil analyses by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are reviewed. The first half of the paper is devoted to the development of techniques applicable to soil analyses, where diverse analytical parameters are carefully evaluated. However, the choice of soil samples is somewhat arbitrary, and only a limited number of samples (mostly reference materials) are examined. In the second half, efforts are mostly concentrated on the introduction of reports, where a large number of samples and/or very precious samples have been analyzed. Although the analytical techniques used in these reports are not necessarily novel, valuable information concerning such topics as background levels of elements in soils, chemical forms of elements in soils and behavior of elements in soil ecosystems and the environment can be obtained. The major topics discussed are total elemental analysis, analysis of radionuclides with long half-lives, speciation, leaching techniques, and isotope ratio measurements. (author)

  12. Standardized analyses of nuclear shipping containers

    Parks, C.V.; Hermann, O.W.; Petrie, L.M.; Hoffman, T.J.; Tang, J.S.; Landers, N.F.; Turner, W.D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper describes improved capabilities for analyses of nuclear fuel shipping containers within SCALE -- a modular code system for Standardized Computer Analyses for Licensing Evaluation. Criticality analysis improvements include the new KENO V, a code which contains an enhanced geometry package and a new control module which uses KENO V and allows a criticality search on optimum pitch (maximum k-effective) to be performed. The SAS2 sequence is a new shielding analysis module which couples fuel burnup, source term generation, and radial cask shielding. The SAS5 shielding sequence allows a multidimensional Monte Carlo analysis of a shipping cask with code generated biasing of the particle histories. The thermal analysis sequence (HTAS1) provides an easy-to-use tool for evaluating a shipping cask response to the accident capability of the SCALE system to provide the cask designer or evaluator with a computational system that provides the automated procedures and easy-to-understand input that leads to standarization

  13. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  14. Exergetic and thermoeconomic analyses of power plants

    Kwak, H.-Y.; Kim, D.-J.; Jeon, J.-S.

    2003-01-01

    Exergetic and thermoeconomic analyses were performed for a 500-MW combined cycle plant. In these analyses, mass and energy conservation laws were applied to each component of the system. Quantitative balances of the exergy and exergetic cost for each component, and for the whole system was carefully considered. The exergoeconomic model, which represented the productive structure of the system considered, was used to visualize the cost formation process and the productive interaction between components. The computer program developed in this study can determine the production costs of power plants, such as gas- and steam-turbines plants and gas-turbine cogeneration plants. The program can be also be used to study plant characteristics, namely, thermodynamic performance and sensitivity to changes in process and/or component design variables

  15. Pratique de l'analyse fonctionelle

    Tassinari, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Mettre au point un produit ou un service qui soit parfaitement adapté aux besoins et aux exigences du client est indispensable pour l'entreprise. Pour ne rien laisser au hasard, il s'agit de suivre une méthodologie rigoureuse : celle de l'analyse fonctionnelle. Cet ouvrage définit précisément cette méthode ainsi que ses champs d'application. Il décrit les méthodes les plus performantes en termes de conception de produit et de recherche de qualité et introduit la notion d'analyse fonctionnelle interne. Un ouvrage clé pour optimiser les processus de conception de produit dans son entreprise. -- Idées clés, par Business Digest

  16. Sectorial Group for Incident Analyses (GSAI)

    Galles, Q.; Gamo, J. M.; Jorda, M.; Sanchez-Garrido, P.; Lopez, F.; Asensio, L.; Reig, J.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee (CEN) proposed the creation of a working group formed by experts from all Spanish NPPs with the purpose of jointly analyze relevant incidents occurred in each one of the plants. This initiative was a response to a historical situation in which the exchange of information on incidents between the Spanish NPP's was below the desired level. In june 2009, UNESA's Guide CEN-29 established the performance criteria for the so called Sectorial Group for Incident Analyses (GSAI), whose activity would be coordinated by the UNESA's Group for Incident Analyses (GSAI), whose activity would be coordinated by the UNESA's Group of Operating Experience, under the Operations Commission (COP). (Author)

  17. Analyses of cavitation instabilities in ductile metals

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    2007-01-01

    Cavitation instabilities have been predicted for a single void in a ductile metal stressed under high triaxiality conditions. In experiments for a ceramic reinforced by metal particles a single dominant void has been observed on the fracture surface of some of the metal particles bridging a crack......, and also tests for a thin ductile metal layer bonding two ceramic blocks have indicated rapid void growth. Analyses for these material configurations are discussed here. When the void radius is very small, a nonlocal plasticity model is needed to account for observed size-effects, and recent analyses......, while the surrounding voids are represented by a porous ductile material model in terms of a field quantity that specifies the variation of the void volume fraction in the surrounding metal....

  18. Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation

    Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko

    2014-01-01

    Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region

  19. New environmental metabarcodes for analysing soil DNA

    Epp, Laura S.; Boessenkool, Sanne; Bellemain, Eva P.

    2012-01-01

    was systematically evaluated by (i) in silico PCRs using all standard sequences in the EMBL public database as templates, (ii) in vitro PCRs of DNA extracts from surface soil samples from a site in Varanger, northern Norway and (iii) in vitro PCRs of DNA extracts from permanently frozen sediment samples of late......Metabarcoding approaches use total and typically degraded DNA from environmental samples to analyse biotic assemblages and can potentially be carried out for any kinds of organisms in an ecosystem. These analyses rely on specific markers, here called metabarcodes, which should be optimized...... for taxonomic resolution, minimal bias in amplification of the target organism group and short sequence length. Using bioinformatic tools, we developed metabarcodes for several groups of organisms: fungi, bryophytes, enchytraeids, beetles and birds. The ability of these metabarcodes to amplify the target groups...

  20. Diagnostic Comparison of Meteorological Analyses during the 2002 Antarctic Winter

    Manney, Gloria L.; Allen, Douglas R.; Kruger, Kirstin; Naujokat, Barbara; Santee, Michelle L.; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Pawson, Steven; Swinbank, Richard; Randall, Cora E.; Simmons, Adrian J.; hide

    2005-01-01

    Several meteorological datasets, including U.K. Met Office (MetO), European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), and NASA's Goddard Earth Observation System (GEOS-4) analyses, are being used in studies of the 2002 Southern Hemisphere (SH) stratospheric winter and Antarctic major warming. Diagnostics are compared to assess how these studies may be affected by the meteorological data used. While the overall structure and evolution of temperatures, winds, and wave diagnostics in the different analyses provide a consistent picture of the large-scale dynamics of the SH 2002 winter, several significant differences may affect detailed studies. The NCEP-NCAR reanalysis (REAN) and NCEP-Department of Energy (DOE) reanalysis-2 (REAN-2) datasets are not recommended for detailed studies, especially those related to polar processing, because of lower-stratospheric temperature biases that result in underestimates of polar processing potential, and because their winds and wave diagnostics show increasing differences from other analyses between similar to 30 and 10 hPa (their top level). Southern Hemisphere polar stratospheric temperatures in the ECMWF 40-Yr Re-analysis (ERA-40) show unrealistic vertical structure, so this long-term reanalysis is also unsuited for quantitative studies. The NCEP/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) objective analyses give an inferior representation of the upper-stratospheric vortex. Polar vortex transport barriers are similar in all analyses, but there is large variation in the amount, patterns, and timing of mixing, even among the operational assimilated datasets (ECMWF, MetO, and GEOS-4). The higher-resolution GEOS-4 and ECMWF assimilations provide significantly better representation of filamentation and small-scale structure than the other analyses, even when fields gridded at reduced resolution are studied. The choice of which analysis to use is most critical for detailed transport

  1. Visuelle Analyse von E-mail-Verkehr

    Mansmann, Florian

    2003-01-01

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt Methoden zur visuellen geographischen Analyse von E-mail Verkehr.Aus dem Header einer E-mail können Hostadressen und IP-Adressen herausgefiltert werden. Anhand einer Datenbank werden diesen Host- und IP-Adressen geographische Koordinaten zugeordnet.Durch eine Visualisierung werden in übersichtlicher Art und Weise mehrere tausend E-mail Routen dargestellt. Zusätzlich dazu wurden interktive Manipulationsmöglichkeiten vorgestellt, welche eine visuelle Exploration der Date...

  2. BWR core melt progression phenomena: Experimental analyses

    Ott, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the BWR Core Melt in Progression Phenomena Program, experimental results concerning severe fuel damage and core melt progression in BWR core geometry are used to evaluate existing models of the governing phenomena. These include control blade eutectic liquefaction and the subsequent relocation and attack on the channel box structure; oxidation heating and hydrogen generation; Zircaloy melting and relocation; and the continuing oxidation of zirconium with metallic blockage formation. Integral data have been obtained from the BWR DF-4 experiment in the ACRR and from BWR tests in the German CORA exreactor fuel-damage test facility. Additional integral data will be obtained from new CORA BWR test, the full-length FLHT-6 BWR test in the NRU test reactor, and the new program of exreactor experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation. an essential part of this activity is interpretation and use of the results of the BWR tests. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed experiment-specific models for analysis of the BWR experiments; to date, these models have permitted far more precise analyses of the conditions in these experiments than has previously been available. These analyses have provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena that the experiments are intended to investigate. The results of posttest analyses of BWR experiments are discussed and significant findings from these analyses are explained. The ORNL control blade/canister models with materials interaction, relocation and blockage models are currently being implemented in SCDAP/RELAP5 as an optional structural component

  3. En Billig GPS Data Analyse Platform

    Andersen, Ove; Christiansen, Nick; Larsen, Niels T.

    2011-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer en komplet software platform til analyse af GPS data. Platformen er bygget udelukkende vha. open-source komponenter. De enkelte komponenter i platformen beskrives i detaljer. Fordele og ulemper ved at bruge open-source diskuteres herunder hvilke IT politiske tiltage, der...... organisationer med et digitalt vejkort og GPS data begynde at lave trafikanalyser på disse data. Det er et krav, at der er passende IT kompetencer tilstede i organisationen....

  4. Neuronal network analyses: premises, promises and uncertainties

    Parker, David

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal networks assemble the cellular components needed for sensory, motor and cognitive functions. Any rational intervention in the nervous system will thus require an understanding of network function. Obtaining this understanding is widely considered to be one of the major tasks facing neuroscience today. Network analyses have been performed for some years in relatively simple systems. In addition to the direct insights these systems have provided, they also illustrate some of the diffic...

  5. Modelling and analysing oriented fibrous structures

    Rantala, M; Lassas, M; Siltanen, S; Sampo, J; Takalo, J; Timonen, J

    2014-01-01

    A mathematical model for fibrous structures using a direction dependent scaling law is presented. The orientation of fibrous nets (e.g. paper) is analysed with a method based on the curvelet transform. The curvelet-based orientation analysis has been tested successfully on real data from paper samples: the major directions of fibrefibre orientation can apparently be recovered. Similar results are achieved in tests on data simulated by the new model, allowing a comparison with ground truth

  6. Kinematic gait analyses in healthy Golden Retrievers

    Silva, Gabriela C.A.; Cardoso, Mariana Trés; Gaiad, Thais P.; Brolio, Marina P.; Oliveira, Vanessa C.; Assis Neto, Antonio; Martins, Daniele S.; Ambrósio, Carlos E.

    2014-01-01

    Kinematic analysis relates to the relative movement between rigid bodies and finds application in gait analysis and other body movements, interpretation of their data when there is change, determines the choice of treatment to be instituted. The objective of this study was to standardize the march of Dog Golden Retriever Healthy to assist in the diagnosis and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. We used a kinematic analysis system to analyse the gait of seven dogs Golden Retriever, female,...

  7. Evaluation of periodic safety status analyses

    Faber, C.; Staub, G.

    1997-01-01

    In order to carry out the evaluation of safety status analyses by the safety assessor within the periodical safety reviews of nuclear power plants safety goal oriented requirements have been formulated together with complementary evaluation criteria. Their application in an inter-disciplinary coopertion covering the subject areas involved facilitates a complete safety goal oriented assessment of the plant status. The procedure is outlined briefly by an example for the safety goal 'reactivity control' for BWRs. (orig.) [de

  8. Publication bias in dermatology systematic reviews and meta-analyses.

    Atakpo, Paul; Vassar, Matt

    2016-05-01

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses in dermatology provide high-level evidence for clinicians and policy makers that influence clinical decision making and treatment guidelines. One methodological problem with systematic reviews is the under representation of unpublished studies. This problem is due in part to publication bias. Omission of statistically non-significant data from meta-analyses may result in overestimation of treatment effect sizes which may lead to clinical consequences. Our goal was to assess whether systematic reviewers in dermatology evaluate and report publication bias. Further, we wanted to conduct our own evaluation of publication bias on meta-analyses that failed to do so. Our study considered systematic reviews and meta-analyses from ten dermatology journals from 2006 to 2016. A PubMed search was conducted, and all full-text articles that met our inclusion criteria were retrieved and coded by the primary author. 293 articles were included in our analysis. Additionally, we formally evaluated publication bias in meta-analyses that failed to do so using trim and fill and cumulative meta-analysis by precision methods. Publication bias was mentioned in 107 articles (36.5%) and was formally evaluated in 64 articles (21.8%). Visual inspection of a funnel plot was the most common method of evaluating publication bias. Publication bias was present in 45 articles (15.3%), not present in 57 articles (19.5%) and not determined in 191 articles (65.2%). Using the trim and fill method, 7 meta-analyses (33.33%) showed evidence of publication bias. Although the trim and fill method only found evidence of publication bias in 7 meta-analyses, the cumulative meta-analysis by precision method found evidence of publication bias in 15 meta-analyses (71.4%). Many of the reviews in our study did not mention or evaluate publication bias. Further, of the 42 articles that stated following PRISMA reporting guidelines, 19 (45.2%) evaluated for publication bias. In

  9. Application of RUNTA code in flood analyses

    Perez Martin, F.; Benitez Fonzalez, F.

    1994-01-01

    Flood probability analyses carried out to date indicate the need to evaluate a large number of flood scenarios. This necessity is due to a variety of reasons, the most important of which include: - Large number of potential flood sources - Wide variety of characteristics of flood sources - Large possibility of flood-affected areas becoming inter linked, depending on the location of the potential flood sources - Diversity of flood flows from one flood source, depending on the size of the rupture and mode of operation - Isolation times applicable - Uncertainties in respect of the structural resistance of doors, penetration seals and floors - Applicable degrees of obstruction of floor drainage system Consequently, a tool which carries out the large number of calculations usually required in flood analyses, with speed and flexibility, is considered necessary. The RUNTA Code enables the range of possible scenarios to be calculated numerically, in accordance with all those parameters which, as a result of previous flood analyses, it is necessary to take into account in order to cover all the possible floods associated with each flood area

  10. An analyser for power plant operations

    Rogers, A.E.; Wulff, W.

    1990-01-01

    Safe and reliable operation of power plants is essential. Power plant operators need a forecast of what the plant will do when its current state is disturbed. The in-line plant analyser provides precisely this information at relatively low cost. The plant analyser scheme uses a mathematical model of the dynamic behaviour of the plant to establish a numerical simulation. Over a period of time, the simulation is calibrated with measurements from the particular plant in which it is used. The analyser then provides a reference against which to evaluate the plant's current behaviour. It can be used to alert the operator to any atypical excursions or combinations of readings that indicate malfunction or off-normal conditions that, as the Three Mile Island event suggests, are not easily recognised by operators. In a look-ahead mode, it can forecast the behaviour resulting from an intended change in settings or operating conditions. Then, when such changes are made, the plant's behaviour can be tracked against the forecast in order to assure that the plant is behaving as expected. It can be used to investigate malfunctions that have occurred and test possible adjustments in operating procedures. Finally, it can be used to consider how far from the limits of performance the elements of the plant are operating. Then by adjusting settings, the required power can be generated with as little stress as possible on the equipment. (6 figures) (Author)

  11. Remembering Operación Triunfo: a Latin Music Reality Show in the Era of Talent Shows

    Savini, Paola

    2016-01-01

    abstractThe music format Operación Triunfo (2001–2011), which aired on RTVE for the first time in 2001, started as a television (TV) and musical success in Spain and today is one of the most famous shows around the world as well as an incredible socio-economic phenomenon in Spanish TV. This paper

  12. Perforating pilomatrixoma showing atypical presentation: A rare clinical variant

    Nevra Seyhan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Pilomatrixoma, also known as calcifying epithelioma of Malherbe, is a rare benign skin tumor arising from hair follicle stem cells. The most common localization is the head and neck region. Female/male ratio is 3/2. It shows deep subcutaneous placement and occurs in the first two decades of life. Its diameter ranges from 0.5 cm to 3 cm. Multiple lesions are rarely seen. Histopathologically it is characterized by basoloid and ghost cells. Perforating type is a rare clinical variant. Treatment is surgical excision. Our case is presented to draw attention to a rare clinical variant of pilomatrixioma.

  13. PROTOTIPE VIDEO EDITOR DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN DIRECT X DAN DIRECT SHOW

    Djoni Haryadi Setiabudi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Technology development had given people the chance to capture their memorable moments in video format. A high quality digital video is a result of a good editing process. Which in turn, arise the new need of an editor application. In accordance to the problem, here the process of making a simple application for video editing needs. The application development use the programming techniques often applied in multimedia applications, especially video. First part of the application will begin with the video file compression and decompression, then we'll step into the editing part of the digital video file. Furthermore, the application also equipped with the facilities needed for the editing processes. The application made with Microsoft Visual C++ with DirectX technology, particularly DirectShow. The application provides basic facilities that will help the editing process of a digital video file. The application will produce an AVI format file after the editing process is finished. Through the testing process of this application shows the ability of this application to do the 'cut' and 'insert' of video files in AVI, MPEG, MPG and DAT formats. The 'cut' and 'insert' process only can be done in static order. Further, the aplication also provide the effects facility for transition process in each clip. Lastly, the process of saving the new edited video file in AVI format from the application. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Perkembangan teknologi memberi kesempatan masyarakat untuk mengabadikan saat - saat yang penting menggunakan video. Pembentukan video digital yang baik membutuhkan proses editing yang baik pula. Untuk melakukan proses editing video digital dibutuhkan program editor. Berdasarkan permasalahan diatas maka pada penelitian ini dibuat prototipe editor sederhana untuk video digital. Pembuatan aplikasi memakai teknik pemrograman di bidang multimedia, khususnya video. Perencanaan dalam pembuatan aplikasi tersebut dimulai dengan pembentukan

  14. Pseudo Random Coins Show More Heads Than Tails

    Bauke, Heiko; Mertens, Stephan

    2003-01-01

    Tossing a coin is the most elementary Monte Carlo experiment. In a computer the coin is replaced by a pseudo random number generator. It can be shown analytically and by exact enumerations that popular random number generators are not capable of imitating a fair coin: pseudo random coins show more heads than tails. This bias explains the empirically observed failure of some random number generators in random walk experiments. It can be traced down to the special role of the value zero in the ...

  15. Model shows future cut in U.S. ozone levels

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    A joint U.S. auto-oil industry research program says modeling shows that changing gasoline composition can reduce ozone levels for Los Angeles in 2010 and for New York City and Dallas-Fort Worth in 2005. The air quality modeling was based on vehicle emissions research data released late last year (OGJ, Dec. 24, 1990, p. 20). The effort is sponsored by the big three auto manufacturers and 14 oil companies. Sponsors the cars and small trucks account for about one third of ozone generated in the three cities studied but by 2005-10 will account for only 5-9%

  16. The use of computerized tomography in patients showing tardive dyskinesia

    Themelis, I.

    1983-01-01

    29 patients showing moderate to markedly pronounced tardive dyskinesia (TD) and a further 29 control patients (C) under a similar long-term medication with neuroleptics that had been so chosen as to match the age and sex distributions of the former group were subjected to computered tomography, neurological examination and psychological testing. The results did not point to any correlations between the structural changes and duration of treatment and the clinical signs or symptoms of extrapyramidal disorder. This was taken as further evidence in support of the theory that the initial damage in tardive dyskinesia mainly is at the level of the basal ganglia. (orig./MG) [de

  17. DIME Students Show Off their Lego(TM) Challenge Creation

    2002-01-01

    Two students show the Lego (TM) Challenge device they designed and built to operate in the portable drop tower demonstrator as part of the second Dropping in a Microgravity Environment (DIME) competition held April 23-25, 2002, at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Competitors included two teams from Sycamore High School, Cincinnati, OH, and one each from Bay High School, Bay Village, OH, and COSI Academy, Columbus, OH. DIME is part of NASA's education and outreach activities. Details are on line at http://microgravity.grc.nasa.gov/DIME_2002.html.

  18. Intracerebral metastasis showing restricted diffusion: Correlation with histopathologic findings

    Duygulu, G. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Ovali, G. Yilmaz [Radiology Department, Celal Bayar University Medicine School, Manisa (Turkey)], E-mail: gulgun.yilmaz@bayar.edu.tr; Calli, C.; Kitis, O.; Yuenten, N. [Radiology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Akalin, T. [Pathology Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey); Islekel, S. [Neurosurgery Department, Ege University Medicine School, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-04-15

    Objective: We aimed to detect the frequency of restricted diffusion in intracerebral metastases and to find whether there is correlation between the primary tumor pathology and diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings of these metastases. Material and methods: 87 patients with intracerebral metastases were examined with routine MR imaging and DWI. 11 hemorrhagic metastatic lesions were excluded. The routine MR imaging included three plans before and after contrast enhancement. The DWI was performed with spin-echo EPI sequence with three b values (0, 500 and 1000), and ADC maps were calculated. 76 patients with metastases were grouped according to primary tumor histology and the ratios of restricted diffusion were calculated according to these groups. ADCmin values were measured within the solid components of the tumors and the ratio of metastases with restricted diffusion to that which do not show restricted diffusion were calculated. Fisher's exact and Mann-Whitney U tests were used for the statistical analysis. Results: Restricted diffusion was observed in a total of 15 metastatic lesions (19, 7%). Primary malignancy was lung carcinoma in 10 of these cases (66, 6%) (5 small cell carcinoma, 5 non-small cell carcinoma), and breast carcinoma in three cases (20%). Colon carcinoma and testicular teratocarcinoma were the other two primary tumors in which restricted diffusion in metastasis was detected. There was no statistical significant difference between the primary pathology groups which showed restricted diffusion (p > 0.05). ADCmin values of solid components of the metastasis with restricted diffusion and other metastasis without restricted diffusion also showed no significant statistical difference (0.72 {+-} 0.16 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s and 0.78 {+-} 21 x 10{sup -3} mm{sup 2}/s respectively) (p = 0.325). Conclusion: Detection of restricted diffusion on DWI in intracerebral metastasis is not rare, particularly if the primary tumor is lung or breast

  19. Coupled biochemical genetic and karyomorphological analyses for ...

    S. esocinus showed five bands, S. curvifrons five, S. niger seven, S. labiatus and S. plagiostomus each showed six bands; they also showed species characteristic bands. Karyotypic study of these was carried out. The diploid chromosome numbers recorded were 98 in S. niger (24 m + 32 sm + 22 st + 20 t), 98 in S. esocinus ...

  20. High-Resolution Observations of a Filament showing Activated Barb

    Joshi, Anand; Martin, Sara F.; Mathew, Shibu; Srivastava, Nandita

    2012-07-01

    Analysis of a filament showing an activated barb using observations from the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on 2010 August 20 are presented. The DOT takes Doppler images in Hα, among other wavelengths, in a region about 110 × 110 arcsec^{2} in area, at a cadence of 30~seconds. The offline image restoration technique of speckle reconstruction is applied to obtain diffraction limited images. The filament developed a new barb in 10~minutes, which disappeared within the next 35~minutes. Such a rapid formation and disappearance of a filament barb is unusual, and has not been reported earlier. Line-of-sight velocity maps were constructed from the Doppler images of the target filament. We observe flows in the filament spine towards the barb location prior to its formation, and flows in the barb towards the spine during its disappearance. Photospheric magnetograms from Heliospheric Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, at a cadence of 45~seconds, were used to determine the changes in magnetic flux in the region surrounding the barb location. The variation of magnetic flux in this duration supports the view that barbs are rooted in minor magnetic polarity. Our analysis shows that barbs can be short-lived and formation and disappearance of the barb was associated with cancellation of magnetic flux.

  1. Double polymer sheathed carbon nanotube supercapacitors show enhanced cycling stability

    Zhao, Wenqi; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Chunhui; Wu, Shiting; Xu, Wenjing; Zou, Mingchu; Ouyang, An; Cao, Anyuan; Li, Yibin

    2015-12-01

    Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices.Pseudo-materials are effective in boosting the specific capacitance of supercapacitors, but during service their degradation may also be very strong, causing reduced cycling stability. Here, we show that a carbon nanotube sponge grafted by two conventional pseudo-polymer layers in sequence can serve as a porous supercapacitor electrode with significantly enhanced cycling stability compared with single polymer grafting. Creating conformal polymer coatings on the nanotube surface and the resulting double-sheath configuration are important structural factors leading to the enhanced performance. Combining different polymers as double sheaths as reported here might be a potential route to circumvent the dilemma of pseudo-materials, and to simultaneously improve the capacitance and stability for various energy storage devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05978j

  2. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    Ching-Chia Tang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface.

  3. Fish kidney cells show higher tolerance to hyperosmolality than amphibian

    Lang Gui

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In contrast to fish, amphibians inhabit both aquatic and terrestrial environments. To better understand osmoregulation in fish and amphibian, we have investigated the morphological changes in kidney cells to osmotic stress. To address this, kidney cell line isolated from the freshwater grass carp (CIK and Chinese giant salamander (GSK were challenged to different mediums with distinct osmotic pressures (100, 300 and 700 mOsm. Morphological alterations of the fish and amphibian cells were compared by optical and electron microscopy. Following hyposmotic treatment (100 mOsm, both CIK and GSK cells became unhealthy and show condensed chromatin, swollen mitochondria and cytoplasmic vacuole. Meanwhile, after hyperosmotic treatment (700 mOsm, shrunken CIK cells with multipolar shape, pale or lightly stained cytoplasm, condensed chromatin, vacuoles and swollen mitochondria were detected. GSK cells were seriously damaged and most were completely lysed. The results suggest that fish kidney cells show a higher degree of tolerance to hyperosmoticity by comparing to amphibians and provide novel insights on the osmoregulatory capacity and adaptability of kidney cells between the two animal groups.

  4. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  5. Face and body recognition show similar improvement during childhood.

    Bank, Samantha; Rhodes, Gillian; Read, Ainsley; Jeffery, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Adults are proficient in extracting identity cues from faces. This proficiency develops slowly during childhood, with performance not reaching adult levels until adolescence. Bodies are similar to faces in that they convey identity cues and rely on specialized perceptual mechanisms. However, it is currently unclear whether body recognition mirrors the slow development of face recognition during childhood. Recent evidence suggests that body recognition develops faster than face recognition. Here we measured body and face recognition in 6- and 10-year-old children and adults to determine whether these two skills show different amounts of improvement during childhood. We found no evidence that they do. Face and body recognition showed similar improvement with age, and children, like adults, were better at recognizing faces than bodies. These results suggest that the mechanisms of face and body memory mature at a similar rate or that improvement of more general cognitive and perceptual skills underlies improvement of both face and body recognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research

    Michael L. Davies

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA. This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14 for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75–79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  7. Large-Scale No-Show Patterns and Distributions for Clinic Operational Research.

    Davies, Michael L; Goffman, Rachel M; May, Jerrold H; Monte, Robert J; Rodriguez, Keri L; Tjader, Youxu C; Vargas, Dominic L

    2016-02-16

    Patient no-shows for scheduled primary care appointments are common. Unused appointment slots reduce patient quality of care, access to services and provider productivity while increasing loss to follow-up and medical costs. This paper describes patterns of no-show variation by patient age, gender, appointment age, and type of appointment request for six individual service lines in the United States Veterans Health Administration (VHA). This retrospective observational descriptive project examined 25,050,479 VHA appointments contained in individual-level records for eight years (FY07-FY14) for 555,183 patients. Multifactor analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed, with no-show rate as the dependent variable, and gender, age group, appointment age, new patient status, and service line as factors. The analyses revealed that males had higher no-show rates than females to age 65, at which point males and females exhibited similar rates. The average no-show rates decreased with age until 75-79, whereupon rates increased. As appointment age increased, males and new patients had increasing no-show rates. Younger patients are especially prone to no-show as appointment age increases. These findings provide novel information to healthcare practitioners and management scientists to more accurately characterize no-show and attendance rates and the impact of certain patient factors. Future general population data could determine whether findings from VHA data generalize to others.

  8. Prostate cancer patient subsets showing improved bNED control with adjuvant androgen deprivation

    Anderson, Penny R.; Hanlon, Alexandra L.; Movsas, Benjamin; Hanks, Gerald E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Cooperative groups have investigated the outcome of androgen deprivation therapy combined with radiation therapy in prostate cancer patients with variable pretreatment prognostic indicators. This report describes an objective means of selecting patients for adjuvant hormonal therapy by a retrospective matched case/control comparison of outcome between patients with specific pretreatment characteristics who receive adjuvant hormones (RT + H) vs. patients with identical pretreatment characteristics treated with radiation therapy alone (RT). In addition, this report shows the 5-year bNED control for patients selected by this method for RT + H vs. RT alone. Methods and Materials: From (10(88)) to (12(93)), 517 T1-T3 NXM0 patients with known pretreatment PSA level were treated at Fox Chase Cancer Center. Four hundred fifty-nine of those patients were treated with RT alone while 58 were treated with RT + H. The patients were categorized according to putative prognostic factors indicative of bNED control, which include the palpation stage, Gleason score, and pretreatment PSA. We compared actuarial bNED control rates according to treatment group within each of the prognostic groups. In addition, we devised a retrospective matched case/control selection of RT patients for comparison with the RT + H group. Five-year bNED control was compared for the two treatment groups, excluding the best prognosis group, using 56 RT + H patients and 56 matched (by stage, grade, and pretreatment PSA level) controls randomly selected from the RT alone group. bNED control for the entire group of 517 patients was then analyzed multivariately using step-wise Cox regression to determine independent predictors of outcome. Covariates considered for entry into the model included stage (T1/T2AB vs. T2C/T3), grade (2-6 vs. 7-10), pretreatment PSA (0-15 vs. > 15), treatment (RT vs. RT + H), and center of prostate dose. bNED failure is defined as PSA ≥1.5 ngm/ml and rising on two consecutive

  9. Target gene analyses of 39 amelogenesis imperfecta kindreds

    Chan, Hui-Chen; Estrella, Ninna M. R. P.; Milkovich, Rachel N.; Kim, Jung-Wook; Simmer, James P.; Hu, Jan C-C.

    2012-01-01

    Previously, mutational analyses identified six disease-causing mutations in 24 amelogenesis imperfecta (AI) kindreds. We have since expanded the number of AI kindreds to 39, and performed mutation analyses covering the coding exons and adjoining intron sequences for the six proven AI candidate genes [amelogenin (AMELX), enamelin (ENAM), family with sequence similarity 83, member H (FAM83H), WD repeat containing domain 72 (WDR72), enamelysin (MMP20), and kallikrein-related peptidase 4 (KLK4)] and for ameloblastin (AMBN) (a suspected candidate gene). All four of the X-linked AI families (100%) had disease-causing mutations in AMELX, suggesting that AMELX is the only gene involved in the aetiology of X-linked AI. Eighteen families showed an autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance. Disease-causing mutations were identified in 12 (67%): eight in FAM83H, and four in ENAM. No FAM83H coding-region or splice-junction mutations were identified in three probands with autosomal-dominant hypocalcification AI (ADHCAI), suggesting that a second gene may contribute to the aetiology of ADHCAI. Six families showed an autosomal-recessive pattern of inheritance, and disease-causing mutations were identified in three (50%): two in MMP20, and one in WDR72. No disease-causing mutations were found in 11 families with only one affected member. We conclude that mutation analyses of the current candidate genes for AI have about a 50% chance of identifying the disease-causing mutation in a given kindred. PMID:22243262

  10. Unconscious analyses of visual scenes based on feature conjunctions.

    Tachibana, Ryosuke; Noguchi, Yasuki

    2015-06-01

    To efficiently process a cluttered scene, the visual system analyzes statistical properties or regularities of visual elements embedded in the scene. It is controversial, however, whether those scene analyses could also work for stimuli unconsciously perceived. Here we show that our brain performs the unconscious scene analyses not only using a single featural cue (e.g., orientation) but also based on conjunctions of multiple visual features (e.g., combinations of color and orientation information). Subjects foveally viewed a stimulus array (duration: 50 ms) where 4 types of bars (red-horizontal, red-vertical, green-horizontal, and green-vertical) were intermixed. Although a conscious perception of those bars was inhibited by a subsequent mask stimulus, the brain correctly analyzed the information about color, orientation, and color-orientation conjunctions of those invisible bars. The information of those features was then used for the unconscious configuration analysis (statistical processing) of the central bars, which induced a perceptual bias and illusory feature binding in visible stimuli at peripheral locations. While statistical analyses and feature binding are normally 2 key functions of the visual system to construct coherent percepts of visual scenes, our results show that a high-level analysis combining those 2 functions is correctly performed by unconscious computations in the brain. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  12. Talk shows, fascinación o rechazo

    Jorge Acevedo Rojas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infidelidades, odio, violencia, alcoholismo, mentira y traiciones, entre otras debilidades humanas, han pasado a formar parte de las programaciones de televisión en América Latina, durante la década de los 90 a través de los programas de Talk Shows. Cristina, El Padre Alberto, Laura en América, Mary Tere, entre los más vistos. Da cuenta de lo que hay detrás de estos programas; por qué se muestra la vida íntima; por qué se los dirige a sectores socioeconómicos bajos; por qué los excesos y degradación humana. Será que esta televisión basura está al servicio del poder.

  13. Machine-Learning-Based No Show Prediction in Outpatient Visits

    Carlos Elvira

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A recurring problem in healthcare is the high percentage of patients who miss their appointment, be it a consultation or a hospital test. The present study seeks patient’s behavioural patterns that allow predicting the probability of no- shows. We explore the convenience of using Big Data Machine Learning models to accomplish this task. To begin with, a predictive model based only on variables associated with the target appointment is built. Then the model is improved by considering the patient’s history of appointments. In both cases, the Gradient Boosting algorithm was the predictor of choice. Our numerical results are considered promising given the small amount of information available. However, there seems to be plenty of room to improve the model if we manage to collect additional data for both patients and appointments.

  14. Showing Off in Humans: Male Generosity as a Mating Signal

    Wendy Iredale

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined people's charity contributions while in the presence of an observer of the same sex, opposite sex, or no observer. Inspired by costly signaling theory, we hypothesized that men would be more generous in the presence of a potential mate. Men and women played a number of experimental games in which they could earn money. On completion of these games participants were asked what percentage of their earned money they would be willing to donate to charity. Our results show that men contribute more to charity when observed by a member of the opposite sex than by a member of the same sex or no observer. Conversely, female charity donations did not significantly vary across the three observer conditions. Findings support the notion that men's generosity might have evolved as a mating signal.

  15. KAKO PREDŠKOLSKA DJECA VIDE "BIG BROTHER" SHOW?

    Janković, Andrea; Sindik, Joško; Jaman, Kamea

    2007-01-01

    Cilj istraživanja bio je ispitivanje nekih karakteristika gledanosti Big Brother show-a kod djece predškolske dobi, razloga gledanja te emisije, s aspekta preferiranih sadržaja emisije te ličnosti (kandidata) koje preferiraju djeca. Ispitan je prigodni uzorak djece srednje i starije vrtićke dobi iz 3 dječja vrtića iz Zagreba (Dječjeg vrtića Grigora Viteza i Dječjeg vrtića "Maksimir" i "Trnoružica", N = 142). Utvrđene su čestine razloga preferencije pojedinih sudionika show–a te pojedinih s...

  16. SuperFormLab: showing SuperFormLab

    2013-01-01

    bachelor program, followed by two years of master studies. The courses are offered equally to students from other design disciplines, e.g. industrial design. Teaching is mainly in English as the program is attended by a relatively large group of non-Danish students, who seek exactly this combination......3D-printing in clay and ceramic objects shaped by your own sounds and movements! Digital form transferred via CNC-milling to ornamental ceramic wall-cladding. Brave New World… Students and their teacher at SuperFormLab, the new ceramic workshop of the School of Design at the Royal Danish Academy...... of Fine Arts in Copenhagen, will be showing results of their investigations into the potential of combining digital technologies with ceramic materials. It is now possible to shape the most complex mathematical, virtual 3D objects through the use of advanced software-programs. And more than that – you can...

  17. Bex1 knock out mice show altered skeletal muscle regeneration

    Koo, Jae Hyung; Smiley, Mark A.; Lovering, Richard M.; Margolis, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Bex1 and Calmodulin (CaM) are upregulated during skeletal muscle regeneration. We confirm this finding and demonstrate the novel finding that they interact in a calcium-dependent manner. To study the role of Bex1 and its interaction with CaM in skeletal muscle regeneration, we generated Bex1 knock out (Bex1-KO) mice. These mice appeared to develop normally and are fertile, but displayed a functional deficit in exercise performance compared to wild type (WT) mice. After intramuscular injection of cardiotoxin, which causes extensive and reproducible myotrauma followed by recovery, regenerating muscles of Bex1-KO mice exhibited elevated and prolonged cell proliferation, as well as delayed cell differentiation, compared to WT mice. Thus, our results provide the first evidence that Bex1-KO mice show altered muscle regeneration, and allow us to propose that the interaction of Bex1 with Ca 2+ /CaM may be involved in skeletal muscle regeneration

  18. Measuring political polarization: Twitter shows the two sides of Venezuela

    Morales, A. J.; Borondo, J.; Losada, J. C.; Benito, R. M.

    2015-03-01

    We say that a population is perfectly polarized when divided in two groups of the same size and opposite opinions. In this paper, we propose a methodology to study and measure the emergence of polarization from social interactions. We begin by proposing a model to estimate opinions in which a minority of influential individuals propagate their opinions through a social network. The result of the model is an opinion probability density function. Next, we propose an index to quantify the extent to which the resulting distribution is polarized. Finally, we apply the proposed methodology to a Twitter conversation about the late Venezuelan president, Hugo Chávez, finding a good agreement between our results and offline data. Hence, we show that our methodology can detect different degrees of polarization, depending on the structure of the network.

  19. Prestin shows divergent evolution between constant frequency echolocating bats.

    Shen, Bin; Avila-Flores, Rafael; Liu, Yang; Rossiter, Stephen J; Zhang, Shuyi

    2011-10-01

    The gene Prestin encodes a motor protein that is thought to confer the high-frequency sensitivity and selectivity that characterizes the mammalian auditory system. Recent research shows that the Prestin gene has undergone a burst of positive selection on the ancestral branch of the Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats (Rhinolophidae and Hipposideridae, respectively), and also on the branch leading to echolocating cetaceans. Moreover, these two groups share a large number of convergent amino acid sequence replacements. Horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats exhibit narrowband echolocation, in which the emitted calls are based on the second harmonic of a predominantly constant frequency (CF) component, the frequency of which is also over-represented in the cochlea. This highly specialized form of echolocation has also evolved independently in the neotropical Parnell's mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii). To test whether the convergent evolution of CF echolocation between lineages has arisen from common changes in the Prestin gene, we sequenced the Prestin coding region (~2,212 bp, >99% coverage) in P. parnellii and several related species that use broadband echolocation calls. Our reconstructed Prestin gene tree and amino acid tree showed that P. parnellii did not group together with Old World horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats, but rather clustered within its true sister species. Comparisons of sequences confirmed that P. parnellii shared most amino acid changes with its congeners, and we found no evidence of positive selection in the branch leading to the genus of Pteronotus. Our result suggests that the adaptive changes seen in Prestin in horseshoe and leaf-nosed bats are not necessary for CF echolocation in P. parnellii.

  20. Patterned basal seismicity shows sub-ice stream bedforms

    Barcheck, C. G.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Schwartz, S. Y.

    2017-12-01

    Patterns in seismicity emanating from the bottom of fast-moving ice streams and glaciers may indicate localized patches of higher basal resistance— sometimes called 'sticky spots', or otherwise varying basal properties. These seismogenic basal areas resist an unknown portion of the total driving stress of the Whillans Ice Plain (WIP), in West Antarctica, but may play an important role in the WIP stick-slip cycle and ice stream slowdown. To better understand the mechanism and importance of basal seismicity beneath the WIP, we analyze seismic data collected by a small aperture (micro-earthquakes in Dec 2014, and we compare the resulting map of seismicity to ice bottom depth measured by airborne radar. The number of basal earthquakes per area within the network is spatially heterogeneous, but a pattern of two 400m wide streaks of high seismicity rates is evident, with >50-500 earthquakes detected per 50x50m grid cell in 2 weeks. These seismically active streaks are elongated approximately in the ice flow direction with a spacing of 750m. Independent airborne radar measurements of ice bottom depth from Jan 2013 show a low-amplitude ( 5m) undulation in the basal topography superposed on a regional gradient in ice bottom depth. The flow-perpendicular wavelength of these low-amplitude undulations is comparable to the spacing of the high seismicity bands, and the streaks of high seismicity intersect local lows in the undulating basal topography. We interpret these seismic and radar observations as showing seismically active sub-ice stream bedforms that are low amplitude and elongated in the direction of ice flow, comparable to the morphology of mega scale glacial lineations (MSGLs), with high basal seismicity rates observed in the MSGL troughs. These results have implications for understanding the formation mechanism of MSGLS and well as understanding the interplay between basal topographic roughness, spatially varying basal till and hydrologic properties, basal

  1. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Schmid, T E; Zlobinskaya, O; Michalski, D; Molls, M; Multhoff, G; Greubel, C; Hable, V; Girst, S; Siebenwirth, C; Dollinger, G; Schmid, E

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm −1 ) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBE MN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBE D = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human–hamster hybrid (A L ) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm 2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm 2 matrix applied protons (RBE MN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBE D = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12 C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u −1 ). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12 C ions (RBE MN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBE D = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles. (paper)

  2. Low LET protons focused to submicrometer shows enhanced radiobiological effectiveness

    Schmid, T. E.; Greubel, C.; Hable, V.; Zlobinskaya, O.; Michalski, D.; Girst, S.; Siebenwirth, C.; Schmid, E.; Molls, M.; Multhoff, G.; Dollinger, G.

    2012-10-01

    This study shows that enhanced radiobiological effectiveness (RBE) values can be generated focusing low linear energy transfer (LET) radiation and thus changing the microdose distribution. 20 MeV protons (LET = 2.65 keV µm-1) are focused to submicrometer diameter at the ion microprobe superconducting nanoprobe for applied nuclear (Kern) physics experiments of the Munich tandem accelerator. The RBE values, as determined by measuring micronuclei (RBEMN = 1.48 ± 0.07) and dicentrics (RBED = 1.92 ± 0.15), in human-hamster hybrid (AL) cells are significantly higher when 117 protons were focused to a submicrometer irradiation field within a 5.4 × 5.4 µm2 matrix compared to quasi homogeneous in a 1 × 1 µm2 matrix applied protons (RBEMN = 1.28 ± 0.07; RBED = 1.41 ± 0.14) at the same average dose of 1.7 Gy. The RBE values are normalized to standard 70 kV (dicentrics) or 200 kV (micronuclei) x-ray irradiation. The 117 protons applied per point deposit the same amount of energy like a 12C ion with 55 MeV total energy (4.48 MeV u-1). The enhancements are about half of that obtained for 12C ions (RBEMN = 2.20 ± 0.06 and RBED = 3.21 ± 0.10) and they are attributed to intertrack interactions of the induced damages. The measured RBE values show differences from predictions of the local effect model (LEM III) that is used to calculate RBE values for irradiation plans to treat tumors with high LET particles.

  3. Decoding the complex brain: multivariate and multimodal analyses of neuroimaging data

    Salami, Alireza

    2012-07-01

    Functional brain images are extraordinarily rich data sets that reveal distributed brain networks engaged in a wide variety of cognitive operations. It is a substantial challenge both to create models of cognition that mimic behavior and underlying cognitive processes and to choose a suitable analytic method to identify underlying brain networks. Most of the contemporary techniques used in analyses of functional neuroimaging data are based on univariate approaches in which single image elements (i.e. voxels) are considered to be computationally independent measures. Beyond univariate methods (e.g. statistical parametric mapping), multivariate approaches, which identify a network across all regions of the brain rather than a tessellation of regions, are potentially well suited for analyses of brain imaging data. A multivariate method (e.g. partial least squares) is a computational strategy that determines time-varying distributed patterns of the brain (as a function of a cognitive task). Compared to its univariate counterparts, a multivariate approach provides greater levels of sensitivity and reflects cooperative interactions among brain regions. Thus, by considering information across more than one measuring point, additional information on brain function can be revealed. Similarly, by considering information across more than one measuring technique, the nature of underlying cognitive processes become well-understood. Cognitive processes have been investigated in conjunction with multiple neuroimaging modalities (e.g. fMRI, sMRI, EEG, DTI), whereas the typical method has been to analyze each modality separately. Accordingly, little work has been carried out to examine the relation between different modalities. Indeed, due to the interconnected nature of brain processing, it is plausible that changes in one modality locally or distally modulate changes in another modality. This thesis focuses on multivariate and multimodal methods of image analysis applied to

  4. Decoding the complex brain: multivariate and multimodal analyses of neuroimaging data

    Salami, Alireza

    2012-01-01

    Functional brain images are extraordinarily rich data sets that reveal distributed brain networks engaged in a wide variety of cognitive operations. It is a substantial challenge both to create models of cognition that mimic behavior and underlying cognitive processes and to choose a suitable analytic method to identify underlying brain networks. Most of the contemporary techniques used in analyses of functional neuroimaging data are based on univariate approaches in which single image elements (i.e. voxels) are considered to be computationally independent measures. Beyond univariate methods (e.g. statistical parametric mapping), multivariate approaches, which identify a network across all regions of the brain rather than a tessellation of regions, are potentially well suited for analyses of brain imaging data. A multivariate method (e.g. partial least squares) is a computational strategy that determines time-varying distributed patterns of the brain (as a function of a cognitive task). Compared to its univariate counterparts, a multivariate approach provides greater levels of sensitivity and reflects cooperative interactions among brain regions. Thus, by considering information across more than one measuring point, additional information on brain function can be revealed. Similarly, by considering information across more than one measuring technique, the nature of underlying cognitive processes become well-understood. Cognitive processes have been investigated in conjunction with multiple neuroimaging modalities (e.g. fMRI, sMRI, EEG, DTI), whereas the typical method has been to analyze each modality separately. Accordingly, little work has been carried out to examine the relation between different modalities. Indeed, due to the interconnected nature of brain processing, it is plausible that changes in one modality locally or distally modulate changes in another modality. This thesis focuses on multivariate and multimodal methods of image analysis applied to

  5. Elemental abundance and analyses with coadded DAO spectrograms

    Adelman, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    One can improve the quality of elemental abundance analyses by using higher signal-to-noise data than has been the practice at high resolution. The procedures developed at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory to coadd high-dispersion coude spectrograms are used with a minimum of 10 6.5 A mm -1 IIa-O spectrograms of each of three field horizontal-branch (FHB)A stars to increase the signal-to-noise ratio of the photographic data over a considerable wavelength region. Fine analyses of the sharp-lined prototype FHB stars HD 109995 and 161817 show an internal consistency which justifies this effort. Their photospheric elemental abundances are similar to those of Population II globular cluster giants. (author)

  6. SVM models for analysing the headstreams of mine water inrush

    Yan Zhi-gang; Du Pei-jun; Guo Da-zhi [China University of Science and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Environmental Science and Spatial Informatics

    2007-08-15

    The support vector machine (SVM) model was introduced to analyse the headstrean of water inrush in a coal mine. The SVM model, based on a hydrogeochemical method, was constructed for recognising two kinds of headstreams and the H-SVMs model was constructed for recognising multi- headstreams. The SVM method was applied to analyse the conditions of two mixed headstreams and the value of the SVM decision function was investigated as a means of denoting the hydrogeochemical abnormality. The experimental results show that the SVM is based on a strict mathematical theory, has a simple structure and a good overall performance. Moreover the parameter W in the decision function can describe the weights of discrimination indices of the headstream of water inrush. The value of the decision function can denote hydrogeochemistry abnormality, which is significant in the prevention of water inrush in a coal mine. 9 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  7. Physiological and enzymatic analyses of pineapple subjected to ionizing radiation

    Silva, Josenilda Maria da; Silva, Juliana Pizarro; Spoto, Marta Helena Fillet

    2007-01-01

    The physiological and enzymatic post-harvest characteristics of the pineapple cultivar Smooth Cayenne were evaluated after the fruits were gamma-irradiated with doses of 100 and 150 Gy and the fruits were stored for 10, 20 and 30 days at 12 deg C (±1) and relative humidity of 85% (±5). Physiological and enzymatic analyses were made for each storage period to evaluate the alterations resulting from the application of ionizing radiation. Control specimens showed higher values of soluble pectins, total pectins, reducing sugars, sucrose and total sugars and lower values of polyphenyloxidase and polygalacturonase enzyme activities. All the analyses indicated that storage time is a significantly influencing factor. The 100 Gy dosage and 20-day storage period presented the best results from the standpoint of maturation and conservation of the fruits quality. (author)

  8. Comparison of elastic and inelastic analyses

    Ammerman, D.J.; Heinstein, M.W.; Wellman, G.W.

    1992-01-01

    The use of inelastic analysis methods instead of the traditional elastic analysis methods in the design of radioactive material (RAM) transport packagings leads to a better understanding of the response of the package to mechanical loadings. Thus, better assessment of the containment, thermal protection, and shielding integrity of the package after a structure accident event can be made. A more accurate prediction of the package response can lead to enhanced safety and also allow for a more efficient use of materials, possibly leading to a package with higher capacity or lower weight. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using inelastic analysis in the design of RAM shipping packages. The use of inelastic analysis presents several problems to the package designer. When using inelastic analysis the entire nonlinear response of the material must be known, including the effects of temperature changes and strain rate. Another problem is that there currently is not an acceptance criteria for this type of analysis that is approved by regulatory agencies. Inelastic analysis acceptance criteria based on failure stress, failure strain , or plastic energy density could be developed. For both elastic and inelastic analyses it is also important to include other sources of stress in the analyses, such as fabrication stresses, thermal stresses, stresses from bolt preloading, and contact stresses at material interfaces. Offsetting these added difficulties is the improved knowledge of the package behavior. This allows for incorporation of a more uniform margin of safety, which can result in weight savings and a higher level of confidence in the post-accident configuration of the package. In this paper, comparisons between elastic and inelastic analyses are made for a simple ring structure and for a package to transport a large quantity of RAM by rail (rail cask) with lead gamma shielding to illustrate the differences in the two analysis techniques

  9. IDEA: Interactive Display for Evolutionary Analyses.

    Egan, Amy; Mahurkar, Anup; Crabtree, Jonathan; Badger, Jonathan H; Carlton, Jane M; Silva, Joana C

    2008-12-08

    The availability of complete genomic sequences for hundreds of organisms promises to make obtaining genome-wide estimates of substitution rates, selective constraints and other molecular evolution variables of interest an increasingly important approach to addressing broad evolutionary questions. Two of the programs most widely used for this purpose are codeml and baseml, parts of the PAML (Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood) suite. A significant drawback of these programs is their lack of a graphical user interface, which can limit their user base and considerably reduce their efficiency. We have developed IDEA (Interactive Display for Evolutionary Analyses), an intuitive graphical input and output interface which interacts with PHYLIP for phylogeny reconstruction and with codeml and baseml for molecular evolution analyses. IDEA's graphical input and visualization interfaces eliminate the need to edit and parse text input and output files, reducing the likelihood of errors and improving processing time. Further, its interactive output display gives the user immediate access to results. Finally, IDEA can process data in parallel on a local machine or computing grid, allowing genome-wide analyses to be completed quickly. IDEA provides a graphical user interface that allows the user to follow a codeml or baseml analysis from parameter input through to the exploration of results. Novel options streamline the analysis process, and post-analysis visualization of phylogenies, evolutionary rates and selective constraint along protein sequences simplifies the interpretation of results. The integration of these functions into a single tool eliminates the need for lengthy data handling and parsing, significantly expediting access to global patterns in the data.

  10. IDEA: Interactive Display for Evolutionary Analyses

    Carlton Jane M

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of complete genomic sequences for hundreds of organisms promises to make obtaining genome-wide estimates of substitution rates, selective constraints and other molecular evolution variables of interest an increasingly important approach to addressing broad evolutionary questions. Two of the programs most widely used for this purpose are codeml and baseml, parts of the PAML (Phylogenetic Analysis by Maximum Likelihood suite. A significant drawback of these programs is their lack of a graphical user interface, which can limit their user base and considerably reduce their efficiency. Results We have developed IDEA (Interactive Display for Evolutionary Analyses, an intuitive graphical input and output interface which interacts with PHYLIP for phylogeny reconstruction and with codeml and baseml for molecular evolution analyses. IDEA's graphical input and visualization interfaces eliminate the need to edit and parse text input and output files, reducing the likelihood of errors and improving processing time. Further, its interactive output display gives the user immediate access to results. Finally, IDEA can process data in parallel on a local machine or computing grid, allowing genome-wide analyses to be completed quickly. Conclusion IDEA provides a graphical user interface that allows the user to follow a codeml or baseml analysis from parameter input through to the exploration of results. Novel options streamline the analysis process, and post-analysis visualization of phylogenies, evolutionary rates and selective constraint along protein sequences simplifies the interpretation of results. The integration of these functions into a single tool eliminates the need for lengthy data handling and parsing, significantly expediting access to global patterns in the data.

  11. Bayesian uncertainty analyses of probabilistic risk models

    Pulkkinen, U.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of Bayesian principles to the uncertainty analyses are discussed in the paper. A short review of the most important uncertainties and their causes is provided. An application of the principle of maximum entropy to the determination of Bayesian prior distributions is described. An approach based on so called probabilistic structures is presented in order to develop a method of quantitative evaluation of modelling uncertainties. The method is applied to a small example case. Ideas for application areas for the proposed method are discussed

  12. Safety analyses for high-temperature reactors

    Mueller, A.

    1978-01-01

    The safety evaluation of HTRs may be based on the three methods presented here: The licensing procedure, the probabilistic risk analysis, and the damage extent analysis. Thereby all safety aspects - from normal operation to the extreme (hypothetical) accidents - of the HTR are covered. The analyses within the licensing procedure of the HTR-1160 have shown that for normal operation and for the design basis accidents the radiation exposures remain clearly below the maximum permissible levels as prescribed by the radiation protection ordinance, so that no real hazard for the population will avise from them. (orig./RW) [de

  13. Introduction: Analysing Emotion and Theorising Affect

    Peta Tait

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This discussion introduces ideas of emotion and affect for a volume of articles demonstrating the scope of approaches used in their study within the humanities and creative arts. The volume offers multiple perspectives on emotion and affect within 20th-century and 21st-century texts, arts and organisations and their histories. The discussion explains how emotion encompasses the emotions, emotional feeling, sensation and mood and how these can be analysed particularly in relation to literature, art and performance. It briefly summarises concepts of affect theory within recent approaches before introducing the articles.

  14. Applications of neural network to numerical analyses

    Takeda, Tatsuoki; Fukuhara, Makoto; Ma, Xiao-Feng; Liaqat, Ali

    1999-01-01

    Applications of a multi-layer neural network to numerical analyses are described. We are mainly concerned with the computed tomography and the solution of differential equations. In both cases as the objective functions for the training process of the neural network we employed residuals of the integral equation or the differential equations. This is different from the conventional neural network training where sum of the squared errors of the output values is adopted as the objective function. For model problems both the methods gave satisfactory results and the methods are considered promising for some kind of problems. (author)

  15. Komparativ analyse - Scandinavian Airlines & Norwegian Air Shuttle

    Kallesen, Martin Nystrup; Singh, Ravi Pal; Boesen, Nana Wiaberg

    2017-01-01

    The project is based around a pondering of how that a company the size of Scandinavian Airlines or Norwegian Air Shuttle use their Finances and how they see their external environment. This has led to us researching the relationship between the companies and their finances as well as their external environment, and how they differ in both.To do this we have utilised a myriad of different methods to analyse the companies, including PESTEL, SWOT, TOWS; DCF, risk analysis, Sensitivity, Porter’s ...

  16. Cost/benefit analyses of environmental impact

    Goldman, M.I.

    1974-01-01

    Various aspects of cost-benefit analyses are considered. Some topics discussed are: regulations of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA); statement of AEC policy and procedures for implementation of NEPA; Calvert Cliffs decision; AEC Regulatory Guide; application of risk-benefit analysis to nuclear power; application of the as low as practicable (ALAP) rule to radiation discharges; thermal discharge restrictions proposed by EPA under the 1972 Amendment to the Water Pollution Control Act; estimates of somatic and genetic insult per unit population exposure; occupational exposure; EPA Point Source Guidelines for Discharges from Steam Electric Power Plants; and costs of closed-cycle cooling using cooling towers. (U.S.)

  17. The phaco machine: analysing new technology.

    Fishkind, William J

    2013-01-01

    The phaco machine is frequently overlooked as the crucial surgical instrument it is. Understanding how to set parameters is initiated by understanding fundamental concepts of machine function. This study analyses the critical concepts of partial occlusion phaco, occlusion phaco and pump technology. In addition, phaco energy categories as well as variations of phaco energy production are explored. Contemporary power modulations and pump controls allow for the enhancement of partial occlusion phacoemulsification. These significant changes in the anterior chamber dynamics produce a balanced environment for phaco; less complications; and improved patient outcomes.

  18. Nuclear analyses of the Pietroasa gold hoard

    Cojocaru, V.; Besliu, C.

    1999-01-01

    By means of nuclear analyses the concentrations of Au, Ag, Cu, Ir, Os, Pt, Co and Hg were measured in the 12 artifacts of the gold hoard discovered in 1837 at Pietroasa, Buzau country in Romania. The concentrations of the first four elements were used to compare different stylistic groups assumed by historians. Comparisons with gold nuggets from the old Dacian territory and gold Roman imperial coins were also made. A good agreement was found with the oldest hypothesis which considers that the hoard is represented by three styles appropriated mainly by the Goths. (author)

  19. An evaluation of the Olympus "Quickrate" analyser.

    Williams, D G; Wood, R J; Worth, H G

    1979-02-01

    The Olympus "Quickrate", a photometer built for both kinetic and end point analysis was evaluated in this laboratory. Aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase were measured in the kinetic mode and glucose, urea, total protein, albumin, bilirubin, calcium and iron in the end point mode. Overall, good correlation was observed with routine methodologies and the precision of the methods was acceptable. An electrical evaluation was also performed. In our hands, the instrument proved to be simple to use and gave no trouble. It should prove useful for paediatric and emergency work, and as a back up for other analysers.

  20. Pumilio2-deficient mice show a predisposition for epilepsy

    Philipp Follwaczny

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a neurological disease that is caused by abnormal hypersynchronous activities of neuronal ensembles leading to recurrent and spontaneous seizures in human patients. Enhanced neuronal excitability and a high level of synchrony between neurons seem to trigger these spontaneous seizures. The molecular mechanisms, however, regarding the development of neuronal hyperexcitability and maintenance of epilepsy are still poorly understood. Here, we show that pumilio RNA-binding family member 2 (Pumilio2; Pum2 plays a role in the regulation of excitability in hippocampal neurons of weaned and 5-month-old male mice. Almost complete deficiency of Pum2 in adult Pum2 gene-trap mice (Pum2 GT causes misregulation of genes involved in neuronal excitability control. Interestingly, this finding is accompanied by the development of spontaneous epileptic seizures in Pum2 GT mice. Furthermore, we detect an age-dependent increase in Scn1a (Nav1.1 and Scn8a (Nav1.6 mRNA levels together with a decrease in Scn2a (Nav1.2 transcript levels in weaned Pum2 GT that is absent in older mice. Moreover, field recordings of CA1 pyramidal neurons show a tendency towards a reduced paired-pulse inhibition after stimulation of the Schaffer-collateral-commissural pathway in Pum2 GT mice, indicating a predisposition to the development of spontaneous seizures at later stages. With the onset of spontaneous seizures at the age of 5 months, we detect increased protein levels of Nav1.1 and Nav1.2 as well as decreased protein levels of Nav1.6 in those mice. In addition, GABA receptor subunit alpha-2 (Gabra2 mRNA levels are increased in weaned and adult mice. Furthermore, we observe an enhanced GABRA2 protein level in the dendritic field of the CA1 subregion in the Pum2 GT hippocampus. We conclude that altered expression levels of known epileptic risk factors such as Nav1.1, Nav1.2, Nav1.6 and GABRA2 result in enhanced seizure susceptibility and manifestation of epilepsy in the

  1. Homeopathy: meta-analyses of pooled clinical data.

    Hahn, Robert G

    2013-01-01

    In the first decade of the evidence-based era, which began in the mid-1990s, meta-analyses were used to scrutinize homeopathy for evidence of beneficial effects in medical conditions. In this review, meta-analyses including pooled data from placebo-controlled clinical trials of homeopathy and the aftermath in the form of debate articles were analyzed. In 1997 Klaus Linde and co-workers identified 89 clinical trials that showed an overall odds ratio of 2.45 in favor of homeopathy over placebo. There was a trend toward smaller benefit from studies of the highest quality, but the 10 trials with the highest Jadad score still showed homeopathy had a statistically significant effect. These results challenged academics to perform alternative analyses that, to demonstrate the lack of effect, relied on extensive exclusion of studies, often to the degree that conclusions were based on only 5-10% of the material, or on virtual data. The ultimate argument against homeopathy is the 'funnel plot' published by Aijing Shang's research group in 2005. However, the funnel plot is flawed when applied to a mixture of diseases, because studies with expected strong treatments effects are, for ethical reasons, powered lower than studies with expected weak or unclear treatment effects. To conclude that homeopathy lacks clinical effect, more than 90% of the available clinical trials had to be disregarded. Alternatively, flawed statistical methods had to be applied. Future meta-analyses should focus on the use of homeopathy in specific diseases or groups of diseases instead of pooling data from all clinical trials. © 2013 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  2. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    Dykes Anna-Karin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1% met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Results Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4% women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5% women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26 of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08, OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50, respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96. Conclusions Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia.

  3. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term.

    Finnbogadóttir, Hafrún; Dejin-Karlsson, Elisabeth; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2011-02-21

    Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1%) met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4%) women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5%) women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26) of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08), OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50), respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96). Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia.

  4. A multi-centre cohort study shows no association between experienced violence and labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term

    2011-01-01

    Background Although both labour dystocia and domestic violence during pregnancy are associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcome, evidence in support of a possible association between experiences of domestic violence and labour dystocia is sparse. The aim of this study was to investigate whether self-reported history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of labour dystocia in nulliparous women at term. Methods A population-based multi-centre cohort study. A self-administrated questionnaire collected at 37 weeks of gestation from nine obstetric departments in Denmark. The total cohort comprised 2652 nulliparous women, among whom 985 (37.1%) met the protocol criteria for dystocia. Results Among the total cohort, 940 (35.4%) women reported experience of violence, and among these, 66 (2.5%) women reported exposure to violence during their first pregnancy. Further, 39.5% (n = 26) of those had never been exposed to violence before. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed no association between history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy and labour dystocia at term, crude OR 0.91, 95% CI (0.77-1.08), OR 0.90, 95% CI (0.54-1.50), respectively. However, violence exposed women consuming alcoholic beverages during late pregnancy had increased odds of labour dystocia, crude OR 1.45, 95% CI (1.07-1.96). Conclusions Our findings indicate that nulliparous women who have a history of violence or experienced violence during pregnancy do not appear to have a higher risk of labour dystocia at term, according to the definition of labour dystocia in this study. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial, including further evaluation of the criteria for labour dystocia. PMID:21338523

  5. Young children show representational flexibility when interpreting drawings.

    Allen, Melissa L; Nurmsoo, Erika; Freeman, Norman

    2016-02-01

    Drawings can be ambiguous and represent more than one entity. In three experiments, we examine whether young children show representational flexibility by allowing one picture to be called by a second name. We also evaluate the hypothesis that children who are representationally flexible see the artist's intention as binding, rather than changeable. In Experiment 1, an artist declared what she intended to draw (e.g. a balloon) but then produced an ambiguous drawing. Children were asked whether the drawings could be interpreted differently (e.g. 'could this be a lollipop?') in the presence of a perceptually similar or dissimilar distractor (e.g., lollipop or snake). Six-year-olds accepted two labels for drawings in both conditions, but four-year-olds only did so in the dissimilar condition. Experiment 2 probed each possible interpretation more deeply by asking property questions (e.g., 'does it float?, does it taste good?'). Preschoolers who understood that the ambiguous drawing could be given two interpretations nevertheless mostly endorsed only properties associated with the prior intent. Experiment 3 provided converging evidence that 4-year-olds were representationally flexible using a paradigm that did not rely upon modal questioning. Taken together, our results indicate that even 4-year-olds understand that pictures may denote more than one referent, they still think of the symbol as consistent with the artist's original intention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database ( n  = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten , while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  7. Management in a neotropical show cave: planning for invertebrates conservation

    Thais Giovannini Pellegrini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Lapa Nova is a dolomitic cave about 4.5 km long located in northwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The cave experiences intense tourism, concentrated over a single period of the year, during the Feast of Our Lady of Lapa. In order to evaluate the impacts felt by the invertebrate community from this tourism, a new methodology was proposed. Four types of areas (intense visitation area, outlying visitation areas, moderate visitation areas and no-visitation areas were sampled for invertebrates. There was one sampling prior and another on the last day of the 128th feast, to evaluate the effects of visitation on cave-dwelling invertebrates. Results show that invertebrate populations residing in more intensely visited areas of the cave undergo changes in distribution following the event. As a consequence of tourism, invertebrates shift to outlying locations from the visited area, which serve as refuges to the communities. Apparently, the fact that there are places inside Lapa Nova inaccessible to tourists reduces the impact suffered by the invertebrate community, as those sites serve as refuges for cave-dwelling organisms during the pilgrimage. A proper management plan was devised for the tourism/religious use of the cave. It consists basically of delimiting marked pathways for tourists, allowing invertebrates to seek shelter at locations outside visited areas and keeping no-visitation areas off-limits to tourism based on the results of the visitation effects on cave-dwelling invertebrates.

  8. Platelets from Asthmatic Individuals Show Less Reliance on Glycolysis.

    Weiling Xu

    Full Text Available Asthma, a chronic inflammatory airway disease, is typified by high levels of TH2-cytokines and excessive generation of reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, which contribute to bronchial epithelial injury and airway remodeling. While immune function plays a major role in the pathogenesis of the disease, accumulating evidence suggests that altered cellular metabolism is a key determinant in the predisposition and disease progression of asthma. Further, several studies demonstrate altered mitochondrial function in asthmatic airways and suggest that these changes may be systemic. However, it is unknown whether systemic metabolic changes can be detected in circulating cells in asthmatic patients. Platelets are easily accessible blood cells that are known to propagate airway inflammation in asthma. Here we perform a bioenergetic screen of platelets from asthmatic and healthy individuals and demonstrate that asthmatic platelets show a decreased reliance on glycolytic processes and have increased tricarboxylic acid cycle activity. These data demonstrate a systemic alteration in asthma and are consistent with prior reports suggesting that oxidative phosphorylation is more efficient asthmatic individuals. The implications for this potential metabolic shift will be discussed in the context of increased oxidative stress and hypoxic adaptation of asthmatic patients. Further, these data suggest that platelets are potentially a good model for the monitoring of bioenergetic changes in asthma.

  9. Film showing - Higgs: into the heart of imagination

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    On 29 April at 7pm Dutch filmmakers, Hannie van den Bergh and Jan van den Berg, will introduce their directorial debut, Higgs: into the heart of imagination in CERN’s Main Auditorium.   This documentary is about the curiousity, passion and imaginative powers of science. Featuring physicists working at CERN, in particular in ATLAS, and filmed over four years, the film-makers have created a cinematic journey into the heart of imagination. They follow Stan Bentvelsen, head of the Dutch research group at CERN, and watch as he prepares his team for the start of the LHC, as well as the scientific competition to find the elusive Higgs particle. The film also features Peter Higgs as he discusses his work from 1964. The directors have created theatre productions and other multimedia projects under the title The Imagination of Invisible Dimensions, which allow for adventurous dialogues between art and science. All are welcome to attend this showing and afterwards there will be a short question...

  10. Variation in the peacock's train shows a genetic component.

    Petrie, Marion; Cotgreave, Peter; Pike, Thomas W

    2009-01-01

    Female peafowl (Pavo cristatus) show a strong mating preference for males with elaborate trains. This, however, poses something of a paradox because intense directional selection should erode genetic variation in the males' trains, so that females will no longer benefit by discriminating among males on the basis of these traits. This situation is known as the 'lek paradox', and leads to the theoretical expectation of low heritability in the peacock's train. We used two independent breeding experiments, involving a total of 42 sires and 86 of their male offspring, to estimate the narrow sense heritabilities of male ornaments and other morphometric traits. Contrary to expectation, we found significant levels of heritability in a trait known to be used by females during mate choice (train length), while no significant heritabilities were evident for other, non-fitness related morphological traits (tarsus length, body weight or spur length). This study adds to the building body of evidence that high levels of additive genetic variance can exist in secondary sexual traits under directional selection, but further emphasizes the main problem of what maintains this variation.

  11. Active explorers show low learning performance in a social insect

    Eve UDINO; Margot PEREZ; Claudio CARERE; Patrizia d'ETTORRE

    2017-01-01

    An intriguing question in behavioral biology is whether consistent individual differences (called animal personalities) relate to variation in cognitive performance because commonly measured personality traits may be associated with risk-reward trade-offs.Social insects,whose learning abilities have been extensively characterized,show consistent behavioral variability,both at colony and at individual level.We investigated the possible link between personality traits and learning performance in the carpenter ant Camponotus aethiops.Exploratory activity,sociability,and aggression were assessed twice in ant foragers.Behaviors differed among individuals,they were partly repeatable across time and exploratory activity correlated positively with aggression.Learning abilities were quantified by differential conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response,a task that requires cue perception and information storage.We found that exploratory activity of individual ants significantly predicted learning performance:"active-explorers" were slower in learning the task than "inactive-explorers".The results suggest for the first time a link between a personality trait and cognitive performance in eusocial insects,and that the underlying individual variability could affect colony performance and success.

  12. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei.

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa; Gamarro, Francisco; Pérez-Victoria, José M

    2015-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca(2+), and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Show: Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes

    2012-01-01

    Dr. H, the life and death of pancakes, a comic theatrical creation, written and performed by Heiko Buchholz.   Monday 2 April 2012 in German Tuesday 3 April 2012 in English Wednesday 4 April 2012 in French 8:30 p.m. at the Globe of Science and Innovation. This production takes a comic look at scientific methods, as applied to a common object: the pancake. More specifically, Dr H. regales his audience with statistics, experiments and scientific data surrounding this egg-and-milk-based culinary delight. And although these zany sketches are nothing short of absurd, the audience is drawn in more often than you might expect… and taken on quite an unexpected journey into the behavioural disorders, personality quirks and psychoanalysis of the base pancake. This show playfully mocks scientific logic and discourse, forcing the audience to reflect on their gullibility in the face of science and its impenetrable jargon. It purports to be neither explanation nor illustration of scientific fact,...

  14. Insect immunity shows specificity in protection upon secondary pathogen exposure.

    Sadd, Ben M; Schmid-Hempel, Paul

    2006-06-20

    Immunological memory in vertebrates, conferring lasting specific protection after an initial pathogen exposure, has implications for a broad spectrum of evolutionary, epidemiological, and medical phenomena . However, the existence of specificity in protection upon secondary pathogen exposure in invertebrates remains controversial . To separate this functional phenomenon from a particular mechanism, we refer to it as specific immune priming. We investigate the presence of specific immune priming in workers of the social insect Bombus terrestris. Using three bacterial pathogens, we test whether a prior homologous pathogen exposure gives a benefit in terms of long-term protection against a later challenge, over and above a heterologous combination. With a reciprocally designed initial and second-exposure protocol (i.e., all combinations of bacteria were tested), we demonstrate, even several weeks after the clearance of a first exposure, increased protection and narrow specificity upon secondary exposure. This demonstrates that the invertebrate immune system is functionally capable of unexpectedly specific and durable induced protection. Ultimately, despite general broad differences between vertebrates and invertebrates, the ability of both immune systems to show specificity in protection suggests that their immune defenses have found comparable solutions to similar selective pressures over evolutionary time.

  15. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations.

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-02-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day(-1)), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to "total metal", the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Limonene hydroperoxide analogues show specific patch test reactions.

    Christensson, Johanna Bråred; Hellsén, Staffan; Börje, Anna; Karlberg, Ann-Therese

    2014-05-01

    The fragrance terpene R-limonene is a very weak sensitizer, but forms allergenic oxidation products upon contact with air. The primary oxidation products of oxidized limonene, the hydroperoxides, have an important impact on the sensitizing potency of the oxidation mixture. One analogue, limonene-1-hydroperoxide, was experimentally shown to be a significantly more potent sensitizer than limonene-2-hydroperoxide in the local lymph node assay with non-pooled lymph nodes. To investigate the pattern of reactivity among consecutive dermatitis patients to two structurally closely related limonene hydroperoxides, limonene-1-hydroperoxide and limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Limonene-1-hydroperoxide, limonene-2-hydroperoxide, at 0.5% in petrolatum, and oxidized limonene 3.0% pet. were tested in 763 consecutive dermatitis patients. Of the tested materials, limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave most reactions, with 2.4% of the patients showing positive patch test reactions. Limonene-2-hydroperoxide and oxidized R-limonene gave 1.7% and 1.2% positive patch test reactions, respectively. Concomitant positive patch test reactions to other fragrance markers in the baseline series were frequently noted. The results are in accordance with the experimental studies, as limonene-1-hydroperoxide gave more positive patch test reactions in the tested patients than limonene-2-hydroperoxide. Furthermore, the results support the specificity of the allergenic activity of the limonene hydroperoxide analogues and the importance of oxidized limonene as a cause of contact allergy. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  18. Cold thyroid nodules show a marked increase in proliferation markers.

    Krohn, Knut; Stricker, Ingo; Emmrich, Peter; Paschke, Ralf

    2003-06-01

    Thyroid follicular adenomas and adenomatous thyroid nodules are a frequent finding in geographical areas with iodine deficiency. They occur as hypofunctioning (scintigraphically cold) or hyperfunctioning (scintigraphically hot) nodules. Their predominant clonal origin suggests that they result from clonal expansion of a single cell, which is very likely the result of a prolonged increase in proliferation compared with non-affected surrounding cells. To test whether increased cell proliferation is detectable in cold thyroid nodules, we studied paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 cold thyroid nodules and their surrounding normal thyroid tissue for the occurrence of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67 (MIB-1 antibody) epitopes as markers for cell proliferation. All 40 thyroid nodules were histologically well characterized and have been studied for molecular characteristics before. The labeling index (number of labeled cells versus total cell number) for nodular and surrounding tissue was calculated. In 33 cold thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid nodules a significant (p thyroid epithelial cell proliferation is a uniform feature common to most cold nodules. However, the increase of proliferation markers shows a heterogeneity that is not correlated with histopathologic, molecular, or clinical characteristics.

  19. Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia.

    Wahl, Carter E; Todd, Douglas H; Binder, Scott W; Cassarino, David S

    2009-05-01

    A 54-year-old man presented with a solitary, erythematous, rapidly growing 1-cm nodule on his scalp that had arisen over the previous 3 months. He had no history of skin cancer. An excisional biopsy of the lesion showed a fairly well-circumscribed but focally invasive tumor consisting of areas of typical-appearing clear cell hidradenoma as well as areas with mucinous goblet-type cells and cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and decapitation-type secretion. There was marked cellular atypia, numerous atypical mitotic figures and focal necrosis. The tumor cells focally involved the overlying epidermis (Paget's disease). Large areas of mucin were identified throughout the lesion. The tumor cells stained with markers for cytokeratin 7 and focally for EMA and CEA, confirming ductal differentiation. The goblet cells and mucinous areas stained with mucicarmine and PASD. The patient was diagnosed with hidradenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation. Associated Paget's disease has only rarely been reported, and mucinous metaplasia is a previously unreported feature in hidradenocarcinoma.

  20. Neighbouring chimpanzee communities show different preferences in social grooming behaviour.

    van Leeuwen, Edwin J C; Cronin, Katherine A; Haun, Daniel B M; Mundry, Roger; Bodamer, Mark D

    2012-11-07

    Grooming handclasp (GHC) behaviour was originally advocated as the first evidence of social culture in chimpanzees owing to the finding that some populations engaged in the behaviour and others do not. To date, however, the validity of this claim and the extent to which this social behaviour varies between groups is unclear. Here, we measured (i) variation, (ii) durability and (iii) expansion of the GHC behaviour in four chimpanzee communities that do not systematically differ in their genetic backgrounds and live in similar ecological environments. Ninety chimpanzees were studied for a total of 1029 h; 1394 GHC bouts were observed between 2010 and 2012. Critically, GHC style (defined by points of bodily contact) could be systematically linked to the chimpanzee's group identity, showed temporal consistency both within and between groups, and could not be accounted for by the arm-length differential between partners. GHC has been part of the behavioural repertoire of the chimpanzees under study for more than 9 years (surpassing durability criterion) and spread across generations (surpassing expansion criterion). These results strongly indicate that chimpanzees' social behaviour is not only motivated by innate predispositions and individual inclinations, but may also be partly cultural in nature.

  1. Multivariate analyses of rotator cuff pathologies in shoulder disability.

    Jan F Henseler

    Full Text Available Disability of the shoulder joint is often caused by a tear in the rotator cuff (RC muscles. Four RC muscles coordinate shoulder movement and stability, among them the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle which are predominantly torn. The contribution of each RC muscle to tear pathology is not fully understood. We hypothesized that muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, features of RC muscle degeneration, are predictive of superior humeral head translation and shoulder functional disability.Shoulder features, including RC muscle surface area and fatty infiltration, superior humeral translation and RC tear size were obtained from a consecutive series of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with arthrography (MRA. We investigated patients with superior (supraspinatus, n = 39 and posterosuperior (supraspinatus and infraspinatus, n = 30 RC tears, and patients with an intact RC (n = 52 as controls. The individual or combinatorial contribution of RC measures to superior humeral translation, as a sign of RC dysfunction, was investigated with univariate or multivariate models, respectively.Using the univariate model the infraspinatus surface area and fatty infiltration in both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus had a significant contribution to RC dysfunction. With the multivariate model, however, the infraspinatus surface area only affected superior humeral translation (p<0.001 and discriminated between superior and posterosuperior tears. In contrast neither tear size nor fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus contributed to superior humeral translation.Our study reveals that infraspinatus atrophy has the strongest contribution to RC tear pathologies. This suggests a pivotal role for the infraspinatus in preventing shoulder disability.

  2. Multivariate Analyses of Rotator Cuff Pathologies in Shoulder Disability

    Henseler, Jan F.; Raz, Yotam; Nagels, Jochem; van Zwet, Erik W.; Raz, Vered; Nelissen, Rob G. H. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background Disability of the shoulder joint is often caused by a tear in the rotator cuff (RC) muscles. Four RC muscles coordinate shoulder movement and stability, among them the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle which are predominantly torn. The contribution of each RC muscle to tear pathology is not fully understood. We hypothesized that muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, features of RC muscle degeneration, are predictive of superior humeral head translation and shoulder functional disability. Methods Shoulder features, including RC muscle surface area and fatty infiltration, superior humeral translation and RC tear size were obtained from a consecutive series of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with arthrography (MRA). We investigated patients with superior (supraspinatus, n = 39) and posterosuperior (supraspinatus and infraspinatus, n = 30) RC tears, and patients with an intact RC (n = 52) as controls. The individual or combinatorial contribution of RC measures to superior humeral translation, as a sign of RC dysfunction, was investigated with univariate or multivariate models, respectively. Results Using the univariate model the infraspinatus surface area and fatty infiltration in both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus had a significant contribution to RC dysfunction. With the multivariate model, however, the infraspinatus surface area only affected superior humeral translation (ptears. In contrast neither tear size nor fatty infiltration of the supraspinatus or infraspinatus contributed to superior humeral translation. Conclusion Our study reveals that infraspinatus atrophy has the strongest contribution to RC tear pathologies. This suggests a pivotal role for the infraspinatus in preventing shoulder disability. PMID:25710703

  3. Multivariate analyses of rotator cuff pathologies in shoulder disability.

    Henseler, Jan F; Raz, Yotam; Nagels, Jochem; van Zwet, Erik W; Raz, Vered; Nelissen, Rob G H H

    2015-01-01

    Disability of the shoulder joint is often caused by a tear in the rotator cuff (RC) muscles. Four RC muscles coordinate shoulder movement and stability, among them the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscle which are predominantly torn. The contribution of each RC muscle to tear pathology is not fully understood. We hypothesized that muscle atrophy and fatty infiltration, features of RC muscle degeneration, are predictive of superior humeral head translation and shoulder functional disability. Shoulder features, including RC muscle surface area and fatty infiltration, superior humeral translation and RC tear size were obtained from a consecutive series of Magnetic Resonance Imaging with arthrography (MRA). We investigated patients with superior (supraspinatus, n = 39) and posterosuperior (supraspinatus and infraspinatus, n = 30) RC tears, and patients with an intact RC (n = 52) as controls. The individual or combinatorial contribution of RC measures to superior humeral translation, as a sign of RC dysfunction, was investigated with univariate or multivariate models, respectively. Using the univariate model the infraspinatus surface area and fatty infiltration in both the supraspinatus and infraspinatus had a significant contribution to RC dysfunction. With the multivariate model, however, the infraspinatus surface area only affected superior humeral translation (ppathologies. This suggests a pivotal role for the infraspinatus in preventing shoulder disability.

  4. Analyses of containment structures with corrosion damage

    Cherry, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    Corrosion damage that has been found in a number of nuclear power plant containment structures can degrade the pressure capacity of the vessel. This has prompted concerns regarding the capacity of corroded containments to withstand accident loadings. To address these concerns, finite element analyses have been performed for a typical PWR Ice Condenser containment structure. Using ABAQUS, the pressure capacity was calculated for a typical vessel with no corrosion damage. Multiple analyses were then performed with the location of the corrosion and the amount of corrosion varied in each analysis. Using a strain-based failure criterion, a open-quotes lower boundclose quotes, open-quotes best estimateclose quotes, and open-quotes upper boundclose quotes failure level was predicted for each case. These limits were established by: determining the amount of variability that exists in material properties of typical containments, estimating the amount of uncertainty associated with the level of modeling detail and modeling assumptions, and estimating the effect of corrosion on the material properties

  5. Used Fuel Management System Interface Analyses - 13578

    Howard, Robert; Busch, Ingrid [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Bldg. 5700, MS-6170, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Nutt, Mark; Morris, Edgar; Puig, Francesc [Argonne National Laboratory (United States); Carter, Joe; Delley, Alexcia; Rodwell, Phillip [Savannah River National Laboratory (United States); Hardin, Ernest; Kalinina, Elena [Sandia National Laboratories (United States); Clark, Robert [U.S. Department of Energy (United States); Cotton, Thomas [Complex Systems Group (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Preliminary system-level analyses of the interfaces between at-reactor used fuel management, consolidated storage facilities, and disposal facilities, along with the development of supporting logistics simulation tools, have been initiated to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and other stakeholders with information regarding the various alternatives for managing used nuclear fuel (UNF) generated by the current fleet of light water reactors operating in the United States. An important UNF management system interface consideration is the need for ultimate disposal of UNF assemblies contained in waste packages that are sized to be compatible with different geologic media. Thermal analyses indicate that waste package sizes for the geologic media under consideration by the Used Fuel Disposition Campaign may be significantly smaller than the canisters being used for on-site dry storage by the nuclear utilities. Therefore, at some point along the UNF disposition pathway, there could be a need to repackage fuel assemblies already loaded and being loaded into the dry storage canisters currently in use. The implications of where and when the packaging or repackaging of commercial UNF will occur are key questions being addressed in this evaluation. The analysis demonstrated that thermal considerations will have a major impact on the operation of the system and that acceptance priority, rates, and facility start dates have significant system implications. (authors)

  6. Sensitivity in risk analyses with uncertain numbers.

    Tucker, W. Troy; Ferson, Scott

    2006-06-01

    Sensitivity analysis is a study of how changes in the inputs to a model influence the results of the model. Many techniques have recently been proposed for use when the model is probabilistic. This report considers the related problem of sensitivity analysis when the model includes uncertain numbers that can involve both aleatory and epistemic uncertainty and the method of calculation is Dempster-Shafer evidence theory or probability bounds analysis. Some traditional methods for sensitivity analysis generalize directly for use with uncertain numbers, but, in some respects, sensitivity analysis for these analyses differs from traditional deterministic or probabilistic sensitivity analyses. A case study of a dike reliability assessment illustrates several methods of sensitivity analysis, including traditional probabilistic assessment, local derivatives, and a ''pinching'' strategy that hypothetically reduces the epistemic uncertainty or aleatory uncertainty, or both, in an input variable to estimate the reduction of uncertainty in the outputs. The prospects for applying the methods to black box models are also considered.

  7. Overview of cooperative international piping benchmark analyses

    McAfee, W.J.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of an effort initiated in 1976 by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to evaluate detailed and simplified inelastic analysis methods for piping systems with particular emphasis on piping bends. The procedure was to collect from participating member IAEA countries descriptions of tests and test results for piping systems or bends (with emphasis on high temperature inelastic tests), to compile, evaluate, and issue a selected number of these problems for analysis, and to compile and make a preliminary evaluation of the analyses results. Of the problem descriptions submitted three were selected to be used: a 90 0 -elbow at 600 0 C with an in-plane transverse force; a 90 0 -elbow with an in-plane moment; and a 180 0 -elbow at room temperature with a reversed, cyclic, in-plane transverse force. A variety of both detailed and simplified analysis solutions were obtained. A brief comparative assessment of the analyses is contained in this paper. 15 figures

  8. Ethics of cost analyses in medical education.

    Walsh, Kieran

    2013-11-01

    Cost analyses in medical education are rarely straightforward, and rarely lead to clear-cut conclusions. Occasionally they do lead to clear conclusions but even when that happens, some stakeholders will ask difficult but valid questions about what to do following cost analyses-specifically about distributive justice in the allocation of resources. At present there are few or no debates about these issues and rationing decisions that are taken in medical education are largely made subconsciously. Distributive justice 'concerns the nature of a socially just allocation of goods in a society'. Inevitably there is a large degree of subjectivity in the judgment as to whether an allocation is seen as socially just or ethical. There are different principles by which we can view distributive justice and which therefore affect the prism of subjectivity through which we see certain problems. For example, we might say that distributive justice at a certain institution or in a certain medical education system operates according to the principle that resources must be divided equally amongst learners. Another system may say that resources should be distributed according to the needs of learners or even of patients. No ethical system or model is inherently right or wrong, they depend on the context in which the educator is working.

  9. ALBEDO PATTERN RECOGNITION AND TIME-SERIES ANALYSES IN MALAYSIA

    S. A. Salleh

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition and time-series analyses will enable one to evaluate and generate predictions of specific phenomena. The albedo pattern and time-series analyses are very much useful especially in relation to climate condition monitoring. This study is conducted to seek for Malaysia albedo pattern changes. The pattern recognition and changes will be useful for variety of environmental and climate monitoring researches such as carbon budgeting and aerosol mapping. The 10 years (2000–2009 MODIS satellite images were used for the analyses and interpretation. These images were being processed using ERDAS Imagine remote sensing software, ArcGIS 9.3, the 6S code for atmospherical calibration and several MODIS tools (MRT, HDF2GIS, Albedo tools. There are several methods for time-series analyses were explored, this paper demonstrates trends and seasonal time-series analyses using converted HDF format MODIS MCD43A3 albedo land product. The results revealed significance changes of albedo percentages over the past 10 years and the pattern with regards to Malaysia's nebulosity index (NI and aerosol optical depth (AOD. There is noticeable trend can be identified with regards to its maximum and minimum value of the albedo. The rise and fall of the line graph show a similar trend with regards to its daily observation. The different can be identified in term of the value or percentage of rises and falls of albedo. Thus, it can be concludes that the temporal behavior of land surface albedo in Malaysia have a uniform behaviours and effects with regards to the local monsoons. However, although the average albedo shows linear trend with nebulosity index, the pattern changes of albedo with respects to the nebulosity index indicates that there are external factors that implicates the albedo values, as the sky conditions and its diffusion plotted does not have uniform trend over the years, especially when the trend of 5 years interval is examined, 2000 shows high

  10. Giant pandas failed to show mirror self-recognition.

    Ma, Xiaozan; Jin, Yuan; Luo, Bo; Zhang, Guiquan; Wei, Rongping; Liu, Dingzhen

    2015-05-01

    Mirror self-recognition (MSR), i.e., the ability to recognize oneself in a mirror, is considered a potential index of self-recognition and the foundation of individual development. A wealth of literature on MSR is available for social animals, such as chimpanzees, Asian elephants and dolphins, yet little is known about MSR in solitary mammalian species. We aimed to evaluate whether the giant panda can recognize itself in the mirror, and whether this capacity varies with age. Thirty-four captive giant pandas (F:M = 18:16; juveniles, sub-adults and adults) were subjected to four mirror tests: covered mirror tests, open mirror tests, water mark control tests, and mark tests. The results showed that, though adult, sub-adult and juvenile pandas exposed to mirrors spent similar amounts of time in social mirror-directed behaviors (χ(2) = 0.719, P = 0.698), none of them used the mirror to touch the mark on their head, a self-directed behavior suggesting MSR. Individuals of all age groups initially displayed attacking, threatening, foot scraping and backwards walking behaviors when exposed to their self-images in the mirror. Our data indicate that, regardless of age, the giant pandas did not recognize their self-image in the mirror, but instead considered the image to be a conspecific. Our results add to the available information on mirror self-recognition in large mammals, provide new information on a solitary species, and will be useful for enclosure design and captive animal management.

  11. Non-asthmatic patients show increased exhaled nitric oxide concentrations

    Beatriz M. Saraiva-Romanholo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Evaluate whether exhaled nitric oxide may serve as a marker of intraoperative bronchospasm. INTRODUCTION: Intraoperative bronchospasm remains a challenging event during anesthesia. Previous studies in asthmatic patients suggest that exhaled nitric oxide may represent a noninvasive measure of airway inflammation. METHODS: A total of 146,358 anesthesia information forms, which were received during the period from 1999 to 2004, were reviewed. Bronchospasm was registered on 863 forms. From those, three groups were identified: 9 non-asthmatic patients (Bronchospasm group, 12 asthmatics (Asthma group and 10 subjects with no previous airway disease or symptoms (Control group. All subjects were submitted to exhaled nitric oxide measurements (parts/billion, spirometry and the induced sputum test. The data was compared by ANOVA followed by the Tukey test and Kruskal-Wallis followed by Dunn's test. RESULTS: The normal lung function test results for the Bronchospasm group were different from those of the asthma group (p <0.05. The median percentage of eosinophils in induced sputum was higher for the Asthma [2.46 (0.45-6.83] compared with either the Bronchospasm [0.55 (0-1.26] or the Control group [0.0 (0] (p <0.05; exhaled nitric oxide followed a similar pattern for the Asthma [81.55 (57.6-86.85], Bronchospasm [46.2 (42.0 -62.6] and Control group [18.7 (16.0-24.7] (p< 0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Non-asthmatic patients with intraoperative bronchospasm detected during anesthesia and endotracheal intubation showed increased expired nitric oxide.

  12. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    Jacob, Rinku; Harikrishnan, K.P.; Misra, R.; Ambika, G.

    2016-01-01

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  13. Can recurrence networks show small-world property?

    Jacob, Rinku, E-mail: rinku.jacob.vallanat@gmail.com [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Harikrishnan, K.P., E-mail: kp_hk2002@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, The Cochin College, Cochin, 682002 (India); Misra, R., E-mail: rmisra@iucaa.in [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune, 411007 (India); Ambika, G., E-mail: g.ambika@iiserpune.ac.in [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Pune, 411008 (India)

    2016-08-12

    Recurrence networks are complex networks, constructed from time series data, having several practical applications. Though their properties when constructed with the threshold value ϵ chosen at or just above the percolation threshold of the network are quite well understood, what happens as the threshold increases beyond the usual operational window is still not clear from a complex network perspective. The present Letter is focused mainly on the network properties at intermediate-to-large values of the recurrence threshold, for which no systematic study has been performed so far. We argue, with numerical support, that recurrence networks constructed from chaotic attractors with ϵ equal to the usual recurrence threshold or slightly above cannot, in general, show small-world property. However, if the threshold is further increased, the recurrence network topology initially changes to a small-world structure and finally to that of a classical random graph as the threshold approaches the size of the strange attractor. - Highlights: • Properties of recurrence networks at intermediate-to-large values of recurrence threshold are analyzed from a complex network perspective. • Using a combined plot of characteristic path length and clustering coefficient, it is shown that the recurrence network constructed with recurrence threshold equal to or just above the percolation threshold cannot, in general, display small-world property. • As the recurrence threshold is increased from its usual operational window, the resulting network makes a smooth transition initially to a small-world network for an intermediate range of thresholds and finally to the classical random graph as the threshold becomes comparable to the size of the attractor.

  14. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability.

    Persson, M E; Roth, L S V; Johnsson, M; Wright, D; Jensen, P

    2015-04-01

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h(2) ) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs' social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. Roadside soils show low plant available zinc and copper concentrations

    Morse, Natalie; Walter, M. Todd; Osmond, Deanna; Hunt, William

    2016-01-01

    Vehicle combustion and component wear are a major source of metal contamination in the environment, which could be especially concerning where road ditches are actively farmed. The objective of this study was to assess how site variables, namely age, traffic (vehicles day"−"1), and percent carbon (%C) affect metal accumulation in roadside soils. A soil chronosequence was established with sites ranging from 3 to 37 years old and bioavailable, or mobile, concentrations of Zinc (Zn) and Copper (Cu) were measured along major highways in North Carolina using a Mehlich III extraction. Mobile Zn and Cu concentrations were low overall, and when results were scaled via literature values to “total metal”, the results were still generally lower than previous roadside studies. This could indicate farming on lands near roads would pose a low plant toxicity risk. Zinc and Cu were not correlated with annual average traffic count, but were positively correlated with lifetime traffic load (the product of site age and traffic count). This study shows an often overlooked variable, site age, should be included when considering roadside pollution accumulation. Zinc and Cu were more strongly associated with %C, than traffic load. Because vehicle combustion is also a carbon source, it is not obvious whether the metals and carbon are simply co-accumulating or whether the soil carbon in roadside soils may facilitate previously overlooked roles in sequestering metals on-site. - Highlights: • Low plant available zinc and copper concentrations in roadside soils of the southeast U.S. • Metals from vehicular traffic may not be adversely affecting plants in roadside environment. • Traffic volume and site age better predictor of metal pollution than traffic volume alone. - Mobile concentrations of Zn and Cu in roadside soils were below toxic levels. Zn and Cu concentrations were better correlated with lifetime vehicle load, as opposed to traffic volume.

  16. A case of osseous scintigraphy showing focuses of multifocal tuberculosis

    Faurous-Vanaud, R.; Faurous, P.; Kalfa, G.; Collet, H.; Couty, H.; Artus, J.C.

    1997-01-01

    Incidence of tuberculosis in developed countries presents in the last years a spectacular boost. However, the osteo-articular system is afflicted by tuberculosis only in a few percent of cases and the multifocal character represents less than 5% of osseous tuberculosis. It is presented here a case of multifocal osseous tuberculosis only to stress its rarity. A woman 28 years old from Djibouti presents since 8 months an asthenia and dorsal pains long thought as psychalgia. The examination has shown a major vertebral stiffness and limitation of right haunch. The radiographs showed a scoliosis centered on D8 with modifications. The biologic data are VS = 90, CRP = 124 and the hemogram is normal. The intradermal reaction (10 U of tuberculin) is phlyctenular. The TDM indicates lytic vertebral extension on D7 - D8, the osseous scintigraphy with MDP - 99 mTc indicates no anomaly in the vascular arrival time; a few minutes after injection: dorsal and upper and of right femur hyperactivity; 2 h after injection: hyper-fixation of D7 to D9 and of the upper end of right femur. The IRM indicates para-vertebral abscess of D7 to D9 with epidural abscess; abscess in the upper part of the loge of right adductors with osseous affliction of the femur's upper end; a bacillary infectious process was a priori evoked. The patient was then placed under quadruple antibiotic-therapy anti-tuberculous care. In case of anomalous multifocal osseous scintigraphy the tuberculous affliction is part of the differential diagnosis, particularly in the immigrant populations or in HIV+ persons

  17. Genetic connections between dressage and show-jumping horses in Dutch Warmblood horses

    Rovere, Gabriel; Madsen, Per; Norberg, Elise

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, the breeding practice within the Dutch Warmblood studbook (KWPN) has resulted in an increasing specialisation of horses into show-jumping (JH) and dressage (DH). The objective of this study was to describe the effect of the specialisation on the connectedness between...... and within subpopulations were analysed in three periods of time to describe changes in genetic connectedness between subpopulations. A decline in GS (0.97–0.45), GC0.5 (0.69–0.13) and r (0.018–0.014) in the recent years was observed. Both subpopulations have a common genetic pool; however...

  18. Identification and Characterisation CRN Effectors in Phytophthora capsici Shows Modularity and Functional Diversity.

    Remco Stam

    Full Text Available Phytophthora species secrete a large array of effectors during infection of their host plants. The Crinkler (CRN gene family encodes a ubiquitous but understudied class of effectors with possible but as of yet unknown roles in infection. To appreciate CRN effector function in Phytophthora, we devised a simple Crn gene identification and annotation pipeline to improve effector prediction rates. We predicted 84 full-length CRN coding genes and assessed CRN effector domain diversity in sequenced Oomycete genomes. These analyses revealed evidence of CRN domain innovation in Phytophthora and expansion in the Peronosporales. We performed gene expression analyses to validate and define two classes of CRN effectors, each possibly contributing to infection at different stages. CRN localisation studies revealed that P. capsici CRN effector domains target the nucleus and accumulate in specific sub-nuclear compartments. Phenotypic analyses showed that few CRN domains induce necrosis when expressed in planta and that one cell death inducing effector, enhances P. capsici virulence on Nicotiana benthamiana. These results suggest that the CRN protein family form an important class of intracellular effectors that target the host nucleus during infection. These results combined with domain expansion in hemi-biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens, suggests specific contributions to pathogen lifestyles. This work will bolster CRN identification efforts in other sequenced oomycete species and set the stage for future functional studies towards understanding CRN effector functions.

  19. "The show must go on!" Beserings van dramastudente tydens opleiding

    J Deacon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "THE SHOW MUST GO ON!" LIABILITY WHEN IT COMES TO DRAMA STUDENTS WHEN INJURED WHILE IN TRAININGThis article emphasises the uncertainty in the relationship between a student undergoing practical training and his/her lecturer or university, if the student should be injured and wants to claim compensation. One must first establish whether the student can be described as an employee of the lecturer or university, or as a vocational worker or independent contractor. Once the status of the student has been established, the relevant legislation can be determined, whether it is the Labour Relations Act or the Basic Conditions of Employment. It is, however, not that simple and a person in the capacity of a student does not accord with the definition of an employee or an independent contractor or a vocational worker. One will have to rely on the assumption in section 83A in the Basic Conditions of Employment that a student is an employee when he does practical training for the benefit of the university. The Occupational Health and Safety Act requires employers to assure that the workplace is a safe environment for employees, with the minimum risks involved. The Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Act makes it possible for an employee to claim compensation when such a risk becomes a reality.This article also tries to compare the situation of a student sports person injured while participating in university sports, and a drama student injured during a performance or rehearsal of a play. It is stated that the relationship between the drama student and lecturer is similar to the relationship between a sports person and his/her coach, but the relationship differs in that a sports person’s risk of getting hurt is much greater than that of a drama student, The contracts between sports players and their authorities are also stipulated in much more detail than the contracts (if any between the drama students and the university. It is concluded

  20. Pathway analyses implicate glial cells in schizophrenia.

    Laramie E Duncan

    Full Text Available The quest to understand the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder is ongoing with multiple lines of evidence indicating abnormalities of glia, mitochondria, and glutamate in both disorders. Despite high heritability estimates of 81% for schizophrenia and 75% for bipolar disorder, compelling links between findings from neurobiological studies, and findings from large-scale genetic analyses, are only beginning to emerge.Ten publically available gene sets (pathways related to glia, mitochondria, and glutamate were tested for association to schizophrenia and bipolar disorder using MAGENTA as the primary analysis method. To determine the robustness of associations, secondary analyses were performed with: ALIGATOR, INRICH, and Set Screen. Data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC were used for all analyses. There were 1,068,286 SNP-level p-values for schizophrenia (9,394 cases/12,462 controls, and 2,088,878 SNP-level p-values for bipolar disorder (7,481 cases/9,250 controls.The Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia, after correction for multiple tests, according to primary analysis (MAGENTA p = 0.0005, 75% requirement for individual gene significance and also achieved nominal levels of significance with INRICH (p = 0.0057 and ALIGATOR (p = 0.022. For bipolar disorder, Set Screen yielded nominally and method-wide significant associations to all three glial pathways, with strongest association to the Glia-Astrocyte pathway (p = 0.002.Consistent with findings of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia by other methods of study, the Glia-Oligodendrocyte pathway was associated with schizophrenia in our genomic study. These findings suggest that the abnormalities of myelination observed in schizophrenia are at least in part due to inherited factors, contrasted with the alternative of purely environmental causes (e.g. medication effects or lifestyle. While not the primary purpose of our study